• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soils and their morphology
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Map
 Index to map






Title: Soil survey of Polk County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025726/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Polk County, Florida
Physical Description: ix, 235 p., 3, 154 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ford, Richard D
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1990]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Polk County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Polk County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 129-130).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services ; by Richard D. Ford ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 91-001-P.
General Note: "Issued October 1990"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025726
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001601173
notis - AHM5384
oclc - 23036248
lccn - 90603014

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
        Page x
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    How this survey was made
        Page 8
        Map unit composition
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
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        Page 34
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        Page 51
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        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 71
        Crops and pasture
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
        Rangeland
            Page 75
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 76
            Page 77
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 78
        Recreation
            Page 79
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 79
            Page 80
        Engineering
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
    Soil properties
        Page 87
        Engineering index properties
            Page 87
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 88
        Soil and water features
            Page 89
            Page 90
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 91
            Page 92
            Page 93
        Engineering index test data
            Page 94
    Classification of the soils
        Page 95
    Soils and their morphology
        Page 95
        Adamsville series
            Page 96
        Anclote series
            Page 96
        Apopka series
            Page 96
        Archbold series
            Page 97
        Astatula series
            Page 97
        Basinger series
            Page 98
        Bradenton series
            Page 98
        Candler series
            Page 99
        Chobee series
            Page 99
        Duette series
            Page 100
        Eaton series
            Page 100
        EauGallie series
            Page 101
        Electra series
            Page 101
        Felda series
            Page 102
        Floridana series
            Page 103
        Fort Meade series
            Page 103
        Holopaw series
            Page 104
        Hontoon series
            Page 105
        Immokalee series
            Page 105
        Kaliga series
            Page 106
        Kendrick series
            Page 106
        Lochloosa series
            Page 107
        Lynne series
            Page 108
        Malabar series
            Page 108
        Millhopper series
            Page 109
        Myakka series
            Page 110
        Narcoossee series
            Page 110
        Neilhurst series
            Page 111
        Nittaw series
            Page 111
        Oldsmar series
            Page 112
        Ona series
            Page 113
        Paisley series
            Page 113
        Placid series
            Page 114
        Pomello series
            Page 114
        Pomona series
            Page 115
        Pompano series
            Page 116
        Samsula series
            Page 116
        Satellite series
            Page 117
        Smyrna series
            Page 117
        Sparr series
            Page 118
        St. Augustine series
            Page 118
        St. Johns series
            Page 119
        St. Lucie series
            Page 119
        Tavares series
            Page 120
        Valkaria series
            Page 120
        Wabasso series
            Page 121
        Wauchula series
            Page 122
        Winder series
            Page 123
        Zolfo series
            Page 123
            Page 124
    Formation of the soils
        Page 125
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 125
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
    Reference
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Glossary
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Tables
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
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        Page 235
    General soil map
        Page 236
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Index to map
        Page 237
        Page 238
Full Text



United States
Department of
Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil
Science Department;
and Florida Department
of Agriculture and
Consumer Services


Soil Survey of

Polk County,

Florida






United States
Department of
Agrculture


* f' v
Natural
Resources
Conservaton
Service


1700 Highway 17South, Suite 2
Bartow, Florida 338306633
(941) 533-7121 Voice
(941) 533-1884 Fax


Date: August 16, 1999

To: Users of the Soil Survey of Polk County, Florida

Please make the following corrections in the Soil Survey of Polk County, Florida.

Atlas # Legal Description Listed Mapping Unit Changed Mapping Unit To

40 SW /, SW /4, SW 4 3 13
Sec. 22, T. 27 S., R. 26 E.

42 Sec. 27, T. 27 S., R. 26 E. 28 35

87 Sec. 4, T. 80 S., R. 25 E. 79 80

122 N 2, Sec. 19, T. 31 S., R. 26 E. 45 20

122 NW 4, Sec. 20, T. 31 S., R. 26 E. 45 20



Please delete the Building Site Development Inteipretations for Fort Meade (Mapping Unit #20) on page
175 and insert the enclodure.







S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
LTURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE


PAGE 1 OF 2
06/30/99


BUILDING SITE DEVELOPMENT
Fort Meade Corr



rhe information in this report indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite
investigation)


Map symbol
and soil name


Shallow
excavations


I I
Dwellings Dwellings Small
without with commercial
basements basements buildings


I I
ILocal roads | Lawns and
and streets landscaping
I I


_____I _____I _____I ___I ___I ___I____


0:


Fort Meade------ Severe; ISlight
I cutbacks cave
I I


Slight

I


(Slight
I I


Slight
(Slight


I
IModerate:
) drought


I


I
I


I







i. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PAGE 2 OF 2
URAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE 06/30/99





BUILDING SITE DEVELOPMENT



note -- BUILDING SITE DEVELOPMENT


is report shows the degree and kind of soil limitations that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and without
segments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The limitations.are
light", "Moderate", or "Severe". The limitations are considered "Slight" if soil properties and site features are
nerally favorable for the indicated use and limitations are minor and easily overcome; "Moderate" if soil properties
site features are not favorable for the indicated use and special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
ercome or minimize the limitations; and "Severe" if soil properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
fficult to overcome that special design, significant increases in construction costs, and possibly increased
intenance are required. Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil limitations are severe.


ALLOW EXCAVATIONS are trenches or holes dug to a maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,- utility lines,
,en ditches, and other purposes. The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and observed performance of
ie soils. The ease of digging, filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very
.rm dense layer; stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the year that excavations can be made is
!fected by the depth to a seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of
ie excavation walls or bands to sloughing or caving is affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table.


IELLINGS AND SMALL COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS are structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed soil. The load
Lmit is the same as that for single-family dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made for small
)mmercial buildings without basements, for dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without basements. The ratings
re based on soil properties, site features, and observed performance of the soils. A high water table, depth to bedrock
c to a cemented pan, large stones, slope, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and construction. Landscaping
nd grading that require cuts and fills of more than 5 or 6 feet are not considered.


OCAL ROADS AND STREETS have an all-weather surface and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
ave a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
lexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally properties, site features, and observed performance of the
oils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the ease of
xcavating and grading. Soil strength (as inferred from the engineering classification of the soil), shrink-swell
potential, frost action potential, and depth to a high water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity.


AWNS AND LANDSCAPING require soils on which turf and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper 40
.nches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sultidic materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope,
itoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after vegetation
is established.
















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps


The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas


To find information about
your area of interest,
locate that area on the
Index to Map Sheets,
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet.


Locate your area of
interest on the map
sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con-
tents), which lists the map
units by symbol and
name and shows the
page where each map
unit is described.


1 2N
6 /


1 a 1 3
INDEX TO MAP SHEETS










MIH

MAP SHEET


I L/ i | |
_ -

MAP:mo i



MAP SHEET


AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
letters, or they may be a combination
of numbers and letters.


The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1985. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1986. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1985. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. The survey is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Polk County Soil and Water Conservation District.
The Polk County Board of County Commissioners contributed financially.
Additional assistance was provided by the Florida Department of Transportation.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Urban area and citrus grove in an area of Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


ii



















Contents


Index to map units............ ......... .. iv
Summary of tables .............................. v
Forew ord ............................. ........... ix
General nature of the county ....................... 1
How this survey was made ........................... 8
Map unit composition ............................ 9
General soil map units ........... .... .......... 11
Detailed soil map units ......................... 21
Use and management of the soils.............. 71
Crops and pasture .............. ............... 71
Rangeland .................................... 75
Woodland management and productivity ......... 76
Windbreaks and environmental plantings ........ 78
Recreation ............ ........ ........... 79


W wildlife habitat .................................
E engineering ...................................
Soil properties ..................................
Engineering index properties ....................
Physical and chemical properties ...............
Soil and water features .........................
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses
of selected soils .............. ..............
Engineering index test data ...................
Classification of the soils .......................
Soil series and their morphology ................
Adamsville series ..............................
Anclote series .................. ..............
Apopka series ................ ................
Archbold series ................ ...............
Astatula series ................. ..............
Basinger series .................. .............
Bradenton series............. .. ..............
Candler series ................................
Chobee series .................. ..............
Duette series .................. ..............
Eaton series. .................................
EauGallie series .............................
Electra series.................................
Felda series .................. ...............
Floridana series ..........................


79
81
87
87
88
89

91
94
95
95
96
96
96
97
97
98
98
99
99
100
100
101
101
102
103


Fort Meade series ........................... 103
Holopaw series ............................... 104
Hontoon series ................................ 105


Immokalee series ..........................
Kaliga series .................. ..............
Kendrick series ..............................
Lochloosa series .............................
Lynne series ...............................
Malabar series ................................
Millhopper series...............................
Myakka series ...............................
Narcoossee series ............................
Neilhurst series ..............................
Nittaw series .................. .............
Oldsmar series ..............................
Ona series ............... ..... ...........
Paisley series .................. .............
Placid series .................................
Pomello series................................
Pomona series ..............................
Pompano series ............ .. ............
Samsula series ............... ..............
Satellite series ................................
Smyrna series ................................
S parr series ..................................
St. Augustine series ..........................
St. Johns series ..............................
St. Lucie series ..............................
Tavares series ...............................
Valkaria series ................................
Wabasso series .............................
Wauchula series ............................
Winder series................................
Zolfo series .................................
Formation of the soils ...........................
Factors of soil formation ......................


Processes of soil formation ....................
References ....................................
Glossary....................................
Tables.................................... .....


105
106
106
107
108
108
109
110
110
111
111
112


113
113
114
114
115
116
116
117
117
118
118
119
119
120
120
121
122
123
123
125
125
126
129
131
139


Issued October 1990


iii


















Index to Map Units


2-Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.........
3-Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............
4-Candler sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ............
5- EauGallie fine sand .... ......................
6-Eaton mucky fine sand, depressional ...........
7-Pomona fine sand ..........................
8-Hydraquents, clayey ... ....................
9-Lynne sand .............................
10-Malabar fine sand. ............ ........
11-Arents-Water complex .......................
12-Neilhurst sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes .........
13-Samsula muck ...............................
14-Sparr sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .............
15-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......
16- Urban land .................... ..........
17-Smyrna and Myakka fine sands ...............
19-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional.......
20-Fort Meade sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........
21-Immokalee sand ............ .............
22- Pomello fine sand ............. .............
23-Ona fine sand ...............................
24-Nittaw sandy clay loam, frequently flooded .....
25-Placid and Myakka fine sands, depressional....
26-Lochloosa fine sand .........................
27-Kendrick fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......
29-St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......
30-Pompano fine sand ..........................
31-Adamsville fine sand .....................
32-Kaliga muck .................................
33-Holopaw fine sand, depressional ..............
34-Anclote mucky fine sand, depressional.........
35-Hontoon muck .............................
36-Basinger mucky fine sand, depressional .......
37-Placid fine sand, frequently flooded............
38- Electra fine sand............ .. .........
39- Arents, clayey substratum ....................
40-Wauchula fine sand ........................
41- St. Johns sand .............................
42- Felda fine sand ............... .............
43-Oldsmar fine sand ..........................
44-Paisley fine sand ...........................
46-Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes...........


21
22
23
23
24
25
25
26
27
27
28
29
29
30
31
31
32
33
34
34
35
36
36
37
38
38
39
40
40
41
43
43
44
44
45
46
46
47
48
49
50
50


47-Zolfo fine sand ............................... 51
48-Chobee fine sandy loam, depressional ......... 52
49-Adamsville-Urban land complex .............. 52
50-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes ..................... ............... 53
51-Pomona-Urban land complex ............... 53
53-Myakka-lmmokalee-Urban land complex ....... 53
54-Pomello-Urban land complex................... 54
55-Sparr-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes................. .................. 54
57-Haplaquents, clayey ........................ 54
58-Udorthents, excavated ..................... 55
59-Arents-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes .................................... 55
60-Arents, sandy ................................ 55
61-Arents, organic substratum-Urban land
complex ............. ... ................ 55
62-Wabasso fine sand .......................... 56
63-Tavares-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes ..................................... 57
64-Neilhurst-Urban land complex, 1 to 5
percent slopes ............................... 57
66-Fort Meade-Urban land complex, 0 to 5
percent slopes ............................... 57
67-Bradenton fine sand ....................... 57
68-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............... 58
70-Duette fine sand ............................ 59
72-Bradenton-Felda-Chobee association,
frequently flooded ............... ........ 59
73-Gypsum land ............. ................. 60
74-Narcoossee sand ........................... 60
75-Valkaria sand .............................. 61
76-Millhopper fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes..... 62
77-Satellite sand ............................... 63
78-Paisley fine sand, stony subsurface .......... 64
80-Chobee fine sandy loam, frequently flooded .... 65
81-St. Augustine sand........................... 65
82-Felda fine sand, frequently flooded ........... 66
83-Archbold sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 66
85-Winder fine sand, depressional ............... 66
86-Felda fine sand, depressional................ 68
87- Basinger fine sand ....... ................. 68


iv

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) .................. ............... 140

Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2).................................. 141
Probability. Temperature.

Growing season (table 3) .............................................. 141

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) .................. 142
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5)... 144
Land capability. Oranges. Grapefruit. Watermelons.
Cucumbers. Bahiagrass. Grass-clover.

Capability classes and subclasses (table 6) .............................. 149
Total acreage. Major management concerns.

Rangeland productivity (table 7) ......................................... 150
Range site. Potential annual production for kind of growing
season.

Woodland management and productivity (table 8)........................ 153
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Recreational development (table 9) ...................................... 163
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

Wildlife habitat (table 10) ........................................ 169
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 11) ........................ ............ 174
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.

Sanitary facilities (table 12) ........................... ................ 180
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.


v





















Construction materials (table 13) ....................................... 187
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.

Water management (table 14)........................... ........... .... 193
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.

Engineering index properties (table 15) ................................. 201
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 16)................. 211
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.

Soil and water features (table 17) .............. ...................... 217
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.

Depth to water table in selected soils (table 18) .......................... 222

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 19) ........................... 223
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 20) .............. ............. 227
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 21) ............................. 231
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.


VI





















Engineering


index test data (table 22) ................................... 233
Classification-AASHTO, Unified. Mechanical analyses.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture density.


Classification of the soils (table 23) ................ ................ 235
Family or higher taxonomic class.


vii

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Polk County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and
pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be used
as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to
use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly
suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service


ix

















































































Location of Polk County in Florida.







1


Soil Survey of

Polk County, Florida


By Richard D. Ford, John M. Robbins, Jr., Jeffrey T. Werner, Dean Cowherd,
Charles N. Gordon, William B. Warmack, Mark M. Brown, Kenneth W. Monroe,
Walter G. George, Therman Sanders, and Phyllis M. Basch, Soil Conservation Service

Others participating in fieldwork were Thomas D'Auello, Frederick Phillip Aziz,
John E. Campbell, Douglas L. Lewis, and John A. Lindahl

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services


POLK COUNTY is in the central part of Florida. It is
bordered on the north by Sumter and Lake Counties, on
the east by Osceola County, on the south by Highlands
and Hardee Counties, and on the west by Hillsborough
and Pasco Counties. Bartow, the county seat, is in the
southwest part of the county.
The county covers 1,286,611 acres, or 2,010 square
miles. The land area covers 1,166,803 acres, or 1,823
square miles. Bodies of water that are at least 40 acres
in size cover 119,808 acres, or 187 square miles.
About 27,566 acres, or 44 square miles, is federally
owned. This land includes part of the Avon Park Air
Force Bombing Range.
Land use is mainly agriculture and woodland. About
44 percent of the land is cropland, pasture, or
rangeland; and 23 percent is woodland. The present
trend is a decreasing acreage of cropland, pasture,
rangeland, and woodland and an increasing acreage of
urban land and mine land.
The county is in the Southern Florida Flatwoods and
South Central Florida Ridge Major Land Resource
Areas (MLRA's). The Southern Florida Flatwoods MLRA
consists mainly of nearly level, poorly drained soils.
These soils are used generally as pasture, rangeland,
or woodland.
The South Central Florida Ridge MLRA consists of


nearly level to moderately sloping, sandy soils that
range from excessively drained to very poorly drained.
These soils are used mainly as pasture, rangeland,
cropland, or woodland. Most of the citrus in the county
grows on these soils.
None of the soils in Polk County meet all of the
requirements for prime farmland soils as defined by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. The soils are either too
wet from a seasonal high water table or flooding or they
are too drought during the growing season of most
crops.
Descriptions, names, and delineations of soils in this
soil survey do not fully agree with those on the soil
maps of adjacent counties. Differences are the result of
better knowledge of soils, modifications in series
concepts, intensity of mapping, or the extent of soils
within the survey.
This survey updates a soil survey of Polk County that
was published in 1927 and provides additional
information (21).


General Nature of the County
This section gives general information about history
and development, climate, geology, farming and mining,







Soil Survey


water resources, and transportation facilities in Polk
County.

History and Development
Louise K. Frisbie, columnist and author, Polk County Democrat,
helped prepare this section.
Polk County is the fourth largest county in area in
Florida (7, 8). It is larger than the state of Rhode Island
and almost as large as Delaware. The county is in the
center of the Florida peninsula.
The earliest settlers arrived in the 1840's and 1850's.
They were almost self-sufficient. Fish and game, small
gardens, trees for building homes, and cotton and wool
were plentiful. Other items could be purchased at the
army camp at Fort Meade or in the village of Tampa.
Polk County was established in 1861, mostly from
the eastern part of Hillsborough County. The early
settlers struggled to organize the county during the Civil
War and the difficult years that followed. In 1867, cattle
baron Jacob Summerlin gave the county 120 acres of
land on the condition that Bartow be made the county
seat.
During the Second Seminole War, which lasted from
1835 to 1842, the U.S. Army cut two-rutted wagon trails
through the area. These trails were the first roads. In
the early 1880's, the county's roads were described as
almost impassable. It was not until the early 20th
century and the advent of the automobile that the towns
and cities in Polk County were joined by a network of
hard surface roads. The main highways were 15 feet
wide, and the others were 9 feet wide.
Only a few settlements were in the county before the
coming of the railroads in the 1880's. In 1883, as Henry
B. Plant pushed his "Iron Horse" rails south from
Kissimmee. the towns of Loughman, Davenport, Haines
City, Lake Alfred, Auburndale, and Lakeland were
established along the right-of-way, in almost the exact
order that those areas were reached by the trains.
Lakeland is now the largest city in Polk County. Other
railroad lines soon reached Winter Haven, Bartow, and
Fort Meade. As the trains came, citrus and truck crops
were grown for shipment by rail to northern markets.
Pebble phosphate was discovered in the late 1880's.
Land prices soared in the 1890's, and many families
found fortunes in that boom. Another source of the
county's wealth has been the beef cattle industry. The
principal industries currently include phosphate mining,
citrus and vegetable crops, and beef production.
Long-standing tourist attractions include Cypress
Gardens at Winter Haven, the carillon and bird


sanctuary that was established in 1929 by publisher
Edward Bok near Lake Wales, and a passion play that
is presented each winter in an outdoor amphitheater
near Lake Wales.

Climate
Prepared by the National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North
Carolina.
In Polk County the long summers are hot and humid.
Winters are warm, only occasionally interrupted by
incursions of cool air from the north. Rains occur
throughout the year, and precipitation is adequate for all
crops. Every few years a hurricane crosses the area.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded at Bartow, Florida, in
the period 1951 to 1984. Table 2 shows probable dates
of the first freeze in fall and the last freeze in spring.
Table 3 provides data on length of the growing season.
In winter the average temperature is 62 degrees F,
and the average daily minimum temperature is 50
degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which
occurred at Bartow on December 13, 1962, is 18
degrees. In summer the average temperature is 82
degrees, and the average daily maximum temperature
is 92 degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which
occurred at Lakeland on June 12, 1977, is 103 degrees.
Growing degree days are shown in table 1. They are
equivalent to "heat units." During the month, growing
degree days accumulate by the amount that the
average temperature each day exceeds a base
temperature (50 degrees F). The normal monthly
accumulation is used to schedule single or successive
plantings of a crop between the last freeze in spring
and the first freeze in fall.
The total annual precipitation is about 54 inches. Of
this, about 70 percent usually falls in April through
September. The growing season for most crops falls
within this period. In 2 years out of 10, the rainfall in
April through September is less than 32 inches. The
heaviest 1-day rainfall during the period of record was
4.72 inches at Bartow on March 16, 1960.
Thunderstorms occur on about 87 days each year.
Snowfall is rare. In 99 percent of the winters, there is
no measurable snowfall. In 1 percent, the snowfall,
usually of short duration, is less than 1 inch. The
heaviest 1-day snowfall on record was 1 inch.
The average relative humidity in midafternoon is
about 60 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the
average at dawn is about 90 percent. The sun shines
70 percent of the time possible in summer and 65


2







Polk County, Florida


WESTERN
VALLEY


Figure 1.-Generalized physiographic map of Polk County and vicinity,


percent in winter. The prevailing wind is from the east.
Average windspeed is highest, 10 miles per hour, in
spring.

Geology
Kenneth M. Campbell, Florida Geological Survey, Bureau of
Geology. Department of Natural Resources, prepared this section.

Physiography
Polk County is in the Central Highlands
physiographic province, mainly on the Polk and Lake
Uplands (fig. 1). The eastern part of the county is part


of the Osceola Plain, and a small area in the
northwestern corner is in the Western Valley (22).
The elevation ranges from 50 to 305 feet above
National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD), The lowest
elevation is in the Kissimmee River Valley, and the
highest elevation is along the crest of the Lake Wales
Ridge near Lake Wales and Babson Park (14),

Polk and Lake Uplands. Most of Polk County is in
the Polk and Lake Upland areas. Several ridges rise
above the Polk Upland surface. The most prominent is
the Lake Wales Ridge. Others include the Lakeland,
Winter Haven, and Lake Henry Ridges, which appear to


3








Soil Survey


be remnants of a previous widespread upland (22).
The elevation of the Polk Upland generally ranges
between 100 to 130 feet above NGVD. It is higher on
the ridges. In the northern part of the county, the Polk
Upland merges with the Lake Upland. The two uplands
do not have a distinct topographic distinction; therefore,
the boundary is drawn arbitrarily (22). The Polk Upland
is bordered by the Gulf Coastal Lowlands and the
Western Valley on the west and north, the DeSoto Plain
on the south, and by the Lake Wales Ridge on the east.
The Lake Wales Ridge is the most prominent
topographic feature in peninsular Florida. It is the distal
remnant of a much longer ridge that at one time may
have included the Trail Ridge in northeastern Florida.
The elevation is from 150 to 305 feet above NGVD and
is highest at Lake Wales and Babson Park (14). The
ridge is made up mainly of coarse plastic material that
has been dissected by streams and karst activity. It has
been straightened on its flanks by coastal erosion to
produce its present western bounding scarp and a
probable buried former eastern bounding scarp (22).
The preservation of the Lake Wales Ridge as a present
day highland is thought to be the result of the clayey,
gravelly, coarse quartz sand having limited but not
completely prevented dissolution of the underlying
limestone.

Osceola Plain. The part of Polk County east of the
Lake Wales Ridge is in the western part of the Osceola
Plain. The Osceola Plain, a marine terrace, is bounded
on the west by the Lake Wales Ridge and on the east
by lower-lying marine scarps. Local relief generally is
low, and the elevation typically is between 60 and 70
feet above NGVD (22), although it is somewhat lower
along the Kissimmee River chain. In the southeastern
corner of the county, the Bombing Range Ridge rises
above the level of the plain. This ridge is 21 miles long
and 3 to 4 miles wide. It reaches an elevation of 125 to
145 feet above NGVD, and has all the attributes of a
large marine sand bar (22).

Western Valley. A small part of northwestern Polk
County is on the eastern flank of the southern part of
the Western Valley. The Western Valley is a low,
irregularly shaped valley produced by differential
reduction of unprotected soluble material adjacent to
the Brooksville Ridge and Polk Upland. The elevation
ranges from 75 to 100 feet above NGVD.

Lithostratigraphy
The surface and near surface sediments in Polk


County consist of quartz sand, clay, phosphorite,
limestone, and dolomite (fig. 2). These sediments range
in age from Late Eocene age to Holocene age (40
million years ago to present).

Eocene Series
The Eocene Series in Polk County consists of the
Oldsmar, Avon Park, and Ocala Group limestones. Only
the uppermost unit, the Ocala Group, is described here.
The Ocala Group consists of three formations, which
in ascending order are the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal
River Formations. Essentially, all of Polk County is
underlain by limestone of the Ocala Group.
The Inglis Formation consists of white to cream to
dark brown, granular, fossiliferous, well indurated
limestone and dolomite. The thickness of this formation
ranges from about 35 feet in the northwestern part of
the county to as much as 95 feet in the southeastern
part. Because of the erosion of overlying units, this
formation is the uppermost limestone in extreme
northeastern Polk County (14).
The Williston Formation is a white to cream or brown
limestone consisting of a coquina of foraminifera set in
a pasty calcilutite matrix. This formation generally is
poorly indurated and may be dolomitized. It underlies
most of the county but does not occur in the extreme
northeastern part of the county. It is 10 to 90 feet thick
(14).
The Crystal River Formation is a white, cream, gray,
or tan, very pure limestone. This formation generally is
poorly indurated and consists of a coquina of large
foraminifera in a chalky calcilutite matrix. It is at or near
the surface over a large area of northern Polk County.
In this area, it is 30 to 60 feet thick, but it thickens
southward to about 150 feet (14). The formation is
silicified throughout much of the surface exposure area
of northern Polk County.

