• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 How this survey was made
 General soil map
 Descriptions of the soils
 Use and management of the...
 Formation and classification of...
 General nature of the county
 Literature cited
 Glossary
 Guide to mapping units
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Pinellas County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025727/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Pinellas County, Florida
Physical Description: i, 64, 32 p. : illus. (part col.) ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Vanatta, E. S ( Earl S )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington;
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Pinellas County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Pinellas County   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 62-63.
Statement of Responsibility: by Earl S. Vanatta, and others.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "In cooperation with University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations."
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025727
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001619835
notis - AHP4392
oclc - 00609682
lccn - 72603757

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Table of Contents
        Contents
    How this survey was made
        Page 1
    General soil map
        Page 2
        Astatula - St. Lucie association
            Page 2
        Made land - Palm Beach association
            Page 3
        Astatula-Adamsville association
            Page 4
        Myakka - Immokalee - Pomello association
            Page 4
        Wabasso - Elred - Oldsmar association
            Page 4
        Astor association
            Page 5
        Tidal swamp - Tidal marsh association
            Page 5
        Urban land association
            Page 5
    Descriptions of the soils
        Page 6
        Adamsville series
            Page 7
        Astatula series
            Page 8
        Astor series
            Page 8
        Charlotte series
            Page 9
        Coastal beaches
            Page 10
        Elred series
            Page 10
        Felda series
            Page 10
        Fellowship series
            Page 11
        Immokalee series
            Page 12
        Made Land
            Page 13
        Manatee series
            Page 13
        Myakka series
            Page 14
        Okeechobee series
            Page 14
        Oldsmar series
            Page 15
        Orland series, wet variant
            Page 15
        Palm Beach series
            Page 16
        Pamlico series
            Page 17
        Paola series
            Page 17
        Pinellas series
            Page 18
        Placid series
            Page 18
        Pomello series
            Page 19
        Pompano series
            Page 20
        Spoil banks
            Page 20
        St Lucie series
            Page 20
        Terra Ceia series, moderately deep variant
            Page 21
        Tidal marsh
            Page 22
        Tidal swamp
            Page 22
        Urban land
            Page 22
        Wabasso series
            Page 23
        Wauchula series
            Page 24
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Town and country planning
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Engineering uses of the soils
            Page 26
            Engineering classification systems
                Page 27
            Engineering test date
                Page 27
                Page 28
                Page 29
                Page 30
                Page 31
                Page 32
                Page 33
                Page 34
                Page 35
                Page 36
                Page 37
                Page 38
                Page 39
                Page 40
                Page 41
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
            Engineering properties of the soils
                Page 46
            Engineering interpretations
                Page 46
                Page 47
        Crops and pastures
            Page 48
            Capability grouping
                Page 48
                Page 49
                Page 50
                Page 51
                Page 52
                Page 53
            Estimated yields
                Page 54
        Woodland
            Page 54
            Woodland management
                Page 54
                Page 55
                Page 56
        Wildlife
            Page 57
    Formation and classification of the soils
        Page 58
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 58
            Parent material
                Page 58
            Topography
                Page 58
            Plants and animals
                Page 58
            Climate
                Page 58
            Time
                Page 59
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 59
        Classification of the soils
            Page 59
    General nature of the county
        Page 60
        Geology
            Page 61
        Climate
            Page 61
        Farming
            Page 62
    Literature cited
        Page 62
    Glossary
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 66
    General soil map
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Index to map sheets
        Page 69
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
Full Text








SOIL SURVEY OF


Pinellas County, Florida



"Ai





























Issued September 1972
.,. ~ .. ,,





















United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations

Issued September 1972




W L H 1



Major fieldwork for this soil survey was done in the period 1960-68. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1968. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this publi-
cation refer to conditions in the county in 1968. This survey was made cooperatively by the
Soil Conservation Service, the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
and the Pinellas Board of County Commissioners. It is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Pinellas Soil and Water Conservation District.
Either enlarged or reduced copies of the soil map in this publication can be made
by commercial photographers, or they can be purchased on individual order from the
Cartographic Division, Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250.


HOW TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY

T HIS SOIL SURVEY contains infor- soil map and colored to show soils that
nation that can be applied in manag- have the same limitation or suitability.
ing farms, pasture, and woodlands; in For example, soils that have a slight limi-
selecting sites for roads, ponds, buildings, station for a given use can be colored green,
and other structures; and in judging the those with a moderate limitation can be
suitability of tracts of land for farming, colored yellow, and those with a severe
industry, and recreation. limitation can be colored red.
Farmers and those who work with
Locating Soils farmers can learn about use and manage-
ment of the soils from the soil descriptions
All the soils of Pinellas County are and from the descriptions of the capability
shown on the map at the back of this units.
publication. This map consists of many Foresters and others can refer to the sec-
sheets made from aerial photographs. tion "Woodland," where the soils of the
Each sheet is numbered to correspond with county are grouped according to their
a number on the Index to Map Sheets. suitability for trees.
On each sheet of the detailed map, soil Game managers, sportsmen, and others
areas are outlined and are identified by can find information about soils and wild-
symbols. All areas marked with the same life in the section "Wildlife."
symbol are the same kind of soil. The soil Community planners and others can
symbol is inside the area if there is enough read about soil properties that affect the
room; otherwise, it is outside and a pointer choice of sites for nonindustrial buildings
shows where the symbol belongs, and for recreation areas in the section
"Town and Country Planning."
Finding and Using Informaction Engineers and builders can find, under
"Engineering Uses of the Soils," tables
The "Guide to Mapping Units" can be that contain test data, estimates of soil
used to find information. This guide lists properties, and information about soil
all the soils of the county in alphabetic features that affect engineering practices.
order by map symbol and gives the capa- Scientists and others can read about how
ability classification of each. It also shows the soils formed and how they are classi-
the page where each soil is described and fied in the section "Formation and Classi-
the page for the woodland group in which fiction of the Soils."
the soil has been placed. Newcomers to Pinellas County may be
Individual colored maps showing the especially interested in the section "Gen-
relative suitability or degree of limitation eral Soil Map," where broad patterns of
of soils for many specific purposes can be soils are described. They may also be in-
developed by using the soil map and the terested in the information about the
information in the text. Translucent ma- county given in the section "General
trial can be used as an overlay over the Nature of the County."



Cover: Residential area on Made land at Indian Rocks
Beach.



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1972 0 420-436

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402














Contents
Page Page
How this survey was made---------- 1 St. Lucie series _-----------_-----. 20
General soil map-------------------- 2 Terra Ceia series, moderately deep
1. Astatula-St. Lucie association-..- 2 variant------------------------- 21
2. Made land-Palm Beach associa- Tidal marsh----_-- --------------_ 22
tion ------------------- 3 Tidal swamp ---------------------- 22
3. Astatula-Adamsville association-_ 4 Urban land ----------------------- 22
4. Myakka-Immokalee-Pomello Wabasso series_ ---------------_ 23
association------------- --_ 4 Wauchula series ------------------- 24
5. Wabasso-Elred-Oldsmar Use and management of the soils------ 24
association ------------------ 4 Town and country planning--------- 24
6. Astor association ------------- 5 Engineering uses of the soils -------- 26
7. Tidal swamp-Tidal Marsh Engineering classification systems__ 27
association ----------------- 5 Engineering test data------------- 27
8. Urban land association---------- 5 Engineering properties of the soils__ 46
Descriptions of the soils -------------- 6 Engineering interpretations ------- 46
Adamsville series ------------------- 7 Crops and pasture ----------------- 48
Astatula series --------------------- 8 Capability grouping -------------- 48
Astor series --------------------- 8 Estimated yields __--_------__ 54
Charlotte series -------------------- 9 Woodland------------------------ 54
Coastal beaches-------------------- 10 Woodland management----------- 54
Elred series ----------------------- 10 Wildlife -------------------------- 57
Felda series --------- ----------- 10 Formation and classification of the
Fellowship series------------------- 11 soils ------------------------- 58
Immokalee series ------------------ 12 Factors of soil formation ------------ 58
Made land------------------------ 13 Parent material------------------ 58
Manatee series -------------------- 13 Topography --------------------- 58
Myakka series -------------__--- 14 Plants and animals--------------- 58
Okeechobee series ------------------ 14 Climate------------------------- 58
Oldsmar series--------------------- 15 Time --------------------------- 59
Orlando series, wet variant _--------- 15 Processes of soil formation --------- 59
Palm Beach series ----------------- 16 Classification of the soils ------------ 59
Pamlico series --------------------- 17 General nature of the county ---------- 60
Paola series ------------_------- 17 Geology --------------------------- 61
Pinellas series--------------------- 18 Climate --------------------- 61
Placid series--------------.------ 18 Farming ---- --------------- 62
Pomello series -----------_------ 19 Literature cited-- ----------------- 62
Pompano series-------------------- 20 Glossary ---------------------------- 63
Spoil banks ---------------------- 20 Guide to mapping units ---- Following 64
I














SOIL SURVEY OF PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA

BY EARL S. VANATTA, JR., LEON T. STEM, WILLIAM H. WITTSTRUCK, DAVID E. PETTRY, AND JAMES W. SPIETH,
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE, IN COOPERATION WITH THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
PINELLAS COUNTY is in the west-central part of In the northwestern part of the county is an area of
Florida (fig. 1). It has an area of about 280 square rolling ridgeland, commonly called the Pinellas Ridge.
miles. It is bounded on the north by Pasco County, on This ridge is 3 or 4 miles wide and extends southward
the east by Hillsborough County and Tampa Bay, and from Palm Harbor to the vicinity of Oakhurst. It is 25
on the west and south by the Gulf of Mexico. Figure 1 to 97 feet above sea level and is pocked with sinkholes,
shows distances from Clearwater, the county seat, to many of which are filled with water. A native vegetation
major cities in the State. of turkey oak, pine, and grasses still grows in places, but
most of this area has been planted to citrus or is used for
community development. This is the major citrus pro-
ducing area in the county.
TALLAHSEE In the southern part of the county is a rounded area
J ACKNVIL LE of flat uplands about 5 miles in diameter. Maximum
elevation is about 50 feet. The city of St. Petersburg
GAINIESVILLE occupies nearly all of this upland area.
SThe northeastern part of the county and a large area
northeast of Pinellas Park consist of saw-palmetto and
pine flatwoods that are dotted by small ponds and are
cut by swamp drainageways. Elevation in this area and
on most offshore islands generally is less than 25 feet.
..TMPA The soils are generally sandy and are excessively drained
CLEARWA. to very poorly drained.
Throughout Pinellas County are areas of Made land
built up by dredging and filling operations. Since 1959,
when the total land area of the county was 168,960 acres,
about 10,225 acres of Made land has been added. In 1969,
-, the total land area of the county was 179,185 acres.
The climate of Pinellas County is humid and sub-
tropical. The average annual rainfall is about 55 inches,
and the period of greatest rainfall is June through Sep-
8 tember. The average temperature is about 630 F. in winter
and 830 in summer.
The economy of the county is based primarily on tour-
st *,Agril.rd Ee,.rimntS.,s.ion ism, which employs about 52 percent of the work force.
Manufacturing and construction employ 23 percent, and
Figure 1.-Location of Pinellas County in Florida. farming and related work only about 2 percent.
For more information about Pinellas County, refer to
The county was formed in 1911 from part of Hills- the section "General Nature of the County" at the back
borough County. Although it is the second smallest of this survey.
county in Florida, it is one of the most densely populated.
The population currently exceeds 500,000. Four towns
have a population of less than 1,000, and two have more HOW This Survey Was Made
than 40,000. Because the trend in land use is toward
further urban expansion, a section on town and country Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
planning has been included in this survey, soil are in Pinellas County, where they are located, and
Pinellas County occupies a peninsula that ranges from how they can be used. The soil scientists went into the
4 to 15 miles in width. The coastline is broken by many county knowing they likely would find many soils they
keys and offshore islands. Elevation ranges from sea level had already seen and perhaps some they had not. They
to 97 feet. The soils generally are sandy and excessively observed the steepness, length, and shape of slopes, the
drained to very poorly drained. Many areas are affected kinds of native plants or crops, and many facts about the
by a high water table and ponding. soils. They dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile
1







2 SOIL SURVEY

is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
extends from the surface down into the parent material taken, as needed, for laboratory measurements and for
that has not been changed much by leaching or by the engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds of
action of plant roots, soil in other places are assembled. Data on yields of crops
The soil scientists made comparisons among the profiles under defined practices are assembled from farm records
they studied, and they compared these profiles with those and from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of
in counties nearby and in places more distant. They soil. Yields under defined management are estimated for
classified and named the soils according to nationwide, all the soils.
uniform procedures. The soil series and the soil phase are But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils have
the categories of soil classification most used in a local been named, described, and delineated on the map, and the
survey (5).1 laboratory data and yield data have been assembled. The
Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil mass of detailed information then needs to be organized in
series. Except for different texture in the surface layer, all such a way as to be readily useful to different groups of
the soils of one series have major horizons that are similar users, among them farmers, managers of woodland, and
in thickness, arrangement, and other important charac- engineers.
teristics. Each soil series is named for a town or other On the basis of yield and practice tables and other data,
geographic feature near the place where a soil of that the soil scientists set up trial groups. They test these
series was first observed and mapped. Adamsville and groups by further study and by consultation with farmers,
Orlando, for example, are the names of two soil series. All agronomists, engineers, and others, then adjust the groups
the soils in the United States having the same series name according to the results of their studies and consultation.
are essentially alike in those characteristics that affect Thus, the groups that are finally evolved reflect up-to-date
their behavior in the undisturbed landscape. knowledge of the soils and their behavior under present
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface soil methods of use and management.
and in slope, stoniness, or some other characteristic that
affects use of the soils by man. On the basis of such differ-
ences, a soil series is divided into phases. The name of a General Soil Map
soil phase indicates a feature that affects management.
For example, Astatula fine sand, moderately deep water The general soil map at the back of this survey shows, in
table, is one of several phases within the Astatula series, color, the soil associations in Pinellas County. A soil as-
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils had sociation is a landscape that has a distinctive proportional
been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of pattern of soils. It normally consists of one or more major
the individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo- soils and at least one minor soil, and it is named for the
graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, trees, and major soils. The soils in one association may occur in
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. another, but in a different pattern.
The soil map in the back of this publication was prepared A map showing soil associations is useful to people who
from the aerial photographs. want a general idea of the soils in a county, who want to
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping units, compare different parts of a county, or who want to know
On most maps detailed enough to be useful in planning the the location of large tracts that are suitable for a certain
management of farms and fields, a mapping unit is nearly kind of land use. Such a map is a useful general guide in
equivalent to a soil phase. It is not exactly equivalent, managing a watershed, a wooded tract, or a wildlife area,
because it is not practical to show on such a map all the or in planning engineering works, recreational facilities,
small, scattered bits of soil of some other kind that have and community developments. It is not a suitable map for
been seen within an area that is dominantly of a recognized planning the management of a farm or field, or for select-
soil phase. ing the exact location of a road, building, or similar struc-
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different ture, because the soils in any one association ordinarily
series. One such kind of mapping unit, a soil complex, is differ in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, and other
shown on the soil map of Pinellas County. characteristics that affect their management.
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils, so Table 1 shows the degree of limitations and the chief
intermingled or so small in size that they cannot be shown limiting features by soil associations for selected nonfarm
separately on the soil map. Each area of a complex contains uses. For a discussion of these nonfarm uses of the soils
some of each of the two or more dominant soils, and the refer to the section "Town and Country Planning."
pattern and relative proportions are about the same in all The soil associations in Pinellas County are described in
areas. The name of a soil complex consists of the names the following pages.
of the dominant soils, joined by a hyphen. An example is
Urban land-Astatula complex. 1. Astatula-St. Lucie Association
In some areas surveyed there are places where the soil
material is so wet, so shallow, or so disturbed by urban devel- Nearly level and gently sloping, excessively drained, acid,
opment that it cannot be classified by soil series. These deep sandy soils
places are shown on the soil map and are described in the Broad gently sloping areas and nearly level ridgetops
survey, but they are called land types and are given de- make up most of this association. There are a few short
scriptive names. Made land is a land type in Pinellas steep slopes adjacent to streams and bayous and around
County. sinks. This association is mostly in the northwestern part
of the county. In some areas there is no surface drainage
1 Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 62. pattern, and all water drains through the soil. Sinks and







2 SOIL SURVEY

is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
extends from the surface down into the parent material taken, as needed, for laboratory measurements and for
that has not been changed much by leaching or by the engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds of
action of plant roots, soil in other places are assembled. Data on yields of crops
The soil scientists made comparisons among the profiles under defined practices are assembled from farm records
they studied, and they compared these profiles with those and from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of
in counties nearby and in places more distant. They soil. Yields under defined management are estimated for
classified and named the soils according to nationwide, all the soils.
uniform procedures. The soil series and the soil phase are But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils have
the categories of soil classification most used in a local been named, described, and delineated on the map, and the
survey (5).1 laboratory data and yield data have been assembled. The
Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil mass of detailed information then needs to be organized in
series. Except for different texture in the surface layer, all such a way as to be readily useful to different groups of
the soils of one series have major horizons that are similar users, among them farmers, managers of woodland, and
in thickness, arrangement, and other important charac- engineers.
teristics. Each soil series is named for a town or other On the basis of yield and practice tables and other data,
geographic feature near the place where a soil of that the soil scientists set up trial groups. They test these
series was first observed and mapped. Adamsville and groups by further study and by consultation with farmers,
Orlando, for example, are the names of two soil series. All agronomists, engineers, and others, then adjust the groups
the soils in the United States having the same series name according to the results of their studies and consultation.
are essentially alike in those characteristics that affect Thus, the groups that are finally evolved reflect up-to-date
their behavior in the undisturbed landscape. knowledge of the soils and their behavior under present
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface soil methods of use and management.
and in slope, stoniness, or some other characteristic that
affects use of the soils by man. On the basis of such differ-
ences, a soil series is divided into phases. The name of a General Soil Map
soil phase indicates a feature that affects management.
For example, Astatula fine sand, moderately deep water The general soil map at the back of this survey shows, in
table, is one of several phases within the Astatula series, color, the soil associations in Pinellas County. A soil as-
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils had sociation is a landscape that has a distinctive proportional
been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of pattern of soils. It normally consists of one or more major
the individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo- soils and at least one minor soil, and it is named for the
graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, trees, and major soils. The soils in one association may occur in
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. another, but in a different pattern.
The soil map in the back of this publication was prepared A map showing soil associations is useful to people who
from the aerial photographs. want a general idea of the soils in a county, who want to
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping units, compare different parts of a county, or who want to know
On most maps detailed enough to be useful in planning the the location of large tracts that are suitable for a certain
management of farms and fields, a mapping unit is nearly kind of land use. Such a map is a useful general guide in
equivalent to a soil phase. It is not exactly equivalent, managing a watershed, a wooded tract, or a wildlife area,
because it is not practical to show on such a map all the or in planning engineering works, recreational facilities,
small, scattered bits of soil of some other kind that have and community developments. It is not a suitable map for
been seen within an area that is dominantly of a recognized planning the management of a farm or field, or for select-
soil phase. ing the exact location of a road, building, or similar struc-
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different ture, because the soils in any one association ordinarily
series. One such kind of mapping unit, a soil complex, is differ in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, and other
shown on the soil map of Pinellas County. characteristics that affect their management.
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils, so Table 1 shows the degree of limitations and the chief
intermingled or so small in size that they cannot be shown limiting features by soil associations for selected nonfarm
separately on the soil map. Each area of a complex contains uses. For a discussion of these nonfarm uses of the soils
some of each of the two or more dominant soils, and the refer to the section "Town and Country Planning."
pattern and relative proportions are about the same in all The soil associations in Pinellas County are described in
areas. The name of a soil complex consists of the names the following pages.
of the dominant soils, joined by a hyphen. An example is
Urban land-Astatula complex. 1. Astatula-St. Lucie Association
In some areas surveyed there are places where the soil
material is so wet, so shallow, or so disturbed by urban devel- Nearly level and gently sloping, excessively drained, acid,
opment that it cannot be classified by soil series. These deep sandy soils
places are shown on the soil map and are described in the Broad gently sloping areas and nearly level ridgetops
survey, but they are called land types and are given de- make up most of this association. There are a few short
scriptive names. Made land is a land type in Pinellas steep slopes adjacent to streams and bayous and around
County. sinks. This association is mostly in the northwestern part
of the county. In some areas there is no surface drainage
1 Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 62. pattern, and all water drains through the soil. Sinks and








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

TABLE 1.-Summary of limitations by soil associations for selected nonfarm uses

Soil association Building Landscaping Sanitation Transportation Recreation
construction

1. Astatula-St. Lucie Slight------------ Moderate: very Slight_ --------- Severe: loose Severe: loose
association, low available sand, sand.
water capac-
ity; low natu-
ral fertility.
2. Made land-Palm Beach Variable--------. Variable-------- Variable-------- Variable-------- Variable.
association.
3. Astatula-Adamsville Slight----------- Moderate: very Moderate: water Moderate: sand Severe: sand
association, low available table, texture. texture.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.
4. Myakka-Immokalee- Severe: water Moderate: Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
Pomello association. table. water table; table; flood- table; flood- table; sand
low natural ing. ing. texture.
fertility.
5. Wabasso-Elred-Oldsmar Severe: water Moderate: Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
association. table. water table; table, table; flood- table; sand
low natural ing. texture.
fertility.
6. Astor association .----....-Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
7. Tidal swamp-Tidal marsh Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe:
association, water table; water table; water table; water table; water table;
flooding; salin- flooding; flooding; flooding, flooding.
ity; low bearing salinity.
capacity.
8. Urban land association ...--
This association is al-
ready intensively
developed.



depressions, % acre to 4 acres in size, occur throughout Approximately 36 percent of this association is in urban
this association. Many are filled with water and form areas, mainly residential developments. Some areas,
permanent lakes, especially in the northern part of the county, are in native
This association makes up 8 percent of the county. vegetation that consists mainly of turkey oak, blackjack
It is about 50 percent Astatula soils that are deep over a oak, saw-palmetto, and various kinds of shrubs and
water table, 10 percent St. Lucie soils, and 8 percent grasses. Citrus is grown in some areas. Most of the soils
Astatula soils that are moderately deep over a water table. are suited to citrus, but they are poorly suited to cultivated
The rest is mostly Immokalee, Myakka, Paola, and crops and improved pasture. This association is poorly
Pomello soils and Urban land. suited as habitat for wildlife.
Astatula soils that are deep over a water table have a
surface layer of gray to dark grayish-brown fine sand 2. Made Land-Palm Beach Association
2 to 9 inches thick. Below this is yellow to yellowish-
brown sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 Nearly level land extensively altered by man
inches. The water table is below a depth of 60 inches. Nearly level land formed by diking and dredging and
St. Lucie soils have a thin surface layer of gray to by transporting fill material makes up most of this
light-gray fine sand. Below this is nearly white fine sand. association. The rest is characterized by narrow ridges
In some areas layers of brownish-yellow fine sand occur and shallow valleys. This association is mostly on keys
at a depth of about 60 inches. The water table is below and in coastal areas. There is no surface drainage pattern;
a depth of 80 inches. all drainage is through the soil.
Astatula soils that are moderately deep over a water This association makes up about 11.5 percent of the
table have a surface layer of dark-gray fine sand 4 to 10 county. It is about 70 percent Made land, 18 percent
inches thick. Below this is gray to pale-brown fine sand. Palm Beach soils, and 6 percent St. Lucie soils. The rest
In most areas layers of white fine sand occur between is mostly Coastal beaches and Tidal swamp.
depths of 40 and 60 inches. The water table is typically Made land consists of dredged or fill material. The fill
at a depth of 40 to 60 inches, material is normally 2 to 8 feet thick and in places is







4 SOIL SURVEY

underlain by rubble. It is a mixture of clay, sand, rocks, pasture. The main limitations to use for crops are very
and shell fragments in varying proportions and ranges low available water capacity and low fertility. Some
from coarse textured to fine textured. areas provide habitat for wildlife.
Palm Beach soils are sands mixed with shell fragments.
Some areas consist of material that was dredged from the 4. Myakka-Immokalee-Pomello Association
bottom of the bay and used to fill dikes. Recent deposits
are saline, but the salts have been leached from the Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and mod-
older deposits. The water table is normally at a depth erately well drained sandy soils that have layers weakly
of about 50 inches. cemented with organic matter at depths of 40 inches or less
St. Lucie soils are excessively drained. They have a This association is characterized by broad flats between
surface layer of gray to dark-gray fine sand 2 to 6 inches sloughs low ridges and knolls, and many small, shallow,
thick. Below this is gray to light-gray sand that extends grassed ponds. It occurs extensively throughout the
to a depth of more than 40 inches. A few shell fragments county. Drainage is through the soils and into a few
are scattered throughout the soil, and layers of shells small streams, drainage ditches, and lakes.
and shell fragments occur below a depth of 40 inches. This association makes up 43 percent of the county.
Most of this association is used for urban development. It is about 57 percent Myakka soils, 11 percent Immokalee
Some areas are used for recreation. Topsoil, special soils, and 5 percent Pomello soils. The rest is mostly
fertilizers, and good management are needed to establish Astor and Astatula soils and Made land.
lawns and ornamental plants. Pine oak, sabal palm, saw- Myakka soils are poorly drained. They have a surface
palmetto, scattered cedar, and various kinds of shrubs layer of gray to black fine sand 3 to 9 inches thick. Below
and grasses grow on islands where the soil has not been this is a layer of leached, gray to white fine sand about 12
disturbed. inches thick. At a depth of 30 inches or less is a layer of
very dark brown fine sand, about 9 inches thick, that is
3. Astatula-Adamsville Association weakly cemented with organic matter. Brown to pale-
Ny s g, dp s y ss on b d, brown fine sand is below the weakly cemented layer. The
Nearly level and gently sloping, deep sandy soils on broad, water table is typically at a depth of 10 to 30 inches,
low ridges but it may rise to the surface during wet periods or drop
Broad, low, nearly level to gently sloping ridgetops below 30 inches during dry periods.
and a few narrow, steeper slopes adjacent to streams, Immokalee soils are poorly drained. They are similar to
lakes, and sinks characterize this association. Many Myakka soils, but the depth to the pan stained by organic
small, intermittent ponds and a few deep lakes are in- matter is 30 to 40 inches. The water table is at a depth of
cluded. There are a few weakly defined drainageways. less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during wet periods
This association occurs throughout the county. and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in
This association makes up 13.5 percent of the county. most years.
It is about 50 percent Astatula soils that are moderately Pomello soils are moderately well drained. They have
deep over a water table, 10 percent Adamsville soils, a surface layer of light-gray to gray fine sand 2 to 5 inches
and 8 percent Astatula soils that are deep over a water thick. Below this is leached, light-gray to white fine sand
table. The rest is mostly Myakka and Immokalee soils extending to a depth of more than 30 inches. At a depth
and Urban land. of more than 30 inches is a layer of sand that is weakly
Astatula soils that are moderately deep over a water cemented with organic matter. The water table is at a
table have a surface layer of dark-gray fine sand 4 to 10 depth of 30 to 40 inches for a short time during wet periods
inches thick. Below this are layers of pale-brown fine and at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for about 8 months
sand. In most areas layers of white fine sand occur be- most years.
tween depths of 40 and 60 inches. The water table is at Some areas of this association, mainly in the northern
a depth of 40 to 60 inches. part of the county, are in native vegetation consisting
Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly drained. They of saw-palmetto, scattered stands of slash and sand pine,
are similar to the Astatula soils that are moderately deep gallberry, runner oak, and grasses. Cypress and water-
over a water table, but they occur in relatively lower tolerant hardwood trees, shrubs, and grasses grow in
positions on the landscape and are considerably more swampy areas. Many areas in other parts of the county
mottled below the surface layer. Normally the water are in urban uses. The seasonal high water table is the
table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches. main limiting factor for urban uses, and special manage-
Astatula soils that are deep to a water table have a ment is needed in residential areas to establish and main-
surface layer of gray to dark grayish-brown fine sand tain lawns and ornamental plants.
2 to 9 inches thick. Below this is yellow to yellowish- The high water table severely limits the use of this
brown sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 association for cultivated crops, citrus, and improved
inches. The water table does not rise above a depth of pasture. However, if management is intensive, citrus,
60 inches, truck crops, and pasture grasses grow well.
Most of this association is used for citrus and for resi-
dential development. Urban expansion is rapidly en- 5. Wabasso-Elred-Oldsmar Association
croaching on many areas that are now planted to citrus.
Only a few small scattered areas are in native vegetation, Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils, some of which have
dominantly pine, oak, saw-palmetto, and various shrubs layers weakly cemented with organic matter
and grasses. This association is characterized by nearly level areas
This association is well suited to citrus and improved and low swampy areas. It is mostly in the southern part







4 SOIL SURVEY

underlain by rubble. It is a mixture of clay, sand, rocks, pasture. The main limitations to use for crops are very
and shell fragments in varying proportions and ranges low available water capacity and low fertility. Some
from coarse textured to fine textured. areas provide habitat for wildlife.
Palm Beach soils are sands mixed with shell fragments.
Some areas consist of material that was dredged from the 4. Myakka-Immokalee-Pomello Association
bottom of the bay and used to fill dikes. Recent deposits
are saline, but the salts have been leached from the Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and mod-
older deposits. The water table is normally at a depth erately well drained sandy soils that have layers weakly
of about 50 inches. cemented with organic matter at depths of 40 inches or less
St. Lucie soils are excessively drained. They have a This association is characterized by broad flats between
surface layer of gray to dark-gray fine sand 2 to 6 inches sloughs low ridges and knolls, and many small, shallow,
thick. Below this is gray to light-gray sand that extends grassed ponds. It occurs extensively throughout the
to a depth of more than 40 inches. A few shell fragments county. Drainage is through the soils and into a few
are scattered throughout the soil, and layers of shells small streams, drainage ditches, and lakes.
and shell fragments occur below a depth of 40 inches. This association makes up 43 percent of the county.
Most of this association is used for urban development. It is about 57 percent Myakka soils, 11 percent Immokalee
Some areas are used for recreation. Topsoil, special soils, and 5 percent Pomello soils. The rest is mostly
fertilizers, and good management are needed to establish Astor and Astatula soils and Made land.
lawns and ornamental plants. Pine oak, sabal palm, saw- Myakka soils are poorly drained. They have a surface
palmetto, scattered cedar, and various kinds of shrubs layer of gray to black fine sand 3 to 9 inches thick. Below
and grasses grow on islands where the soil has not been this is a layer of leached, gray to white fine sand about 12
disturbed. inches thick. At a depth of 30 inches or less is a layer of
very dark brown fine sand, about 9 inches thick, that is
3. Astatula-Adamsville Association weakly cemented with organic matter. Brown to pale-
Ny s g, dp s y ss on b d, brown fine sand is below the weakly cemented layer. The
Nearly level and gently sloping, deep sandy soils on broad, water table is typically at a depth of 10 to 30 inches,
low ridges but it may rise to the surface during wet periods or drop
Broad, low, nearly level to gently sloping ridgetops below 30 inches during dry periods.
and a few narrow, steeper slopes adjacent to streams, Immokalee soils are poorly drained. They are similar to
lakes, and sinks characterize this association. Many Myakka soils, but the depth to the pan stained by organic
small, intermittent ponds and a few deep lakes are in- matter is 30 to 40 inches. The water table is at a depth of
cluded. There are a few weakly defined drainageways. less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during wet periods
This association occurs throughout the county. and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in
This association makes up 13.5 percent of the county. most years.
It is about 50 percent Astatula soils that are moderately Pomello soils are moderately well drained. They have
deep over a water table, 10 percent Adamsville soils, a surface layer of light-gray to gray fine sand 2 to 5 inches
and 8 percent Astatula soils that are deep over a water thick. Below this is leached, light-gray to white fine sand
table. The rest is mostly Myakka and Immokalee soils extending to a depth of more than 30 inches. At a depth
and Urban land. of more than 30 inches is a layer of sand that is weakly
Astatula soils that are moderately deep over a water cemented with organic matter. The water table is at a
table have a surface layer of dark-gray fine sand 4 to 10 depth of 30 to 40 inches for a short time during wet periods
inches thick. Below this are layers of pale-brown fine and at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for about 8 months
sand. In most areas layers of white fine sand occur be- most years.
tween depths of 40 and 60 inches. The water table is at Some areas of this association, mainly in the northern
a depth of 40 to 60 inches. part of the county, are in native vegetation consisting
Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly drained. They of saw-palmetto, scattered stands of slash and sand pine,
are similar to the Astatula soils that are moderately deep gallberry, runner oak, and grasses. Cypress and water-
over a water table, but they occur in relatively lower tolerant hardwood trees, shrubs, and grasses grow in
positions on the landscape and are considerably more swampy areas. Many areas in other parts of the county
mottled below the surface layer. Normally the water are in urban uses. The seasonal high water table is the
table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches. main limiting factor for urban uses, and special manage-
Astatula soils that are deep to a water table have a ment is needed in residential areas to establish and main-
surface layer of gray to dark grayish-brown fine sand tain lawns and ornamental plants.
2 to 9 inches thick. Below this is yellow to yellowish- The high water table severely limits the use of this
brown sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 association for cultivated crops, citrus, and improved
inches. The water table does not rise above a depth of pasture. However, if management is intensive, citrus,
60 inches, truck crops, and pasture grasses grow well.
Most of this association is used for citrus and for resi-
dential development. Urban expansion is rapidly en- 5. Wabasso-Elred-Oldsmar Association
croaching on many areas that are now planted to citrus.
Only a few small scattered areas are in native vegetation, Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils, some of which have
dominantly pine, oak, saw-palmetto, and various shrubs layers weakly cemented with organic matter
and grasses. This association is characterized by nearly level areas
This association is well suited to citrus and improved and low swampy areas. It is mostly in the southern part







4 SOIL SURVEY

underlain by rubble. It is a mixture of clay, sand, rocks, pasture. The main limitations to use for crops are very
and shell fragments in varying proportions and ranges low available water capacity and low fertility. Some
from coarse textured to fine textured. areas provide habitat for wildlife.
Palm Beach soils are sands mixed with shell fragments.
Some areas consist of material that was dredged from the 4. Myakka-Immokalee-Pomello Association
bottom of the bay and used to fill dikes. Recent deposits
are saline, but the salts have been leached from the Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and mod-
older deposits. The water table is normally at a depth erately well drained sandy soils that have layers weakly
of about 50 inches. cemented with organic matter at depths of 40 inches or less
St. Lucie soils are excessively drained. They have a This association is characterized by broad flats between
surface layer of gray to dark-gray fine sand 2 to 6 inches sloughs low ridges and knolls, and many small, shallow,
thick. Below this is gray to light-gray sand that extends grassed ponds. It occurs extensively throughout the
to a depth of more than 40 inches. A few shell fragments county. Drainage is through the soils and into a few
are scattered throughout the soil, and layers of shells small streams, drainage ditches, and lakes.
and shell fragments occur below a depth of 40 inches. This association makes up 43 percent of the county.
Most of this association is used for urban development. It is about 57 percent Myakka soils, 11 percent Immokalee
Some areas are used for recreation. Topsoil, special soils, and 5 percent Pomello soils. The rest is mostly
fertilizers, and good management are needed to establish Astor and Astatula soils and Made land.
lawns and ornamental plants. Pine oak, sabal palm, saw- Myakka soils are poorly drained. They have a surface
palmetto, scattered cedar, and various kinds of shrubs layer of gray to black fine sand 3 to 9 inches thick. Below
and grasses grow on islands where the soil has not been this is a layer of leached, gray to white fine sand about 12
disturbed. inches thick. At a depth of 30 inches or less is a layer of
very dark brown fine sand, about 9 inches thick, that is
3. Astatula-Adamsville Association weakly cemented with organic matter. Brown to pale-
Ny s g, dp s y ss on b d, brown fine sand is below the weakly cemented layer. The
Nearly level and gently sloping, deep sandy soils on broad, water table is typically at a depth of 10 to 30 inches,
low ridges but it may rise to the surface during wet periods or drop
Broad, low, nearly level to gently sloping ridgetops below 30 inches during dry periods.
and a few narrow, steeper slopes adjacent to streams, Immokalee soils are poorly drained. They are similar to
lakes, and sinks characterize this association. Many Myakka soils, but the depth to the pan stained by organic
small, intermittent ponds and a few deep lakes are in- matter is 30 to 40 inches. The water table is at a depth of
cluded. There are a few weakly defined drainageways. less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during wet periods
This association occurs throughout the county. and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in
This association makes up 13.5 percent of the county. most years.
It is about 50 percent Astatula soils that are moderately Pomello soils are moderately well drained. They have
deep over a water table, 10 percent Adamsville soils, a surface layer of light-gray to gray fine sand 2 to 5 inches
and 8 percent Astatula soils that are deep over a water thick. Below this is leached, light-gray to white fine sand
table. The rest is mostly Myakka and Immokalee soils extending to a depth of more than 30 inches. At a depth
and Urban land. of more than 30 inches is a layer of sand that is weakly
Astatula soils that are moderately deep over a water cemented with organic matter. The water table is at a
table have a surface layer of dark-gray fine sand 4 to 10 depth of 30 to 40 inches for a short time during wet periods
inches thick. Below this are layers of pale-brown fine and at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for about 8 months
sand. In most areas layers of white fine sand occur be- most years.
tween depths of 40 and 60 inches. The water table is at Some areas of this association, mainly in the northern
a depth of 40 to 60 inches. part of the county, are in native vegetation consisting
Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly drained. They of saw-palmetto, scattered stands of slash and sand pine,
are similar to the Astatula soils that are moderately deep gallberry, runner oak, and grasses. Cypress and water-
over a water table, but they occur in relatively lower tolerant hardwood trees, shrubs, and grasses grow in
positions on the landscape and are considerably more swampy areas. Many areas in other parts of the county
mottled below the surface layer. Normally the water are in urban uses. The seasonal high water table is the
table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches. main limiting factor for urban uses, and special manage-
Astatula soils that are deep to a water table have a ment is needed in residential areas to establish and main-
surface layer of gray to dark grayish-brown fine sand tain lawns and ornamental plants.
2 to 9 inches thick. Below this is yellow to yellowish- The high water table severely limits the use of this
brown sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 association for cultivated crops, citrus, and improved
inches. The water table does not rise above a depth of pasture. However, if management is intensive, citrus,
60 inches, truck crops, and pasture grasses grow well.
Most of this association is used for citrus and for resi-
dential development. Urban expansion is rapidly en- 5. Wabasso-Elred-Oldsmar Association
croaching on many areas that are now planted to citrus.
Only a few small scattered areas are in native vegetation, Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils, some of which have
dominantly pine, oak, saw-palmetto, and various shrubs layers weakly cemented with organic matter
and grasses. This association is characterized by nearly level areas
This association is well suited to citrus and improved and low swampy areas. It is mostly in the southern part






PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

of the county. Surface drainage is through the soils and thick. Below this is gray to dark-gray sand that extends to
into small streams, drainage ditches, and ponds. The a depth of more than SO inches.
lowest areas are covered with water for several months No significant use has been made of this association,
each year. except as habitat for wildlife. Most areas are in native
This association makes up 13 percent of the county. It vegetation consisting of water-tolerant trees, shrubs, and
is about 23 percent Wabasso soils, 21 percent Elred soils, grasses. The cost of reclamation prohibits most uses.
and 15 percent Oldsmar soils. Of the rest, 10 percent is
Felda soils, 9 percent is Pinellas soils, 8 percent is Myakka 7. Tidal Swamp-Tidal Marsh Association
soils, and 14 percent is Wauchula soils, Urban land, and
Made land. Level areas that are inundated daily by tides interspersed
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. They have a surface with somewhat higher areas that are inundated less frequently
layer of black fine sand about 5 inches thick. Below this This association is characterized by level areas subject
is a layer of gray fine sand about 22 inches thick. At a to inundation by tidal waters. It occurs mainly northeast
depth of about 27 inches is a layer of dark-brown fine of St. Petersburg along the shoreline of Old Tampa Bay
sand that is weakly cemented with organic matter. Below and along the Anclote River.
this are layers of mottled clay and loam. The water table This association makes up about 3.5 percent of the
is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during county. It is about 65 percent Tidal swamp, 15 percent
wet periods and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 Tidal marsh, and 10 percent Coastal beaches. The rest is
months every year. St. Lucie, Wabasso, and Myakka soils and Made land.
Elred soils are similar to Wabasso soils, but they lack Tidal swamp occurs in low, broad coastal areas that are
the layer weakly cemented with organic matter. Oldsmar covered with several inches to as much as 1 or 2 feet of sea
soils also are similar to Wabasso soils, but the depth to water at high tide. Numerous drainage ditches have been
the layer weakly cemented with organic matter is 30 to 40 dug in these areas to remove trapped water left by falling
inches, tides. Tidal swamp consists mainly of sands, peaty sands,
Felda soils are poorly drained and occur mostly in and a few organic soils that contain seashells and shell
depressions. Pinellas soils are somewhat poorly drained and fragments. It has a dense growth of mangrove trees and a
have accumulated carbonates at a depth of about 20 inches, few small intermittent patches of other salt-tolerant plants.
Myakka soils are poorly drained. Tidal marsh occurs in areas slightly above sea level that
A large part of this association is in a native vegetation are covered with salt water or brackish water during high
consisting of scattered stands of slash pine, saw-palmetto, tides. Soils in areas of Tidal marsh range from organic
myrtle, gallberry, and grasses. Some areas have been material as much as 3 feet thick to gray mineral soils. The
cleared and planted to improved pasture grasses. In some high concentration of salts inhibits the growth of all
areas where adequate water control and a high level of vegetation except salt-tolerant rushes, sedges, weeds, and
management are provided, the soils are well suited to grasses.
citrus and truck crops. Coastal beaches occurs as narrow strips bordering is-
In the vicinity of St. Petersburg and Pinellas Park, lands and along parts of the mainland that are reached by
much of the association has been developed for urban use, tides. These beaches consist of sand and shell fragments
but many areas remain in native vegetation and some have that have been deposited, mixed, and reworked by water.
been cleared and planted to improved pasture grasses. Long stretches are practically devoid of vegetation, but
The seasonal water table severely limits many urban uses. sparse salt-tolerant grasses and plants grow in some areas.
In many areas the advantage of a desirable location would Most areas are covered with salt water at high tide and
compensate for the expensive measures needed to over- during storms.
come this limitation. Most of this association remains in its native condition.
It provides food, cover, and breeding grounds for many
6. Astor Association shore birds and animals. Several brackish creeks have been
dammed to form fresh-water lakes. Some areas of Tidal
Nearly heel, very poorly drained sandy soils that have a thick swamp have been filled with dredged materials to provide
surface layer high in organic-matter content waterfront homesites (fig. 2). Most areas of Coastal
This association is characterized by low, nearly level beaches are used for recreation.
areas adjacent to cypress swamps and a few larger isolated
swampy areas. It occurs mainly in the northern part of 8. Urban Land Association
the county. Water covers most of this association for 6
months or more in most years. In some areas the water Areas 75 percent or more covered by urban structures and
table has been lowered by ditches that provide drainage areas so much modified by urban develoinent that kinds of
outlets for adjacent areas. Natural drainage is very slow. soil cannot be identified
Excess water flows into natural streams, drainage ditches, This association consists of areas that have undergone
and lakes, extensive urban development. The soils have been modified
This association makes up about 5 percent of the county. by cutting, grading, filling, and shaping, or otherwise
About 48 percent is Astor soils and the rest is mostly Terra generally altered. Urban facilities including paved parking
Ceia, Placid, Pompano, Felda, Pamlico, and Okeechobee areas, streets, industrial buildings, houses and other struc-
soils. tures, and underground utilities have been constructed on
Astor soils are very poorly drained. They have a black, 75 percent or more of this association. Places not covered
highly organic surface layer 10 to more than 20 inches by urban facilities remain as altered soils or soil material.






PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

of the county. Surface drainage is through the soils and thick. Below this is gray to dark-gray sand that extends to
into small streams, drainage ditches, and ponds. The a depth of more than SO inches.
lowest areas are covered with water for several months No significant use has been made of this association,
each year. except as habitat for wildlife. Most areas are in native
This association makes up 13 percent of the county. It vegetation consisting of water-tolerant trees, shrubs, and
is about 23 percent Wabasso soils, 21 percent Elred soils, grasses. The cost of reclamation prohibits most uses.
and 15 percent Oldsmar soils. Of the rest, 10 percent is
Felda soils, 9 percent is Pinellas soils, 8 percent is Myakka 7. Tidal Swamp-Tidal Marsh Association
soils, and 14 percent is Wauchula soils, Urban land, and
Made land. Level areas that are inundated daily by tides interspersed
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. They have a surface with somewhat higher areas that are inundated less frequently
layer of black fine sand about 5 inches thick. Below this This association is characterized by level areas subject
is a layer of gray fine sand about 22 inches thick. At a to inundation by tidal waters. It occurs mainly northeast
depth of about 27 inches is a layer of dark-brown fine of St. Petersburg along the shoreline of Old Tampa Bay
sand that is weakly cemented with organic matter. Below and along the Anclote River.
this are layers of mottled clay and loam. The water table This association makes up about 3.5 percent of the
is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during county. It is about 65 percent Tidal swamp, 15 percent
wet periods and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 Tidal marsh, and 10 percent Coastal beaches. The rest is
months every year. St. Lucie, Wabasso, and Myakka soils and Made land.
Elred soils are similar to Wabasso soils, but they lack Tidal swamp occurs in low, broad coastal areas that are
the layer weakly cemented with organic matter. Oldsmar covered with several inches to as much as 1 or 2 feet of sea
soils also are similar to Wabasso soils, but the depth to water at high tide. Numerous drainage ditches have been
the layer weakly cemented with organic matter is 30 to 40 dug in these areas to remove trapped water left by falling
inches, tides. Tidal swamp consists mainly of sands, peaty sands,
Felda soils are poorly drained and occur mostly in and a few organic soils that contain seashells and shell
depressions. Pinellas soils are somewhat poorly drained and fragments. It has a dense growth of mangrove trees and a
have accumulated carbonates at a depth of about 20 inches, few small intermittent patches of other salt-tolerant plants.
Myakka soils are poorly drained. Tidal marsh occurs in areas slightly above sea level that
A large part of this association is in a native vegetation are covered with salt water or brackish water during high
consisting of scattered stands of slash pine, saw-palmetto, tides. Soils in areas of Tidal marsh range from organic
myrtle, gallberry, and grasses. Some areas have been material as much as 3 feet thick to gray mineral soils. The
cleared and planted to improved pasture grasses. In some high concentration of salts inhibits the growth of all
areas where adequate water control and a high level of vegetation except salt-tolerant rushes, sedges, weeds, and
management are provided, the soils are well suited to grasses.
citrus and truck crops. Coastal beaches occurs as narrow strips bordering is-
In the vicinity of St. Petersburg and Pinellas Park, lands and along parts of the mainland that are reached by
much of the association has been developed for urban use, tides. These beaches consist of sand and shell fragments
but many areas remain in native vegetation and some have that have been deposited, mixed, and reworked by water.
been cleared and planted to improved pasture grasses. Long stretches are practically devoid of vegetation, but
The seasonal water table severely limits many urban uses. sparse salt-tolerant grasses and plants grow in some areas.
In many areas the advantage of a desirable location would Most areas are covered with salt water at high tide and
compensate for the expensive measures needed to over- during storms.
come this limitation. Most of this association remains in its native condition.
It provides food, cover, and breeding grounds for many
6. Astor Association shore birds and animals. Several brackish creeks have been
dammed to form fresh-water lakes. Some areas of Tidal
Nearly heel, very poorly drained sandy soils that have a thick swamp have been filled with dredged materials to provide
surface layer high in organic-matter content waterfront homesites (fig. 2). Most areas of Coastal
This association is characterized by low, nearly level beaches are used for recreation.
areas adjacent to cypress swamps and a few larger isolated
swampy areas. It occurs mainly in the northern part of 8. Urban Land Association
the county. Water covers most of this association for 6
months or more in most years. In some areas the water Areas 75 percent or more covered by urban structures and
table has been lowered by ditches that provide drainage areas so much modified by urban develoinent that kinds of
outlets for adjacent areas. Natural drainage is very slow. soil cannot be identified
Excess water flows into natural streams, drainage ditches, This association consists of areas that have undergone
and lakes, extensive urban development. The soils have been modified
This association makes up about 5 percent of the county. by cutting, grading, filling, and shaping, or otherwise
About 48 percent is Astor soils and the rest is mostly Terra generally altered. Urban facilities including paved parking
Ceia, Placid, Pompano, Felda, Pamlico, and Okeechobee areas, streets, industrial buildings, houses and other struc-
soils. tures, and underground utilities have been constructed on
Astor soils are very poorly drained. They have a black, 75 percent or more of this association. Places not covered
highly organic surface layer 10 to more than 20 inches by urban facilities remain as altered soils or soil material.






PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

of the county. Surface drainage is through the soils and thick. Below this is gray to dark-gray sand that extends to
into small streams, drainage ditches, and ponds. The a depth of more than SO inches.
lowest areas are covered with water for several months No significant use has been made of this association,
each year. except as habitat for wildlife. Most areas are in native
This association makes up 13 percent of the county. It vegetation consisting of water-tolerant trees, shrubs, and
is about 23 percent Wabasso soils, 21 percent Elred soils, grasses. The cost of reclamation prohibits most uses.
and 15 percent Oldsmar soils. Of the rest, 10 percent is
Felda soils, 9 percent is Pinellas soils, 8 percent is Myakka 7. Tidal Swamp-Tidal Marsh Association
soils, and 14 percent is Wauchula soils, Urban land, and
Made land. Level areas that are inundated daily by tides interspersed
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. They have a surface with somewhat higher areas that are inundated less frequently
layer of black fine sand about 5 inches thick. Below this This association is characterized by level areas subject
is a layer of gray fine sand about 22 inches thick. At a to inundation by tidal waters. It occurs mainly northeast
depth of about 27 inches is a layer of dark-brown fine of St. Petersburg along the shoreline of Old Tampa Bay
sand that is weakly cemented with organic matter. Below and along the Anclote River.
this are layers of mottled clay and loam. The water table This association makes up about 3.5 percent of the
is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during county. It is about 65 percent Tidal swamp, 15 percent
wet periods and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 Tidal marsh, and 10 percent Coastal beaches. The rest is
months every year. St. Lucie, Wabasso, and Myakka soils and Made land.
Elred soils are similar to Wabasso soils, but they lack Tidal swamp occurs in low, broad coastal areas that are
the layer weakly cemented with organic matter. Oldsmar covered with several inches to as much as 1 or 2 feet of sea
soils also are similar to Wabasso soils, but the depth to water at high tide. Numerous drainage ditches have been
the layer weakly cemented with organic matter is 30 to 40 dug in these areas to remove trapped water left by falling
inches, tides. Tidal swamp consists mainly of sands, peaty sands,
Felda soils are poorly drained and occur mostly in and a few organic soils that contain seashells and shell
depressions. Pinellas soils are somewhat poorly drained and fragments. It has a dense growth of mangrove trees and a
have accumulated carbonates at a depth of about 20 inches, few small intermittent patches of other salt-tolerant plants.
Myakka soils are poorly drained. Tidal marsh occurs in areas slightly above sea level that
A large part of this association is in a native vegetation are covered with salt water or brackish water during high
consisting of scattered stands of slash pine, saw-palmetto, tides. Soils in areas of Tidal marsh range from organic
myrtle, gallberry, and grasses. Some areas have been material as much as 3 feet thick to gray mineral soils. The
cleared and planted to improved pasture grasses. In some high concentration of salts inhibits the growth of all
areas where adequate water control and a high level of vegetation except salt-tolerant rushes, sedges, weeds, and
management are provided, the soils are well suited to grasses.
citrus and truck crops. Coastal beaches occurs as narrow strips bordering is-
In the vicinity of St. Petersburg and Pinellas Park, lands and along parts of the mainland that are reached by
much of the association has been developed for urban use, tides. These beaches consist of sand and shell fragments
but many areas remain in native vegetation and some have that have been deposited, mixed, and reworked by water.
been cleared and planted to improved pasture grasses. Long stretches are practically devoid of vegetation, but
The seasonal water table severely limits many urban uses. sparse salt-tolerant grasses and plants grow in some areas.
In many areas the advantage of a desirable location would Most areas are covered with salt water at high tide and
compensate for the expensive measures needed to over- during storms.
come this limitation. Most of this association remains in its native condition.
It provides food, cover, and breeding grounds for many
6. Astor Association shore birds and animals. Several brackish creeks have been
dammed to form fresh-water lakes. Some areas of Tidal
Nearly heel, very poorly drained sandy soils that have a thick swamp have been filled with dredged materials to provide
surface layer high in organic-matter content waterfront homesites (fig. 2). Most areas of Coastal
This association is characterized by low, nearly level beaches are used for recreation.
areas adjacent to cypress swamps and a few larger isolated
swampy areas. It occurs mainly in the northern part of 8. Urban Land Association
the county. Water covers most of this association for 6
months or more in most years. In some areas the water Areas 75 percent or more covered by urban structures and
table has been lowered by ditches that provide drainage areas so much modified by urban develoinent that kinds of
outlets for adjacent areas. Natural drainage is very slow. soil cannot be identified
Excess water flows into natural streams, drainage ditches, This association consists of areas that have undergone
and lakes, extensive urban development. The soils have been modified
This association makes up about 5 percent of the county. by cutting, grading, filling, and shaping, or otherwise
About 48 percent is Astor soils and the rest is mostly Terra generally altered. Urban facilities including paved parking
Ceia, Placid, Pompano, Felda, Pamlico, and Okeechobee areas, streets, industrial buildings, houses and other struc-
soils. tures, and underground utilities have been constructed on
Astor soils are very poorly drained. They have a black, 75 percent or more of this association. Places not covered
highly organic surface layer 10 to more than 20 inches by urban facilities remain as altered soils or soil material.






6 SOIL SURVEY






































Figure 2.-Areas of Tidal swamp are filled with dredged material and then leveled to provide waterfront homesites.

Identification of soils within these areas is not feasible. The first is brief and in terms familiar to a layman. The
This association occurs mainly in downtown shopping second, detailed and in technical terms, is for scientists,
districts, industrial areas, and along main throughways of engineers, and others who need to make thorough and
cities and towns. It also occurs in isolated shopping centers precise studies of soils.
and in small business areas at intersections of primary As mentioned in the section "How This Survey Was
roads. Made," not all mapping units are members of a soil series.
About 2.5 percent of the county is Urban land. Less Made land and Spoil banks, for example, do not belong to a
intensively developed areas and small areas of identifiable series but, nevertheless, are listed in alphabetic order along
soils are included in some places, with the soil series.
Following the name of each mapping unit is a symbol in
parentheses. This symbol identifies the mapping unit on
Descriptions of the Soils the detailed soil map. Listed at the end of each description
of a mapping unit is the capability unit and woodland group
This section describes the soil series and the mapping in which the mapping unit has been placed. The page on
units in Pinellas County. For full information on any one which each capability unit and woodland group is described
mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the description can be found by referring to the "Guide to Mapping Units"
of that unit and the description of the soil series to which at the back of this survey.
it belongs. The acreage and proportionate extent of each mapping
Each soil series contains two descriptions of a soil profile. unit are shown in table 2. Many of the terms used in








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

describing soils can be found in the Glossary at the end of acid. The water table is normally at a depth of about 30
of this survey. inches.
Adamsville soils have very rapid permeability, very low
TABLE 2.-Approximate acreage and proportionate available water capacity, low organic-matter content, and
extent of the soils low natural fertility.
Representative profile of Adamsville fine sand:
Soil Area Extent Ap-0 to 6 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine,
crumb structure; very friable; many fine roots;
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Acres Percent C1-6 to 17 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
Adamsville fine sand ------- ---- 2, 551 1.4 single gain; loose; common fine roots; strongly acid;
Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes----- 9, 064 5. 1 clear, smooth boundary.
Astatula fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. .- 1, 366 .8 C2-17 to 38 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand;
Astatula fine sand, moderately deep water common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR
table ------ ------------------- 10, 1134 5. 7 5/8) mottles and common, fine, faint, white mottles;
Astor fine sand------------------------ 833 .5 single grain; loose; few fine roots; many uncoated
Astor soils ------------------------- 7, 844 4. 4 sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Charlotte fine sand ---------------------- 271 .1 03-38 to 52 inches, coarsely mottled very pale brown (10YR
Coastal beaches-------------------------- 758 .4 7/3), light-gray (10YR 7/1), and brownish-yellow
Elred fine sand__ ---------------- 4, 956 2. 8 (10YR 6/6) fine sand; single grain; loose; many
Felda fine sand ----------------- 791 .4 uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
Felda fine sand, ponded ------------------- 1, 998 1. 1 boundary.
Fellowship loamy fine sand --------------- 257 .1 C4-52 to 80 inches, white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; common,
Immokalee fine sand--------------------- 7, 918 4.4 medium, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8)
Made land--------------------------- 16, 325 9. 1 mottles; few, common faint, very dark grayish
Made land, sanitary fill ---------------- 662 .4 brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; common, medium,
Manatee loamy fine sand----------------- 601 .3 faint, light-gray (10YR 6/1) mottles; single grain;
Myakka fine sand----------------- 39, 118 21.8 loose; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid.
Okeechobee muck------------------------ 512 .3
Oldsmar fine sand ----------------------- 3, 657 2. 0 The A or Ap horizon ranges from dark gray to black and is
Orlando fine sand, wet variant ---------- 742 .4 3 to 8 inches thick. The upper part of the C horizon is brown,
Palm Beach sand ----------------------- 4,395 2. 4 grayish brown, or dark grayish brown that grades with in-
Pamlico muck_-- ---- -------_------- 584 .3 creasing depth to very pale brown or light yellowish brown.
Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes------- 493 .3 Below a depth of 50 inches is white fine sand mottled with
Pinellas fine sand ------------------------ 2,148 1.2 yellowish brown or very dark grayish brown. Reaction is
Placid fine sand-------------------------- 915 .5 strongly acid to very strongly acid in all layers. The water
Pomello fine sand------------------------- 2, 940 1. 6 table is normally between depths of 10 and 40 inches, but it
Pompano fine sand--------- ----------- 969 .5 is at less than 10 inches briefly during wet periods, and it falls
Pompano fine sand, ponded--------------- 1, 004 .6 below 40 inches during dry periods.
Spoil banks------------------------------ 437 .2 The Adamsville soils mapped in Pinellas County are more
St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes --- 959 .5 acid than the range defined for the series, but this does not
St. Lucie fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes.--- 545 .3 appreciably affect use or management. Other properties are
St. Lucie fine sand, shell substratum _------- 2, 097 1. 2 within the ranges defined.
Terra Ceia muck, moderately deep variant__ 1, 171 .7 Adamsville soils are associated with Myakka, Placid, and
Tidal marsh ---------------------------- 1, 397 .8 St. Lucie soils. They do not have a brown-stained Bh horizon
Tidal swamp --_-- -------------------- 5, 357 3. 0 at a depth of 30 inches as do Myakka soils. They have a
Urban land---------------------------- 4, 975 2. 8 thinner A horizon than Placid soils and are less wet. They are
Urban land-Astatula complex -------------- 11, 427 6. 4 not so white or so well drained as St. Lucie soils.
Urban land-Immokalee complex------------ 2, 640 1. 5
Urban land-Myakka complex -------------- 13, 560 7. 6 Adamsville fine sand (Ad).-This is a nearly level,
Urban land-Pomello complex -------------- 2, 786 1. 6 somewhat poorly drained soil near the base of slopes on
Urban land-Wabasso complex ------------ 2, 488 1. 4 the upland ridge and in a few areas in the fiatwoods. The
Wabasso fine sand----------------- 4, 154 2. 3 water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or
Wauchula fine sand--------------------___ 1, 386 .8
more most years. It is within a depth of 10 inches for a
Total ---------------------------- 179, 185 100. 0 short time after heavy rains and falls below 40 inches
during dry periods.
Included in mapping are small areas where the soils are
Adamsville Series better drained and have fewer mottles in the lower layers
than is typical. These inclusions make up no more than 10
The Adamsville series consists of nearly level, somewhat percent of any mapped area. Also included are gently
poorly drained sandy soils that formed in thick deposits sloping areas, areas that are slightly acid below the sur-
of acid marine sands. These soils occur near the base of face layer, areas where the surface layer is thicker than
slopes on the upland ridge and on low ridges in the typical because cover crops have been disked into
flatwoods. the soil, and a few small areas that have sandy loam
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 layers between depths of 60 and 80 inches. None of these
inches thick. Below this is a layer of dark grayish-brown inclusions makes up more than 5 percent of any mapped
loose fine sand about 11 inches thick. The next layers, ex- area.
tending to a depth of 52 inches, are very pale brown, light- This soil is used mostly for citrus. It is well suited to
gray, and brownish-yellow loose fine sand mottled with citrus if effective water control is provided. Some areas
yellowish brown and white. Between depths of 52 and 80 are seepy, but irrigation generally is needed during ex-
inches or more is white fine sand mottled with yellowish tended dry periods. Drainage, irrigation, and fertilizer
brown and very dark grayish brown. All layers are strongly are needed for citrus, truck and flower crops, and lawn

420-436-72-- 2








8 SOIL SURVEY

grasses and ornamental plants. (Capability unit Illw-1; housing developments. (Capability unit IVs-1; woodland
woodland group 5) group 2)
Astatula fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (AfC).-This
Astatula Series is a sloping, excessively drained sandy soil near streams
and drainageways on the upland ridge. It is similar to
The Astatula series consists of undulating, excessively Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, but it is steeper
drained sandy soils that formed in thick deposits of and its surface layer commonly is thinner and in some
marine sands. These soils occur mostly on the upland areas has been appreciably eroded.
ridge. Included with this soil in some mapped areas are small
Typically, the surface layer is dark-gray fine sand about areas of Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and in
5 inches thick. Below this are layers of yellowish-brown others, small areas that have a water table within 40
and fellow fine sand that extend to a depth of 80 inches, inches of the surface for short periods. These inclusions
All layers are strongly acid. The water table normally is make up less than 10 percent of any mapped area.
at a depth of more than 60 inches. This soil is too porous and drought to be well suited to
Astatula soils have very rapid permeability, very low most cultivated crops. It is moderately well suited to
available water capacity, low organic-matter content, citrus. Sprinkler irrigation, special fertilizer, and good
and low natural fertility. management are needed for all crops and for lawns and
Representative profile of Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 ornamental plants in residential areas. (Capability unit
percent slopes: IVs-1; woodland group 2)
A1-0 to 5 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1), rubbed fine sand; Astatula fine sand, moderately deep water table (As).-
weak, fine, crumb structure; loose; many fine roots; This is a nearly level to gently sloping sandy soil on low
few fine charcoal fragments; strongly acid; clear, ridges and isolated knolls.
smooth boundary. The surface layer is dark-gray fine sand about 7 inches
1-5 to 18 inches light yeloose; manwnoa Od sR 6 rain thick. In old citrus groves it is generally underlain by a
common fine roots; few fine charcoal fragments; layer of pale-brown, dark-gray, and yellowish-brown loose
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary. fine sand about 10 inches thick. This layer does not occur
C2-18 to 70 inches, yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single grain; in undisturbed areas. The next layers are pale-brown
loose; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; loose fine sand mottled with white and light yellowish
gradual, smooth boundary.
C3-70 to 80 inches, yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sand; single grain; brown. They extend to a depth of about 50 inches and
loose; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid. become progressively paler brown with increasing depth.
The Al or Ap horizon ranges from gray and dark gray to dark Between depths of 50 and 60 inches are layers of white fine
grayish brown in color and from 2 to 9 inches in thickness. In sand. All layers are strongly acid.
places where citrus trees have grown for many years, an AC The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for more
horizon of pale-brown, yellowish-brown, and dark-gray fine than months most years. it rises above 40 inches for a
sand, 2 to 16 inches thick, has formed below the surface layer. 6 months most years rises above 40 chess for a
The upper part of the C horizon is very pale brown to light short time during wet periods and falls below 60 inches
yellowish brown. Normally the lower part is yellow to yellowish during extended dry periods.
brown, but in places it is white. Reaction ranges from very Included in mapping are small areas where the water
strongly acid to medium acid in all layerAstatula series is table is at a depth of 80 inches, small areas that are gently
The depth to water table defined for the Astatula series is
more than 60 inches. In one mapping unit, Astatula fine sand, sloping, and a few small depressions that are wet. These
moderately deep water table, the water table is at a depth of inclusions make up no more than 15 percent of any mapped
40 to 60 inches. Other characteristics of this soil are within the area.
ranges defined for the series.
Astatula soils are associated with Myakka, Paola, and This soil is well suited to citrus. Although the available
Placid soils. They are better drained than Myakka soils and water capacity is very low, the water table is usually near
do not have a layer stained by organic matter. They do not enough to the surface for citrus trees to obtain water dur-
have the white C horizon typical of Paola soils. They have a ing normal dry periods. Only during extended dry periods
thinner surface layer than Placid soils and are less wet. is this soil drought. Fertilizer is needed for all crops and
Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (AfB).-This for lawns and ornamental plants in residential areas.
is a nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained (Capability unit IIIs-1; woodland group 3)
sandy soil on the upland ridge. It has the profile described
as representative for the series. The water table is well Astor Series
below a depth of 60 inches all year.
Included in mapping are small areas of a similar soil The Astor series consists of nearly level, very poorly
that has a water table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. This drained sandy soils that formed in thick beds of marine
included soil makes up no more than 10 percent of any sands in depressions, sloughs, and low swampy areas.
mapped area. Also included are a few small areas that have Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 25
loamy layers at a depth of about 60 inches and small inches thick. Below this are layers of light brownish-gray
scattered areas of Paola fine sand. Neither of these in- and grayish-brown fine sand that extend to a depth of more
delusions makes up more than 2 percent of any mapped than 80 inches. Reaction is medium acid in the upper 14
area. inches and slightly acid below this to a depth of 80 inches.
This soil is well suited to citrus but is too porous and The water table is within a depth of 10 inches most of the
drought for most cultivated crops. Sprinkler irrigation, year.
special fertilizers, and good management are needed for Astor soils have rapid permeability, high available water
all crops and for lawn grasses and ornamental plants. capacity, high organic-matter content, and moderately
Many areas formerly used for citrus are now used for high natural fertility.








8 SOIL SURVEY

grasses and ornamental plants. (Capability unit Illw-1; housing developments. (Capability unit IVs-1; woodland
woodland group 5) group 2)
Astatula fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (AfC).-This
Astatula Series is a sloping, excessively drained sandy soil near streams
and drainageways on the upland ridge. It is similar to
The Astatula series consists of undulating, excessively Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, but it is steeper
drained sandy soils that formed in thick deposits of and its surface layer commonly is thinner and in some
marine sands. These soils occur mostly on the upland areas has been appreciably eroded.
ridge. Included with this soil in some mapped areas are small
Typically, the surface layer is dark-gray fine sand about areas of Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and in
5 inches thick. Below this are layers of yellowish-brown others, small areas that have a water table within 40
and fellow fine sand that extend to a depth of 80 inches, inches of the surface for short periods. These inclusions
All layers are strongly acid. The water table normally is make up less than 10 percent of any mapped area.
at a depth of more than 60 inches. This soil is too porous and drought to be well suited to
Astatula soils have very rapid permeability, very low most cultivated crops. It is moderately well suited to
available water capacity, low organic-matter content, citrus. Sprinkler irrigation, special fertilizer, and good
and low natural fertility. management are needed for all crops and for lawns and
Representative profile of Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 ornamental plants in residential areas. (Capability unit
percent slopes: IVs-1; woodland group 2)
A1-0 to 5 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1), rubbed fine sand; Astatula fine sand, moderately deep water table (As).-
weak, fine, crumb structure; loose; many fine roots; This is a nearly level to gently sloping sandy soil on low
few fine charcoal fragments; strongly acid; clear, ridges and isolated knolls.
smooth boundary. The surface layer is dark-gray fine sand about 7 inches
1-5 to 18 inches light yeloose; manwnoa Od sR 6 rain thick. In old citrus groves it is generally underlain by a
common fine roots; few fine charcoal fragments; layer of pale-brown, dark-gray, and yellowish-brown loose
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary. fine sand about 10 inches thick. This layer does not occur
C2-18 to 70 inches, yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single grain; in undisturbed areas. The next layers are pale-brown
loose; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; loose fine sand mottled with white and light yellowish
gradual, smooth boundary.
C3-70 to 80 inches, yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sand; single grain; brown. They extend to a depth of about 50 inches and
loose; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid. become progressively paler brown with increasing depth.
The Al or Ap horizon ranges from gray and dark gray to dark Between depths of 50 and 60 inches are layers of white fine
grayish brown in color and from 2 to 9 inches in thickness. In sand. All layers are strongly acid.
places where citrus trees have grown for many years, an AC The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for more
horizon of pale-brown, yellowish-brown, and dark-gray fine than months most years. it rises above 40 inches for a
sand, 2 to 16 inches thick, has formed below the surface layer. 6 months most years rises above 40 chess for a
The upper part of the C horizon is very pale brown to light short time during wet periods and falls below 60 inches
yellowish brown. Normally the lower part is yellow to yellowish during extended dry periods.
brown, but in places it is white. Reaction ranges from very Included in mapping are small areas where the water
strongly acid to medium acid in all layerAstatula series is table is at a depth of 80 inches, small areas that are gently
The depth to water table defined for the Astatula series is
more than 60 inches. In one mapping unit, Astatula fine sand, sloping, and a few small depressions that are wet. These
moderately deep water table, the water table is at a depth of inclusions make up no more than 15 percent of any mapped
40 to 60 inches. Other characteristics of this soil are within the area.
ranges defined for the series.
Astatula soils are associated with Myakka, Paola, and This soil is well suited to citrus. Although the available
Placid soils. They are better drained than Myakka soils and water capacity is very low, the water table is usually near
do not have a layer stained by organic matter. They do not enough to the surface for citrus trees to obtain water dur-
have the white C horizon typical of Paola soils. They have a ing normal dry periods. Only during extended dry periods
thinner surface layer than Placid soils and are less wet. is this soil drought. Fertilizer is needed for all crops and
Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (AfB).-This for lawns and ornamental plants in residential areas.
is a nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained (Capability unit IIIs-1; woodland group 3)
sandy soil on the upland ridge. It has the profile described
as representative for the series. The water table is well Astor Series
below a depth of 60 inches all year.
Included in mapping are small areas of a similar soil The Astor series consists of nearly level, very poorly
that has a water table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. This drained sandy soils that formed in thick beds of marine
included soil makes up no more than 10 percent of any sands in depressions, sloughs, and low swampy areas.
mapped area. Also included are a few small areas that have Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 25
loamy layers at a depth of about 60 inches and small inches thick. Below this are layers of light brownish-gray
scattered areas of Paola fine sand. Neither of these in- and grayish-brown fine sand that extend to a depth of more
delusions makes up more than 2 percent of any mapped than 80 inches. Reaction is medium acid in the upper 14
area. inches and slightly acid below this to a depth of 80 inches.
This soil is well suited to citrus but is too porous and The water table is within a depth of 10 inches most of the
drought for most cultivated crops. Sprinkler irrigation, year.
special fertilizers, and good management are needed for Astor soils have rapid permeability, high available water
all crops and for lawn grasses and ornamental plants. capacity, high organic-matter content, and moderately
Many areas formerly used for citrus are now used for high natural fertility.







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

Representative profile of Astor fine sand: sandy soils. Water covers these soils 2 to 9 months most
All-0 to 14 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine, years and 9 months or more during wet years.
crumb structure; very friable; many fine roots; Dense swamp vegetation and very poor drainage make
medium acid; clear, wavy boundary. these soils unsuited to farming. They are suited mainly to
A12-14 to 26 inches, black (10YR 2/1), rubbed fine sand; wildlife habitat. (Capability unit VIIw-1; woodland
common coarse pockets of light brownish gray (10YR
6/2); weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; many group 8)
fine roots; slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
C1-26 to 40 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; Charlotte Series
single grain; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; ri
gradual, smooth boundary.
C2-40 to 80 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; The Charlotte series consists of nearly level, poorly
single grain; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid. drained sandy soils that formed in deep beds of marine
The A horizon ranges from black to very dark gray or very sands. These soils occur in weakly defined drainageways
dark brown and is 24 to 36 inches thick. It is 5 to 15 percent and shallow depressions.
organic matter. The A horizon is slightly acid to medium acid. Typically, the surface layer is dark-gray fine sand about
In places a layer 3 to 6 inches thick, consisting of mixed material 5 inches thick. It is underlain by a layer of light brownish-
from the A and C horizons, is just below the A horizon.
The upper part of the C horizon is commonly light brownish gray fine sand 6 inches thick. Below this is yellowish-brown
gray or light gray but grades to darker colors in the lower to pale-yellow fine sand that extends to a depth of 29
part. The C horizon is slightly acid to mildly alkaline. The inches. Layers of nearly white and light-gray fine sand
water table is typically within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 9 extend to a depth of 80 inches. Reaction is medium acid to
months of the year. During wet periods it rises to the surface
and the soils are often flooded. During dry periods it is usually a depth of 66 inches and slightly acid below. The water
at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. table is at a depth of about 10 inches for a few months in
The Astor soils mapped in Pinellas County are more acid in most years.
the C horizon than the range defined for the series, but this Charlotte soils have very rapid permeability, very low
does not appreciably affect use or management.
Astor soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, Placid, available water capacity, low organic-matter content, and
and Pompano soils. They are more poorly drained than Immoka- low natural fertility.
lee and Myakka soils and have a thicker Al horizon and no dark- Representative profile of Charlotte fine sand:
brown stained underlying layer. They have a thicker surface
layer than Placid and Pompano soils and are less acid than A1-0 to 5 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1), rubbed fine sand;
Pompano soils, weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; mixture
of organic matter and light-gray sand grains that
Astor fine sand (At).-This is a nearly level, very poorly has a salt-and-pepper appearance; many fine roots;
drained soil in depressions and sloughs. It has the profile medium acid; clear, smooth boundary.
described as representative for the series. The water table A2-5 to 11 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand;
single grain; loose; common fine and medium roots;
is within a depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months most medium acid; clear, smooth boundary.
years. Shallow water covers many areas during wet B2ir-11 to 25 inches, coarsely mottled, yellowish-brown
periods. (10YR 5/8) and strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine sand;
Included in mapping are small areas near the outer single grain; loose; few fine roots; yellow coatings on
edges of depressions where the surface layer is less than 20 sand grains; few iron concretions 1 centimeter or
edges of depressions where the surface layer is less than 20 less in size; medium acid; clear, smooth boundary.
inches thick. These inclusions make up no more than 15 B3ir-25 to 29 inches, pale-yellow (2.5Y 7/4) fine sand; single
percent of any mapped area. Also included are small grain; loose; few fine roots; thin yellow coatings on
areas that have loamy layers at a depth of 40 to 60 inches most sand grains; medium acid; clear, smooth
and small areas of Placid soils. Neither of these inclusions C1-29 to66 inches, white (2.5Y 8/2) fine sand; single grain;
makes up more than 5 percent of any mapped area. loose; medium acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
Where water control can be established, and drainage C2-66 to 80 inches, light-gray (2.5Y 7/2) fine sand; single
outlets are available, this Astor soil is well suited to im- grain; loose; slightly acid.
proved pasture and to truck and flower crops. It is also The Al horizon ranges from dark gray or dark grayish brown
well suited to lawns and ornamental plants. It is poorly to black and is 4 to 7 inches thick. The A2 horizon is dark gray
itd to cit c o iict i itii or light brownish gray to nearly white and is 5 to 12 inches
suited to citrus because of difficulty in maintaining thick. A Bir horizon is below the A horizon. It has shades of
adequate water control. (Capability unit IIIw-3; wood- brown and yellow and is 7 to 30 inches thick. The upper part
land group 8) of the C horizon is light gray oi white, and the lower part
Astor soils (Au).-These are nearly level, very poorly commonly is grayish brown. Reaction ranges from medium
acid to moderately alkaline in all layers. The water table is
drained sandy soils in swamps. They were not investigated within a depth of 15 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years.
in enough detail to map the component soils separately During wet periods it rises to the surface and floods the soils.
because many areas are inaccessible or are covered with During dry periods it is at depths below 20 inches.
water. Charlotte soils are associated with Astor, Felda, Myakka,
and Pompano soils. They do not have the thick black A horizon
In about 40 percent of the acreage the surface layer is pical of Astor soils. They do not have a loamy layer within
black, medium acid sand 10 to 20 inches thick; in about a depth of 30 inches as do Felda soils. They do not have the
20 percent of the acreage it is black medium acid sand Bh horizon typical of Myakka soils. They differ from Pompano
more than 20 inches thick; and in about 15 percent it is soils in having a yellow to strong-brown B2ir horizon.
black acid sand 10 to 20 inches thick. The surface layer is Charlotte fine sand (Ch).-This is a nearly level, poorly
underlain by brown or light-brown sand that extends to a drained soil in grassy sloughs and shallow depressions in
depth of more than 80 inches. One or more of these soils the flatwoods. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches
makes up at least 75 percent of any mapped area. The for 2 to 6 months in most years. It rises to the surface
proportion of each soil varies from area to area. About 25 during wet periods, and the soil is flooded for a short time.
percent of the acreage is made up of several kinds of wet During dry periods it is 20 to 40 inches below the surface.







10 SOIL SURVEY

Included in mapping are small areas of better drained A21-4 to 17 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; common,
soils that make up as much as 15 percent of some mapped coarse, white (10YR 8/1) mottles and few, fine,
areas. Also included are small areas of Felda fine sand and sinct, oobishe y ne admedYRu 66 mm otles; msinle
Pompano fine sand that make up no more than 10 percent acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
of any mapped area. A22-17 to 25 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand;
If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited to few, coarse, white (10YR 8/1) mottles and few, fine,
truck crops, flowers, and improved pasture grasses. It is gdiinct browsh-yellomm (1nan medimottes; single
poorly suited to citrus, lawn grasses, and ornamental dium acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
plants. A water-control system that protects the soils from Bir-25 to 30 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand;
floods and provides irrigation during dry periods is needed. few, fine, faint, light-gray mottles; single grain;
Mineral fertilizers leach rapidly, and special fertilizing loos common fine roots; neutral; clear, wavy
practices are needed. (Capability unit IVw-2; woodland Btg-30 to 35 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy
group 8) loam; common, coarse, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR
5/4) mottles; moderate, medium, subangular blocky
structure; slightly sticky; many fine roots; sand grains
Coastal Beaches coated and bridged with clay; mildly alkaline; clear,
wavy boundary.
Coastal beaches (Co) consists of narrow strips of tide- IIC-35 to 62 inches, pale-yellow (2.5Y 8/4) fine sand mixed
washed sand bordering islands and parts of the mainland, with shell fragments; single grain; loose; calcareous;
Most areas are covered during storms and daily at high tide. mildly alkaline.
These beaches range from a few feet to as much as 500 feet The Al horizon ranges from gray to black and is 3 to 5
in width. Long stretches are practically without vegetation, inches thick. The A21 horizon is very pale brown to brownish
yellow and is 7 to 14 inches thick. The A22 horizon is 4 to 14
but sparse salt-tolerant grasses and other plants grow in inches thick and is very pale brown to brownish yellow. The
places. Depth to the water table varies with the tide. A horizon ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline.
The beach sand has been deposited, mixed, and reworked A Btg horizon is below the Bir horizon. It is sandy loam to
by waves. It is firm or compact when moist and loose when sandy clay loam, brown to very pale brown or yellowish brown
and yellow, and 4 to 15 inches thick. It contains secondary
dry. This sand is light gray to white and consists mainly carbonates along many root channels. In places the Btg
of fine quartz particles in which there are varying quanti- horizon is gray and olive gray mottled with shades of yellow
ties of medium to coarse shell fragments. The sand con- and brown. The Btg horizon ranges from slightly acid to
tains a few, fine, rounded, weakly cemented very dark mildly alkalne.f layers of sand mixed with shell
The IIC horizon consists of layers of sand mixed with shell
gray to very dark brown particles. fragments and is as much as 20 feet thick in places. The water
Coastal beaches is used primarily for recreation. It pro- table is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in most
vides habitat for shore birds. (No capability classifica- years and is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 months
tion; woodland group 9) during wet seasons.
ion; woodland group 9) The Elred soils mapped in this county have a Btg horizon
that is browner than the range defined for the series. This
Elred Series does not affect use or management.
Elred soils are associated with Charlotte, Felda, Manatee,
The lr eri ni of nearl lvl poorl drained Myakka, Oldsmar, Pinellas, and Wabasso soils. They have a
The Elred series consists of nearly level, poorly drained, Bt horizon that Charlotte soils do not have. They have
sandy soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy accumulations of iron oxides just above the Bt horizon that
marine deposits. These soils are on broad low ridges in the are not present in Felda soils. They are not so poorly drained
flatwoods. as Manatee soils. They do not have the stained Bh horizon
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand typical of Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils. They have
accumulated iron oxides just above the Bt horizon whereas
about 4 inches thick. Below this is loose fine sand that Pinellas soils have accumulated carbonates.
extends to a depth of 25 inches. It is light gray mottled Elred fine sand (Ed).-This is a nearly level, poorly
with white and brownish yellow in the upper few inches drained soil on broad low ridges in the flatwoods. The
and is very pale brown mottled with white and brownish water table is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6
yellow in the lower part. The next layer, about 5 inches months in most years and within a depth of 10 inches
thick, is yellowish-brown fine sand mottled with gray. for 1 or 2 months during wet seasons.
It has an accumulation of iron oxides. Below this is Included in mapping are small areas of Wabasso fine
yellowish-brown fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. It sand, Pinellas fine sand, and Felda fine sand that make up
is underlain by a layer of pale-yellow fine sand mixed about 15 percent of many mapped areas.
with shell fragments. This layer extends to a depth of This soil is well suited to special truck and flower crops,
more than 62 inches. Reaction is medium acid to a depth i roved pasture grasses, lawn grasses, and ornamental
of 25 inches, neutral between depths of 25 and 30 inches, plants if adequate water control and good management
and mildly alkale below this to a depth of 62 inches. are provided. It is moderately well suited to citrus. This
The water table commonly is at a depth of about 24 inches. soil is periodically wet but responds well to drainage and
Elred soils have low available water capacity, low soil is periodically wet but responds well to drainage and
Elred soils have low available water capacity, low good management. Much of the acreage is in native
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Per- vegetation consisting of scattered pine, saw-palmetto, and
meability is rapid to a depth of about 30 inches, moderate native grasses. (Capability unit IIIw-2; woodland group 6)
between 30 and 35 inches, and rapid below this depth. r o
Representative profile of Elred fine sand:
Felda Series
A1-0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; mixture of The Felda series consists of nearly level, poorly drained
organic matter and light gray sand grains has a salt-
and-pepper appearance; angry fine roots; mediumhas a sandy soils that formed in stratified, unconsolidated sandy
acid; clear, smooth boundary. and loamy marine sediments. These soils occur mainly in







10 SOIL SURVEY

Included in mapping are small areas of better drained A21-4 to 17 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; common,
soils that make up as much as 15 percent of some mapped coarse, white (10YR 8/1) mottles and few, fine,
areas. Also included are small areas of Felda fine sand and sinct, oobishe y ne admedYRu 66 mm otles; msinle
Pompano fine sand that make up no more than 10 percent acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
of any mapped area. A22-17 to 25 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand;
If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited to few, coarse, white (10YR 8/1) mottles and few, fine,
truck crops, flowers, and improved pasture grasses. It is gdiinct browsh-yellomm (1nan medimottes; single
poorly suited to citrus, lawn grasses, and ornamental dium acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
plants. A water-control system that protects the soils from Bir-25 to 30 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand;
floods and provides irrigation during dry periods is needed. few, fine, faint, light-gray mottles; single grain;
Mineral fertilizers leach rapidly, and special fertilizing loos common fine roots; neutral; clear, wavy
practices are needed. (Capability unit IVw-2; woodland Btg-30 to 35 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy
group 8) loam; common, coarse, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR
5/4) mottles; moderate, medium, subangular blocky
structure; slightly sticky; many fine roots; sand grains
Coastal Beaches coated and bridged with clay; mildly alkaline; clear,
wavy boundary.
Coastal beaches (Co) consists of narrow strips of tide- IIC-35 to 62 inches, pale-yellow (2.5Y 8/4) fine sand mixed
washed sand bordering islands and parts of the mainland, with shell fragments; single grain; loose; calcareous;
Most areas are covered during storms and daily at high tide. mildly alkaline.
These beaches range from a few feet to as much as 500 feet The Al horizon ranges from gray to black and is 3 to 5
in width. Long stretches are practically without vegetation, inches thick. The A21 horizon is very pale brown to brownish
yellow and is 7 to 14 inches thick. The A22 horizon is 4 to 14
but sparse salt-tolerant grasses and other plants grow in inches thick and is very pale brown to brownish yellow. The
places. Depth to the water table varies with the tide. A horizon ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline.
The beach sand has been deposited, mixed, and reworked A Btg horizon is below the Bir horizon. It is sandy loam to
by waves. It is firm or compact when moist and loose when sandy clay loam, brown to very pale brown or yellowish brown
and yellow, and 4 to 15 inches thick. It contains secondary
dry. This sand is light gray to white and consists mainly carbonates along many root channels. In places the Btg
of fine quartz particles in which there are varying quanti- horizon is gray and olive gray mottled with shades of yellow
ties of medium to coarse shell fragments. The sand con- and brown. The Btg horizon ranges from slightly acid to
tains a few, fine, rounded, weakly cemented very dark mildly alkalne.f layers of sand mixed with shell
The IIC horizon consists of layers of sand mixed with shell
gray to very dark brown particles. fragments and is as much as 20 feet thick in places. The water
Coastal beaches is used primarily for recreation. It pro- table is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in most
vides habitat for shore birds. (No capability classifica- years and is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 months
tion; woodland group 9) during wet seasons.
ion; woodland group 9) The Elred soils mapped in this county have a Btg horizon
that is browner than the range defined for the series. This
Elred Series does not affect use or management.
Elred soils are associated with Charlotte, Felda, Manatee,
The lr eri ni of nearl lvl poorl drained Myakka, Oldsmar, Pinellas, and Wabasso soils. They have a
The Elred series consists of nearly level, poorly drained, Bt horizon that Charlotte soils do not have. They have
sandy soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy accumulations of iron oxides just above the Bt horizon that
marine deposits. These soils are on broad low ridges in the are not present in Felda soils. They are not so poorly drained
flatwoods. as Manatee soils. They do not have the stained Bh horizon
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand typical of Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils. They have
accumulated iron oxides just above the Bt horizon whereas
about 4 inches thick. Below this is loose fine sand that Pinellas soils have accumulated carbonates.
extends to a depth of 25 inches. It is light gray mottled Elred fine sand (Ed).-This is a nearly level, poorly
with white and brownish yellow in the upper few inches drained soil on broad low ridges in the flatwoods. The
and is very pale brown mottled with white and brownish water table is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6
yellow in the lower part. The next layer, about 5 inches months in most years and within a depth of 10 inches
thick, is yellowish-brown fine sand mottled with gray. for 1 or 2 months during wet seasons.
It has an accumulation of iron oxides. Below this is Included in mapping are small areas of Wabasso fine
yellowish-brown fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. It sand, Pinellas fine sand, and Felda fine sand that make up
is underlain by a layer of pale-yellow fine sand mixed about 15 percent of many mapped areas.
with shell fragments. This layer extends to a depth of This soil is well suited to special truck and flower crops,
more than 62 inches. Reaction is medium acid to a depth i roved pasture grasses, lawn grasses, and ornamental
of 25 inches, neutral between depths of 25 and 30 inches, plants if adequate water control and good management
and mildly alkale below this to a depth of 62 inches. are provided. It is moderately well suited to citrus. This
The water table commonly is at a depth of about 24 inches. soil is periodically wet but responds well to drainage and
Elred soils have low available water capacity, low soil is periodically wet but responds well to drainage and
Elred soils have low available water capacity, low good management. Much of the acreage is in native
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Per- vegetation consisting of scattered pine, saw-palmetto, and
meability is rapid to a depth of about 30 inches, moderate native grasses. (Capability unit IIIw-2; woodland group 6)
between 30 and 35 inches, and rapid below this depth. r o
Representative profile of Elred fine sand:
Felda Series
A1-0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; mixture of The Felda series consists of nearly level, poorly drained
organic matter and light gray sand grains has a salt-
and-pepper appearance; angry fine roots; mediumhas a sandy soils that formed in stratified, unconsolidated sandy
acid; clear, smooth boundary. and loamy marine sediments. These soils occur mainly in







10 SOIL SURVEY

Included in mapping are small areas of better drained A21-4 to 17 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; common,
soils that make up as much as 15 percent of some mapped coarse, white (10YR 8/1) mottles and few, fine,
areas. Also included are small areas of Felda fine sand and sinct, oobishe y ne admedYRu 66 mm otles; msinle
Pompano fine sand that make up no more than 10 percent acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
of any mapped area. A22-17 to 25 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand;
If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited to few, coarse, white (10YR 8/1) mottles and few, fine,
truck crops, flowers, and improved pasture grasses. It is gdiinct browsh-yellomm (1nan medimottes; single
poorly suited to citrus, lawn grasses, and ornamental dium acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
plants. A water-control system that protects the soils from Bir-25 to 30 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand;
floods and provides irrigation during dry periods is needed. few, fine, faint, light-gray mottles; single grain;
Mineral fertilizers leach rapidly, and special fertilizing loos common fine roots; neutral; clear, wavy
practices are needed. (Capability unit IVw-2; woodland Btg-30 to 35 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy
group 8) loam; common, coarse, faint, yellowish-brown (10YR
5/4) mottles; moderate, medium, subangular blocky
structure; slightly sticky; many fine roots; sand grains
Coastal Beaches coated and bridged with clay; mildly alkaline; clear,
wavy boundary.
Coastal beaches (Co) consists of narrow strips of tide- IIC-35 to 62 inches, pale-yellow (2.5Y 8/4) fine sand mixed
washed sand bordering islands and parts of the mainland, with shell fragments; single grain; loose; calcareous;
Most areas are covered during storms and daily at high tide. mildly alkaline.
These beaches range from a few feet to as much as 500 feet The Al horizon ranges from gray to black and is 3 to 5
in width. Long stretches are practically without vegetation, inches thick. The A21 horizon is very pale brown to brownish
yellow and is 7 to 14 inches thick. The A22 horizon is 4 to 14
but sparse salt-tolerant grasses and other plants grow in inches thick and is very pale brown to brownish yellow. The
places. Depth to the water table varies with the tide. A horizon ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline.
The beach sand has been deposited, mixed, and reworked A Btg horizon is below the Bir horizon. It is sandy loam to
by waves. It is firm or compact when moist and loose when sandy clay loam, brown to very pale brown or yellowish brown
and yellow, and 4 to 15 inches thick. It contains secondary
dry. This sand is light gray to white and consists mainly carbonates along many root channels. In places the Btg
of fine quartz particles in which there are varying quanti- horizon is gray and olive gray mottled with shades of yellow
ties of medium to coarse shell fragments. The sand con- and brown. The Btg horizon ranges from slightly acid to
tains a few, fine, rounded, weakly cemented very dark mildly alkalne.f layers of sand mixed with shell
The IIC horizon consists of layers of sand mixed with shell
gray to very dark brown particles. fragments and is as much as 20 feet thick in places. The water
Coastal beaches is used primarily for recreation. It pro- table is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in most
vides habitat for shore birds. (No capability classifica- years and is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 months
tion; woodland group 9) during wet seasons.
ion; woodland group 9) The Elred soils mapped in this county have a Btg horizon
that is browner than the range defined for the series. This
Elred Series does not affect use or management.
Elred soils are associated with Charlotte, Felda, Manatee,
The lr eri ni of nearl lvl poorl drained Myakka, Oldsmar, Pinellas, and Wabasso soils. They have a
The Elred series consists of nearly level, poorly drained, Bt horizon that Charlotte soils do not have. They have
sandy soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy accumulations of iron oxides just above the Bt horizon that
marine deposits. These soils are on broad low ridges in the are not present in Felda soils. They are not so poorly drained
flatwoods. as Manatee soils. They do not have the stained Bh horizon
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand typical of Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils. They have
accumulated iron oxides just above the Bt horizon whereas
about 4 inches thick. Below this is loose fine sand that Pinellas soils have accumulated carbonates.
extends to a depth of 25 inches. It is light gray mottled Elred fine sand (Ed).-This is a nearly level, poorly
with white and brownish yellow in the upper few inches drained soil on broad low ridges in the flatwoods. The
and is very pale brown mottled with white and brownish water table is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6
yellow in the lower part. The next layer, about 5 inches months in most years and within a depth of 10 inches
thick, is yellowish-brown fine sand mottled with gray. for 1 or 2 months during wet seasons.
It has an accumulation of iron oxides. Below this is Included in mapping are small areas of Wabasso fine
yellowish-brown fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. It sand, Pinellas fine sand, and Felda fine sand that make up
is underlain by a layer of pale-yellow fine sand mixed about 15 percent of many mapped areas.
with shell fragments. This layer extends to a depth of This soil is well suited to special truck and flower crops,
more than 62 inches. Reaction is medium acid to a depth i roved pasture grasses, lawn grasses, and ornamental
of 25 inches, neutral between depths of 25 and 30 inches, plants if adequate water control and good management
and mildly alkale below this to a depth of 62 inches. are provided. It is moderately well suited to citrus. This
The water table commonly is at a depth of about 24 inches. soil is periodically wet but responds well to drainage and
Elred soils have low available water capacity, low soil is periodically wet but responds well to drainage and
Elred soils have low available water capacity, low good management. Much of the acreage is in native
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Per- vegetation consisting of scattered pine, saw-palmetto, and
meability is rapid to a depth of about 30 inches, moderate native grasses. (Capability unit IIIw-2; woodland group 6)
between 30 and 35 inches, and rapid below this depth. r o
Representative profile of Elred fine sand:
Felda Series
A1-0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; mixture of The Felda series consists of nearly level, poorly drained
organic matter and light gray sand grains has a salt-
and-pepper appearance; angry fine roots; mediumhas a sandy soils that formed in stratified, unconsolidated sandy
acid; clear, smooth boundary. and loamy marine sediments. These soils occur mainly in







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

depressions and grassy sloughs. They occupy slightly layer stained by organic matter. They do not have the organic-
higher positions near streams and ponds in the flatwoods. matter stained layer typical of Oldsmar and Wabasso soils.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand They differ from Pompano soils in having a loamy Bt horizon.
about 3 inches thick. Below this is light-gray loose fine Felda fine sand (Fd).-This is a nearly level, poorly
sand that extends to a depth of about 26 inches; it has drained soil that occupies slightly elevated areas bordering
common brown mottles and is leached. The next layer is sloughs and ponds.
dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam 8 inches thick that is In most places the surface layer is black fine sand about
mottled with yellowish brown. The next layer is grayish- 5 inches thick. Below this is gray fine sand about 25 inches
brown loamy fine sand 4 inches thick mottled with gray thick. Next is a grayish-brown loamy layer that is mottled
and olive brown. Between depths of 38 and 62 inches is with yellow and brown. It is about 11 inches thick.
pale-brown loamy sand mixed with shells. Reaction is Below this is a white sandy layer that has accumulated
strongly acid to a depth of 26 inches, slightly acid between carbonates. It extends to a depth of 60 inches. Below this
26 and 34 inches, neutral between 34 and 38 inches, and are strata of sand mixed with shell fragments. Reaction
moderately alkaline below this to a depth of 62 inches. is medium acid to a depth of 26 inches, neutral between
The water table is at a depth of about 10 inches. 26 and 36 inches, and alkaline below this to a depth of
Felda soils have medium available water capacity, low 75 inches. The water table is normally at a depth of 10
organic-matter content, and moderate natural fertility, to 40 inches but rises above 10 inches for 2 to 6 months
Permeability is rapid in the sand and shell layers and every year.
moderate in the loamy layers. Included in mapping are small areas of Wabasso fine
Representative profile of Felda fine sand, ponded: sand that make up as much as 10 percent of some mapped
areas and small areas of Pinellas fine sand that make up
A1-0 to 3 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak, areas and small areas of Pinellas fine sand that make up
fine, crumb structure; very friable; mixture of organic as much as 5 percent.
matter and light gray sand grains has a salt-and- Felda fine sand is moderately well suited to citrus,
pepper appearance; many fine roots; strongly acid; truck crops, and improved pasture grasses, and to lawn
clear, smooth boundary. grasses and ornamental plants. A complete water-control
A2-3 to 26 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; common, ss and adequate fertlation are needed. (apr iit
medium, faint, brown (10YR 5/3) mottles; streaks of system and adequate fertilization are needed. (Capability
very dark gray along root channels; single grain; unit IIIw-2; woodland group 6)
loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth Felda fine sand, ponded (Fe).-This is a nearly level,
boundary. poorly drained soil in depressions and grassy sloughs.
B2tg-26 to 34 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine poorly drained soil in depressions and grassy sloughs.
sandy loam; common, coarse, faint, yellowish-brown This soil has the profile described as representative for
(10YR 5/4) mottles and few, fine, distinct, yellowish- the series. It is covered with shallow water during wet
brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; moderate, medium, sub- periods, and the lowest areas are covered with water
angular blocky structure; firm; many fine and medium most of the time.
roots; sand grains are coated and bridged with clay; Places where the substratum does not contain shells
few small lenses of sand; slightly acid; clear, wavy Places where the substratum does not contain shells
boundary, make up as much as 20 percent of some mapped areas.
B3-34 to 38 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine Areas that have sandy layers to a depth of more than 40
sand; common, medium, faint, gray (10YR 6/1) inches or less than 20 inches make up no more than 5
mottles and many, coarse, distinct, light olive-brown pr t f pp r
(2.5Y 5/6) mottles; weak, fine, crumb structure; percent of any mapped area. A few small areas of Manatee
friable; many fine and medium roots; neutral; clear, fine sand, which has a thick black surface layer, are
smooth boundary. included in some mapped areas.
IIC-38 to 62 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) loamy sand If water control is established, Felda fine sand, pounded,
ooxe; cthrsheos andshell frames; sgle grain; is well suited to truck and flower crops and improved
SA h r f pasture. It is poorly suited to citrus. (Capability unit
The Al horizon ranges from gray to black in color and from IIIw-3; woodland group 7)
2 to 6 inches in thickness. It is medium acid to strongly acid. woodland group
The A2 horizon ranges from light gray to dark gray in the upper
part and light gray to white mottled with brown in the lower Fellowship Series
part. It is 18 to 38 inches thick and strongly acid to neutral.
The Btg horizon ranges from fine sandy loam to fine sandy
clay loam in texture and from 6 to 24 inches in thickness. It The Fellowship series consists of poorly drained sandy
is light gray, dark gray, or dark grayish brown mottled with soils that have a clayey subsoil. These are undulating
yellowish brown to yellowish red and is neutral to mildly soils on uplands. They formed in beds of mixed sandy and
alkaline. The B3 horizon ranges from loamy fine sand to fine clayey marine sediments.
sandy loam in texture and from 3 to 12 inches in thickness. a te urfa r i black m fine s
It is gray or grayish brown mottled with red and brown and Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand
is neutral or mildly alkaline, about 6 inches thick. Below this is very dark-gray, friable
Depth to the IIC horizon is generally less than 40 inches. This loamy fine sand about 5 inches thick. The next layer,
horizon extends to a depth of more than 60 inches. The texture about 12 inches thick, is gray fine sandy clay mottled
ranges from fine sand to a mixture of sand and shell fragments. with lightra and ellowish red. This layer is plastic
The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months gray and yellowish red. s layer is plastic
in most years and at less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months. The when wet and very firm when moist. The next layer is
surface is covered with shallow water occasionally. gray, mottled clay about 26 inches thick. It is plastic
The Felda fine sand mapped in Pinellas County is outside when wet and is less acid than the layers above. Below this
the range defined for the series because it has a calcareous is light olive-gray clay that extends to a depth of 70 inches.
loamy sand C horizon. Also, Felda fine sand is not so wet as the
range defined for the series and has accumulated carbonates Reaction is very strongly acid to a depth of 23 inches,
in the lower horizons. strongly acid between 23 and 49 inches, and medium
Felda soils are associated with Astor, Manatee, Myakka, acid below this to a depth of 70 inches. These soils are
Oldsmar, Pompano, and Wabasso soils. They have a thinner
surface layer than Astor and Manatee soils. In contrast with seepy, and the water table is perched at a depth of less
Myakka soils, they have a loamy Bt horizon but do not have a than 10 inches during wet periods.







12 SOIL SURVEY

Fellowship soils have medium available water capacity about 31 inches thick. Below this is dark reddish-brown
and moderately high organic-matter content and natural fine sand about 14 inches thick. The upper part of this
fertility. The underlying layers are very slowly permeable layer is weakly cemented, friable, and slightly darker
and have a high shrink-swell potential. colored than the lower part. This layer is underlain by very
Representative profile of Fellowship loamy fine sand: pale brown fine sand that extends to a depth of more than
All-0 to 6 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; weak, 80 inches. Reaction is strongly acid to a depth of 36 inches,
fine, crumb structure; very friable; many fine and very strongly acid between 36 and 50 inches, and strongly
coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear, smooth acid below this to a depth of 80 inches. The water table is
boundary. normally at a depth of about 30 inches.
A12-6 to 11 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine normally at a depth of about 30 inches
sand; common, fine faint, light-gray mottles and few, Immokalee soils have very low available water capacity,
medium, black (10YR 2/1) mottles; weak, fine, crumb low organic-matter content, and low natural fertility.
structure; friable; common fine and medium roots; Permeability is rapid to a depth of 36 inches, moderate
very strongly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary, between 36 and 50 inches, and rapid below this depth.
B21tg--ll to 23 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy clay;
common, fine, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/1) Representative profile of Immokalee fine sand:
mottles and common, fine, prominent, yellowish-red A1-0 to 5 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine,
(5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate, coarse, subangular crumb structure; very friable; mixture of organic
blocky structure; plastic; many fine and medium matter and light-gray sand grains has a salt-and-
roots and few coarse roots; common clay films along pepper appearance; many fine, medium, and coarse
ped faces and root channels; very strongly acid; roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
gradual, smooth boundary. A21-5 to 11 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grain;
B22tg-23 to 49 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) clay; common, loose; common fine and coarse roots; strongly acid
medium, distinct, yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles and clear, smooth boundary.
common, coarse, prominent, yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) A22-11 to 36 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grain;
mottles; coarse, subangular blocky structure; firm; loose; common fine roots; few vertical streaks of
few fine and medium roots; common clay films along very dark gray (10YR 3/1) along root channels;
ped faces and root channels; strongly acid; clear, strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
smooth boundary. B21h-36 to 41 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) fine
Cg-49 to 70 inches, light olive-gray (5Y 6/2) clay; common, sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable;
coarse, prominent, yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles; few, weakly cemented; many fine and few coarse roots;
coarse, faint, gray (10YR 5/1) mottles of fine sandy most sand grains coated with organic matter; common
loam; massive; plastic; few fine and medium roots; coarse fragments of weakly cemented black (5YR 2/1)
medium acid. along root channels; very strongly acid; clear, wavy
The Al horizon ranges from 10 to 20 inches in thickness and boundary.
from very dark grayish brown to black in color. It is friable B22h-41 to 50 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/4) fine
to very friable. The B2tg horizon ranges from sandy clay sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; weakly
loam to sandy clay in the upper part and clay loam to clay cemented common fine roots; sand grains well coated
in the lower part. Reaction is strongly acid to very strongly with organic matter; few coarse, weakly cemented,
acid in the upper 23 inches and medium acid to strongly acid black (5YR 2/1) fragments along root channels; very
below this to a depth of 70 inches. During wet periods the strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
water table is perched at a depth of less than 10 inches. C-50 to 80 inches +, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand;
Fellowship soils are associated with Astatula, Felda, Manatee single grain; loose; strongly acid.
Wabasso, and Wauchula soils. They are more poorly drained The Al horizon ranges from gray to black in color and from
and finer textured than Astatula soils. They have a thicker 4 to 8 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon ranges from gray
Al horizon than Felda soils. They are not so poorly drained to white in color and from 27 to 36 inches in thickness. It is
as Manatee soils. They do not have the highly leached A2 typically darker just below the Al horizon. Few to many
horizon or the organic-matter stained Bh horizon typical of narrow vertical streaks of gray to very dark gray are along
abassonarrow vertical streaks of gray to very dark gray are along
Wabasso and Wauchula soils, root channels. A transitional horizon, inch to 2 inches thick,
Fellowship loamy fine sand (Fh).-This is an undulating is commonly between the A2 horizon and the Bh horizon. A
poorly drained soil on uplands. The water table is perched very dark brown to black, organic stained horizon is
at a depth of 30 to 60 inches. It is 4 to 19 inches thick and is
at a depth of about 10 inches during wet periods, loose to weakly cemented. The C horizon ranges from dark
Included in mapping are a few areas where slopes are gray or gray to yellowish brown and very pale brown. It
5 to 8 percent. In about 10 percent of the acreage the extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Reaction ranges from
surface layer is gray and more than 20 inches thick. Wa- strongly acid to very strongly acid in all layers. The water
table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches most of the year. It is at
basso fine sand and a few areas around sinkholes where less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during wet seasons and
slopes are 5 to 8 percent make up about 5 percent of some is below 40 inches during prolonged dry periods.
mapped areas. Immokalee soils are associated with Adamsville, Myakka,
This soil is moderately well suited to row crops, citrus, Placid, Pomello, St. Lucie, and Wauchula soils. They are not
law raises, ad oraetal plats so well drained as St. Lucie and Adamsville soils. They are
improved pasture, lawn grasses, and ornamental plants. more poorly drained than Pomello soils. They are similar to
Intensive erosion control is needed. A small acreage is in Myakka soils, which have an organic layer at a depth of less
citrus, but most areas are in native vegetation. (Capability than 30 inches. They are better drained than Placid soils.
unit IIIw-4; woodland group 6) They do not have loamy layers below the organic-stained Bh
horizon as do Wauchula soils.