Oligocene Series
The Suwannee Limestone is throughout the western
part of Polk County but is not in the northern and
eastern parts of the county because of the erosion on
the flanks of the Ocala Uplift (northwest-southeast
trend). The Suwannee Limestone is white, cream, or
tan, variably textured, fossiliferous, poorly indurated to
well indurated, and variably recrystallized. Locally, the
formation contains dolomitized or silicified zones (14).
Common fossils include benthic foraminifera,
bryozoans, mollusks, and echinoids.
The top of the Suwannee Limestone is 70 to 80 feet
above NGVD in the area north of Lakeland and west of


4









Polk County, Florida


POLK COUNTY


200-



100-



MSL-



-100-


HILLSBOROUGH
COUNTY


POLK COUNTY


OSCEOLA COUNTY


W


E


200 -


0 3 6 9 12 MILES I
I SCALE
SCALE


Figure 2.-Cross-section location map and north-to-south and west-to-east lithostratigraphic cross sections in Polk County. Well numbers
followed by "C" are cores.


N


5


0 3 6 9 12 MILES

SCALE


S


100-



MSL -



-100 -



-200 -



-300-



-400-








Soil Survey


Polk City. It dips gently to the south and south-
southwest. Along the western half of the southern
boundary of the county, the Suwannee Limestone is
about 250 to 300 feet below NGVD (23). Along the
eastern edge of the Suwannee Limestone along the
trend of the Ocala Uplift, the formation thins to zero. It
is thickest (100 to 150 feet) south of Lakeland and
Bartow.
Miocene Series
The Hawthorn Group has been raised from formation
status to group status (13). It includes sediments that
were included in the Tampa, Hawthorn, and Bone
Valley Formations in the past. The Hawthorn Group
consists of the Arcadia Formation and the Peace River
Formation, in ascending order.
The Arcadia Formation includes, in ascending order,
the Nocatee and Tampa Members and an unnamed
member. The Nocatee Member is made up of the
sediment that was previously described as the "sand
and clay unit" of the Tampa Limestone (23). The Tampa
Member includes the sediment of the Tampa Formation
of King and Wright (9). The unnamed (upper) member
includes the sediments that have been referred to in the
past as the "Hawthorn carbonate unit" (13).
The Nocatee Member consists of a complex,
interbedded sequence of variably phosphatic quartz
sand, clay, and carbonate. It is predominantly a sand
and clay unit. Typically, quartz sand is fine to coarse
grained, sometimes silty, clayey, calcareous or
dolomitic, and variably phosphatic (13). Clay beds are
common. The clay is variably quartz sandy and silty,
phosphatic, and calcareous to dolomitic. Carbonate
beds are subordinate.
The Nocatee Member is only in the southwestern
corner of the county. The top of the formation is 81 to
150 feet below NGVD (13). This member is less than 50
to slightly more than 100 feet thick. The surface dips
generally to the south and southeast. The limits of the
formation are mainly by faces change.
The Tampa Member is lithologically similar to the
Tampa Formation of King and Wright (9), but it has a
slightly higher content of phosphate (1 to 3 percent) and
larger areal extent (13). The Tampa Member is white to
tan, quartz sandy limestone that has a carbonate mud
matrix. Varying amounts of clay generally are
disseminated throughout the rock. Some beds contain
more than 50 percent quartz sand, and dolomite is
relatively uncommon (9, 13).
The Tampa Member is only in the southwestern
corner of Polk County. It becomes indistinct because of
a faces change at its eastern extent. The top of this


member is slightly more than 50 feet above NGVD to
about 150 feet below NGVD in the extreme
southwestern corner of the county. It is less than 50
feet thick (13).
The upper (unnamed) member of the Arcadia
Formation includes sediments known previously as the
"Hawthorn carbonate unit." Lithologically, these
sediments are white to yellowish gray, quartz sandy,
phosphatic, and sometimes clayey dolomite and
limestone (uncommon). Occasional beds of carbonate-
rich quartz sand and thin clay beds are present.
The upper member of the Arcadia Formation is
throughout Polk County except in the northernmost part.
In those areas where the Tampa and Nocatee Members
are not recognized, the entire formation remains
undifferentiated. The top of the formation ranges from
112 feet above NGVD near Lakeland to about 125 feet
below NGVD in the southeastern corner of the county.
The thickness of the Arcadia Formation ranges from
zero at its northern extent to about 300 feet in the
southwest corner of the county. In general, the
formation dips to the south and southeast (13).
The Peace River Formation includes a downdip
unnamed member and the updip Bone Valley Member,
formerly the Bone Valley Formation (10, 13).
Lithologically, the unnamed member is yellowish gray to
light olive green interbedded sand, clay, and dolomite
with variable phosphate content. It has been described
in the past as "upper Hawthorn clastics." The Bone
Valley Member is "all the phosphorite pebble or gravel
bearing beds with sand-size phosphorite in a sandy to
clayey matrix" (13).
The Peace River Formation is throughout Polk
County except in the northernmost part. The Bone
Valley Member is only in the western part of the county
and thins in all directions from a center of deposition in
the Bartow-Mulberry area (3, 13). Throughout much of
the area underlain by the Bone Valley Member, this
member makes up the entire Peace River Formation
and is directly underlain by the Arcadia Formation (13).
In southernmost Polk County, the Bone Valley Member
interfingers laterally and vertically with the
undifferentiated Peace River Formation. Only the
undifferentiated Peace River Formation is in the eastern
part of the county (13).
The Bone Valley Member of the Peace River
Formation is as high as 175 feet above NGVD in
southwestern Polk County. The top of this member
throughout much of its extent occurs above 100 feet
NGVD. The top of the Peace River Formation dips to
the east to slightly more than 50 feet below NGVD. The
Peace River formation generally is less than 50 feet


6








Polk County, Florida


thick (13). The Bone Valley Member has a maximum
thickness of about 50 feet.

Pliocene-Pleistocene Series
Undifferentiated surficial sand, clayey sand, and clay
blanket essentially all of Polk County. These sediments
range in age from Pliocene (13) to Pleistocene (5.3
million to 10,000 years ago). The Lake Wales and
Winter Haven Ridges consist of clayey, micaceous,
quartz pebbly sand that has been described in the past
as Miocene coarse clastics. These sediments are
presently thought to be Pliocene in age and are
included in the undifferentiated surficial sediments.
In general, the surficial sediments are thinnest in the
southwestern part of the county and are thicker to the
north and east and beneath the ridges. The
undifferentiated surficial sediments are less than 10 feet
to more than 120 feet thick.

Holocene Series
Deposits of Holocene age (10,000 years ago to
present) are mainly limited to present stream flood
plains, beaches, swamps, marshes, and lakes. They
consist of sand, silt, clay, and organic material.

Farming and Mining
James A. Stricker, county extension director, helped prepare this
section.
Polk County is the leading citrus-producing county in
the United States (6) with 129,912 acres in 1985-86.
Citrus is well adapted to the deep, excessively drained,
moderately well drained, and well drained Candler,
Tavares, and Apopka soils. The rolling topography
provides some frost protection through air drainage on
calm, cold nights. The many lakes also help moderate
temperatures, typically on the south and east sides of
the lakes. Some citrus is grown on flatwoods, mostly on
the Smyrna, Myakka, and Immokalee soils. These soils
generally are modified for citrus production by bedding,
with one or two rows of trees on a bed and ditches
between beds for drainage and moisture management.
The most extensive land uses in the county are
pasture and range. More than 200,000 acres is in these
uses. Pasture and rangeland are typically on soils of
the flatwoods. These soils are nearly level and poorly
drained. During the wet season, the water table is near
or above the surface in most areas.
Pasture and range forage is mainly used by beef
animals, specifically, cow-calf herds. In 1985, about
65,000 cows produced 50,000 calves. Since little or no


high energy feed is produced in central Florida, calves
are shipped to feedlots in the West and Midwest States.
Vegetable crops are of relatively minor significance
when compared to citrus. Melons are grown on about
1,000 acres, and tomatoes and peas are grown on
about 600 acres each. These acreage totals include
double cropping; for example, 1 acre cropped in spring
and in late summer is counted as 2 acres. Greens,
squash, cucumbers, sweet corn, peanuts, and bell
peppers are among the other vegetable crops. The
acreage varies from year to year depending on market
conditions. Strawberries are also grown, mainly in the
west-central part of the county.
Traditionally, vegetable crops are grown on rented
land, newly cleared from brush and palmettos. Soils on
flatwoods are generally used. A farmer clears the land
and drills irrigation wells in return for use of the land for
a year or two. In this period, nematodes and plant
pathogens build up in the soil. The farmer moves on to
new land, and the landowner has cleared land on which
to establish improved pasture. If vegetables are to be
grown for a longer period, the soil must be fumigated to
kill the nematodes and plant pathogens or yields will be
reduced.
Although not highly visible, tropical fish farming in
Polk County generated about $5 million in sales from
nearly 80 acres of ponds in 1985. Increasing foreign
competition is limiting the growth of this highly intensive
agricultural enterprise.
Ornamental and nursery crops are second only to
tropical fish production in intensity of land use. In 1985,
about 1,650 acres produced an estimated $36 million in
onfarm value. Woody ornamental plants accounted for
83 percent of the total. Foliage and potted flowering
plants make up the balance.
West-central and southwestern Polk County are
major phosphate mining areas. Mining began in the
county in the 1880's, and over the past hundred years,
about 140,000 acres has been mined. About 3,000 to
4,000 acres per year is currently being mined. All land
mined after July 1, 1975, must, by law, be reclaimed.
An "old lands" fund was created to reclaim land mined
before that date.
Three basic land types remain after mining:
phosphatic clay, overburden, and sand tailings.
Phosphatic clay is pumped into settling ponds at about
2 percent solids. After drying out, a 100 percent clay
material is left. Overburden is a heterogeneous mixture
of sand and clay that was stripped from the top of the
ore body and cast aside in the mining process. Sand
tailings are pure quartz sand that has a high content of


7








Soil Survey


phosphate. Today, most sand tailings are pumped into
mining cuts and capped with overburden as part of the
reclamation process.
The Polk County Board of County Commissioners,
the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences of the
University of Florida, and the phosphate industry
(funded largely by the Florida Institute for Phosphatic
Research) are currently involved in a joint research
effort to explore potential production of high value crops
on phosphatic clay. Phosphatic clay has many desirable
agronomic characteristics including desirable pH (highly
buffered), high phosphate levels, high calcium levels,
and high available water capacity. Disadvantages are
poor trafficability when wet and a potential unstable
surface because of a liquid or semiliquid subsurface in
newly reclaimed settling ponds.
A small amount of citrus is being established on
overburden and sand tailings. A potential for growing
citrus exists on overburden soils, but research is
needed to determine best varieties, root stocks, and
cultural practices.

Water Resources
In Polk County, water is used for municipal,
industrial, and agricultural purposes. In most of the
county, the water supply is adequate for domestic use,
irrigation of crops, and the watering of livestock late in
spring, in summer, and early in autumn. Low rainfall,
however, causes a shortage of water in most winters.
The development of land for agriculture and mining
has decreased the supply of water from surface and
ground water storage. Agriculture consumptive use of
water has placed a higher demand on water for
irrigation. High value crops are now routinely irrigated.
Mining companies also use a great deal of water in
processing minerals extracted from the earth. In Polk
County, water resources are managed by the
Southwest Florida, South Florida, and St. Johns River
Water Management Districts.
The water in Polk County comes mainly from the
Floridan Aquifer (14), which is an artesian aquifer
throughout much of the county (11). The Surficial
Aquifer and Intermediate Aquifer System are also in the
county. The Surficial Aquifer consists primarily of quartz
sand and includes surficial sand and clay. The top of
the Surficial Aquifer is ground water that is virtually
unconfined. The Intermediate Aquifer System is in the
western part of the county south of Polk City. It is a
confined aquifer made up of limestone and clayey
sediments. The base of the Intermediate Aquifer
System is in direct contact with the Floridan Aquifer.


The major permanent streams and surface drainage
systems are the Withlacoochee River, North Prong
Alafia River, and the Peace River. The Withlacoochee
River drains the northern part of the county, the North
Prong Alafia River drains the western part, and the
Peace River drains the central part to the Highlands
County line. The Kissimmee River drains a large area in
the southeastern part of the county. The many branches
and creeks are interconnected to complete the drainage
of the county.

Transportation Facilities
Polk County is served by several major highways.
Interstate 4 crosses the northern part of the county from
southwest to northeast. State Highway 60 crosses the
central part eastward from the Hillsborough County line
to the Kissimmee River. State Highway 37 dissects the
middle of the county from Lakeland south to the
Manatee County line. U.S. Highway 27 provides
multilane transportation in the extreme northeastern part
of the county to the Highlands County line. Many
interior hard surface and clay roads link the main
highway system.
Rail service and many trucking companies are
available to move commercial freight. Passenger bus
and rail services are also available. Several private and
municipal airports are in Polk County.


How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; and the kinds of
crops and native plants growing on the soils. They dug
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The
profile extends from the surface down into the
unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
living organisms and has not been changed by other
biological activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms,
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area.
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their


8








Polk County, Florida


position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
of the soils in the area are generally collected for
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists interpreted the data from these analyses and
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
the soil properties in terms of expected behavior of the
soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of the
soils were field tested through observation of the soils
in different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
sources, such as research information, production
records, and field experience of specialists. For
example, data on crop yields under defined levels of
management were assembled from farm records and
from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.


Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can state
with a fairly high degree of probability that a given soil
will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
In the general soil map units, they are called soils of
minor extent.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit


9








10


descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.


The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.







11


General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some
minor soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils
making up one unit can occur in other units but in a
different pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.
The boundaries of the general soil map units in Polk
County were matched, where possible, with those of the
previously completed surveys of Lake, Osceola, and
Hardee Counties. In a few places, however, the lines do
not join, and the names of the map units differ. These
differences resulted mainly because of changes in soil
series concepts, differences in map unit design, and
changes in soil patterns near the survey area
boundaries.
The general soil map units for this survey have been
grouped into four general landscapes. Descriptions of
each of the broad groups and the map units in each
group follow.

Soils of the Uplands
The four map units in this group consist of nearly
level to moderately sloping, excessively drained to very
poorly drained soils on uplands that generally extend
north to south through the central part of the county.
Most of the soils are sandy throughout. Some are sandy
to a depth of 40 to 79 inches and are underlain by
loamy or clayey material.


These soils make up about 27 percent of the county.
Most of the acreage is woodland or pastureland;
however, most of the citrus in the county is grown on
these soils. Low fertility is the main limitation affecting
most agricultural uses, and droughtiness is the main
hazard. Wetness and rapid and very rapid permeability
are the main limitations affecting urban uses.
1. Candler-Tavares-Apopka
Nearly level to moderately sloping, excessively drained,
moderately well drained, and well drained, sandy soils;
some are underlain by loamy or clayey material
This map unit consists of soils on uplands, mainly the
Lakeland, Winter Haven, and Lake Wales Ridges.
Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent.
This map unit makes up about 210,000 acres, or 18
percent of the land in the county. It is about 45 percent
Candler soils, 19 percent Tavares soils, 9 percent
Apopka soils, and 27 percent soils of minor extent.
The Candler soils are excessively drained. These
soils, along with the Apopka soils, are in the higher
positions on the landscape. The Candler soils are
nearly level to moderately sloping. Typically, the surface
layer is dark brown sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of about 63 inches is
brownish yellow sand that grades to yellow. The next
layer to a depth of at least 80 inches is yellow sand that
has bands of strong brown loamy sand.
The Tavares soils are moderately well drained and
are in the lower positions on the landscape. These soils
are nearly level to gently sloping. Typically, the surface
layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches
thick. The underlying material to a depth of at least 80
inches is light yellowish brown fine sand that grades to
very pale brown.
The Apopka soils are well drained and are nearly
level to gently sloping. Typically, the surface layer is
very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of about 51 inches is pale
brown and very pale brown fine sand. The subsoil is








Soil Survey


brownish yellow fine sandy loam to a depth of about 61
inches and red sandy clay to a depth of at least 80
inches.
The minor soils are Fort Meade and Kendrick soils in
the higher positions on the landscape and Millhopper
and Sparr soils in the middle and lower positions. Also
included in the very lowest positions on the landscape
are small areas of soils that are wetter than the major
soils.
About 30 percent of the acreage in this map unit is
used for citrus. About 5 percent, mainly in the Lakeland
and Winter Haven areas, is used for urban
development. The rest is in pasture or natural
vegetation. Droughtiness is the main limitation affecting
citrus and improved pasture. Limitations affecting most
urban uses are minor and easy to overcome. Seepage
is a limitation affecting sanitary facilities in some areas.
The natural vegetation is mostly turkey oak, longleaf
pine, slash pine, and live oak.

2. Astatula-Tavares-Basinger

Nearly level to moderately sloping, excessively drained,
moderately well drained, and very poorly drained soils
that are sandy throughout
This map unit consists of soils on uplands and in
depressions. These soils are on the eastern edge of the
Lake Wales Ridge. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent.
This map unit makes up about 80,000 acres, or 7
percent of the land in the county. It is about 50 percent
Astatula soils, 10 percent Tavares soils, 10 percent
Basinger soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
The Astatula soils are excessively drained and are in
the highest positions on ridges. These soils are nearly
level to moderately sloping. Typically, the surface layer
is dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying
material is light yellowish brown sand that grades to
very pale brown to a depth of at least 80 inches.
The Tavares soils are moderately well drained and
are in lower positions on ridges than the Astatula soils.
These soils are nearly level to gently sloping. Typically,
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about
8 inches thick. The underlying material is light yellowish
brown fine sand that grades to very pale brown to a
depth of at least 80 inches.
The Basinger soils are very poorly drained and are in
depressions. These soils are nearly level. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray mucky fine sand about 7
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine
sand to a depth of about 35 inches. The subsoil is a
mixture of grayish brown and very dark grayish brown
fine sand to a depth of about 45 inches. The underlying


material is brown fine sand to at least a depth of 80
inches.
The minor soils are Archbold, Duette, Immokalee,
and Pomello soils. Archbold, Duette, and Pomello soils
are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Tavares soils. Immokalee soils are in lower positions.
Most areas of this map unit have been cleared and
are used for citrus. Some cleared areas are used for
improved pasture. The rest is used as native range,
woodland, or wildlife habitat. Droughtiness is the main
limitation affecting citrus and improved pasture on the
ridges. Citrus and improved pasture should not be
planted in the depressions because of ponding.
The natural vegetation on Astatula and Tavares soils
is mostly bluejack oak, turkey oak, longleaf pine, and
sand pine with an understory of Rosemary, pineland
threeawn, chalky bluestem, paspalum, lopsided
indiangrass, and panicums. The natural vegetation on
Basinger soils is mostly broomsedge bluestem,
maidencane, cutgrass, St. Johnswort, pineland
threeawn, and other water-tolerant grasses.

3. Archbold-Satellite

Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained
and somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout
This map unit consists of soils on uplands and low
knolls, mainly on either side of the Lake Wales Ridge.
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
This map unit makes up about 17,000 acres, or
slightly over 1 percent of the land in the county. It is
about 45 percent Archbold soils, 18 percent Satellite
soils, and 37 percent soils of minor extent.
The Archbold soils are moderately well drained and
are in the highest positions on the landscape. These
soils are nearly level and gently sloping. Typically, the
surface layer is gray sand about 4 inches thick. The
underlying material is white sand to a depth of at least
80 inches.
The Satellite soils are somewhat poorly drained and
are in slightly lower positions on the landscape. These
soils are nearly level. Typically, the surface layer is very
dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying
material is gray sand that grades to grayish brown to a
depth of at least 80 inches.
The minor soils are Pomello and Duette soils in
about the same landscape positions as those of the
Archbold and Satellite soils and Immokalee, Myakka,
and Pompano soils in lower positions.
About 2 percent of the acreage of this map unit is
used for citrus. A small acreage is in urban


12








Polk County, Florida


development, and the rest is in pasture or natural
vegetation. Droughtiness and seasonal wetness are
limitations affecting citrus. Droughtiness is the main
limitation affecting improved pasture. Limitations
affecting most urban uses are minor and easy to
overcome; however, seepage and the seasonal wetness
are limitations affecting sanitary facilities. The natural
vegetation is mostly sand pine, sand live oak, slash
pine, saw palmetto, pricklypear, and pineland threeawn.

4. Zolfo-Tavares

Nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained soils that are sandy
throughout
This map unit consists of soils on uplands at a lower
elevation than the main ridges of the county. The major
areas of this map unit are south of Ft. Meade on the
uplands adjacent to the Peace River. Small areas are
near Sunray and in the western part of the county near
Willow Oak. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
This map unit makes up about 14,500 acres, or
slightly over 1 percent of the land in the county. It is
about 60 percent Zolfo soils, 20 percent Tavares soils,
and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
The Zolfo soils are somewhat poorly drained and are
in the slightly lower positions on the landscape. These
soils are nearly level. Typically, the surface layer is very
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is brown or pale brown fine sand to a
depth of about 30 inches, light gray fine sand to a depth
of about 67 inches, and brown fine sand to a depth of
about 71 inches. The subsoil to a depth of at least 80
inches is dark reddish brown fine sand that is coated
with organic matter.
The Tavares soils are moderately well drained and
are in the higher positions on the landscape. These
soils are nearly level and gently sloping. Typically, the
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 8
inches thick. The underlying material is light yellowish
brown fine sand that grades to very pale brown to a
depth of at least 80 inches.
The minor soils are Adamsville, Millhopper, Myakka,
and Sparr soils. Adamsville and Sparr soils are in the
same landscape position as that of the Zolfo soils.
Millhopper soils are in the same landscape position as
that of the Tavares soils. Myakka soils are poorly
drained and are in the lowest positions.
About 20 percent of the acreage of this map unit is
used for citrus. Some areas are used for pasture or
truck crops, and small areas remain in natural
vegetation. Droughtiness is the main limitation affecting


most uses. Seasonal wetness affects citrus production
in some areas, but it is easily overcome by bedding.
The natural vegetation is mostly turkey oak, laurel oak,
longleaf pine, slash pine, and saw palmetto with an
understory of pineland threeawn, bluestem, and
lopsided indiangrass.

Soils of the Flatwoods
The five map units in this group consist mostly of
nearly level, somewhat poorly drained and very poorly
drained soils on flatwoods scattered throughout the
county. Some of the soils are sandy throughout, and
others have sandy surface and subsurface layers and a
sandy and loamy subsoil.
These soils make up about 47 percent of the county.
Most of the acreage is rangeland, pastureland, or
woodland. Wetness is the main limitation affecting most
agricultural and urban uses.

5. Pomona-Myakka-Smyrna

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils; some are
underlain by loamy material
This map unit consists of soils on pine and saw
palmetto flatwoods interspersed with wet depressions,
swamps, and poorly defined drainageways (fig. 3).
Large areas of this map unit are in the northern part of
the county in the Green Swamp and west of the
Lakeland Ridge. Smaller areas are scattered throughout
the county. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
This map unit makes up about 185,000 acres, or
about 16 percent of the land in the county. It is about
46 percent Pomona soils, 11 percent Myakka soils, 9
percent Smyrna soils, and 34 percent soils of minor
extent.
Typically, the Pomona soils have a very dark gray
fine sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of about 21 inches is sand.
It is light brownish gray in the upper part and light gray
in the lower part. The subsoil is dark reddish brown
loamy fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. Below
that is very pale brown and light gray fine sand to a
depth of about 48 inches and light gray fine sandy loam
that grades to sandy clay loam to a depth of about 73
inches. The underlying material is light gray loamy sand
to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Typically, the Myakka soils have a very dark gray
fine sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of about
25 inches. The subsoil to a depth of about 36 inches is
fine sand. It is black in the upper part and dark brown in
the lower part. The underlying material is yellowish


13








Soil Survey


Figure 3.-Pine and saw palmetto flatwoods are typical of most areas of the Pomona-Myakka-Smyrna general soil map unit.


brown fine sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Typically, the Smyrna soils have a black fine sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is gray fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches. The
subsoil is dark brown and brown fine sand to a depth of
about 25 inches. Below that is very pale brown fine
sand to a depth of about 42 inches and very dark brown
fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches. The underlying
material is brown and light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of at least 80 inches.
The minor soils are Basinger, Eaton, Felda,
Floridana, Holopaw, Hontoon, Lynn, Ona, Samsula,
Kaliga, and Wauchula soils. Ona, Lynn, and Wauchula
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the


Pomona, Myakka, and Smyrna soils. The other soils are
in depressional areas. Also included are some better
drained soils on small, low knolls.
Most areas of this map unit are used as native range,
or they are cleared for improved pasture. Small areas
are used for vegetable crops and pine trees. Wetness is
the main limitation affecting agricultural uses. Except in
areas used as native range, drainage or water control is
needed for best results. The natural vegetation is
mostly South Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, slash
pine, saw palmetto, water oak, running oak, gallberry,
waxmyrtle, ground blueberry, pineland threeawn, and
scattered fetterbush lyonia. Bay, cypress, maple, and
gum trees with a ground cover of sawgrass, fern,


14







Polk County, Florida


greenbrier, lilies, reeds, and other aquatic plants are
dominant in most depressional areas. Some
depressional areas have few trees. They support mainly
maidencane, arrowhead, pickerelweed, and bulrush.

6. Smyrna-Myakka-lmmokalee

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout
This map unit consists of soils on pine and saw
palmetto flatwoods interspersed with wet depressions
and poorly defined drainageways. Areas of this map
unit are scattered throughout the central and eastern
parts of the county on either side of the Lake Wales
Ridge. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
This map unit makes up about 252,000 acres, or
about 22 percent of the land in the county. It is about
29 percent Smyrna soils, 18 percent Myakka soils, 10
percent Immokalee soils, and 43 percent soils of minor
extent.
Typically, the Smyrna soils have a black fine sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is gray fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches. The
subsoil is dark brown and brown fine sand to a depth of
about 25 inches. Below this is very pale brown fine
sand to a depth of about 42 inches and very dark brown
fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches. The underlying
material is brown and light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of at least 80 inches.
Typically, the Myakka soils have a very dark gray
fine sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of about
20 inches. The subsoil to a depth of about 36 inches is
fine sand. It is black in the upper part and dark brown in
the lower part. The underlying material is yellowish
brown fine sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Typically, the Immokalee soils have a very dark gray
sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 39 inches is light gray sand
that grades to white. The subsoil is black sand to a
depth of about 58 inches. Below that is gray sand to a
depth of about 66 inches, very dark gray sand to a
depth of about 75 inches, and black sand to a depth of
at least 80 inches.
The minor soils are Adamsville, Basinger,
Narcoossee, Ona, Placid, Satellite, and St. Johns soils.
Basinger, Ona, and St. Johns soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Smyrna, Myakka, and
Immokalee soils. Placid soils are in depressional areas.
Adamsville, Narcoossee, and Satellite soils are in the
slightly higher positions.
Most areas of this map unit are used as native range,


or they are cleared for improved pasture. Small areas
are used for pine trees. Wetness is the main limitation
affecting improved pasture and pine trees, but it is
easily controlled by surface drainage, bedding, or both.
The natural vegetation is mostly South Florida slash
pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, saw palmetto, live oak,
water oak, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, pineland
threeawn, and scattered fetterbush lyonia.

7. Pompano-Satellite-lmmokalee

Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
drained soils that are sandy throughout
This map unit consists of soils on pine and saw
palmetto flatwoods interspersed with low knolls, wet
depressions, and poorly defined drainageways. Areas of
this map unit are east of the Lake Wales Ridge from the
Lake County line to the Highlands County line. Slopes
are 0 to 2 percent.
This map unit makes up about 18,000 acres, or less
than 2 percent of the land in the county. It is about 48
percent Pompano soils, 15 percent Satellite soils, 12
percent Immokalee soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
extent.
The Pompano soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is fine sand about 15 inches thick. It is
dark gray in the upper part and grayish brown in the
lower part. The underlying material to a depth of at
least 80 inches is very pale brown fine sand that grades
to light gray.
The Satellite soils are somewhat poorly drained and
are in slightly higher positions on the landscape than
the Pompano and Immokalee soils. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray sand about 6 inches
thick. The underlying material is gray sand that grades
to grayish brown to a depth of at least 80 inches.
The Immokalee soils are poorly drained and are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Pompano soils. Typically, the surface layer is very dark
gray sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
light gray sand that grades to white to a depth of about
39 inches. The subsoil is black sand to a depth of about
58 inches. Below that is gray sand to a depth of about
66 inches, very dark gray sand to a depth of about 75
inches, and black sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
The minor soils are Archbold, Basinger, Hontoon,
Myakka, Placid, and Samsula soils. Archbold soils are
better drained and are in slightly higher positions on the
landscape than the Satellite soils. Basinger and Myakka
soils are in positions similar to those of the Pompano
and Immokalee soils. Hontoon, Placid, and Samsula
soils are in depressional areas.


15







Soil Survey


Most areas of this map unit are used as native range,
or they are cleared for improved pasture. Other areas
are woodland. Some small areas are in pine trees or
citrus. Wetness is the main limitation affecting
agricultural uses. Except in areas used as native range,
surface drainage or bedding is needed. Major water
control, including high beds, is needed for citrus.
The natural vegetation is mostly South Florida slash
pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, saw palmetto, running
oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, and
scattered fetterbush lyonia. Sand live oak and sand
pine are on sites at slightly higher elevations.

8. EauGallie-Bradenton-Floridana

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
sandy soils that are underlain by loamy material
This map unit consists of soils on cabbage palm,
pine, and saw palmetto flatwoods interspersed with wet
depressions, swamps, and drainageways. Most areas of
this map unit are in the northwestern part of the county
adjacent to the Withlacoochee River and along streams
leading into the river. Smaller areas are in the
northeastern part of the county along parts of Reedy
Creek Swamp. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
This map unit makes up about 31,000 acres, or
about 3 percent of the land in the county. It is about 25
percent EauGallie and Wabasso soils, 18 percent
Bradenton soils, 15 percent Floridana soils, and 42
percent soils of minor extent. Wabasso soils are similar
to the EauGallie soils.
EauGallie soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is gray fine sand that grades to
light gray to a depth of about 26 inches. The subsoil is
black fine sand to a depth of about 32 inches, dark
brown fine sand to a depth of about 52 inches, and gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Bradenton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 4 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand to
a depth of about 12 inches. The subsoil is dark gray
sandy loam to a depth of about 16 inches and gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 22 inches. The
underlying material is white sandy loam to a depth of 60
inches and light gray loamy sand to a depth of at least
80 inches.
Floridana soils are in depressions and are very
poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is about 15
inches thick. It is black mucky fine sand that grades to
fine sand. The subsurface layer to a depth of about 28
inches is gray fine sand that grades to grayish brown.


The subsoil to a depth of about 58 inches is grayish
brown sandy clay loam that grades to gray. It is
greenish gray sandy loam to a depth of at least 80
inches.
The minor soils are Chobee, Felda, Holopaw,
Malabar, Oldsmar, and Paisley soils. Also included in
areas on small knolls are some of the better drained
soils in the county. Chobee, Felda, and Holopaw soils
are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Floridana soils, and they are subject to flooding.
Malabar, Oldsmar, and Paisley soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the EauGallie and
Bradenton soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as native range,
or they are cleared for improved pasture. Some areas
are used for timber. Wetness is the main limitation.
Surface drainage or bedding is needed for improved
pasture and pine trees.
The natural vegetation on flatwoods is mostly
cabbage palm, slash pine, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle,
gallberry, and pineland threeawn. Some areas adjacent
to the rivers and streams are hardwood hammocks with
a variety of oak, cabbage palm, and magnolia. The
natural vegetation in depressional areas is mostly
cypress, bay, maple, and gum trees with a ground
cover of sawgrass, fern, greenbrier, lilies, reeds, and
other aquatic plants. Some depressional areas have few
trees. They support mainly maidencane, arrowhead,
pickerelweed, and bulrush.

9. Malabar-EauGallie-Valkaria

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils; some are
underlain by loamy material
This map unit consists of soils on cabbage palm,
slash pine, and saw palmetto flatwoods interspersed
with wet depressions, swamps, and poorly defined
drainageways. Most areas of this map unit are in the
southeastern part of the county. Slopes are 0 to 2
percent.
This map unit makes up about 45,000 acres, or
about 4 percent of the land in the county. It is about 25
percent Malabar soils, 20 percent EauGallie and
Wabasso soils, 12 percent Valkaria soils, and 43
percent soils of minor extent. Wabasso soils are similar
to the EauGallie soils.
Typically, the Malabar soils have a black fine sand
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is grayish brown to light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of about 22 inches. The subsoil is brownish
yellow fine sand to a depth of about 30 inches and
yellow fine sand to a depth of about 38 inches. Below


16







Polk County, Florida


that is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about
48 inches and gray sandy loam and sandy clay loam to
a depth of at least 80 inches.
Typically, the EauGallie soils have a black fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 26 inches is gray fine sand that
grades to light gray. The subsoil is black fine sand to a
depth of about 32 inches, dark brown fine sand to a
depth of about 52 inches, and gray sandy clay loam to
a depth of at least 80 inches.
Typically, the Valkaria soils have a black sand
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is light gray sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The
subsoil is yellowish brown sand to a depth of about 32
inches and very pale brown sand to a depth of about 46
inches. The underlying material is light gray and white
sand to a depth of least 80 inches.
The minor soils are Basinger, Felda, Floridana,
Myakka, Oldsmar, and Placid soils. Basinger, Myakka,
and Oldsmar soils are in landscape positions similar to
those of the major soils. Felda, Floridana, Placid, and
Myakka soils are in depressions and are very poorly
drained.
Most areas of this map unit are used as native range,
or they are cleared for improved pasture. Some areas
are used for pine trees. Wetness is the main limitation.
Except in areas used as native range, surface drainage
or bedding is needed for best results. The natural
vegetation is mostly cabbage palm, scattered slash
pine, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, gallberry, switchgrass,
and pineland threeawn.

Soils of the Marshes, Swamps, and Flood Plains
The three map units in this group consist of nearly
level, poorly drained and very poorly drained, mineral
and organic soils that are subject to flooding or
ponding. These soils are near rivers, streams, lakes,
and other low-lying areas.
These soils make up about 13 percent of the county.
Most areas are in natural vegetation and provide habitat
for wildlife. A few areas are used for improved pasture.
Wetness is the main limitation affecting most
agricultural uses.

10. Samsula-Hontoon

Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils; some are
underlain by sand
This map unit consists of soils in swamps, marshes,
and drainageways. A large area of this map unit is in
the northern part of the county, north of Lake Alfred and
west of Highway 27. Many smaller areas are scattered


throughout the county. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
This map unit makes up about 128,000 acres, or
about 11 percent of the land in the county. It is about
40 percent Samsula soils, 38 percent Hontoon soils,
and 22 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Samsula soils are black to dark reddish
brown muck to a depth of about 31 inches. The
underlying material is black to dark grayish brown sand
to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Typically, the Hontoon soils are black and dark
brown muck to a depth of about 75 inches. The
underlying material to a depth of at least 80 inches is
black sandy loam.
The minor soils are Myakka and Pomona soils in the
slightly higher positions on the landscape and
Floridana, Placid, and Kaliga soils in positions similar to
those of the major soils.
Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation.
Some drained areas are used as pastureland. The
natural vegetation is mostly bay, cypress, maple, gum,
and pine trees with a ground cover of sawgrass,
greenbrier, fern, lilies, reeds, and other aquatic plants.
Some areas have few trees. They support mainly
maidencane, arrowhead, pickerelweed, and bulrush.

11. Nittaw-Kaliga-Chobee

Nearly level, very poorly drained, loamy and mucky soils
that are subject to flooding
This map unit consists of soils in swamps,
depressions, and on flood plains adjacent to some of
the major rivers and streams throughout the county.
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
This map unit makes up about 16,000 acres, or
slightly more than 1 percent of the county. It is about 45
percent Nittaw soils, 25 percent Kaliga soils, 10 percent
Chobee soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Nittaw soils have a black sandy clay
loam surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsoil
extends to a depth of about 75 inches. The upper part
is very dark gray sandy clay, and the lower part is gray
clay that grades to dark gray sandy clay loam. The
underlying material is gray loamy sand to a depth of at
least 80 inches.
Typically, the Kaliga soils have a surface layer that
extends to a depth of about 30 inches. It is black muck
that grades to dark reddish brown muck. The underlying
material is very dark gray loam to a depth of about 55
inches, dark gray sandy loam to a depth of about 75
inches, and light gray sand to a depth of at least 80
inches.
Typically, the Chobee soils have a black fine sandy


17







Soil Survey


loam surface layer about 12 inches thick. The upper
part of the subsoil to a depth of 32 inches is gray sandy
clay loam that grades to grayish brown. The lower part
is gray sandy loam to a depth of about 55 inches. The
underlying material is light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of at least 80 inches.
The minor soils are Anclote, Basinger, Bradenton,
Felda, Floridana, Samsula, St. Augustine, and Winder
soils. Basinger and Felda soils are occasionally flooded
and are in slightly higher positions on the landscape
than the major soils. Anclote, Floridana, Samsula, and
Winder soils are in positions similar to those of the
major soils. St. Augustine soils are on long, narrow,
manmade ridges that resulted from dredging the
Kissimmee River.
Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation
and provide good habitat for wildlife. Some areas are
used as native range, and others have been cleared
and drained for use as improved pasture.
The natural vegetation is mostly cypress, red maple,
sweetgum, ironweed, and bay trees with an understory
of waxmyrtle, greenbrier, cabbage palm, and shade-
and water-tolerant forbs and grasses. Some areas have
few trees. They support maidencane, pickerelweed,
lilies, and sawgrass.

12. Bradenton-Felda-Chobee

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
sandy and loamy soils that are subject to frequent
flooding
This map unit consists of soils on flood plains along
the Peace River south of Ft. Meade and along the
Bowlegs Creek that feeds into the Peace River. Slopes
are 0 to 2 percent.
This map unit makes up about 5,400 acres, or less
than 1 percent of the land in the county. It is about 37
percent Bradenton soils, 30 percent Felda soils, 20
percent Chobee soils, and 13 percent soils of minor
extent.
Bradenton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand
to a depth of about 12 inches. The subsoil is dark
grayish brown sandy loam to a depth of about 21
inches. The underlying material is gray or light gray
sandy loam to a depth of about 58 inches and gray fine
sand or loamy sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Felda soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to


a depth of about 22 inches. The subsoil is gray sandy
loam to a depth of about 35 inches and light gray loamy
sand to a depth of about 45 inches. The underlying
material is greenish gray loamy sand to a depth of at
least 80 inches.
Chobee soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sandy loam about 12 inches
thick. The subsoil is gray and grayish brown sandy clay
loam to a depth of about 32 inches and gray sandy
loam to a depth of about 55 inches. The underlying
material is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of at
least 80 inches.
The minor soils are Floridana, Holopaw, and
Pompano soils. Also of minor extent are small areas of
organic soils in the lowest positions on the landscape.
Almost all areas of this map unit are in natural
vegetation. A few areas are drained and used as
improved pasture. The natural vegetation is mostly
sweetgum, oak, bay, cypress, red maple, cabbage
palm, and saw palmetto.

Soils of Mined Areas
This map unit consists of soils remaining after
phosphate or silica sand has been mined (fig. 4).
Texture, slope, and drainage are variable. Most areas
of these soils are in the southwestern part of the
county.

13. Arents-Hydraquents-Neilhurst

Soils that have been strip mined for phosphate or silica
sand
Most areas of these soils are in the southwestern
part of the county. Others are northeast, east, and
south of Lakeland. Small areas are east of Lake Wales
along Highway 60 and north of Davenport along
Highway 17/92.
This map unit makes up about 164,000 acres, or
about 13 percent of the land in the county. It is about
45 percent Arents and Arents-Water complex, 30
percent Hydraquents, 14 percent Neilhurst soils, and 11
percent soils of minor extent.
The Arents are moderately well drained to
excessively drained. These soils consist of piles of soil
material or overburden that originally overlaid the
phosphate-bearing strata. Some of these soils remain
as a series of pits paralleled by long, steep mounds of
soil material. Water often collects in the pits after the
mining process is complete. Some areas are leveled or
reclaimed to create usable agricultural land. These soils
are quite variable because of the mixing and moving by


18









Polk County, Florida


-s .- ... ...
=----- -, _, -- .- -. .

. . _-,-- ,..- ....... .


-^ >-;-?i . -- -_.
'~~~~~~~~. 'kd-"*. ..


I-:
^..i ,


L c-- .:- .." .
1 .--- -

, .- ^ ^ S iS -'-.. ,'"..,


-% ''


Figure 4.-Manmade ponds are part of this reclaimed area of Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


earth-moving machinery. Typically, they are a mixture of
sandy and clayey material ranging in depth from 30 to
at least 80 inches.
The Hydraquents are a by-product of the phosphate
mining process. Typically, they are 85 percent clay, 10
percent silt, and 5 percent sand. The material generally
is gray and light gray and has some yellowish brown
mottles. The soils range in depth from a few feet to
more than 20 feet. They are locally called "slickens."
Neilhurst soils are excessively drained. These soils
are a by-product of either the phosphate mining or silica
mining processes. The color and thickness of these
soils vary from one area to another. Typically, these
soils have a grayish brown sand surface layer about 3
inches thick. The underlying material is light gray sand


mixed with reddish brown and brown sand to a depth of
at least 80 inches.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Gypsum land,
Arents that have a clayey substratum, Haplaquents, and
small areas of naturally occurring soils. Gypsum land
and Arents are similar to the major soils in that they are
also the result of phosphate mining and fertilizer
production processes. The naturally occurring soils are
very poorly drained to excessively drained.
Some of the reclaimed areas are used for improved
pasture or pine trees. Experimental work is being done
to determine the feasibility of using these areas for
citrus and vegetables. Some areas that have not been
reclaimed provide excellent habitat for wildlife and sites
for recreational activities.


19


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21


Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Candler sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes, is a phase of the Candler series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil
associations, or undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar
in all areas. Adamsville-Urban land complex is an
example.
A soil association is made up of two or more


geographically associated soils that are shown as one
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat
similar. Bradenton-Felda-Chobee association, frequently
flooded, is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
made up of all of them. Smyrna and Myakka fine sands
is an undifferentiated group in this survey area.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named.
Some of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
areas have little or no soil material and support little or
no vegetation. Gypsum land is an example.
Miscellaneous areas are shown on the soil maps. Some
that are too small to be shown are identified by a
special symbol on the soil maps.
Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

2-Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
well drained soil is on uplands and knolls on flatwoods.
Areas of this soil range from about 10 to 160 acres.
Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine sand








Soil Survey


surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 51 inches is pale brown and very
pale brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about
61 inches is brownish yellow fine sandy loam that has
red mottles. It is red sandy clay to a depth of at least 80
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Candler, Fort Meade, Millhopper, and Tavares soils.
Candler, Fort Meade, and Tavares soils do not have a
loamy subsoil. Millhopper soils are similar to the
Apopka soil. The included soils make up about 5 to 20
percent of the map unit.
This Apopka soil does not have a high water table
within a depth of 80 inches. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil are used for citrus. Some
remain in natural vegetation that is mostly turkey oak,
slash pine, longleaf pine, bluejack oak, post oak, and
live oak. The understory includes pineland threeawn
and running oak.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
are severe limitations affecting cultivated crops. If this
soil is cultivated, row crops should be planted on the
contour. Crop rotations should keep close-growing
cover crops on the land at least two-thirds of the time.
Soil-improving cover crops and crop residue protect the
soil from erosion. Conservation tillage conserves
moisture and helps to control erosion. Irrigation of high
value crops generally is feasible where water is readily
available.
This soil is well suited to citrus. Good yields of
oranges and grapefruit generally can be obtained
without irrigation. Increased yields make irrigation
feasible where water is readily available.
This soil is well suited to pastures of coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, but yields are reduced
by periodic droughts. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain plant vigor and good ground cover. Fertilizer
and lime should be added according to the need of the
plants.
Typically, the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is longleaf pine and turkey oak. Forage production and
quality are poor, and cattle do not readily use this range
site if other sites are available. Desirable forage
includes creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and
low panicums.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management, caused by
droughtiness and sandiness, are the equipment use
limitation and seedling mortality. Slash pine, South


Florida slash pine, and longleaf pine are the best trees
to plant.
This soil has only slight limitations affecting most
urban uses; however, seepage is a severe limitation
affecting sewage lagoons and landfill areas. The
sidewalls of lagoons and landfills should be sealed.
The sandy surface causes poor trafficability in
recreational areas. The addition of suitable topsoil or
some form of surfacing can reduce or overcome this
limitation.
The capability subclass is Ills.

3-Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
excessively drained soil is on uplands and knolls on
flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from about 30 to
several hundred acres. Slopes are smooth to concave.
Typically, this soil has a dark brown sand surface
layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 63 inches is brownish yellow sand that
grades to yellow. The next layer to a depth of at least
80 inches is yellow sand that has very thin, strong
brown lamellae.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Apopka, Astatula, Millhopper, and Tavares soils.
Apopka and Millhopper soils have a loamy subsoil.
Astatula and Tavares soils are similar to the Candler
soil. The included soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the
map unit.
This Candler soil does not have a high water table
within a depth of 80 inches. The available water
capacity is low or very low, and permeability is rapid.
Most areas of this soil are in citrus. Some remain in
natural vegetation that is mostly turkey oak, post oak,
live oak, South Florida slash pine, and other pines and
a sparse understory of indiangrass, pineland threeawn,
hairy panicum, and annual forbs.
The sandy texture and droughtiness of this soil are
very severe limitations affecting cultivated crops.
Intensive soil management practices are required. The
droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
reduce the variety and potential yields of crops. Crop
rotations should keep close-growing crops on the land
at least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops
and crop residue help to control soil blowing and to
maintain organic matter content. Only a few crops
produce good yields without irrigation. Irrigation
generally is feasible where water is readily available.
In places that are relatively free from freezing
temperatures, this soil is suited to citrus. A ground
cover of close-growing plants is needed between the
trees to control soil blowing. Good yields can be


22








Polk County, Florida


obtained in some years without irrigation, but a well
designed irrigation system, which maintains optimum
moisture conditions, is needed to ensure best yields.
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
Deep rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are best suited, but yields are reduced by
periodic droughtiness. Fertilizer and lime are needed on
a regular basis. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain plant vigor.
Typically, the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is longleaf pine and turkey oak. Forage production and
quality are poor, and cattle do not readily use this range
site if other sites are available. Desirable forage
includes creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and
low panicums.
The potential productivity of pine trees is moderate.
The major concerns in management, caused by the
sandiness of the soil, are seedling mortality and the
equipment use limitation. Sand pine, slash pine, South
Florida slash pine, and longleaf pine are the best trees
to plant.
This soil has only slight limitations affecting most
urban uses. Because of poor filtration, however, ground
water contamination is a hazard in areas where there is
a concentration of homes with septic tanks. Seepage is
a severe limitation affecting sanitary landfills, and
trenches should be sealed.
The sandy surface causes poor trafficability in
recreational areas. The addition of suitable topsoil or
some form of surfacing can reduce or overcome this
limitation.
The capability subclass is IVs.

4-Candler sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
excessively drained soil is on side slopes on uplands.
Areas of this soil range from about 15 to 60 acres.
Slopes are smooth to concave.
Typically, this soil has a dark brown sand surface
layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 63 inches is brownish yellow sand that
grades to yellow. The next layer to a depth of at least
80 inches is yellow fine sand that has very thin, strong
brown lamellae.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Apopka, Astatula, Millhopper, and Tavares soils.
Apopka and Millhopper soils have a loamy subsoil.
Astatula and Tavares soils are similar to the Candler
soil. The included soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the
map unit.
This Candler soil does not have a high water table
within a depth of 80 inches. The available water


capacity is low or very low, and permeability is rapid.
Most areas of this soil are in citrus. Some remain in
natural vegetation that is mostly South Florida slash
pine, other pines, live oak, turkey oak, and post oak
with an understory of indiangrass, pineland threeawn,
hairy panicum, and annual forbs.
This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops
because of droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant
nutrients, and the slope.
In places that are relatively free from freezing
temperatures, this soil is suited to citrus. Good yields of
fruit can be obtained in some years without irrigation,
but for best yields, irrigation should always be used
where water is available. Management practices that
minimize the hazard of erosion should be used.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture grasses,
such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass. It is not
suited to clover. Yields are reduced by periodic drought.
Fertilizer should be applied on a regular basis. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain highest yields and
good ground cover.
Typically, the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is longleaf pine and turkey oak. Forage production and
quality are poor, and cattle do not readily use this range
site if other sites are available. Desirable forage
includes creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and
low panicums.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
Seedling mortality and the equipment use limitation are
the major concerns in management. Sand pine, slash
pine, South Florida slash pine, and longleaf pine are the
best trees to plant.
This soil has only slight limitations affecting most
urban uses. Because of poor filtration, however, ground
water contamination is a hazard in areas where there is
a concentration of homes with septic tanks. Seepage is
a severe limitation affecting sanitary landfills, and
trenches should be sealed. Slope is a moderate
limitation affecting sites for small commercial buildings.
The sandy surface causes poor trafficability in
recreational areas. The addition of suitable topsoil or
some form of surfacing can reduce or overcome this
limitation. Slope is a severe limitation affecting
playgrounds.
The capability subclass is Vis.