Immokalee Series Immokalee fine sand (Im).-This is a nearly level,
poorly drained soil on broad flats between sloughs. It
The Immokalee series consists of nearly level, poorly also occurs in small areas at higher elevations in associa-
drained sandy soils that formed in thick beds of acid tion with better drained soils. The water table normally
marine sands. These soils occur mostly in broad areas is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches. It is within a depth of 10
between sloughs in the flatwoods. inches for 1 or 2 months during rainy periods and is below
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 30 inches during prolonged dry periods.
inches thick. It is underlain by gray to white fine sand Small areas of similar soils that have thinner, lighter






PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 13

colored, organic-matter stained underlying layers make formed in beds of loamy marine sediments under wet
up no more than 15 percent of any mapped area. Pomello conditions.
and Myakka soils each make up about 5 percent of some Typically, the surface layer is black to very dark brown
mapped areas, and small areas where slopes are 2 to 5 loamy fine sand about 18 inches thick. Below this is
percent make up less than 1 percent. grayish-brown fine sandy loam, about 16 inches thick,
Immokalee fine sand is suited to truck crops, special that is mottled with yellowish brown, very dark grayish
flower crops, and improved pasture if the water-control brown, and light gray. The next layer is grayish-brown
system is well designed and fertilization is adequate. This fine sandy loam, about 10 inches thick, that is mottled
soil is also suited to lawn grasses and ornamentals but with dark yellowish brown, yellowish brown, and gray.
requires water-control practices and heavy fertilization. This layer has accumulated clay-sized carbonates that
It is poorly suited to citrus. Severe limitations result coat the sand grains; it also has scattered nodules and
from wetness and poor inherent soil qualities. (Capability pockets of white marl. Below this is light brownish-gray,
unit IVw-1; woodland group 4) nonstick fine sand that extends to a depth of 72 inches or
more. All layers are mildly alkaline. The water table nor-
Made Land mally is within a depth of 10 inches. Some areas are covered
with shallow water most of the year.
Two types of Made land are mapped in Pinellas County. Manatee soils have very high available water capacity,
They are described in the following paragraphs. high organic-matter content, and high natural fertility.
Made land (Ma) consists of mixed sand, clay, hard rock, Permeability is moderately rapid to a depth of about 18
shells, and shell fragments that have been transported, inches, moderate between 18 and 44 inches, and rapid
reworked, and leveled by earth-moving equipment. Many below this depth.
areas consist of material that has been dredged from the Representative profile of Manatee loamy fine sand:
bay and used to fill diked areas. Coarser sludge materials Ap-0 to 11 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; weak,
are deposited near the outlet of discharge pipes and finer fine, crumb structure; very friable; many fine roots; 8
materials settle in more distant positions. Rocks % inch to 12 percent organic matter; mildly alkaline; clear,
to 12 inches in diameter are common. Numerous silicified smooth boundary.
oyster shells and some animal fossils occur in these ma- Al-11 to 18 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) loamy fine
sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; many
trials. Stratification is apparent in the water-transported fine roots; mildly alkaline; clear, irregular boundary.
material. Materials transported by truck are similar but B21tg-18 to 34 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sandy
they usually are sandier and do not contain silicified shells loam; common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown
and fossils. (10YR 5/6) mottles; few, fine, faint, light-gray and
very dark grayish-brown mottles; weak, medium,
Made land is underlain at a depth of 2 to 8 feet by vari- subangular blocky structure; very friable; sand grains
ous kinds of material. In some areas it is underlain by the coated and bridged with clay; many fine roots; mildly
sandy bay bottom, and in others by Tidal swamp that has alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary.
layers of fibrous peat 20 inches or less thick. Some of the B22tgca-34 to 44 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sandy loam; common, medium, faint, dark yellowish-
material transported by truck has been deposited over brown (10YR 3/4) mottles; common, medium, dis-
solid rubble consisting of chunks of concrete, discarded tinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) mottles and com-
appliances, and broken asphalt. mon, coarse, faint gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; many
Made land occurs mainly in urban areas, along the coarse white (10YR 8/2) splotches of fine sandy loam
marl; moderate, medium, crumb structure; sand
coast and keys, and as manmade islands built in shallow grains coated and bridged with clay; slightly sticky;
water. In coastal areas it has been built up to provide mildly alkaline; calcareous; gradual, wavy boundary.
desirable locations for residential development. Recently Cg-44 to 72 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand;
deposited material shows very little profile development single grain; mildly alkaline.
and has severe limitations for plants. Topsoil, irrigation, The Al and Ap horizons range from black to very dark brown
and special fertilizers are needed for good growth of lawns and are 10 to 20 inches thick. The Btg horizon is dark grayish
and ornamental plants. (No capability classification; wood- brown to light gray, is mottled with fighter and darker colors,
and ranges from 12 to 28 inches in thickness. The C horizon is
land group 9) light brownish-gray or nearly white sand that extends to a
Made land, sanitary fill (Md) consists of sand, clay, depth of 72 inches or more. Reaction ranges from slightly acid
shells, and shell fragments in varying proportions de- to mildly alkaline in all layers. The water table is within a depth
d over refuse and garbage. Holes 12 to 36 feet deep of 15 inches for 6 months or more in most years. Soils in depres-
posited over refuse and garbage. Holes 12 to 36 feet deep sions are covered with shallow water for more than 9 months.
are filled with refuse and garbage and then topped with 3 Manatee soils are associated with Astor, Felda, Myakka,
to 6 feet of soil material. The surface material is reworked Pompano, and Wabasso soils. In contrast with Astor and Pom-
and leveled. This mass of mixed material is highly com- pano soils, they have a Btg horizon. They have a finer textured
pacted in the surface layer but is very loose in the underly- nd thinner A horizon than Felda and Pompano soils. They are
ing refuse. Most of these holes have been dug in soils that
have a high water table, and most of the refuse is below Manatee loamy fine sand (M n).-This is a nearly level,
water. The waterlogged refuse has low bearing capacity. very poorly drained soil that has a loamy subsoil. It occurs
(No capability classification; woodland group 9) in depressions and along broad drainageways. The water
table commonly is at a depth of less than 10 inches. Soils
Manatee Series in depressions are covered with water for more than 6
months in most years.
The Manatee series consists of nearly level, very poorly Included in mapping are small areas of similar soils that
drained sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. These soils are finer textured throughout. These inclusions make up
are in shallow depressions and broad drainageways. They about 15 percent of any mapped area. Also included are a






PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 13

colored, organic-matter stained underlying layers make formed in beds of loamy marine sediments under wet
up no more than 15 percent of any mapped area. Pomello conditions.
and Myakka soils each make up about 5 percent of some Typically, the surface layer is black to very dark brown
mapped areas, and small areas where slopes are 2 to 5 loamy fine sand about 18 inches thick. Below this is
percent make up less than 1 percent. grayish-brown fine sandy loam, about 16 inches thick,
Immokalee fine sand is suited to truck crops, special that is mottled with yellowish brown, very dark grayish
flower crops, and improved pasture if the water-control brown, and light gray. The next layer is grayish-brown
system is well designed and fertilization is adequate. This fine sandy loam, about 10 inches thick, that is mottled
soil is also suited to lawn grasses and ornamentals but with dark yellowish brown, yellowish brown, and gray.
requires water-control practices and heavy fertilization. This layer has accumulated clay-sized carbonates that
It is poorly suited to citrus. Severe limitations result coat the sand grains; it also has scattered nodules and
from wetness and poor inherent soil qualities. (Capability pockets of white marl. Below this is light brownish-gray,
unit IVw-1; woodland group 4) nonstick fine sand that extends to a depth of 72 inches or
more. All layers are mildly alkaline. The water table nor-
Made Land mally is within a depth of 10 inches. Some areas are covered
with shallow water most of the year.
Two types of Made land are mapped in Pinellas County. Manatee soils have very high available water capacity,
They are described in the following paragraphs. high organic-matter content, and high natural fertility.
Made land (Ma) consists of mixed sand, clay, hard rock, Permeability is moderately rapid to a depth of about 18
shells, and shell fragments that have been transported, inches, moderate between 18 and 44 inches, and rapid
reworked, and leveled by earth-moving equipment. Many below this depth.
areas consist of material that has been dredged from the Representative profile of Manatee loamy fine sand:
bay and used to fill diked areas. Coarser sludge materials Ap-0 to 11 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; weak,
are deposited near the outlet of discharge pipes and finer fine, crumb structure; very friable; many fine roots; 8
materials settle in more distant positions. Rocks % inch to 12 percent organic matter; mildly alkaline; clear,
to 12 inches in diameter are common. Numerous silicified smooth boundary.
oyster shells and some animal fossils occur in these ma- Al-11 to 18 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) loamy fine
sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; many
trials. Stratification is apparent in the water-transported fine roots; mildly alkaline; clear, irregular boundary.
material. Materials transported by truck are similar but B21tg-18 to 34 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sandy
they usually are sandier and do not contain silicified shells loam; common, medium, distinct, yellowish-brown
and fossils. (10YR 5/6) mottles; few, fine, faint, light-gray and
very dark grayish-brown mottles; weak, medium,
Made land is underlain at a depth of 2 to 8 feet by vari- subangular blocky structure; very friable; sand grains
ous kinds of material. In some areas it is underlain by the coated and bridged with clay; many fine roots; mildly
sandy bay bottom, and in others by Tidal swamp that has alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary.
layers of fibrous peat 20 inches or less thick. Some of the B22tgca-34 to 44 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sandy loam; common, medium, faint, dark yellowish-
material transported by truck has been deposited over brown (10YR 3/4) mottles; common, medium, dis-
solid rubble consisting of chunks of concrete, discarded tinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) mottles and com-
appliances, and broken asphalt. mon, coarse, faint gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; many
Made land occurs mainly in urban areas, along the coarse white (10YR 8/2) splotches of fine sandy loam
marl; moderate, medium, crumb structure; sand
coast and keys, and as manmade islands built in shallow grains coated and bridged with clay; slightly sticky;
water. In coastal areas it has been built up to provide mildly alkaline; calcareous; gradual, wavy boundary.
desirable locations for residential development. Recently Cg-44 to 72 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand;
deposited material shows very little profile development single grain; mildly alkaline.
and has severe limitations for plants. Topsoil, irrigation, The Al and Ap horizons range from black to very dark brown
and special fertilizers are needed for good growth of lawns and are 10 to 20 inches thick. The Btg horizon is dark grayish
and ornamental plants. (No capability classification; wood- brown to light gray, is mottled with fighter and darker colors,
and ranges from 12 to 28 inches in thickness. The C horizon is
land group 9) light brownish-gray or nearly white sand that extends to a
Made land, sanitary fill (Md) consists of sand, clay, depth of 72 inches or more. Reaction ranges from slightly acid
shells, and shell fragments in varying proportions de- to mildly alkaline in all layers. The water table is within a depth
d over refuse and garbage. Holes 12 to 36 feet deep of 15 inches for 6 months or more in most years. Soils in depres-
posited over refuse and garbage. Holes 12 to 36 feet deep sions are covered with shallow water for more than 9 months.
are filled with refuse and garbage and then topped with 3 Manatee soils are associated with Astor, Felda, Myakka,
to 6 feet of soil material. The surface material is reworked Pompano, and Wabasso soils. In contrast with Astor and Pom-
and leveled. This mass of mixed material is highly com- pano soils, they have a Btg horizon. They have a finer textured
pacted in the surface layer but is very loose in the underly- nd thinner A horizon than Felda and Pompano soils. They are
ing refuse. Most of these holes have been dug in soils that
have a high water table, and most of the refuse is below Manatee loamy fine sand (M n).-This is a nearly level,
water. The waterlogged refuse has low bearing capacity. very poorly drained soil that has a loamy subsoil. It occurs
(No capability classification; woodland group 9) in depressions and along broad drainageways. The water
table commonly is at a depth of less than 10 inches. Soils
Manatee Series in depressions are covered with water for more than 6
months in most years.
The Manatee series consists of nearly level, very poorly Included in mapping are small areas of similar soils that
drained sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. These soils are finer textured throughout. These inclusions make up
are in shallow depressions and broad drainageways. They about 15 percent of any mapped area. Also included are a






14 SOIL SURVEY

few small areas that are strongly acid throughout and do and brown. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Reaction
not have marl accumulated in the lower layers, is slightly acid to very strongly acid in all layers. The water
This soil responds well to artificial drainage. If properly table is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 4 to 6 months every
This soil responds well to artificial drainage. If properly yar and at less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months. It is below a
designed water-control practices are used, it is well suited depth of 30 inches during dry periods.
to truck and flower crops and improved pasture. It is Myakka soils are associated with Adamsville, Astatula,
poorly suited to citrus unless intensive water control is Immokalee, Placid, and Pomello soils. They have a Bh horizon,
established. (Capability unit IIIw-3; woodland group 7) whereas Adamsville soils do not. They are more poorly drained
established. (Capability unit IIIw-3; woodland group 7) than Astatula and Pomello soils. They are similar to Immokalee
soils but the organic-matter stained Bh horizon is closer to the
Myakka Series surface. They are better drained than Placid soils.
Myakka fine sand (My).-This is a nearly level, poorly
The Myakka series consists of nearly level, poorly drained soil on broad flats between sloughs and swamps.
drained sandy soils that formed in thick beds of acid ma- In places it is gently sloping. The water table is normally
rine sands. These soils are on broad low ridges between at a depth of 10 to 30 inches. It rises to the surface for a
sloughs and swamps in the flatwoods and in small areas short time during wet periods and falls below 30 inches
on the upland ridge. during extended dry periods.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4 Included in mapping are small areas of similar soils in
inches thick. Below this is loose gray fine sand about 12 which the layer stained with organic matter is only weakly
inches thick. The next layer is organic-matter stained, defined. These inclusions make up no more than 10 percent
weakly cemented, friable fine sand about 14 inches thick. of any mapped area. Small areas of Immokalee soils make
The upper part of this layer is black, the middle part is up no more than 10 percent of any mapped area. Small
dark reddish brown, and the lower part is dark yellowish areas of Wabasso, Wauchula, and Oldsmar soils, which
brown. Below this is lighter colored fine sand that extends have loamy underlying layers in places, make up no more
to a depth of more than 84 inches. Reaction is very than 5 percent of any mapped area.
strongly acid to a depth of about 20 inches and strongly If good water control is practiced and the soil is fertilized
acid below this to a depth of 84 inches. The water table and limed, Myakka fine sand is suited to truck crops,
normally is at a depth of 24 inches. special flower crops, and improved pasture. It is poorly
Myakka soils have very low available water capacity, suited to citrus and is only moderately well suited to lawns
low organic-matter content, and low natural fertility, and ornamental plants. (Capability unit IVw-1; woodland
Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 16 inches, mod- group 4)
rate between 16 and 25 inches, and rapid below this depth.
Representative profile of Myakka fine sand: Okeechobee Series
Al-0 to 4 inches, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed fine sand; weak,
fine, crumb structure; very friable; mixture of organic The Okeechobee series consists of nearly level, very
matter and light-gray sand grains has a salt-and- poorly drained organic soils that formed in thick beds of
pepper appearance; many fine and coarse roots; very
strongly acid; clear smooth aboundar se roots; very aquatic plant residues. These soils are in depressions and
A2-4 to 16 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grain; low swampy areas.
loose; many medium and coarse roots; very strongly Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 26
acid; clear, smooth boundary. inches thick. Below this is very dark brown and dark
B crh-1 mto s0 rchte; weakl ceYR )mente m san d e a in, reddish-brown felty peat that extends to a depth of 65
well coated with organic matter; many fine and me- inches. Reaction is slightly acid to a depth of 26 inches and
dium roots and few coarse roots; very strongly acid; medium acid below this depth. The water table is within
clear, smooth boundary. a depth of 10 inches or the soil is covered with shallow
B22h-20 to 25 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) fine sand; p
weak, fine, crumb structure; weakly cemented; sand water most of the year.
grains well coated with organic matter; common fine Okeechobee soils have rapid permeability, very high
and medium roots; common fragments of weakly available water capacity, very high organic-matter
cemented black (5YR 2/1) along root channels; content, and high natural fertility.
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B3&Bh-25 to 30 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 3/4) Representative profile of Okeechobee muck:
fine sand; few, medium, distinct, dark reddish-brown Oa-0 to 26 inches, black (N 2/0) muck; weak, coarse, crumb
(5YR 2/2) mottles and few medium, faint, brown structure; friable; less than 5 percent fiber, rubbed
(10YR 5/3) mottles; single grain; loose; most sand and unrubbed; about 80 percent organic matter;
grains are weakly coated with organic matter; few fine many fine roots in upper part of the horizon; sodium
and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy pyrophosphate extract color is dark brown (10YR
boundary. 3/3); slightly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
C1-30 to 54 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) fine Oel-26 to 34 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) partly
sand; single grain; loose; common coarse roots; few decomposed organic material; soft, felty, fibrous peat;
fragments of brown (7.5YR 4/4) along root channels; black (10YR 2/1) when rubbed; massive; 60 percent
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. fiber when unrubbed, 15 percent fiber when rubbed;
02-54 to 84 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand; about 85 percent organic matter; sodium pyrophos-
single grain; nonsticky; strongly acid. phate extract color is light gray (10YR 7/2); medium
The A horizon ranges from gray to black and is 3 to 9 inches acid; gradual, smooth boundary.n (YR ) p
thick. The A2 horizon is gray and grayish brown to white and is 0e2-34 to 65 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/4) partly
thick. The A2 horizon is gray and grayish brown to white and is decomposed organic material; soft, felty, fibrous peat;
6 to 27 inches thick. In places it has few to many narrow vertical dark reddish brown (5Y i 3/;) when rubbed; massive;
streaks of gray to very dark gray along root channels. Com- 60 percent fiber when unrubbed; 20 percent fiber when
only a transitional horizon 34 inch to 2 inches thick is between 60 percent fiber when unrubbed; 20 percent fibmatter; medium
the A horizon and the B horizon. The organic-matter stained Bh rubbed; about 90 percent organic matter; medium
horizon is at a depth of 12 to 30 inches. It is very dark brown to ac
black, is 4 to 19 inches thick, and is loose to weakly cemented. The Oa horizon is black or very dark brown muck 20 to 30
The C horizon is gray to very pale brown, light yellowish brown, inches thick. The Oe horizon is dark-brown or dark reddish-






14 SOIL SURVEY

few small areas that are strongly acid throughout and do and brown. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Reaction
not have marl accumulated in the lower layers, is slightly acid to very strongly acid in all layers. The water
This soil responds well to artificial drainage. If properly table is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 4 to 6 months every
This soil responds well to artificial drainage. If properly yar and at less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months. It is below a
designed water-control practices are used, it is well suited depth of 30 inches during dry periods.
to truck and flower crops and improved pasture. It is Myakka soils are associated with Adamsville, Astatula,
poorly suited to citrus unless intensive water control is Immokalee, Placid, and Pomello soils. They have a Bh horizon,
established. (Capability unit IIIw-3; woodland group 7) whereas Adamsville soils do not. They are more poorly drained
established. (Capability unit IIIw-3; woodland group 7) than Astatula and Pomello soils. They are similar to Immokalee
soils but the organic-matter stained Bh horizon is closer to the
Myakka Series surface. They are better drained than Placid soils.
Myakka fine sand (My).-This is a nearly level, poorly
The Myakka series consists of nearly level, poorly drained soil on broad flats between sloughs and swamps.
drained sandy soils that formed in thick beds of acid ma- In places it is gently sloping. The water table is normally
rine sands. These soils are on broad low ridges between at a depth of 10 to 30 inches. It rises to the surface for a
sloughs and swamps in the flatwoods and in small areas short time during wet periods and falls below 30 inches
on the upland ridge. during extended dry periods.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4 Included in mapping are small areas of similar soils in
inches thick. Below this is loose gray fine sand about 12 which the layer stained with organic matter is only weakly
inches thick. The next layer is organic-matter stained, defined. These inclusions make up no more than 10 percent
weakly cemented, friable fine sand about 14 inches thick. of any mapped area. Small areas of Immokalee soils make
The upper part of this layer is black, the middle part is up no more than 10 percent of any mapped area. Small
dark reddish brown, and the lower part is dark yellowish areas of Wabasso, Wauchula, and Oldsmar soils, which
brown. Below this is lighter colored fine sand that extends have loamy underlying layers in places, make up no more
to a depth of more than 84 inches. Reaction is very than 5 percent of any mapped area.
strongly acid to a depth of about 20 inches and strongly If good water control is practiced and the soil is fertilized
acid below this to a depth of 84 inches. The water table and limed, Myakka fine sand is suited to truck crops,
normally is at a depth of 24 inches. special flower crops, and improved pasture. It is poorly
Myakka soils have very low available water capacity, suited to citrus and is only moderately well suited to lawns
low organic-matter content, and low natural fertility, and ornamental plants. (Capability unit IVw-1; woodland
Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 16 inches, mod- group 4)
rate between 16 and 25 inches, and rapid below this depth.
Representative profile of Myakka fine sand: Okeechobee Series
Al-0 to 4 inches, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed fine sand; weak,
fine, crumb structure; very friable; mixture of organic The Okeechobee series consists of nearly level, very
matter and light-gray sand grains has a salt-and- poorly drained organic soils that formed in thick beds of
pepper appearance; many fine and coarse roots; very
strongly acid; clear smooth aboundar se roots; very aquatic plant residues. These soils are in depressions and
A2-4 to 16 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grain; low swampy areas.
loose; many medium and coarse roots; very strongly Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 26
acid; clear, smooth boundary. inches thick. Below this is very dark brown and dark
B crh-1 mto s0 rchte; weakl ceYR )mente m san d e a in, reddish-brown felty peat that extends to a depth of 65
well coated with organic matter; many fine and me- inches. Reaction is slightly acid to a depth of 26 inches and
dium roots and few coarse roots; very strongly acid; medium acid below this depth. The water table is within
clear, smooth boundary. a depth of 10 inches or the soil is covered with shallow
B22h-20 to 25 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) fine sand; p
weak, fine, crumb structure; weakly cemented; sand water most of the year.
grains well coated with organic matter; common fine Okeechobee soils have rapid permeability, very high
and medium roots; common fragments of weakly available water capacity, very high organic-matter
cemented black (5YR 2/1) along root channels; content, and high natural fertility.
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B3&Bh-25 to 30 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 3/4) Representative profile of Okeechobee muck:
fine sand; few, medium, distinct, dark reddish-brown Oa-0 to 26 inches, black (N 2/0) muck; weak, coarse, crumb
(5YR 2/2) mottles and few medium, faint, brown structure; friable; less than 5 percent fiber, rubbed
(10YR 5/3) mottles; single grain; loose; most sand and unrubbed; about 80 percent organic matter;
grains are weakly coated with organic matter; few fine many fine roots in upper part of the horizon; sodium
and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy pyrophosphate extract color is dark brown (10YR
boundary. 3/3); slightly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
C1-30 to 54 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) fine Oel-26 to 34 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) partly
sand; single grain; loose; common coarse roots; few decomposed organic material; soft, felty, fibrous peat;
fragments of brown (7.5YR 4/4) along root channels; black (10YR 2/1) when rubbed; massive; 60 percent
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. fiber when unrubbed, 15 percent fiber when rubbed;
02-54 to 84 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand; about 85 percent organic matter; sodium pyrophos-
single grain; nonsticky; strongly acid. phate extract color is light gray (10YR 7/2); medium
The A horizon ranges from gray to black and is 3 to 9 inches acid; gradual, smooth boundary.n (YR ) p
thick. The A2 horizon is gray and grayish brown to white and is 0e2-34 to 65 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/4) partly
thick. The A2 horizon is gray and grayish brown to white and is decomposed organic material; soft, felty, fibrous peat;
6 to 27 inches thick. In places it has few to many narrow vertical dark reddish brown (5Y i 3/;) when rubbed; massive;
streaks of gray to very dark gray along root channels. Com- 60 percent fiber when unrubbed; 20 percent fiber when
only a transitional horizon 34 inch to 2 inches thick is between 60 percent fiber when unrubbed; 20 percent fibmatter; medium
the A horizon and the B horizon. The organic-matter stained Bh rubbed; about 90 percent organic matter; medium
horizon is at a depth of 12 to 30 inches. It is very dark brown to ac
black, is 4 to 19 inches thick, and is loose to weakly cemented. The Oa horizon is black or very dark brown muck 20 to 30
The C horizon is gray to very pale brown, light yellowish brown, inches thick. The Oe horizon is dark-brown or dark reddish-







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

brown felty peat 13 to more than 50 inches thick. Reaction B21h-34 to 38 inches, black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; massive;
ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline in all layers. weakly cemented; crushes with slight pressure; very
Okeechobee soils are associated with Astor, Felda, Pamlico, friable; most sand grains well coated with organic
Placid, Pompano, and Terra Ceia soils. They are organic soils, matter; common fine, medium, and coarse roots;
whereas Astor, Felda, Placid, and Pompano soils are mineral very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
soils. In contrast with Pamlico and Terra Ceia soils, they have B22h-38 to 44 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) fine
a layer of brown felty peat below the black muck surface sand; massive; weakly cemented; crushes with slight
layer. They are less acid than Pamlico soils, pressure; very friable; common fine, medium, and
coarse roots; common coarse fragments of weakly
Okeechobee muck (Ok).-This is a nearly level, very cemented black (5YR 2/1) sand grains well coated
poorly drained organic soil in depressions and in broad with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear, wavy
low swampy areas. The water table is at a depth of less boundary.
than 10 inches or the soil is covered with water for 6 to B2t-44 to 65 inches, coarsely mottled, brown (10YR 4/3),
grayish-brown (10YR 5/2), and olive-brown (2.5Y
12 months in most years. 4/4) heavy fine sandy loam; massive; friable; many
Included in mapping are small areas of similar soils that fine roots and few medium roots; sand grains are
have a highly decomposed organic surface layer more than bridged and coated with clay; slightly acid.
35 inches thick. These inclusions make up no more than The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to black and is 4 or 5
10 percent of any mapped area. Also included are small inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray to light-gray sand or fine
areas of organic soils that have mineral horizons within a sand and is 26 to 36 inches thick. The A horizons are strongly
acid or very strongly acid. The Bh horizon occurs at a depth of
depth of 50 inches. 30 to 40 inches and is 6 to 18 inches thick. It is reddish-brown,
If adequate water control can be provided, this soil is dark-brown, or black sand or fine sand that is weakly cemented
well suited to special truck and flower crops, improved and very friable. The Bh horizon is slightly acid to very
pasture grasses, and lawn grasses and ornamental plants, strongly acid. In places a thin horizon of light-brown sand
pasture grasses, and lawn grasses and ornamental plants occurs between the Bh horizon and the loamy Bt horizon.
The surface should be flooded when the soil is not used The Bt horizon is gray to brownish-yellow fine sandy loam to
for crops. Many areas do not have drainage outlets, and fine sandy clay loam and is 20 to 40 inches thick. In places the
water control is difficult to establish. Only a few areas lower part of the Bt horizon has accumulated secondary
have been drained. (Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland carbonates along root channels and in scattered nodules. The
have been drained. (Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland Bt horizon ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
group 9) In many places, a IIC horizon is below the Bt horizon. It
consists of sand mixed with shell fragments and ranges from
Oldsar Sei 1 foot to several feet in thickness. The water table is at a
Oldsmar Series depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years, and
The dsmar series consists of nearlylevel, poorly at less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during wet seasons.
he Oldsmar series consists of nearly level, poorly The Oldsmar soils are closely associated with Wabasso,
drained sandy soils that formed in thick beds of sandy Elred, Pinellas, Myakka, Immokalee, Astor, and Pompano
and loamy marine materials. These soils are on low ridges soils. They have a thicker A2 horizon and a deeper Bt horizon
between sloughs or swamps in the flatwoods. than Wabasso soils. They have a thicker A2 horizon than
Elred soils and also have an organic-matter stained Bh horizon.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 In contrast with Pinellas soils, they have a Bh horizon and do
inches thick. The next layer is loose fine sand about 29 not have accumulations of carbonates in the lower part of the
inches thick. It is gray in the upper part, is light gray A2 horizon. They differ from Myakka, Immokalee, and Pom-
in the lower part, and has dark-gray vertical streaks panosoils mainly in having a loamy Bt horizon. They are not
so poorly drained as Astor soils.
along root channels. Between depths of about 34 and 44 so poorly drained as Astor soils.
inches is a layer of very friable fine sand that is weakly Oldsmar fine sand (Om).-This is a nearly level, poorly
cemented with organic matter. The upper part is black, drained sandy soil on broad low ridges in the flatwoods.
and the lower part is dark reddish brown. Between 44 The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for
and 65 inches is a layer of coarsely mottled, brown, 1 or 2 months during wet periods and at 10 to 30 inches
grayish-brown, and olive-brown friable fine sandy loam. for 2 to 6 months in most years. Most areas are periodi-
Reaction is very strongly acid to a depth of about 44 call wet.
inches and slightly acid below this to a depth of 65 inches. Included in mapping are small areas where black or
The water table is at a depth of about 20 inches. brown stained layers are within a depth of 30 inches,
Oldsmar soils have low available water capacity, low where loamy layers are below 40 inches, and where loamy
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Perme- layers are within a depth of 40 inches. These inclusions
ability is rapid to a depth of about 34 inches, moderately make up about 10 percent of any mapped area. Similar
rapid between 34 and 44 inches, and moderate below this soils that have a thin, light-brown, organic-matter
depth. stained underlying layer make up about 10 percent of
Representative profile of Oldsmar fine sand: some mapped areas, and small areas of Myakka and Wa-
basso soils make up about 5 percent.
Al-0 to 5 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine, If water control is adequate and the soil is well managed,
crumb structure; very friable; mixture of organic matter Oldsmar fine sand is suited to special truck and flower
and light gray sand grains has a salt-and-pepper ap-
pearance; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; very crops, improved pasture grasses, and lawn grasses and
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. ornamental plants. It is poorly suited to citrus. Response
A21-5 to 12 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain; to drainage and management is good. Much of the acreage
loose; common medium and coarse roots; common has been developed for residential use. (Capability unit
vertical streaks of dark gray (10YR 4/1) along root
channels; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth IVw-1; woodland group 4)
boundary.
A22-12 to 34 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; single Orlando Series Wet Variant
grain; loose; common medium and coarse roots;
common vertical streaks of dark gray (10YR 4/1) The Orlando soils mapped in Pinellas County are a
along root channels; very strongly acid; clear, wavy The Orlando soils mapped in Pinellas Count are a
boundary, wet variant of the Orlando series. They are nearly level,







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

brown felty peat 13 to more than 50 inches thick. Reaction B21h-34 to 38 inches, black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; massive;
ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline in all layers. weakly cemented; crushes with slight pressure; very
Okeechobee soils are associated with Astor, Felda, Pamlico, friable; most sand grains well coated with organic
Placid, Pompano, and Terra Ceia soils. They are organic soils, matter; common fine, medium, and coarse roots;
whereas Astor, Felda, Placid, and Pompano soils are mineral very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
soils. In contrast with Pamlico and Terra Ceia soils, they have B22h-38 to 44 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) fine
a layer of brown felty peat below the black muck surface sand; massive; weakly cemented; crushes with slight
layer. They are less acid than Pamlico soils, pressure; very friable; common fine, medium, and
coarse roots; common coarse fragments of weakly
Okeechobee muck (Ok).-This is a nearly level, very cemented black (5YR 2/1) sand grains well coated
poorly drained organic soil in depressions and in broad with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear, wavy
low swampy areas. The water table is at a depth of less boundary.
than 10 inches or the soil is covered with water for 6 to B2t-44 to 65 inches, coarsely mottled, brown (10YR 4/3),
grayish-brown (10YR 5/2), and olive-brown (2.5Y
12 months in most years. 4/4) heavy fine sandy loam; massive; friable; many
Included in mapping are small areas of similar soils that fine roots and few medium roots; sand grains are
have a highly decomposed organic surface layer more than bridged and coated with clay; slightly acid.
35 inches thick. These inclusions make up no more than The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to black and is 4 or 5
10 percent of any mapped area. Also included are small inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray to light-gray sand or fine
areas of organic soils that have mineral horizons within a sand and is 26 to 36 inches thick. The A horizons are strongly
acid or very strongly acid. The Bh horizon occurs at a depth of
depth of 50 inches. 30 to 40 inches and is 6 to 18 inches thick. It is reddish-brown,
If adequate water control can be provided, this soil is dark-brown, or black sand or fine sand that is weakly cemented
well suited to special truck and flower crops, improved and very friable. The Bh horizon is slightly acid to very
pasture grasses, and lawn grasses and ornamental plants, strongly acid. In places a thin horizon of light-brown sand
pasture grasses, and lawn grasses and ornamental plants occurs between the Bh horizon and the loamy Bt horizon.
The surface should be flooded when the soil is not used The Bt horizon is gray to brownish-yellow fine sandy loam to
for crops. Many areas do not have drainage outlets, and fine sandy clay loam and is 20 to 40 inches thick. In places the
water control is difficult to establish. Only a few areas lower part of the Bt horizon has accumulated secondary
have been drained. (Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland carbonates along root channels and in scattered nodules. The
have been drained. (Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland Bt horizon ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
group 9) In many places, a IIC horizon is below the Bt horizon. It
consists of sand mixed with shell fragments and ranges from
Oldsar Sei 1 foot to several feet in thickness. The water table is at a
Oldsmar Series depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years, and
The dsmar series consists of nearlylevel, poorly at less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during wet seasons.
he Oldsmar series consists of nearly level, poorly The Oldsmar soils are closely associated with Wabasso,
drained sandy soils that formed in thick beds of sandy Elred, Pinellas, Myakka, Immokalee, Astor, and Pompano
and loamy marine materials. These soils are on low ridges soils. They have a thicker A2 horizon and a deeper Bt horizon
between sloughs or swamps in the flatwoods. than Wabasso soils. They have a thicker A2 horizon than
Elred soils and also have an organic-matter stained Bh horizon.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 In contrast with Pinellas soils, they have a Bh horizon and do
inches thick. The next layer is loose fine sand about 29 not have accumulations of carbonates in the lower part of the
inches thick. It is gray in the upper part, is light gray A2 horizon. They differ from Myakka, Immokalee, and Pom-
in the lower part, and has dark-gray vertical streaks panosoils mainly in having a loamy Bt horizon. They are not
so poorly drained as Astor soils.
along root channels. Between depths of about 34 and 44 so poorly drained as Astor soils.
inches is a layer of very friable fine sand that is weakly Oldsmar fine sand (Om).-This is a nearly level, poorly
cemented with organic matter. The upper part is black, drained sandy soil on broad low ridges in the flatwoods.
and the lower part is dark reddish brown. Between 44 The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for
and 65 inches is a layer of coarsely mottled, brown, 1 or 2 months during wet periods and at 10 to 30 inches
grayish-brown, and olive-brown friable fine sandy loam. for 2 to 6 months in most years. Most areas are periodi-
Reaction is very strongly acid to a depth of about 44 call wet.
inches and slightly acid below this to a depth of 65 inches. Included in mapping are small areas where black or
The water table is at a depth of about 20 inches. brown stained layers are within a depth of 30 inches,
Oldsmar soils have low available water capacity, low where loamy layers are below 40 inches, and where loamy
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Perme- layers are within a depth of 40 inches. These inclusions
ability is rapid to a depth of about 34 inches, moderately make up about 10 percent of any mapped area. Similar
rapid between 34 and 44 inches, and moderate below this soils that have a thin, light-brown, organic-matter
depth. stained underlying layer make up about 10 percent of
Representative profile of Oldsmar fine sand: some mapped areas, and small areas of Myakka and Wa-
basso soils make up about 5 percent.
Al-0 to 5 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine, If water control is adequate and the soil is well managed,
crumb structure; very friable; mixture of organic matter Oldsmar fine sand is suited to special truck and flower
and light gray sand grains has a salt-and-pepper ap-
pearance; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; very crops, improved pasture grasses, and lawn grasses and
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. ornamental plants. It is poorly suited to citrus. Response
A21-5 to 12 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain; to drainage and management is good. Much of the acreage
loose; common medium and coarse roots; common has been developed for residential use. (Capability unit
vertical streaks of dark gray (10YR 4/1) along root
channels; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth IVw-1; woodland group 4)
boundary.
A22-12 to 34 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; single Orlando Series Wet Variant
grain; loose; common medium and coarse roots;
common vertical streaks of dark gray (10YR 4/1) The Orlando soils mapped in Pinellas County are a
along root channels; very strongly acid; clear, wavy The Orlando soils mapped in Pinellas Count are a
boundary, wet variant of the Orlando series. They are nearly level,







16 SOIL SURVEY

somewhat poorly drained sandy soils that formed in soils that are better drained make up about 10 percent of
thick beds of marine sands. These soils occur on low some mapped areas.
ridges in the flatwoods and in a few low flat areas at the Under intensive management that includes adequate
base of slopes on the upland ridge, water control and the use of mineral fertilizers, this soil
Typically, the surface layer, about 16 inches thick, is well suited to flower and truck crops, especially straw-
is black fine sand that grades with depth to very dark berries, and to pasture grasses, lawn grasses, and orna-
gray. The next layer is grayish-brown loose fine sand mental plants. It is also well suited to citrus trees and is
about 13 inches thick. Below this is very pale brown to used for citrus nurseries. (Capability unit IIIw-1; wood-
light-brown loose fine sand mottled with yellow and land group 5)
brown. It extends to a depth of 80 inches. All layers are
very strongly acid. The water table normally is at a Palm Beach Series
depth of about 30 inches.
Orlando soils have very rapid permeability, low availa- The Palm Beach series consists of nearly level, well-
ble water capacity, medium organic-matter content, and drained shelly sands near the coast, on the mainland, and
moderate natural fertility. on isolated coastal islands. These soils consist of recent
Representative profile of Orlando fine sand, wet deposits of shelly sand material that has undergone little
variant: or no weathering.
Ap-0 to 8 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine, Typically, the surface layer, about 20 inches thick,
crumb structure; very friable; many fine roots; very is light-gray sand that is about 18 percent small shells and
-8 strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. fine sand; shell fragments. Below this are layers of light-gray sand
A1-8 to 16 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; many fine in which the content of shell fragments increases with
roots; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. increasing depth. These layers extend to a depth of 80
C1-16 to 29 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; few, inches. The shell content is about 40 percent. All layers
fine, faint, brownish-yellow mottles along root chan- il alk Th water tbl rm i at
nels; single grain; loose; few fine roots; very strongly are mildly alkaline. The water table normally is at a
acid; gradual, wavy boundary. depth of more than 40 inches.
C2-29 to 53 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand; Palm Beach soils have very rapid permeability, very
common, medium, distinct, brownish-yellow (10YR low available water capacity, low organic-matter con-
6/8) and strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles, and cor- tent and low natural fertility.
mon, medium, faint, light-gray (10YR 7/2) mottles;
single grain; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid; Representative profile of Palm Beach sand:
gradual, wavy boundary. A-0 to 20 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; about 18 per-
C3-53 to 80 inches, light-brown (7.5YR 6/4) fine sand; com- A0 to hell figragme nts; single grain; loose; mildly
mon, coarse, distinct, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/2) alkaline.
mottles; single grain; nonsticky; very strongly acid; C1-20 to 44 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; about 25
gradual, wavy boundary. percent shell fragments; single grain; loose; mildly
The Al horizon is very dark gray to black and is 14 to 18 alkaline.
inches thick. The C1 horizon is brown to grayish brown or C2-44 to 80 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; about 40
dark grayish brown and is 4 to 18 inches thick. The C2 horizon percent shell fragments; single grain; loose; mildly
is brown to very pale brown, light brownish gray, and light alkaline.
yellowish brown mottled with shades of brownish yellow, strong
brown, and light gray and extends to a depth of 55 inches. Reaction ranges from mildly alkaline to moderately alkaline
Below this are layers of dark-brown to yellowish-brown, in all layers. The percentage of shells and shell fragments varies
light-brown, and very pale brown sand that extend to a depth from place to place and with depth. Natural deposits of sand
of more than 80 inches. Reaction is strongly acid to very and shells occur in a few areas near old shore lines. Most areas
strongly acid in all layers. The water table fluctuates between consist of dredged or hauled material used to fill depressions or
a depth of 10 and 40 inches. It is at a depth of less than 10 to form new land areas in shallow waters. These deposits have
inches for 1 or 2 months during wet periods and is below 40 been reworked and leveled by heavy earth-moving equipment.
inches during very dry periods. The water table is below a depth of 40 inches most of the time.
The Orlando soils mapped in Pinellas County are a variant In places it is nearer the surface during wet periods.
of the Orlando series. They are more poorly drained and have a Palm Beach soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka,
seasonally higher water table than the range defined for the series. Paola, St Lucie, and Wabasso soils In contrast with Immoka-
Other properties are within the range defined for the series. lee, Myakka, and Wabasso soils, they are better drained,
Orlando soils, wet variant, are closely associated with Adams- have shelly layers, and do not have an organic-matter stained
ville, Astatula, Myakka, Pamlico, Placid, and Wauchula soils. Bh horizon. They are less acid than Paola and St. Lucie which
They have a thicker darker colored A horizon than Astatula do not have shell layers.
soils. They do not have the organic-matter stained Bh horizon Palm Beach sand (Pa),-This is a nearly level, well-
typical of Myakka soils. They have a thicker A horizon than
Adamsville soils. They are not so poorly drained as Wauchula drainedsand mixed with shells and fine shell fragments.
soils and do not have the loamy Bt horizon typical of those It consists mainly of material dredged from nearby shallow
soils. They are better drained than Placid and Pamlico soils. water to fill dikes. This material has been reworked and
Orlando fine sand, wet variant (Or).-This is a nearly leveled. Many areas contain lumps of clay and rock
level, somewhat poorly drained sandy soil on low ridges fragments. In most places the material has been deposited
in the flatwoods and near the base of slopes on the upland only recently and no soil development has occurred. The
ridge. The water table is between depths of 10 and 40 water table is below a depth of 40 inches most of the time
inches for 6 months or more in most years. It is within a but it is within 40 inches during heavy rains.
depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during wet periods Included in mapping are small areas of St. Lucie soils
and below 40 inches during drought periods, that make up about 10 percent of the acreage.
Included in mapping are small areas that have 2 to 5 This soil is used mainly for waterfront homesites.
percent slopes. These inclusions make up about 15 percent Recent deposits are saline, but the salts leach rapidly.
of some mapped areas. Small areas of similar soils that These soils must be thoroughly leached of salts before
have a thinner surface layer and small areas of similar vegetation can grow. Topsoiling, fertilization, and irriga-







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

tion are needed to establish and maintain lawns and thick beds of marine sand. These soils are on low undu-
ornamental plants. (No capability classification; woodland lating ridges on the upland.
group 9) Typically, the surface layer is light-gray fine sand
about 3 inches thick. Below this is white, loose fine sand
Pamlico Series about 19 inches thick. A discontinuous layer of strong-
brown, weakly cemented fine sand less than 1 inch thick
The Pamlico series consists of nearly level, very poorly occurs at irregular intervals below the layer of white sand.
drained muck that formed in thick layers of aquatic The next layer is yellow fine sand that has scattered,
plant residue deposited over sands in depressions. These dark reddish-brown, weakly cemented round pebbles
soils are in marshes and swamps. and numerous root channels coated with dark-brown,
Typically, the organic horizon is black muck about 44 weakly cemented fine sand and filled with white fine sand.
inches thick. It is about 80 percent organic matter and This layer is about 28 inches thick. It is underlain by very
about 5 percent fiber. Below this is very dark gray fine pale brown loose fine sand that extends to a depth of 80
sand that extends to a depth of 65 inches. The organic inches. All layers are very strongly acid. The water table
layer is extremely acid, and the underlying sand is very is below a depth of 60 inches all year.
strongly acid. These soils are covered with shallow water Paola soils have very rapid permeability, very low
most of the year. available water capacity, low organic-matter content,
Pamlico soils have moderate permeability, very high and low natural fertility.
available water capacity, very high organic-matter con-
tent, and moderate natural fertility. Representative profile of Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
Representative profile of Pamlico muck: slopes:
Oa-0 to 44 inches, black (N 2/0) muck; weak, fine, crumb Al-0 to 3 inches light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grain;
structure; friable; less than 5 percent fiber rubbed loose; many fine and medium roots; few fine char-
and unrubbed; about 80 percent organic matter; coal fragments; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy
many fine roots in upper part of horizon; sodium boundary.
pyrophosphate extract color is dark brown (10YR A2-3 to 22 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grain;
4/3); extremely acid; clear, smooth boundary. loose; common fine and medium roots; common
Ab-44 to 65 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; medium charcoal fragments; very strongly acid;
single grain; nonsticky; very strongly acid. clear, irregular boundary.
C1-22 to 50 inches, yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sand; few, fine,
The Oa horizon is 36 to 50 inches thick. It is black to dark faint, brownish-yellow mottles; single grain; loose;
reddish brown and strongly acid to extremely acid. The Ab common coarse and very coarse root channels filled
horizon is sand or fine sand and is dark grayish brown to black. with light-colored fine sand from the A horizon; outer
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to extremely acid in all edges of the root channels are stained with dark
layers. The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) and dark-brown (7.5YR
for 6 to 12 months. It rises to the surface and covers the soil 4/4) fine sand that is weakly cemented; few to com-
with shallow water during wet periods, mon, coarse, spheroidal, dark reddish-brown (5YR
The Pamlico soils mapped in Pinellas County have a higher 2/2) and dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) concretions. Thin
temperature than the range defined for the series. This dif- (commonly less than 1 inch thick) discontinuous
ference does not appreciably affect use and management. layers of dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) weakly cemented
Pamlico soils are associated with Astor, Immokalec, Myakka, fine sand occur at irregular intervals between the A2
Okeechobee, Placid, Pompano, and Terra Ceia soils. They are and C horizon; many fine, medium, and coarse roots;
organic soils whereas Astor, Immokalee, Myakka, Placid, and very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Pompano soils are mineral soils. Pamlico soils are more poorly C2-50 to 80 inches, very pale brown (10YR 8/4) fine sand;
drained than Immokalee and Myakka soils. They lack the single grain; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse roots;
soft, brown fibrous peat horizon typical of Okeechobee soils very strongly acid.
and have sandy horizons within a depth of 50 inches. They are
more acid than Terra Ceia soils. The Al horizon is gray to light gray and is 2 to 5 inches thick.
Pamlico muck (Pc) .-This is a nearly level, very poorly The A2 horizon is light-gray to white sand or fine sand and is 6
to 38 inches thick. A discontinuous layer of strong-brown,
drained organic soil in depressions, marshes, and swamps. weakly cemented fine sand less than 1 inch thick occurs in
It is covered with water for 6 to 12 months. The rest of places between the A2 and 01 horizons. The C1 horizon occurs
the time the water table is within a depth of 10 inches. at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. It is yellow or yellowish-red sand
Included in mapping are small areas where the muck or fine sand that contains, throughout, a few to many, soft,
dark-brown or dark reddish-brown, round, weakly cemented
layer is more than 50 inches thick. These inclusions make concretions. It also contains thin accumulations of brown
up about 10 percent of most mapped areas. In about 5 weakly cemented sand and loose white sand along root channels.
percent of some mapped areas, acid sandy clay loam is The 01 horizon commonly is 20 to 30 inches thick. The C2
within a depth of 50 inches. horizon is light yellowish-brown or very pale brown sand or
Wt. fine sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The
This soil is very wet. A few areas do not have drainage water table is below a depth of 60 inches.
outlets. Where a system of water control can be estab- Paola soils are associated with St. Lucie, Astatula, Pomello,
lished, this soil is well suited to truck and flower crops Myakka, and Placid soils. They differ from St. Lucie soils in
and improved pasture. It is not suited to citrus. Most having yellow Cl and C2 horizons. They differ from Astatula
soils in having a white A2 horizon. They are better drained
areas remain in native vegetation. Muck has been dug than Pomello and Myakka soils and do not have the well
from some areas. (Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland defined, organic-matter stained underlying layers typical of
group 9) those soils. They are better drained than Placid soils and do
not have the thick black Al horizon that is typical of those
soils.
Paola Series Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (PdB).-This is a
The Paola series consists of nearly level to gently nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil on
sloping, excessively drained sandy soils that formed in low undulating ridges on the upland.







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

tion are needed to establish and maintain lawns and thick beds of marine sand. These soils are on low undu-
ornamental plants. (No capability classification; woodland lating ridges on the upland.
group 9) Typically, the surface layer is light-gray fine sand
about 3 inches thick. Below this is white, loose fine sand
Pamlico Series about 19 inches thick. A discontinuous layer of strong-
brown, weakly cemented fine sand less than 1 inch thick
The Pamlico series consists of nearly level, very poorly occurs at irregular intervals below the layer of white sand.
drained muck that formed in thick layers of aquatic The next layer is yellow fine sand that has scattered,
plant residue deposited over sands in depressions. These dark reddish-brown, weakly cemented round pebbles
soils are in marshes and swamps. and numerous root channels coated with dark-brown,
Typically, the organic horizon is black muck about 44 weakly cemented fine sand and filled with white fine sand.
inches thick. It is about 80 percent organic matter and This layer is about 28 inches thick. It is underlain by very
about 5 percent fiber. Below this is very dark gray fine pale brown loose fine sand that extends to a depth of 80
sand that extends to a depth of 65 inches. The organic inches. All layers are very strongly acid. The water table
layer is extremely acid, and the underlying sand is very is below a depth of 60 inches all year.
strongly acid. These soils are covered with shallow water Paola soils have very rapid permeability, very low
most of the year. available water capacity, low organic-matter content,
Pamlico soils have moderate permeability, very high and low natural fertility.
available water capacity, very high organic-matter con-
tent, and moderate natural fertility. Representative profile of Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
Representative profile of Pamlico muck: slopes:
Oa-0 to 44 inches, black (N 2/0) muck; weak, fine, crumb Al-0 to 3 inches light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grain;
structure; friable; less than 5 percent fiber rubbed loose; many fine and medium roots; few fine char-
and unrubbed; about 80 percent organic matter; coal fragments; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy
many fine roots in upper part of horizon; sodium boundary.
pyrophosphate extract color is dark brown (10YR A2-3 to 22 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grain;
4/3); extremely acid; clear, smooth boundary. loose; common fine and medium roots; common
Ab-44 to 65 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; medium charcoal fragments; very strongly acid;
single grain; nonsticky; very strongly acid. clear, irregular boundary.
C1-22 to 50 inches, yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sand; few, fine,
The Oa horizon is 36 to 50 inches thick. It is black to dark faint, brownish-yellow mottles; single grain; loose;
reddish brown and strongly acid to extremely acid. The Ab common coarse and very coarse root channels filled
horizon is sand or fine sand and is dark grayish brown to black. with light-colored fine sand from the A horizon; outer
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to extremely acid in all edges of the root channels are stained with dark
layers. The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) and dark-brown (7.5YR
for 6 to 12 months. It rises to the surface and covers the soil 4/4) fine sand that is weakly cemented; few to com-
with shallow water during wet periods, mon, coarse, spheroidal, dark reddish-brown (5YR
The Pamlico soils mapped in Pinellas County have a higher 2/2) and dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) concretions. Thin
temperature than the range defined for the series. This dif- (commonly less than 1 inch thick) discontinuous
ference does not appreciably affect use and management. layers of dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) weakly cemented
Pamlico soils are associated with Astor, Immokalec, Myakka, fine sand occur at irregular intervals between the A2
Okeechobee, Placid, Pompano, and Terra Ceia soils. They are and C horizon; many fine, medium, and coarse roots;
organic soils whereas Astor, Immokalee, Myakka, Placid, and very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Pompano soils are mineral soils. Pamlico soils are more poorly C2-50 to 80 inches, very pale brown (10YR 8/4) fine sand;
drained than Immokalee and Myakka soils. They lack the single grain; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse roots;
soft, brown fibrous peat horizon typical of Okeechobee soils very strongly acid.
and have sandy horizons within a depth of 50 inches. They are
more acid than Terra Ceia soils. The Al horizon is gray to light gray and is 2 to 5 inches thick.
Pamlico muck (Pc) .-This is a nearly level, very poorly The A2 horizon is light-gray to white sand or fine sand and is 6
to 38 inches thick. A discontinuous layer of strong-brown,
drained organic soil in depressions, marshes, and swamps. weakly cemented fine sand less than 1 inch thick occurs in
It is covered with water for 6 to 12 months. The rest of places between the A2 and 01 horizons. The C1 horizon occurs
the time the water table is within a depth of 10 inches. at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. It is yellow or yellowish-red sand
Included in mapping are small areas where the muck or fine sand that contains, throughout, a few to many, soft,
dark-brown or dark reddish-brown, round, weakly cemented
layer is more than 50 inches thick. These inclusions make concretions. It also contains thin accumulations of brown
up about 10 percent of most mapped areas. In about 5 weakly cemented sand and loose white sand along root channels.
percent of some mapped areas, acid sandy clay loam is The 01 horizon commonly is 20 to 30 inches thick. The C2
within a depth of 50 inches. horizon is light yellowish-brown or very pale brown sand or
Wt. fine sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The
This soil is very wet. A few areas do not have drainage water table is below a depth of 60 inches.
outlets. Where a system of water control can be estab- Paola soils are associated with St. Lucie, Astatula, Pomello,
lished, this soil is well suited to truck and flower crops Myakka, and Placid soils. They differ from St. Lucie soils in
and improved pasture. It is not suited to citrus. Most having yellow Cl and C2 horizons. They differ from Astatula
soils in having a white A2 horizon. They are better drained
areas remain in native vegetation. Muck has been dug than Pomello and Myakka soils and do not have the well
from some areas. (Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland defined, organic-matter stained underlying layers typical of
group 9) those soils. They are better drained than Placid soils and do
not have the thick black Al horizon that is typical of those
soils.
Paola Series Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (PdB).-This is a
The Paola series consists of nearly level to gently nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil on
sloping, excessively drained sandy soils that formed in low undulating ridges on the upland.