5-EauGallie fine sand. This poorly drained soil is
on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from about 30 to
several hundred acres. Slopes are smooth to concave
and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sand surface layer


23








Soil Survey


about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
about 26 inches is gray fine sand that grades to light
gray. The subsoil is black fine sand to a depth of about
32 inches, dark brown fine sand to a depth of about 52
inches, and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of at least
80 inches. In some areas, the subsoil is underlain by
sandy material, and in others, fragments of shell or
limestone are in the subsoil and underlying material.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda, Malabar, Pomona, and Wabasso soils. Felda and
Malabar soils do not have a black subsoil. Pomona and
Wabasso soils are similar to the EauGallie soil. The
included soils make up about 15 to 25 percent of the
map unit.
This EauGallie soil has a high water table within 12
inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months during most
years. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is moderately slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in pasture. The
natural vegetation is longleaf pine, South Florida slash
pine, slash pine, cabbage palm, saw palmetto,
gallberry, and switchgrass.
This soil has severe limitations affecting most
cultivated crops. Wetness and low natural fertility limit
the choice of plants and reduce potential yields. If
intensive management practices and a water-control
system are used, some vegetables can be grown. The
water-control system must remove excess water in wet
periods. Irrigation is necessary in some areas for best
plant growth during dry periods. Crop residue and soil-
improving cover crops add organic matter to the soil
and improve fertility. Fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
crops; however, a good water-control system is needed
to remove excess water. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass
are suitable pasture plants. Grasses respond to regular
applications of fertilizer. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain plant vigor and a good ground cover.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. If good grazing management practices are
used, this range site has the potential to produce
significant amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various panicums. If
range deterioration occurs, saw palmetto and pineland
threeawn are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The equipment use limitation during periods of
heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant competition
are concerns in management. Slash pine and South


Florida slash pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil has severe limitations affecting such urban
uses as septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and
local roads and streets. Special measures are required
to overcome excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption
fields should be elevated by adding fill. Building
foundations and roadbeds require special measures to
provide additional strength.
Excessive wetness and the sandy texture are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. A water-control
system that keeps the seasonal high water table below
a depth of about 2.5 feet is required. Suitable topsoil or
pavement can be used to stabilize the surface in heavy
traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IVw.

6-Eaton mucky fine sand, depressional. This very
poorly drained soil is in wet depressions on flatwoods.
Areas of this soil range from 3 to 100 acres. Slopes are
concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black mucky fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 29 inches.
The gray subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of about
33 inches and sandy clay to a depth of at least 80
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chobee, Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Kaliga, and Winder
soils. Chobee and Winder soils are loamy within a
depth of 20 inches. Kaliga soils are organic. Felda,
Floridana, and Holopaw soils are similar to the Eaton
soil. The included soils make up about 15 to 30 percent
of the map unit.
The Eaton soil is ponded for 6 months or more each
year. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is slow in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation is mostly pondcypress,
waxmyrtle, gallberry, and other water-tolerant trees,
forbs, and grasses.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus,
improved pasture, or pine trees because of the ponding.
Drainage is needed, but drainage outlets are normally
hard to establish.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and
other herbaceous plants in areas where the soil
generally is saturated or covered with water for at least
2 months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the


24








Polk County, Florida


drier parts of the site, and maidencane is dominant in
the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a much
needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
This soil is severely limited as a site for most urban
uses because of the ponding.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

7-Pomona fine sand. This poorly drained soil is in
broad areas on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from
5 to several hundred acres. Slopes are smooth to
concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 21 inches is sand. It is light
brownish gray in the upper part and light gray in the
lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 26 inches is
dark reddish brown loamy fine sand. Below that is very
pale brown and light gray fine sand to a depth of about
48 inches, light gray fine sandy loam to a depth of
about 60 inches, and light gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of about 73 inches. The underlying material is
light gray loamy sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Smyrna, Myakka, and Wauchula soils. Smyrna and
Myakka soils do not have a loamy subsoil. Wauchula
soils are similar to the Pomona soil. The included soils
make up about 5 to 15 percent of the map unit.
This Pomona soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months during
most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate or moderately slow in the
lower part of the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used as rangeland or
woodland. In some areas where water management is
adequate, this soil is used for citrus, improved pasture,
or truck crops. The natural vegetation is mostly saw
palmetto, slash pine, longleaf pine, South Florida slash
pine, pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem, fetterbush
lyonia, gallberry, and low panicums.
Wetness and droughtiness are very severe limitations
affecting cultivated crops. The number of suitable crops
is limited unless very intensive water and soil
management practices are used. If good water-control
and soil-improving measures are used, some vegetable
crops can be grown. The water-control system must
remove excess water in wet periods and provide water
for irrigation in dry periods. Crop rotations should keep


close-growing, soil-improving crops on the land three-
fourths of the time. Crop residue and soil-improving
crops help to maintain organic matter content and
protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime
should be added according to the needs of the crop.
Unless intensive management practices are used,
this soil is poorly suited to citrus. A carefully designed
water control system is required. Citrus trees should be
planted on beds, and a plant cover should be
maintained between the trees. Fertilizer and lime are
needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rainfall. Fertilizer and lime are needed, and
grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing and
weakening of the plants.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. If good grazing management practices are
used, this range site has the potential to produce
significant amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various panicums. If
range deterioration occurs, saw palmetto and pineland
threeawn are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management are seedling
mortality, plant competition, and the equipment use
limitation during periods of heavy rainfall. South Florida
slash pine and slash pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban
development because of the wetness. The high water
table interferes with proper functioning of septic tank
absorption fields. The absorption fields can be elevated
by adding fill material. To overcome the problems
caused by wetness on sites used for buildings or local
roads and streets, a drainage system can be installed to
lower the high water table or fill material can be added
to increase the effective depth to the high water table.
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. A water-control
system is needed to keep the high water table below a
depth of 2.5 feet. Suitable topsoil or pavement can be
used to stabilize the surface in heavy traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IVw.

8-Hydraquents, clayey. These soils occur as areas
of slime (colloidal clay), a by-product of phosphate
mining. The slime has been pumped into holding ponds.
These ponds have standing water, and the soil strength


25








Soil Survey


is too weak to support a grazing animal. Holding ponds
are built with a 30- to 40-foot dike surrounding them.
They are designed so that the water flows through a
series of ponds before returning to an outlet stream.
The ponds cover from 200 to 1,000 or more acres. In
older mined areas, the slime was pumped into open pits
that did not have outlets. These areas have not dried
out.
Included in mapping are a few small areas of
Neilhurst soils.
Hydraquents, clayey, are about 85 percent clay, 10
percent silt, and 5 percent sand. The clay is mainly
montmorillonite but includes kaolinite, illite, and
attapulgite. The soil material is gray and light gray with
some yellowish brown mottles. It is neutral to
moderately alkaline. This material generally is saturated
with water, and the available water capacity is very
high. Natural fertility is high, and the organic matter
content is low. Permeability is very slow.
Most areas are idle, but after the pumping stops,
hyacinths and cattails start to grow. Later, willows grow.
These areas form a natural habitat for wetland wildlife.
The slow settling velocity of the clay is the main
limitation affecting most uses.
Neither a capability subclass nor woodland ordination
symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

9-Lynne sand. This poorly drained soil is in broad
areas on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from about
10 to 300 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex and are
0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black sand surface layer
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray to
light gray fine sand to a depth of about 21 inches. The
subsoil is black fine sand to a depth of about 28 inches,
light yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of about 33
inches, and light gray sandy clay to a depth of at least
80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Felda, Immokalee, Myakka, Pomona, and Wauchula
soils. Felda soils do not have a black fine sand subsoil.
Immokalee and Myakka soils do not have a clayey
subsoil. Pomona and Wauchula soils are similar to the
Lynne soil. The included soils make up about 15 to 30
percent of the map unit.
This Lynne soil has a seasonal high water within 12
inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months during most
years. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is moderately slow in the lower part of the
subsoil.
The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, South
Florida slash pine, and longleaf pine and an understory


of creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, indiangrass, low
panicums, pineland threeawn, saw palmetto, fetterbush
lyonia, and gallberry.
Wetness is a severe limitation affecting cultivated
crops. The number of suitable crops is limited unless
intensive water-control measures are used. If good
water-control and soil-improving measures are used,
some vegetable crops can be grown. The water-control
system must remove excess water in wet periods and
provide water for irrigation in dry periods. Seedbed
preparation needs to include bedding of rows. Crop
rotations should keep close-growing crops on the land
at least two-thirds of the time. Close-growing crops and
crop residue help to maintain organic matter content
and soil tilth. Regular applications of fertilizer and
occasional applications of lime are needed.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees because of
the wetness. If drainage and bedding are used, oranges
and grapefruit can be grown. Drainage should be
adequate to remove excess water from the soil rapidly
after heavy rainfall.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops,
such as pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Some
drainage is needed to remove excess water during wet
periods. Lime and fertilizer are needed, and controlled
grazing helps to maintain plant vigor.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. If good grazing management practices are
used, this range site has the potential to produce
significant amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various panicums. If
range deterioration occurs, saw palmetto and pineland
threeawn are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management are the
equipment use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. Slash pine and South Florida slash pine
are the best trees to plant.
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
absorption fields, building sites, and local roads and
streets. Special measures are required to overcome
excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption fields should
be elevated by adding suitable fill material.
The wetness is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. A water-control system that keeps
the seasonal high water table below a depth of about
2.5 feet is required. Suitable topsoil or pavement can be
used to stabilize the surface in heavy traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IIIw.


26








Polk County, Florida


10-Malabar fine sand. This poorly drained soil is in
low, narrow to broad sloughs and on flatwoods. Areas
of this soil range from about 5 to 100 acres. Slopes are
smooth to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sand surface layer
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown to light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of
about 22 inches. The subsoil is brownish yellow fine
sand to a depth of about 30 inches and yellow fine sand
to a depth of about 38 inches. Below that is light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches
and gray sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a depth of
at least 80 inches. A few soft, white, lime nodules are in
the sandy clay loam layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
EauGallie, Felda, Wabasso, Holopaw, and Valkaria
soils. EauGallie and Wabasso soils have a black
subsoil. Valkaria soils do not have a loamy subsoil.
Felda and Holopaw soils are similar to the Malabar soil.
The included soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the map
unit.
This Malabar soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during
most years. During periods of heavy rainfall, the surface
is covered by shallow, slowly moving water for 1 to 7
days or more. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is very slow in the lower part of the
subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are in pasture. The natural
vegetation is cabbage palm, scattered longleaf pine,
South Florida slash pine, slash pine, cypress, live oak,
water oak, laurel oak, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle,
pineland threeawn, and maidencane.
This soil has severe limitations affecting cultivated
crops. Wetness and low natural fertility limit the choice
of plants and reduce potential yields. If intensive
management and a water-control system are used,
some vegetable crops can be grown. The water-control
system must remove excess water in wet periods. Row
crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
improving crops that remain on the land three-fourths of
the time. Crop residue and soil-improving crops help to
maintain organic matter content. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime
should be added according to the needs of the crop.
Unless very intensive management practices are
used, this soil is poorly suited to citrus. A carefully
designed water-control system must maintain the high
water table at an effective depth. Citrus trees should be
planted on beds, and a plant cover should be
maintained between the trees. Fertilizer and lime are
needed.


This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rainfall. Fertilizer and lime are needed, and
grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing and
weakening of the plants.
Typically, the Slough range site includes areas of this
soil. The dominant vegetation is an open expanse of
grasses, sedges, and rushes in areas where the soil is
saturated during the rainy season. If good grazing
management practices are used, this range site
includes blue maidencane, maidencane, chalky
bluestem, toothachegrass, and Florida bluestem. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, is dominant.
The potential productivity of pine trees is moderately
high. Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings
and removing excess surface water. Major concerns in
management are the equipment use limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition. Slash pine and South
Florida slash pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
absorption fields, building sites, and local roads and
streets. Special measures are required to overcome
excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption fields should
be elevated by adding suitable fill material.
Excessive wetness is a severe limitation affecting
recreational development. A water-control system that
keeps the seasonal high water table below a depth of
about 2.5 feet is required. Suitable topsoil or pavement
can be used to stabilize the surface in heavy traffic
areas.
The capability subclass is IVw.

11-Arents-Water complex. This map unit is a
series of open pits that are filled with water and are
paralleled by long steep mounds of soil material. It is a
result of phosphate mining. Areas of this map unit range
from about 100 to 1,000 acres. Slopes are steep to very
steep. The Arents part consists of piles of soil material
or overburden that originally covered the phosphate-
bearing strata. The Water part of this map unit is
formed after the phosphate-bearing strata has been
removed (fig. 5). This map unit is about 55 percent
Arents and 45 percent water.
Included in mapping are pits that are not filled with
water.
The high water table of the Arents-Water complex is
variable, but the Arents part generally does not have a
water table within a depth of 80 inches. The available
water capacity generally is low, but it varies throughout


27








28


Figure 5.-This area of Arents-Water complex has been recently mined.


the map unit. Permeability generally is rapid, but it also
varies.
Most areas are idle, but some of the older areas
support limited grazing. This map unit is not suited to
most cultivated crops because of erosion, slope, and
the low available water capacity,
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

12-Neilhurst sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes. This
excessively drained soil is on broad uplands and low
knolls. It formed in homogenous sandy material from
phosphate and silica mining operations. Areas of this
soil range from about 100 to 600 acres. Slopes are
mainly smooth to concave.
Typically, this soil has a grayish brown sand surface
layer about 3 inches thick. The underlying material to a


depth of at least 80 inches is light gray sand that is
mixed with reddish brown and brown sand. Some areas
have coarse sand or fragments of rocks.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Arents and Haplaquents, clayey. Some areas may have
intermittent ponds. The included soils make up about 5
to 10 percent of the map unit.
This Neilhurst soil generally does not have a high
water table within a depth of 80 inches; however, the
water table can be within a depth of 30 inches for brief
periods during the summer following heavy rainfall. The
available water capacity is very low. Permeability is very
rapid.
This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops
because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
nutrients. It is poorly suited to most plants, and special
treatment is required for lawns and ornamental plants.


L~Lk ~-_ -1







Polk County, Florida


This soil is poorly suited to citrus; however, if a well
designed irrigation system is used, this soil is
moderately well suited. A ground cover of close-growing
plants should be maintained between the trees to
control soil blowing in dry weather and water erosion
following rainfall. Fertilizer and soil amendments are
needed to maintain plant vigor.
This soil is moderately well suited to pastures of
pangolagrass and bahiagrass. Lime and fertilizer are
needed. To establish pasture plants, the grass should
be planted during the rainy season or irrigation should
be used.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. Experimental plantings of pine have shown good
growth. The potential for commercial production is
moderate. Major concerns in management are the
equipment use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. Slash pine, South Florida slash pine, and
longleaf pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil has only slight limitations affecting most
urban uses including septic tank absorption fields.
Seepage is a severe limitation affecting sites for trench
and area sanitary landfills. The sidewalls and bottom of
trench sanitary landfills should be lined or sealed.
Onsite investigation of building sites is recommended
because of different reclamation methods.
The sandy surface is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. The soil must be stabilized to
overcome this problem.
The capability subclass is Vis.

13-Samsula muck. This very poorly drained,
organic soil is in swamps and marshes. Areas of this
soil range from 30 to several hundred acres. Slopes are
smooth and are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil is black to dark reddish brown
muck to a depth of about 31 inches. The underlying
material is sand to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is
black in the upper part and dark grayish brown in the
lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are Hontoon and
Placid soils. Hontoon soils are similar to the Samsula
soil. Placid soils are sandy. The included soils make up
about 10 to 20 percent of the map unit.
This Samsula soil has a seasonal high water table at
or above the surface except during extended dry
periods. Areas on flood plains are subject to frequent
flooding as well as to ponding. The available water
capacity is high. Permeability is rapid.
The natural vegetation is mostly loblollybay gordonia,
cypress, red maple, blackgum, and other water-tolerant
trees and pine trees. The ground cover is greenbrier,


fern, and other aquatic plants. Aquatic plants are
dominant in many areas.
Wetness is a severe limitation affecting cultivated
crops. Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable
for cultivation, but with adequate water control it is well
suited to most vegetable crops. The water-control
system should remove water when crops are on the
land and keep the soil saturated with water at other
times.
This soil is not suited to citrus.
If adequate water-control measures are used, this
soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
bahiagrass, and white clover. Grazing should be
controlled to maintain plant vigor and good ground
cover. Fertilizer that is high in potash, phosphorus, and
minor elements is needed along with lime.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and
other herbaceous plants in areas where the soil
generally is saturated or covered with water for at least
2 months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the
drier parts of the site, and maidencane is dominant in
the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a much
needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
This soil is not suited to pine trees because of the
excessive wetness and the ponding.
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
absorption fields, building sites, and local roads and
streets. Special measures are required to overcome the
excessive wetness. If this soil is used for urban
development, the organic material needs to be
removed, the area should be backfilled with suitable soil
material, and water-control measures must be
established.
Excessive wetness and organic matter content are
severe limitations affecting recreational uses.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

14-Sparr sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
somewhat poorly drained soil is in areas of seasonally
wet uplands and knolls on flatwoods. Areas of this soil
range from about 10 to 40 acres. Slopes are smooth.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray sand surface layer


29







Soil Survey


about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown to
very pale brown sand to a depth of about 57 inches.
The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of at least 80
inches. It is very pale brown in the upper part, yellowish
brown in the next part, and light gray in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Apopka, Candler, Millhopper, and Tavares soils.
Apopka soils are well drained. Candler and Tavares
soils do not have a loamy subsoil. Millhopper soils are
similar to the Sparr soil. The included soils make up 15
to 20 percent of the map unit.
This Sparr soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months in most
years. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is moderately slow or slow in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used for citrus, pasture, or
range. The natural vegetation is- mostly oak, hickory,
magnolia, sweetgum, slash pine, South Florida slash
pine, and longleaf pine. The understory includes
gallberry, waxmyrtle, scattered saw palmetto, and
pineland threeawn.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
are severe limitations affecting cultivated crops. If good
water management and soil-improving measures are
used, however, fruit and vegetable crops can be grown.
For best yields, crops need to be irrigated during dry
periods. Row crops should be planted in sequence with
close-growing cover crops that remain on the land
three-fourths of the time. Crop residue and cover crops
help to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
needs of the crop.
In places that are relatively free from freezing
temperatures, this soil is well suited to citrus. A water-
control system is needed to maintain the water table at
an effective depth. A close-growing plant cover should
be maintained between the trees to control soil blowing
in dry weather and water erosion during heavy rainfall.
Good yields of oranges and grapefruit generally can be
obtained without irrigation, but increased yields are
feasible where irrigation water is readily available.
Fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, grow well if fertilizer and lime are used.
Production is occasionally restricted by extended
drought. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
vigor and good ground cover.
Typically, the Oak Hammock range site includes
areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a dense


canopy of predominantly live oak trees. Because of the
dense canopy and relatively open understory, cattle use
this range site mainly for shade and resting areas.
Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low panicums,
low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided indiangrass.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. Major concerns in management are the equipment
use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
Slash pine and South Florida slash pine are the best
trees to plant.
Wetness is a severe limitation affecting septic tank
absorption fields, sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills
and a moderate limitation affecting sites for dwellings
without basements, small commercial buildings, and
local roads and streets. Because seepage is also a
severe limitation affecting sewage lagoons and sanitary
landfills, the sidewalls of these structures should be
sealed. Special measures are required to overcome the
excessive wetness of this soil. Septic tank absorption
fields should be elevated by adding fill material.
The sandy texture is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. Suitable topsoil or pavement can be
used to stabilize the surface in heavy traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

15-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained soil is on broad uplands and
knolls on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from about
10 to 80 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, this soil has a dark grayish brown fine sand
surface layer about 8 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of at least 80 inches is light
yellowish brown fine sand that grades to very pale
brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Adamsville, Candler, Millhopper, Narcoossee, and Zolfo
soils. Also included are small areas of soils in which
organic-stained layers occur within a depth of 80
inches. Millhopper soils have a loamy subsoil, and
Narcoossee and Zolfo soils have a dark subsoil.
Adamsville and Candler soils are similar to the Tavares
soil. The included soils make up about 10 to 20 percent
of the map unit.
This Tavares soil has a seasonal high water table at
a depth of 40 to 80 inches for several months in most
years. The available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is rapid or very rapid.
Most areas of this soil are used for citrus. Some
remain in natural vegetation that is mostly South Florida
slash pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, turkey oak,
bluejack oak, and post oak and an understory of


30







Polk County, Florida


pineland threeawn, creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, hairy panicums, low panicums, and purple
lovegrass.
This soil has severe limitations affecting most
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce
potential yields of suitable crops. If the high water table
is between depths of 40 and 60 inches, it supplements
the low available water capacity by providing water
through capillary rise. In very dry periods, the water
table drops well below the root zone and little capillary
water is available to plants. Soil management should
include row crops on the contour in strips with close-
growing crops. Crop rotations should keep close-
growing crops on the land at least two-thirds of the
time. Fertilizer and lime are needed for all crops. Soil-
improving cover crops and all crop residue should be
left on the ground to protect the soil from erosion and to
maintain organic matter content. Irrigation of high value
crops generally is feasible where irrigation water is
readily available.
In places that are relatively free from freezing
temperatures, this soil is well suited to citrus. A good
ground cover of close-growing plants is needed
between the trees to minimize erosion. Fair yields can
normally be obtained without irrigation, but optimum
yields generally are feasible where irrigation water is
readily available. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
coastal bermudagrass, and bahiagrass. White clover
and lespedeza also produce good yields if fertilizer and
lime are used. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
vigorous plants for maximum yields.
Typically, the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is longleaf pine and turkey oak. Because of the rapid
movement of plant nutrients and water through this soil,
natural fertility is low. Forage production and quality are
poor, and cattle do not readily use this range site if
other sites are available. Desirable forage includes
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and low
panicums.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management are the
equipment use limitation, plant competition, and
seedling mortality. Longleaf pine, South Florida slash
pine, and slash pine are the best trees to plant.
Wetness is a moderate limitation affecting septic tank
absorption fields. Ground water contamination is a
hazard in high density areas because of poor filtration.
Seepage is a severe limitation affecting sewage


lagoons and sanitary landfills, and the sidewalls should
be sealed. Limitations affecting sites for dwellings
without basements, small commercial buildings, and
local roads and streets are only slight.
The sandy texture is a severe limitation affecting
recreational development. Suitable topsoil or pavement
can be used to stabilize the surface in heavy traffic
areas.
The capability subclass is Ills.

16-Urban land. This map unit consists of areas that
are more than 85 percent covered by buildings, streets,
houses, schools, shopping centers, and industrial
complexes. Urban land is mainly in larger towns and
fringe areas. Open areas include lawns and
playgrounds. Because soils in urban areas have been
reworked, they can no longer be recognized as a
natural soil. Fill material has been added in wet areas
to alleviate water problems, or soil material has been
excavated to blend with the surrounding landscape.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

17-Smyrna and Myakka fine sands. This map unit
consists of poorly drained soils in broad areas on
flatwoods. It is about 55 percent Smyrna soil and 40
percent Myakka soil, but the proportion varies in each
mapped area. Areas of each soil are large enough to be
mapped separately, but because of present and
predicted use, these soils were mapped as one unit.
Areas of these soils range from 10 to several hundred
acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and are 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, this Smyrna soil has a black fine sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is gray fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches. The
subsoil is dark brown and brown fine sand to a depth of
about 25 inches. Below that is very pale brown fine
sand to a depth of about 42 inches and very dark brown
fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches. The underlying
material is brown and light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of at least 80 inches.
Typically, this Myakka soil has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is gray fine sand to depth of about 25 inches. The
subsoil to a depth of about 36 inches is fine sand. It is
black in the upper part and dark brown in the lower
part. The underlying material is yellowish brown fine
sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
The Smyrna and Myakka soils have a seasonal high
water table within 12 inches of the surface for 1 to 4


31







Soil Survey


months in most years. The available water capacity is
low. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the
subsoil.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Basinger, Immokalee, Ona, and Pomona soils.
Pomona soils have a loamy subsoil. Basinger,
Immokalee, and Ona soils are similar to the Smyrna
and Myakka soils. The included soils make up 5 to 15
percent of the map unit.
The natural vegetation on Smyrna and Myakka soils
is mostly longleaf pine, slash pine, South Florida slash
pine, saw palmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and scattered
fetterbush lyonia. A few areas around large lakes are in
oak hammocks.
Wetness and droughtiness are severe limitations
affecting cultivated crops. The number of suitable crops
is limited unless very intensive management practices
are used. If good water-control and soil-improving
measures are used, some vegetable crops can be
grown. A water-control system must remove excess
water in wet periods and provide irrigation water in dry
periods. Crop rotation should keep close-growing, soil-
improving crops on the land three-fourths of the time.
Crop residue and soil-improving crops help to maintain
organic water content and protect the soil from eroding.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added according to
the needs of the crop.
Unless very intensive water management practices
are used, these soils are poorly suited to citrus. Areas
subject to frequent freezing are not suitable. A water-
control system must maintain the water table at an
effective depth. Citrus trees should be planted on beds,
and a plant cover should be maintained between the
trees. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
These soils are well suited to pastures of
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Water-control measures are needed to remove excess
surface water after heavy rainfall. Fertilizer and lime are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of these soils. The dominant vegetation
is scattered pine trees with an understory of saw
palmetto and grass. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce significant amounts of creeping bluestem,
lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various
panicums. If range deterioration occurs, saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn are dominant.


The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
The major concerns in management are the equipment
use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
South Florida slash pine and slash pine are the best
trees to plant.
These soils are severely limited as sites for urban
development because of the wetness during rainy
periods. The high water table interferes with proper
functioning of septic tank absorption fields. Fill material
can be used to elevate the absorption field. Special
measures are needed to overcome the wetness
limitation at sites for buildings and local roads and
streets. If adequate water outlets are available,
drainage can be installed to keep the high water table
below a depth of 2.5 feet. Building sites and roadbeds
can also be elevated by adding fill material to increase
the effective depth to the high water table.
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. A water-control
system is needed to keep the high water table below a
depth of about 2.5 feet. Suitable topsoil or pavement
can be used to stabilize the soil in heavy traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IVw.

19-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional. This
very poorly drained soil is in depressional areas mostly
on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from 3 to several
hundred acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and are
0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer that is 15
inches thick. The upper part is black mucky fine sand
and the lower part is black fine sand. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 28 inches is fine sand. It is
gray in the upper part and grayish brown in the lower
part. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay loam to a
depth of about 40 inches, light grayish brown sandy
clay loam to a depth of about 48 inches, gray sandy
clay loam to a depth of about 58 inches, and greenish
gray sandy loam to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chobee, Felda, Holopaw, and Kaliga soils. Chobee soils
have a loamy subsoil within 20 inches of the surface.
Kaliga soils are organic. Felda and Holopaw soils are
similar to the Floridana soil. The included soils make up
15 to 20 percent of the map unit.
This Floridana soil is ponded for more than 6 months
during most years. Areas on flood plains are subject to
frequent flooding as well as to ponding. The available
water capacity is moderate. Permeability is very slow or
slow.
Most of the acreage of this soil remains in natural


32







Polk County, Florida


vegetation that is mostly cypress, blackgum, bay, red
maple, myrtle, pickerelweed, sedges, and water-tolerant
grasses.
Unless this soil is drained, it is too wet for cultivated
crops, pasture, or planted pine trees. Drainage outlets
need to be located before drainage can be applied.
This soil is not suited to citrus.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and
other herbaceous plants in areas where the soil
generally is saturated or covered with water for at least
2 months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the
drier parts of the site, and maidencane is dominant in
the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a much
needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
This soil is severely limited as a site for most urban
uses because of the wetness during periods of heavy
rainfall. The high water table interferes with proper
functioning of septic tank absorption fields, sewage
lagoons, and sanitary landfills. Ponding is a severe
limitation affecting building sites and local roads and
streets.
The ponding is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. It is difficult to overcome because
most areas are depressional. In areas that are suitable,
topsoil or suitable fill material must be added to improve
trafficability.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

20-Fort Meade sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
well drained soil is on upland ridges. Areas of this soil
range from 20 to several hundred acres. Slopes are
smooth to convex.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 25 inches thick. The underlying material to
a depth of at least 80 inches is brown sand that grades
to yellowish brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Apopka, Candler, and Tavares soils. Apopka soils have
a loamy subsoil. Candler and Tavares soils are similar
to the Fort Meade soil. The included soils make up 15
to 20 percent of the map unit.
This Fort Meade soil does not have a high water


table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid.
Most areas of this soil are in citrus. Some remain in
natural vegetation that is mostly longleaf pine, slash
pine, South Florida slash pine, oak, hickory, cabbage
palm, and magnolia. The understory is widely spaced
saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, paspalum, and panicum.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
are severe limitations affecting cultivated crops.
Intensive soil management practices are required. Crop
rotations should keep close-growing cover crops on the
land at least two-thirds of the time. Frequent
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Soil-
improving crops and crop residue help to maintain
organic matter content and protect the soil from erosion.
Irrigation of a few high value crops generally is feasible
if irrigation water is readily available.
In places that are relatively free from freezing
temperatures, this soil is suited to citrus. A good ground
cover of close-growing plants is needed between the
trees to control soil blowing. Good yields of oranges
and grapefruit can be obtained in most years without
irrigation, but increased yields are feasible where
irrigation water is readily available.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Deep-rooted
plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
normally grow well if fertilizer and lime are used. Yields
are limited by drought in prolonged dry periods.
Controlled grazing is needed to maintain plant vigor for
best yields.
Typically, the Upland Hardwood Hammock range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a
dense canopy of oak, magnolia, and hickory. Because
of the dense canopy and relatively open understory,
cattle use this range site mainly for shade and resting
areas. Desirable forage includes indiangrass,
switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and chalky bluestem.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management, which are
caused by the sandiness of the soil, are seedling
mortality, plant competition, and the equipment use
limitation. Slash pine, South Florida slash pine, and
longleaf pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil has only slight limitations affecting most
urban uses; however, seepage is a severe limitation
affecting sanitary landfills.
The sandy surface is a moderate limitation affecting
recreational uses, and trafficability is only fair. Some
form of surfacing can be used to reduce or overcome
this limitation.
The capability subclass is Ills.


33







Soil Survey


21-Immokalee sand. This poorly drained soil is in
broad areas on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from
20 to several hundred acres. Slopes are smooth to
concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 39 inches is light gray sand that grades
to white. The subsoil is black sand to a depth of about
58 inches. Below that is gray sand to a depth of about
66 inches, very dark gray sand to a depth of about 75
inches, and black sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Myakka, and Smyrna soils. These soils are
similar to the Immokalee soil. Also included are soils
that are similar to the Immokalee soil but have a Bh
horizon at a depth of more than 50 inches or have
loamy material at a depth of more than 40 inches. The
loamy material has low base saturation. The included
soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the map unit.
This Immokalee soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months in
most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate in the subsoil.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in pasture or forest.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, South Florida
slash pine, slash pine, saw palmetto, gallberry,
waxmyrtle, oak, fetterbush lyonia, and pineland
threeawn.
This soil has very severe limitations affecting
cultivated crops. Wetness and low natural fertility limit
the choice of plants and reduce potential yields. If
intensive management practices and a water-control
system are used, some vegetables can be grown. The
water-control system must remove excess water in wet
periods and supply water as needed in dry periods.
Crop residue and soil-improving cover crops add
organic matter to the soil and improve fertility. Fertilizer
should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
This soil generally is poorly suited to citrus because
of the excessive wetness. It is suitable only if a water-
control system is used to maintain the water table at an
effective depth. Citrus trees should be planted on beds,
and a plant cover should be maintained between the
trees. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops;
however, a good water-control system is needed to
remove excess water. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are
suitable pasture plants. Grasses respond to regular
applications of fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be
controlled to maintain plant vigor and a good ground
cover.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site


includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. If good grazing management practices are
used, this range site has the potential to produce
significant amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various panicums. If
range deterioration occurs, saw palmetto and pineland
threeawn are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
The major concerns in management are seedling
mortality, plant competition, and the equipment use
limitation during periods of heavy rainfall. Slash pine
and South Florida slash pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil has severe limitations affecting septic tank
absorption fields, building sites, and local roads and
streets. Special measures are required to overcome the
excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption fields can be
elevated by adding fill material. Foundations and
roadbeds require special measures that provide
additional soil strength.
The excessive wetness and the sandy texture are
severe limitations affecting recreational uses. A water-
control system that keeps the seasonal high water table
below a depth of about 2.5 feet is required. Suitable
topsoil or pavement can be used to stabilize the soil
surface in heavy traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IVw.

22-Pomello fine sand. This moderately well drained
soil is on low, broad ridges and low knolls on flatwoods.
Areas of this soil range from about 10 to 100 acres.
Slopes are smooth to convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray fine sand surface
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
white fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches. The
subsoil to a depth of about 53 inches is dark reddish
brown fine sand that is coated with organic matter. To a
depth of about 63 inches, it is black fine sand that is
coated with organic matter. The underlying material is
dark brown fine sand to a depth of at least 80 inches. In
a few areas the subsoil is weakly cemented by organic
matter.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Archbold, Duette, Immokalee, and Satellite soils.
Archbold and Satellite soils do not have a dark subsoil.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Duette soils are
similar to the Pomello soil. The included soils make up
about 15 to 30 percent of the map unit.
This Pomello soil has a seasonal high water table at
a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months in most
years. The available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the subsoil.


34








Polk County, Florida


Most of the acreage of this soil is rangeland or
woodland. Some areas are cleared for improved
pasture or citrus. The natural vegetation is various
scrub oaks, longleaf pine, sand pine, South Florida
slash pine, slash pine, saw palmetto, fetterbush lyonia,
tarflower, and pineland threeawn.
This soil has severe limitations affecting most
cultivated crops. Droughtiness, low fertility, and rapid
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and
the potential yields. Irrigation is needed in most areas
for best plant growth during dry periods. Returning crop
residue to the soil and planting cover crops add organic
matter to the soil, improve fertility, and reduce soil loss
by wind and water action. Fertilizer and lime should be
applied according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus, mainly because of
the droughtiness. Fair yields of citrus can be obtained if
a carefully designed irrigation system and good
management are used.
Even if good management practices are used, this
soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay crops. Yields
are reduced by periodic droughts. Bahiagrass is the
most suitable pasture plant. Grasses respond to
fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain plant vigor and a good ground cover.
Typically, the Sand Pine Scrub range site includes
areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is scrub
oaks, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Sand pine is not
on all sites. The droughtiness limits the potential for
producing native forage. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
provide limited amounts of lopsided indiangrass,
creeping bluestem, and switchgrass. Livestock generally
do not use this range site; however, protection and dry
bedding ground during wet periods are provided on this
range site.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
The major concerns in management are the equipment
use limitation, seedling mortality caused by
droughtiness, and plant competition. South Florida slash
pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine are the best trees to
plant.
This soil has moderate or severe limitations affecting
most urban uses. Wetness and poor filtration are severe
limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields.
Seepage, the wetness, and the sandy texture are
severe limitations affecting sanitary landfills. Trenches
should be sealed. Wetness is a moderate limitation
affecting building sites. Ditching and land shaping help
to overcome these limitations.
The sandy texture is a severe limitation affecting


recreational uses. Suitable topsoil or other material
should be added to improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Vis.

23-Ona fine sand. This poorly drained soil is in
broad areas on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from
about 10 to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave
and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black and very dark gray
fine sand surface layer about 10 inches thick. The
subsoil is dark brown fine sand to a depth of about 24
inches. Below that is grayish brown fine sand to a depth
of about 50 inches and dark brown fine sand to a depth
of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Immokalee, Myakka, and Smyrna soils. These
soils are similar to the Ona soil. Also included are soils
that are similar to the Ona soil except they have a 4- to
6-inch layer of organic material on the surface. The
included soils make up about 10 to 30 percent of the
map unit.
This Ona soil has a seasonal high water table within
12 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months in most
years. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is moderate in the subsoil.
Most areas are used for range or woodland. Areas
where water control is adequate are used for citrus,
improved pasture, or truck crops. The natural vegetation
is mostly slash pine, South Florida slash pine, longleaf
pine, saw palmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
pineland threeawn, and scattered fetterbush lyonia.
This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops
unless an intensive water-control system is used. The
water-control system must remove excess water in wet
periods and provide subsurface irrigation in dry periods.
If a water-control system is used, many kinds of
vegetables can be grown. Good management also
includes crop rotations that keep close-growing, soil-
improving crops on the land at least two-thirds of the
time. These crops and crop residue help to protect the
soil from erosion and to maintain organic matter
content. Fertilizer and lime should be added according
to the need of the crop.
This soil generally is poorly suited to citrus. If
drained, it is moderately well suited. Drainage must
remove excess water from the soil rapidly and maintain
the water table at an effective depth. Citrus trees should
be planted on beds. A ground cover of close-growing
plants between the trees helps to protect the soil from
erosion by wind and water. Regular applications of
fertilizer and occasional applications of lime are needed.


35








Soil Survey


Highest yields require irrigation.
This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rainfall. Fertilizer and lime are needed, and
grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing and
weakening of the plants.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. If good grazing management practices are
used, this site has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. If range
deterioration occurs, saw palmetto and pineland
threeawn are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. Bedding of rows helps in establishing seedlings
and removing excess surface water. The major
concerns in management are seedling mortality, plant
competition, and the equipment use limitation during
periods of heavy rainfall. South Florida slash pine and
slash pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban
development because of the wetness during rainy
periods. The high water table interferes with proper
functioning of septic tank absorption fields. Suitable fill
material is needed to elevate the absorption fields.
Special measures are needed to overcome the wetness
limitation affecting building sites and local roads and
streets. If adequate outlets are available, drainage can
prevent the high water table from rising above an
effective depth. Building sites and roadbeds can be
elevated by adding fill material to increase the effective
depth to the high water table.
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. The limitations
caused by wetness can be overcome if a water-control
system can be established. Suitable topsoil or
pavement can be used to stabilize the surface in heavy
traffic areas.
The capability subclass is Illw.

24-Nittaw sandy clay loam, frequently flooded.
This very poorly drained soil is on flood plains. Areas of
this soil range from 50 to several hundred acres. Slopes
are smooth to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black sandy clay loam
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsoil extends
to a depth of about 75 inches. The upper part is very
dark gray sandy clay, and the lower part is gray clay
that grades to dark gray loam that has red and olive


mottles. The underlying material is gray loamy sand to a
depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
Chobee, Floridana, and Kaliga soils. Also included are
areas of Nittaw soils that have a muck, mucky fine
sand, or fine sandy loam surface layer. Floridana soils
are sandy to a depth of more than 20 inches. Kaliga
soils are organic. Chobee soils are similar to the Nittaw
soil. The included soils make up about 5 to 15 percent
of the map unit.
The Nittaw soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for at least 6 months
during most years. Most areas are flooded during the
rainy season. The available water capacity is high.
Permeability is slow.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural
vegetation that is mainly mixed hardwoods including red
maple, sugarberry, and gum. Baldcypress, cabbage
palm, and oak are in some areas. The understory
includes waxmyrtle and a few shade- and water-tolerant
forbs and grasses.
The flooding and the wetness limit the use of this soil
for cultivated crops, citrus, or pasture.
The potential productivity for pine trees is low;
however, pine trees can be highly productive if water-
control systems are developed. The major concerns in
management are severe seeding mortality and the
equipment use limitation caused by the wetness. Slash
pine and South Florida slash pine are the best trees to
plant. Areas of this soil generally are not planted to pine
trees.
This soil is not suited to urban or recreational uses
because of the wetness and the flooding.
The capability subclass is Vw.

25-Placid and Myakka fine sands, depressional.
This map unit consists of very poorly drained Placid and
Myakka soils in depressions mostly on flatwoods.
Typically, about 60 percent of the map unit is Placid soil
and 30 percent is Myakka soil, but the proportion varies
in each mapped area. Some areas have only one of
these soils. Areas of each soil are large enough to be
mapped separately, but because wetness limits their
present and predicted use, they were mapped as one
unit. In a typical area, Placid soil is in the lowest
positions on the landscape and Myakka soil is in the
higher positions adjacent to the flatwoods. Areas of
these soils range from 5 to 40 acres. Slopes are
smooth to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this Placid soil has a black fine sand
surface layer about 18 inches thick. The underlying
material is dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 28


36








Polk County, Florida


inches, light gray fine sand to a depth of about 60
inches, and grayish brown fine sand to a depth of at
least 80 inches.
This Placid soil is ponded for at least 6 months
during most years. The available water capacity is
moderate. Permeability is rapid.
Typically, this Myakka soil has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 25
inches. The subsoil is black fine sand to a depth of
about 35 inches. The underlying material is dark gray
fine sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
This Myakka soil has a seasonal high water table
that is above the surface for about 6 months during
most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the
subsoil.
Included in mapping are areas of Basinger, Ona,
Pomona, and St. Johns soils. Pomona soils have a
loamy subsoil. Basinger, Ona, and St. Johns soils are
similar to the Placid and Myakka soils. The included
soils make up 5 to 10 percent of the map unit.
Most areas of the Placid and Myakka soils are in
natural vegetation that is mostly bay, scattered cypress,
blackgum, St. Johnswort, maidencane, and other water-
tolerant plants.
These soils are not suited to commonly grown crops
because of the wetness and the ponding.
These soils are poorly suited to pasture because of
the wetness and the ponding; however, during the
winter limited grazing occurs around the fringe areas of
the ponds.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of these soils. The dominant
vegetation is an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants in areas where the
soil generally is saturated or covered with water for at
least 2 months during the year. If good grazing
management practices are used, this range site has the
potential to produce more forage than any of the other
range sites. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane
dominate the drier parts of the site, and maidencane is
dominant in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage
includes cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and
low panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a
much needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
These soils are not suited to pine trees because of
the wetness and the ponding.


These soils have severe limitations affecting urban
and recreational uses because of the wetness and the
ponding. Drainage and large amounts of fill material are
needed to make these soils suitable for these uses.
Most areas do not have suitable outlets for excess
water.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

26-Lochloosa fine sand. This somewhat poorly
drained soil is mostly in lower positions on uplands and
on low ridges on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range
from 5 to 80 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and
are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray fine sand surface
layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is very
pale brown fine sand to a depth of about 36 inches. The
subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of about 65
inches. It is pale brown in the upper part, light brownish
gray in the next part, and gray in the lower part. The
underlying material is gray sandy clay loam to a depth
of at least 80 inches.
Included in mapping are small areas of Adamsville,
Kendrick, Millhopper, and Sparr soils. Adamsville soils
do not have a loamy subsoil. Kendrick soils are well
drained. Millhopper and Sparr soils are similar to the
Lochloosa soil. The included soils make up about 5 to
10 percent of the map unit.
This Lochloosa soil has a seasonal high water table
at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 months during
most years. It is at a depth of about 15 inches for 1 to 3
weeks during wet periods. The available water capacity
is moderate. Permeability is slow in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used for improved pasture,
citrus, or truck crops. Some are in natural vegetation
that is mostly slash pine, South Florida slash pine,
hickory, live oak, laurel oak, water oak, sweetgum, and
magnolia.
Wetness is a moderate limitation affecting most
cultivated crops. The seasonal high water table limits
the choice of plants and reduces potential yields. Crop
rotations should keep close-growing cover crops on the
land at least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover
crops and crop residue help to protect against erosion
and to maintain organic matter content. Irrigating high
value crops generally is feasible if water is readily
available. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
Unless very intensive management practices are
used, this soil is poorly suited to citrus. Areas that are
subject to frequent freezing are not suited. This soil is
moderately suited if a water-control system is used to
maintain the water table at an effective depth. Citrus
trees should be planted on beds, and a plant cover


37








Soil Survey


should be maintained between the trees. Fertilizer and
lime are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, such
as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass. Grasses
respond to fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be
controlled to maintain plant vigor for highest yields.
Typically, the Oak Hammock range site includes
areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a dense
canopy of predominantly live oak trees. Because of the
dense canopy and relatively open understory, cattle use
this range site mainly for shade and resting areas.
Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low panicums,
low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided indiangrass.
The potential productivity for pine trees is high. Slash
pine and South Florida slash pine are the best trees to
plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban
development because of the wetness during rainy
periods. The high water table interferes with proper
functioning of septic tank absorption fields. Fill material
can be used to elevate the absorption fields. This soil
has only slight limitations affecting sites for buildings
and local roads and streets.
The sandy surface is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. This limitation can be overcome by
adding suitable topsoil or other material in heavy traffic
areas.
The capability subclass is IIw.

27-Kendrick fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
well drained soil is on broad uplands and high knolls on
flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from 40 to several
hundred acres. Slopes are smooth to concave.
Typically, this soil has a very dark grayish brown fine
sand surface layer about 9 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of about
29 inches. The subsoil to a depth of about 34 inches is
brownish yellow fine sandy loam. To a depth of about
64 inches it is yellowish brown and brownish yellow
sandy clay loam that is 1 to 5 percent plinthite. The
underlying material is gray sandy clay loam that is
mottled in shades of brown and red.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Apopka, Candler, and Millhopper soils. Candler soils do
not have a loamy subsoil. Apopka and Millhopper soils
are similar to the Kendrick soil. The included soils make
up about 10 to 30 percent of the map unit.
This Kendrick soil does not have a water table within
a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is
moderate. Permeability is slow or moderately slow in
the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used for citrus or improved


pasture. The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine,
South Florida slash pine, slash pine, hickory, magnolia,
laurel oak, and live oak. The understory includes
bluestem, indiangrass, hairy panicum, and annual forbs.
A moderate hazard of erosion affects cultivated
crops, and erosion-control measures are needed. These
measures include contour cultivation of row crops
planted in strips with cover crops. Crop rotations should
keep cover crops on the land at least half the time.
Cover crops and crop residue help to maintain organic
matter content and control erosion. Maximum yields
require good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime.
This soil is drought in dry periods, and yields are often
reduced by untimely droughts. Irrigation of some high
value crops is feasible if irrigation water is readily
available.
In places that are relatively free from freezing
temperatures, this soil is well suited to citrus. A good
ground cover of close-growing plants is needed
between the trees to control erosion. Fertilizer, lime,
and a well designed irrigation system are needed for
highest yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Clover, tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and
improved bahiagrass produce good yields if properly
managed. Fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing help to
maintain vigorous plants for highest yields and good
ground cover.
Typically, the Upland Hardwood Hammock range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a
dense canopy of oak, magnolia, and hickory. Because
of the dense canopy and relatively open understory,
cattle use this range site mainly for shade and resting
areas. Desirable forage includes indiangrass,
switchgrass, longleaf uniola, and chalky bluestem.
The potential productivity for pine trees is high. The
moderate equipment use limitation, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are concerns in management.
Slash pine and South Florida slash pine are the best
trees to plant.
This soil is well suited to most urban uses; however,
seepage is a severe limitation affecting sewage lagoons
and area sanitary landfills. Sidewalls of these structures
need to be sealed and stabilized.
The sandy surface is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. This limitation can be easily
overcome by adding suitable topsoil or constructing
permanent covering in heavy traffic areas.
The capability subclass is lie.

29-St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
excessively drained soil is on dune-like ridges and


38








Polk County, Florida


isolated knolls. Areas of this soil range from about 5 to
105 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave.
Typically, this soil has a gray fine sand surface layer
about 3 inches thick. The underlying material is white
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Archbold, Astatula, Candler, Duette, and Tavares soils.
Duette soils have a dark subsoil. Archbold, Astatula,
Candler, and Tavares soils are similar to the St. Lucie
soil. The included soils make up 5 to 15 percent of the
map unit.
This St. Lucie soil does not have a water table within
a depth of 72 inches. The available water capacity is
very low. Permeability is very rapid.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. A
few areas have been cleared for urban development.
The natural vegetation is mostly sand pine, sand live
oak. Chapman oak, myrtle oak, scattered bluejack oak,
and turkey oak. The understory includes Rosemary,
pricklypear, and lichens.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, or
pasture because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching
of plant nutrients.
Typically, the Sand Pine Scrub range site includes
areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a fairly
dense stand of sand pine with a dense understory of
oak, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Because of past
timber management practices, sand pine is not on all
sites. Droughtiness limits the potential for producing
native forage. If good grazing management practices
are used, this site has the potential to provide limited
amounts of lopsided indiangrass, creeping bluestem,
and switchgrass. Livestock generally do not use this
range site if more productive sites are available.
Summer shade, winter protection, and dry bedding
ground during wet periods are provided on this range
site.
The potential productivity for sand pine is low. The
major concerns in management are the severe
equipment use limitation caused by the loose, sandy
surface and seedling mortality caused by droughtiness.
Sand pine is the best tree to plant.
This soil has only slight limitations affecting most
urban uses; however, seepage is a severe limitation
affecting sewage lagoons and landfill areas. The
sidewalls and bottom of lagoons and landfills should be
sealed.
The sandy surface causes poor trafficability in
recreational areas. The addition of suitable topsoil or
some form of surfacing can reduce or overcome this
limitation.
The capability subclass is VIIls.