18 SOIL SURVEY

Included in mapping are small areas of St. Lucie fine roots; root channels filled with white (10YR 8/2)
sand that make up as much as 10 percent of some mapped secondary carbonates; sand grains are bridged and
coated with clay; mildly alkaline; clear, smooth
areas, boundary.
This soil is poorly suited to most crops. It is drought IIC-54 to 80 inches, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) fine sand and
and mineral fertilizers leach rapidly. It is moderately well shell fragments; single grain; loose; moderately alka-
suited to citrus once trees have established deep roots. line; calcareous.
Frequent irrigation and adequate fertilization are needed The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to black and is 2 to 6
for citrus. Lawns and ornamental plants for landscaping inches thick. It is medium acid to mildly alkaline. The A21 and
also require rrgaton and fertlation. (Capability unit A22 horizons are light-gray to very pale brown or yellowish
also require irrigation and fertilization. (Capability unit sand or fine sand. Their combined thickness is 8 to 18 inches.
VIs-1; woodland group 1) They are medium acid to mildly alkaline. The A23ca and
A24ca horizons are light-gray to grayish-brown or very pale
brown sand or fine sand. They have accumulated lime or are
Pinellas Series neutral to mildly alkaline. The Btg horizon is mottled dark-
gray to grayish-brown and light-gray fine sandy loam to sandy
The Pinellas series consists of nearly level, somewhat clay loam 6 to 19 inches thick. The Btg horizon is neutral to
poorly drained sandy soils that formed in stratified sandy, moderately alkaline. In places, a sandy C horizon is between
loamy, and shelly marine sediments. These soils occur in the Btg horizon and the IIC horizon. The water table is at a
the flaand shallow ponds. depth of 10 to 40 inches from 2 to 6 months in most years.
the flatwoods, mainly near sloughs and shallow ponds.It is within 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during wet seasons.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3 The rest of the year it is below 40 inches.
inches thick. Below this is loose fine sand about 15 inches The Pinellas soils are associated with Elred, Felda, Manatee,
thick that is gray in the upper part and pale brown in the Myakka, Pompano, and Wabasso soils. They have an ac-
S Te net l rs ar r r n and light- cumulation of carbonates in the lower part of the A horizon
lower part. The next layers are very pale brown and ght- that is not present in Elred, Myakka, and Wabasso soils. They
gray fine sand very weakly cemented with carbonates, are better drained than Felda, Manatee, and Pompano soils.
These layers extend to a depth of about 35 inches. They Pinellas fine sand (Pf).-This is a nearly level, some-
are underlain by mottled grayish-brown fine sandy loam what poorly drained soil around sloughs and ponds in the
that extends to a depth of about 54 inches. Below this is flatwoods. The water table normally is at a depth of 10
fine sand mixed with shell fragments that extends to a to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. It is within
depth of 80 inches. Reaction is medium acid to a depth of a depth of 10 inches for a short time during wet periods.
about 8 inches, slightly acid between 8 and 18 inches, Included in mapping are small areas where depth to
mildly alkaline between 18 and 54 inches, and moderately the loamy layer is more than 40 inches. These inclusions
alkaline below this t of 80 miches. The water table make up about 15 percent of the acreage. Small areas
is at a depth of about 24 inches. where limestone is within a depth of 40 inches make up
Pinellas soils have low available water capacity, low about 5 percent. Small areas of Elred, Felda, and Wabasso
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Perme- soils make up no more than 10 percent of any mapped
ability is rapid to a depth of about 35 inches, moderate area
between 35 and 55 inches, and rapid below this depth. If adequate water control and good management are
Representative profile of Pinellas fine sand: practiced, this soil is well suited to special truck and
A1-0 to 3 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine, flower crops and improved pasture grasses. Many areas
crumb structure; very friable; mixture of organic are moderately well suited to citrus if the water table is
matter and light-gray sand grains has a salt-and-
pepper appearance; many fine and medium roots; lowered, irrigation is provided, and special management
medium acid; clear, smooth boundary. is practiced. Most areas of this soil are small in size,
A21-3 to 8 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grain; irregular in shape, and adjoin wetter soils, all of which
loose; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; medium limit their suitability as sites for citrus groves. (Capability
acid; clear, wavy boundary.
A22-8 to 18 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; com- unit IVw-1; woodland group 6)
mon, coarse, faint, very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
mottles and few, medium, white (10YR 8/2) mottles; Placid Series
single grain; loose; many medium and few coarse Placd
roots; slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
A23ca-18 to 2 inches, very pale brown (YR 8/3) fine sand; The Placid series consists of nearly level, very poorly
massive; crushes easily with slight pressure; firm; drained sandy soils that formed in thick layers of marine
secondary carbonates occur in interstices between sands under wet conditions that favored the accumulation
sand grains; sand grains are thinly coated with car- of organic matter. These soils occur in depressions,
bonates; few coarse roots; mildly alkaline; gradual,
wavy boundary. sloughs, and low swampy areas.
A24ca-25 to 35 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 17
common, coarse, distinct, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) inches thick. The lower part contains pockets of light
mottles; single grain; loose; secondary carbonates brownish gray. The next layer is light brownish-gray,
occur in interstices between sand grains; sand grains
are thinly coated with carbonates; few fine and loose fine sand mottled with very dark gray. It is about 12
medium roots; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy boundary, inches thick. Below this is grayish-brown, loose fine sand
B21tg-35 to 49 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine sandy that extends to a depth of 80 inches. Reaction is acid to
loam; common, coarse, faint, olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4) a depth of about 29 inches and strongly acid below this
mottles; weak, fine, subangular blocky structure;
sticky; many fine and medium roots; root channels to a depth of 80 inches. The water table is at the surface
filled with white (10YR 8/2) secondary carbonates; most of the year.
sand grains are bridged and coated with clay; few Placid soils have rapid permeability, high available
sand lenses; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy boundary. water capacity, high organic-matter content, and mod-
B22tg-49 to 54 inches, gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam; few,
fine, faint, olive mottles; weak, fine, subangular erately high natural fertility.
blocky structure; sticky; many fine and medium Representative profile of Placid fine sand:







18 SOIL SURVEY

Included in mapping are small areas of St. Lucie fine roots; root channels filled with white (10YR 8/2)
sand that make up as much as 10 percent of some mapped secondary carbonates; sand grains are bridged and
coated with clay; mildly alkaline; clear, smooth
areas, boundary.
This soil is poorly suited to most crops. It is drought IIC-54 to 80 inches, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) fine sand and
and mineral fertilizers leach rapidly. It is moderately well shell fragments; single grain; loose; moderately alka-
suited to citrus once trees have established deep roots. line; calcareous.
Frequent irrigation and adequate fertilization are needed The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to black and is 2 to 6
for citrus. Lawns and ornamental plants for landscaping inches thick. It is medium acid to mildly alkaline. The A21 and
also require rrgaton and fertlation. (Capability unit A22 horizons are light-gray to very pale brown or yellowish
also require irrigation and fertilization. (Capability unit sand or fine sand. Their combined thickness is 8 to 18 inches.
VIs-1; woodland group 1) They are medium acid to mildly alkaline. The A23ca and
A24ca horizons are light-gray to grayish-brown or very pale
brown sand or fine sand. They have accumulated lime or are
Pinellas Series neutral to mildly alkaline. The Btg horizon is mottled dark-
gray to grayish-brown and light-gray fine sandy loam to sandy
The Pinellas series consists of nearly level, somewhat clay loam 6 to 19 inches thick. The Btg horizon is neutral to
poorly drained sandy soils that formed in stratified sandy, moderately alkaline. In places, a sandy C horizon is between
loamy, and shelly marine sediments. These soils occur in the Btg horizon and the IIC horizon. The water table is at a
the flaand shallow ponds. depth of 10 to 40 inches from 2 to 6 months in most years.
the flatwoods, mainly near sloughs and shallow ponds.It is within 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during wet seasons.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3 The rest of the year it is below 40 inches.
inches thick. Below this is loose fine sand about 15 inches The Pinellas soils are associated with Elred, Felda, Manatee,
thick that is gray in the upper part and pale brown in the Myakka, Pompano, and Wabasso soils. They have an ac-
S Te net l rs ar r r n and light- cumulation of carbonates in the lower part of the A horizon
lower part. The next layers are very pale brown and ght- that is not present in Elred, Myakka, and Wabasso soils. They
gray fine sand very weakly cemented with carbonates, are better drained than Felda, Manatee, and Pompano soils.
These layers extend to a depth of about 35 inches. They Pinellas fine sand (Pf).-This is a nearly level, some-
are underlain by mottled grayish-brown fine sandy loam what poorly drained soil around sloughs and ponds in the
that extends to a depth of about 54 inches. Below this is flatwoods. The water table normally is at a depth of 10
fine sand mixed with shell fragments that extends to a to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. It is within
depth of 80 inches. Reaction is medium acid to a depth of a depth of 10 inches for a short time during wet periods.
about 8 inches, slightly acid between 8 and 18 inches, Included in mapping are small areas where depth to
mildly alkaline between 18 and 54 inches, and moderately the loamy layer is more than 40 inches. These inclusions
alkaline below this t of 80 miches. The water table make up about 15 percent of the acreage. Small areas
is at a depth of about 24 inches. where limestone is within a depth of 40 inches make up
Pinellas soils have low available water capacity, low about 5 percent. Small areas of Elred, Felda, and Wabasso
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Perme- soils make up no more than 10 percent of any mapped
ability is rapid to a depth of about 35 inches, moderate area
between 35 and 55 inches, and rapid below this depth. If adequate water control and good management are
Representative profile of Pinellas fine sand: practiced, this soil is well suited to special truck and
A1-0 to 3 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine, flower crops and improved pasture grasses. Many areas
crumb structure; very friable; mixture of organic are moderately well suited to citrus if the water table is
matter and light-gray sand grains has a salt-and-
pepper appearance; many fine and medium roots; lowered, irrigation is provided, and special management
medium acid; clear, smooth boundary. is practiced. Most areas of this soil are small in size,
A21-3 to 8 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grain; irregular in shape, and adjoin wetter soils, all of which
loose; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; medium limit their suitability as sites for citrus groves. (Capability
acid; clear, wavy boundary.
A22-8 to 18 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; com- unit IVw-1; woodland group 6)
mon, coarse, faint, very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
mottles and few, medium, white (10YR 8/2) mottles; Placid Series
single grain; loose; many medium and few coarse Placd
roots; slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
A23ca-18 to 2 inches, very pale brown (YR 8/3) fine sand; The Placid series consists of nearly level, very poorly
massive; crushes easily with slight pressure; firm; drained sandy soils that formed in thick layers of marine
secondary carbonates occur in interstices between sands under wet conditions that favored the accumulation
sand grains; sand grains are thinly coated with car- of organic matter. These soils occur in depressions,
bonates; few coarse roots; mildly alkaline; gradual,
wavy boundary. sloughs, and low swampy areas.
A24ca-25 to 35 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 17
common, coarse, distinct, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) inches thick. The lower part contains pockets of light
mottles; single grain; loose; secondary carbonates brownish gray. The next layer is light brownish-gray,
occur in interstices between sand grains; sand grains
are thinly coated with carbonates; few fine and loose fine sand mottled with very dark gray. It is about 12
medium roots; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy boundary, inches thick. Below this is grayish-brown, loose fine sand
B21tg-35 to 49 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine sandy that extends to a depth of 80 inches. Reaction is acid to
loam; common, coarse, faint, olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4) a depth of about 29 inches and strongly acid below this
mottles; weak, fine, subangular blocky structure;
sticky; many fine and medium roots; root channels to a depth of 80 inches. The water table is at the surface
filled with white (10YR 8/2) secondary carbonates; most of the year.
sand grains are bridged and coated with clay; few Placid soils have rapid permeability, high available
sand lenses; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy boundary. water capacity, high organic-matter content, and mod-
B22tg-49 to 54 inches, gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam; few,
fine, faint, olive mottles; weak, fine, subangular erately high natural fertility.
blocky structure; sticky; many fine and medium Representative profile of Placid fine sand:







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 19

All-0 to 11 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; moderate, Pomello soils have very low available water capacity,
fine, crumb structure; very friable; many fine and low organic-matter content, and low natural fertility.
medium roots; few coarse roots; very strongly acid; Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 44 inches,
clear, smooth boundary.
A12-11 to 17 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few coarse moderately rapid between 44 and 59 inches, and rapid
pockets of light brownish gray (10YR 6/2); weak, below this depth.
fine, crumb structure; very friable; many fine and Representative profile of Pomello fine sand:
medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth
boundary. Al-0 to 3 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grain;
C1-17 to 29 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine loose; mixture of organic matter and light-gray
sand; few, fine, faint, very dark gray mottles; single sand grains has a salt-and-pepper appearance; many
grain; few fine and coarse roots; very strongly acid; medium and coarse roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth
gradual, smooth boundary, boundary.
C2-29 to 80 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; A21-3 to 15 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; single
single grain; strongly acid. grain; loose; few medium and coarse roots; vertical
streaks of very dark gray (10YR 3/1) along root
The A horizon ranges from black to very dark gray or very channels; strongly very acid; gradual, wavy 1) along root
dark grayish brown and is 10 to 24 inches thick. Organic- 22-15 to 44 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grain;
matter content in the A horizon is 4 to 15 percent. In many A22-15 to 44 inches, white ( 8/1) f in e s and; single grain;ks of
places the thickness and organic-matter content of the A grayloose; few medium and coarse roots; vertical streaks of
horizon increase from the edge of an area toward the center. very dark gray ( 3/1) along root channels;
In some places materials from the A and C horizons have been strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
mixed by burrowing animals to form a transitional layer that B21h-44 to 49 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; massive;
has mixed colors between the A and C horizons. The upper very friable; weakly cemented but crushes easily with
part of the C horizon commonly is brownish gray or lighter in slight pressure; many fine roots; sand grains well
color. Colors are darker at greater depth. This horizon is coated with organic matter; strongly acid; clear,
mottled with darker colors and extends to a depth of 80 inches B22h-4smooth boundary reddish-brown (5YR 3/4) fine
or more. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to extremely acid B22h-49 to 59 inches, dark reddish-brown medium roots;3/4) fine
in all layers. The water table is at or within a depth of 10 inches sand; massive; very fragments of dark common meddish brown
for 2 to 9 months i most years. Low-lying areas are covered (5YR 3/2); sand grains well coated with organic
Placid soils are associated d with statula, Astor, Myakka, matter; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
Pomello, and Pompano soils. They are more poorly drained to 80 inches, dark yellowish-brown ( 3/4) fine
than Astatula, Pomello, and Myakka soils and are more acid sand; single grain; strongly acid.
than Astor and Pompano soils. The Al horizon ranges from light gray to gray and is 2 to 5
Placid ne sand (n).-This is a nearly level, very inches thick. The A2 horizon is light gray to white and has
Placid fine sand Pn).This is a nearly level, very few to many very dark gray vertical streaks along root channels
poorly drained soil in depressions, sloughs, and swamps. It is 30 to 50 inches thick. The Bh horizon is dark-brown to
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 9 black organic-matter stained sand or fine sand that is weakly
months in most years, and the lowest areas are covered cemented. It occurs at a depth of 39 to 60 inches and is 4 to
20 inches thick. The C horizon is dark yellowish-brown to
with water for 2 to 6 months. white sand or fine sand and extends to a depth of more than 80
Included in mapping are small areas where the under- inches. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to very strongly
lying sandy layers are very pale brown to yellowish acid in all layers. The water table normally is at a depth of 40
brown, and small areas where the black surface layer is to 60 inches, but it is at 10 to 40 inches for 1 or 2 months
more than 24 inches thick. Also included are a few small every year.soils are associated with Astatula, Immokalee,
Pomello soils are associated with Astatula, Immokalee,
areas of Astor soils. These inclusions make up no more Myakka, Oldsmar, Paola, Placid, and St. Lucie soils. In
than 10 percent of any mapped area. contrast with Astatula, Paola, and St. Lucie soils, they are
id fie s is w sid t i p a more poorly drained and have a Bh horizon. They are better
Placid fine sand is well suited to improved pasture and drained than Immokalee and Myakka soils. They are better
truck crops. Intensive water control is needed to lower drained than Oldsmar soils and do not have the loamy B2t
the water table and reduce the hazard of flooding. This horizon that is typical of those soils. They are better drained
soil is poorly suited to citrus because adequate water than Placid soils and have a thinner, lighter colored Al horizon.
control is difficult to maintain. (Capability unit IIIw-3; Pomello fine sand (Po).-This is a nearly level to gently
woodland group 8) sloping, moderately well drained soil on upland ridges
and on isolated small ridges and knolls in the flatwoods.
Pomello Series The water table is normally at a depth of 40 to 60 inches,
but may rise within a depth of 40 inches for a short time
The Pomello series consists of nearly level to gently during wet periods.
sloping, moderately well drained sandy soils that formed Included in mapping are a few small areas where the
in thick beds of almost pure quartz marine sand. These underlying organic-matter stained layer is only very
soils are on the upland ridge and on isolated knolls in the weakly developed. These inclusions make up as much as
flatwoods. 25 percent of some mapped areas. Also included are small
Typically, the surface layer is light-gray fine sand areas of Immokalee fine sand that make up about 5
about 3 inches thick. Below this is loose, fine sand about percent of some mapped areas.
41 inches thick. It is light gray in the upper part and white Pomello fine sand is very porous, and plant nutrients
in the lower part and has few to many thin vertical leach rapidly. Under good management, including control
streaks of very dark gray along root channels. At a depth of grazing, it is moderately well suited to improved pasture
of about 44 inches is a weakly cemented, organic-matter consisting of deep-rooted grasses. It is poorly suited to
stained layer of black fine sand about 5 inches thick. Below truck crops and citrus trees. Many areas near St. Peters-
this is a layer of dark reddish-brown fine sand about 10 burg have been used for community development. Lawns
inches thick. Dark yellowish-brown, loose fine sand ex- and ornamental plants in residential areas require intensive
tends to a depth of 80 inches. All layers are strongly acid. fertilization and irrigation. (Capability unit VIs-2;
The water table is normally at a depth of about 50 inches, woodland group 3)







20 SOIL SURVEY

Pompano Series Included in mapping are a few small areas where the
sand is stained dark brown below a depth of 30 inches.
The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly These inclusions make up less than 15 percent of any
drained sandy soils that formed in deep beds of marine mapped area. Places where a loamy layer is at a depth of
sand. These soils are in weakly defined drainageways 40 to 60 inches make up as much as 10 percent of some
and shallow depressions, and in slightly higher positions mapped areas.
between sloughs. This soil is well suited to truck and flower crops and to
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray to dark improved pasture where effective water control is estab-
grayish-brown fine sand about 14 inches thick. The lower listed and maintained. It is poorly suited to citrus and to
part is mottled with yellowish brown and light gray. lawn grasses and ornamental plants. (Capability unit
Below this is mottled yellowish-brown, pale-brown, and IVw-2; woodland group 8)
light-gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches.
Reaction is strongly acid to a depth of 14 inches, medium Pompano fine sand, pounded (Ps).-This is a nearly
acid between 14 and 58 inches, and slightly acid below level, poorly drained, sandy soil in grassy sloughs and
this to a depth of 80 inches. The water table is at a depth shallow depressions in the flatwoods. In most places the
of about 20 inches. surface layer is gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
Pompano soils have rapid permeability, very low next layer is dark grayish-brown fine sand about 9 inches
available water capacity, low organic-matter content, thick. Below this is pale-brown, loose fine sand mottled
and low natural fertility, with reddish yellow and yellowish brown. It is about 17
Representative profile of Pompano fine sand: inches thick. Below this is light brownish-gray, loose fine
sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches. Reaction is
All-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed fine medium acid to a depth of 31 inches and slightly acid
sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; Tis i i vr i r o 6 m
mixture of organic matter and light-gray sand grains below. This soil is covered ith water for 2 to 6 months
has a salt-and-pepper appearance; many fine and few in most years, and the water table is within a depth of 10
coarse roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. inches the rest of the time.
A12-5 to 14 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
few, medium, faint, light-gray (10YR 7/2) mottles Included in mapping are areas of similar soils that have
and few, fine, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) dark-brown stained layers at a depth of about 30 inches.
mottles; single grain; loose; common fine roots; These included soils make up about 25 percent of some
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary, mapped areas. Small areas that have clayey materials
1--14 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; mapped areas. Small areas that have clayey materials
few, medium, faint, light-gray (10YR 7/2) and very below a depth of 60 inches make up about 5 percent of
dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; light-gray some mapped areas. Very small areas of Astor soils also
mottles are uncoated grains of sand; single grain; are included in places.
loose; few fine roots; medium acid; gradual, wavy
boundary. f e roots; medium acid; gradual, wavy Pompano fine sand, pounded, is moderately well suited
C2-36 to 58 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; few, to truck crops and improved pasture if the hazard of
fine, faint, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) flooding is reduced. It is poorly suited to citrus. An effective
mottles; few, fine, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR water-control system is needed for all uses. (Capability
5/6) mottles; single grain; loose; few fine roots; u V-; wood o
medium acid; gradual, smooth boundary. unt IVw-2; woodland group 8)
C3-58 to 80 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; single
grain; nonsticky; slightly acid. Spoil Banks
The All horizon ranges from gray to black and is 3 to 6 inches
thick. The A12 horizon is light gray to dark grayish brown and Spoil banks (Sp) occurs mainly along the lower part of
is 10 to 16 inches thick. The A horizon ranges from medium the Anclote River and along the west coast of the county.
acid to neutral. The Cl horizon ranges from grayish brown, c ist i
yellowish brown, or very pale brown to light gray mottled with It consists of mixed sand rock, sandy clay loam, and
strong and weak shades of brown. It is 16 to 48 inches thick. The shells dredged from inland waterways and channels and
lower layers of the C horizon are light brownish gray to white dumped into harbors, bays, and inlets. These areas are
and extend to a depth of 80 inches or more. The C horizon used only to dispose of spoil materials from construction
ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline. The water table
normally is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches, but it rises to the sur- projects. No attempt has been made to level these areas,
face during wet periods and drops below 40 inches during dry but material dumped in unprotected waters has been
periods. Many areas are covered with water for 1 to 6 months reworked by wave action. Sandy areas are nearly level
in most years. Pompano fine sand, ponded, is covered with and only a foot or so above water at high tide. In many
water for 2 to 6 months in most years, and the water table is places sandy materials above the waterline have been
within a depth of 10 inches the rest of the year. places sandy materials above the waterne have been
Pompano soils are associated with Astor, Felda, Immokalee, removed by wave action, leaving a small barren island of
Manatee, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils. They have a rocks.
thinner Al horizon than Astor soils. They do not have the
loamy Bt horizon typical of Felda and Manatee soils. They do Some areas provide suitable picnic sites for boaters
not have the Bh horizon typical of Immokalee and Myakka but lack trees for shade. Many areas provide food and
soils. They do not have the Bh and Bt horizons typical of resting places for shore birds. (No capability or woodland
Oldsmar and Wabasso soils. classification)
Pompano fine sand (Pp).-This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil near ponds and in low areas between sloughs St. Lucie Series
in the flatwoods. It has the profile described as representa-
tive for the series. The water table normally is at a depth The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level to gently
of 10 to 40 inches. It is within 10 inches for 1 or 2 months sloping, excessively drained sandy soils that formed in
during wet seasons and is below 40 inches during dry beds of nearly pure quartz marine sand. These soils are
periods. on low ridges on uplands and near the coast.







20 SOIL SURVEY

Pompano Series Included in mapping are a few small areas where the
sand is stained dark brown below a depth of 30 inches.
The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly These inclusions make up less than 15 percent of any
drained sandy soils that formed in deep beds of marine mapped area. Places where a loamy layer is at a depth of
sand. These soils are in weakly defined drainageways 40 to 60 inches make up as much as 10 percent of some
and shallow depressions, and in slightly higher positions mapped areas.
between sloughs. This soil is well suited to truck and flower crops and to
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray to dark improved pasture where effective water control is estab-
grayish-brown fine sand about 14 inches thick. The lower listed and maintained. It is poorly suited to citrus and to
part is mottled with yellowish brown and light gray. lawn grasses and ornamental plants. (Capability unit
Below this is mottled yellowish-brown, pale-brown, and IVw-2; woodland group 8)
light-gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches.
Reaction is strongly acid to a depth of 14 inches, medium Pompano fine sand, pounded (Ps).-This is a nearly
acid between 14 and 58 inches, and slightly acid below level, poorly drained, sandy soil in grassy sloughs and
this to a depth of 80 inches. The water table is at a depth shallow depressions in the flatwoods. In most places the
of about 20 inches. surface layer is gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
Pompano soils have rapid permeability, very low next layer is dark grayish-brown fine sand about 9 inches
available water capacity, low organic-matter content, thick. Below this is pale-brown, loose fine sand mottled
and low natural fertility, with reddish yellow and yellowish brown. It is about 17
Representative profile of Pompano fine sand: inches thick. Below this is light brownish-gray, loose fine
sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches. Reaction is
All-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed fine medium acid to a depth of 31 inches and slightly acid
sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; Tis i i vr i r o 6 m
mixture of organic matter and light-gray sand grains below. This soil is covered ith water for 2 to 6 months
has a salt-and-pepper appearance; many fine and few in most years, and the water table is within a depth of 10
coarse roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. inches the rest of the time.
A12-5 to 14 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
few, medium, faint, light-gray (10YR 7/2) mottles Included in mapping are areas of similar soils that have
and few, fine, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) dark-brown stained layers at a depth of about 30 inches.
mottles; single grain; loose; common fine roots; These included soils make up about 25 percent of some
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary, mapped areas. Small areas that have clayey materials
1--14 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; mapped areas. Small areas that have clayey materials
few, medium, faint, light-gray (10YR 7/2) and very below a depth of 60 inches make up about 5 percent of
dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; light-gray some mapped areas. Very small areas of Astor soils also
mottles are uncoated grains of sand; single grain; are included in places.
loose; few fine roots; medium acid; gradual, wavy
boundary. f e roots; medium acid; gradual, wavy Pompano fine sand, pounded, is moderately well suited
C2-36 to 58 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; few, to truck crops and improved pasture if the hazard of
fine, faint, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) flooding is reduced. It is poorly suited to citrus. An effective
mottles; few, fine, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR water-control system is needed for all uses. (Capability
5/6) mottles; single grain; loose; few fine roots; u V-; wood o
medium acid; gradual, smooth boundary. unt IVw-2; woodland group 8)
C3-58 to 80 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; single
grain; nonsticky; slightly acid. Spoil Banks
The All horizon ranges from gray to black and is 3 to 6 inches
thick. The A12 horizon is light gray to dark grayish brown and Spoil banks (Sp) occurs mainly along the lower part of
is 10 to 16 inches thick. The A horizon ranges from medium the Anclote River and along the west coast of the county.
acid to neutral. The Cl horizon ranges from grayish brown, c ist i
yellowish brown, or very pale brown to light gray mottled with It consists of mixed sand rock, sandy clay loam, and
strong and weak shades of brown. It is 16 to 48 inches thick. The shells dredged from inland waterways and channels and
lower layers of the C horizon are light brownish gray to white dumped into harbors, bays, and inlets. These areas are
and extend to a depth of 80 inches or more. The C horizon used only to dispose of spoil materials from construction
ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline. The water table
normally is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches, but it rises to the sur- projects. No attempt has been made to level these areas,
face during wet periods and drops below 40 inches during dry but material dumped in unprotected waters has been
periods. Many areas are covered with water for 1 to 6 months reworked by wave action. Sandy areas are nearly level
in most years. Pompano fine sand, ponded, is covered with and only a foot or so above water at high tide. In many
water for 2 to 6 months in most years, and the water table is places sandy materials above the waterline have been
within a depth of 10 inches the rest of the year. places sandy materials above the waterne have been
Pompano soils are associated with Astor, Felda, Immokalee, removed by wave action, leaving a small barren island of
Manatee, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils. They have a rocks.
thinner Al horizon than Astor soils. They do not have the
loamy Bt horizon typical of Felda and Manatee soils. They do Some areas provide suitable picnic sites for boaters
not have the Bh horizon typical of Immokalee and Myakka but lack trees for shade. Many areas provide food and
soils. They do not have the Bh and Bt horizons typical of resting places for shore birds. (No capability or woodland
Oldsmar and Wabasso soils. classification)
Pompano fine sand (Pp).-This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil near ponds and in low areas between sloughs St. Lucie Series
in the flatwoods. It has the profile described as representa-
tive for the series. The water table normally is at a depth The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level to gently
of 10 to 40 inches. It is within 10 inches for 1 or 2 months sloping, excessively drained sandy soils that formed in
during wet seasons and is below 40 inches during dry beds of nearly pure quartz marine sand. These soils are
periods. on low ridges on uplands and near the coast.







20 SOIL SURVEY

Pompano Series Included in mapping are a few small areas where the
sand is stained dark brown below a depth of 30 inches.
The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly These inclusions make up less than 15 percent of any
drained sandy soils that formed in deep beds of marine mapped area. Places where a loamy layer is at a depth of
sand. These soils are in weakly defined drainageways 40 to 60 inches make up as much as 10 percent of some
and shallow depressions, and in slightly higher positions mapped areas.
between sloughs. This soil is well suited to truck and flower crops and to
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray to dark improved pasture where effective water control is estab-
grayish-brown fine sand about 14 inches thick. The lower listed and maintained. It is poorly suited to citrus and to
part is mottled with yellowish brown and light gray. lawn grasses and ornamental plants. (Capability unit
Below this is mottled yellowish-brown, pale-brown, and IVw-2; woodland group 8)
light-gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches.
Reaction is strongly acid to a depth of 14 inches, medium Pompano fine sand, pounded (Ps).-This is a nearly
acid between 14 and 58 inches, and slightly acid below level, poorly drained, sandy soil in grassy sloughs and
this to a depth of 80 inches. The water table is at a depth shallow depressions in the flatwoods. In most places the
of about 20 inches. surface layer is gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
Pompano soils have rapid permeability, very low next layer is dark grayish-brown fine sand about 9 inches
available water capacity, low organic-matter content, thick. Below this is pale-brown, loose fine sand mottled
and low natural fertility, with reddish yellow and yellowish brown. It is about 17
Representative profile of Pompano fine sand: inches thick. Below this is light brownish-gray, loose fine
sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches. Reaction is
All-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed fine medium acid to a depth of 31 inches and slightly acid
sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; Tis i i vr i r o 6 m
mixture of organic matter and light-gray sand grains below. This soil is covered ith water for 2 to 6 months
has a salt-and-pepper appearance; many fine and few in most years, and the water table is within a depth of 10
coarse roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. inches the rest of the time.
A12-5 to 14 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
few, medium, faint, light-gray (10YR 7/2) mottles Included in mapping are areas of similar soils that have
and few, fine, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) dark-brown stained layers at a depth of about 30 inches.
mottles; single grain; loose; common fine roots; These included soils make up about 25 percent of some
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary, mapped areas. Small areas that have clayey materials
1--14 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; mapped areas. Small areas that have clayey materials
few, medium, faint, light-gray (10YR 7/2) and very below a depth of 60 inches make up about 5 percent of
dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; light-gray some mapped areas. Very small areas of Astor soils also
mottles are uncoated grains of sand; single grain; are included in places.
loose; few fine roots; medium acid; gradual, wavy
boundary. f e roots; medium acid; gradual, wavy Pompano fine sand, pounded, is moderately well suited
C2-36 to 58 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; few, to truck crops and improved pasture if the hazard of
fine, faint, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) flooding is reduced. It is poorly suited to citrus. An effective
mottles; few, fine, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR water-control system is needed for all uses. (Capability
5/6) mottles; single grain; loose; few fine roots; u V-; wood o
medium acid; gradual, smooth boundary. unt IVw-2; woodland group 8)
C3-58 to 80 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; single
grain; nonsticky; slightly acid. Spoil Banks
The All horizon ranges from gray to black and is 3 to 6 inches
thick. The A12 horizon is light gray to dark grayish brown and Spoil banks (Sp) occurs mainly along the lower part of
is 10 to 16 inches thick. The A horizon ranges from medium the Anclote River and along the west coast of the county.
acid to neutral. The Cl horizon ranges from grayish brown, c ist i
yellowish brown, or very pale brown to light gray mottled with It consists of mixed sand rock, sandy clay loam, and
strong and weak shades of brown. It is 16 to 48 inches thick. The shells dredged from inland waterways and channels and
lower layers of the C horizon are light brownish gray to white dumped into harbors, bays, and inlets. These areas are
and extend to a depth of 80 inches or more. The C horizon used only to dispose of spoil materials from construction
ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline. The water table
normally is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches, but it rises to the sur- projects. No attempt has been made to level these areas,
face during wet periods and drops below 40 inches during dry but material dumped in unprotected waters has been
periods. Many areas are covered with water for 1 to 6 months reworked by wave action. Sandy areas are nearly level
in most years. Pompano fine sand, ponded, is covered with and only a foot or so above water at high tide. In many
water for 2 to 6 months in most years, and the water table is places sandy materials above the waterline have been
within a depth of 10 inches the rest of the year. places sandy materials above the waterne have been
Pompano soils are associated with Astor, Felda, Immokalee, removed by wave action, leaving a small barren island of
Manatee, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils. They have a rocks.
thinner Al horizon than Astor soils. They do not have the
loamy Bt horizon typical of Felda and Manatee soils. They do Some areas provide suitable picnic sites for boaters
not have the Bh horizon typical of Immokalee and Myakka but lack trees for shade. Many areas provide food and
soils. They do not have the Bh and Bt horizons typical of resting places for shore birds. (No capability or woodland
Oldsmar and Wabasso soils. classification)
Pompano fine sand (Pp).-This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil near ponds and in low areas between sloughs St. Lucie Series
in the flatwoods. It has the profile described as representa-
tive for the series. The water table normally is at a depth The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level to gently
of 10 to 40 inches. It is within 10 inches for 1 or 2 months sloping, excessively drained sandy soils that formed in
during wet seasons and is below 40 inches during dry beds of nearly pure quartz marine sand. These soils are
periods. on low ridges on uplands and near the coast.







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 21

Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3 Included in mapping are small areas of Palm Beach
inches thick. Below this is a white loose fine sand about sand that make up no more than 15 percent of any mapped
55 inches thick. Yellow loose fine sand extends to a depth area and of Made land that make up as much as 5 percent.
of 80 inches. Reaction is strongly acid in all layers. The Most areas of St. Lucie fine sand, shell substratum, are
water table is below a depth of 80 inches. in State or county parks or have been used for building
St. Lucie soils have very rapid permeability, very low lots. No areas are available for farming. (Capability unit
available water capacity, low organic-matter content, and VIs-2; woodland group 3)
low natural fertility.
Representative profile of St. Lucie fine sand: Terra Ceia Series, Moderately Deep Variant
A1-0 to 3 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain;
loose; common fine medium and coarse roots; many The Terra Ceia series, moderately deep variant, con-
fine and medium charcoal fragments; strongly acid; sists of nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils in
clear, smooth boundary.
1-3 to 58 inches, white ( R 8/1) fine sand; single grain; small depressions, marshes, and swamps. These soils are
loose; few medium and coarse roots; many uncoated covered with shallow water most of the year.
sand grains; strongly acid; abrupt, irregular boundary. Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 42
C2-58 to 80 inches, yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sand; single grain; inches thick. The upper part is slightly acid and the lower
loose; few fine and medium roots; many uncoated part is mildly alkaline. Below this is neutral very dark
sand grains; strongly acid.
The Al horizon normally is very dark gray to light gray and brown fine sand.
is 2 to 6 inches thick. The 01 horizon is gray to white and is Terra Ceia soils have rapid permeability, very high
40 to 80 inches or more thick. A C2 horizon of yellow sand available water capacity, high organic-matter content,
that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more occurs in places. and moderate natural fertility.
Near the coast are areas underlain by layers of sea shells and
shell fragments at a depth of 40 inches or more. In these areas Representative profile of Terra Ceia muck, moderately
the water table normally is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches, deep variant:
Some of the St. Lucie soils mapped in Pinellas County are Oal-0 to 7 inches, black (5YR 2/1) muck; weak, medium,
outside the range defined for the series because their C2 crumb structure; very friable; 10 percent fiber
horizon is yellow. This difference does not affect use or unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; about 90
management. unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubborganic matter; many fine, med; about 90and
St. Lucie soils are associated with Astatula, Myakka, Paola, percent organic matter; many fine, medium, and
Placid, and Pomello soils. Their C1 horizon is white, whereas pale brown (oYR 6/3); slightly acid; gradual,
that of Astatula soils is light yellow or brown. They are better smooth boundary.
drained than Myakka and Pomello soils and do not have the Oa2-7 to 42 inches, black (N 2/0) muck; weak, coarse, crumb
Bh horizon that is typical of those soils. They do not have the structure; 20 percent fiber unrubbed, 5 percent
layer of yellow sand within a depth of 40 inches that is typical rubbed; about 95percent organic matter; sodium
of Paola soils. They are better drained than Placid soils and pyrophosphate extract color is pale brown (lOYR
do not have the thick black surface layer that is typical of 6/3); mildly alkaline; gradual, smooth boundary.
those soils. Ab-42 to 65 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine sand;
St. Lucie fine sand, O to 5 percent slopes (StB).-This is single grain; neutral.
an excessively drained, undulating soil on high ridges. It The Oa horizon ranges from black to dark reddish brown and
has the profile described as representative for the series. is 18 to 50 inches thick. The mineral content is 5 to 40 percent.
The water table is below a depth of 80 inches all year. The Ab horizon is gray, grayish-brown, very dark brown, or
black sand or fine sand.
Included in mapping are areas that are white sand to a The Terra Ceia soils mapped in Pinellas County are a mod-
depth of 80 inches or more and do not have the underlying erately deep variant of the Terra Ceia series because the mucky
layers of yellow or brown sand. Small areas of Paola fine Oa horizon is less than 50 inches thick. This difference does not
sand make up as much as 15 percent of some mapped ppreciaby affect use and management Astor, Okeechobee,
n f Terra Ceia soils are associated with Astor, Okeechobee,
areas, and small areas of Pomello fine sand make up about Pamlico, and Placid soils. They have an organic surface layer,
5 percent. whereas Astor and Placid soils have a thick, dark-colored
This soil is poorly suited to crops. It is drought and is mineral surface layer. They are less acid than Pamlico soils.
rapidly leached of mineral fertilizers. The response to They do not have the brown peat Oe horizon typical of Okee-
fertilization is poor. (Capability unit VIIs-1; woodland chobee soils.
group 1) Terra Ceia muck, moderately deep variant (Tc).-This
St. Lucie fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (StC).- is a nearly level, very poorly drained organic soil in
Except for slope, this soil is similar to St. Lucie fine sand, depressions, broad marshes, and swampy areas. The
0 to 5 percent slopes. (Capability unit VIIs-1; woodland water table commonly is at a depth of less than 10 inches
group 1) or the soil is covered with shallow water for 6 to 12
St. Lucie fine sand, shell substratum (Su).-This is a months in most years.
nearly level soil on low ridges on barrier islands in the Included in mapping are areas where the organic
western part of the county. In most places the surface horizons are strongly acid and more than 50 inches thick.
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. These inclusions make up about 25 percent of the acreage.
Below this is light-gray loose fine sand about 34 inches Some mapped areas are made up entirely of these strongly
thick. The next layer is very pale brown, loose fine sand acid soils. Also included are small areas of Okeechobee
that extends to a depth of 40 inches or more. This is soils that make up not more than 10 percent of any
underlain by layers of mixed light-gray or white sand, mapped area.
seashells, and shell fragments. Reaction is medium acid in This soil is very wet, and a few areas do not have
the surface layer and mildly alkaline below. The water drainage outlets. If water control is adequate, this soil is
table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 6 months or more well suited to special truck and flower crops and improved
in most years. It is within 40 inches for less than 60 days. pasture. The surface should be saturated with water







22 SOIL SURVEY

during fallow periods to prevent oxidation. Special Urban Land
fertilization and management are needed for good crop
growth. (Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland group 9) Much of Pinellas County has been developed for
urban uses. Use of heavy earth-moving equipment to
Tidal Marsh prepare building sites has altered much of the original soil
material. Buildings and pavement cover parts of this
Tidal marsh (Td) consists of marshy areas slightly reworked soil material. Other parts have been leveled or
above sea level that are mostly along the Anclote River, shaped. Only small remnants of the original soils are inter-
Allen's Creek, and Cross Bayou, and in narrow strips spersed with areas covered by buildings and pavement and
adjacent to Tidal swamp. It differs from Tidal swamp areas of reworked soil material. In older residential areas
mainly in vegetative cover. Tidal marsh is saturated by the proportion of undisturbed soil is larger.
salt water or brackish water or inundated by tidal waters, Where very little of the original soil remains undis-
but it is not subject to vigorous wave action. Strong turbed, the areas are mapped as Urban land. Where enough
concentrations of salt inhibit the growth of all vegetation remains to make identification of the original soil possible,
except salt-tolerant weeds, rushes, sedges, and a few small the areas are mapped as a complex of Urban land and the
scattered mangrove trees. identified soil.
This land type consists mainly of mineral soils, but Urban land (Ub).-This land type consists of areas
many areas have an organic surface layer as much as where the original soil has been modified through cutting,
50 inches thick. Some areas have stratified mineral and grading, filling, and shaping or has been generally altered
organic materials, and some have a highly organic surface for urban development. Major soil properties that orig-
layer over sand. Many areas have layers of sand mixed finally limited urban uses have been overcome to an
with shell fragments at varying depths. All areas are acceptable extent. Urban facilities, including paved
strongly saline and generally emit a strong odor of hydro- parking areas, streets, industrial buildings, houses, other
gen sulfide when excavated. A small acreage of slightly structures, and underground utilities, have been con-
higher soils is inundated only by extremely high tides structed on 75 percent or more of these altered areas.
and is less wet; only patches of salt-tolerant grasses and Areas not covered by urban facilities generally have been
succulents grow in these higher areas. altered. Identification of soils within these areas is not
Tidal marsh provides food, breeding grounds, and some feasible.
cover for many species of birds and a few animals. Small Urban land occurs primarily in downtown areas,
creeks and streams in these areas are breeding grounds shopping districts, industrial parks, and along main
for numerous species of fish. (No capability classification; traveled throughways of cities and towns. It also occurs
woodland group 9) in isolated shopping centers and small business areas at inter-
sections of primary roads. Included in places are small,
Tidal Swamp less intensively developed areas and small areas of
l s p () is on s i in l b identifiable soils. (No capability or woodland classification)
Tidal swamp (Ts) is on small islands and in low, broad Urban land-Astatula complex (Uc).-This complex is
coastal areas that are covered with sea water. It occurs Urban land-A Astatula fine sand, of which 10 to
mostly in the southeastern part of the county. The water about 30 to 70 percent Asta modified by cutting, of whgrading, and10 to
is several inches deep at low tide and 1 or 2 feet deep at shaping. About 25 to 40 percent has been modified bythis complexutting, grading, is Urban
high tide. Tidal swamp differs from Tidal marsh mainly in shaping. About 25 to 40 percent of this complex is Urban
high tide. Tidal swamp differs from Tidal marsh many in land that is covered with houses, industrial buildings,
vegetation. Tidal swamp has a thick growth of mangrove other structures, and pavement.
trees and a few small patches of salt-tolerant plants. Tidal l trul le a t a
swamp is subject to wave action, whereas Tidal marsh Soil material left after grading and leveling has been
usually is not. used to fill low wet areas. In a few places it has been
This land type consists mainly of sand, peaty sand, a shaped. In these small areas slopes are 5 to 8 percent.
few organic soils, seashells, and shell fragments. The Included in mapping are small areas of St. Lucie soils,
dense forest of mangrove trees and high water make small areas of poorly drained soils, and a few small areas
detailed investigation of the soils impractical. In places the that are more than 75 percent covered with urban facil-
surface layer is fibrous peat, 6 to 18 inches thick, over gray cities. These inclusions make up no more than 15 percent
to pale-brown sand mixed with shell fragments. In of any mapped area. (No capability or woodland classi-
places the surface layer is sandy clay and the subsurface fiction)
layers are loam or marl. Other areas are stratified sand and Urban land-Immokalee complex (U k).-About 35 to 55
organic material. Most areas contain varying amounts of percent of this complex is Immokalee fine sand, of which
seashells and shell fragments at irregular depths. 10 to 25 percent has been modified by cutting, grading,
Tidal swamp is not extensive in the county. It is and shaping. About 25 to 40 percent of this complex is
mainly a source of food, cover, and breeding grounds for Made land that is covered by houses, industrial buildings,
numerous shore birds and animals. Many mosquito-control other structures, and pavement. The rest is spoil materials
ditches have been dug in most areas to remove water from drainage canals and from street and other grading
trapped by falling tides. The shallow water in these ditches operations that have been used to fill low places or have
provides food and breeding areas for many species of fish. been spread over the surface of other soils.
Some areas in the vicinity of St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Included in mapping are small areas of Astatula fine
and Honeymoon Island have been filled with dredged sand and Myakka fine sand and a few small areas that
material to provide waterfront homesites. (No capability are more than 75 percent covered with urban facilities.
classification; woodland group 9) These inclusions make up no more than 15 percent of







22 SOIL SURVEY

during fallow periods to prevent oxidation. Special Urban Land
fertilization and management are needed for good crop
growth. (Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland group 9) Much of Pinellas County has been developed for
urban uses. Use of heavy earth-moving equipment to
Tidal Marsh prepare building sites has altered much of the original soil
material. Buildings and pavement cover parts of this
Tidal marsh (Td) consists of marshy areas slightly reworked soil material. Other parts have been leveled or
above sea level that are mostly along the Anclote River, shaped. Only small remnants of the original soils are inter-
Allen's Creek, and Cross Bayou, and in narrow strips spersed with areas covered by buildings and pavement and
adjacent to Tidal swamp. It differs from Tidal swamp areas of reworked soil material. In older residential areas
mainly in vegetative cover. Tidal marsh is saturated by the proportion of undisturbed soil is larger.
salt water or brackish water or inundated by tidal waters, Where very little of the original soil remains undis-
but it is not subject to vigorous wave action. Strong turbed, the areas are mapped as Urban land. Where enough
concentrations of salt inhibit the growth of all vegetation remains to make identification of the original soil possible,
except salt-tolerant weeds, rushes, sedges, and a few small the areas are mapped as a complex of Urban land and the
scattered mangrove trees. identified soil.
This land type consists mainly of mineral soils, but Urban land (Ub).-This land type consists of areas
many areas have an organic surface layer as much as where the original soil has been modified through cutting,
50 inches thick. Some areas have stratified mineral and grading, filling, and shaping or has been generally altered
organic materials, and some have a highly organic surface for urban development. Major soil properties that orig-
layer over sand. Many areas have layers of sand mixed finally limited urban uses have been overcome to an
with shell fragments at varying depths. All areas are acceptable extent. Urban facilities, including paved
strongly saline and generally emit a strong odor of hydro- parking areas, streets, industrial buildings, houses, other
gen sulfide when excavated. A small acreage of slightly structures, and underground utilities, have been con-
higher soils is inundated only by extremely high tides structed on 75 percent or more of these altered areas.
and is less wet; only patches of salt-tolerant grasses and Areas not covered by urban facilities generally have been
succulents grow in these higher areas. altered. Identification of soils within these areas is not
Tidal marsh provides food, breeding grounds, and some feasible.
cover for many species of birds and a few animals. Small Urban land occurs primarily in downtown areas,
creeks and streams in these areas are breeding grounds shopping districts, industrial parks, and along main
for numerous species of fish. (No capability classification; traveled throughways of cities and towns. It also occurs
woodland group 9) in isolated shopping centers and small business areas at inter-
sections of primary roads. Included in places are small,
Tidal Swamp less intensively developed areas and small areas of
l s p () is on s i in l b identifiable soils. (No capability or woodland classification)
Tidal swamp (Ts) is on small islands and in low, broad Urban land-Astatula complex (Uc).-This complex is
coastal areas that are covered with sea water. It occurs Urban land-A Astatula fine sand, of which 10 to
mostly in the southeastern part of the county. The water about 30 to 70 percent Asta modified by cutting, of whgrading, and10 to
is several inches deep at low tide and 1 or 2 feet deep at shaping. About 25 to 40 percent has been modified bythis complexutting, grading, is Urban
high tide. Tidal swamp differs from Tidal marsh mainly in shaping. About 25 to 40 percent of this complex is Urban
high tide. Tidal swamp differs from Tidal marsh many in land that is covered with houses, industrial buildings,
vegetation. Tidal swamp has a thick growth of mangrove other structures, and pavement.
trees and a few small patches of salt-tolerant plants. Tidal l trul le a t a
swamp is subject to wave action, whereas Tidal marsh Soil material left after grading and leveling has been
usually is not. used to fill low wet areas. In a few places it has been
This land type consists mainly of sand, peaty sand, a shaped. In these small areas slopes are 5 to 8 percent.
few organic soils, seashells, and shell fragments. The Included in mapping are small areas of St. Lucie soils,
dense forest of mangrove trees and high water make small areas of poorly drained soils, and a few small areas
detailed investigation of the soils impractical. In places the that are more than 75 percent covered with urban facil-
surface layer is fibrous peat, 6 to 18 inches thick, over gray cities. These inclusions make up no more than 15 percent
to pale-brown sand mixed with shell fragments. In of any mapped area. (No capability or woodland classi-
places the surface layer is sandy clay and the subsurface fiction)
layers are loam or marl. Other areas are stratified sand and Urban land-Immokalee complex (U k).-About 35 to 55
organic material. Most areas contain varying amounts of percent of this complex is Immokalee fine sand, of which
seashells and shell fragments at irregular depths. 10 to 25 percent has been modified by cutting, grading,
Tidal swamp is not extensive in the county. It is and shaping. About 25 to 40 percent of this complex is
mainly a source of food, cover, and breeding grounds for Made land that is covered by houses, industrial buildings,
numerous shore birds and animals. Many mosquito-control other structures, and pavement. The rest is spoil materials
ditches have been dug in most areas to remove water from drainage canals and from street and other grading
trapped by falling tides. The shallow water in these ditches operations that have been used to fill low places or have
provides food and breeding areas for many species of fish. been spread over the surface of other soils.
Some areas in the vicinity of St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Included in mapping are small areas of Astatula fine
and Honeymoon Island have been filled with dredged sand and Myakka fine sand and a few small areas that
material to provide waterfront homesites. (No capability are more than 75 percent covered with urban facilities.
classification; woodland group 9) These inclusions make up no more than 15 percent of







22 SOIL SURVEY

during fallow periods to prevent oxidation. Special Urban Land
fertilization and management are needed for good crop
growth. (Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland group 9) Much of Pinellas County has been developed for
urban uses. Use of heavy earth-moving equipment to
Tidal Marsh prepare building sites has altered much of the original soil
material. Buildings and pavement cover parts of this
Tidal marsh (Td) consists of marshy areas slightly reworked soil material. Other parts have been leveled or
above sea level that are mostly along the Anclote River, shaped. Only small remnants of the original soils are inter-
Allen's Creek, and Cross Bayou, and in narrow strips spersed with areas covered by buildings and pavement and
adjacent to Tidal swamp. It differs from Tidal swamp areas of reworked soil material. In older residential areas
mainly in vegetative cover. Tidal marsh is saturated by the proportion of undisturbed soil is larger.
salt water or brackish water or inundated by tidal waters, Where very little of the original soil remains undis-
but it is not subject to vigorous wave action. Strong turbed, the areas are mapped as Urban land. Where enough
concentrations of salt inhibit the growth of all vegetation remains to make identification of the original soil possible,
except salt-tolerant weeds, rushes, sedges, and a few small the areas are mapped as a complex of Urban land and the
scattered mangrove trees. identified soil.
This land type consists mainly of mineral soils, but Urban land (Ub).-This land type consists of areas
many areas have an organic surface layer as much as where the original soil has been modified through cutting,
50 inches thick. Some areas have stratified mineral and grading, filling, and shaping or has been generally altered
organic materials, and some have a highly organic surface for urban development. Major soil properties that orig-
layer over sand. Many areas have layers of sand mixed finally limited urban uses have been overcome to an
with shell fragments at varying depths. All areas are acceptable extent. Urban facilities, including paved
strongly saline and generally emit a strong odor of hydro- parking areas, streets, industrial buildings, houses, other
gen sulfide when excavated. A small acreage of slightly structures, and underground utilities, have been con-
higher soils is inundated only by extremely high tides structed on 75 percent or more of these altered areas.
and is less wet; only patches of salt-tolerant grasses and Areas not covered by urban facilities generally have been
succulents grow in these higher areas. altered. Identification of soils within these areas is not
Tidal marsh provides food, breeding grounds, and some feasible.
cover for many species of birds and a few animals. Small Urban land occurs primarily in downtown areas,
creeks and streams in these areas are breeding grounds shopping districts, industrial parks, and along main
for numerous species of fish. (No capability classification; traveled throughways of cities and towns. It also occurs
woodland group 9) in isolated shopping centers and small business areas at inter-
sections of primary roads. Included in places are small,
Tidal Swamp less intensively developed areas and small areas of
l s p () is on s i in l b identifiable soils. (No capability or woodland classification)
Tidal swamp (Ts) is on small islands and in low, broad Urban land-Astatula complex (Uc).-This complex is
coastal areas that are covered with sea water. It occurs Urban land-A Astatula fine sand, of which 10 to
mostly in the southeastern part of the county. The water about 30 to 70 percent Asta modified by cutting, of whgrading, and10 to
is several inches deep at low tide and 1 or 2 feet deep at shaping. About 25 to 40 percent has been modified bythis complexutting, grading, is Urban
high tide. Tidal swamp differs from Tidal marsh mainly in shaping. About 25 to 40 percent of this complex is Urban
high tide. Tidal swamp differs from Tidal marsh many in land that is covered with houses, industrial buildings,
vegetation. Tidal swamp has a thick growth of mangrove other structures, and pavement.
trees and a few small patches of salt-tolerant plants. Tidal l trul le a t a
swamp is subject to wave action, whereas Tidal marsh Soil material left after grading and leveling has been
usually is not. used to fill low wet areas. In a few places it has been
This land type consists mainly of sand, peaty sand, a shaped. In these small areas slopes are 5 to 8 percent.
few organic soils, seashells, and shell fragments. The Included in mapping are small areas of St. Lucie soils,
dense forest of mangrove trees and high water make small areas of poorly drained soils, and a few small areas
detailed investigation of the soils impractical. In places the that are more than 75 percent covered with urban facil-
surface layer is fibrous peat, 6 to 18 inches thick, over gray cities. These inclusions make up no more than 15 percent
to pale-brown sand mixed with shell fragments. In of any mapped area. (No capability or woodland classi-
places the surface layer is sandy clay and the subsurface fiction)
layers are loam or marl. Other areas are stratified sand and Urban land-Immokalee complex (U k).-About 35 to 55
organic material. Most areas contain varying amounts of percent of this complex is Immokalee fine sand, of which
seashells and shell fragments at irregular depths. 10 to 25 percent has been modified by cutting, grading,
Tidal swamp is not extensive in the county. It is and shaping. About 25 to 40 percent of this complex is
mainly a source of food, cover, and breeding grounds for Made land that is covered by houses, industrial buildings,
numerous shore birds and animals. Many mosquito-control other structures, and pavement. The rest is spoil materials
ditches have been dug in most areas to remove water from drainage canals and from street and other grading
trapped by falling tides. The shallow water in these ditches operations that have been used to fill low places or have
provides food and breeding areas for many species of fish. been spread over the surface of other soils.
Some areas in the vicinity of St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Included in mapping are small areas of Astatula fine
and Honeymoon Island have been filled with dredged sand and Myakka fine sand and a few small areas that
material to provide waterfront homesites. (No capability are more than 75 percent covered with urban facilities.
classification; woodland group 9) These inclusions make up no more than 15 percent of