30-Pompano fine sand. This poorly drained soil is
on broad, low flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from 5
to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and are 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of this soil to a depth of
about 15 inches is dark gray fine sand that grades to
grayish brown. The underlying material is very pale
brown fine sand to a depth of about 35 inches and light
gray fine sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Anclote, Basinger, and Placid soils. These soils are
similar to the Pompano soil. The included soils make up
15 to 20 percent of the map unit.
This Pompano soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during
most years. The available water capacity is very low,
and permeability is rapid.
Most areas of this soil are in range or pasture. The
natural vegetation consists of widely spaced cypress,
South Florida slash pine, and slash pine with an
understory of saw palmetto, creeping bluestem,
lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, sand
cordgrass, and panicums.
Wetness and droughtiness are very severe limitations
affecting cultivated crops. If water-control and soil-
improving measures are used, vegetable crops can be
grown. Crop rotations should include close-growing,
soil-improving crops. Crop residue and soil-improving
crops help to maintain organic matter content and
protect the soil from erosion.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. A carefully designed water-control system is
needed to maintain the water table at an effective
depth.
This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Typically, the Slough range site includes areas of this
soil. The dominant vegetation is a few scattered pine
trees surrounded by grasses, sedges, and rushes. If
good grazing management practices are used, this site
has the potential to produce significant amounts of blue
maidencane, maidencane, toothachegrass, chalky
bluestem, and Florida bluestem. If range deterioration
occurs, common carpetgrass, an introduced plant, is
dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
The major concerns in management are the equipment
use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
Slash pine and South Florida slash pine are the best
trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban uses
mostly because of the wetness. In addition, seepage


39








Soil Survey


and poor filtration are limitations affecting sanitary
facilities. Limitations affecting septic tank absorption
fields can be overcome by mounding and backfilling to
maintain the system above the seasonal high water
table.
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. A water-control
system and suitable topsoil or resurfacing can help to
overcome these limitations.
The capability subclass is IVw.

31-Adamsville fine sand. This somewhat poorly
drained soil is on low ridges on flatwoods and in low
areas on uplands. Areas of this soil range from about
11 to several hundred acres. Slopes are smooth and
are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of at least 80 inches is light
yellowish brown fine sand that grades to very pale
brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Tavares, Satellite, and Zolfo soils. Tavares and Satellite
soils are similar to the Adamsville soil. Zolfo soils have
a dark subsoil. The included soils make up 15 to 20
percent of the map unit.
This Adamsville soil has a seasonal high water table
at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months during
most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is rapid.
Most areas of this soil are in citrus. Some remain in
natural vegetation that is mostly slash pine, longleaf
pine, laurel oak, and water oak and an understory of
saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, indiangrass,
bluestem, and panicums.
Periodic wetness and droughtiness are very severe
limitations affecting cultivated crops. The number of
suitable crops is very limited unless intensive water-
control measures are used. A water-control system
must remove excess water in wet periods and provide
irrigation in dry periods. If a water-control system is
used, this soil is well suited to many kinds of flowers
and vegetables. Soil-improving crops and crop residue
help to maintain organic matter content and protect the
soil from erosion.
Unless this soil is drained, it is not suited to citrus. If
a well designed drainage system is used, this soil is
moderately suited. Citrus trees should be planted on
beds. A ground cover of close-growing plants should be
maintained between the trees to control soil blowing in
dry weather and water erosion during rainfall.
This soil is moderately well suited to pastures of


pangolagrass and bahiagrass. Simple drainage is
needed to remove excess surface water in times of
heavy rainfall.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. If good grazing management practices are
used, this site has the potential to produce significant
amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
chalky bluestem, and various panicums. If range
deterioration occurs, saw palmetto and pineland
threeawn are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major management concerns, caused by
droughtiness, sandiness, and seasonal wetness, are the
equipment use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. Slash pine, South Florida slash pine, and
longleaf pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil has moderate or severe limitations affecting
most urban uses. The wetness and poor filtration are
severe limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields.
Seepage, the wetness, and the sandy texture are
severe limitations affecting sanitary landfills. Landfill
trenches should be sealed. The wetness is a moderate
limitation affecting building sites. Ditching and land
shaping help to overcome this limitation.
The sandy surface is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. Suitable topsoil or other material
should be added to improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

32-Kaliga muck. This very poorly drained soil is in
marshes and swamps. Areas of this soil range from
about 10 to several hundred acres. Slopes are smooth
to concave and are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black muck surface layer
about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark
reddish brown muck to a depth of about 30 inches. The
underlying material is very dark gray loam to a depth of
about 55 inches, dark gray sandy loam to a depth of
about 70 inches, and light gray sand to a depth of 80
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hontoon, Samsula, and Placid soils. Also included are a
few areas of Kaliga, Samsula, and Hontoon soils that
have been drained. Placid soils are sandy. Hontoon and
Samsula soils are similar to the Kaliga soil. The
included soils make up 15 to 25 percent of the map
unit.
Unless this Kaliga soil is drained, it has a seasonal
high water table at the surface or is ponded except
during extended dry periods. Areas on flood plains are


40








Polk County, Florida


Figure 6.-Subsidence of Kaliga muck leaves tree roots exposed
above the present ground surface.


subject to frequent flooding as well as to ponding. The
available water capacity is very high. Permeability is
slow or very slow.


Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation and
provide wildlife habitat and water storage. The natural
vegetation is mostly sweetbay, cypress, blackgum,
Carolina ash, and red maple with an understory of
sawgrass, lilies, reeds, sedges, and waxmyrtle. A few
drained areas are used for pasture or sod.
Unless this soil is drained, it is not suited to
cultivated crops. If water control is adequate, this soil is
well suited to most vegetable crops. A well designed
and maintained water-control system should remove
excess water when crops are on the land and keep the
soil saturated with water at all other times.
This soil is not suited to citrus.
Most improved grasses and clover grow well if water
is properly controlled. Water control should maintain the
water table near the surface to prevent oxidation of the
organic layers (fig. 6).
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and
other herbaceous plants in areas where the soil
generally is saturated or covered with water for at least
2 months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the
drier parts of the range site, and maidencane is
dominant in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage
includes cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and
low panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a
much needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
This soil is not suited to pine tree production or to
urban uses.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

33-Holopaw fine sand, depressional. This very
poorly drained soil is in wet depressions on flatwoods.
Areas of this soil range from 5 to over 100 acres.
Slopes are smooth to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 41 inches is light brownish gray to
grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil is light gray sandy
clay loam to a depth of about 65 inches. The underlying
material is gray loamy sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Felda, and Floridana soils. Basinger soils do
not have a loamy subsoil. Felda and Floridana soils are
similar to the Holopaw soil. The included soils make up


41








Soil Survey


Figure 7.-Cypress trees are the dominant vegetation on Holopaw fine sand, depressional.


about 20 to 40 percent of the map unit.
This Holopaw soil is ponded for more than 6 months
during most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderately slow in the subsoil.
Most of the acreage of this soil is rangeland or
woodland. A few areas that have adequate water
control are used for truck crops. The natural vegetation
is dominantly cypress (fig. 7) with a few scattered slash
pine and cabbage palm. The understory plants include
waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass, and maidencane.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, planted
pine trees, or pasture unless extensive drainage is
provided.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and


other herbaceous plants in an area where the soil
generally is saturated or covered with water for at least
2 months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the
drier parts of the range site, and maidencane is
dominant in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage
includes cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and
low panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a
much needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
This soil is severely limited as a site for all urban and
recreational uses because of the ponding. Drainage and


42








Polk County, Florida


large amounts of fill material are needed. Most areas do
not have suitable outlets for excess water.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

34-Anclote mucky fine sand, depressional. This
very poorly drained soil is in depressions mostly
bordering lakes throughout the county. Most areas are 3
to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and are 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of this soil is black mucky
fine sand to a depth of about 8 inches and very dark
gray fine sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The
underlying material is gray fine sand to a depth of about
60 inches and dark gray fine sand to a depth of at least
80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Floridana, and Samsula soils. Also included
are areas of soils that are similar to the Anclote soil
except they have as much as 10 inches of muck on the
surface. Floridana soils have a loamy subsoil. Samsula
soils are organic. Basinger soils are similar to the
Anclote soil. The included soils make up about 15 to 30
percent of the map unit.
This Anclote soil is ponded for at least 6 months
during most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is rapid.
Most of the acreage of this soil is rangeland or
woodland. The natural vegetation is cypress, bay,
Carolina ash, scattered cabbage palm, maple, and
rushes.
Unless this soil is drained, it is too wet to be used for
cultivated crops or pasture. Drainage outlets need to be
located before drainage can be applied.
This soil is not suited to citrus.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and
other herbaceous plants in areas where the soil
generally is saturated or covered with water for at least
2 months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the
drier parts of the range site, and maidencane is
dominant in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage
includes cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and
low panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a
much needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
This soil generally is not used for the commercial


production of pine trees, and the potential productivity is
high only if surface drainage is developed. The major
concerns in management are seedling mortality and the
equipment use limitation caused by the wetness.
This soil is severely limited as a site for most urban
uses because of the ponding. The high water table
interferes with proper functioning of septic tank
absorption fields, sewage lagoons, and sanitary
landfills. The ponding is a severe limitation affecting
sites for buildings and local roads and streets. Water
outlets generally are not available. Fill material can be
used to increase the effective depth to the water table.
The ponding is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. It is difficult to overcome because
areas of this soil generally are in depressions. In areas
that are made suitable, topsoil or suitable fill material
must be added to improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

35-Hontoon muck. This very poorly drained soil is
in swamps and marshes. Areas of this soil range from 5
to several hundred acres. Slopes are dominantly less
than 1 percent but range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil is black muck to a depth of about
11 inches and dark brown muck to a depth of about 75
inches. The underlying material is black sandy loam to
a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Kaliga, Placid, and Samsula soils and some soils that
are similar to the Hontoon soil except they have less
decomposed organic matter. Placid soils are sandy.
Kaliga and Samsula soils are similar to the Hontoon
soil. The included soils make up about 15 to 30 percent
of the map unit.
This Hontoon soil has a seasonal high water table
that is at or above the surface except during extended
dry periods. Areas on flood plains are subject to
frequent flooding as well as to ponding. The available
water capacity is very high. Permeability is rapid.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural
vegetation and provides wildlife habitat and water
storage. The natural vegetation is redbay, white bay,
red maple, blackgum, and cypress with a ground cover
of sawgrass, lilies, reeds, ferns, greenbrier, and other
aquatic plants.
Wetness is a very severe limitation affecting
cultivated crops. If water control is adequate, excellent
vegetable crops can be grown. A well designed and
maintained water-control system must remove excess
water when crops are growing and keep the soil
saturated at other times. Crops respond well to fertilizer.
Water-tolerant cover crops can be grown when row


43







Soil Survey


crops are not planted. To improve the soil, all crop
residue and cover crops should be incorporated into the
soil.
This soil is not suited to citrus because of the high
water table and low strength.
In its natural state, this soil is poorly suited to
pasture. Improved pasture grasses and clover do well
only if a well designed water-control system is installed.
The water table should be maintained near the surface
to prevent excessive oxidation of organic matter.
Fertilizer high in potash, phosphorus, and minor
elements is needed to maintain plant vigor. Lime should
be used to maintain a proper pH.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and
other herbaceous plants in an area where the soil
generally is saturated or covered with water for at least
2 months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the
drier parts of the range site, and maidencane is
dominant in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage
includes cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and
low panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a
much needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
This soil is not suited to pine trees.
This soil has very severe limitations affecting urban
and recreational uses because of the ponding and low
strength.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

36-Basinger mucky fine sand, depressional. This
very poorly drained soil is in wet depressions on
flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from about 4 to 25
acres. Slopes are smooth to convex and are 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray mucky fine
sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 35
inches. The subsoil is a mixture of grayish brown and
very dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about
45 inches. The underlying material is brown fine sand to
a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Placid, Pompano, St. Johns, and Samsula soils.
Samsula soils are organic. Placid, Pompano, and St.
Johns soils are similar to the Basinger soil. Also


included are soils that are similar to the Basinger soil
except they have a loamy sand or sandy loam subsoil.
The included soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the map
unit.
This Basinger soil is ponded for more than 6 months
during most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is rapid.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural
vegetation of broomsedge bluestem, chalky bluestem,
maidencane, cutgrass, St. Johnswort, pineland
threeawn, cypress, and other water-tolerant trees.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, or
improved pasture because of the ponding.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and
other herbaceous plants in areas where the soil
generally is saturated or covered with water for at least
2 months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the
drier parts of the range site, and maidencane is
dominant in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage
includes cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and
low panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a
much needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the range site.
This soil generally is not used for the commercial
production of pine trees. The potential productivity is
moderate only if surface drainage is developed. The
major management concerns, caused by the high water
table, are the severe equipment use limitation and
seedling mortality.
This soil is severely limited as a site for most urban
and recreational uses because of the ponding. The high
water table interferes with proper functioning of septic
tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, and sanitary
landfills. The ponding is a severe limitation affecting
sites for buildings and local roads and streets. Drainage
outlets generally are not available. Fill material can be
used to increase the effective depth to the water table.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

37-Placid fine sand, frequently flooded. This very
poorly drained soil is on narrow flood plains. Areas of
this soil range from 30 to several hundred acres. Slopes
are smooth to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sand surface layer
about 18 inches thick. The underlying material is dark


44







Polk County, Florida


gray fine sand to a depth of about 28 inches, light gray
fine sand to a depth of about 60 inches, and grayish
brown fine sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Adamsville, Anclote, Basinger, Holopaw, and Pompano
soils. Also included are small areas of soils that have a
shallow surface layer of organic material. Adamsville
soils are somewhat poorly drained. Holopaw soils have
a loamy subsoil. Anclote, Basinger, and Pompano soils
are similar to the Placid soil. The included soils make
up 15 to 20 percent of the map unit.
This Placid soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for long periods. Most
areas are flooded during the rainy season. The
available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid.
The natural vegetation is mostly scattered bay,
sweetgum, water oak, laurel oak, red maple, and
cypress and an understory of waxmyrtle, maidencane,
St. Johnswort, and other water-tolerant grasses.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or pasture
because of the flooding and the wetness. It also is not
suited to citrus.
The potential productivity for pine trees is low. The
major concerns in management are seedling mortality
and the equipment use limitation caused by the wetness
and the flooding. If water-control measures are used,
slash pine and South Florida slash pine are the best
trees to plant.
This soil has severe limitations affecting most urban
and recreational uses because of the wetness and the
flooding. Fill material and water control are required.
The capability subclass is VIw.

38-Electra fine sand. This somewhat poorly
drained soil is on low ridges on flatwoods. Areas of this
soil range from 5 to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth to
convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray fine sand surface
layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 42 inches is light gray fine sand. The
upper part of the subsoil is black fine sand to a depth of
about 50 inches. The next layer to a depth of about 55
inches is brown fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil
is gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Adamsville, Pomello, and Sparr soils. Adamsville soils
do not have a subsoil. Pomello soils do not have a
loamy subsoil. Sparr soils do not have a black sandy
subsoil. The included soils make up 15 to 25 percent of
the map unit.
This Electra soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months during most


years. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is slow or very slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
Most of the acreage of this soil is rangeland or
woodland. A few areas are cleared for improved
pasture. Some areas that have adequate water
management are used for citrus. The natural vegetation
is sand live oak, longleaf pine, slash pine, South Florida
slash pine, sand pine, running oak, saw palmetto,
chalky bluestem, and indiangrass.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
the choice of plants and reduce potential crop yields.
Even if good management practices are used, this
soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay crops because
of the droughtiness in the surface and subsurface
layers. Grasses, such as bahiagrass, can be grown.
They respond to fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be
controlled to maintain plant vigor and a good ground
cover.
Typically, the Sand Pine Scrub range site includes
areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a fairly
dense stand of sand pine with a dense understory of
oak, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Because of past
timber management practices, sand pine is not on all
sites. The droughtiness limits the potential for producing
native forage. If good grazing management practices
are used, this site has the potential to provide limited
amounts of lopsided indiangrass, creeping bluestem,
and switchgrass. Livestock generally do not use this
range site if more productive sites are available.
Summer shade, winter protection, and dry bedding
ground during wet periods are provided on this range
site.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
Seedling mortality, the equipment use limitation, and
plant competition are concerns in management. Slash
pine and South Florida slash pine are the best trees to
plant.
This soil has severe limitations affecting some urban
uses because it is too wet during periods of heavy
rainfall and too sandy during periods of drought. The
high water table interferes with proper functioning of
septic tank absorption fields. The high water table and
seepage interfere with the proper functioning of sewage
lagoons and sanitary landfills. Suitable fill material is
needed to overcome the moderate limitations affecting
sites for buildings and local roads and streets.
The sandy surface is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. Suitable material needs to be added
to improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is VIs.


45








Soil Survey


39-Arents, clayey substratum. These moderately
well drained to somewhat poorly drained soils are a
result of phosphate or silica mining. Deflocculated clay
is pumped into preshaped trenches or into a series of
pits from which phosphate has been removed. The clay
comes out as one separate after the phosphate
pebbles, ore, and sand have been removed. It has a
very high concentration of water and takes a very long
time to dry out under natural conditions. After the clay is
dry enough to support some vehicular traffic, a cap of
soil material (Arents) is spread over the clay. Areas of
these soils range from about 100 to 640 acres. Slopes
are smooth to convex.
The color and thickness of these soils vary from one
area to another. Typically, these soils are brown or
yellowish brown to gray or white sand to a depth of 2 to
4 feet. Some areas have a very compacted mixture of
sand and clay that is underlain by several feet of
mottled gray or gleyed clay. Some of the more common
colors are light gray, dark gray, pale green, and dark
greenish gray.
Included in mapping are small areas of Hydraquents
and Neilhurst soils and some areas of Arents that do
not have a clayey substratum. Also included are small
mounds that have slopes of more than 5 percent. The
included soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the map
unit.
In the Arents, the high water table, available water
capacity, and permeability are variable. The high water
table generally ranges from about 2 to 4 feet. The
available water capacity generally is low in the surface
layer and high in subsurface layer. Permeability is
variable but generally rapid in the surface and very slow
in the subsurface layer. Natural fertility generally is low
but can range to medium.
Most areas of these soils are used for pasture.
Onsite investigation is recommended before using these
soils as sites for buildings, roadways, recreational
areas, and other related activities.
This map unit is not suited to most common
cultivated crops. Variability of the topsoil and low
natural fertility are the main limitations. Special seedbed
preparation and water management are needed.
These soils have not been used extensively for
agronomic practices. Some experimental plots are
being tested.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

40-Wauchula fine sand. This poorly drained soil is
in low, broad areas on flatwoods. Areas of this soil


range from 5 to 40 acres. Slopes are smooth to
concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sand surface layer
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine
sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The upper part of
the subsoil is organic-coated fine sand to a depth of
about 26 inches. The next part to a depth of about 33
inches is dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower part
of the subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy loam to
a depth of about 38 inches, light gray sandy clay loam
to a depth of about 56 inches, and gray fine sandy loam
to a depth of about 70 inches. The underlying material
is gray fine sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Lynne, Myakka, and Pomona soils. Myakka soils do not
have a loamy subsoil. Lynne and Pomona soils are
similar to the Wauchula soil. The included soils make
up 20 to 40 percent of the map unit.
This Wauchula soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during
most years. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are rangeland or woodland.
Some areas that have adequate water management are
used for citrus, improved pasture, or truck crops. The
natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine, and
South Florida slash pine and an understory of saw
palmetto, gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, southern
bayberry, and pineland threeawn.
Wetness is a severe limitation affecting cultivated
crops. The number of suitable crops is very limited
unless intensive water-control measures are used. If a
water-control system is used, many kinds of flowers and
vegetables can be grown. The system must remove
excess water in wet periods and provide subsurface
irrigation in dry periods. Good management also
includes crop rotations that keep close-growing, soil-
improving crops on the land at least two-thirds of the
time. These crops and crop residue help to control soil
blowing and to maintain organic matter content.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
needs of the crop.
This soil generally is poorly suited to citrus because
of the wetness. If properly drained, it is moderately
suited to oranges and grapefruit. Drainage should
remove excess water from the soil rapidly and maintain
the water table at an effective depth. Citrus trees should
be planted on beds. A ground cover of close-growing
plants between the trees helps to control soil blowing
when the soil is dry and water erosion during heavy
rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer and occasional


46







Polk County, Florida


applications of lime are needed. Highest yields require
irrigation during periods of light rainfall.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops,
such as pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Simple
drainage is needed to remove excess surface water in
times of heavy rainfall. Fertilizer and lime are needed,
and grazing should be carefully controlled to maintain
healthy plants for highest yields.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. If good grazing management practices are
used, this range site has the potential to produce
significant amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various panicums. If
range deterioration occurs, saw palmetto and pineland
threeawn are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management are seedling
mortality, plant competition, and the equipment use
limitation during periods of heavy rainfall. South Florida
slash pine and slash pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban
development because of the wetness during the rainy
season. The high water table interferes with proper
functioning of septic tank absorption fields. Absorption
fields can be elevated by adding fill material. Special
measures are needed to overcome the problems
caused by the wetness on sites for buildings and local
roads and streets. If adequate outlets are available,
drainage can be installed to lower the effective depth of
the high water table. Building sites and roadbeds can
be elevated by adding fill material to increase the
effective depth to the high water table.
The wetness and the sandy surface layer are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. The problems
caused by the wetness can be overcome if a water-
control system can be established to keep the high
water table below a depth of about 2.5 feet. Suitable
topsoil or pavement can be used to stabilize the surface
in heavy traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

41-St. Johns sand. This poorly drained soil is on
low, broad flats and in sloughs on flatwoods. It is also
on toe slopes in the ridge areas. Areas of this soil range
from 5 to 50 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and
are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black sand surface layer
about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray
sand to a depth of about 22 inches. The subsoil to a
depth of about 65 inches is black, organic-coated sand


that grades to very dark grayish brown. The underlying
material is brown sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Ona, Placid, and Samsula soils. Also included
are areas of soils that have a thin, organic surface layer
and soils that have a mucky fine sand surface layer.
Placid soils do not have a dark subsoil. Samsula soils
are organic. Basinger and Ona soils are similar to the
St. Johns soil. The included soils make up about 20 to
40 percent of the map unit.
This St. Johns soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months during
most years. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is moderate or moderately slow in the
subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are rangeland or woodland.
Some that have adequate water management are used
for citrus, improved pasture, or specialty crops. The
natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash pine,
and South Florida slash pine and an understory of saw
palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland
threeawn, St. Johnswort, maidencane, and St.
Peterswort. Cutthroat grass is in the seep positions at
the base of the slopes.
This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops
unless intensive water-control measures are used. If a
water-control system is used, many kinds of vegetables
can be grown. The system must remove excess water
in wet periods and provide irrigation in dry periods.
Good management also includes crop rotations that
keep close-growing, soil-improving crops on the land at
least two-thirds of the time. These crops and crop
residue help to protect the soil from erosion and to
maintain organic matter content. Fertilizer and lime
should be added according to the needs of the crop.
This soil generally is poorly suited to citrus. If
properly drained, it is moderately well suited. Drainage
must remove excess water from the soil rapidly and
maintain the water table at an effective depth. Citrus
trees should be planted on beds. A ground cover of
close-growing plants between the trees helps to protect
the soil from erosion by wind and water. Regular
applications of fertilizer and occasional applications of
lime are needed. For highest yields, irrigation is needed
if water is readily available.
This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rainfall. Fertilizer and lime are needed, and
grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing and
weakening of the plants.
Typically, the Cutthroat Seep range site includes


47







Soil Survey


areas of this soil. Range plant production is moderate.
Cutthroat grass normally makes up more than 50
percent of the range site, and creeping bluestem makes
up about 10 percent. The period of grazing and the
number of cows per acre should be considered in a
good range management plan.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
The major concerns in management are seedling
mortality, plant competition, and the equipment use
limitation during periods of heavy rainfall. South Florida
slash pine and slash pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban
development because of the wetness during the rainy
season. The high water table interferes with proper
functioning of septic tank absorption fields. Adding fill
material can help overcome this limitation. Special
measures are required to overcome the wetness
limitation on sites for buildings and local roads and
streets. If adequate outlets are available, drainage helps
to prevent the high water table from rising. Building
sites and roadbeds can also be elevated by adding fill
material to increase the effective depth to the high
water table.
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. The problems
caused by the wetness can be overcome if a water-
control system is established. Suitable topsoil or
pavement can be used to stabilize the surface in heavy
traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

42-Felda fine sand. This poorly drained soil is in
sloughs or low hammocks on flatwoods. Areas of this
soil are 3 to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave
and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is light brownish gray and light gray fine sand to a depth
of about 22 inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam
to a depth of about 45 inches and light gray sandy loam
to a depth of about 50 inches. The underlying material
is sandy loam to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is light
gray in the upper part and pale green in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bradenton, Floridana, Malabar, and Oldsmar soils.
Bradenton soils have a loamy subsoil within 20 inches
of the surface. In Malabar and Oldsmar soils, the
subsoil is sandy material underlain by loamy material.
Floridana soils are similar to the Felda soil. The
included soils make up about 10 to 30 percent of the
map unit.
This Felda soil has a seasonal high water table


within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during
most years. In slough areas the surface is covered by
shallow, slowly moving water for 1 to 7 or more days
during periods of heavy rainfall. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderately rapid.
Most areas of this soil are in improved pasture. Some
remain in natural vegetation that is mainly South Florida
slash pine, slash pine, waxmyrtle, cabbage palm,
pineland threeawn, and many grasses.
Wetness is a severe limitation affecting cultivated
crops. If a well designed and managed water-control
system is used, fruit and vegetable crops can be grown.
The system must remove excess water rapidly and
provide a means of applying subirrigation. Good soil
management includes crop rotations that keep close-
growing cover crops on the land at least two-thirds of
the time. The cover crops and crop residue help to
maintain organic matter content and reduce soil
blowing. Seedbed preparation should include bedding.
Fertilizer should be applied according to the needs of
the crop.
If a proper water-control system is used, this soil is
well suited to citrus. The system should maintain good
drainage to an effective depth. Bedding of the land and
planting the trees on the beds provide good surface
drainage. A close-growing plant cover helps to protect
the soil from erosion when the trees are young.
Fertilizer and occasional applications of lime are
needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops,
such as pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
Excellent pastures of grass or grass-clover mixtures can
be grown. Fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed
for the highest yields.
Typically, the Slough range site includes areas of this
soil. The dominant vegetation is an open expanse of
grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area where the soil
is saturated during the rainy season. If good grazing
management practices are used, this range site has
potential for forage production almost as high as that of
the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
Desirable forage includes blue maidencane,
maidencane, chalky bluestem, toothachegrass, and
Florida bluestem. If excessive grazing occurs, common
carpetgrass, an introduced plant, is dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management are the
equipment use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
seedlings and removing excess surface water. Slash
pine and South Florida slash pine are the best trees to
plant.


48







Polk County, Florida


This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank
absorption fields, building sites, and local roads and
streets. Special measures are required to overcome the
excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption fields should
be elevated by adding suitable fill material.
The excessive wetness is a severe limitation
affecting recreational uses. Water-control measures that
keep the seasonal high water table below a depth of
about 2.5 feet are required. Suitable topsoil or
pavement can be used to stabilize the surface in heavy
traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

43-Oldsmar fine sand. This poorly drained soil is in
broad areas on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from
10 to 80 acres. Slopes are smooth and convex and are
0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray fine sand surface
layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray
fine sand to a depth of about 36 inches. The subsoil to
a depth of about 50 inches is black and dark reddish
brown fine sand that is coated with organic matter. It is
mottled sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, and Smyrna soils.
Immokalee, Myakka, and Smyrna soils do not have a
loamy subsoil. EauGallie soils are similar to the
Oldsmar soil. The included soils make up about 10 to
20 percent of the map unit.
This Oldsmar soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months during
most years and at a depth of 12 to 40 inches for more
than 6 months. The high water table recedes to a depth
of more than 40 inches during extended dry periods.
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is slow
or very slow in the loamy subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used as rangeland or
woodland. Some that have adequate water
management are used for citrus, improved pasture, or
truck crops. The natural vegetation is mostly live oak,
laurel oak, slash pine, South Florida slash pine, longleaf
pine, and cabbage palm and an understory of
waxmyrtle, saw palmetto, and pineland threeawn.
Wetness and droughtiness are very severe limitations
affecting cultivated crops. The number of suitable crops
is limited unless very intensive management practices
are followed. If good water-control and soil-improving
measures are used, some vegetable crops can be
grown. The water-control system must remove excess
water in wet periods and provide water for irrigation in
dry periods. Crop rotations should keep close-growing,


soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths of the
time. Crop residue and soil-improving crops help to
control soil blowing and to maintain organic matter
content. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of
the rows. Fertilizer should be added according to the
needs of the crop.
Unless very intensive management practices are
used, this soil is poorly suited to citrus. In areas subject
to frequent freezing, it is not suited. Citrus crops can be
grown only if a water-control system is used that
maintains the water table at an effective depth. Citrus
trees should be planted on beds, and a plant cover
should be maintained between the trees. Fertilizer and
lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rainfall. Fertilizer is needed, and grazing
should be controlled to prevent overgrazing and
weakening of the plants.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. Cabbage palms are in some areas. If good
grazing management practices are used, this range site
has the potential to produce significant amounts of
broomsedge bluestem, toothachegrass, and various
panicums. If range deterioration occurs, saw palmetto
and pineland threeawn are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management are the
equipment use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. South Florida slash pine and slash pine
are the best trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban
development because of the wetness during the rainy
season. The high water table interferes with the proper
functioning of septic tank absorption fields. The septic
tank absorption fields can be elevated by adding fill
material. Special measures are needed to overcome
problems caused by wetness on sites used for buildings
and for local roads and streets. If adequate outlets are
available, drainage helps to keep the high water table
below a depth of 2.5 feet. Building sites and roadbeds
can also be elevated by adding fill material to increase
the effective depth to the high water table.
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. The problems
caused by the wetness can be overcome if a water-
control system is used to keep the high water table
below a depth of about 2.5 feet. Suitable topsoil or


49







Soil Survey


pavement can be used to stabilize the surface in heavy
traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IVw.

44-Paisley fine sand. This poorly drained soil is on
low, broad flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from
about 20 to 160 acres. Slopes are smooth and are 0 to
2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 14 inches is grayish brown fine
sand that grades to gray. The subsoil is gray sandy clay
to a depth of about 48 inches. The underlying material
is light gray sandy clay to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bradenton, Felda, and Wabasso soils. Felda soils are
sandy to a depth of at least 20 inches. Wabasso soils
have a dark subsoil. Bradenton soils are similar to the
Paisley soil. The included soils make up 15 to 20
percent of the map unit.
This Paisley soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4 months during
most years. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is slow in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used as rangeland or
woodland, and many have been cleared for improved
pasture. Some areas that have adequate water
management are used for truck crops. The natural
vegetation is mostly slash pine, South Florida slash
pine, live oak, cabbage palm, and sweetgum with an
understory of waxmyrtle, bluestem, and other grasses.
Wetness and the slow permeability are very severe
limitations affecting cultivated crops. The number of
suitable crops is limited unless very intensive soil
management practices are used.-If good water-control
and soil-improving measures are used, vegetable crops
can be grown. A water-control system must remove
excess water in wet periods and provide water in dry
periods. Crop rotations should keep close-growing, soil-
improving crops on the land three-fourths of the time.
Crop residue and soil-improving crops help to maintain
organic matter content and protect the soil from erosion.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added according to
the needs of the crop.
Unless very intensive management practices are
used, this soil is poorly suited to citrus. It is suited only
if a carefully designed water-control system is used.
Citrus trees should be planted on beds, and a plant
cover should be maintained between the trees. Fertilizer
and lime are needed.


This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rainfall. Fertilizer and lime are needed, and
grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing and
weakening of the plants.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. If good grazing management practices are
used, this range site has the potential to produce
significant amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various panicums. If
range deterioration occurs, saw palmetto and wiregrass
are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is very high.
The major concerns in management are seedling
mortality, plant competition, windthrow hazard, and the
equipment use limitation when the soil is saturated
during periods of heavy rainfall. Slash pine and South
Florida slash pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban
development because of the wetness during the rainy
season. The high water table and the slow permeability
interfere with proper functioning of septic tank
absorption fields. Absorption fields can be elevated by
adding suitable fill material. Special measures are
needed to overcome the problems caused by the
wetness and the high shrink-swell potential on sites for
buildings and local roads and streets. If adequate
outlets are available, drainage can lower the depth to
the high water table. Building sites and roadbeds can
be elevated by adding material to increase the effective
depth to the high water table.
The wetness and the sandy surface layer are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. The problems
caused by the wetness can be overcome by a drainage
system that keeps the high water table below a depth of
about 2.5 feet. Suitable topsoil or pavement can be
used to stabilize the surface in heavy traffic areas.
The capability subclass is Illw.

46-Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This
excessively drained soil is on sandy upland ridges.
Areas of this soil range from 20 to more than 10,000
acres.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray sand surface layer
about 7 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
of at least 80 inches is light yellowish brown sand that
grades to very pale brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of


50








Polk County, Florida


Candler and Tavares soils. These soils are similar to
the Astatula soil. They make up less than 15 percent of
the map unit.
This Astatula soil does not have a water table within
a depth of 72 inches. The available water capacity is
very low. Permeability is very rapid.
Most of the acreage of this soil is used for citrus or
improved pasture. The natural vegetation is bluejack
oak, turkey oak, longleaf pine, sand pine, Rosemary,
pineland threeawn, bluestem, and paspalum.
This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops and
citrus because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of
plant nutrients. If irrigation is used, high yields of citrus
can be obtained. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay crops;
however, grasses, such as pangolagrass and
bahiagrass, can be grown.
Typically, the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is longleaf pine and turkey oak. Forage production and
quality are poor, and cattle do not readily use this range
site if other sites are available. Desirable forage
includes creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and
low panicums.
The potential productivity for pine trees is low. The
major concerns in management, caused by
droughtiness and sandiness, are the equipment use
limitation and seedling mortality. Sand pine is the best
tree to plant.
This soil has only slight limitations affecting most
urban uses. Because of poor filtration, however, ground
water contamination is a hazard in areas that have a
concentration of homes with septic tanks. Seepage is a
severe limitation affecting sanitary landfills. Landfill
trenches should be sealed. The slope is a moderate
limitation affecting sites for small commercial buildings.
The sandy surface causes poor trafficability in
recreational areas. Suitable topsoil or some form of
surfacing can reduce or overcome this limitation. Slope
is a severe limitation affecting playgrounds.
The capability subclass is VIs.

47-Zolfo fine sand. This somewhat poorly drained
soil is on low, broad ridges and knolls on flatwoods.
Areas of this soil range from 10 to 150 acres. Slopes
are smooth to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is fine sand. It is brown to pale brown to a depth of
about 30 inches and light gray to a depth of about 67
inches. The next layer to a depth of about 71 inches is


brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of at least 80
inches is dark reddish brown fine sand that is coated
with organic matter.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Adamsville, Immokalee, Pomello, and Tavares soils.
Adamsville and Tavares soils do not have a dark
subsoil. Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Pomello
soils are similar to the Zolfo soil. The included soils
make up about 5 to 15 percent of the map unit.
This Zolfo soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months during most
years and at a depth of 10 to 24 inches for up to 2
weeks in some years. The available water capacity is
low. Permeability is moderate in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are in citrus. Some remain in
natural vegetation that is mostly scattered turkey oak,
laurel oak, water oak, longleaf pine, South Florida slash
pine, and slash pine with an undercover of pineland
threeawn, bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, gallberry,
and saw palmetto.
Seasonal wetness and droughtiness are severe
limitations affecting cultivated crops. The number of
suitable crops is limited. A complete water-control
system is recommended for most crops. If such a
system is installed and maintained, many fruit and
vegetable crops can be grown. The system should
remove excess water rapidly and provide a means of
applying irrigation. Good soil management also includes
close-growing cover crops in the crop rotation. Crop
residue should be used to control soil blowing and to
maintain organic matter content. Good seedbed
preparation includes bedding. Fertilizer and lime should
be added according to the needs of the crop.
In places that are relatively free from freezing
temperatures, this soil is well suited to citrus. A water-
control system is needed to maintain the high water
table at an effective depth. A ground cover of close-
growing plants should be maintained between the trees
to control soil blowing in dry weather and water erosion
during heavy rainfall. Good yields of oranges and
grapefruit generally can be obtained without irrigation;
however, increased yields can be expected if irrigation
is used during drier periods. Fertilizer and lime are
needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, grow well if fertilizer and lime are used.
Production is occasionally restricted by extended
drought. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
vigor and good ground cover.
A range site is not given for this soil because most of
the acreage is in citrus.


51








Soil Survey


The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are concerns in management. Slash
pine and South Florida slash pine are the best trees to
plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank
absorption fields because of the wetness and a poor
filtering capacity. Adding suitable fill material to elevate
the absorption field helps to overcome these limitations.
Seepage is a severe limitation affecting sewage
lagoons and sanitary landfills. The sidewalls and bottom
of lagoons and landfills should be sealed. The wetness
is a moderate limitation affecting sites for dwellings
without basements, small commercial buildings, and
local roads and streets.
The sandy texture is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. Suitable topsoil or pavement can be
used to stabilize the surface in heavy traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

48-Chobee fine sandy loam, depressional. This
very poorly drained soil is in wet depressions on
flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from 5 to 100 acres.
Slopes are smooth to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sandy loam
surface layer about 12 inches thick. The subsoil to a
depth of about 55 inches is black sandy clay loam that
grades to very dark gray and gray. The underlying
material is gray fine sand to a depth of at least 80
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Eaton, Floridana, and Nittaw soils. Also included are
soils similar to the Chobee soil except they have a
muck surface layer that is as much as 4 inches thick.
Eaton and Floridana soils are sandy to a depth of 20 to
40 inches. Nittaw soils are similar to the Chobee soil.
The included soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the map
unit.
This Chobee soil is ponded for more than 6 months
during most years. The available water capacity is
moderate. Permeability is slow or very slow in the
subsoil.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural
vegetation that is mostly pickerelweed, lilies, sawgrass,
scattered red maple, cypress, bay, blackgum, and ash.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, or
improved pasture because of the ponding. Drainage
outlets need to be located before drainage can be
applied.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and


other herbaceous plants in areas where the soil
generally is saturated or covered with water for at least
2 months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the
drier parts of the site, and maidencane is dominant in
the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a much
needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
This soil is not used for commercial production of
pine trees. The potential productivity for pine trees is
moderate only if surface drainage is improved. The
major concerns in management, caused by a high water
table, are the severe equipment use limitation and
seedling mortality.
This soil is severely limited as a site for most urban
and recreational uses because of the ponding. The high
water table interferes with proper functioning of septic
tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, and sanitary
landfills. Drainage outlets generally are not available.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

49-Adamsville-Urban land complex. This map unit
consists of areas of somewhat poorly drained
Adamsville soil and Urban land. The individual areas of
Adamsville soil and Urban land are so small and
intermixed that mapping them separately at the selected
scale was not practical. Individual areas are somewhat
rectangular. Slopes generally are smooth and are 0 to 2
percent.
The Adamsville soil makes up about 50 to 75 percent
of the map unit. Typically, it has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of at least 80 inches is light
yellowish brown fine sand that grades to very pale
brown.
Under natural conditions this Adamsville soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 20 to 40 inches
for 2 to 6 months during most years and at a depth of
10 to 20 inches for as long as 2 weeks in some years.
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is
rapid.
The Urban land makes up about 20 to 45 percent of
the map unit. It is covered by streets, driveways,
houses and other buildings, parking lots, and other
similar structures.
Included in mapping are small areas of Tavares and


52








Polk County, Florida


Satellite soils. These soils are similar to the Adamsville
soil. They make up 15 to 20 percent of the map unit.
Present development precludes the use of this
Adamsville soil for crops, pasture, or pine tree
production.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

50-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes. This map unit consists of areas of excessively
drained Candler soil and Urban land. The individual
areas of Candler soil and Urban land are so small and
intermixed that mapping them separately at the selected
scale is not practical. Areas of this map unit are
somewhat rectangular.
The Candler soil makes up about 45 to 65 percent of
the map unit. Typically, this soil has a dark brown fine
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 63 inches is brownish yellow
sand that grades to yellow. The underlying material to a
depth of at least 80 inches is yellow sand that has very
thin, strong brown lamellae.
This Candler soil does not have a high water table
within a depth of 80 inches. The available water
capacity is very low, and permeability is rapid.
The Urban land makes up about 20 to 45 percent of
the map unit. It is covered by streets, driveways,
houses and other buildings, parking lots, and other
similar structures.
Included in mapping are areas of other sandy soils.
The included soils make up as much as 20 percent of
the map unit.
Present development precludes the use of this
Candler soil for crops, pasture, or pine tree production.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

51-Pomona-Urban land complex. This map unit
consists of areas of poorly drained Pomona soil and
Urban land. The individual areas of Pomona soil and
Urban land are so small and intermixed that mapping
them separately at the selected scale is not practical.
The areas are somewhat rectangular. Slopes generally
are smooth and are 0 to 2 percent.
The Pomona soil makes up about 50 to 75 percent of
the map unit. Typically, it has a dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is sand to a depth of about 21 inches. It is light
brownish gray in the upper part and light gray in the
lower part. The upper part of the subsoil to a depth of
about 26 inches is dark reddish brown loamy fine sand.
The next layer is very pale brown and light gray fine


sand to a depth of about 48 inches. The lower part of
the subsoil is light gray fine sandy loam to a depth of
about 60 inches and light gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of about 73 inches. The underlying material is
light gray loamy sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Under natural conditions this Pomona soil has a
seasonal high water table within 12 inches of the
surface for 1 to 4 months during most years. Most
areas have had some drainage installed. The available
water capacity is low. Permeability is moderate or
moderately slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
The Urban land makes up about 20 to 45 percent of
the map unit. It is covered by streets, parking lots,
buildings, and other structures that obscure or alter the
soil. Uncovered areas are mainly lawns, vacant lots, or
playgrounds.
Included in mapping are small areas of Myakka,
Immokalee, and Wauchula soils. Myakka and
Immokalee soils do not have a loamy subsoil. Wauchula
soils are similar to the Pomona soil. The included soils
make up 5 to 15 percent of the map unit.
Present development precludes the use of this
Pomona soil for crops, pasture, or pine tree production.
Neither a capability subclass nor woodland ordination
symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

53-Myakka-lmmokalee-Urban land complex. This
map unit consists of poorly drained Myakka and
Immokalee soils and Urban land. The individual areas
of these soils and Urban land are so intermixed that
mapping them separately at the selected scale is not
practical. Areas of these soils are somewhat
rectangular. Slopes generally are smooth and are 0 to 2
percent.
The Myakka soil makes up about 25 to 50 percent of
the map unit. Typically, it has a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 7 inches thick. It has a salt-and-
pepper appearance when dry. The subsurface layer is
gray fine sand to a depth of about 25 inches. The
subsoil is black fine sand to a depth of about 30 inches
and dark brown fine sand to a depth of about 36 inches.
The underlying material is yellowish brown fine sand to
a depth of at least 80 inches.
The Immokalee soil makes up about 20 to 35 percent
of the map unit. Typically, it has a very dark gray sand
surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 39 inches is light gray sand that
grades to white. The subsoil is black sand to a depth of
about 58 inches, gray sand to a depth of about 66
inches, very dark gray sand to a depth of about 75
inches, and black sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Under natural conditions the Myakka and Immokalee


53








Soil Survey


soils have a seasonal high water table within 12 inches
of the surface for 1 to 4 months in most years. Some
areas have been drained to various depths. The
available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil.
The Urban land makes up about 20 to 45 percent of
the map unit. It is covered by streets, driveways,
houses and other buildings, parking lots, and other
similar structures.
Included in mapping are areas of Basinger, Ona,
Pomello, and Pomona soils. Pomona soils have a
loamy subsoil and are moderately well drained.
Basinger and Ona soils are similar to the Myakka and
Immokalee soils. The included soils make up 7 to 15
percent of the map unit.
Present development precludes the use of the
Myakka and Immokalee soils for crops, pasture, or pine
tree production.
Neither a capability subclass nor woodland ordination
symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

54-Pomello-Urban land complex. This map unit
consists of moderately well drained Pomello soil and
Urban land. The individual areas of Pomello soil and
Urban land are so intermixed that mapping them
separately at the selected scale is not practical.
Individual areas are somewhat rectangular. Slopes
generally are smooth to convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
The Pomello soil makes up about 50 to 70 percent of
the map unit. In places it has been reworked or
reshaped but is still recognizable as Pomello soil.
Typically, it has a dark gray fine sand surface layer
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine
sand to a depth of about 48 inches. The subsoil to a
depth of about 53 inches is dark reddish brown fine
sand that is coated with organic matter. To a depth of
about 63 inches it is black fine sand that is coated with
organic matter. The underlying material is dark brown
fine sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Under natural conditions this Pomello soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of about 24 to 40
inches for about 1 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderately rapid in the subsoil.
The Urban land makes up about 20 to 45 percent of
this map unit. This land is covered by streets, parking
lots, buildings, and other structures.
Included in mapping are areas of Immokalee,
Satellite, and St. Johns soils. Immokalee and St. Johns
soils are poorly drained. Satellite soils do not have a
dark subsoil. The included soils make up 5 to 15
percent of the map unit.


Present development precludes the use of this
Pomello soil for cultivated crops or improved pasture.
Neither a capability subclass or woodland ordination
symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

55-Sparr-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes. This map unit consists of somewhat poorly
drained Sparr soil and Urban land. The individual areas
of Sparr soil and Urban land are so small and
intermixed that mapping them separately at the selected
scale is not practical. The areas are somewhat
rectangular.
The Sparr soil makes up about 45 to 65 percent of
the map unit. Typically, it has a dark gray sand surface
layer about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
brown to very pale brown sand to a depth of about 57
inches. The subsoil to a depth of at least 80 inches is
very pale brown sandy clay loam that grades to light
gray.
Under natural conditions this Sparr soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 20 to 40 inches
for 1 to 4 months in most years. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderately slow or slow
in the subsoil.
The Urban land makes up about 20 to 45 percent of
the map unit. It is covered by streets, driveways,
houses and other buildings, parking lots, and other
similar structures.
Included in mapping are small areas of Apopka,
Candler, Millhopper, and Tavares soils. Apopka soils
are well drained. Candler and Tavares soils do not have
a loamy subsoil. Millhopper soils are similar to the Sparr
soil. The included soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the
map unit.
Present development precludes the use of this Sparr
soil for crops, pasture, or pine tree production.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

57-Haplaquents, clayey. These soils occur as
areas of slime (colloidal clay), a by-product of
phosphate mining. The slime has been pumped into
holding ponds and allowed to dry. These holding ponds
are built with a 30- to 40-foot dike surrounding them.
They are designed so that water flows through a series
of ponds before returning to an outlet stream. In older
mined areas, the slime was pumped into open pits that
did not have outlets. These areas have dried out, and a
hard crust has formed on the surface. The more recent
holding ponds are nearly level and vary in thickness
from about 3 feet near the edge to more than 30 feet in
the center. Areas range from 200 to 1,000 or more


54








Polk County, Florida


acres. Slopes generally are less than 1 percent.
Included in mapping are a few small areas of sand
tailings; however, most of the holding ponds are pure
slime.
Haplaquents, clayey (locally called "slickens"), are
about 88 percent clay, 8 percent silt, and 4 percent
sand. The clay is mainly montmorillonite but includes
kaolinite, illite, and attapulgite. The soil material is gray
and light gray with some yellowish brown mottles. It is
neutral to moderately alkaline. The material generally is
dry to a depth of 2 feet. Water ponds on the surface
after heavy rainfall. The available water capacity is very
high. Natural fertility is high, and the organic matter
content is low. Permeability is very slow.
Low soil strength and wetness are the main
limitations affecting most uses.
Most areas are now used for pasture.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

58-Udorthents, excavated. This map unit consists
of excavated areas, locally called "borrow pits." The
excavated soil and geologic material have been
removed for use as fill or as base for roads. Included in
mapping are areas of spoil around the edge of the pits.
The spoil is mostly sand or clay. Areas of this map unit
range from 5 to 40 acres.
This map unit has no agronomic use.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

59-Arents-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes. This map unit consists of Urban land and areas
of sandy material used as fill in urban areas. The Arents
are somewhat poorly drained to moderately well
drained, depending upon the underlying natural soil
(which is poorly drained in most areas). Depth of the fill
material varies from 30 to 60 inches. A small
percentage of these soils, mostly those southwest of
Lakeland, is reclaimed phosphate overburden that has
been smoothed and leveled.
Arents do not have an orderly sequence of soil layers
but are a mixture of lenses, streaks, and pockets, which
vary within short distances. Typically, the surface layer
is light gray sand to a depth of about 30 inches. The
next layer is very pale brown sand to a depth of about
57 inches. Bodies of dark brown sandy clay loam are in
this layer. Dark brown sand extends to a depth of at
least 80 inches.
Included in mapping are small areas of natural soils,
which do not have fill material. These soils make up
less than 25 percent of the map unit.
Permeability is rapid in the Arents but varies with


depth to the natural soil. The organic matter content
and fertility are low. The high water table is within 60
inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months during most
years.
Present development precludes the use of the Arents
for cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture. Unless
topsoil is spread over the surface to make a suitable
root zone, these soils are poorly suited to lawn grasses
and ornamental plants.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

60-Arents, sandy. This map unit consists of areas
of sanitary landfills that have been excavated and
backfilled with alternating layers of refuse and mixed
soil material. The thickness of the refuse varies but
generally is 2 to 4 feet. The refuse is covered daily with
at least 6 inches of soil material, generally sand, bits
and pieces of finer textured material, clay, and organic-
coated sand. Individual areas of this map unit range
from 50 to several hundred acres. Slopes generally are
less than 2 percent; however, in places some mounds
have slopes of more than 2 percent.
Typically, the Arents have variable layers of very
dark grayish brown and gray sand or a sand mixture
containing pieces of sandy loam to sandy clay loam to a
depth of about 24 inches. The next layer is 24 to 48
inches of refuse. It is underlain by 6 inches of soil
material, including sand, sandy loam, and sandy clay
loam. Colors vary but include gray or dark gray.
Alternate layers of refuse and soil material extend to a
depth of at least 80 inches.
In the Arents, the high water table, available water
capacity, and permeability are all variable. They are
dependent upon the area and the final cover of soil
material. Natural fertility is variable but generally is low.
Most areas of these soils are used for industrial and
recreational parks. They are suited to these uses only
after the areas have settled for at least 20 years. Onsite
investigation is recommended before development of
these areas.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or
urban uses.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

61-Arents, organic substratum-Urban land
complex. This map unit consists of Urban land and
areas of somewhat poorly drained, sandy material
underlain by organic soils. These areas are in former
organic marshes and swamps, mainly around the edge
of lakes. The unit has been developed for urban uses.