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

any mapped area. (No capability or woodland classifica- depths of about 50 inches and 62 inches. Reaction is very
tion) strongly acid to a depth of about 27 inches, slightly acid
Urban land-Myakka complex (Um).-About 30 to 50 between 27 and 32 inches, medium acid between 32 and
percent of this complex is Myakka fine sand, of which 38 inches, slightly acid between 38 and 50 inches, and
15 to 30 percent has been modified by cutting, grading, mildly alkaline below this depth. The water table normally
and shaping. About 25 to 40 percent of this complex is is at a depth of about 25 inches.
Urban land that is covered with houses, industrial build- Wabasso soils have low available water capacity, low
ings, other structures, and pavement. Spoil materials organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Perme-
from drainage canals and from street excavations have ability is rapid to a depth of 27 inches, moderate between
been used to fill low areas or spread on the surface of 27 and 50 inches, and rapid below this depth.
other soils. Representative profile of Wabasso fine sand:
Included in mapping are small areas of Adamsville, Al-0 to 5 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine,
Astatula, and Immokalee soils that make up no more crumb structure; very friable; mixture of organic
than 15 percent of any mapped area. Small areas of Made matter and light-gray sand grains; many fine and
land and small areas more than 75 percent of which are medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth
covered with urban facilities also are included. (No A2-5 to 27 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grain;
capability or woodland classification) loose; few fine and medium roots; few vertical streaks
Urban land-Pomello complex (Up).--About 25 to 55 of very dark gray along root channels; very strongly
percent of this complex is Pomello soils, of which 10 to 7 acid; clear, smooth boundary,
B2h--27 to 32 inches, black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; massive;
25 percent has been modified by cutting, grading, and firm; weakly cemented, crushes easily with slight
shaping. About 25 to 40 percent of this complex is Urban pressure; sand grains well coated with organic matter;
land that is covered with houses, industrial buildings, many fine and medium roots; few gray streaks along
other structures, and pavement. Spoil material from r oot channels; slightly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
grading and leveling operations has been used to fill B3 & Bh-32 to 38 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine
grading and level operations has been used to fill low sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; most
areas or has been spread over the surface of other soils, sand grains coated with organic matter; common fine
Included in mapping are small areas of Astatula fine roots; weakly cemented; common fragments of black
sand, Immokalee fine sand, and Myakka fine sand that (5YR 2/1) along root channels; medium acid; gradual,
make up no more than 15 percent of ny mapped smooth boundary.
make up no more than 15 percent of any mapped area. B'21t-38 to 44 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine
As much as 75 percent of a few small areas is covered sandy clay loam; common, medium and coarse, dis-
with structures and pavement. (No capability or wood- tinct, olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4) mottles; moderate, medi-
land classification) um, subangular blocky structure; firm; many fine and
Urban land-Waasso complex (Uw).-About 35 to 55 medium roots; sand grains are bridged and coated
Urban land-Wabasso complex (Uw).-About 35 to55 with clay; slightly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary.
percent of this complex is Wabasso fine sand, of which B'22t-44 to 50 inches, coarsely mottled, dark-brown (10YR
10 to 30 percent has been modified by cutting, grading, 3/3), olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4), and grayish-brown (2.5Y
and shaping. About 25 to 40 percent of this complex is 5/2) fine sandy loam; weak, moderate, subangular
blocky structure; slightly sticky; common fine roots;
Urban land that is covered with houses, industrial build- ocd ains are briged an coated with clay; slige rohtly
ings, other structures, and pavement. Spoil material acid; clear, wavy boundary.
from drainage canals and from street grading has been IIC-50 to 62 inches, light-gray (2.5Y 7/2) sand and shell
used to fill low areas or has been spread on the surface fragments; single grain; loose; mildly alkaline;
of other soils. calcareous.
Included in mapping are areas of Oldsmar fine sand The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to black and is 4 to 7
that make up as much as 15 percent of some mapped inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray to light-gray sand or fine
sand and is 10 to 23 inches thick. Depth to the B2h horizon is 20
areas, and small areas of Pinellas fine sand and Elred to 30 inches. This horizon is dark reddish-brown, dark-brown,
fine sand that make up about 5 percent. (No capability or black sand or fine sand and is 4 to 12 inches thick. The Bh
or woodland classification) horizon ranges from slightly acid to very strongly acid. In many
places a B3 & Bh horizon, 4 to 6 inches thick, is below the Bh
horizon. It is dark-brown to dark grayish-brown sand and has
Wabasso Series black, weakly cemented nodules of sand scattered through it.
The B'2t horizon occurs at depths of 29 to 40 inches. It is gray
The Wabasso series consists of nearly level, poorly to dark grayish-brown and brownish-yellow sandy loam or
drained sandy soils that formed in beds of sandy and sandy clay loam and is mottled with gray, olive, olive brown,
sediments. These soils are on broad low grayish brown, brownish yellow, and strong brown. The lower
loamy marine sediments. These soils are on broad low part of the B'2t horizon is more strongly mottled and, in places,
ridges in the flatwoods. contains carbonate along root channels and light-gray to white
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 secondary carbonate material. The B't horizon ranges from
inches thick. Below this is gray, loose, leached fine sand medium acid to mildly alkaline. A IIC horizon of gray sand
mixed with shell fragments occurs below the B'2t horizon, com-
about 22 inches thick. It has a few vertical streaks of only within a depth of 60 inches. In places the IIC horizon is
very dark gray along root channels. The next layer is as much as 15 feet thick. The water table is within a depth of 10
black, weakly cemented, very friable fine sand 5 inches inches for 1 or 2 months during wet seasons. The rest of the
thick. Next is dark-brown, very friable fine sand that year it is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches.
The Wabasso soils mapped in Pinellas County have a B
contains fragments of black, weakly cemented fine sand. horizon that is less acid than the range defined for the series.
This is underlain by dark grayish-brown fine sandy clay This difference does not appreciably affect use or management.
loam mottled with olive brown; it is about 6 inches thick. Wabasso soils are associated with Astor, Elred, Felda, Mana-
Below this is coarsely mottled dark-brown, olive-brown, tee, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Pompano soils. They are not so
and gryish-brown fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick poorly drained as Astor, Pompano, and Manatee soils. They
and grayish-brown fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick, have a Bh horizon that is lacking in Elred, Felda, and Pompano
Light-gray sand mixed with shell fragments is between soils. They have a loamy Bt horizon that is lacking in Myakka







24 SOIL SURVEY

soils. Their A horizon is less than 30 inches thick, whereas that B'2t-55 to 80 inches, gray (N 6/0) fine sandy loam; few,
of Oldsmar soils is more than 30 inches thick. medium, distinct, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) mottles;
common, coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR
Wabasso fine sand (Wa).-This is a nearly level, poorly 5/6) mottles; and few, medium, prominent, red
drained soil on broad low ridges in the flatwoods. The (2.5YR 5/6) mottles; massive; friable; slightly sticky;
water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 sand grains are thinly coated and bridged with clay;
months during wet seasons and at a depth of 10 to 40 few small sand lenses; very strongly acid.
inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to black and is 4 to 8
Included in mapping are small areas that have a thin inches thick. The A2 horizon is light-gray to gray sand or fine
Includedsand and is 14 to 23 inches thick. A 2h horizon occurs within
light-brown stained layer. Also included are areas of a depth of 30 inches. It is dark reddish-brown to black sand or
Oldsmar soils that make up no more than 15 percent fine sand and is 4 to 13 inches thick. A B3h horizon, 2 to 4
of any mapped area and small areas of Myakka soils inches thick, of lighter brown sand commonly is between the
that m e up a t 5 prcet. B2h and the B't horizon. The B'lt horizon is dark-gray or
that make up about 5 percent. grayish-brown to light-gray sandy loam to sandy clay loam
Wabasso fine sand is periodically wet but responds 'and is 6 to 28 inches thick. It is highly mottled with shades
well to water-control practices. It is well suited to special of gray, brown, red, and yellow. The content of sand increases
flower and truck crops and improved pasture grasses. between depths of 40 and 60 inches. Reaction is strongly acid
It is moderately well suited to lawn grasses and orna- to vey strongly acid in all layers. The water table normally is
It is moderately well suited to lawn grasses and orna- at a depth of 10 to 30 inches, but it is within a depth of 10
mental plants and to citrus trees if water control is estab- inches during wet periods. It drops below 30 inches during
lished and maintained. Response to mineral fertilizer dry periods.
is good. (Capability unit IIIw-2; woodland group 6) Wauchula soils are associated with Adamsville, Felda,
Immokalee, Manatee, Myakka, and Placid soils. They have an
organic-stained Bh horizon and a loamy Bt horizon, both of
Wauchula Series which are lacking in Adamsville soils. They have a weakly
cemented stained Bh horizon that is lacking in Felda soils.
The Wauchula series consists of nearly level, poorly They have loamy underlying layers that are lacking in
drained sandy soils that formed in sandy over loamy mokalee and Placad soils. They are better draped than
marine sediments. These soils are on low ridges in the
flatwoods. Wauchula fine sand (We).--This is a nearly level, poorly
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about drained soil on broad low ridges i the flatwoods and i
6 inches thick. Below this is light-gray fine sand about 20 a few low flat areas on the uplands. The water table is at
inches thick. The next layer is fine sand, about 7 inches a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years.
thick, that is weakly cemented with organic matter. This It is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during
layer is black in the upper 2 inches and grades to dark wet seasons.
reddish brown in the lower part. Below this is dark yellow- Included in mapping are small areas where the layer
ish-brown loamy fine sand, 2 inches thick, over mottled stained with organic matter is at a depth of 30 to 40 inches
grayish-brown fine sandy clay loam about 20 to 35 inches and the loamy underlying layers are at a depth of 40
thick. Gray mottled fine sandy loam is between depths inches or more. These inclusions make up no more than 10
of 55 and 80 inches. All layers are very strongly acid. percent of any mapped area. A few small areas have
The water table is at a depth of about 20 inches. slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Areas of Myakka fine sand make
Sup as much as 10 percent of some mapped areas.
Wauchula soils have low available water capacity, low This soil is well suited to lawn grasses and ornamental
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Per- plants. It is well suited to special truck and flower crops,
meability is rapid to a depth of 26 inches and moderate citrus, and improved pasture grasses in areas where a
representative f of Wauchula fine sand: water-control system has been installed and maintained.
Representative profile of Wauchula fine sand: Response to management is good. (Capability unit IIIw-
A1-0 to 6 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine, crumb 2; woodland group 6)
structure; very friable; mixture of organic matter
and light-gray sand grains has a salt-and-pepper
appearance; many fine, medium, and coarse roots;
very strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. Use and Management of the Soils
A2-6 to 26 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grain; loose; few medium and coarse roots; streaks of Pinellas County is urbanizing rapidly. Land that only
dark gray (10YR 4/1) along root channels; very
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. a few years ago was used for commercial production of
B2h-26 to 33 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/1) fine sand; citrus, truck crops, other farm crops, and cattle has been
weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; weakly converted to nonfarm uses. If the present trend continues
cemented; firm; most sand grains well coated with soon very little land in Pinellas County will be put to
organic matter; many fine roots; very strongly acid; farm uses.
clear, wavy boundary.
B3h-33 to 35 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 3/4) loamy In this section, the soils are rated for various nonfarm
fine sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; uses, their engineering properties are evaluated, and their
many sand grains thinly coated with organic matter; suitability for farming, woodland, and wildlife is
few fine roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy discussed.
boundary.
B'lt-35 to 55 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sandy
clay loam; common medium mottles of yellowish red Town and Country Planning
(5YR 4/8), red (2.5YR 4/8), and yellowish brown
(10Yr 5/6); moderate, medium, subangular blocky The population of Pinellas County is about 500,000 and
structure; friable; common fine roots; sand grains are
bridged and coated with clay; very strongly acid; is rapidly increasing. Much of the county is urbanized,
gradual, wavy boundary. and the population density is about 1,800 per square mile.







24 SOIL SURVEY

soils. Their A horizon is less than 30 inches thick, whereas that B'2t-55 to 80 inches, gray (N 6/0) fine sandy loam; few,
of Oldsmar soils is more than 30 inches thick. medium, distinct, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) mottles;
common, coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR
Wabasso fine sand (Wa).-This is a nearly level, poorly 5/6) mottles; and few, medium, prominent, red
drained soil on broad low ridges in the flatwoods. The (2.5YR 5/6) mottles; massive; friable; slightly sticky;
water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 sand grains are thinly coated and bridged with clay;
months during wet seasons and at a depth of 10 to 40 few small sand lenses; very strongly acid.
inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to black and is 4 to 8
Included in mapping are small areas that have a thin inches thick. The A2 horizon is light-gray to gray sand or fine
Includedsand and is 14 to 23 inches thick. A 2h horizon occurs within
light-brown stained layer. Also included are areas of a depth of 30 inches. It is dark reddish-brown to black sand or
Oldsmar soils that make up no more than 15 percent fine sand and is 4 to 13 inches thick. A B3h horizon, 2 to 4
of any mapped area and small areas of Myakka soils inches thick, of lighter brown sand commonly is between the
that m e up a t 5 prcet. B2h and the B't horizon. The B'lt horizon is dark-gray or
that make up about 5 percent. grayish-brown to light-gray sandy loam to sandy clay loam
Wabasso fine sand is periodically wet but responds 'and is 6 to 28 inches thick. It is highly mottled with shades
well to water-control practices. It is well suited to special of gray, brown, red, and yellow. The content of sand increases
flower and truck crops and improved pasture grasses. between depths of 40 and 60 inches. Reaction is strongly acid
It is moderately well suited to lawn grasses and orna- to vey strongly acid in all layers. The water table normally is
It is moderately well suited to lawn grasses and orna- at a depth of 10 to 30 inches, but it is within a depth of 10
mental plants and to citrus trees if water control is estab- inches during wet periods. It drops below 30 inches during
lished and maintained. Response to mineral fertilizer dry periods.
is good. (Capability unit IIIw-2; woodland group 6) Wauchula soils are associated with Adamsville, Felda,
Immokalee, Manatee, Myakka, and Placid soils. They have an
organic-stained Bh horizon and a loamy Bt horizon, both of
Wauchula Series which are lacking in Adamsville soils. They have a weakly
cemented stained Bh horizon that is lacking in Felda soils.
The Wauchula series consists of nearly level, poorly They have loamy underlying layers that are lacking in
drained sandy soils that formed in sandy over loamy mokalee and Placad soils. They are better draped than
marine sediments. These soils are on low ridges in the
flatwoods. Wauchula fine sand (We).--This is a nearly level, poorly
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about drained soil on broad low ridges i the flatwoods and i
6 inches thick. Below this is light-gray fine sand about 20 a few low flat areas on the uplands. The water table is at
inches thick. The next layer is fine sand, about 7 inches a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years.
thick, that is weakly cemented with organic matter. This It is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during
layer is black in the upper 2 inches and grades to dark wet seasons.
reddish brown in the lower part. Below this is dark yellow- Included in mapping are small areas where the layer
ish-brown loamy fine sand, 2 inches thick, over mottled stained with organic matter is at a depth of 30 to 40 inches
grayish-brown fine sandy clay loam about 20 to 35 inches and the loamy underlying layers are at a depth of 40
thick. Gray mottled fine sandy loam is between depths inches or more. These inclusions make up no more than 10
of 55 and 80 inches. All layers are very strongly acid. percent of any mapped area. A few small areas have
The water table is at a depth of about 20 inches. slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Areas of Myakka fine sand make
Sup as much as 10 percent of some mapped areas.
Wauchula soils have low available water capacity, low This soil is well suited to lawn grasses and ornamental
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Per- plants. It is well suited to special truck and flower crops,
meability is rapid to a depth of 26 inches and moderate citrus, and improved pasture grasses in areas where a
representative f of Wauchula fine sand: water-control system has been installed and maintained.
Representative profile of Wauchula fine sand: Response to management is good. (Capability unit IIIw-
A1-0 to 6 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine, crumb 2; woodland group 6)
structure; very friable; mixture of organic matter
and light-gray sand grains has a salt-and-pepper
appearance; many fine, medium, and coarse roots;
very strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. Use and Management of the Soils
A2-6 to 26 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grain; loose; few medium and coarse roots; streaks of Pinellas County is urbanizing rapidly. Land that only
dark gray (10YR 4/1) along root channels; very
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. a few years ago was used for commercial production of
B2h-26 to 33 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/1) fine sand; citrus, truck crops, other farm crops, and cattle has been
weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; weakly converted to nonfarm uses. If the present trend continues
cemented; firm; most sand grains well coated with soon very little land in Pinellas County will be put to
organic matter; many fine roots; very strongly acid; farm uses.
clear, wavy boundary.
B3h-33 to 35 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 3/4) loamy In this section, the soils are rated for various nonfarm
fine sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; uses, their engineering properties are evaluated, and their
many sand grains thinly coated with organic matter; suitability for farming, woodland, and wildlife is
few fine roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy discussed.
boundary.
B'lt-35 to 55 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sandy
clay loam; common medium mottles of yellowish red Town and Country Planning
(5YR 4/8), red (2.5YR 4/8), and yellowish brown
(10Yr 5/6); moderate, medium, subangular blocky The population of Pinellas County is about 500,000 and
structure; friable; common fine roots; sand grains are
bridged and coated with clay; very strongly acid; is rapidly increasing. Much of the county is urbanized,
gradual, wavy boundary. and the population density is about 1,800 per square mile.







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 25

Because much of the land suited to farming has been Depth to water table is important because it also affects
diverted to nonfarm uses, further urban expansion must excavation.
be on soils that have major limitations for both farm and Landscaping.-Soils differ widely in limitations for the
nonfarm uses. A thorough knowledge of the soils is required various kinds of plants used in landscaping. Their limi-
to determine the kind and severity of limitations that have stations for lawns and ornamental trees and shrubs are
to be overcome before sites can be used for homes, schools, especially important for homesites and for many business
roads, shopping centers, and recreational areas. Careful establishments, for highway beautification, and for most
consideration of the soil properties during early stages of recreational uses. Soil properties that affect landscaping
development will prevent costly mistakes that are difficult are the available water capacity, depth to water table,
to correct later. fertility, effective rooting depth, and susceptibility to
In table 3 the soils are rated according to their limitations flooding.
for building sites, landscaping, sanitation, transportation, San tation--The limitations of soils for septic tank
recreation, and other nonfarm uses. The chief limiting filter fields and sanitary land fills are of major importance
characteristics of the soils or the main hazards affecting in community planning. Septic tanks are commonly used
each use are indicated. Information given in the table, for sewage disposal in rural areas and in rapidly expanding
however, does not eliminate the need for onsite investiga- residential areas that have outgrown existing sewer lines.
tonof areas selected fora givn s s m ere, Soil properties that affect the use of soils for septic tank
The soil limitations are described as slight, moderate, filter fields are depth to water table, permeability, and
severe, and very severe. Slight limitations are so minor that flood hazard. To function properly, septic tanks must be
they can be overcome easily. The soil properties generally installed in soils that have adequate absorptive capacity
are favorable for the particular use, and good performance and are not affected by a high water table. A seasonal high
and low maintenance cost can be expected. Moderate le severelylimits the use of an soils f
limitations can be overcome by careful planning and design water table severely limits the use of many soils for
citations can overcome by careful planning and design septic tanks. Septic tanks may function well on these soils
or by special maintenance. The soil properties are moder- during dry periods but fail when the water table rises
ately favorable for the particular use. Severe limitations are during wet periods. Although septic tanks function wel
difficult and costly to overcome. They require major soil on soils that have very rapi permeability, pollution of
reclamation, special design, or intensive maintenance be- the water supply is a hazard.
cause the soils have one or more properties unfavorable
for the particular use. Very severe limitations indicate that Transportation.-The soils are rated for paved highways,
very difficult and expensive reclamation is required or the airports, roads, and parking areas and for unpaved roads
soil properties are so unfavorable that use is prohibited. and parking areas for which soils are graded and packed.
These ratings do not necessarily indicate suitability, hr preparation of a strong foundation for pavement is
because most soils can be made suitable for many uses if affected by the soil bearing capacity and slope, depth to a
their limitations or hazards are overcome. The ratings do water table, and flood hazard. Unpaved roads and streets
show the degree or intensity of the problems that require normally carry less traffic and lighter loads than paved
solution before the soils can be used for the purpose indi- highways, and the trafficability of the soil generally
cated. Many soils that have severe limitations for a speci- determines the case with which equipment and pedestrians
field use can be made suitable for that use, if it is feasible to can move about. Although texture is the main factor to be
apply the intensive management needed to overcome the considered in determining the limitation of a soil for
limitations. unpaved roads, the flood hazard, the depth to a water
Some soil properties affect only one or two uses; others table, the permeability, and the slope also are important.
affect all the uses. Wetness and flooding, for example, affect Recreation.-Pinellas County is extensively urbanized
most uses, but soil fertility affects only those uses that and requires adequate recreational facilities for its rapidly
involve growing plants. In rating the soils, all of the soil increasing population and the large seasonal influx of
properties pertinent to the given use were considered. How- tourists. Limitations of the soils for campsites, icnic
ever, only the most limiting properties are indicated. areas, playgrounds, trails, and golf courses are considered
Others are significant, but their effect is not so great. The in table 3. Although soil properties that adversely affect
main nonfarm uses of the soils are described in the following these uses are indicated, the esthetic attraction of a given
paragraphs. area may outweigh many soil limitations in choosing sites
Bu;lding sites.-The first column in table 3 indicates the for a given use.
degree of soil limitations for the construction of founda- Campsites are small areas suitable for camping equip-
tions for low buildings. These include houses, churches, mnt and outdoor living for a period of several ays.
stores, filling stations, and motels, and light industrial Picnic areas have similar requirements and should be
plants no more than two stories high in which no heavy suitable for outings during which a meal is eaten. Camp-
machinery is to be installed. All of these structures require sites and picnic areas are affected by the depth to water
stable foundations. They must be placed on soils that can table, the flood hazard, and the trafficabilitv of the soil.
support the weight of the building and must be reasonably Playgrounds include city parks, football and baseball
free from the hazard of flooding (fig. 3). The bearing ca- fields, tracks, and other small areas where competitive
pacity of a soil, or its ability to support a dead weight with- sports are played outdoors. The soils should be nearly
out settling, is most important in designing and construct- level, free from flooding or excessive wetness, easy to walk
ing foundations for buildings. The bearing capacity varies over, and suitable for landscape plantings. Depth to water
according to the texture, consistence, shrink-swell poten- table, soil texture, and the flood hazard affect the use of
tial. depth to water table, and degree of compaction. soils for llaygrounds.







24 SOIL SURVEY

soils. Their A horizon is less than 30 inches thick, whereas that B'2t-55 to 80 inches, gray (N 6/0) fine sandy loam; few,
of Oldsmar soils is more than 30 inches thick. medium, distinct, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) mottles;
common, coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR
Wabasso fine sand (Wa).-This is a nearly level, poorly 5/6) mottles; and few, medium, prominent, red
drained soil on broad low ridges in the flatwoods. The (2.5YR 5/6) mottles; massive; friable; slightly sticky;
water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 sand grains are thinly coated and bridged with clay;
months during wet seasons and at a depth of 10 to 40 few small sand lenses; very strongly acid.
inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to black and is 4 to 8
Included in mapping are small areas that have a thin inches thick. The A2 horizon is light-gray to gray sand or fine
Includedsand and is 14 to 23 inches thick. A 2h horizon occurs within
light-brown stained layer. Also included are areas of a depth of 30 inches. It is dark reddish-brown to black sand or
Oldsmar soils that make up no more than 15 percent fine sand and is 4 to 13 inches thick. A B3h horizon, 2 to 4
of any mapped area and small areas of Myakka soils inches thick, of lighter brown sand commonly is between the
that m e up a t 5 prcet. B2h and the B't horizon. The B'lt horizon is dark-gray or
that make up about 5 percent. grayish-brown to light-gray sandy loam to sandy clay loam
Wabasso fine sand is periodically wet but responds 'and is 6 to 28 inches thick. It is highly mottled with shades
well to water-control practices. It is well suited to special of gray, brown, red, and yellow. The content of sand increases
flower and truck crops and improved pasture grasses. between depths of 40 and 60 inches. Reaction is strongly acid
It is moderately well suited to lawn grasses and orna- to vey strongly acid in all layers. The water table normally is
It is moderately well suited to lawn grasses and orna- at a depth of 10 to 30 inches, but it is within a depth of 10
mental plants and to citrus trees if water control is estab- inches during wet periods. It drops below 30 inches during
lished and maintained. Response to mineral fertilizer dry periods.
is good. (Capability unit IIIw-2; woodland group 6) Wauchula soils are associated with Adamsville, Felda,
Immokalee, Manatee, Myakka, and Placid soils. They have an
organic-stained Bh horizon and a loamy Bt horizon, both of
Wauchula Series which are lacking in Adamsville soils. They have a weakly
cemented stained Bh horizon that is lacking in Felda soils.
The Wauchula series consists of nearly level, poorly They have loamy underlying layers that are lacking in
drained sandy soils that formed in sandy over loamy mokalee and Placad soils. They are better draped than
marine sediments. These soils are on low ridges in the
flatwoods. Wauchula fine sand (We).--This is a nearly level, poorly
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about drained soil on broad low ridges i the flatwoods and i
6 inches thick. Below this is light-gray fine sand about 20 a few low flat areas on the uplands. The water table is at
inches thick. The next layer is fine sand, about 7 inches a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years.
thick, that is weakly cemented with organic matter. This It is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 or 2 months during
layer is black in the upper 2 inches and grades to dark wet seasons.
reddish brown in the lower part. Below this is dark yellow- Included in mapping are small areas where the layer
ish-brown loamy fine sand, 2 inches thick, over mottled stained with organic matter is at a depth of 30 to 40 inches
grayish-brown fine sandy clay loam about 20 to 35 inches and the loamy underlying layers are at a depth of 40
thick. Gray mottled fine sandy loam is between depths inches or more. These inclusions make up no more than 10
of 55 and 80 inches. All layers are very strongly acid. percent of any mapped area. A few small areas have
The water table is at a depth of about 20 inches. slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Areas of Myakka fine sand make
Sup as much as 10 percent of some mapped areas.
Wauchula soils have low available water capacity, low This soil is well suited to lawn grasses and ornamental
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. Per- plants. It is well suited to special truck and flower crops,
meability is rapid to a depth of 26 inches and moderate citrus, and improved pasture grasses in areas where a
representative f of Wauchula fine sand: water-control system has been installed and maintained.
Representative profile of Wauchula fine sand: Response to management is good. (Capability unit IIIw-
A1-0 to 6 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine, crumb 2; woodland group 6)
structure; very friable; mixture of organic matter
and light-gray sand grains has a salt-and-pepper
appearance; many fine, medium, and coarse roots;
very strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. Use and Management of the Soils
A2-6 to 26 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grain; loose; few medium and coarse roots; streaks of Pinellas County is urbanizing rapidly. Land that only
dark gray (10YR 4/1) along root channels; very
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. a few years ago was used for commercial production of
B2h-26 to 33 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/1) fine sand; citrus, truck crops, other farm crops, and cattle has been
weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; weakly converted to nonfarm uses. If the present trend continues
cemented; firm; most sand grains well coated with soon very little land in Pinellas County will be put to
organic matter; many fine roots; very strongly acid; farm uses.
clear, wavy boundary.
B3h-33 to 35 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 3/4) loamy In this section, the soils are rated for various nonfarm
fine sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; uses, their engineering properties are evaluated, and their
many sand grains thinly coated with organic matter; suitability for farming, woodland, and wildlife is
few fine roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy discussed.
boundary.
B'lt-35 to 55 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sandy
clay loam; common medium mottles of yellowish red Town and Country Planning
(5YR 4/8), red (2.5YR 4/8), and yellowish brown
(10Yr 5/6); moderate, medium, subangular blocky The population of Pinellas County is about 500,000 and
structure; friable; common fine roots; sand grains are
bridged and coated with clay; very strongly acid; is rapidly increasing. Much of the county is urbanized,
gradual, wavy boundary. and the population density is about 1,800 per square mile.







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 25

Because much of the land suited to farming has been Depth to water table is important because it also affects
diverted to nonfarm uses, further urban expansion must excavation.
be on soils that have major limitations for both farm and Landscaping.-Soils differ widely in limitations for the
nonfarm uses. A thorough knowledge of the soils is required various kinds of plants used in landscaping. Their limi-
to determine the kind and severity of limitations that have stations for lawns and ornamental trees and shrubs are
to be overcome before sites can be used for homes, schools, especially important for homesites and for many business
roads, shopping centers, and recreational areas. Careful establishments, for highway beautification, and for most
consideration of the soil properties during early stages of recreational uses. Soil properties that affect landscaping
development will prevent costly mistakes that are difficult are the available water capacity, depth to water table,
to correct later. fertility, effective rooting depth, and susceptibility to
In table 3 the soils are rated according to their limitations flooding.
for building sites, landscaping, sanitation, transportation, San tation--The limitations of soils for septic tank
recreation, and other nonfarm uses. The chief limiting filter fields and sanitary land fills are of major importance
characteristics of the soils or the main hazards affecting in community planning. Septic tanks are commonly used
each use are indicated. Information given in the table, for sewage disposal in rural areas and in rapidly expanding
however, does not eliminate the need for onsite investiga- residential areas that have outgrown existing sewer lines.
tonof areas selected fora givn s s m ere, Soil properties that affect the use of soils for septic tank
The soil limitations are described as slight, moderate, filter fields are depth to water table, permeability, and
severe, and very severe. Slight limitations are so minor that flood hazard. To function properly, septic tanks must be
they can be overcome easily. The soil properties generally installed in soils that have adequate absorptive capacity
are favorable for the particular use, and good performance and are not affected by a high water table. A seasonal high
and low maintenance cost can be expected. Moderate le severelylimits the use of an soils f
limitations can be overcome by careful planning and design water table severely limits the use of many soils for
citations can overcome by careful planning and design septic tanks. Septic tanks may function well on these soils
or by special maintenance. The soil properties are moder- during dry periods but fail when the water table rises
ately favorable for the particular use. Severe limitations are during wet periods. Although septic tanks function wel
difficult and costly to overcome. They require major soil on soils that have very rapi permeability, pollution of
reclamation, special design, or intensive maintenance be- the water supply is a hazard.
cause the soils have one or more properties unfavorable
for the particular use. Very severe limitations indicate that Transportation.-The soils are rated for paved highways,
very difficult and expensive reclamation is required or the airports, roads, and parking areas and for unpaved roads
soil properties are so unfavorable that use is prohibited. and parking areas for which soils are graded and packed.
These ratings do not necessarily indicate suitability, hr preparation of a strong foundation for pavement is
because most soils can be made suitable for many uses if affected by the soil bearing capacity and slope, depth to a
their limitations or hazards are overcome. The ratings do water table, and flood hazard. Unpaved roads and streets
show the degree or intensity of the problems that require normally carry less traffic and lighter loads than paved
solution before the soils can be used for the purpose indi- highways, and the trafficability of the soil generally
cated. Many soils that have severe limitations for a speci- determines the case with which equipment and pedestrians
field use can be made suitable for that use, if it is feasible to can move about. Although texture is the main factor to be
apply the intensive management needed to overcome the considered in determining the limitation of a soil for
limitations. unpaved roads, the flood hazard, the depth to a water
Some soil properties affect only one or two uses; others table, the permeability, and the slope also are important.
affect all the uses. Wetness and flooding, for example, affect Recreation.-Pinellas County is extensively urbanized
most uses, but soil fertility affects only those uses that and requires adequate recreational facilities for its rapidly
involve growing plants. In rating the soils, all of the soil increasing population and the large seasonal influx of
properties pertinent to the given use were considered. How- tourists. Limitations of the soils for campsites, icnic
ever, only the most limiting properties are indicated. areas, playgrounds, trails, and golf courses are considered
Others are significant, but their effect is not so great. The in table 3. Although soil properties that adversely affect
main nonfarm uses of the soils are described in the following these uses are indicated, the esthetic attraction of a given
paragraphs. area may outweigh many soil limitations in choosing sites
Bu;lding sites.-The first column in table 3 indicates the for a given use.
degree of soil limitations for the construction of founda- Campsites are small areas suitable for camping equip-
tions for low buildings. These include houses, churches, mnt and outdoor living for a period of several ays.
stores, filling stations, and motels, and light industrial Picnic areas have similar requirements and should be
plants no more than two stories high in which no heavy suitable for outings during which a meal is eaten. Camp-
machinery is to be installed. All of these structures require sites and picnic areas are affected by the depth to water
stable foundations. They must be placed on soils that can table, the flood hazard, and the trafficabilitv of the soil.
support the weight of the building and must be reasonably Playgrounds include city parks, football and baseball
free from the hazard of flooding (fig. 3). The bearing ca- fields, tracks, and other small areas where competitive
pacity of a soil, or its ability to support a dead weight with- sports are played outdoors. The soils should be nearly
out settling, is most important in designing and construct- level, free from flooding or excessive wetness, easy to walk
ing foundations for buildings. The bearing capacity varies over, and suitable for landscape plantings. Depth to water
according to the texture, consistence, shrink-swell poten- table, soil texture, and the flood hazard affect the use of
tial. depth to water table, and degree of compaction. soils for llaygrounds.





26 SOIL SURVEY






," ., i i



Firi






L~u7
2.1








Figure 3.-Wetness is a hazard for homrnesites on Myakka fine sand.
Golf cur c be estblih o sites hre the soils Cemeteries should be located onil well-draied soils that
if the sites have a suitable proportion of are free of ground water to a depth of 6 feet throughout
Gol tor" -" nbe established oil SiteS where thesos
faryir ely ,n rough areas or haza.rds. Only soil limitations the year. Sites on wetter soils should be selected carefully
affecting farwa are considered in the table, because toinsurethat adequate artificial drainage can be provided.
affections farway areas The soils also should be suited to lawn grasses and orna-
ens noriallyare moderate ell dried b soils, gatentle me ntal plants. The main properties that limit thie use of
ai~way r~uireas moderatly wsoildrainedcsoilsies are a high watertalan ot
slopes, and a good cover of grass, People should be able soils for cemeterieare high ter table an d boodirg.
to move freely over the fairway on foot or in a golf cart Depth to bedrock should be 6 feet or more. be made b
or other light vehicle. The main limitations of the soils Interpretations for other nonfarm uses canbem e
for golf irways are susceptibility to flooding, seasonal determining from the soil descriptions th soil ropertie
high water tble, low a-vailable water capacity, low and hazards that most affect the intended use.
natural fertility, poor soil texture, and strong slopes.
naths and trails are affected mainly by wetness and poor Engineering Uses of the Soils
traFalloit. hlrs nd basement old be located oniabilit. Some soil properties are of special interest to engineers
Prfiablths andtra
Fallait shelters and basements should be located on teconstruction and maintenance of

well-draifed soils that are free of ground water to a depth because they affect the construction and maintenance of
of 6 feet throughout the year and are not subject to flood- roads, airports, pipelines, building foundations, and
ing. Depth to bedrock should be 6 feet or more. systems for storing water, controlling erosion, draining







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 27
soils, and disposing of sewage. Among the properties most The estimated classification for all soils mapped in the
important in engineering are permeability, shear strength, county is given in table 5.
density, shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, In the Unified system, soils are classified as coarse
grain-size distribution, plasticity, and reaction, grained, fine grained, or organic according to particle-
Information concerning these and related properties of size distribution, plasticity, liquid limit, and organic-
the soils in Pinellas County is given in tables 4, 5, and 6. matter content.
The estimates and interpretations of soil properties in There are eight classes of coarse-grained soils. Each
these tables can be used to: class consists of soils in which more than half the par-
1. Make studies that will aid in selecting and devel- ticles are larger than 0.074 millimeter. Symbols for these
hoping industrial, business, residential, and recrea- classes are G for gravel and S for sand combined with W
tional sites. for well graded, P for poorly graded, M for silty, or C for
2. Make preliminary evaluations that will aid in clayey.
selecting locations for highways and airports and There are six classes of fine-grained soils. More than
in planning detailed surveys of the soils at the site. half the particles in these soils are smaller than 0.074
3. Develop information for the design of drainage millimeter. These classes are designated M for silts,
systems, farm ponds, diversion terraces, and other C for clays, and O for organic soils, combined with L for
structures for soil and water conservation. low liquid limit or H for high liquid limit.
4. Locate possible sources of sand, shells, and other Highly organic, or peaty, soils are designated by the
materials. symbol Pt.
5. Correlate performance of engineering structures A significant difference between the Unified system
with soil mapping units to develop information and the system used by the U.S. Department of Agri-
that can be useful in designing and maintaining culture (USDA) is the definition of silt and clay. The
such structures. Unified system divides fine-grained soils into silt or clay
6. Determine the suitability of soils for cross-country depending upon their physical behavior at various mois-
movement of vehicles and construction equip- ture contents. In the USDA system, silt and clay soils
ment. are determined by particle size.
7. Supplement other published information, such Engineering test data
as maps, reports, and aerial photographs, for T 4 s t r
the purpose of making maps and reports that Table 4 shows the results of engineering tests of samples
can be used readily by engineers. of several soils taken in Pinellas County. The table
8. Develop other preliminary estimates for con- shows the specific location where samples were taken,
struction purposes pertinent to a particular area. the depth to which sampling was done, and the results of
Tests to determine particle-size distribution and other
With the soil map for identification of soil areas, the properties significant in soil engineering. Some terms used
engineering interpretations reported here can be useful in table 4 are explained in the following paragraphs.
for many purposes. It should be emphasized, however, Moisture density is determined by compacting a
that these interpretations may not eliminate the need sample of soil material several times with a constant
for sampling and testing at the site of specific engineering compactive effort, each time at a successively higher
works involving heavy loads and excavations deeper moisture content. The density or unit weight of the soil
than the depth of layers here reported. material increases until the optimum moisture content is
Some terms used by soil scientists have a special reached. After that the density decreases with an increase
meaning in soil science that may not be familiar to en- in moisture content. The highest density obtained in the
gineers. These terms are defined in the Glossary. compaction test is termed "maximum dry density."
Engine g cn s s Moisture-density data are important in construction,
Engineering classification systems for as a rule, optimum stability is obtained if the soil is
Two systems of soil classification are in general use by compacted to about the maximum dry density when it is
engineers. They are the system adopted by the American at approximately the optimum moisture content.
Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) (1), Mechanical analysis shows the percentage, by weight,
and the Unified system (7) developed by the Waterways of soil particles that pass sieves of specified sizes. Sand
Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers, and now used and other coarser materials do not pass the No. 200
by the U.S. Department of Defense. sieve, but silt and clay do. In the AASHO system, silt is
The AASHO system is used to classify soils according identified as material finer than 0.074 millimeter yet
to those properties that affect use in highway construction. coarser than 0.005 millimeter. Clay is material finer than
In this system, all soil material is classified in seven 0.005 millimeter. The particle-size distribution of ma-
principal groups. The groups range from A-i, which trials passing the No. 200 sieve was determined by the
consists of soils that have the highest bearing strength hydrometer method.
and are the best soils for subgrade, to A-7, which consists Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
of soils that have the lowest strength when wet and are water on the strength and consistence of soil material.
the poorest soils for subgrade. Within each group the As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from
relative engineering value of a soil material is indicated a dry state, the material changes from a solid to a plastic
by a group index number given in parentheses. The state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which
numbers range from 0, for the best material, to 20, for the soil passes from solid to plastic. If the moisture
the poorest. The group index number is shown in paren- content is further increased, the material changes from
theses following the soil group symbol (see table 4). The a plastic to a liquid state. The liquid limit is the moisture
AASHO classification for tested soils is shown in table 4. content at which the material changes from plastic to







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 27
soils, and disposing of sewage. Among the properties most The estimated classification for all soils mapped in the
important in engineering are permeability, shear strength, county is given in table 5.
density, shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, In the Unified system, soils are classified as coarse
grain-size distribution, plasticity, and reaction, grained, fine grained, or organic according to particle-
Information concerning these and related properties of size distribution, plasticity, liquid limit, and organic-
the soils in Pinellas County is given in tables 4, 5, and 6. matter content.
The estimates and interpretations of soil properties in There are eight classes of coarse-grained soils. Each
these tables can be used to: class consists of soils in which more than half the par-
1. Make studies that will aid in selecting and devel- ticles are larger than 0.074 millimeter. Symbols for these
hoping industrial, business, residential, and recrea- classes are G for gravel and S for sand combined with W
tional sites. for well graded, P for poorly graded, M for silty, or C for
2. Make preliminary evaluations that will aid in clayey.
selecting locations for highways and airports and There are six classes of fine-grained soils. More than
in planning detailed surveys of the soils at the site. half the particles in these soils are smaller than 0.074
3. Develop information for the design of drainage millimeter. These classes are designated M for silts,
systems, farm ponds, diversion terraces, and other C for clays, and O for organic soils, combined with L for
structures for soil and water conservation. low liquid limit or H for high liquid limit.
4. Locate possible sources of sand, shells, and other Highly organic, or peaty, soils are designated by the
materials. symbol Pt.
5. Correlate performance of engineering structures A significant difference between the Unified system
with soil mapping units to develop information and the system used by the U.S. Department of Agri-
that can be useful in designing and maintaining culture (USDA) is the definition of silt and clay. The
such structures. Unified system divides fine-grained soils into silt or clay
6. Determine the suitability of soils for cross-country depending upon their physical behavior at various mois-
movement of vehicles and construction equip- ture contents. In the USDA system, silt and clay soils
ment. are determined by particle size.
7. Supplement other published information, such Engineering test data
as maps, reports, and aerial photographs, for T 4 s t r
the purpose of making maps and reports that Table 4 shows the results of engineering tests of samples
can be used readily by engineers. of several soils taken in Pinellas County. The table
8. Develop other preliminary estimates for con- shows the specific location where samples were taken,
struction purposes pertinent to a particular area. the depth to which sampling was done, and the results of
Tests to determine particle-size distribution and other
With the soil map for identification of soil areas, the properties significant in soil engineering. Some terms used
engineering interpretations reported here can be useful in table 4 are explained in the following paragraphs.
for many purposes. It should be emphasized, however, Moisture density is determined by compacting a
that these interpretations may not eliminate the need sample of soil material several times with a constant
for sampling and testing at the site of specific engineering compactive effort, each time at a successively higher
works involving heavy loads and excavations deeper moisture content. The density or unit weight of the soil
than the depth of layers here reported. material increases until the optimum moisture content is
Some terms used by soil scientists have a special reached. After that the density decreases with an increase
meaning in soil science that may not be familiar to en- in moisture content. The highest density obtained in the
gineers. These terms are defined in the Glossary. compaction test is termed "maximum dry density."
Engine g cn s s Moisture-density data are important in construction,
Engineering classification systems for as a rule, optimum stability is obtained if the soil is
Two systems of soil classification are in general use by compacted to about the maximum dry density when it is
engineers. They are the system adopted by the American at approximately the optimum moisture content.
Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) (1), Mechanical analysis shows the percentage, by weight,
and the Unified system (7) developed by the Waterways of soil particles that pass sieves of specified sizes. Sand
Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers, and now used and other coarser materials do not pass the No. 200
by the U.S. Department of Defense. sieve, but silt and clay do. In the AASHO system, silt is
The AASHO system is used to classify soils according identified as material finer than 0.074 millimeter yet
to those properties that affect use in highway construction. coarser than 0.005 millimeter. Clay is material finer than
In this system, all soil material is classified in seven 0.005 millimeter. The particle-size distribution of ma-
principal groups. The groups range from A-i, which trials passing the No. 200 sieve was determined by the
consists of soils that have the highest bearing strength hydrometer method.
and are the best soils for subgrade, to A-7, which consists Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
of soils that have the lowest strength when wet and are water on the strength and consistence of soil material.
the poorest soils for subgrade. Within each group the As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from
relative engineering value of a soil material is indicated a dry state, the material changes from a solid to a plastic
by a group index number given in parentheses. The state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which
numbers range from 0, for the best material, to 20, for the soil passes from solid to plastic. If the moisture
the poorest. The group index number is shown in paren- content is further increased, the material changes from
theses following the soil group symbol (see table 4). The a plastic to a liquid state. The liquid limit is the moisture
AASHO classification for tested soils is shown in table 4. content at which the material changes from plastic to








28 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 3.-Degree and kind of limitation

Paved highways, Unpaved roads,
Soil series and mapping Foundations for Lawns and orna- Septic tank airports, streets, streets, and park-
unit symbol low buildings mental plants filter fields roads, and parking ing areas
areas


Adamsville: Ad------- Moderate: Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water Moderate: water
water table. table; very low table. table, table; sand
available water texture.
capacity; low
natural fertility.
Astatula:
AfB---------------- Slight ----------- Moderate: very Slight------------ Slight------------- Severe: loose sand__
low available
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.
AfC ---------------- Moderate: slope- Moderate: very Severe: slope; Moderate: slope--- Severe: loose sand-
low available pollution
water capacity; hazard.
low natural
fertility.
As-----------------Slight----------- Moderate: very Moderate: Moderate: water Moderate:
low available water table. table, sand texture.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.

Astor: At,Au---------- Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.

Charlotte: Ch_.------- Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding; table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
very low avail-
able water capac-
ity; low natural
fertility.

Coastal beaches: Co--- Very severe: Very severe: water Very severe: Very severe: tidal Very severe: tidal
flooding, table; flooding; flooding. flooding, flooding.
salinity.

Elred: Ed ----------- Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table, table; low table; flooding, table, table.
natural fertility;
flooding.

Felda: Fd, Fe ..----_. Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.

Fellowship: Fh------ -Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; high table. table; very slow table; high table.
shrink-swell permeability, shrink-swell
potential. potential.

Immokalee: Im------- Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table. table; low natu- table; flooding. table, table.
ral fertility;
Made land: Ma, Md. flooding.
Limitations vary
because of vary-
ing properties
of soil material.
For Md, how-
ever, limitations
are very severe
for building sites
because of low
bearing capacity
and are very
severe for fallout
shelters, base-
ments, and
cemeteries be-
cause of unstable
underlying
material.








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 29

of soils for selected uses


Campsites and Playgrounds Golf courses Paths and trails Fallout shelters and Cemeteries
picnic areas basements


Moderate: water Severe: sand Moderate: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; sand texture, table; very low table; sand table, table.
texture. available water texture.
capacity; low
natural fertility.
Severe: loose sand._ Severe: loose sand- Moderate: very Severe: loosesand-- Slight------------- Moderate: very
low available low available
water capacity; water capacity;
low natural low natural
fertility, fertility.
Severe: loosesand-- Severe: loosesand._ Moderate: very Severe: loosesand-- Slight------------- Moderate: very
low available low available
water capacity; water capacity;
low natural low natural
fertility, fertility.
Moderate: sand Severe: sand Moderate: very Moderate: sand Severe: water Severe: water
texture. texture. low available texture. table, table.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.
Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.

Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding; table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
sand texture.



Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe:
flooding. flooding, water table; flooding, flooding, flooding.
flooding.
Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table, table, table; low natural table, table; flooding, table; flooding.
fertility.

Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
Moderate: water Moderate: water Moderate: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water
table. table, table, table. table, table.


Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table, table; sand table; low natural table. table; flooding, table; flooding.
texture, fertility.









30 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 3.-Degree and kind of limitation

Paved highways, Unpaved roads,
Soil series and mapping Foundations for Lawns and orna- Septic tank airports, streets, streets, and park-
unit symbol low buildings mental plants filter fields roads, and parking ing areas
areas

Manatee: M n-------- Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.

Myakka: M y---------Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table. table; low natu- table; flooding. table, table.
ral fertility;
flooding.

Okeechobee: Ok------- Very severe: Very severe: water Very severe: Very severe: water Very severe: water
water table; table; flooding, water table; table; flooding; table; flooding;
flooding; low flooding, very poor traffic very poor traffic
bearing supporting capac- supporting
capacity. ity; high poten- capacity.
tial subsidence.

Oldsmar: Om -------- Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table, table; flooding, table; flooding. table. table.


Orlando: Or---------- Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table, table; flooding, table; flooding, table, table.

Palm Beach: Pa------ Slight----------- Moderate: very Severe: pollu- Slight------------- Severe: loose
low available tion hazard. sand.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.

Pamilico: Pc --------- Very severe: low Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe:
bearing capac- water table; water table; water table; water table;
ity; water flooding. flooding, flooding; very flooding; very
table; flooding, poor traffic sup- poor traffic
porting capacity; supporting capac-
high potential ity.
subsidence.
Paola: Pd B .-------- Slight ----------- Moderate: very Severe: pollu- Slight ------------- Severe: loose
low available tion hazard, sand.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.
Pinellas: Pf---------- Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table, table; low table; flooding, table, table.
natural fertility;
flooding.
Placid: Pn----------- Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
Pomello: Po---------- Moderate: water Moderate: very Moderate: water Slight ------------- Severe: loose
table. low available table. sand.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.
Pompano: Pp, Ps-.... Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
Spoil banks: Sp.
Limitations vary
because of vary-
ing properties
of soil material.







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
31

of soils for selected uses-Continued


Campsites and Playgrounds Golf courses Paths and trails Fallout shelters and Cemeteries
picnic areas basements


Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.

Severe: water Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table, table; sand table; low natural table, table; flooding, table; flooding.
texture. fertility.


Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe:
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, water table;
flooding.




Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table, table; sand table; flooding; table. table; flooding, table; flooding.
texture. low natural
fertility.

Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table. table; sand table. table. table; flooding, table; flooding.
texture.

Severe: loose sand- Severe: loose sand-- Moderate: very Severe: loose sand.. Severe: water Severe: water
low available water table. table.
capacity; low
natural
fertility.

Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe:
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, water table;
flooding.





Severe: loose sand-_ Severe: loose sand.- Moderate: very Severe: loose sand-_ Slight------------- Moderate: very
low available low available
water capacity; water capacity;
low natural low natural
fertility, fertility.

Severe: water Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table, table; sand table; low table. table; flooding, table; flooding.
texture. natural fertility.


Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding..

Severe: loose sand-- Severe: loose sand_- Moderate: very Severe: loose sand.- Moderate: water Moderate: water
low available table, table; very
water capacity; low available
low natural water capacity.
fertility.

Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water Severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.











420-436-72- 3









32 SOIL SURVEY
TABLE 3.-Degree and kind of limitation

Paved highways, Unpaved roads,

Soil series and mapping Foundations for Lawns and orna- Septic tank airports, streets, streets, and park-
unit symbol low buildings mental plants filter fields roads, and parking ing areas
areas


St. Lucie:
StB-__---_---____- Slight----------- Moderate: low Slight ---- ---- Slight-----_----- Severe: loose sand-_
available water
capacity; low
natural fertility.


StC ------------- Moderate: slope_- Moderate: very Moderate: slope-_ Moderate: slope.--. Severe: loose sand._
low available
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.

Su --------------- Slight----------- Moderate: very Severe: pollution Slight ------------- Severe: loose sand--
low available hazard.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.

Terra Ceia: Tc-------. Very severe: Very severe: water Very severe: Very severe: water Very severe: water
water table; table; flooding, water table; table; flooding; table; flooding;
flooding; low flooding, very poor traffic high potential
bearing capac- supporting capac- subsidence.
ity; high ity; high poten-
potential sub- tial subsidence.
sidence.

Tidal marsh: Td------ Very severe: Very severe: water Very severe: Very severe: water Very severe: water
water table; table; flooding; water table; table; flooding, table; flooding.
flooding; low salinity, flooding.
bearing capacity;
salinity.

Tidal swamp: Ts-.---- Very severe: Very severe: water Very severe: Very severe: water Very severe: water
water table; table; flooding; water table; table; flooding, table; flooding.
flooding; low salinity, flooding.
bearing capac-
ity; salinity.

Urban land: Ub, Uc,
Uk, Ur, Up, Uw.
Limitations vary
because of vary-
ing properties of
:soil material.

Wabasso: Wa--------- Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water table. Severe: water table
table, table; low table; flooding.
natural fertility;
flooding.

Wauchula: Wc-------. Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water Severe: water table- Severe: water table_
table. table; low natural table; perme-
fertility; flooding, ability; flooding.








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 33
33
of soils for selected uses-Continued


Campsites and Playgrounds Golf courses Paths and trails Fallout shelters and Cemeteries
picnic areas basements



Severe: loose sand.. Severe: loose sand__ Moderate: very Severe: loose sand_ Slight ------------ Moderate: very
low available low available
water capacity; water capacity.
low natural
fertility.
Severe: loose sand.. Severe: loose sand-_ Moderate: very Severe: loose sand- Slight -------- Moderate: very
low available low available
water capacity; water capacity.
low natural
fertility.
Severe: loose sand.- Severe: loose sand__ Moderate: very Severe: loose sand_. Slight------------- Severe: water
low available table.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.
Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe:
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; poor table; flooding, water table;
trafficability. flooding.



Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding; table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
salinity.


Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe: water Very severe:
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding; table; flooding, table; flooding, water table;
salinity. flooding.








Severe: water table. Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water table- Severe: water Severe: water
table; sand table; low natural table; flooding, table; flooding.
texture, fertility.

Severe: water table. Severe: water Moderate: water Severe: water table. Severe: water Severe: water
table; sand table; low natural table; flooding, table; flooding.
texture, fertility.








34 SOIL SURVEY
TABLE 4.-Engineering

[Tests performed by Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) in accordance with
Moisture density'

FDOT
Soil name and location Parent material report Depth Maximum Optimum
number dry moisture
density content



Adamsville fine sand: In. Lb./cu. ft. Pet.
1,200 feet north of State Road 580, 1% miles west of Acid marine sand. 21 6-17 104 12
U.S. Highway 19, 1% miles northeast of Dunedin, 22 17-38 108 13
SWINW%} sec. 25, T. 28 S., R. 15 E. (Modal
profile)
% mile west of County Road 70, % mile north of State Acid marine sand. 71 5-17 105 13
Road 580, NWY4SEyNW%/ sec. 24, T. 28 S., R. 15 72 17-27 107 13
E. (Less mottling in C horizon than in modal)
Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes: 104 16
700 feet northeast of SCL Railroad overpass, SEY4NE}/ Acid marine sand. 1 18-70 104 16
sec. 26, T. 27 S., R. 15 E. (Modal) 22 70-84 103 15
mile south of Gandy Boulevard, %4 mile southeast of Acid marine sand. 19 35-60 103 15
Garden of Peace Cemetery, SENEyNEA sec. 20 60-82 103 15
26, T. 30 S., R. 16 E. (Mottling in C horizon)
1y miles south of State Road 582 and 4 mile west of Acid marine sand. 44 8-24 105 15
county line, NE/4NEyNE/4 sec. 24, T. 27 S., R. 16 45 24-45 105 15
E. (Moderately shallow to water table) 46 51-84 104 16
Elred fine sand:
Y8 mile east of County Road 265 and 3 miles northeast Sandy over loamy marine 65 9-17 105 15
of Pinellas Park, NWYSE'ASW% sec. 11, T. 30 S., sediments. 66 30-35 112 14
R. 16 E. (Modal)
'e6 mile north of junction of State Road 694 and Sandy over loamy marine 40 5-13 102 16
County Road 149, 22 miles northeast of Pinellas sediments. 41 16-24 103 15
Park, NE/4SESW sec. 23, T. 30 S., R. 16 E. 43 33-42 114 12
(Thick, strong Bir horizon)
% mile east of County Road 265 and % mile north of Sandy over loamy marine 73 18-25 106 14
State Road 688, SE4NWSWI sec. 2, T. 30 S., R. sediments. 74 25-32 113 13
16 E. (Bt horizon coarser in texture and brighter in
color than in modal)
Felda fine sand, ponded:
% mile northeast of junction of State Road 686 and Stratified marine sand 38 8-26 102 15
9th Street North, NESEyNE'A sec. 18, T. 30 S., and sandy, loamy 39 26-34 114 13
R. 16 E. (Modal) sediments.
Manatee loamy fine sand:
500 feet north of intersection of 62nd Avenue North Loamy marine sediments. 11 18-34 112 15
and 62nd Street North, SWYSWY4NE% sec. 32, T. 12 34-44 114 13
30 S., R. 16 E. (Modal)
Myakka fine sand:
Southeast corner of junction of State Road 688 and Acid marine sand. 49 4-16 100 16
49th Street North, NW'NE'YNE'4 sec. 9, T. 30 S., 50 16-25 98 17
R. 16 E. (Modal) 51 30-54 107 14
% mile east of Starkey Road, % mile north of 54th Acid marine sand. 16 14-17 100 15
Avenue North, NWSENE4 sec. 36, T. 30 S., R. 17 40-48 104 15
15. E. (Thinner Bh horizon than in modal) 18 56-65 101 17
See footnotes at end of table.








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

test data
standard procedures of the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) (1)]

Mechanical analysis 2 Classification 8

Percentage passing sieve- Percentage smaller than- Liquid Plasticity
limit index
AASHO Unified
No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 0.05 mm. 0.02mm. 0.005 mm. 0.002mm.
(2.0 mm.) (0.42 mm.) (0.074 mm.)

Pet.
100 99 9 8 7 5 4 NP 4 NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 99 8 7 6 5 4 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM


100 99 7 6 5 2 1 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 99 6 5 4 2 1 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM


100 96 2 2 2 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 97 1 1 1 0 0 NP NP A 3(0) SP
100 99 2 2 1 1 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 99 3 3 3 1 1 NP NP A-3(0) SP

100 97 3 2 1 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 98 3 2 1 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 97 2 1 0 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP

100 97 2 2 1 1 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 95 23 23 22 19 18 29 14 A-2-6(0) SC

100 98 1 1 0 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 98 3 3 1 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 98 13 12 11 11 10 NP NP A-2-4(0) SM

100 97 4 4 3 1 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 97 13 12 11 10 9 NP NP A-2-4(0) SM



100 98 2 2 1 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 99 19 18 16 15 15 23 6 A-2-4(0) SM-SC


100 97 17 16 14 13 12 22 7 A-2-4(0) SC-SM
100 97 23 20 19 15 14 22 8 A-2-4(0) SC


100 98 3 3 1 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 98 8 7 4 3 1 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 98 5 5 3 2 1 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 99 7 6 5 4 3 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 99 4 4 4 2 2 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 100 1 1 1 1 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP








36 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 4.-Engineering

Moisture density 1

FDOT
Soil name and location Parent material report Depth Maximum Optimum
number dry moisture
density content


Oldsmar fine sand: In. Lb./cu.ft. Pet.
4 mile southeast of junction of State Roads 584 and Sandy over loamy ma- 27 12-34 100 16
580, Y mile northwest of Oldsmar. (Modal) rine sediments. 28 34-38 106 14
29 38-44 105 14
30 44-65 111 15

Orlando fine sand, wet variant:
Y mile south of junction of State Road 584 and Acid marine sand. 26 29-43 109 13
County Road 39, lYs miles east, 12 miles south-
east of Palm Harbor. (Modal)
Palm Beach sand:
3/ mile west of junction of State Road 693 and Bay- Sandy marine sediments 67 20-44 104 16
way. (Modal) and shell fragments.

Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes:
% mile north of junction of County Road 77 and Acid marine sand. 4 50-86 102 16
State Road 582, 200 yards west, NEhNEY sec.
8, T. 27 S., R. 16 E. (Modal)

4 mile north of SCL Railroad east of Salt Lake, NWh Acid marine sand. 5 21-84 103 15
SEY sec. 5, T. 27 S., R. 16 E. (Thinner A2 horizon
than in modal)
Pinellas fine sand:
Y mile southeast of junction of U.S. Highway 19 Sandy over loamy ma- 35 8-18 104 15
and 49th Street North, 200 feet east, SE4NWh rine sediments and 36 18-25 99 20
sec. 22, T. 30 S., R. 16 E. (Modal) shell fragments. 37 35-49 113 14
St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes:
3,000 feet east of edge of Lake Tarpon, SWhSWh Acid marine sand. 9 3-58 98 16
SWh sec. 21, T. 27 S., R. 16 E. (Modal) 10 58-82 102 14
Wabasso fine sand:
mile east of U.S. Highway 19, 2 miles northeast Sandy over loamy ma- 52 5-27 103 15
of Pinellas Park, SEJNEMSW% sec. 15, T. 30 rine sediments. 53 27-32 103 17
S., R. 16 E. (Modal) 54 38-44 114 13
Y mile north of junction of State Roads 584 and 586, Sandy over loamy ma- 31 12-28 100 16
% mile east on Water Line, NE4NEYNE4 rine sediments. 32 28-32 105 13
sec. 15, T. 28 S., R. 16 E. (Bt horizon deeper than 33 32-36 105 14
in modal) 34 42-47 111 15
Wauchula fine sand:
M mile west of State Road 590 and %3 mile south of Sandy over loamy ma- 23 16-26 101 15
County Road 102, 1Y2 miles north of town of Safety rine sediments. 24 26-33 93 21
Harbor, SE4rSENW, sec. 34, T. 28 S., R. 16 25 49-55 104 18
E. (Modal)
100 yards southeast of junction of State Roads 580 Sandy over loamy ma- 68 9-23 103 14
Sand 593, NWMSENWM sec. 28, T. 28 S., R. rine sediments. 69 23-27 100 17
16 E. (Coarser textured Bt horizon than in modal) 70 37-65 115 13

1 Based on AASHO Designation: T 99-57 (1).
2 Mechanical analyses according to AASHO Designation: T 88-57 (1). Results by this procedure may differ somewhat from results
obtained by the soil survey procedure of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). In the AASHO procedure, the fine material is analyzed by
the hydrometer method and the various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material, including that coarser than 2
millimeters in diameter. In the SCS soil survey procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the pipette method and the material coarser








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

test data-Continued

Mechanical analysis 2 Classification 3

Percentage passing sieve- Percentage smaller than- Liquid Plasticity
limit index
AASHO Unified
No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 0.05 mm. 0.02 mm. 0.005 mm. 0.002 mm.
(2.0 mm.) (0.42 mm.) (0.074 mm.)

Pct.
100 98 3 2 0 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 98 8 7 4 4 3 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 99 6 5 2 2 2 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 98 22 21 20 18 18 27 11 A-2-6(0) SC

100 99 8 7 4 4 3 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM



94 88 2 2 2 1 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP


100 99 1 1 1 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP


100 99 4 4 3 1 1 NP NP A-3(0) SP



100 98 3 3 1 1 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 98 11 10 5 4 3 NP NP A-2-4(0) SP-SM
100 98 19 17 16 16 15 NP NP A-2-4(0) SM

100 98 1 1 1 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 98 2 2 2 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP

100 98 2 2 1 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 98 8 7 4 3 2 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 98 14 10 3 2 1 NP NP A-2-4(0) SM
100 98 3 2 1 0 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP
100 98 9 8 5 4 3 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 98 7 6 4 3 2 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 98 20 19 17 16 15 25 12 A-2-6(0) SC

100 98 11 7 4 1 0 NP NP A-2-4(0) SP-SM
100 99 21 17 14 9 8 NP NP A-2-4(0) SM
100 99 44 38 32 31 30 33 18 A-6(4) SC

100 98 6 4 2 1 0 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 98 11 9 7 3 2 NP NP A-2-4(0) SP-SM
94 92 20 18 17 13 12 NP NP A-2-4(0) SM

than 2 millimeters in diameter is excluded from calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical analysis data used in this table are not
suitable for naming textural classes for soils.
3 Based on the Unified Soil Classification System (7). SCS and BPR have agreed to give all soils having a plasticity index within
two points from A-line a borderline classification. An example of a borderline classification is SP-SM.
4 Nonplastic.








38 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 5.-Estimated engineering
[Absence of data means

Classification
Depth
Soil name and mapping Flood hazard Depth to seasonal high water from
unit symbol table surface
USDA


Inches
Adamsville: Ad--------- Once in 20 to 50 years for 2 to Less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 0-80 Fine sand------------
7 days. months.
Astatula:
AfB------------------ None------------------------ More than 80 inches all year ..- 0-80 Fine sand-------------
AfC------------------ None---------------------- More than 80 inches all year ..- 0-80 Fine sand_------------
As------------------- None------------------------ From 40 to 60 inches for 6 to 0-80 Fine sand------------
12 months.
Astor:
At------------------- Every year for 6 months or Less than 10 inches for 6 0-26 Fine sand------------
more. months or more. 26-80 Fine sand------------
Au------------------- Every year for 6 months or Less than 10 inches for 6 (1) Fine sand------------
more. months or more.
Charlotte: Ch----------- Every year for 1 to 6 months ---- Less than 15 inches for 2 to 6 0-80 Fine sand-----------
months.
Coastal beaches: Co------ Varies with tide-------------- Varies with tide--------------- (1) Fine sand, shell---------

Elred: Ed --------------Once in 5 to 20 years for 7 to Less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 0-30 Fine sand-------------
30 days. months. 30-35 Fine sandy loam--------
35-62 Sand, shell-----------
Felda:
Fd------------------- Once in 5 to 20 years for 7 to Less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 0-30 Fine sand_------------
30 days. months. 30-41 Fine sandy loam, loamy
fine sand.
41-60 Shell, sand-----------
Fe -------------------Every year for 1 to 6 months--_ Less than 10 inches for 6 to 12 0-26 Fine sand-------------
months. 26-38 Fine sandy loam, loamy
fine sand.
38-62 Shell---------------
Fellowship: Fh--------- None------------------------ Less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 0-11 Loamy fine sand--------
months. 11-23 Silty clay----_ -----
23-70 Clay-----------------
Immokalee: Im.---_---- Once in 5 to 20 years for 7 to Less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 0-36 Fine sand------------
30 days. months. 36-50 Fine sand------------
50-80 Fine sand------------
Made land: Ma, Md.
No valid estimates can
be made.

Manatee: Mn---------- Every year for 1 to 6 months... Less than 10 inches for 6 to 12 0-18 Loamy fine sand-------
months. 18-44 Fine sandy loam--------
44-72 Fine sand ----------
Myakka: My-----------Once in 5 to 20 years for 7 to Less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 0-16 Fine sand------------
30 days. months. 16-25 Fine sand------------
25-84 Fine sand--------
Okeechobee: Ok--------- Every year for 6 to 12 months_ Less than 10 inches for 6 to 12 0-26 Muck----------------
months. 26-55 Peat----------------
Oldsmar: Om ----------- Once in 5 to 20 years for 7 to Less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 0-34 Fine sand-------------
30 days. months. 34-44 Fine sand------------
44-65 Fine sandy loam--------
Orlando: Or ------------ Once in 5 to 20 years for 7 to Less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 0-16 Fine sand--------
30 days. months. 16-80 Fine sand------------

Palm Beach: Pa ------- None---------------------- From 40 to 60 inches for 6 to 0-80 Sand, shell------
12 months.
See footnotes at end of table.








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

properties of the soils
no estimates were made]

Classification-Continued Percentage Percentage passing sieve-
of coarse ___Available
fragments Permeability water Reaction Shrink-swell
more than 3 No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 capacity potential
Unified AASHO inches in (4.7 (2.0 (0.42 (0.074
diameter mm.) mm.) mm.) mm.)

In./hr. In./in. of oil pH
SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 95-100 3-12 >20 <0. 05 4.5-5.5 Low.


SP A-3 0 100 100 90-99 1-5 >20 <0. 05 4. 5-6. 0 Low.
SP A-3 0 100 100 90-99 1-5 >20 <0. 05 4.5-6.0 Low.
SP-SM, SP A-3 0 100 100 85-99 2-12 >20 <0. 05 4.5-6.0 Low.


SP-SM A-2 0 100 100 90-99 5-12 6. 3-20. 0 >0. 20 5.6-6. 5 Low.
SP A-3 0 100 100 90-99 2-5 6.3-20.0 <0. 05 6.1-7.8 Low.
SP, SM A-2 or A-3 0 100 100 85-99 5-12 (1) (1) (1) Variable.

SP-SM, SP A-3 0 100 100 75-98 2-12 >20 <0. 05 5. 6-8. 4 Low.

..----. ....... (1) (1) (1) () (1) >20 <0.05 ---------- Low.
SP A-3 0 100 100 90-99 1-5 6. 3-20.0 0. 05 5.6-7.8 Low.
SC, SM A-2-6, 0 100 100 90-99 12-30 0. 63-2.0 0. 10-0. 15 6. 6-7. 3 Low.
A-2-4
GP, SP A-3 5-10 40-80 35-70 30-65 1-5 6.3-20.0 <0. 05 6.1-7.8 Low.
SP A-3 0 100 100 90-99 2-5 6. 3-20.0 <0. 05 5.1-7.3 Low.
SM-SC, SC A-2 0 100 100 90-99 15-35 0. 63-2.0 0. 10-0. 15 6. 1-7. 8 Low.
GP-SP A-3 5-10 40-70 35-65 30-60 1-5 6.3-20.0 <0. 05 7.9-8.4 Low.
SP A-3 0 100 100 90-99 2-5 6. 3-20.0 <0. 05 5. 1-7.3 Low.
SM-SC, SC A-2-4 0 100 100 90-99 15-35 0. 63-2.0 0. 10-0. 15 6.1-7.8 Low.
GP A-3 5-10 40-70 35-65 30-60 1-5 6. 3-20.0 <0. 05 7.9-8.4 Low.
SP-SM A-2 0 100 100 90-99 5-12 0. 63-2. 0 0.05-0. 10 4.5-5.5 Low.
CL, CH, SC A-6, A-7 0 100 100 90-99 40-60 0.06-0. 20 0. 10-0. 15 4.5-5.5 High.
CL, CH, SC A-6, A-7 0 100 100 95-99 40-85 <0. 06 0. 10-0. 15 5. 1-6. 0 High.
SP A-3 0 100 100 80-100 2-10 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SP-SM, SM A-3, A-2 0 100 100 80-100 5-20 0. 63-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SP A-3 0 100 100 80-100 2-10 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4.5-5.5 Low.




SP-SM A-2 0 100 100 90-99 5-12 2.0-6. 3 >0. 20 6.1-7.8 Low.
SC, SC-SM A-2-4 0 100 100 90-99 15-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 6.1-7.8 Low.
SP A-3 0 100 100 90-99 2-5 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 6.1-7.8 Low.
SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-100 2-10 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-6. 5 Low.
SP-SM, SM A-3 0 100 100 80-100 5-20 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-6. 5 Low.
SP-SM, SP A-3 0 100 100 80-100 2-10 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-6. 5 Low.
Pt --------------- ------- 6. 3-20. 0 >0. 20 5.6-8.4 High.2
Pt -_ 0 -------- ------------------------- 6.3-20.0 >0. 20 5.6-8.4 High.2
SP A-3 0 100 100 90-99 2-5 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SP-SM, SM A-3 0 100 100 90-99 5-20 2. 0-6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-6. 5 Low.
SM-SC, SC A-2-6 0 100 100 90-99 20-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 6.1-8.4 Low.
SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 90-99 5-12 >20 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 90-99 5-12 >20 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SP, GP A-3, A-1 5-25 35-95 40-94 15-90 1-5 >20 <0. 05 7.4-8.4 Low.

420-436-72---4








40 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 5.-Estimated engineering

Classification
Depth
Soil name and mapping Flood hazard Depth to seasonal high water from
unit symbol table surface
USDA


Inches
Pamlico muck: Pc----- Every year for 6 to 12 months-- Less than 10 inches for 6 to 12 0-44 Muck-----------
months. 44-65 Fine sand__-----

Paola: PdB ----------- None---------------------- More than 80 inches all year--__ 0-80 Fine sand-------

Pinellas: Pf------------ Once in 5 to 20 years for 7 to Less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 0-18 Fine sand---------
30 days. months. 18-35 Fine sand-------
35-54 Fine sandy loam--------
54-80 Sand----------

Placid: Pn ------------- Every year for 6 months or Less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 0-17 Fine sand--------
more. months. 17-80 Fine sand--------

Pomello: Po----- None --------------------_ From 10 to 40 inches for 1 or 2 0-44 Fine sand--------
months. 44-59 Fine sand--------
59-80 Fine sand-------
Pompano:
Pp------------------ Once in 5 to 20 years for 7 to Less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 0-14 Fine sand-------
30 days. months. 14-80 Fine sand-------

Ps------------------- Every year for 1 to 6 months___ Less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 0-14 Fine sand------
months. 14-80 Fine sand-------

Spoil banks: Sp.
No valid estimates can
be made.

St. Lucie:
StB------------------ None-----------------------. More than 80 inches all year .._ 0-80 Fine sand-------
StC------------------- None---------------------- More than 60 inches all year-__- 0-80 Fine sand-------
Su------------------- None------------------------ From 10 to 40 inches for less 0-40 Fine sand------
than 2 months. 40-80 Shell --------

Terra Ceia: Tc---------- Every year for 6 to 12 months-_ Less than 10 inches for 6 to 12 0-42 Muck------------------
months. 42-65 Peat-____-_________.

Tidal marsh: Td-------- Daily---------------------- Less than 10 inches all year----- (1) ()----------
Tidal swamp: Ts------- Daily --------_ ---------- Less than 10 inches all year----_ ( (1)-----
Urban land: Ub, Uc,
Uk, Ur, Up, Uw.
No valid estimates
can be made.

Wabasso: Wa----------- Once in 5 to 20 years for 7 to Less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 0-27 Fine sand__---
30 days. months. 27-38 Fine sand--------
38-50 Fine sandy loam, fine
silty clay loam.
50-62 Shell ----------

Wauchula: Wc -------- Once in 5 to 20 years for 7 to Less than 10 inches for 1 or 2 0-26 Fine sand------
30 days. months. 26-35 Fine sand___-----
35-80 Fine sandy loam,
fine silty clay loam.

1 Variable. 2 High potential subsidence.








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

properties of the soils-Continued

Classification-Continued Percentage Percentage passing sieve-
of coarse Available
fragments Permeability water Reaction Shrink-swell
more than 3 No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 capacity potential
Unified AASHO inches in (4.7 (2.0 (0.42 (0.074
diameter mm.) mm.) mm.) mm.)


SIn./hr. In./in. of soil pH
OL 0 -------- -------- -------- _------ 0. 63-2. 0 >0. 20 ---------High.2
SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 90-100 5-12 0. 63-2. 0 0. 05-0. 10 4.5-5.5 Low.

SP A-3 0 100 100 90-100 1-5 >20 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 0 Low.

SP A-3 0 100 100 90-100 2-5 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 5. 6-7. 8 Low.
SP-SM A-2-4 0 100 100 90-100 5-12 6. 3-20. 0 0. 10-0. 15 6. 6-7. 8 Low.
SM, SM-SC A-2-4 0 100 100 90-100 12-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 6. 6-8. 4 Low.
SP A-1 0-5 80-100 75-100 60-95 2-5 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 7. 9-8. 4 Low.
SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 90-99 2-12 6. 3-20. 0 0. 15-0. 20 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 90-99 2-12 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 75-100 1-8 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SP-SM, SM A-3, A-2-4 0 100 100 85-100 5-20 2. 0-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 75-100 4-10 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.

SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-100 4-12 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 5. 6-7. 3 Low.
SP, SP-SM A-3 0, 100 100 80-100 4-12 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 6. 1-7. 8 Low.
SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-100 4-12 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 5. 6-7. 3 Low.
SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-100 4-12 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 6. 1-7. 8 Low.





SP A-3 0 100 100 95-99 1-4 >20 <0. 05 5. 1-5. 5 Low.
SP A-3 0 100 100 95-99 1-4 >20 <0. 05 5. 1-5. 5 Low.
SP A-3 0 100 100 95-99 1-4 >20 <0. 05 5. 6-6. 0 Low.
GP A-3 20-30 20-50 20-45 15-40 1-4 >20 <0. 05 7. 4-7. 8 Low.
OL, PT _----- ---- 0 ------------------------------- 6.3-20. 0 <0. 20 7.4-7. 8 High.2
PT --------- 0 --------------------------- ----------------------6. 6-7. 3 High.2

(1) (1) 0 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 8. 5-9. 0 Variable.
(1) (1) 0 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) 8. 5-9. 0 Variable.





SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 95-100 2-10 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 95-100 5-12 2. 0-6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-6. 5 Low.
SC, SM A-2, A-6 0 100 100 95-100 12-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 5. 6-7. 8 Low.
GP A-3 20-30 20-50 20-45 15-40 2-5 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 7. 4-7. 8 Low.
SP-SM A-3, A-2 0 100 100 90-100 5-12 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SM, SP-SM A-3, A-2 0 100 100 90-100 10-25 2. 0-6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
SC, SM A-2, A-6 0 100 100 90-100 20-50 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Moderate.









42 SOIL SURVEY
TABLE 6.-Engineering interpretations


Suitability as a source of- Soil features affecting-
Soil series and________________________ ________________________________
map symbols
Topsoil Road fill Shells Highway location Excavated ponds

Adamsville: Ad -------- Poor: texture__ Fair: high Not available_-- High water table-.---- Loose sand; unstable
water table. side slopes.

Astatula:
Af B _----------.... Poor: texture__ Good----------Not available-_- Loose erodible sand-- Rapid permeability;
deep to water table.
AfC------------------ Poor: texture-- Good---------- Not available.__ Loose erodible sand; Rapid permeability;
strong slopes, deep to water table;
strong slopes.
As------------------ Poor: texture-_ Good---------- Not available-__ Loose erodible sand-..- Loose sand; rapid perme-
ability; seasonal low
water table; unstable
side slopes.
Astor: At,Au ---------- Poor: high Poor: high Not available __ Low position; high Loose sand; unstable
water table; water table, water table; side slopes.
texture. frequent flooding.

Charlotte: Ch---------- Poor: texture-_ Poor: high Not suitable .-- Low position; high Loose sand; unstable
water table, water table; side slopes.
frequent flooding.

Coastal beaches: Co ..- Poor: texture-_ Poor: tidal Good -------- Low position; frequent Tidal flooding ---
flooding, flooding; loose sand.

Elred: Ed -------------- Poor: texture__ Poor: high Good below a High water table; oc- Loose sandy surface
water table, depth of 3 casional flooding, layer; porous shell
feet. substratum.

Felda:
Fd-------------------- Poor: texture Poor: high Good below a High water table; oc- Loose sandy surface
water table, depth of 3 casional flooding, layer; porous shell
feet. substratum.
Fe-------------------- Poor: texture; Poor: high Good below a Low position; high Frequent flooding ---
high water water table, depth of 3 water table; fre-
table. feet. quent flooding.

Fellowship: Fh---------- Poor: texture-- Poor: high Not available__ Seepy; slowly perme- Slowly permeable; firm
shrink-swell able; high shrink- clay; moderately
potential. swell potential; low sloping.
traffic-supporting
capacity.

Immokaleet Im--------- Poor: texture-_ Poor: high Not available_-- High water table; oc- Loose sand; unstable
water table. casional flooding, side slopes.

Made land: Ma, Md.
No interpretations;
properties too
variable.

Manatee: M n----------Poor: high Poor: high Not available--- High water table; fre- Features generally
water table, water table. quent flooding, favorable.

Myakka: M y --_----. Poor: texture Poor: high Not available--- High water table; Loose sand; unstable
water table, occasional flooding, side slopes.

Okeechobee: Ok--.------ Poor: high Unsuited ----_ Not available__- Low position; high High content of organic
water table. water table; high matter; frequent
content of organic flooding.
matter; frequent
flooding.
Oldsmar: Om -------- Poor: texture-. Poor: high Not available__ High water table; Loose sand; unstable
water table, occasional flooding, side slopes.
Orlando: Or ---------- Fair: texture-_ Fair: high Not available__- High water table; oc- Loose sand; unstable
water table. casional flooding, side slopes.
Palm Beach: Pa----- --Poor: texture- Good _------ Poor ---._---_ Loose erodible sand.-__ Loose sand; unstable
side slopes.








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

of the soils


Soil features affecting-Continued

Embankments Drainage Sprinkler irrigation Subsurface irrigation Ditches and canals

Loose sand; rapid Loose erodible sand------ Very low available water Features generally Loose erodible sand;
permeability. capacity. favorable. unstable side slopes.

Loose sand; rapid No drainage needed----. Very low available water Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sand;
permeability, capacity, deep to water table, unstable side slopes.
Loose erodible sand; No drainage needed-----. Very low available water Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sand;
rapid permeability. capacity. deep to water table; unstable side slopes.
strong slopes.
Loose erodible sand; Loose erodible sand ..--- Very low available water Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sand;
rapid permeability, capacity, seasonal low water moderate slopes.
table.
Low position; frequent Low position; loose Frequent flooding----- Frequent flooding-- ---_ Loose erodible sand
flooding, sand; no suitable out- unstable side slopes.
lets in some areas.
Low position; frequent Low position; loose Very low available water Frequent flooding .----. Loose erodible sand;
flooding, sand; no suitable out- capacity; frequent unstable side slopes.
lets in some areas. flooding.
Tidal flooding----------- Tidal flooding ---..--- Tidal flooding ------- Tidal flooding---_-- --- Loose erodible sand;
unstable side slopes.
Loose sand surface layer; Loose erodible sandy Low available water Features generally Loose erodible sandy
rapid permeability, surface layer. capacity. favorable, surface layer.


Loose sandy surface Loose erodible sandy Low available water Features generally Loose erodible sandy
layer; rapid surface layer. capacity. favorable, surface layer.
permeability.
Low position; frequent Low position; moderate Frequent flooding -----_ Frequent flooding------- Loose erodible sandy
flooding, permeability; frequent surface layer.
flooding.
Low bearing capacity; Very slow permeability; Slow percolation; highly Slow permeability; Plastic clay subsoil.
high shrink-swell seepy. erodible. gentle slopes.
potential.


Loose sand; rapid per- Loose erodible sand.----- Very low available water Features generally Loose erodible sand;
meability. capacity. favorable, unstable side slopes.






Low position; frequent Moderately permeable Moderately permeable Frequent flooding------- Features generally
flooding, subsoil. subsoil, favorable.

Loose sand; rapid per- Loose erodible sand------ Very low available water Features generally Loose erodible sand;
meability. capacity, favorable, unstable side slopes.

Low bearing capacity; Low position; inadequate Frequent flooding ----- Frequent flooding ----_ High content of or-
high water table; fre- outlets; rapid oxida- ganic matter.
quent flooding. tion.


Loose sand; rapidly per- Loose erodible sand----. Low available water Features generally Loose erodible sand;
meable surface layer, capacity. favorable, unstable side slopes.

Loose sand; rapid per- Loose erodible sand--.-.. Features generally Features generally Loose erodible sand;
meability. favorable, favorable, unstable side slopes.

Loose sand; rapid per- Loose sand------------ Very low available water Seasonal low water table- Loose erodible sand;
meability. capacity, unstable side slopes.









44 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Engineering interpretations


Suitability as a source of- Soil features affecting-
Soil series and
map symbols
Topsoil Road fill Shells Highway location Excavated ponds


Pamlico: Pc_ ---------- Poor: high Unsuited------- Not available-__ Low, position; high High content of organic
water table. water table; high matter; frequent
content of organic flooding.
matter; frequent
flooding.

Paola: Pd B------------- Poor: texture-_ Good---------- Not available--_ Loose erodible sand--- Very rapid permeability;
deep to water table.

Pinellas: Pf -------- Poor: texture-- Fair: high Good below a High water table; oc- Loose sandy surface
water table, depth of 4 casional flooding, layer; shell sub-
feet. stratum.


Placid: Pn------------- Poor: texture- Poor: high Not available--. Low position; high Loose sand; unstable
water table. water table; fre- side slopes.
quent flooding.

Pomello: Po --------- Poor: texture-_ Good---------- Not available--- Loose sand----------- Rapid permeability;
seasonal low water
table; loose sand;
unstable side slopes.

Pompano:
Pp _----------------- Poor: texture Poor: high Not available___ High water table------ Loose sand; unstable
water table. side slopes.


Ps ------------- Poor: texture__ Poor: high Not available___ Low position; high Loose sand; unstable
water table. water table; fre- side slopes.
quent flooding.

Soil banks: Sp.
No interpretations;
properties too
variable.

St. Lucie:
StB ------------------ Poor: texture-- Good ----------Not available-_- Loose sand; difficult to Very rapid permeability;
establish protective deep to water table;
cover vegetation, loose sand; unstable
side slopes.
StC--------------- Poor: texture-- Good---------- Not available--- Loose sand; difficult to Very rapid permeability;
establish protective deep to water table;
cover vegetation, loose sand; unstable
side slopes; strong
slopes.
Su ----- ------------ Poor: texture-- Good--------- Good below a Loose sand -----------Very rapid permeability;
depth of 40 deep to water table;
inches. loose sand; unstable
side slopes; shell
substratum.

Terra Ceia: Tc---------- Poor: high Unsuited------- Not available-_. Low position; high High content of organic
water table. water table; high matter; frequent
content of organic flooding.
matter; frequent
flooding.

Tidal marsh: Td-------- Unsuited------- Poorly suited to Not available--- Low position; high High content of organic
unsuited: water table; frequent matter; frequent
high water flooding; high con- flooding.
table. tent of organic mat-
ter in some areas.
Tidal swamp: Ts -------- Unsuited------- Poorly suited to Not available-_- Low position; high High content of organic
unsuited: water table; fre- matter; frequent
high water quent flooding; high flooding.
table. content of organic
matter in some areas.








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

of the soils-Continued


Soil features affecting-Continued

Embankments Drainage Sprinkler irrigation SBbsurface irrigation Ditches and canals

Low bearing capacity; Low position; inadequate Frequent flooding ----. Frequent flooding ------ High content of or-
high water table; fre- outlets; rapid oxida- ganic matter.
quent flooding, tion.


Loose erodible sand; No drainage needed------ Very low available water Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sand;
rapid permeability. capacity, deep to water table. unstable side slopes.
Loose sand; rapidly Loose erodible surface Low available water Carbonates accumulated Loose erodible sandy
permeable surface layer; slowly per- capacity, in surface layer im- surface layer.
layer. meable subsoil. pede movement of
water.
Low position; frequent Low position; loose sand; Frequent flooding --____ Frequent flooding -----_- Loose erodible sand;
flooding, no suitable outlets in unstable side slopes.
some areas.

Rapid permeability; Loose erodible sand ----- Very low available water Rapid permeability; Loose erodible sand;
loose erodible sand. capacity, seasonal low water unstable side slopes.
table.


Loose sand; rapid per- Loose erodible sand------ Very low available water Features generally Loose erodible sand;
meability. capacity. favorable, unstable side slopes.

Loose sand; rapid per- Low position; loose sand; Very low available water Frequent flooding-----.. Loose erodible sand;
meability; frequent no suitable outlets in capacity; frequent unstable side slopes.
flooding, some areas, flooding.






Loose sand; erodible; No drainage needed..---- Very low available Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sand;
very rapid permea- water capacity, deep to water table. unstable side slopes.
ability.

Loose sand; erodible; No drainage needed ..--- Very low available water Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sand;
very rapid permea- capacity. deep to water table; unstable side slopes.
ability. strong slopes.

Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sand------ Very low available water Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sand;
loose sand; erodible. capacity, seasonal low water unstable side slopes.-
table.


Low bearing value; high Low position; inadequate Frequent flooding ------ Frequent flooding------- High content of organic
water table; frequent outlets; rapid oxida- matter.
flooding. tion.


Low position; frequent Low position; frequent Frequent flooding ----. Frequent flooding-----... Frequent flooding;
flooding; variable soil flooding. variable soil ma-
material. trial.


Low position; frequent Low position; frequent Frequent flooding------- Frequent flooding------- Frequent flooding
flooding; variable soil flooding. variable soil ma-
material. trial.







46 SOLL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Engineering interpretations

Suitability as a source of- Soil features affecting-
Soil series and
map symbols
Topsoil Road fill Shells Highway location Excavated ponds

Urban land: Ub, Uc, Uk,
Um, Up, Uw.
No interpretations;
properties too
variable.
Wabasso: Wa--------- Poor: texture__ Poor: high Good below a High water table; oc- Loose sandy surface
water table, depth of 4 casional flooding, layer; shell substratum.
feet.
Wauchula: Wc --------- Poor: texture-- Fair: high Not available--- High water table; oc- Loose sandy surface
water table. casional flooding, layer.



liquid. The plasticity index is the numerical difference Engineering interpretations
between the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates Table 6 rates the soils according to their suitability as
the range of moisture content within which a soil material Tb 6 rt t s according to te sitbi as
the range of moisture content with which a soil material a source of topsoil, road fill, and shells. It also gives
is plastic. features that adversely affect the use of the soils for
Engineering properties of the soils highways, farm ponds, embankments, drainage and
Table 5 gives estimates of soil properties important in irrigation systems, and ditches and canals. These features
engineering. The estimates are based on soil test data should be taken into account in considering a soil for the
given in table 4, on experience in working with the soils, stated use. Terms used i table 6 are defined in the follow-
and on experience with similar soils in other counties. The ing paragraphs.
estimates apply only to soils in Pinellas County. Some of Topsoil is fertile soil material that is used to topdress
the terms used in table 5 are defined in the following roadbanks, parks, gardens, and lawns. Suitability as a
paragraphs. source for topsoil is affected by the surface texture and
Flood hazard refers to water standing or flowing above the organic-matter content of the soil material and by
the surface of soil that is not artificially drained. Depth to the depth of the water table. For example, Manatee
the seasonal high water table refers to the highest level the loamy fine sand, which has a favorable surface texture
water table is likely to reach during a normal wet season, and high organic-matter content, is rated poor as a source
Permeability refers to the rate at which water moves of topsoil because a high water table severely restricts
downward through undisturbed and uncompacted soil excavation.
when it is not restricted by a water table. The rate is Road fill is borrow material used for embankments that
expressed in inches per hour. support the subbase and base courses below the surface
The available water capacity, measured in inches of of a road. Suitability as a source of road fill is affected
water per inch of soil, is the capacity of soils to hold by the texture of the soil, the natural content of water,
water available for use by most plants. It is commonly the shrink-swell potential, and the ease of excavation.
defined as the difference between the amount of soil Generally, soils that are clayey have a high shrink-swell
water at field capacity and the amount at wilting point, potential and are not suitable road fill material, whereas
The following terms are used to express available water sandy soils that contain some binder are suitable. Wetness
capacity: less than 0.05 inch, very low; 0.05 to 0.10, or a high water table affects the ease of excavation.
low; 0.10 to 0.15, medium; 0.15 to 0.20, high; and more In Pinellas County, many sandy soils that have otherwise
than 0.20, very high. favorable characteristics have a high water table and are
Reaction refers to the acidity or alkalinity of the soils. rated poor as road fill.
It is the estimated range in pH values for each major Shells are used in much the same way as road fill
horizon as determined in the field. A pH of 7 indicates a material. Suitability as a source of shells is affected mainly
neutral soil, a lower pH value indicates acidity, and a by the presence, extent, and quality of workable deposits.
higher value indicates alkalinity. A high water table and flooding affect the ease of excava-
The shrink-swell potential of a soil refers to the change tion.
in volume that results from a change in moisture content. Highway location is affected by a high water table,
It is estimated on the basis of the amount and type of flood hazard, and seepage, and by the presence of sandy,
clay. In general, soils classified as CH in the Unified loamy, or clayey layers in the soil that affect the bearing
system or A-7 in the AASHO system have high shrink- capacity and the stability of roadbeds (fig. 4).
swell potential. Clean sand and gravel and soils that con- Farm ponds commonly are constructed by excavating
tain only a small amount of nonplastic to slightly plastic to a depth of several feet below the normal water table.
soil material have low shrink-swell potential. Ground water fills the excavation, and the water level







46 SOLL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Engineering interpretations

Suitability as a source of- Soil features affecting-
Soil series and
map symbols
Topsoil Road fill Shells Highway location Excavated ponds

Urban land: Ub, Uc, Uk,
Um, Up, Uw.
No interpretations;
properties too
variable.
Wabasso: Wa--------- Poor: texture__ Poor: high Good below a High water table; oc- Loose sandy surface
water table, depth of 4 casional flooding, layer; shell substratum.
feet.
Wauchula: Wc --------- Poor: texture-- Fair: high Not available--- High water table; oc- Loose sandy surface
water table. casional flooding, layer.



liquid. The plasticity index is the numerical difference Engineering interpretations
between the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates Table 6 rates the soils according to their suitability as
the range of moisture content within which a soil material Tb 6 rt t s according to te sitbi as
the range of moisture content with which a soil material a source of topsoil, road fill, and shells. It also gives
is plastic. features that adversely affect the use of the soils for
Engineering properties of the soils highways, farm ponds, embankments, drainage and
Table 5 gives estimates of soil properties important in irrigation systems, and ditches and canals. These features
engineering. The estimates are based on soil test data should be taken into account in considering a soil for the
given in table 4, on experience in working with the soils, stated use. Terms used i table 6 are defined in the follow-
and on experience with similar soils in other counties. The ing paragraphs.
estimates apply only to soils in Pinellas County. Some of Topsoil is fertile soil material that is used to topdress
the terms used in table 5 are defined in the following roadbanks, parks, gardens, and lawns. Suitability as a
paragraphs. source for topsoil is affected by the surface texture and
Flood hazard refers to water standing or flowing above the organic-matter content of the soil material and by
the surface of soil that is not artificially drained. Depth to the depth of the water table. For example, Manatee
the seasonal high water table refers to the highest level the loamy fine sand, which has a favorable surface texture
water table is likely to reach during a normal wet season, and high organic-matter content, is rated poor as a source
Permeability refers to the rate at which water moves of topsoil because a high water table severely restricts
downward through undisturbed and uncompacted soil excavation.
when it is not restricted by a water table. The rate is Road fill is borrow material used for embankments that
expressed in inches per hour. support the subbase and base courses below the surface
The available water capacity, measured in inches of of a road. Suitability as a source of road fill is affected
water per inch of soil, is the capacity of soils to hold by the texture of the soil, the natural content of water,
water available for use by most plants. It is commonly the shrink-swell potential, and the ease of excavation.
defined as the difference between the amount of soil Generally, soils that are clayey have a high shrink-swell
water at field capacity and the amount at wilting point, potential and are not suitable road fill material, whereas
The following terms are used to express available water sandy soils that contain some binder are suitable. Wetness
capacity: less than 0.05 inch, very low; 0.05 to 0.10, or a high water table affects the ease of excavation.
low; 0.10 to 0.15, medium; 0.15 to 0.20, high; and more In Pinellas County, many sandy soils that have otherwise
than 0.20, very high. favorable characteristics have a high water table and are
Reaction refers to the acidity or alkalinity of the soils. rated poor as road fill.
It is the estimated range in pH values for each major Shells are used in much the same way as road fill
horizon as determined in the field. A pH of 7 indicates a material. Suitability as a source of shells is affected mainly
neutral soil, a lower pH value indicates acidity, and a by the presence, extent, and quality of workable deposits.
higher value indicates alkalinity. A high water table and flooding affect the ease of excava-
The shrink-swell potential of a soil refers to the change tion.
in volume that results from a change in moisture content. Highway location is affected by a high water table,
It is estimated on the basis of the amount and type of flood hazard, and seepage, and by the presence of sandy,
clay. In general, soils classified as CH in the Unified loamy, or clayey layers in the soil that affect the bearing
system or A-7 in the AASHO system have high shrink- capacity and the stability of roadbeds (fig. 4).
swell potential. Clean sand and gravel and soils that con- Farm ponds commonly are constructed by excavating
tain only a small amount of nonplastic to slightly plastic to a depth of several feet below the normal water table.
soil material have low shrink-swell potential. Ground water fills the excavation, and the water level








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

of the soils-Continued

Soil features affecting-Continued

Embankments Drainage Sprinkler irrigation Subsurface irrigation Ditches and canals






Loose sandy surface Loose erodible surface Low available water Features generally Loose erodible sandy
layer; rapid permea- layer; moderately capacity. favorable. surface layer.
ability. permeable subsoil.
Loose sandy surface Loose erodible surface Low available water Features generally Loose erodible sandy
layer; rapid permea- layer; moderately capacity. favorable, surface layer.
ability. permeable subsoil.

















































Figure 4.-Asphalt street built on Pamlico muck. Poor bearing capacity of the muck caused the asphalt to crack.







48 SOIL SURVEY

at any given time depends upon the height of the water damaging the young trees. Many growers practice mini-
table. Suitability of soils for excavated ponds depends mum tillage, especially on wetter soils.
mainly on the seepage rate and the stability of banks About 5,000 acres m the county is used for improved
and side slopes. pasture. Fertilizer and lime and good grazing management
Embankments consist of borrow material used to im- are needed on all pastures, and drainage is needed in wet
pound water. Soil features affecting this use are perme- areas. Subsurface irrigation is used on some improved
ability, erodibility, and texture, pastures to provide adequate water for clover during
Surface and subsurface agricultural drainage systems winter months. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are the
are affected mainly by the availability of drainage outlets, pasture grasses most commonly grown. White clover,
the elevation of the soil, and the permeability of the hubam clover, and clover-grass mixtures can be grown for
least permeable layers, winter forage where irrigation is provided. Good pasture
Sprinkler irrigation and subsurface irrigation are the not only supplies forage for livestock, but also controls
two methods commonly practiced in Pinellas County. soil blowing and water erosion and increases the organic-
Water for sprinkler irrigation is obtained from wells, matter content of soils (fig. 6).
ditches, lakes, and irrigation pits. Subsurface irrigation can Current information about suitable crops, improved
be used on nearly level soils that have a water table near varieties of plants, and specific management practices can
the surface. Soil features that affect irrigation are tex- be obtained from local representatives of the Soil Conserva-
ture, depth to the water table, available water capacity, tion Service, the University of Florida Agricultural
permeability, elevation, major surface irregularities, and Experiment Stations, or the Agricultural Extension
flood hazards. Service.
Open ditches and canals are used for controlling the ii
level of the water table, for subsurface irrigation, and for Capabilit grouping
drainage. Soil features affecting this use are mainly tex- Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the
ture, slope, and erodibility. suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The groups
are made according to the limitations of the soils when
Crops and Pasture used for field crops, the risk of damage when they are
used, and the way they respond to treatment. The
Most of the soils in Pinellas County have severe limita- grouping does not take into account major and generally
tions for crops and pasture. These limitations must be expensive landforming that would change slope, depth,
overcome before cultivated crops can be grown success- or other characteristics of the soils; does not take into
fully or the soils can be used for improved pasture. consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation
Many soils are affected by a fluctuating water table. projects; and does not apply to horticultural crops or
During the rainy season, the table rises and crops are other crops requiring special management.
damaged by excess water in the root zone. During drought Those familiar with the capability classification can
periods, the water table drops and crops are damaged by a infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used
shortage of water. A system that combines drainage and for other purposes, but this classification is not a substitute
irrigation can be used to overcome these hazards (fig. 5). for interpretations designed to show suitability and
Erosion generally is not a serious hazard because most limitations of groups of soils for range, for forest trees, or
of the soils are nearly level and very permeable. However, for engineering.
ditchbanks and dikes are highly erodible and require pro- In the capability system all kinds of soil are grouped
tective vegetation, at three levels: the capability class, the subclass, and the
Most of the soils have low available water capacity, low unit. These are discussed in the following paragraphs.
natural fertility, and low capacity to hold plant nutrients. CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are desig-
Response to fertilizer varies with the kind of soil and level nated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals
of management, but heavy applications of fertilizer are indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower
needed on most soils. Intensive management generally is choices for practical use, defined as follows:
practical where climatic conditions are favorable. Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
Some soils that occupy relatively high positions on the use. (None in Pinellas County.)
landscape have a deep water table, are very rapidly perme- Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
able, and are somewhat drought. If cultivated, they need the choice of plants or that require moderate con-
to be irrigated. If used for citrus or peach trees and other servation practices. (None in Pinellas County.)
deep-rooted plants, they need supplemental water during Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce
extended dry periods, the choice of plants, require special conservation
The drought Astatula fine sand on ridgeland in the practices, or both.
northwestern part of the county and a considerable acre- Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
age of the wet Adamsville and Myakka soils are used for reduce the choice of plants, require very careful
citrus. All need irrigation. The Astatula soil is suited to management, or both.
sprinkler irrigation. For Adamsville and Myakka soils, Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
subsurface or sprinkler irrigation can be used. In addi- limitations, impractical to remove, that limit
tion, these soils need intensive water control, including their use largely to pasture or range, woodland,
deep drainage ditches and bedding. or wildlife food and cover. (None in Pinellas
Citrus trees generally require fertilizers and pest con- County.)
trol. A cover crop is needed in young groves to protect the Class VI soils have severe limitations that make
soils against blowing and to prevent windblown sand from them generally unsuited to cultivation and limit







48 SOIL SURVEY

at any given time depends upon the height of the water damaging the young trees. Many growers practice mini-
table. Suitability of soils for excavated ponds depends mum tillage, especially on wetter soils.
mainly on the seepage rate and the stability of banks About 5,000 acres m the county is used for improved
and side slopes. pasture. Fertilizer and lime and good grazing management
Embankments consist of borrow material used to im- are needed on all pastures, and drainage is needed in wet
pound water. Soil features affecting this use are perme- areas. Subsurface irrigation is used on some improved
ability, erodibility, and texture, pastures to provide adequate water for clover during
Surface and subsurface agricultural drainage systems winter months. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are the
are affected mainly by the availability of drainage outlets, pasture grasses most commonly grown. White clover,
the elevation of the soil, and the permeability of the hubam clover, and clover-grass mixtures can be grown for
least permeable layers, winter forage where irrigation is provided. Good pasture
Sprinkler irrigation and subsurface irrigation are the not only supplies forage for livestock, but also controls
two methods commonly practiced in Pinellas County. soil blowing and water erosion and increases the organic-
Water for sprinkler irrigation is obtained from wells, matter content of soils (fig. 6).
ditches, lakes, and irrigation pits. Subsurface irrigation can Current information about suitable crops, improved
be used on nearly level soils that have a water table near varieties of plants, and specific management practices can
the surface. Soil features that affect irrigation are tex- be obtained from local representatives of the Soil Conserva-
ture, depth to the water table, available water capacity, tion Service, the University of Florida Agricultural
permeability, elevation, major surface irregularities, and Experiment Stations, or the Agricultural Extension
flood hazards. Service.
Open ditches and canals are used for controlling the ii
level of the water table, for subsurface irrigation, and for Capabilit grouping
drainage. Soil features affecting this use are mainly tex- Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the
ture, slope, and erodibility. suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The groups
are made according to the limitations of the soils when
Crops and Pasture used for field crops, the risk of damage when they are
used, and the way they respond to treatment. The
Most of the soils in Pinellas County have severe limita- grouping does not take into account major and generally
tions for crops and pasture. These limitations must be expensive landforming that would change slope, depth,
overcome before cultivated crops can be grown success- or other characteristics of the soils; does not take into
fully or the soils can be used for improved pasture. consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation
Many soils are affected by a fluctuating water table. projects; and does not apply to horticultural crops or
During the rainy season, the table rises and crops are other crops requiring special management.
damaged by excess water in the root zone. During drought Those familiar with the capability classification can
periods, the water table drops and crops are damaged by a infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used
shortage of water. A system that combines drainage and for other purposes, but this classification is not a substitute
irrigation can be used to overcome these hazards (fig. 5). for interpretations designed to show suitability and
Erosion generally is not a serious hazard because most limitations of groups of soils for range, for forest trees, or
of the soils are nearly level and very permeable. However, for engineering.
ditchbanks and dikes are highly erodible and require pro- In the capability system all kinds of soil are grouped
tective vegetation, at three levels: the capability class, the subclass, and the
Most of the soils have low available water capacity, low unit. These are discussed in the following paragraphs.
natural fertility, and low capacity to hold plant nutrients. CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are desig-
Response to fertilizer varies with the kind of soil and level nated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals
of management, but heavy applications of fertilizer are indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower
needed on most soils. Intensive management generally is choices for practical use, defined as follows:
practical where climatic conditions are favorable. Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
Some soils that occupy relatively high positions on the use. (None in Pinellas County.)
landscape have a deep water table, are very rapidly perme- Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
able, and are somewhat drought. If cultivated, they need the choice of plants or that require moderate con-
to be irrigated. If used for citrus or peach trees and other servation practices. (None in Pinellas County.)
deep-rooted plants, they need supplemental water during Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce
extended dry periods, the choice of plants, require special conservation
The drought Astatula fine sand on ridgeland in the practices, or both.
northwestern part of the county and a considerable acre- Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
age of the wet Adamsville and Myakka soils are used for reduce the choice of plants, require very careful
citrus. All need irrigation. The Astatula soil is suited to management, or both.
sprinkler irrigation. For Adamsville and Myakka soils, Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
subsurface or sprinkler irrigation can be used. In addi- limitations, impractical to remove, that limit
tion, these soils need intensive water control, including their use largely to pasture or range, woodland,
deep drainage ditches and bedding. or wildlife food and cover. (None in Pinellas
Citrus trees generally require fertilizers and pest con- County.)
trol. A cover crop is needed in young groves to protect the Class VI soils have severe limitations that make
soils against blowing and to prevent windblown sand from them generally unsuited to cultivation and limit







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 49








































Figure 5.- Harvesting oats for green feed on Myakka fine sand. The water table is maintained at optimum level through a system
of control ditches. Water is applied by subsurface irrigation in dry periods and drained away in wet periods.

their use largely to pasture or range, woodland, growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be
or wildlife food and cover, partly corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or
make them unsuited to cultivation and that stony; and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
restrict their use largely to pasture o" range, but not in Pinellas County, shows that the chief limitation
woodland, or wildlife food and cover, is climate that is too cold or too dry.
Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils
that preclude their use for commercial crop of this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, at
production and restrict their use to recreation, the most, only the subclasses indicated by w, s, and c,
wildlife food and cover, or water supply, or to because the soils in class V are subject to little or no erosion,
esthetic purposes. (None in Pinellas County.) though they have other limitations that restrict their use
CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within one largely to pasture or range, woodland, wildlife food and
class; they are designated by adding a small letter, cover, or recreation.
e, w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example IIIw. CAPABILITY UNITS are soil groups within the sub-
The letter e shows that the main limitation is risk of classes. The soils in one capability unit are enough alike
erosion unless close-growing plant cover is maintained; to be suited to the same crops and pasture plants, to
w shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant require similar management, and to have similar pro-






50 SOIL SURVEY







































Figure 6.-Bahiagrass pasture on Myakka fine sand.




ductivity and other responses to management. Thus, the the unit in which a given soil has been placed, refer to the
capability unit is a convenient grouping for making "Guide to Mapping Units" at the back of this survey.
many statements about management of soils. Capability
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic numeral CAPABILITY UNIT IIIs-1
to the subclass symbol, for example, IIIw-1 or IVw-2. Astatula fine sand, moderately deep water table, is the
Thus, in one symbol, the Roman numeral designates the only soil in this unit. It is a nearly level or gently sloping,
capability class, or degree of limitation; the small letter sandy soil that has a low organic-matter content and low
indicates the subclass, or kind of limitation, as defined in natural fertility. The available water capacity is very low,
the foregoing paragraph; and the Arabic numeral specifi- and permeability is very rapid. The water table is
cally identifies the capability unit within each subclass, typically 40 to 60 inches below the surface, but it is
In the following pages the capability units in Pinellas closer to the surface for a short time during wet periods
County are described and suggestions for the use and and is at a depth of more than 60 inches during dry
management of the soils are given. The soil series repre- periods.
sented in a capability unit are named, but this does not The water table within the root zone favors growth of
mean that all soils in the series are in the unit. To find deep-rooted plants. The low available water capacity and







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

rapid permeability, however, cause this soil to be drought to protect the soil and improve tilth, and frequent appli-
during prolonged dry periods and to be quickly leached cations of fertilizer and lime.
of plant nutrients. These and other unfavorable soil
properties severely limit the choice of plants and the use CAPABILITY UNIT mw-2
of this soil for cultivated crops. Special management Elred, Felda, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils are in this
is needed. unit. They have a low organic-matter content, low to
The native vegetation consists of turkey oak, pine, moderately low natural fertility, a low available water
scattered saw-palmetto, and numerous shrubs and grasses, capacity, and moderate to rapid permeability. The water
Most areas have been cleared and planted to citrus or table is typically at a depth of 10 to 30 inches, but it rises
diverted to urban uses. Some small areas are used for to the surface for a short time during wet periods and drops
pasture. below a depth of 30 inches during extended dry periods.
This soil has a limited capacity to produce cultivated Rapid leaching of plant nutrients and periodic wetness
crops. Some crops can be grown under intensive manage- and droughtiness severely limit the choice of plants and the
ment that includes sprinkler irrigation, soil-building use of these soils for cultivated crops. The response to
crops or pasture grasses, and frequent heavy applications management, however, is good.
of fertilizer and lime. The native vegetation is dominantly pine, saw-palmetto,
If well managed, this soil is capable of producing native grasses, and scattered oak and sabal palms. Much
improved pasture of deep-rooted grasses. Such grasses of the acreage remains in this vegetation, but a consider-
utilize water that rises into the root zone from the water able part is under urban development.
table. They grow well if they are fertilized and limed These soils are well suited to most kinds of farming. If
and grazing is controlled. well managed, they can be used for special flower and truck
This soil is well suited to citrus. It does not require crops. Such management includes fertilization and liming
drainage or bedding but does require irrigation, particu- and a water-control system that provides both drainage
larly in newly established groves. Management should and irrigation.
also include frequent applications of fertilizer and lime High-quality pasture of improved grasses or grass-clover
and the use of cover crops or grass to reduce wind erosion mixtures can be produced under good management.
and improve tilth. If well managed, these soils are well suited to citrus.
Management should include bedding, drainage, water
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-i table control, irrigation, and frequent applications of
Adamsville soils and Orlando, wet variant, soils are in fertilizer.
this unit. These are nearly level soils on low ridges in the
flatwoods and near the base of slopes in the ridges. They CAPABILITY UNIT Irw-3
have a low to medium organic-matter content and low to Astor, Felda, Manatee, and Placid soils are in this unit.
moderate natural fertility. They have low or very low They are nearly level soils in depressions. They have a
available water capacity, are very rapidly permeable, and water table at or near the surface most of the time, and
are rapidly leached of plant nutrients. The water table is in many areas they are covered with shallow water several
typically 10 to 40 inches below the surface, but it rises to months each year. Astor, Manatee, and Placid soils have a
the surface during periods of heavy rainfall and drops to a high organic-matter content and a high to very high
depth below 40 inches during periods of extended drought. available water capacity. The Felda soil is medium in
Periodic wetness and droughtiness and unfavorable soil organic-matter content and available water capacity. All
properties severely limit the choice of plants and the use of have permeability that is rapid enough to permit easy
these soils for cultivated crops. The response to manage- functioning of water-control systems that regulate the
ment, however, is good. depth of the water table, and all can be drained easily
The native vegetation is dominantly oak, pine, saw- where natural drainage outlets are available.
palmetto, and numerous woody shrubs and grasses. Most Wetness and the need for constant and carefully
large areas have been cleared and planted to citrus. Some planned water control severely limit the choice of plants
areas are used for improved pasture. and the use of these soils for cultivated crops. The re-
If well managed, these soils are suitable for most kinds sponse to management, however, is good.
of farming and for most crops commonly grown. Manage- The natural vegetation consists of wax myrtle, pickerel-
ment should include a water-control system designed to weed, maidencane, St. Johnswort, and numerous wetland
remove excess surface water and provide a means of grasses and other low-growing plants. Much of the acreage
irrigation in dry seasons, cover crops to protect the soil remains in native vegetation, but a few large areas have
and improve tilth, liberal applications of fertilizer, and been planted to improved pasture grasses.
additions of lime. Wetness is the main limiting factor in growing special
High-quality pasture of improved grasses or grass-clover flower and truck crops. The management needed to over-
mixtures can be produced if the soils are well managed. come wetness and other limitations includes cover crops,
Management should provide for removal of excess surface applications of fertilizer and lime, and a well-designed,
water in wet periods and for irrigation in dry periods. Also constructed, and maintained water-control system that
needed are liberal applications of fertilizer, additions of removes excess surface water and regulates the level of
lime, and control of grazing. internal water.
If well managed, these soils are well suited to citrus. High-quality pasture of improved grasses or grass-clover
They require a drainage system to intercept seepage water mixtures can be produced under good management.
and control the depth of the water table. They also require Management should include a water-control system that
sprinkler irrigation, especially in young groves, cover crops removes excess surface water and provides for subsurface







52 SOIL SURVEY

irrigation, frequent applications of fertilizer and small Reclaimed areas are well suited to truck crops and im-
amounts of lime, and control of grazing. proved pasture.
Drained areas are well suited to citrus, but intensive Excess water is the major limitation to the use of these
management is required. Management should include soils for cultivated crops. If water control is adequate, the
bedding and a water-control system, cover crops to protect soils are excellent for special cultivated crops. Subsidence
the beds from wind and water erosion, and proper appli- is a continuing hazard after drainage and initial subsidence.
cations of fertilizer and lime. Management that reduces this hazard includes minimum
Soils are assigned to this capability unit on the assump- tillage in cultivated areas and flooding in idle areas. Man-
tion that adequate drainage outlets are available and that agement should also include cover crops, frequent applica-
the major flood hazard can be removed. tions of fertilizers high in all plant nutrients except nitro-
gen, and control of soil reaction.
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-4 Under intensive management, these soils produce high-
Fellowship loamy fine sand, the only soil in this unit, is quality pasture of improved grasses or grass-clover mix-
nearly level and gently sloping to undulating and is on tures. Management should include a water-control system
uplands. It has a moderately high organic-matter content designed to remove excess surface water and maintain the
and moderately high natural fertility. Permeability is water table at a shallow depth, adequate applications of
moderate in the surface layer but is very slow in the under- fertilizer and lime where needed, and controlled grazing.
lying clayey layers. The water table is perched within a These soils are not suited to citrus. They have many
depth of 10 inches 60 days or less each year. soil properties that do not favor citrus trees, and the drain-
Slow permeability and periodic wetness severely limit age requirements of this crop cause rapid oxidation of the
the choice of plants and the use of this soil for cultivated organic layer.
crops. The response to management, however, is good. Soils are assigned to this capability unit on the assump-
The natural vegetation consists of oak, hickory, scat- tion that adequate drainage outlets are available and that
tered pine and saw-palmetto, and numerous shrubs and reclamation is feasible.
grasses. Much of the acreage remains in native vegetation. CAPABILITY UNIT
A few acres are planted to citrus, and a few small areas CAPABILITY UNIT s-
have been used for improved pasture. Astatula soils are in this unit. They are excessively
This soil is suited to improved pasture and a few drained sandy soils on upland ridges. They have a low
cultivated crops, but it requires intensive management. organic-matter content and low natural fertility. The
Periodic wetness and susceptibility to erosion are the available water capacity is very low, and permeability is
principal limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated very rapid. The water table is below a depth of 60 inches
crops. Clean-tilled crops should not be grown more than throughout the year. The soils are drought, and plant
one-third of the time. High-quality pasture of improved nutrients leach away rapidly.
grasses or grass-clover mixtures can be produced under Unfavorable soil properties severely limit the choice of
good management that includes regular use of complete plants and the use of these soils for cultivated crops.
fertilizers and lime and a water-control system designed to Erosion is a hazard in strongly sloping areas. Special
remove excess water safely and rapidly. management is needed. The response to management is
This soil is only moderately well suited to citrus, moderate to good.
The very slowly permeable underlying clayey layers do The native vegetation consists of turkey oak, pine,
not favor deep root development. Bedding to remove scattered saw-palmetto, and numerous shrubs and grasses.
excess surface water and liberal applications of fertilizer Much of the acreage has been cleared and planted to
and lime are needed, citrus. A considerable acreage has been urbanized, and
many acres planted to citrus have been cleared for urban
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-5 development. A small acreage is in pasture.
Okeechobee, Pamlico, and Terra Ceia, moderately deep These soils are poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
variant, soils are in this unit. They are nearly level, very Under intensive management, a few special crops can be
poorly drained organic soils in depressions, swamps, and grown. Such management includes sprinkler irrigation,
marshes. These soils are rapidly permeable and have a very soil-building crops or pasture grasses 2 years out of 3, and
high available water capacity. They are covered with frequent heavy applications of fertilizer and lime.
shallow water most of the time, but permeability is rapid If well managed, these soils have a capacity to produce
enough to permit easy functioning of water-control systems good improved pasture consisting of deep-rooted grasses.
that regulate the depth to free water. The soils can be These grasses make very good growth if they have ade-
drained easily if adequate drainage outlets are available. quate moisture and are properly fertilized and limed.
Wetness and the instability of the organic soil material During dry periods grass production is low.
severely limit the choice of plants and the use of these soils These soils are well suited to citrus. Sprinkler irrigation,
for cultivated crops. Constant and carefully planned water- cover crops to improve the soils and protect them from
control practices are needed. The response to management wind and water erosion, and frequent applications of
is good. fertilizer and lime are among the management practices
The native vegetation in some areas is mainly sawgrass needed in citrus groves.
but includes some pickerelweed and other aquatic grasses
and plants. Other areas are wooded with swamp hardwoods CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-I
and cypress. Most of the acreage remains in native vege- Immokalee, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Pinellas soils are
station, but a small part is used for improved pasture. in this unit. They are nearly level, poorly drained sandy







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 53

soils of the flatwoods. The Immokalee and Myakka soils through a well-designed, constructed, and maintained
are sandy in all layers. Oldsmar and Pinellas soils have a water table control system; (2) grass or other close-growing
sandy surface layer and loamy underlying layers. The crops three-fourths of the time to protect the soils and
sandy layers are rapidly permeable and have a low avail- improve tilth; and (3) frequent, heavy applications of
able water capacity. The loamy layers are moderately lime and fertilizer.
permeable. All the soils have a low organic-matter content High-quality pasture of improved grasses or grass-clover
and low natural fertility. The water table is typically at mixtures can be grown and maintained under intensive
a depth of 10 to 30 inches, but it rises to the surface during management. Water-control measures, frequent applica-
wet periods and drops below 30 inches during prolonged tions of lime and fertilizer, and careful management of
dry periods. grazing are needed.
Periodic wetness, droughtiness, and generally unfavor- These soils are poorly suited to citrus trees. Adequate
able soil properties severely limit the choice of plants water control is difficult because the water table fluctuates
and the use of these soils for cultivated crops. The response and ranges greatly in depth during wet and dry periods.
to management, however, is moderate to good. Maintaining fertility is very difficult because of the very
The native vegetation is dominantly grasses, sedges, sandy nature of the soils.
and low-growing shrubs. Numerous scattered stands of
pine edge the sloughs, and a few cypress grow in the CAPABILITY UNIT VIs-1
deeper depressions. Most areas remain in native vegeta- Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is the only soil
tion. Some small areas have been cleared for improved in this unit. It is a nearly level to gently sloping, excessively
pasture, and others for a few special crops. Intensive drained soil on upland ridges. It is sandy to a depth of
management is needed. more than 80 inches. The organic-matter content is low,
These soils have a very limited capacity to produce and natural fertility is very low. The available water
most cultivated crops, but under intensive management capacity is very low, and permeability is very rapid.
they are moderately well suited to some truck and flower The water table is below a depth of 80 inches at all
crops. A well-designed, constructed, and maintained times.
water-control system that gives reliable control of the Unfavorable soil properties so severely limit the growth
water table and provides subsurface irrigation is required. of most plants that this soil is not considered suitable for
Also important are crop rotations that protect the soil the cultivated crops commonly grown. It requires special
and improve tilth and frequent applications of lime and management if it is used for pasture grasses and a few
fertilizer. special crops.
Good pasture of improved grasses or grass-clover mix- The native vegetation consists mainly of turkey oak,
tures can be grown under intensive management. Water scattered pine, saw-palmetto, a few shrubs, and native
control, frequent applications of lime and fertilizer, and grasses. Large sand pine trees grow in some small areas.
careful control of grazing are needed. Most areas remain in this kind of vegetation, but some
These soils are poorly suited to citrus because it is have been planted to citrus and others have been de-
difficult to maintain the water level. It is also difficult to veloped for urban uses.
maintain fertility because the soils are sandy and are This soil has very limited capacity to produce cultivated
typically low in fertility. crops. Even under intensive management, only a few
special crops, such as watermelons, can be grown. Cover
CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-2 crops are needed to protect the soil from wind erosion
Charlotte and Pompano soils are in this unit. They are and to preserve tilth.
nearly level, poorly drained soils in shallow depressions This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture. It is
and grassy sloughs. They are sandy throughout and have a fairly productive of deep-rooted grasses if fertilizer is
low organic-matter content and low natural fertility. The applied frequently and grazing is carefully controlled.
available water capacity is very low, and permeability is Under intensive management, this soil is moderately
very rapid. Plant nutrients are leached away rapidly. The well suited to citrus. Management should include sprinkler
water table is within a depth of 10 inches most of the time irrigation, cover crops to protect the soil from wind and
but rises to the surface during wet periods. Some areas water erosion and to protect small trees from damage by
are covered with shallow water during wet periods. The windblown sand, and liberal use of fertilizer and lime.
soils can be drained easily if natural outlets are available.
Wetness, the need for constant and carefully planned CAPABILITY UNIT VIs-2
water control, and generally unfavorable soil properties Pomello and St. Lucie soils are in this unit. They are
severely limit the choice of plants and the use of these nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
soils for cultivated crops. The response to management, soils on low ridges and knolls. The soils are sandy or
however, is moderate to good. shelly to a depth of 80 inches or more. They have a very
The native vegetation consists of stands of pine and an low organic-matter content and very low natural fertility.
understory of saw-palmetto and a variety of grasses and Both have a very low available water capacity and are
shrubs. Much of the woodland has been cut over, and only very\rapidly permeable. The water table is at a depth of
a few scattered pines remain. Natural reseeding, however, 30 to 40 inches for a short time during wet periods, but it
has produced numerous stands of small trees. is typically between 40 and 60 inches. These soils are very
These soils have a limited capacity to produce cultivated drought most of the time.
crops. Under intensive management, certain flower and The unfavorable properties of these soils so severely
truck crops can be grown. Such management includes (1) limit the choice of plants that they are not suitable for
water control that provides drainage and irrigation most cultivated crops. Special management is required if







54 SOIL SURVEY

these soils are used for pasture. The response to manage- amounts of fertilizer and lime, controlling grazing, rotat-
ment is poor. ing pasture, selecting forage varieties that are well suited
In some areas the dominant vegetation is sand pine. to the soils, controlling undesirable plants, and draining
In others it is saw-palmetto, scattered slash pine, scrub excess surface water.
oak, woody shrubs, and native grasses. Many areas are The yields shown in table 7 are based largely on in-
still wooded. Many have been used for urban development, formation obtained from farmers and local representa-
Fair improved pasture can be developed if this soil is tives of agricultural agencies, on comparisons of yields
intensively managed. Management should include the on similar soils in nearby counties, and on records of
use of deep-rooted, drought-resistant grasses, frequent crop yields. The actual yields obtained may vary from
heavy applications of fertilizer and lime, and careful year to year, depending on the weather and other
control of grazing, conditions.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or citrus. It is
too porous and dry to respond well to high-level Woodland
management.
CAPABILITY UNIT VIH-i Nearly a third of Pinellas County is woodland (fig. 7).
Pine forest originally covered much of the county, but
St. Lucie soils are in this unit. They are nearly level to most of the pine trees have been cut. Large cypress trees
sloping, excessively drained, nearly white sandy soils on and hardwoods in the swamps have been harvested also.
upland ridges and hillsides. The soils are sandy to a Only a few stands are now managed commercially.
depth of more than 80 inches. They have a very low Most woodland is privately held for real estate investment,
organic-matter content and very low natural fertility, and all stands are understocked. About 20,000 acres
All layers are very rapidly permeable and have a very requires restocking with desirable trees.
low available water capacity. The water table is below In 1965 there were two sawmills in the county. Trees
a depth of 60 inches at all times, and the soils are drought. sold commercially are used mainly for veneer and crates.
Severe droughtiness and inability of the soils to hold Pulpwood is shipped to mills in the northern part of
plant nutrients severely limit their capacity to produce Florida. Community development has increased the de-
useful plants. The response to management is poor. mand for trees and ornamental plants.
The native vegetation is mainly a sparse growth of
sand pine, rosemary bushes, scattered saw-palmetto, Woodland management
smilax, and ground lichens. Many areas are now in this The primary importance of woodland in Pinellas County
vegetation, but a considerable acreage has been used for is to protect the soils and to improve their capacity to ab-
urban development, sorb and store water. The main practices of woodland
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops and are management are maintaining firebreaks, planting trees
poorly suited to improved pasture and citrus. and restocking existing stands, and proper cutting.
Y UT V- Firebreaks should be cut and maintained around and
CAPABILITY UNIT V 1 through all woodland. Controlled or prescribed burning
Only one mapping unit, Astor soils, is in this capability should be done only with the approval and guidance of
unit. These are nearly level, very poorly drained soils in the Florida Forest Service, which provides fire protection
swamps. They are basically the same as those in capability service for the county.
unit IIIw-3. Dense swamp vegetation and the general Most of the woodland is understocked and needs im-
lack of suitable drainage outlets make development provement. Tree farming is a good use for most soils, and
impractical. idle land can be profitably utilized by growing pine trees.
The native vegetation is mainly cypress and water- Because pines grow well on various kinds of soil with a
tolerant hardwoods. Most of the acreage is in native minimum of care, they are an ideal crop for land not
swamp vegetation. readily suited or needed for other uses. Trees also add to
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or to the value of land that may be used later for residential
pasture. The danger of flooding, the general lack of development.
available drainage outlets, and the dense swamp vegeta- Proper cutting helps to protect the soil, to maintain
tion make reclamation unfeasible. ground water, and to increase yields. Cutting practices
The natural swampy areas are well suited to cypress vary according to woodland condition and soils. Land-
trees; most of the large trees have been cut. These swampy owners can obtain advice from local soil conservationists
areas provide food, shelter, and nesting places for a and foresters.
variety of aquatic birds and habitat for other kinds of The soils of Pinellas County have been assigned to
wildlife. nine groups according to their suitability for pine trees.
Each group consists of soils that have similar characteris-
Estimated yields tics, respond in about the same way to management, and
Table 7 shows estimated yields per acre of citrus have about the same productivity.
fruits and pasture grasses that can be expected under The soils vary greatly in their suitability for trees. Trees
good management. For citrus, good management in- are affected by the depth of the root zone and the ability
eludes applying adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime, of the soil to supply moisture. Other significant soil charac-
controlling insects and diseases, supplying drainage and teristics are the thickness and texture of the surface layer,
irrigation where needed, and controlling runoff and the organic-matter content, the depth to fine-textured soil
erosion. For improved pasture, good management in- material, the aeration of the soil, and the depth to the
eludes irrigating where feasible, applying adequate water table.







54 SOIL SURVEY

these soils are used for pasture. The response to manage- amounts of fertilizer and lime, controlling grazing, rotat-
ment is poor. ing pasture, selecting forage varieties that are well suited
In some areas the dominant vegetation is sand pine. to the soils, controlling undesirable plants, and draining
In others it is saw-palmetto, scattered slash pine, scrub excess surface water.
oak, woody shrubs, and native grasses. Many areas are The yields shown in table 7 are based largely on in-
still wooded. Many have been used for urban development, formation obtained from farmers and local representa-
Fair improved pasture can be developed if this soil is tives of agricultural agencies, on comparisons of yields
intensively managed. Management should include the on similar soils in nearby counties, and on records of
use of deep-rooted, drought-resistant grasses, frequent crop yields. The actual yields obtained may vary from
heavy applications of fertilizer and lime, and careful year to year, depending on the weather and other
control of grazing, conditions.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or citrus. It is
too porous and dry to respond well to high-level Woodland
management.
CAPABILITY UNIT VIH-i Nearly a third of Pinellas County is woodland (fig. 7).
Pine forest originally covered much of the county, but
St. Lucie soils are in this unit. They are nearly level to most of the pine trees have been cut. Large cypress trees
sloping, excessively drained, nearly white sandy soils on and hardwoods in the swamps have been harvested also.
upland ridges and hillsides. The soils are sandy to a Only a few stands are now managed commercially.
depth of more than 80 inches. They have a very low Most woodland is privately held for real estate investment,
organic-matter content and very low natural fertility, and all stands are understocked. About 20,000 acres
All layers are very rapidly permeable and have a very requires restocking with desirable trees.
low available water capacity. The water table is below In 1965 there were two sawmills in the county. Trees
a depth of 60 inches at all times, and the soils are drought. sold commercially are used mainly for veneer and crates.
Severe droughtiness and inability of the soils to hold Pulpwood is shipped to mills in the northern part of
plant nutrients severely limit their capacity to produce Florida. Community development has increased the de-
useful plants. The response to management is poor. mand for trees and ornamental plants.
The native vegetation is mainly a sparse growth of
sand pine, rosemary bushes, scattered saw-palmetto, Woodland management
smilax, and ground lichens. Many areas are now in this The primary importance of woodland in Pinellas County
vegetation, but a considerable acreage has been used for is to protect the soils and to improve their capacity to ab-
urban development, sorb and store water. The main practices of woodland
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops and are management are maintaining firebreaks, planting trees
poorly suited to improved pasture and citrus. and restocking existing stands, and proper cutting.
Y UT V- Firebreaks should be cut and maintained around and
CAPABILITY UNIT V 1 through all woodland. Controlled or prescribed burning
Only one mapping unit, Astor soils, is in this capability should be done only with the approval and guidance of
unit. These are nearly level, very poorly drained soils in the Florida Forest Service, which provides fire protection
swamps. They are basically the same as those in capability service for the county.
unit IIIw-3. Dense swamp vegetation and the general Most of the woodland is understocked and needs im-
lack of suitable drainage outlets make development provement. Tree farming is a good use for most soils, and
impractical. idle land can be profitably utilized by growing pine trees.
The native vegetation is mainly cypress and water- Because pines grow well on various kinds of soil with a
tolerant hardwoods. Most of the acreage is in native minimum of care, they are an ideal crop for land not
swamp vegetation. readily suited or needed for other uses. Trees also add to
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or to the value of land that may be used later for residential
pasture. The danger of flooding, the general lack of development.
available drainage outlets, and the dense swamp vegeta- Proper cutting helps to protect the soil, to maintain
tion make reclamation unfeasible. ground water, and to increase yields. Cutting practices
The natural swampy areas are well suited to cypress vary according to woodland condition and soils. Land-
trees; most of the large trees have been cut. These swampy owners can obtain advice from local soil conservationists
areas provide food, shelter, and nesting places for a and foresters.
variety of aquatic birds and habitat for other kinds of The soils of Pinellas County have been assigned to
wildlife. nine groups according to their suitability for pine trees.
Each group consists of soils that have similar characteris-
Estimated yields tics, respond in about the same way to management, and
Table 7 shows estimated yields per acre of citrus have about the same productivity.
fruits and pasture grasses that can be expected under The soils vary greatly in their suitability for trees. Trees
good management. For citrus, good management in- are affected by the depth of the root zone and the ability
eludes applying adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime, of the soil to supply moisture. Other significant soil charac-
controlling insects and diseases, supplying drainage and teristics are the thickness and texture of the surface layer,
irrigation where needed, and controlling runoff and the organic-matter content, the depth to fine-textured soil
erosion. For improved pasture, good management in- material, the aeration of the soil, and the depth to the
eludes irrigating where feasible, applying adequate water table.







54 SOIL SURVEY

these soils are used for pasture. The response to manage- amounts of fertilizer and lime, controlling grazing, rotat-
ment is poor. ing pasture, selecting forage varieties that are well suited
In some areas the dominant vegetation is sand pine. to the soils, controlling undesirable plants, and draining
In others it is saw-palmetto, scattered slash pine, scrub excess surface water.
oak, woody shrubs, and native grasses. Many areas are The yields shown in table 7 are based largely on in-
still wooded. Many have been used for urban development, formation obtained from farmers and local representa-
Fair improved pasture can be developed if this soil is tives of agricultural agencies, on comparisons of yields
intensively managed. Management should include the on similar soils in nearby counties, and on records of
use of deep-rooted, drought-resistant grasses, frequent crop yields. The actual yields obtained may vary from
heavy applications of fertilizer and lime, and careful year to year, depending on the weather and other
control of grazing, conditions.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or citrus. It is
too porous and dry to respond well to high-level Woodland
management.
CAPABILITY UNIT VIH-i Nearly a third of Pinellas County is woodland (fig. 7).
Pine forest originally covered much of the county, but
St. Lucie soils are in this unit. They are nearly level to most of the pine trees have been cut. Large cypress trees
sloping, excessively drained, nearly white sandy soils on and hardwoods in the swamps have been harvested also.
upland ridges and hillsides. The soils are sandy to a Only a few stands are now managed commercially.
depth of more than 80 inches. They have a very low Most woodland is privately held for real estate investment,
organic-matter content and very low natural fertility, and all stands are understocked. About 20,000 acres
All layers are very rapidly permeable and have a very requires restocking with desirable trees.
low available water capacity. The water table is below In 1965 there were two sawmills in the county. Trees
a depth of 60 inches at all times, and the soils are drought. sold commercially are used mainly for veneer and crates.
Severe droughtiness and inability of the soils to hold Pulpwood is shipped to mills in the northern part of
plant nutrients severely limit their capacity to produce Florida. Community development has increased the de-
useful plants. The response to management is poor. mand for trees and ornamental plants.
The native vegetation is mainly a sparse growth of
sand pine, rosemary bushes, scattered saw-palmetto, Woodland management
smilax, and ground lichens. Many areas are now in this The primary importance of woodland in Pinellas County
vegetation, but a considerable acreage has been used for is to protect the soils and to improve their capacity to ab-
urban development, sorb and store water. The main practices of woodland
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops and are management are maintaining firebreaks, planting trees
poorly suited to improved pasture and citrus. and restocking existing stands, and proper cutting.
Y UT V- Firebreaks should be cut and maintained around and
CAPABILITY UNIT V 1 through all woodland. Controlled or prescribed burning
Only one mapping unit, Astor soils, is in this capability should be done only with the approval and guidance of
unit. These are nearly level, very poorly drained soils in the Florida Forest Service, which provides fire protection
swamps. They are basically the same as those in capability service for the county.
unit IIIw-3. Dense swamp vegetation and the general Most of the woodland is understocked and needs im-
lack of suitable drainage outlets make development provement. Tree farming is a good use for most soils, and
impractical. idle land can be profitably utilized by growing pine trees.
The native vegetation is mainly cypress and water- Because pines grow well on various kinds of soil with a
tolerant hardwoods. Most of the acreage is in native minimum of care, they are an ideal crop for land not
swamp vegetation. readily suited or needed for other uses. Trees also add to
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or to the value of land that may be used later for residential
pasture. The danger of flooding, the general lack of development.
available drainage outlets, and the dense swamp vegeta- Proper cutting helps to protect the soil, to maintain
tion make reclamation unfeasible. ground water, and to increase yields. Cutting practices
The natural swampy areas are well suited to cypress vary according to woodland condition and soils. Land-
trees; most of the large trees have been cut. These swampy owners can obtain advice from local soil conservationists
areas provide food, shelter, and nesting places for a and foresters.
variety of aquatic birds and habitat for other kinds of The soils of Pinellas County have been assigned to
wildlife. nine groups according to their suitability for pine trees.
Each group consists of soils that have similar characteris-
Estimated yields tics, respond in about the same way to management, and
Table 7 shows estimated yields per acre of citrus have about the same productivity.
fruits and pasture grasses that can be expected under The soils vary greatly in their suitability for trees. Trees
good management. For citrus, good management in- are affected by the depth of the root zone and the ability
eludes applying adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime, of the soil to supply moisture. Other significant soil charac-
controlling insects and diseases, supplying drainage and teristics are the thickness and texture of the surface layer,
irrigation where needed, and controlling runoff and the organic-matter content, the depth to fine-textured soil
erosion. For improved pasture, good management in- material, the aeration of the soil, and the depth to the
eludes irrigating where feasible, applying adequate water table.








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

TABLE 7.-Estimated average yields per acre of citrus crops and improved pasture under good management

[Absence of a yield figure indicates the soil is not suited to the crop specified or data are not available. Urban land and Urban land complexes
are not used for citrus or pasture]

Citrus fruits Improved pasture
Soil name
Grass
Oranges Grapefruit Grass and
clover

Boxes Boxes A.U.M.t A.U.M.
Adamsville fine sand___ ------------------------ 375 500 7.0 10. 0
Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes --.--------- ---------- ------- 400 575 6.5
Astatula fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes --------------------------------- 400 575 6.5 -----
Astatula fine sand, moderately deep water table----------------------------- 425 600 7.0
Astor fine sand __------ ---------------------------------------------i 375 425 8.5 11.0
Astor soils--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Charlotte fine sand------------------------------------ ---- 275 350 7.0 10.0
Coastal beaches----------------------------------- ------------------------ --------------------
Elred fine sand---------------------------------------------- 1 425 500 8. 5 11. 0
Felda fine sand---------------------- -------------------------- 425 500 8.5 11.0
Felda fine sand, ponded -------------------------------------------------425 500 8.5 11.0
Fellowship loamy fine sand-----------------------------------------------400 500 9.0 11.0
Immokalee fine sand _-------------------------- ----240 400 7.0 10.0
Made land----- .------------------------------------------------- ------------ ----------- ---------- ------------
Made land, sanitary fill ---------------_--- ---------------------- ------- ----- ------- --------------
Manatee loamy fine sand ------------------------------------------- 425 500 9.0 11.0
Myakka fine sand ------------------------------------------- -- 300 450 7.0 10.0
Okeechobee muck ----------- ----------- -------------------------------- -------------------
Oldsmar fine sand -------------------- ---- --- -------------- 240 400 7.0 10.0
Orlando fine sand, wet variant------------------------------------------ 400 500 8.5 11.5
Palm Beach sand ...-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pamlico muck------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------
Paola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------------------------------------- 350 500 ------ ---------
Pinellas fine sand --------------------------------------------------- 275 350 7.0 10.0
Placid fine sand ---------------------- --- ----------------------- 375 425 8.5 11.0
Pomello fine sand ------ -------------- ---------------- ----- 200 300 5.5 -------
Pompano fine sand -----------------------------------------275 350 7.0 10. 0
Pompano fine sand, ponded------------------------------------ 275 350 7.5 9.5
Spoil banks---- ------------------------------------------------- .----------- ---------------------------------
St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------------------------------------------------------------------
St. Lucie fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ----------- ------------------------- -------------------------------
St. Lucie fine sand, shell substratum ---------- ------------------------------ ----------------------- ----------
Terra Ceia muck, moderately deep variant ----------------------------------------- ---- ----- ------- -----------
Tidal marsh---------------------- ---------- ------ ---- -------------------------
Tidal-marsh .-.- -------- ------- ---
Tidal swamp----------------------------------- ------- -------------------------------
Wabasso fine sand_ _------__-------------- -------------------- 350 350 7. 5 10.5
Wauchula fine sand _------------------------------------------ -------_- 350 450 7.5 10.5

1 Animal unit month refers to the number of months during a normal growing season that 1 acre will provide grazing for 1 animal
unit without injury to the sod. One animal unit is defined as 1 cow, horse, or steer; 5 hogs; or 7 sheep.


Only pine trees are considered in the groupings. Some the back of this survey. Land types are too variable to be
soils in the county, especially those in low areas and along be considered in the groupings.
streams, are suited to hardwoods, however, and some are
suited to exotic trees and ornamentals. Landowners should WOODLAND GROUP 1
consult local foresters or nurserymen before planting these This group consists of excessively drained sandy soils
trees extensively, on ridges and hilltops. These soils are well above ground
The potential growth of pine trees on the soils of a given water level and have very low available water capacity.
group is expressed as a site index. The site index is the The soils in this group are not well suited to commercial
height, in feet, that a specified kind of tree will reach at production of most pine trees. Sand pine is the main
50 years of age. The site indexes given in the groups are species that grows naturally. Its site index is about 50
based on research, on measurements by foresters and soil feet. The annual growth per acre is 0.6 to 1.0 cord on a
scientists, and on the experience of foresters and land well-stocked, uncut natural stand 30 years old.
managers. These ratings are tentative and subject to The soils are drought, and natural regeneration of
change as more information becomes available, trees is unreliable. Mortality of planted seedlings is 50
The woodland groups are described in the following percent or more, and spot replanting often is necessary.
paragraphs. To determine in which group a given soil has Site preparation and control of weed trees are essential in
been placed, refer to the "Guide to Mapping Units" at establishing new stands.







56 SOIL SURVEY







































Figure 7.-Pine and palmetto flatwoods on Wabasso fine sand. Woodland group 6.
WOODLAND GROUP 2 and about 60 feet for longleaf pine. The annual growth
This group consists of excessively drained sandy soils per acre on a well-stocked, uncut natural stand 30 years
on ridges and hilltops. These soils are well above ground old is 1.3 to 1.7 cords for slash pine and 0.8 to 1.2 for
water level and have very low available water capacity. longleaf pine.
SThe soils in this group are well suited to sand pine, To insure optimum growth, pine seedlings must be
slash pine, and longleaf pine. The site index for all three cleared of weed trees and shrubs.
species is about 60 feet. The annual growth per acre on a
well-stocked, uncut natural stand 30 years old is 1.0 to WOODLAND GROUP 4
1.3 cords for slash pine, 0.8 to 1.2 for sand pine, and This group consists of sandy soils that are poorly
0.6 to 0.9 for longleaf pine. drained and very strongly acid and of sandy soils that
The soils are drought, and natural regeneration of are slightly acid m the underlying layers. The water table
trees is unreliable. Site preparation and control of weed normally is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches.
trees and brush are needed in establishing new stands. These soils are moderately well suited to slash pine.
The site index is about 70 feet for slash pine and 60 feet
WOODLAND GROUP 3 for longleaf pine and South Florida slash pine. The annual
This group consists of sandy soils that have a water growth per acre on a well-stocked, uncut natural stand
table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. 30 years old is 1.0 to 1.5 cords for slash pine and 0.5 to
Fair to good stands of slash and longleaf pines grow on 0.9 for longleaf pine and South Florida slash pine.
these soils. The site index is about 70 feet for slash pine Seedlings must be cleared of weed trees, shrubs, and







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
57
vines. The high water table restricts the root zone, and longleaf pine. The annual growth per acre on a well-
heavy cuts made in immature stands cause a severe stocked, uncut natural stand 30 years old is 1.4 to 1.8
windthrow hazard. Soil wetness restricts planting and cords for slash pine, 0.8 to 1.2 for South Florida slash pine,
logging operations for 3 or 4 months in most years. and 0.4 to 0.8 for longleaf pine.
The water table is high most of the year, and the soils
WOODLAND GROUP 5 require drainage. Site preparation is needed to establish
This group consists of somewhat poorly drained, very new stands. Plant competition and seedling mortality are
strongly acid to strongly acid sands that have a water severe. Wetness restricts the use of logging equipment.
table at a depth of 10 to 40 inches.
These soils are moderately well suited to pine trees. WOODLAND GROUP 9
The site index is about 80 feet for slash pine and South This group consists of organic soils that are very poorly
Florida slash pine and about 70 feet for longleaf pine. drained; soils in coastal areas that are poorly drained and
The annual growth per acre on a well-stocked, uncut very poorly drained and are affected by salt water; and
natural stand 30 years old is 1.0 to 1.5 cords for slash pine, areas, generally reworked and leveled, of sand, shell
0.7 to 1.1 for longleaf pine, and 0.6 to 1.1 for South Florida fragments, and rocky and clayey material. These soils are
slash pine. not suited to pine trees because, they are wet and saline
Seedlings must be cleared of weed trees, shrubs, and and because they vary in composition.
vines. The high water table restricts the root zone, and
heavy cuts made in immature stands cause a severe wind- Wildlife
throw hazard. Soil wetness restricts logging and planting
operations for 3 or 4 months in most years. Wildlife is no longer a major resource in Pinellas
WOODLAND GROUP 6 County. Urbanization has eliminated habitat suitable for
many game and nongame species, and only in the north-
This group consists of somewhat poorly drained and eastern part of the county is wildlife still numerous.
poorly drained soils. These soils have a sandy surface Bobwhite quail, mourning doves, gray squirrels, turkey,
layer and loamy or clayey underlying layers that are white-tailed deer, wild ducks, gray fox, and raccoons
slowly to moderately rapidly permeable. The water table once were common. Wild turkeys and raccoons are still
is at a depth of less than 10 inches as much as 60 days fairly common, but nearly all white-tailed deer have left
every year. the county. Bobwhite quail are numerous in the drier
These soils are well suited to pine trees. The site index areas.
is about 70 feet for slash pine and South Florida slash All soils in the county are suited to and can support one
pine and 60 feet for longleaf pine. The annual growth or more species of wildlife. The district representative of
per acre on a well-stocked, uncut natural stand 30 years the Soil Conservation Service can provide landowners
old is 0.9 to 1.3 cords for slash pine, 0.8 to 1.1 for longleaf with technical guides for establishing and maintaining
pine, and 0.7 to 1.2 for South Florida slash pine. wildlife habitat and for stocking and managing fishponds.
These soils can be planted and seeded, but seedlings Information about the major species of wildlife and fish in
must be cleared of weed trees and shrubs. Wetness is a the county is given in the following paragraphs.
seasonal hazard, and compaction caused by heavy equip- Wild turkeys.-Turkeys require large areas on which to
ment may damage the soils. roam and feed. In swamps they find suitable habitat
mainly on Astor, Pamlico, and Terra Ceia soils; they roost
WOODLAND GROUP 7 in the larger trees and feed on various tree seeds and on
This group consists of very poorly drained, sandy to understory plants that grow in small open areas. In open
1 amy soils. The underlying layers are moderately per- flatwoods, they feed on palmetto berries, gallberries,
meable and slightly acid to mildly alkaline. The water table myrtle berries, grass seeds, and acorns, mainly on Im-
is within a depth of 10 inches most of the year. mokalee and Myakka soils. Dense stands of runner oak
If drained and well managed, these soils are well suited trees, mainly on Felda, Manatee, and Pinellas soils, pro-
to pine trees. The site index on drained soils is about 70 vide acorns and shady resting places during hot summer
feet for slash pine and South Florida slash pine. The annual days.
growth per acre on a well-stocked, uncut natural stand Bobwhite quail.-Quail nest on the ground and are rela-
30 years old is 1.0 to 1.4 cords for slash pine and 0.7 to tively common in predominantly rural areas. Quail can
1.2 for South Florida slash pine. live in most areas, except in very wet sloughs and ponded
Site preparation is needed for new plantings. Plant areas. The population varies from year to year, depending
competition is severe, and in places seedling mortality on wetness in spring and early in summer during the nest-
is high. Drainage is needed to lower the water table and ing season. Quail feed on berries, seeds, and acorns in the
prevent restriction of the root zone. flatwoods. They find food i scrub vegetation that grows
on Pomello soils and near swamps on Felda, Pompano,
WOODLAND GROUP 8 and Wabasso soils.
This group consists of poorly drained to very poorly Mourning doves.-Doves are both resident and migra-
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of more than 80 tory. They inhabit the same areas as quail, but they feed
inches. Permeability is rapid to very rapid. The water more commonly in groves and pasture and on idle land.
table is within a depth of 10 inches most of the year. They also seek grit in dry sandy areas of Astatula, Paola,
If drained and well managed, these soils are well suited and St. Lucie soils.
to pine trees. The site index is about 80 feet for slash pine Gray squirrels.-Gray squirrels live mostly in heavily
and South Florida slash pine, and less than 70 feet for wooded flatwoods and in dense stands of oak trees around








58 SOIL SURVEY
ponds on Felda and Manatee soils. Squirrels also live in at 42 to 70 feet; and the Wicomico, at 70 to 97 feet.
swamps. They adapt to urbanized areas if hardwood trees Each terrace was covered by a mantle of sand. Most
are available, soils in the county formed in these sandy materials.
Raccoons.-Raccoons are numerous in rural areas. They In places recent accumulations of organic material cover
feed on native berries, small rodents, and shell fish, and the sand on the terraces. Lake Flirt Marl, also a recent
on garden crops and citrus. In many recreational areas deposit that occurs in numerous small areas, is not
they are almost tame. associated geologically with any of the underlying
Shore birds.-The number of snowy egrets, white ibis, formations.
wood ibis, and little blue herons has decreased drastically
in recent years. These birds frequent marshy areas and Topography
nest in bushes and trees near water. They feed on snails, Topography, or relief, affects the formation of soils
small fish, frogs, and insects, mainly in ponded areas and mainly through its influence on erosion, drainage, soil
in sloughs. Many shore birds live along the coast in tidal temperature, and plant cover. There are four topographic
marshes, on coastal beaches, and in open areas of tidal areas in the county: ridgelands at elevations of 60 to 100
swamp. A favorite pastime in recreational areas along the feet; flat uplands at 40 to 60 feet; flatwoods at 10 to 40
coast is feeding bits of fish and bread to sea gulls. feet; and flood plains at less than 10 feet. The topography
Songbirds.-The number of songbirds can be increased and, especially, the depth to a water table in each of
by providing local refuges. These refuges can be estab- these areas have affected the formation of the soils. For
lished in private yards or in small parks by planting trees example, Pomello soils on the ridges are deep over a water
and shrubs that provide cover, food, and nesting areas, table, low in organic-matter content, and highly leached.
Fish.-Lake Tarpon provides good to excellent fishing. Myakka soils in the flatwoods are shallower over a water
Speckled perch, largemouth black bass, bluegill bream, table, periodically wet, and low to medium in organic-
and shellcrackers are the most common fish. Other smaller matter content. Placid soils in depressions are very shallow
lakes and canals throughout the county provide fair to over a water table and are medium to high in organic-
good fishing. Excavated ponds can be established almost matter content. Although Pomello, Myakka, and Placidsoils
anywhere in soils that have a relatively stable high water formed in the same parent material, they differ because
table. Ponds one-half acre or more in size that are properly of their relative topographic position.
stocked and managed provide good fishing.
Plants and animals

Formation and Classification iThe kinds and numbers of plants and animals that live
Formation and Classiicatioin and on soils determine to a great extent the soil char-
of the Soils acteristics. Plants and animals furnish organic matter,
This section d th major factor of so formation mix soil material, and draw plant nutrients from lower
This section describes the major factors of soil formation, horizons to upper horizons. They also affect soil structure
explains some of the processes in horizon development, and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. help to break down minerals and decompose organic
matter. They are most numerous in the upper few inches
Factors of Soil Formation of the soil. Earthworms and small animals also alter the
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: chemical composition of soils and mix soil material.
(1) the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or The native vegetation on uplands was a forest of pine
lay of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on and scattered oak. Cypress, bay, maple, and gum trees
the soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and grew in swamps, and pine trees and an understory of
(5) the length of time these factors have acted on the saw-palmetto, gallberry, and numerous native grasses
soil material, grew in the flatwoods. Vegetation in the marshes con-
sisted of water-tolerant shrubs, sedges, and grasses.
Parent material Man has influenced the formation of soils by clearing
The main geological formations in Pinellas County are the forests, cultivating the soils, draining wet areas, and
Caloosahatchee Marl of the lower Pliocene, which consists introducing different kinds of plants. The complex of
mainly of sand and shells, and the Hawthorn Formation of living organisms that affect soil formation has been
the lower Miocene, which consists of interbedded sand, drastically changed by these activities.
clay, marl, limestone, lenses of fuller's earth, and land Cimate
pebble phosphate. These formations are covered by layers mate
of sand ranging from several feet to more than 50 feet in Pinellas County has long humid summers and mild
thickness. They influence the characteristics of only a few winters. Temperatures are moderated by the waters of
soils in the county. Fellowship soils that occur around the the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa Bay. The climate is
sides of small "dry sink" depressions contain phosphatic uniform throughout the county and accounts for few
material from the Hawthorn Formation, and some soils differences among soils. Rainfall averages about 55 inches
near Oldsmar in the southern part of the county are a year.
affected by the underlying Caloosahatchee Marl. The warm wet climate favors the rapid decomposition
During the Pleistocene Epoch, unconsolidated marine of organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the
sediments were deposited over these formations to form soil. Because rainfall is heavy, the most easily weathered
four terraces: the Pamlico, at 0 to 25 feet above mean minerals and less soluble fine particles are leached. Conse-
sea level; the Talbot, at 25 to 42 feet; the Penholoway, quently, many of the soils are sandy, are strongly acid,








58 SOIL SURVEY
ponds on Felda and Manatee soils. Squirrels also live in at 42 to 70 feet; and the Wicomico, at 70 to 97 feet.
swamps. They adapt to urbanized areas if hardwood trees Each terrace was covered by a mantle of sand. Most
are available, soils in the county formed in these sandy materials.
Raccoons.-Raccoons are numerous in rural areas. They In places recent accumulations of organic material cover
feed on native berries, small rodents, and shell fish, and the sand on the terraces. Lake Flirt Marl, also a recent
on garden crops and citrus. In many recreational areas deposit that occurs in numerous small areas, is not
they are almost tame. associated geologically with any of the underlying
Shore birds.-The number of snowy egrets, white ibis, formations.
wood ibis, and little blue herons has decreased drastically
in recent years. These birds frequent marshy areas and Topography
nest in bushes and trees near water. They feed on snails, Topography, or relief, affects the formation of soils
small fish, frogs, and insects, mainly in ponded areas and mainly through its influence on erosion, drainage, soil
in sloughs. Many shore birds live along the coast in tidal temperature, and plant cover. There are four topographic
marshes, on coastal beaches, and in open areas of tidal areas in the county: ridgelands at elevations of 60 to 100
swamp. A favorite pastime in recreational areas along the feet; flat uplands at 40 to 60 feet; flatwoods at 10 to 40
coast is feeding bits of fish and bread to sea gulls. feet; and flood plains at less than 10 feet. The topography
Songbirds.-The number of songbirds can be increased and, especially, the depth to a water table in each of
by providing local refuges. These refuges can be estab- these areas have affected the formation of the soils. For
lished in private yards or in small parks by planting trees example, Pomello soils on the ridges are deep over a water
and shrubs that provide cover, food, and nesting areas, table, low in organic-matter content, and highly leached.
Fish.-Lake Tarpon provides good to excellent fishing. Myakka soils in the flatwoods are shallower over a water
Speckled perch, largemouth black bass, bluegill bream, table, periodically wet, and low to medium in organic-
and shellcrackers are the most common fish. Other smaller matter content. Placid soils in depressions are very shallow
lakes and canals throughout the county provide fair to over a water table and are medium to high in organic-
good fishing. Excavated ponds can be established almost matter content. Although Pomello, Myakka, and Placidsoils
anywhere in soils that have a relatively stable high water formed in the same parent material, they differ because
table. Ponds one-half acre or more in size that are properly of their relative topographic position.
stocked and managed provide good fishing.
Plants and animals

Formation and Classification iThe kinds and numbers of plants and animals that live
Formation and Classiicatioin and on soils determine to a great extent the soil char-
of the Soils acteristics. Plants and animals furnish organic matter,
This section d th major factor of so formation mix soil material, and draw plant nutrients from lower
This section describes the major factors of soil formation, horizons to upper horizons. They also affect soil structure
explains some of the processes in horizon development, and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. help to break down minerals and decompose organic
matter. They are most numerous in the upper few inches
Factors of Soil Formation of the soil. Earthworms and small animals also alter the
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: chemical composition of soils and mix soil material.
(1) the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or The native vegetation on uplands was a forest of pine
lay of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on and scattered oak. Cypress, bay, maple, and gum trees
the soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and grew in swamps, and pine trees and an understory of
(5) the length of time these factors have acted on the saw-palmetto, gallberry, and numerous native grasses
soil material, grew in the flatwoods. Vegetation in the marshes con-
sisted of water-tolerant shrubs, sedges, and grasses.
Parent material Man has influenced the formation of soils by clearing
The main geological formations in Pinellas County are the forests, cultivating the soils, draining wet areas, and
Caloosahatchee Marl of the lower Pliocene, which consists introducing different kinds of plants. The complex of
mainly of sand and shells, and the Hawthorn Formation of living organisms that affect soil formation has been
the lower Miocene, which consists of interbedded sand, drastically changed by these activities.
clay, marl, limestone, lenses of fuller's earth, and land Cimate
pebble phosphate. These formations are covered by layers mate
of sand ranging from several feet to more than 50 feet in Pinellas County has long humid summers and mild
thickness. They influence the characteristics of only a few winters. Temperatures are moderated by the waters of
soils in the county. Fellowship soils that occur around the the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa Bay. The climate is
sides of small "dry sink" depressions contain phosphatic uniform throughout the county and accounts for few
material from the Hawthorn Formation, and some soils differences among soils. Rainfall averages about 55 inches
near Oldsmar in the southern part of the county are a year.
affected by the underlying Caloosahatchee Marl. The warm wet climate favors the rapid decomposition
During the Pleistocene Epoch, unconsolidated marine of organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the
sediments were deposited over these formations to form soil. Because rainfall is heavy, the most easily weathered
four terraces: the Pamlico, at 0 to 25 feet above mean minerals and less soluble fine particles are leached. Conse-
sea level; the Talbot, at 25 to 42 feet; the Penholoway, quently, many of the soils are sandy, are strongly acid,








58 SOIL SURVEY
ponds on Felda and Manatee soils. Squirrels also live in at 42 to 70 feet; and the Wicomico, at 70 to 97 feet.
swamps. They adapt to urbanized areas if hardwood trees Each terrace was covered by a mantle of sand. Most
are available, soils in the county formed in these sandy materials.
Raccoons.-Raccoons are numerous in rural areas. They In places recent accumulations of organic material cover
feed on native berries, small rodents, and shell fish, and the sand on the terraces. Lake Flirt Marl, also a recent
on garden crops and citrus. In many recreational areas deposit that occurs in numerous small areas, is not
they are almost tame. associated geologically with any of the underlying
Shore birds.-The number of snowy egrets, white ibis, formations.
wood ibis, and little blue herons has decreased drastically
in recent years. These birds frequent marshy areas and Topography
nest in bushes and trees near water. They feed on snails, Topography, or relief, affects the formation of soils
small fish, frogs, and insects, mainly in ponded areas and mainly through its influence on erosion, drainage, soil
in sloughs. Many shore birds live along the coast in tidal temperature, and plant cover. There are four topographic
marshes, on coastal beaches, and in open areas of tidal areas in the county: ridgelands at elevations of 60 to 100
swamp. A favorite pastime in recreational areas along the feet; flat uplands at 40 to 60 feet; flatwoods at 10 to 40
coast is feeding bits of fish and bread to sea gulls. feet; and flood plains at less than 10 feet. The topography
Songbirds.-The number of songbirds can be increased and, especially, the depth to a water table in each of
by providing local refuges. These refuges can be estab- these areas have affected the formation of the soils. For
lished in private yards or in small parks by planting trees example, Pomello soils on the ridges are deep over a water
and shrubs that provide cover, food, and nesting areas, table, low in organic-matter content, and highly leached.
Fish.-Lake Tarpon provides good to excellent fishing. Myakka soils in the flatwoods are shallower over a water
Speckled perch, largemouth black bass, bluegill bream, table, periodically wet, and low to medium in organic-
and shellcrackers are the most common fish. Other smaller matter content. Placid soils in depressions are very shallow
lakes and canals throughout the county provide fair to over a water table and are medium to high in organic-
good fishing. Excavated ponds can be established almost matter content. Although Pomello, Myakka, and Placidsoils
anywhere in soils that have a relatively stable high water formed in the same parent material, they differ because
table. Ponds one-half acre or more in size that are properly of their relative topographic position.
stocked and managed provide good fishing.
Plants and animals

Formation and Classification iThe kinds and numbers of plants and animals that live
Formation and Classiicatioin and on soils determine to a great extent the soil char-
of the Soils acteristics. Plants and animals furnish organic matter,
This section d th major factor of so formation mix soil material, and draw plant nutrients from lower
This section describes the major factors of soil formation, horizons to upper horizons. They also affect soil structure
explains some of the processes in horizon development, and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. help to break down minerals and decompose organic
matter. They are most numerous in the upper few inches
Factors of Soil Formation of the soil. Earthworms and small animals also alter the
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: chemical composition of soils and mix soil material.
(1) the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or The native vegetation on uplands was a forest of pine
lay of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on and scattered oak. Cypress, bay, maple, and gum trees
the soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and grew in swamps, and pine trees and an understory of
(5) the length of time these factors have acted on the saw-palmetto, gallberry, and numerous native grasses
soil material, grew in the flatwoods. Vegetation in the marshes con-
sisted of water-tolerant shrubs, sedges, and grasses.
Parent material Man has influenced the formation of soils by clearing
The main geological formations in Pinellas County are the forests, cultivating the soils, draining wet areas, and
Caloosahatchee Marl of the lower Pliocene, which consists introducing different kinds of plants. The complex of
mainly of sand and shells, and the Hawthorn Formation of living organisms that affect soil formation has been
the lower Miocene, which consists of interbedded sand, drastically changed by these activities.
clay, marl, limestone, lenses of fuller's earth, and land Cimate
pebble phosphate. These formations are covered by layers mate
of sand ranging from several feet to more than 50 feet in Pinellas County has long humid summers and mild
thickness. They influence the characteristics of only a few winters. Temperatures are moderated by the waters of
soils in the county. Fellowship soils that occur around the the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa Bay. The climate is
sides of small "dry sink" depressions contain phosphatic uniform throughout the county and accounts for few
material from the Hawthorn Formation, and some soils differences among soils. Rainfall averages about 55 inches
near Oldsmar in the southern part of the county are a year.
affected by the underlying Caloosahatchee Marl. The warm wet climate favors the rapid decomposition
During the Pleistocene Epoch, unconsolidated marine of organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the
sediments were deposited over these formations to form soil. Because rainfall is heavy, the most easily weathered
four terraces: the Pamlico, at 0 to 25 feet above mean minerals and less soluble fine particles are leached. Conse-
sea level; the Talbot, at 25 to 42 feet; the Penholoway, quently, many of the soils are sandy, are strongly acid,








58 SOIL SURVEY
ponds on Felda and Manatee soils. Squirrels also live in at 42 to 70 feet; and the Wicomico, at 70 to 97 feet.
swamps. They adapt to urbanized areas if hardwood trees Each terrace was covered by a mantle of sand. Most
are available, soils in the county formed in these sandy materials.
Raccoons.-Raccoons are numerous in rural areas. They In places recent accumulations of organic material cover
feed on native berries, small rodents, and shell fish, and the sand on the terraces. Lake Flirt Marl, also a recent
on garden crops and citrus. In many recreational areas deposit that occurs in numerous small areas, is not
they are almost tame. associated geologically with any of the underlying
Shore birds.-The number of snowy egrets, white ibis, formations.
wood ibis, and little blue herons has decreased drastically
in recent years. These birds frequent marshy areas and Topography
nest in bushes and trees near water. They feed on snails, Topography, or relief, affects the formation of soils
small fish, frogs, and insects, mainly in ponded areas and mainly through its influence on erosion, drainage, soil
in sloughs. Many shore birds live along the coast in tidal temperature, and plant cover. There are four topographic
marshes, on coastal beaches, and in open areas of tidal areas in the county: ridgelands at elevations of 60 to 100
swamp. A favorite pastime in recreational areas along the feet; flat uplands at 40 to 60 feet; flatwoods at 10 to 40
coast is feeding bits of fish and bread to sea gulls. feet; and flood plains at less than 10 feet. The topography
Songbirds.-The number of songbirds can be increased and, especially, the depth to a water table in each of
by providing local refuges. These refuges can be estab- these areas have affected the formation of the soils. For
lished in private yards or in small parks by planting trees example, Pomello soils on the ridges are deep over a water
and shrubs that provide cover, food, and nesting areas, table, low in organic-matter content, and highly leached.
Fish.-Lake Tarpon provides good to excellent fishing. Myakka soils in the flatwoods are shallower over a water
Speckled perch, largemouth black bass, bluegill bream, table, periodically wet, and low to medium in organic-
and shellcrackers are the most common fish. Other smaller matter content. Placid soils in depressions are very shallow
lakes and canals throughout the county provide fair to over a water table and are medium to high in organic-
good fishing. Excavated ponds can be established almost matter content. Although Pomello, Myakka, and Placidsoils
anywhere in soils that have a relatively stable high water formed in the same parent material, they differ because
table. Ponds one-half acre or more in size that are properly of their relative topographic position.
stocked and managed provide good fishing.
Plants and animals

Formation and Classification iThe kinds and numbers of plants and animals that live
Formation and Classiicatioin and on soils determine to a great extent the soil char-
of the Soils acteristics. Plants and animals furnish organic matter,
This section d th major factor of so formation mix soil material, and draw plant nutrients from lower
This section describes the major factors of soil formation, horizons to upper horizons. They also affect soil structure
explains some of the processes in horizon development, and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. help to break down minerals and decompose organic
matter. They are most numerous in the upper few inches
Factors of Soil Formation of the soil. Earthworms and small animals also alter the
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: chemical composition of soils and mix soil material.
(1) the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or The native vegetation on uplands was a forest of pine
lay of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on and scattered oak. Cypress, bay, maple, and gum trees
the soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and grew in swamps, and pine trees and an understory of
(5) the length of time these factors have acted on the saw-palmetto, gallberry, and numerous native grasses
soil material, grew in the flatwoods. Vegetation in the marshes con-
sisted of water-tolerant shrubs, sedges, and grasses.
Parent material Man has influenced the formation of soils by clearing
The main geological formations in Pinellas County are the forests, cultivating the soils, draining wet areas, and
Caloosahatchee Marl of the lower Pliocene, which consists introducing different kinds of plants. The complex of
mainly of sand and shells, and the Hawthorn Formation of living organisms that affect soil formation has been
the lower Miocene, which consists of interbedded sand, drastically changed by these activities.
clay, marl, limestone, lenses of fuller's earth, and land Cimate
pebble phosphate. These formations are covered by layers mate
of sand ranging from several feet to more than 50 feet in Pinellas County has long humid summers and mild
thickness. They influence the characteristics of only a few winters. Temperatures are moderated by the waters of
soils in the county. Fellowship soils that occur around the the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa Bay. The climate is
sides of small "dry sink" depressions contain phosphatic uniform throughout the county and accounts for few
material from the Hawthorn Formation, and some soils differences among soils. Rainfall averages about 55 inches
near Oldsmar in the southern part of the county are a year.
affected by the underlying Caloosahatchee Marl. The warm wet climate favors the rapid decomposition
During the Pleistocene Epoch, unconsolidated marine of organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the
sediments were deposited over these formations to form soil. Because rainfall is heavy, the most easily weathered
four terraces: the Pamlico, at 0 to 25 feet above mean minerals and less soluble fine particles are leached. Conse-
sea level; the Talbot, at 25 to 42 feet; the Penholoway, quently, many of the soils are sandy, are strongly acid,








58 SOIL SURVEY
ponds on Felda and Manatee soils. Squirrels also live in at 42 to 70 feet; and the Wicomico, at 70 to 97 feet.
swamps. They adapt to urbanized areas if hardwood trees Each terrace was covered by a mantle of sand. Most
are available, soils in the county formed in these sandy materials.
Raccoons.-Raccoons are numerous in rural areas. They In places recent accumulations of organic material cover
feed on native berries, small rodents, and shell fish, and the sand on the terraces. Lake Flirt Marl, also a recent
on garden crops and citrus. In many recreational areas deposit that occurs in numerous small areas, is not
they are almost tame. associated geologically with any of the underlying
Shore birds.-The number of snowy egrets, white ibis, formations.
wood ibis, and little blue herons has decreased drastically
in recent years. These birds frequent marshy areas and Topography
nest in bushes and trees near water. They feed on snails, Topography, or relief, affects the formation of soils
small fish, frogs, and insects, mainly in ponded areas and mainly through its influence on erosion, drainage, soil
in sloughs. Many shore birds live along the coast in tidal temperature, and plant cover. There are four topographic
marshes, on coastal beaches, and in open areas of tidal areas in the county: ridgelands at elevations of 60 to 100
swamp. A favorite pastime in recreational areas along the feet; flat uplands at 40 to 60 feet; flatwoods at 10 to 40
coast is feeding bits of fish and bread to sea gulls. feet; and flood plains at less than 10 feet. The topography
Songbirds.-The number of songbirds can be increased and, especially, the depth to a water table in each of
by providing local refuges. These refuges can be estab- these areas have affected the formation of the soils. For
lished in private yards or in small parks by planting trees example, Pomello soils on the ridges are deep over a water
and shrubs that provide cover, food, and nesting areas, table, low in organic-matter content, and highly leached.
Fish.-Lake Tarpon provides good to excellent fishing. Myakka soils in the flatwoods are shallower over a water
Speckled perch, largemouth black bass, bluegill bream, table, periodically wet, and low to medium in organic-
and shellcrackers are the most common fish. Other smaller matter content. Placid soils in depressions are very shallow
lakes and canals throughout the county provide fair to over a water table and are medium to high in organic-
good fishing. Excavated ponds can be established almost matter content. Although Pomello, Myakka, and Placidsoils
anywhere in soils that have a relatively stable high water formed in the same parent material, they differ because
table. Ponds one-half acre or more in size that are properly of their relative topographic position.
stocked and managed provide good fishing.
Plants and animals

Formation and Classification iThe kinds and numbers of plants and animals that live
Formation and Classiicatioin and on soils determine to a great extent the soil char-
of the Soils acteristics. Plants and animals furnish organic matter,
This section d th major factor of so formation mix soil material, and draw plant nutrients from lower
This section describes the major factors of soil formation, horizons to upper horizons. They also affect soil structure
explains some of the processes in horizon development, and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. help to break down minerals and decompose organic
matter. They are most numerous in the upper few inches
Factors of Soil Formation of the soil. Earthworms and small animals also alter the
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: chemical composition of soils and mix soil material.
(1) the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or The native vegetation on uplands was a forest of pine
lay of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on and scattered oak. Cypress, bay, maple, and gum trees
the soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and grew in swamps, and pine trees and an understory of
(5) the length of time these factors have acted on the saw-palmetto, gallberry, and numerous native grasses
soil material, grew in the flatwoods. Vegetation in the marshes con-
sisted of water-tolerant shrubs, sedges, and grasses.
Parent material Man has influenced the formation of soils by clearing
The main geological formations in Pinellas County are the forests, cultivating the soils, draining wet areas, and
Caloosahatchee Marl of the lower Pliocene, which consists introducing different kinds of plants. The complex of
mainly of sand and shells, and the Hawthorn Formation of living organisms that affect soil formation has been
the lower Miocene, which consists of interbedded sand, drastically changed by these activities.
clay, marl, limestone, lenses of fuller's earth, and land Cimate
pebble phosphate. These formations are covered by layers mate
of sand ranging from several feet to more than 50 feet in Pinellas County has long humid summers and mild
thickness. They influence the characteristics of only a few winters. Temperatures are moderated by the waters of
soils in the county. Fellowship soils that occur around the the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa Bay. The climate is
sides of small "dry sink" depressions contain phosphatic uniform throughout the county and accounts for few
material from the Hawthorn Formation, and some soils differences among soils. Rainfall averages about 55 inches
near Oldsmar in the southern part of the county are a year.
affected by the underlying Caloosahatchee Marl. The warm wet climate favors the rapid decomposition
During the Pleistocene Epoch, unconsolidated marine of organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the
sediments were deposited over these formations to form soil. Because rainfall is heavy, the most easily weathered
four terraces: the Pamlico, at 0 to 25 feet above mean minerals and less soluble fine particles are leached. Conse-
sea level; the Talbot, at 25 to 42 feet; the Penholoway, quently, many of the soils are sandy, are strongly acid,








58 SOIL SURVEY
ponds on Felda and Manatee soils. Squirrels also live in at 42 to 70 feet; and the Wicomico, at 70 to 97 feet.
swamps. They adapt to urbanized areas if hardwood trees Each terrace was covered by a mantle of sand. Most
are available, soils in the county formed in these sandy materials.
Raccoons.-Raccoons are numerous in rural areas. They In places recent accumulations of organic material cover
feed on native berries, small rodents, and shell fish, and the sand on the terraces. Lake Flirt Marl, also a recent
on garden crops and citrus. In many recreational areas deposit that occurs in numerous small areas, is not
they are almost tame. associated geologically with any of the underlying
Shore birds.-The number of snowy egrets, white ibis, formations.
wood ibis, and little blue herons has decreased drastically
in recent years. These birds frequent marshy areas and Topography
nest in bushes and trees near water. They feed on snails, Topography, or relief, affects the formation of soils
small fish, frogs, and insects, mainly in ponded areas and mainly through its influence on erosion, drainage, soil
in sloughs. Many shore birds live along the coast in tidal temperature, and plant cover. There are four topographic
marshes, on coastal beaches, and in open areas of tidal areas in the county: ridgelands at elevations of 60 to 100
swamp. A favorite pastime in recreational areas along the feet; flat uplands at 40 to 60 feet; flatwoods at 10 to 40
coast is feeding bits of fish and bread to sea gulls. feet; and flood plains at less than 10 feet. The topography
Songbirds.-The number of songbirds can be increased and, especially, the depth to a water table in each of
by providing local refuges. These refuges can be estab- these areas have affected the formation of the soils. For
lished in private yards or in small parks by planting trees example, Pomello soils on the ridges are deep over a water
and shrubs that provide cover, food, and nesting areas, table, low in organic-matter content, and highly leached.
Fish.-Lake Tarpon provides good to excellent fishing. Myakka soils in the flatwoods are shallower over a water
Speckled perch, largemouth black bass, bluegill bream, table, periodically wet, and low to medium in organic-
and shellcrackers are the most common fish. Other smaller matter content. Placid soils in depressions are very shallow
lakes and canals throughout the county provide fair to over a water table and are medium to high in organic-
good fishing. Excavated ponds can be established almost matter content. Although Pomello, Myakka, and Placidsoils
anywhere in soils that have a relatively stable high water formed in the same parent material, they differ because
table. Ponds one-half acre or more in size that are properly of their relative topographic position.
stocked and managed provide good fishing.
Plants and animals

Formation and Classification iThe kinds and numbers of plants and animals that live
Formation and Classiicatioin and on soils determine to a great extent the soil char-
of the Soils acteristics. Plants and animals furnish organic matter,
This section d th major factor of so formation mix soil material, and draw plant nutrients from lower
This section describes the major factors of soil formation, horizons to upper horizons. They also affect soil structure
explains some of the processes in horizon development, and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. and porosity. Bacteria, fungi, and other micro-organisms
and defines the current system of classifying soils. help to break down minerals and decompose organic
matter. They are most numerous in the upper few inches
Factors of Soil Formation of the soil. Earthworms and small animals also alter the
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: chemical composition of soils and mix soil material.
(1) the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or The native vegetation on uplands was a forest of pine
lay of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on and scattered oak. Cypress, bay, maple, and gum trees
the soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and grew in swamps, and pine trees and an understory of
(5) the length of time these factors have acted on the saw-palmetto, gallberry, and numerous native grasses
soil material, grew in the flatwoods. Vegetation in the marshes con-
sisted of water-tolerant shrubs, sedges, and grasses.
Parent material Man has influenced the formation of soils by clearing
The main geological formations in Pinellas County are the forests, cultivating the soils, draining wet areas, and
Caloosahatchee Marl of the lower Pliocene, which consists introducing different kinds of plants. The complex of
mainly of sand and shells, and the Hawthorn Formation of living organisms that affect soil formation has been
the lower Miocene, which consists of interbedded sand, drastically changed by these activities.
clay, marl, limestone, lenses of fuller's earth, and land Cimate
pebble phosphate. These formations are covered by layers mate
of sand ranging from several feet to more than 50 feet in Pinellas County has long humid summers and mild
thickness. They influence the characteristics of only a few winters. Temperatures are moderated by the waters of
soils in the county. Fellowship soils that occur around the the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa Bay. The climate is
sides of small "dry sink" depressions contain phosphatic uniform throughout the county and accounts for few
material from the Hawthorn Formation, and some soils differences among soils. Rainfall averages about 55 inches
near Oldsmar in the southern part of the county are a year.
affected by the underlying Caloosahatchee Marl. The warm wet climate favors the rapid decomposition
During the Pleistocene Epoch, unconsolidated marine of organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the
sediments were deposited over these formations to form soil. Because rainfall is heavy, the most easily weathered
four terraces: the Pamlico, at 0 to 25 feet above mean minerals and less soluble fine particles are leached. Conse-
sea level; the Talbot, at 25 to 42 feet; the Penholoway, quently, many of the soils are sandy, are strongly acid,







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
59
and have low organic-matter content, low natural fertility, Translocation of clay.-Weathering, movement or al-
and low available water capacity. teration of clay has occurred in a few soils to form light-
Time colored, leached A2 horizons and loamy B2 horizons.
T e Sand grains in the B2 horizons are coated with clay and a
Geologically, a long time is required for well-defined, few patchy clay films are on ped faces and in root channels.
genetically related horizons to form in a soil. Soils that A few soils also have a thin B1 horizon that is intermediate
formed in material resistant to weathering require more in texture between the A2 and B2 horizons.
time to reach a particular stage of development than do Reduction and transfer of iron.-This process, also known
soils that formed in easily weathered material. The time as gleying, has occurred in most of the soils in Pinellas
required for translocation of fine particles within the County, except for dry soils at higher elevations. Gleying
soils also varies under different conditions, is caused generally by wetness. Gray colors in the subsoil
The dominant soil material in Pinellas County is and grayish mottles in other horizons indicate the reduc-
quartz sand that is almost pure and is highly resistant to tion and transfer of iron. Some horizons have reddish-
weathering. Relatively little time for the development of brown mottles and concretions, which indicate the segrega-
well-defined horizons has elapsed since this material was tion of iron.
laid down or emerged from the sea. Some thin sandy
loam and sandy clay loam horizons have formed in place Classification of the Soils
through weathering, but most of the finer textured hori-
zons were derived from loamy marine deposits that have Classification consists of an orderly grouping of soils
been only slightly altered by weathering. Some soils have a according to a system designed to make it easier to remem-
thick, black surface layer and layers of organic-matter ber soil characteristics and interrelationships. Classifica-
stained sand, but the time required for these layers to tion is useful in organizing and applying the results of
develop is relatively short. experience and research. Soils are placed in narrow classes
for discussion in detailed soil surveys and for application
of knowledge within farms and fields. The many thousands
Processes of Soil Formation of narrow classes are then grouped into progressively
Among the processes involved in the formation of soil fewer and broader classes in successively higher categories,
horizons, or horizon differentiation, are (1) accumulation so that information can be applied to large geographic
of organic matter, (2) leaching of calcium carbonates and areas.
bases, (3) formation and translocation of silicate clay Two systems of classifying soils have been used in the
materials, and (4) reduction and transfer of iron. These United States in recent years. The older system was
processes produce a succession of layers, or horizons, that adopted in 1938 (2) and revised later (4). The system
differ in such properties as color, texture, structure, con- currently used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey
sistence, reaction, and thickness. Soils can have three was developed in the early sixties (3) and was adopted in
main horizons: A, B, and C. However, in many young 1965 (6). It is under continual study.
sandy soils, a B horizon has not developed. The current system of classification has six categories.
The A horizon is either the horizon of maximum or- Beginning with the most inclusive, these categories are
ganic-matter content, called the Al horizon, or the surface the order, the suborder, the great group, th subgroup,
layer, or it is the horizon of maximum leaching of soluble are soil properties that are observable or measurable, but
or suspended materials, called the A2 horizon, or the the properties are selected so that soils of similar genesis
subsurface layer. are grouped together. The placement of some soil series
The B horizon lies immediately below the A horizon in the current system of classification, particularly in
and is called the subsoil. It is the horizon of maximum ac- families, may change as more precise information becomes
cumulation of organic matter, iron, clay, and other dis- available.
solved or suspended material. The B horizon is usually Table 8 shows the classification of each soil series of
firmer than the horizons immediately above and below Pinellas County by family, subgroup, and order, according
and in places has a blocky structure. to the current system.
The C horizon is the substratum. It is only slightly Order.-Ten orders are recognized. They are Entisols,
affected by soil-forming processes but is somewhat modi- Vertisols, Inceptisols, Aridisols, Mollisols, Spodosols,
fled by weathering. Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, and Histosols. The properties
The following paragraphs explain the processes by which used to differentiate the orders are those that tend to give
soil horizons form. broad climatic groupings of soils. Exceptions to this are
Accumulation of organic matter.-Some organic matter the Entisols, Histosols, and Inceptisols, which occur in
has accumulated in the surface layers of all soils in the many different climates. The soil orders represented in
county to form an Al horizon. The content of organic Pinellas County are Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols,
matter in the soils ranges from very low to high. In many Spodosols, Alfisols, and Histosols.
places the Al horizon has been mixed with material from Entisols are recent mineral soils that lack genetic
underlying horizons through cultivation, horizons or have only the beginnings of such horizons.
Leaching of calcium carbonates and bases.-Some leaching Inceptisols are mineral soils that most often develop on
has occurred in nearly all the soils. Most carbonates and young but not recent land surfaces.
bases had been removed from the parent material before Mollisols are mineral soils that have thick dark colored
it was deposited. The leaching of bases in soils usually mollic horizons from the surface downward. They de-
precedes translocation of silicate clay materials. veloped under grass-type vegetation and moist conditions







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
59
and have low organic-matter content, low natural fertility, Translocation of clay.-Weathering, movement or al-
and low available water capacity. teration of clay has occurred in a few soils to form light-
Time colored, leached A2 horizons and loamy B2 horizons.
T e Sand grains in the B2 horizons are coated with clay and a
Geologically, a long time is required for well-defined, few patchy clay films are on ped faces and in root channels.
genetically related horizons to form in a soil. Soils that A few soils also have a thin B1 horizon that is intermediate
formed in material resistant to weathering require more in texture between the A2 and B2 horizons.
time to reach a particular stage of development than do Reduction and transfer of iron.-This process, also known
soils that formed in easily weathered material. The time as gleying, has occurred in most of the soils in Pinellas
required for translocation of fine particles within the County, except for dry soils at higher elevations. Gleying
soils also varies under different conditions, is caused generally by wetness. Gray colors in the subsoil
The dominant soil material in Pinellas County is and grayish mottles in other horizons indicate the reduc-
quartz sand that is almost pure and is highly resistant to tion and transfer of iron. Some horizons have reddish-
weathering. Relatively little time for the development of brown mottles and concretions, which indicate the segrega-
well-defined horizons has elapsed since this material was tion of iron.
laid down or emerged from the sea. Some thin sandy
loam and sandy clay loam horizons have formed in place Classification of the Soils
through weathering, but most of the finer textured hori-
zons were derived from loamy marine deposits that have Classification consists of an orderly grouping of soils
been only slightly altered by weathering. Some soils have a according to a system designed to make it easier to remem-
thick, black surface layer and layers of organic-matter ber soil characteristics and interrelationships. Classifica-
stained sand, but the time required for these layers to tion is useful in organizing and applying the results of
develop is relatively short. experience and research. Soils are placed in narrow classes
for discussion in detailed soil surveys and for application
of knowledge within farms and fields. The many thousands
Processes of Soil Formation of narrow classes are then grouped into progressively
Among the processes involved in the formation of soil fewer and broader classes in successively higher categories,
horizons, or horizon differentiation, are (1) accumulation so that information can be applied to large geographic
of organic matter, (2) leaching of calcium carbonates and areas.
bases, (3) formation and translocation of silicate clay Two systems of classifying soils have been used in the
materials, and (4) reduction and transfer of iron. These United States in recent years. The older system was
processes produce a succession of layers, or horizons, that adopted in 1938 (2) and revised later (4). The system
differ in such properties as color, texture, structure, con- currently used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey
sistence, reaction, and thickness. Soils can have three was developed in the early sixties (3) and was adopted in
main horizons: A, B, and C. However, in many young 1965 (6). It is under continual study.
sandy soils, a B horizon has not developed. The current system of classification has six categories.
The A horizon is either the horizon of maximum or- Beginning with the most inclusive, these categories are
ganic-matter content, called the Al horizon, or the surface the order, the suborder, the great group, th subgroup,
layer, or it is the horizon of maximum leaching of soluble are soil properties that are observable or measurable, but
or suspended materials, called the A2 horizon, or the the properties are selected so that soils of similar genesis
subsurface layer. are grouped together. The placement of some soil series
The B horizon lies immediately below the A horizon in the current system of classification, particularly in
and is called the subsoil. It is the horizon of maximum ac- families, may change as more precise information becomes
cumulation of organic matter, iron, clay, and other dis- available.
solved or suspended material. The B horizon is usually Table 8 shows the classification of each soil series of
firmer than the horizons immediately above and below Pinellas County by family, subgroup, and order, according
and in places has a blocky structure. to the current system.
The C horizon is the substratum. It is only slightly Order.-Ten orders are recognized. They are Entisols,
affected by soil-forming processes but is somewhat modi- Vertisols, Inceptisols, Aridisols, Mollisols, Spodosols,
fled by weathering. Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, and Histosols. The properties
The following paragraphs explain the processes by which used to differentiate the orders are those that tend to give
soil horizons form. broad climatic groupings of soils. Exceptions to this are
Accumulation of organic matter.-Some organic matter the Entisols, Histosols, and Inceptisols, which occur in
has accumulated in the surface layers of all soils in the many different climates. The soil orders represented in
county to form an Al horizon. The content of organic Pinellas County are Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols,
matter in the soils ranges from very low to high. In many Spodosols, Alfisols, and Histosols.
places the Al horizon has been mixed with material from Entisols are recent mineral soils that lack genetic
underlying horizons through cultivation, horizons or have only the beginnings of such horizons.
Leaching of calcium carbonates and bases.-Some leaching Inceptisols are mineral soils that most often develop on
has occurred in nearly all the soils. Most carbonates and young but not recent land surfaces.
bases had been removed from the parent material before Mollisols are mineral soils that have thick dark colored
it was deposited. The leaching of bases in soils usually mollic horizons from the surface downward. They de-
precedes translocation of silicate clay materials. veloped under grass-type vegetation and moist conditions







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
59
and have low organic-matter content, low natural fertility, Translocation of clay.-Weathering, movement or al-
and low available water capacity. teration of clay has occurred in a few soils to form light-
Time colored, leached A2 horizons and loamy B2 horizons.
T e Sand grains in the B2 horizons are coated with clay and a
Geologically, a long time is required for well-defined, few patchy clay films are on ped faces and in root channels.
genetically related horizons to form in a soil. Soils that A few soils also have a thin B1 horizon that is intermediate
formed in material resistant to weathering require more in texture between the A2 and B2 horizons.
time to reach a particular stage of development than do Reduction and transfer of iron.-This process, also known
soils that formed in easily weathered material. The time as gleying, has occurred in most of the soils in Pinellas
required for translocation of fine particles within the County, except for dry soils at higher elevations. Gleying
soils also varies under different conditions, is caused generally by wetness. Gray colors in the subsoil
The dominant soil material in Pinellas County is and grayish mottles in other horizons indicate the reduc-
quartz sand that is almost pure and is highly resistant to tion and transfer of iron. Some horizons have reddish-
weathering. Relatively little time for the development of brown mottles and concretions, which indicate the segrega-
well-defined horizons has elapsed since this material was tion of iron.
laid down or emerged from the sea. Some thin sandy
loam and sandy clay loam horizons have formed in place Classification of the Soils
through weathering, but most of the finer textured hori-
zons were derived from loamy marine deposits that have Classification consists of an orderly grouping of soils
been only slightly altered by weathering. Some soils have a according to a system designed to make it easier to remem-
thick, black surface layer and layers of organic-matter ber soil characteristics and interrelationships. Classifica-
stained sand, but the time required for these layers to tion is useful in organizing and applying the results of
develop is relatively short. experience and research. Soils are placed in narrow classes
for discussion in detailed soil surveys and for application
of knowledge within farms and fields. The many thousands
Processes of Soil Formation of narrow classes are then grouped into progressively
Among the processes involved in the formation of soil fewer and broader classes in successively higher categories,
horizons, or horizon differentiation, are (1) accumulation so that information can be applied to large geographic
of organic matter, (2) leaching of calcium carbonates and areas.
bases, (3) formation and translocation of silicate clay Two systems of classifying soils have been used in the
materials, and (4) reduction and transfer of iron. These United States in recent years. The older system was
processes produce a succession of layers, or horizons, that adopted in 1938 (2) and revised later (4). The system
differ in such properties as color, texture, structure, con- currently used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey
sistence, reaction, and thickness. Soils can have three was developed in the early sixties (3) and was adopted in
main horizons: A, B, and C. However, in many young 1965 (6). It is under continual study.
sandy soils, a B horizon has not developed. The current system of classification has six categories.
The A horizon is either the horizon of maximum or- Beginning with the most inclusive, these categories are
ganic-matter content, called the Al horizon, or the surface the order, the suborder, the great group, th subgroup,
layer, or it is the horizon of maximum leaching of soluble are soil properties that are observable or measurable, but
or suspended materials, called the A2 horizon, or the the properties are selected so that soils of similar genesis
subsurface layer. are grouped together. The placement of some soil series
The B horizon lies immediately below the A horizon in the current system of classification, particularly in
and is called the subsoil. It is the horizon of maximum ac- families, may change as more precise information becomes
cumulation of organic matter, iron, clay, and other dis- available.
solved or suspended material. The B horizon is usually Table 8 shows the classification of each soil series of
firmer than the horizons immediately above and below Pinellas County by family, subgroup, and order, according
and in places has a blocky structure. to the current system.
The C horizon is the substratum. It is only slightly Order.-Ten orders are recognized. They are Entisols,
affected by soil-forming processes but is somewhat modi- Vertisols, Inceptisols, Aridisols, Mollisols, Spodosols,
fled by weathering. Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, and Histosols. The properties
The following paragraphs explain the processes by which used to differentiate the orders are those that tend to give
soil horizons form. broad climatic groupings of soils. Exceptions to this are
Accumulation of organic matter.-Some organic matter the Entisols, Histosols, and Inceptisols, which occur in
has accumulated in the surface layers of all soils in the many different climates. The soil orders represented in
county to form an Al horizon. The content of organic Pinellas County are Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols,
matter in the soils ranges from very low to high. In many Spodosols, Alfisols, and Histosols.
places the Al horizon has been mixed with material from Entisols are recent mineral soils that lack genetic
underlying horizons through cultivation, horizons or have only the beginnings of such horizons.
Leaching of calcium carbonates and bases.-Some leaching Inceptisols are mineral soils that most often develop on
has occurred in nearly all the soils. Most carbonates and young but not recent land surfaces.
bases had been removed from the parent material before Mollisols are mineral soils that have thick dark colored
it was deposited. The leaching of bases in soils usually mollic horizons from the surface downward. They de-
precedes translocation of silicate clay materials. veloped under grass-type vegetation and moist conditions








60 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 8.-Soil series classified according to the current system of classification

Series Family Subgroup Order

Adamsville ---------- Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated------------------ Aquic Quartzipsamments -_-------. Entisols.
Astatula ------------- Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated----------------- Typic Quartzipsamments----------- Entisols.
Astor 2 ......------- Sandy, siliceous, noncalcareous, hyperthermic --_----- Cumulic Haplaquolls ------------- Mollisols.
Charlotte ------------ Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------.------- Entic Sideraquods __--_-------- Spodosols.
Elred 3---_------- --- Sandy over loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic ---------- Alfic Sideraquods------_--------- Spodosols.
Felda 4--------------Loamy, mixed, hyperthermic -_-------------------- Arenic Ochraqualfs ------------ Alfisols.
Fellowship----------- Fine, montmorillonitic, hyperthermic --------------- Typic Umbraqualfs---------------- Alfisols.
Immokalee -----------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic --------------------- Arenic Haplaquods --------------- Spodosols.
Manatee -------------Coarse-loamy, mixed, noncalcareous, hyperthermic --- Typic Argiaquolls ---------------- Mollisols.
Myakka ------------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic --------------------- Aeric Haplaquods----------------- Spodosols.
Okeechobee----------- Euic, hyperthermic ----------------------------- Hemic Medisaprists --------------. Histosols.
Oldsmar -------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic --------------------- Alfic Arenic Haplaquods _---------- Spodosols.
Orlando (variant)------ Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic ----------_---------- Psammaquentic Haplumbrepts------ Inceptisols.
Palm Beach---------- Carbonatic, hyperthermic -----------------------__ Typic Udipsamments--__-------_ Entisols.
Pamlico -__________--Sandy, siliceous, dysic, thermic -----------------.--- Typic Medisaprists--------------- Histosols.
Paola -------------- Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated -------_----------- Spodic Quartzipsamments-____---_ Entisols.
Pinellas --._---___-- Loamy, mixed, hyperthermic ----------------------_ Arenic Ochraqualfs--------------- Alfisols.
Placid--------------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic----.---_-----. ---- Typic Humaquepts -----_-----_ Inceptisols.
Pomello --------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic ----.----------_ ---- Typic Haplohumods-_----_----_--- Spodosols.
Pompano ------------ Siliceous, hyperthermic---_---------------------_ Typic Psammaquents------------- Entisols.
St. Lucie ------------ Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ----_----------- Typic Quartzipsamments -------- Entisols.
Terra Ceia (variant)---- Sandy, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic---------------- Terric Medisaprists--------------_ Histosols.
Wabasso 7 -------__- Sandy over loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic -----------Alfic Haplaquods -----------------Spodosols.
Wauchula------------_ Sandy over loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic __ ------_- Udic Haplaquods---------------- Spodosols.

1 The Adamsville soils in Pinellas County are taxadjuncts to the Adamsville series. They are more acid than is appropriate to the
classification shown. They are strongly acid to very strongly acid.
2 The Astor soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Astor series. They are more acid in the C horizon than is appropriate to the
classification shown. Their C horizon is slightly acid.
SThe Elred soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Elred series. They have a browner Bt horizon than is appropriate to the
classification shown. Their Bt horizon is yellowish brown (10YR 5/6).
4 Some of the Felda soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Felda series. They have a calcareous loamy sand C horizon.
a The Pamlico soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Pamlico series. The mean annual soil temperature at a depth of 20 inches is
720 F., which is higher than is appropriate to the classification shown.
e Some of the St. Lucie soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the St. Lucie series. Colors in the lower part of the C horizon are outside
the range described for the St. Lucie series.
7 The Wabasso soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Wabasso series. They are less acid in the Bh horizon than is appropriate to
the classification shown.

and have a high base saturation. Spodosols are mineral Families.-Families are established within a subgroup,
soils that have a spodic horizon locally. Alfisols are mineral primarily on the basis of properties important to the
soils that have clay-enriched B horizons high in base growth of plants or to the behavior of soils when used for
saturation. engineering. Among the properties considered are texture,
Histosols are organic soils that have formed in swamps mineralogy, reaction, soil temperature, permeability,
and marshes where conditions were favorable for the thickness of horizons, and consistence.
accumulation of decaying plant remains. Series.-The series, which has the narrowest range of
Suborder.-Each order is divided into suborders, characteristics of the categories in the classification
primarily on the basis of soil characteristics that seem system, is a group of soils that developed from the same
to produce classes having the greatest genetic similarity. type of parent material and have major horizons that are
The suborders have a narrower climatic range than the similar in important characteristics and sequence in the
order. The criteria for suborders reflect either the presence profile.
or absence of waterlogging or soil differences resulting
from climate or vegetation.
Great group.-Each suborder is divided into great General Nature of the County
groups according to the presence or absence of genetic
horizons and the arrangement of these horizons. The Pinellas Peninsula was permanently settled in 1823.
horizons used to make divisions are those in which clay, Citrus was introduced to the area and became the major
iron, or humus have accumulated or those that have crop. Settlements along the coast engaged mainly in
pans that interfere with growth of roots or movement of fishing. Clearwater was incporated in 1859, and by
grogre gro 1868 Pinellas Peninsula had access by road to Tampa, the
nubgroup.-Each great group is divided into subgroups. commercial center for the area. In 1888 a railroad line
One subgroup represents the central typicc) segment ofwas opened between Sanford and St. Petersburg, and the
the group, and others, called intergrades, have properties favorable climate began to attract a tourist trade that
of the group and one or more properties of another great bolstered the economy based mainly on agricultural and
group, suborder, or order. fishing enterprises.
fishing enterprises.







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
61
Pinellas County was formed from part of Hillsborough Soils of the Astatula, Immokalee Myakka, Paola,
County in 1911. The population nearly doubled between Pomello, and St. Lucie series formed on this terrace.
1920 and 1940, but less than 10 percent of the county The Wicomico terrace is 70 to 97 feet above mean sea
was urbanized at the end of this period. Between 1950 level. It is mainly fine sand as much as 27 feet thick. It is
and 1960 the population increased to 215,000 and by underlain by the Hawthorn Formation. The soils on this
1968, to about 500,000. Now, about 50 percent of the terrace are dominantly acid sands of the Astatula,
county is urbanized. Immokalee, Paola, Pomello, and St. Lucie series.
Urbanization, large increases in tourism, and the A few pockets of recently deposited muck and fresh-
advent of light industry have greatly reduced the role water marl occur in low areas.
of farming in the economy of the county. In 1966 only With few exceptions, individual soils are not confined
about 2 percent of the work force was employed on farms, to a particular geologic formation or marine terrace.
Information about the geology, climate, and farming For example, Pinellas soils that formed in fresh-water
enterprises in the county is given in the following pages, alkaline deposits on upland terraces are very similar to
Pinellas soils that formed in alkaline sediments of Caloosa-
Geology hatchee Marl. Though variations in characteristics of
the parent material are apparent in the field, they do not
The two major geologic formations in Pinellas County affect soil classification.
are the Hawthorn Formation of the lower Miocene and
Caloosahatchee Marl of the lower Pliocene. The border Climate2
between these formations extends across the peninsula
north of the Cross Bayou Canal through Safety Harbor Pinellas County has long humid summers and mild
and Oldsmar. Soils north of this line are underlain by the winters. Annual rainfall is about 55 inches. About 60
Hawthorn Formation. percent of the total falls from June through September.
Caloosahatchee Marl is of marine origin. It consists of The rest is more or less evenly distributed throughout the
sand, sandy clay, and marl and is from 2 to 85 percent remainder of the year. Temperatures are moderated by
shells. In places near St. Petersburg and Pinellas Park, the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa Bay.
these shells are excavated for use in road construction. Summer temperatures vary little from day to day, and
The maximum thickness of this formation is about 50 seldom reach 950 F. Periodic invasions of cold, dry air
feet. In areas near Oldsmar, north of St. Petersburg, near from the north cause considerable daily variation in
Pinellas Park, and south and east of Largo, it is near temperature in winter. Data on temperature and pre-
enough to the surface to affect the soils. Some Astor and cipitation based on records from St. Petersburg are given
Manatee soils formed in this material, in table 9.
The Hawthorn Formation consists of interbedded A temperature of 320 F. occurs on an average of 5 to
sand, clay, marl, limestone, lenses of fuller's earth, and 10 days every year. Temperatures drop to 280 or lower
land-pebble phosphate. In only a few places is it near about three times every year. Table 10 shows the probable
enough to the surface to affect the soils. Soils that occur dates of last critical temperatures in spring and first in
on the side slopes of depressions northeast of Clearwater fall, based on records at St. Petersburg.
and in cuts made by Curlew Creek north of Dunedin In summer, rain falls mainly in afternoon and evening
contain phosphatic material from this formation. Fellow- thundershowers. Sometimes as much as 2 or 3 inches
ship soils also contain material from this formation. falls within 2 hours. Rainfall in autumn, winter, and
During the Pleistocene these formations were covered spring usually is not as intense as in summer. Daylong
by marine deposits that formed four terraces. These rains are rare in summer. When they occur, they are
terraces were covered by a mantle of sand that ranges almost always associated with a tropical storm. A 24-hour
from 2 to 35 feet in thickness, rainfall in excess of 8 inches can be expected 1 year in
The Pamlico terrace occurs at elevations of 0 to 25 feet 10 on the average.
above mean sea level. It is mainly sand 1 to 15 feet thick. Tropical storms affect the area from early in June
In areas near Oldsmar, St. Petersburg, and Pinellas Park, through mid November. The probability that windspeeds
the sand is only 1 to 4 feet thick and is underlain by of hurricane force, 74 miles per hour or more, will occur
Caloosahatchee Marl. Soils of the Oldsmar and Wabasso in Pinellas County in any given year is about 1 in 20.
series that have acid sand upper horizons and a nonacid Heavy rainfall during tropical storms may cause con-
loamy subsoil formed on this terrace. siderable flood damage.
The Talbot terrace is 25 to 42 feet above mean sea level. Hail falls occasionally in thundershowers, but the hail-
It is fine sand not more than 16 feet thick. In a few places stones usually are small and seldom cause much damage.
the sand mantle is thin and the soils have been affected It rarely snows in Pinellas County.
by phosphatic material from the underlying Hawthorn Extended periods of dry weather occur in any season
Formation. Most soils of the Talbot terrace are acid. but are most common in spring and fall. Such dry periods
Soils of the Astatula, Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello affect plant growth. Dry periods in April and May, al-
series formed on this terrace, though generally shorter than those in fall, tend to be
The Penholoway terrace is 42 to 70 feet above mean sea more damaging to plants because temperatures are higher
level. It is mostly fine sand as much as 28 feet thick. It is and the plants require more moisture in spring.
underlain by the Hawthorn Formation. On sides of Prevailing winds are from the south in March and from
depressions the sand mantle is thin, and materials from the north and east the rest of the year. Windspeeds are
the Hawthorn Formation have affected the soils. Most
soils on this terrace are acid. A few nonacid soils occur in 2 By JACK E. MICKELSON, State climatologist, National Weather
small isolated areas in depressions and along streams. Service, U.S. Department of Commerce.







PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA
61
Pinellas County was formed from part of Hillsborough Soils of the Astatula, Immokalee Myakka, Paola,
County in 1911. The population nearly doubled between Pomello, and St. Lucie series formed on this terrace.
1920 and 1940, but less than 10 percent of the county The Wicomico terrace is 70 to 97 feet above mean sea
was urbanized at the end of this period. Between 1950 level. It is mainly fine sand as much as 27 feet thick. It is
and 1960 the population increased to 215,000 and by underlain by the Hawthorn Formation. The soils on this
1968, to about 500,000. Now, about 50 percent of the terrace are dominantly acid sands of the Astatula,
county is urbanized. Immokalee, Paola, Pomello, and St. Lucie series.
Urbanization, large increases in tourism, and the A few pockets of recently deposited muck and fresh-
advent of light industry have greatly reduced the role water marl occur in low areas.
of farming in the economy of the county. In 1966 only With few exceptions, individual soils are not confined
about 2 percent of the work force was employed on farms, to a particular geologic formation or marine terrace.
Information about the geology, climate, and farming For example, Pinellas soils that formed in fresh-water
enterprises in the county is given in the following pages, alkaline deposits on upland terraces are very similar to
Pinellas soils that formed in alkaline sediments of Caloosa-
Geology hatchee Marl. Though variations in characteristics of
the parent material are apparent in the field, they do not
The two major geologic formations in Pinellas County affect soil classification.
are the Hawthorn Formation of the lower Miocene and
Caloosahatchee Marl of the lower Pliocene. The border Climate2
between these formations extends across the peninsula
north of the Cross Bayou Canal through Safety Harbor Pinellas County has long humid summers and mild
and Oldsmar. Soils north of this line are underlain by the winters. Annual rainfall is about 55 inches. About 60
Hawthorn Formation. percent of the total falls from June through September.
Caloosahatchee Marl is of marine origin. It consists of The rest is more or less evenly distributed throughout the
sand, sandy clay, and marl and is from 2 to 85 percent remainder of the year. Temperatures are moderated by
shells. In places near St. Petersburg and Pinellas Park, the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Tampa Bay.
these shells are excavated for use in road construction. Summer temperatures vary little from day to day, and
The maximum thickness of this formation is about 50 seldom reach 950 F. Periodic invasions of cold, dry air
feet. In areas near Oldsmar, north of St. Petersburg, near from the north cause considerable daily variation in
Pinellas Park, and south and east of Largo, it is near temperature in winter. Data on temperature and pre-
enough to the surface to affect the soils. Some Astor and cipitation based on records from St. Petersburg are given
Manatee soils formed in this material, in table 9.
The Hawthorn Formation consists of interbedded A temperature of 320 F. occurs on an average of 5 to
sand, clay, marl, limestone, lenses of fuller's earth, and 10 days every year. Temperatures drop to 280 or lower
land-pebble phosphate. In only a few places is it near about three times every year. Table 10 shows the probable
enough to the surface to affect the soils. Soils that occur dates of last critical temperatures in spring and first in
on the side slopes of depressions northeast of Clearwater fall, based on records at St. Petersburg.
and in cuts made by Curlew Creek north of Dunedin In summer, rain falls mainly in afternoon and evening
contain phosphatic material from this formation. Fellow- thundershowers. Sometimes as much as 2 or 3 inches
ship soils also contain material from this formation. falls within 2 hours. Rainfall in autumn, winter, and
During the Pleistocene these formations were covered spring usually is not as intense as in summer. Daylong
by marine deposits that formed four terraces. These rains are rare in summer. When they occur, they are
terraces were covered by a mantle of sand that ranges almost always associated with a tropical storm. A 24-hour
from 2 to 35 feet in thickness, rainfall in excess of 8 inches can be expected 1 year in
The Pamlico terrace occurs at elevations of 0 to 25 feet 10 on the average.
above mean sea level. It is mainly sand 1 to 15 feet thick. Tropical storms affect the area from early in June
In areas near Oldsmar, St. Petersburg, and Pinellas Park, through mid November. The probability that windspeeds
the sand is only 1 to 4 feet thick and is underlain by of hurricane force, 74 miles per hour or more, will occur
Caloosahatchee Marl. Soils of the Oldsmar and Wabasso in Pinellas County in any given year is about 1 in 20.
series that have acid sand upper horizons and a nonacid Heavy rainfall during tropical storms may cause con-
loamy subsoil formed on this terrace. siderable flood damage.
The Talbot terrace is 25 to 42 feet above mean sea level. Hail falls occasionally in thundershowers, but the hail-
It is fine sand not more than 16 feet thick. In a few places stones usually are small and seldom cause much damage.
the sand mantle is thin and the soils have been affected It rarely snows in Pinellas County.
by phosphatic material from the underlying Hawthorn Extended periods of dry weather occur in any season
Formation. Most soils of the Talbot terrace are acid. but are most common in spring and fall. Such dry periods
Soils of the Astatula, Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello affect plant growth. Dry periods in April and May, al-
series formed on this terrace, though generally shorter than those in fall, tend to be
The Penholoway terrace is 42 to 70 feet above mean sea more damaging to plants because temperatures are higher
level. It is mostly fine sand as much as 28 feet thick. It is and the plants require more moisture in spring.
underlain by the Hawthorn Formation. On sides of Prevailing winds are from the south in March and from
depressions the sand mantle is thin, and materials from the north and east the rest of the year. Windspeeds are
the Hawthorn Formation have affected the soils. Most
soils on this terrace are acid. A few nonacid soils occur in 2 By JACK E. MICKELSON, State climatologist, National Weather
small isolated areas in depressions and along streams. Service, U.S. Department of Commerce.








62 SOIL SURVEY
TABLE 9.-Temperature and precipitation
[All data from St. Petersburg. Elevation 50 feet]

Temperature Precipitation

One year in 10 will Average number of
Month Average Average Highest Lowest have- days with-
daily daily average average Average
maximum minimum monthly monthly total
maximum minimum Less More 0.10 inch 0.50 inch
than- than-

F. F. OF. F. In. In. In.
January--------- 72 55 80 37 2. 5 0. 1 5. 3 4 2
February--- 73 56 81 41 3. 0 .5 6.0 4 2
March------------ 76 59 84 46 3. 7 .3 7. 8 5 3
April ------------- 81 65 88 54 3.2 .3 7.4 4 2
May------------- 87 70 93 54 2. 6 .3 6. 1 4 2
June--------------- 90 74 94 69 6.3 2.4 10.0 9 4
July --------------90 75 94 71 9.2 4. 1 16.5 12 6
August----------- 90 76 94 71 9.0 4. 8 15. 3 12 6
September-------- 89 74 92 69 8.4 2. 9 14.0 9 5
October ---------- 84 69 90 55 3. 9 .3 8. 6 5 2
November-------- 77 61 84 46 1.7 .2 6.0 3 1
December-------- 73 56 81 37 2. 1 .6 5. 5 4 2
Year------------ 82 66 '95 234 55. 6 32. 7 79.3 75 37

1 Highest average annual maximum. 2 Lowest average annual minimum.

TABLE 10.-Probable dates of last critical temperatures in wet soils require tile drainage systems and intensive water
spring andfirst infall control. Most citrus groves are irrigated by sprinklers
[All data from St. Petersburg. Elevation 50 feet] during dry periods.
S There are several small peach orchards in the county.
Dates for given probability Most peach trees are planted in low, wet areas within
and temperature of- citrus groves. Pears, grapes, figs, avocados, and pecans
Probability are grown on several farms but are not of commercial im-
320 F. 360 F. 400 F. portance. Blackberries are grown on several farms. They
or lower or lower or lower generally are planted on soils that have a shallow water
table and require drainage and irrigation.
Spring: About 40 acres in the southern part of the county is used
1 year in 10 later than-------- Jan. 31 Feb. 19 Mar. 6 for vegetable crops. Most produce is sold at the field.
2 years in 10 later than------- (1) Feb. 4 Feb. 22 Fertile soils that have high organic-matter content and
5 years in 10 later than------- (1) Jan. 15 Jan. 28 adequate water capacity generally are used for vegetables.
Fall: Several hundred nurseries and greenhouses raise flowers,
1 year in 10 earlier than------ Dec. 12 Nov. 30 Nov. 18 vegetable seed, vegetable plants and bulbs, landscape
2 years in 10 earlier than----- (1) Dec. 12 Nov. 26 plants, potted plants, and florists greens.
5 years in 10 earlier than (1) (1) Dec. 13 About 5,000 acres is used for improved pasture consist-
-reiabe-dta.- ing mostly of pangolagrass and bahiagrass. Part of this is
1 No reliable data. used for hay. White clover is planted on about 20 percent
of the pasture acreage. Clover pasture requires irrigation
usually 10 to 15 miles per hour in the afternoon and 5 to during winter months.
10 miles per hour at night. The dairy industry has declined in the last few years.
There are now fewer than 2,000 dairy cows in the county.
Farming The largest dairy has about 500 cows. All dairies use im-
Citrus fruit is the major crop in the county. Truck crops proved pastures of clover and grass, but most feed for
are grown in small areas, and several companies and in- dairy cows is shipped into the county. There are about
4,000 head of beef cattle in the county. Beef production is
dividuals raise flowers and bulbs, most of which are shipped h be catle the county. Beef production is
north to market. Cattle graze native range and improved cefly a ow-calf operation.
pasture, and dairy operations are scattered throughout
the county. Many nurseries provide landscaping plants
for expanding urban areas. Since 1960 much of the farm- Literature Cited
land m the county has been converted to urban uses.
Less than 6,000 acres is used for fruit trees, mostly (1) AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS.
citrus. Citrus is grown mainly on well-drained soils, but a 1961. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS
considerable acreage of wetter soils also is used. These AND SAMPLING AND TSTING Ed 8








62 SOIL SURVEY
TABLE 9.-Temperature and precipitation
[All data from St. Petersburg. Elevation 50 feet]

Temperature Precipitation

One year in 10 will Average number of
Month Average Average Highest Lowest have- days with-
daily daily average average Average
maximum minimum monthly monthly total
maximum minimum Less More 0.10 inch 0.50 inch
than- than-

F. F. OF. F. In. In. In.
January--------- 72 55 80 37 2. 5 0. 1 5. 3 4 2
February--- 73 56 81 41 3. 0 .5 6.0 4 2
March------------ 76 59 84 46 3. 7 .3 7. 8 5 3
April ------------- 81 65 88 54 3.2 .3 7.4 4 2
May------------- 87 70 93 54 2. 6 .3 6. 1 4 2
June--------------- 90 74 94 69 6.3 2.4 10.0 9 4
July --------------90 75 94 71 9.2 4. 1 16.5 12 6
August----------- 90 76 94 71 9.0 4. 8 15. 3 12 6
September-------- 89 74 92 69 8.4 2. 9 14.0 9 5
October ---------- 84 69 90 55 3. 9 .3 8. 6 5 2
November-------- 77 61 84 46 1.7 .2 6.0 3 1
December-------- 73 56 81 37 2. 1 .6 5. 5 4 2
Year------------ 82 66 '95 234 55. 6 32. 7 79.3 75 37

1 Highest average annual maximum. 2 Lowest average annual minimum.

TABLE 10.-Probable dates of last critical temperatures in wet soils require tile drainage systems and intensive water
spring andfirst infall control. Most citrus groves are irrigated by sprinklers
[All data from St. Petersburg. Elevation 50 feet] during dry periods.
S There are several small peach orchards in the county.
Dates for given probability Most peach trees are planted in low, wet areas within
and temperature of- citrus groves. Pears, grapes, figs, avocados, and pecans
Probability are grown on several farms but are not of commercial im-
320 F. 360 F. 400 F. portance. Blackberries are grown on several farms. They
or lower or lower or lower generally are planted on soils that have a shallow water
table and require drainage and irrigation.
Spring: About 40 acres in the southern part of the county is used
1 year in 10 later than-------- Jan. 31 Feb. 19 Mar. 6 for vegetable crops. Most produce is sold at the field.
2 years in 10 later than------- (1) Feb. 4 Feb. 22 Fertile soils that have high organic-matter content and
5 years in 10 later than------- (1) Jan. 15 Jan. 28 adequate water capacity generally are used for vegetables.
Fall: Several hundred nurseries and greenhouses raise flowers,
1 year in 10 earlier than------ Dec. 12 Nov. 30 Nov. 18 vegetable seed, vegetable plants and bulbs, landscape
2 years in 10 earlier than----- (1) Dec. 12 Nov. 26 plants, potted plants, and florists greens.
5 years in 10 earlier than (1) (1) Dec. 13 About 5,000 acres is used for improved pasture consist-
-reiabe-dta.- ing mostly of pangolagrass and bahiagrass. Part of this is
1 No reliable data. used for hay. White clover is planted on about 20 percent
of the pasture acreage. Clover pasture requires irrigation
usually 10 to 15 miles per hour in the afternoon and 5 to during winter months.
10 miles per hour at night. The dairy industry has declined in the last few years.
There are now fewer than 2,000 dairy cows in the county.
Farming The largest dairy has about 500 cows. All dairies use im-
Citrus fruit is the major crop in the county. Truck crops proved pastures of clover and grass, but most feed for
are grown in small areas, and several companies and in- dairy cows is shipped into the county. There are about
4,000 head of beef cattle in the county. Beef production is
dividuals raise flowers and bulbs, most of which are shipped h be catle the county. Beef production is
north to market. Cattle graze native range and improved cefly a ow-calf operation.
pasture, and dairy operations are scattered throughout
the county. Many nurseries provide landscaping plants
for expanding urban areas. Since 1960 much of the farm- Literature Cited
land m the county has been converted to urban uses.
Less than 6,000 acres is used for fruit trees, mostly (1) AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS.
citrus. Citrus is grown mainly on well-drained soils, but a 1961. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS
considerable acreage of wetter soils also is used. These AND SAMPLING AND TSTING Ed 8








PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA 63

(2) BALDWIN, MARK, KELLOGG, CHARLES E., and THORP, JAMES. Poorly drained soils are wet for long periods and are light gray
1938. SOIL CLASSIFICATION. U.S. Dept. Agr. Ybk.: pp. 979- and generally mottled from the surface downward, although
1001., illus. mottling may be absent or nearly so in some soils.
(3) SIMONSON, ROY W. Very poorly drained soils are wet nearly all the time. They have
1962. SOIL CLASSIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Sci. 137: a dark-gray or black surface layer and are gray or light
1027-1034, illus. gray, with or without mottling, in the deeper parts of the
(4) THORP, JAMES, and SMITH, GUY D. profile.
1949. HIGHER CATEGORIES OF SOIL CLASSIFICATION: ORDER, Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the surface,
SUBORDER, AND GREAT SOIL GROUPS. Soil Sci. 67: that has distinct characteristics produced by soil-forming
117-126. processes. These are the major horizons:
(5) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 0 horizon.-The layer of organic matter on the surface of a
1951. SOIL SURVEY MANUAL. U.S. Dept. Agr. Handb. No. mineral soil. This layer consists of decaying plant residues.
18, 503 pp., illus. A horizon.-The mineral horizon at the surface or just below an
(6) 0 horizon. This horizon is the one in which living organisms
1960. SOIL CLASSIFICATION, A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM, 7TH are most active and therefore is marked by the accumulation
APPROXIMATION. 265 pp., illus. [Supplements of humus. The horizon may have lost one or more of soluble
issued in March 1967 and in September 1968] salts, clay, and sesquioxides (iron and aluminum oxides).
(7) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. B horizan.-The mineral horizon below an A horizon. The B
1968. UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ROADS, AIR- horizon is in part a layer of change from the overlying A to
FIELDS, EMBANKMENTS AND FOUNDATIONS. MIL- the underlying C horizon. The B horizon also has distinctive
STD-619B, 30 pp., illus. characteristics caused (1) by accumulation of clay, ses-
quioxides, humus, or some combination of these; (2) by
prismatic or blocky structure; (3) by redder or stronger
G colors than the A horizon; or (4) by some combination of
rlOssay these. Combined A and B horizons are usually called the
solum, or true soil. If a soil lacks a B horizon, the A horizon
Available water capacity (also termed available moisture capacity). alone is the solum.
The capacity of soils to hold water available for use by most C horizon.-The weathered rock material immediately beneath
plants. It is commonly defined as the difference between the the solum. In most soils this material is presumed to be like
amount of soil water at field capacity and the amount at that from which the overlying horizons were formed. If the
wilting point. It is commonly expressed as inches of water per material is known to be different from that in the solum, a
inch of soil. Roman numeral precedes the letter C.
Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than 0.002 R layer.-Consolidated rock beneath the soil. The rock usually
millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural class, soil material underlies a C horizon but may be immediately beneath an
that is 40 percent or more clay, less than 45 percent sand, and A or B horizon.
less than 40 percent silt. Mottling, soil. Irregularly marked with spots of different colors
Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease with which a lump that vary in number and size. Mottling in soils usually indicates
can be crushed by the fingers. Terms commonly used to describe poor aeration and lack of drainage. Descriptive terms are as
consistence are- follows: Abundance-few, common, and many; size-fine,
Loose.-Noncoherent when dry or moist; does not hold together medium, and coarse; and contrast-faint, distinct, and promi-
in a mass. nent. The size measurements are these: fine, less than 5
Friable.-When moist, crushes easily under gentle pressure be- millimeters (about 0.2 inch) in diameter along the greatest
tween thumb and forefinger and can be pressed together into dimension; medium, ranging from 5 millimeters to 15 milli-
a lump. meters (about 0.2 to 0.6 inch) in diameter along the greatest
Firm.-When moist, crushes under moderate pressure between dimension; and coarse, more than 15 millimeters (about 0.6
thumb and forefinger, but resistance is distinctly noticeable, inch) in diameter along the greatest dimension.
Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate pressure but Munsell notation. A system for designating color by degrees of the
can be pressed into a lump; will form a "wire" when rolled three simple variables-hue, value, and chroma. For example,
between thumb and forefinger. a notation of 10YR 6/4 is a color with a hue of 10YR, a value
Sticky.-When wet, adheres to other material, and tends to of 6, and a chroma of 4.
stretch somewhat and pull apart, rather than to pull free pH value. A numerical means for designating relatively weak
from other material.
Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to pressure; can be acidity and alkalinity in soils. A pH value of 7.0 indicates
broken with difficulty between thumb and forefinger. precise neutrality; a higher value, alkalinity; and a lower
Soft.-When dry, breaks into powder or individual grains under value, acidity.
very slight pressure. Profile, soil. A vertical section of the soil through all its horizons
Cemented.-Hard and brittle; little affected by moistening. and extending into the parent material.
Cover crop. A close-growing crop grown primarily to improve and Reaction, soil. The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a soil, expressed
to protect the soil between periods of regular crop production; in pH values. A soil that tests to pH 7.0 is precisely neutral in
or a crop grown between trees and vines in orchards and reaction because it is neither acid nor alkaline. An acid, or
vineyards. "sour," soil is one that gives an acid reaction; an alkaline soil is
Drainage class (natural). Refers to the conditions of frequency and one that is alkaline in reaction. In words, the degrees of acidity
duration of periods of saturation or partial saturation that or alkalinity are expressed thus:
existed during the development of the soil, as opposed to altered pH pH
drainage, which is commonly the result of artificial drainage or Extremely acid Below 4.5 Mildly alkaline-_- 7.4 to 7.8
irrigation but may be caused by the sudden deepening of Very strongly Moderately
channels or the blocking of drainage outlets. Seven different acid-------- 4.5 to 5.0 alkaline ------- 7.9 to 8.4
classes of natural soil drainage are recognized. Strongly acid.__ 5.1 to 5.5 Strongly
Excessively drained soils are commonly very porous and rapidly Medium acid-__ 5.6 to 6.0 alkaline ------. 8.5 to 9.0
permeable and have a low water-holding capacity. Slightly acid_-- 6.1 to 6.5 Very strongly
Somewhat excessively drained soils are also very permeable and Neutral _----- 6.6 to 7.3 alkaline------- 9.1 and
are free from mottling throughout their profile. higher.
Well-drained soils are nearly free from mottling and are commonly
of intermediate texture. Sand. Individual rock or mineral fragments in soils having diameters
Moderately well drained soils commonly have a slowly permeable ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 millimeters. Most sand grains consist of
layer in or immediately beneath the solum. They have quartz, but they may be of any mineral composition. The tex-
uniform color in the A and upper B horizons and have tural class name of any soil that contains 85 percent or more
mottling in the lower B and the C horizons, sand and not more than 10 percent clay.
Somewhat poorly drained soils are wet for significant periods but Silt. Individual mineral particles in a soil that range in diameter
not all the time. from the upper limit of clay (0.002 millimeter) to the lower limit

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