55








Soil Survey


Slopes generally are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the Arents have a very dark grayish brown
or black sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The
surface layer generally is sand or fine sand; however,
because most of this material has been hauled in from
other areas, color and stratification vary widely. The
next layer to a depth of about 30 inches is light gray or
grayish brown sand that has lenses of light gray and
white sand. The underlying material is very dark grayish
brown or black muck to a depth of about 65 inches and
light gray sand to a depth of 80 inches.
Permeability is rapid. The available water capacity is
low or very low in the sand layers and very high in the
organic layer. The underlying organic material has low
strength, and onsite investigation of the depth and
thickness of this layer should be made before
construction begins.
Arents in open areas, such as lawns or vacant lots,
make up 50 to 75 percent of this map unit. Urban land,
which includes streets, sidewalks, driveways, houses,
and other structures, makes up 25 to 50 percent. These
percentages vary from one area to another. Most areas
have already been developed for urban uses, thus
precluding the use of the Arents for agriculture.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

62-Wabasso fine sand. This poorly drained soil is
on broad flatwoods. Areas of this soil are irregular in
shape and are about 10 to 100 acres. Slopes are
smooth and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 22 inches.
The subsoil to a depth of about 35 inches is dark brown
fine sand that is coated with organic matter. It is gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 51 inches and
greenish gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 67
inches. The underlying material is light greenish gray
fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
EauGallie, Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Malabar, and
Pomona soils. Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, and Malabar
soils do not have a dark, sandy subsoil. EauGallie and
Pomona soils are similar to the Wabasso soil. The
included soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the map
unit.
This Wabasso soil has a seasonal high high water
table within 12 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months
during most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is slow or very slow in the lower part of the
subsoil.


Most of the acreage of this soil is in pasture. Some
remains in natural vegetation that is mostly longleaf
pine, South Florida slash pine, slash pine, cabbage
palm, live oak, water oak, saw palmetto, gallberry, and
switchgrass.
Wetness is a severe limitation affecting most
cultivated crops. If a water-control system is used,
many kinds of flowers and vegetables can be grown.
The system must remove excess water in wet periods
and provide subirrigation in dry periods. Crop residue
and soil-improving cover crops help to maintain organic
matter content and control soil blowing. Fertilizer should
be applied according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus because of the
wetness. If properly drained, this soil is moderately
suited to oranges and grapefruit. Trees should be
planted on beds.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops,
such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass; however,
drainage is needed to remove excess surface water
during heavy rainfall. Grass responds to fertilizer.
Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and
a good ground cover.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. If good grazing management practices are
used, this range site has the potential to produce
significant amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various panicums. If
range deterioration occurs, saw palmetto and pineland
threeawn are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The equipment use limitation, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are major concerns in
management. Slash pine and South Florida slash pine
are the best trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank
absorption fields, buildings, and local roads and streets.
Special measures are required to overcome the
excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption fields should
be elevated by adding fill material. Foundations and
roadbeds require special measures to provide additional
strength.
The excessive wetness is a severe limitation
affecting recreational uses. Water-control methods that
keep the seasonal high water table below a depth of
about 2.5 feet are required to overcome this limitation.
Suitable topsoil or pavement can stabilize the surface in
heavy traffic areas.
The capability subclass is IIIw.


56








Polk County, Florida


63-Tavares-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes. This map unit consists of moderately well
drained Tavares soil and Urban land. The individual
areas of Tavares soil and Urban land are so small and
intermixed that mapping them separately at the selected
scale is not practical. The areas are somewhat
rectangular.
The Tavares soil makes up about 45 to 65 percent of
the map unit. Typically, it has a dark grayish brown fine
sand surface layer about 8 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of at least 80 inches is brownish fine
sand.
Under natural conditions this Tavares soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 40 to 80 inches
for several months during most years. The available
water capacity is very low. Permeability is rapid or very
rapid.
The Urban land makes up about 20 to 45 percent of
the map unit. It is covered by streets, driveways,
houses and other buildings, parking lots, and other
similar structures.
Included in mapping are areas of other sandy soils.
These soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the map unit.
Present development precludes the use of this
Tavares soil for crops, pasture, or pine tree production.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

64-Neilhurst-Urban land complex, 1 to 5 percent
slopes. This map unit consists of areas of excessively
drained Neilhurst soil and Urban land. The individual
areas of Neilhurst soil and Urban land are so small and
intermixed that mapping them separately at the selected
scale is not practical. The areas range from about 10 to
20 acres and are irregular to somewhat rectangular in
shape.
The Neilhurst soil makes up about 45 to 60 percent
of the map unit. Typically, it has a grayish brown sand
surface layer about 3 inches thick. The underlying
material is light gray sand mixed with reddish brown
and brown sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
This Neilhurst soil generally does not have a high
water table within a depth of 80 inches. In places the
high water table is within 30 inches of the surface for
brief periods during the summer rainy season. The
available water capacity is very low. Permeability is very
rapid.
The Urban land makes up about 20 to 45 percent of
the map unit. It is covered by streets, driveways,
houses and other buildings, parking lots, and other
structures.
Included in mapping are areas where slickens have


been added to the Neilhurst soil to improve the water-
holding capacity. Differential settling of particles has
resulted in intermittent ponds. These inclusions make
up 15 to 20 percent of the map unit.
Present development precludes the use of this
Neilhurst soil for crops, pasture, or pine tree production.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

66-Fort Meade-Urban land complex, 0 to 5
percent slopes. This map unit consists of areas of well
drained Fort Meade soil and Urban land. The individual
areas of Fort Meade soil and Urban land are so
intermixed that mapping them separately at the selected
scale is not practical. The areas are somewhat
rectangular.
The Fort Meade soil makes up about 45 to 65
percent of the map unit. Typically, it has a very dark
gray sand surface layer about 25 inches thick. The
underlying material is brownish sand to a depth of at
least 80 inches.
This Fort Meade soil does not have a water table
within a depth of 72 inches. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid.
The Urban land makes up about 20 to 45 percent of
the complex. It is covered by streets, driveways, houses
and other buildings, parking lots, and other similar
structures.
Included in mapping are small areas of other sandy
soils. These soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the map
unit.
Present development precludes the use of this Fort
Meade soil for crops, pasture, or pine tree production.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

67-Bradenton fine sand. This poorly drained soil is
on flatwoods and in low hammocks. Areas of this soil
range from 10 to several hundred acres. Slopes are
smooth to convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sand surface layer
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark
grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches.
The subsoil is dark gray sandy loam to a depth of about
16 inches and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about
22 inches. The underlying material is white sandy loam
to a depth of about 60 inches and light gray loamy sand
to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chobee, Felda, and Wabasso soils. Felda soils have a
loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Wabasso
soils have a dark subsoil. Chobee soils are similar to


57








Soil Survey


the Bradenton soil. The included soils make up about
10 to 30 percent of the map unit.
This Bradenton soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months in
most years. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is moderate in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation is mostly a hammock of
cabbage palm, live oak, laurel oak, and water oak with
scattered slash pine, South Florida slash pine, and
longleaf pine. The understory is mostly saw palmetto,
waxmyrtle, a variety of vines, creeping bluestem,
pineland threeawn, and low panicums.
Wetness is a severe limitation affecting cultivated
crops. If a complete water-control system is installed
and maintained, many fruits and vegetables can be
grown. The system must remove excess surface and
internal water rapidly and provide a means of applying
irrigation water. Good management also includes crop
rotations that keep a close-growing crop on the land at
least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops
and crop residue help to control soil blowing and to
maintain organic matter content. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding, and fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
If water is controlled adequately, this soil is well
suited to citrus. A water-control system should maintain
good drainage to an effective depth. Bedding of the
land and planting the trees on the beds provide good
surface drainage. A close-growing plant cover should
be maintained between the trees to control soil blowing.
Fertilizer is needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
bahiagrass, and clover. Good pastures of grass or
grass-clover mixtures can be grown. Fertilizer and
controlled grazing are needed for the highest yields.
Typically, the Oak Hammock range site includes
areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a dense
canopy of predominantly live oak trees. Because of the
dense canopy and relatively open understory, cattle use
this range site mainly for shade and resting areas.
Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low panicums,
low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided indiangrass.
The potential productivity for pine trees is high. The
major concerns in management are the equipment use
limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of
the water table. A water-control system can remove
excess surface water. Slash pine and South Florida
slash pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for most urban
uses because of the wetness. Because of the high
water table, sites for small buildings without basements


should be mounded to prevent moisture problems.
Septic tank absorption fields should also be mounded to
maintain them above the seasonal high water table and
to increase percolation. Most of the problems caused by
the wetness can be overcome by providing adequate
drainage.
The wetness and the sandy surface are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. The problems
caused by the wetness can be overcome if a water-
control system can be established to keep the high
water table below a depth of 2.5 feet. Suitable topsoil or
pavement can stabilize the surface in heavy traffic
areas.
The capability subclass is Illw.

68-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. These highly
variable soils have been reworked by earth-moving
equipment during phosphate mining. The areas of these
soils are reclaimed and planted to grass and pine trees.
Slopes are smooth to convex. The areas range from 5
to 500 acres. The soil material is 2 to 20 feet thick.
Small open pits filled with water are common in some
areas.
Typically, these soils consist of mixed soil material
that is white, light gray, brownish yellow, very pale
brown, yellowish brown, grayish brown, brown, dark
brown, and black. They are fine sand, sand, loamy
sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay, or clay
and are remnants of spodic and argillic horizons. They
do not have an orderly sequence of horizons.
The available water capacity, although quite variable.
generally is low but increases with clay content.
Permeability is variable but generally ranges from
moderately rapid to slow. Drainage is variable
depending upon the amount of clay. In most areas the
high water table is within 60 inches of the surface for 2
to 6 months during most years.
These soils are very severely limited for cultivated
crops because of variations in soil texture. Water
percolation is variable, which causes problems with
irrigation, drainage, and erosion. Aeration is poor
because of compaction, and the soil has a tendency to
develop a surface crust.
These soils are moderately suited to improved
pasture and pine trees. Low fertility, the hazard of
erosion, and soil compaction are limiting factors.
Bahiagrass is the most common pasture grass. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor. Most
plantings are experimental.
These soils are moderately well suited to use as
habitat for upland wildlife.
Most areas are moderately well suited to dwellings








Polk County, Florida


without basements; however, onsite investigation is
needed before constructing buildings or installing septic
systems. In some places these soils need to be
compacted to provide sufficient strength. Lawn grasses
and ornamental plants require fertilizer, and water-
control measures are needed to remove excess water
during the rainy season. Topsoil is needed in most
areas to make a suitable root zone.
Most areas have moderate restrictions for
recreational uses because of the wetness and the
hazard of erosion.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

70-Duette fine sand. This moderately well drained
soil is on low ridges on flatwoods. Areas of this soil
range from about 10 to 300 acres. Slopes are smooth
to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a gray fine sand surface layer
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
to a depth of about 59 inches. It is light brownish gray
to a depth of about 10 inches and white below that
depth. The subsoil to a depth of at least 80 inches is
dark brown fine sand that grades to black.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Archbold, Electra, and Pomello soils. Archbold soils do
not have a dark subsoil. Electra and Pomello soils are
similar to the Duette soil. The included soils make up
about 10 to 20 percent of the map unit.
This Duette soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 4 to 6 feet for 1 to 4 months during most
years. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is moderately rapid in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used for improved pasture.
Some remain in natural vegetation that is mostly myrtle
oak, Chapman oak, sand live oak, turkey oak, sand
pine, and slash pine. The understory includes saw
palmetto, running oak, and pineland threeawn.
Droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients
are severe limitations affecting cultivated crops. Natural
fertility is low, and the response to fertilizer is slight.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus; however, fair yields
of oranges and grapefruit generally can be obtained if a
good irrigation system is used. Where water for
irrigation is readily available, increased yields are
feasible.
This soil is fairly suited to pastures of pangolagrass
and bahiagrass. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain plant vigor and good ground cover.
Typically, the Sand Pine Scrub range site includes
areas of this soil. This dominant vegetation is a fairly
dense stand of sand pine trees with a dense understory


of oak, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Because of
past timber management practices, sand pines are not
on all sites. The droughtiness limits the potential for
producing native forage. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
provide limited amounts of lopsided indiangrass,
creeping bluestem, and switchgrass. Livestock generally
do not use this range site if more productive sites are
available. Summer shade, winter protection, and dry
bedding ground during wet periods are provided on this
range site.
The potential productivity for pine trees is low. The
main concerns in management are the moderate
equipment use limitation and severe seedling mortality.
Slash pine and South Florida slash pine are the best
trees to plant.
This soil is only slightly limited as a site for most
urban uses; however, seepage is a severe limitation
affecting sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills. The
sidewalls of lagoons and landfills should be sealed.
The sandy surface causes poor trafficability in
recreational areas. Suitable topsoil or some form of
surfacing can reduce or overcome this limitation.
The capability subclass is Vis.

72-Bradenton-Felda-Chobee association,
frequently flooded. This map unit consists of poorly
drained Bradenton and Felda soils, a very poorly
drained Chobee soil, and some similar soils. It is about
40 percent Bradenton soil, 30 percent Felda soil, 20
percent Chobee soil, and 10 percent other soils. These
soils are in a regular repeating pattern along the flood
plain of the Peace River and adjacent streams, mainly
in the southern part of the county. The Felda and
Bradenton soils generally are in the highest positions on
the landscape, and the Chobee soil is in the lowest
positions. Slopes are less than 2 percent. The areas of
each soil are large enough to be mapped separately,
but because of the present and predicted use, these
soils were mapped as one unit. The areas generally are
narrow.
The composition of this map unit is more variable
than that of most other map units in the county;
nevertheless, valid interpretations for expected uses of
these soils can still be made.
Typically, this Bradenton soil has a very dark gray
fine sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth
of about 12 inches. The subsoil is dark grayish brown
sandy loam to a depth of about 21 inches. The
underlying material is gray or light gray sandy loam to a
depth of about 58 inches and gray fine sand or loamy


59








Soil Survey


sand to a depth of 80 inches. In some places the
surface layer is thicker.
Unless drained, this Bradenton soil has a seasonal
high water table within a depth of 12 inches for 1 to 4
months during most years. Permeability is moderate in
the subsoil. The available water capacity is moderate.
Typically, this Felda soil has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of
about 22 inches. The subsoil is gray sandy loam to a
depth of about 35 inches and light gray loamy sand to a
depth of about 45 inches. The underlying material is
greenish gray loamy sand that extends to a depth of 80
inches. In some places the surface layer is thicker.
Unless drained, this Felda soil has a seasonal high
water table within a depth of 12 inches for 2 to 6
months in most years. Permeability is moderately rapid
in the subsoil.
Typically, this Chobee soil has a black fine sandy
loam surface layer about 12 inches thick. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 55 inches. In sequence downward
it is gray sandy clay loam; grayish brown sandy clay
loam that has pockets of soft, white carbonatic material;
and gray sandy loam. The underlying material to a
depth of 80 inches or more is light brownish gray fine
sand. In some places the subsoil has more clay.
Unless drained, this Chobee soil has a seasonal high
water table at a depth of less than 12 inches for 6
months or more in most years. Permeability is slow or
very slow in the subsoil. The available water capacity is
moderate.
Included with this association in mapping are areas
of Floridana, Holopaw, and Pompano soils. Floridana
and Holopaw soils are similar to Bradenton, Felda, and
Chobee soils. Pompano soils do not have a loamy
subsoil. Also included are small areas of organic soils.
Almost all areas of the soils in this map unit are in
natural vegetation that is mostly sweetgum, oak, bay,
cypress, blackgum, red maple, cabbage palm, scattered
pines, and saw palmetto. Water-tolerant grasses are in
a few places.
Bradenton, Felda, and Chobee soils are not suited to
crops, but they are moderately well suited to improved
pasture. Wetness and the hazard of flooding are difficult
to overcome. If the soils are drained and well managed,
good quality pasture plants can be grown.
These soils are not suited to citrus.
The potential productivity for slash pine is high on
Bradenton soil and moderately high on Felda soil. The
Chobee soil is not suited to pine because of the very
long duration of flooding. The equipment limitation and
seedling mortality caused by the wetness are the main


concerns in management. Slash pine and South Florida
slash pine are the best trees to plant. Water control is
needed in most areas to reach the yield potential.
The wetness and the hazard of flooding are severe
limitations affecting urban and recreational
development, and careful consideration and planning
are needed.
The Bradenton, Felda, and Chobee soils are in
capability subclass Vw.

73-Gypsum land. This miscellaneous area consists
of gypsum, a by-product of acid manufacturing plants in
the phosphate mining area. Gypsum is formed by
reacting sulfuric acid with rock phosphate to form
phosphoric acid. It is mostly a white crystalline
substance with various impurities of silica and organic
matter. The material is mounded 30 to 80 feet high. The
areas are 100 to 640 acres.
Gypsum land generally is barren, but weeds and wild
grasses grow in some places. Acidity and compaction
inhibit the growth of most plants.
Gypsum land has very limited use. It has been used
as a soil conditioner and experimentally as a road base;
however, the suspected low level radiation has
discouraged the use of gypsum in most cases.
Neither a capability subclass nor a woodland
ordination symbol has been assigned to this map unit.

74-Narcoossee sand. This somewhat poorly
drained soil is on low hammocks and ridges on
flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from 3 to 100 acres.
Slopes are smooth to convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
gray fine sand to a depth of about 17 inches. The
subsoil is black sand to a depth of about 19 inches,
dark reddish brown sand to a depth of about 22 inches,
and dark yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of about
30 inches. The underlying material is pale brown fine
sand to a depth of about 48 inches and pinkish gray
loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Adamsville, Myakka, Pomello, and Tavares soils.
Adamsville and Tavares soils do not have a dark
subsoil. Myakka soils are poorly drained. Pomello soils
are similar to the Narcoossee soil. The included soils
make up about 5 to 10 percent of the map unit.
This Narcoossee soil has a seasonal high water table
at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 4 to 6 months during
most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation is mostly water oak, live oak,


60








Polk County, Florida


laurel oak, cabbage palm, scattered pines, greenbrier,
saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, creeping bluestem,
and panicums.
Periodic wetness, droughtiness, and low fertility are
severe limitations affecting cultivated crops. Intensive
soil management practices are required. If good water-
control and soil-improving measures are used,
vegetable crops can be grown. A water-control system
must remove excess water in wet periods and provide
water for irrigation in dry periods. Row crops should be
rotated with close-growing, soil-improving crops that
remain on the land two-thirds of the time. Crop residue
and soil-improving crops should be plowed under.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
needs of the crop.
In its natural state, this soil is poorly suited to citrus
because of the wetness. It is moderately suited if a
water-control system is used that maintains the water
table at an effective depth. Citrus trees should be
planted on beds, and a plant cover should be
maintained between the trees to control soil blowing in
dry weather and water erosion during heavy rainfall.
Fertilizer and lime are needed. The highest yields
require irrigation in periods of light rainfall.
This soil is moderately well suited to pastures of
pangolagrass and bahiagrass. Drainage is required to
remove excess surface water in times of heavy rainfall.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Grazing should be controlled to maintain healthy plants
for highest yields.
Typically, the Oak Hammock range site includes
areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a dense
canopy of predominantly live oak trees. Because of the
dense canopy and relatively open understory, cattle use
this range site mainly for shade and resting areas.
Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low panicums,
low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided indiangrass.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management are the
equipment use limitation, moderate seedling mortality,
and plant competition. Slash pine, South Florida slash
pine, and longleaf pine are the best trees to plant.
The wetness is a severe limitation affecting septic
tank absorption fields and a moderate limitation
affecting dwellings without basements and local roads
and streets. It can be overcome by elevating the
absorption field and, if adequate outlets are available,
by using a water-control system that keeps the high
water table below a depth of 2.5 feet. Adding fill
material to elevate building sites and roadways is
needed if effective water control cannot be established.
The sandy surface is a severe limitation affecting


recreational uses. Suitable topsoil or pavement can be
used to stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

75-Valkaria sand. This poorly drained soil is in
sloughs on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from
about 20 to several hundred acres. Slopes are smooth
to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black sand surface layer
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The subsoil is
brownish sand to a depth of about 46 inches. The
underlying material is light gray and white sand to a
depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Felda, Malabar, Myakka, and Smyrna soils.
Felda and Malabar soils have a loamy subsoil. Myakka
and Smyrna soils have a dark subsoil. Basinger soils
are similar to the Valkaria soil. The included soils make
up about 20 to 40 percent of the map unit.
This Valkaria soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 12 inches for 2 to 4 months during
most years. During periods of heavy rainfall, the surface
is covered by shallow, slowly moving water for 1 to 7
days or more. The available water capacity is low, and
permeability is rapid.
The natural vegetation is mostly waxmyrtle, gallberry,
cabbage palm, pineland threeawn, scattered saw
palmetto, pine, and oak.
Wetness is a very severe limitation affecting
cultivated crops. Intensive soil management practices
are required. If good water-control and soil-improving
measures are used, vegetable crops can be grown. A
water-control system must remove excess water in wet
periods and provide water through subirrigation in dry
periods. Row crops should be rotated with close-
growing, soil-improving crops, which remain on the land
three-fourths of the time. Crop residue and soil-
improving crops help to maintain organic matter content
and protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime
should be added according to the needs of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus because of the
wetness. It is suited only if a water-control system is
used that maintains the water table at an effective
depth. Citrus trees should be planted on beds, and a
plant cover should be maintained between the trees to
control soil blowing in dry weather and water erosion
during heavy rainfall. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water


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Soil Survey


Figure 8.-An area of Valkaria sand. Cypress and hardwood swamps are common in the Slough range site.


after heavy rainfall. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
Grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing
and weakening of the plants or to maintain healthy
plants for the highest yields.
Typically, the Slough range site includes areas of this
soil (fig. 8). The dominant vegetation is an open
expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area
where the soil is saturated during the rainy season. If
good grazing management practices are used, this
range site has potential for forage production almost as
high as that of the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds
range site. Desirable forage includes blue maidencane,
maidencane, chalky bluestem, toothachegrass, and
Florida bluestem. If excessive grazing occurs, common
carpetgrass, an introduced plant, is dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
The major concerns in management, caused by the


wetness, are the severe equipment use limitation and
moderate seedling mortality. If surface drainage and
bedding are used, slash pine and South Florida slash
pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank
absorption fields, sanitary landfills, and building site
development because of the wetness and seepage. The
wetness and the sandy texture are severe limitations
affecting recreational uses. A combination of drainage
and fill can improve conditions for most urban and
recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IVw.

76-Millhopper fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This moderately well drained soil is on upland ridges
and knolls on flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from
about 10 to 40 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave.


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Polk County, Florida


Typically, this soil has a dark grayish brown fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 63 inches is light yellowish brown
and very pale brown fine sand. The subsoil is fine
sandy loam to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is light
yellowish brown in the upper part and gray in the lower
part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Apopka, Kendrick, Sparr, and Tavares soils. Apopka
and Kendrick soils are in the highest, better drained
positions on the landscape, and Sparr soils are in the
lower, wetter positions. Tavares soils are in the same
positions on the landscape as those of the Millhopper
soil, but they do not have a loamy subsoil. Apopka,
Kendrick, and Sparr soils are similar to the Millhopper
soil. The included soils make up less than 10 percent of
the map unit.
This Millhopper soil has a seasonal high water table
at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 months in most
years. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is slow in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are in citrus. Some remain in
natural vegetation that is mostly live oak, laurel oak,
slash pine, South Florida slash pine, and longleaf pine.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
are severe limitations affecting cultivated crops.
Intensive soil management practices are needed if this
soil is cultivated. Row crops should be planted on the
contour in strips of close-growing crops. Crop rotations
should keep the close-growing crops on the land at
least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops and
crop residue help to protect the soil from erosion.
Unless irrigation is used, only a few crops produce good
yields. Irrigation generally is feasible only where
irrigation water is readily available.
In places relatively free from freezing temperatures,
this soil is suited to citrus. A good ground cover of
close-growing plants is needed between the trees to
control soil blowing and water erosion. Good yields of
oranges and grapefruit can be obtained in some years
without irrigation; however, a well designed irrigation
system that maintains optimum moisture conditions is
needed to obtain the highest yields.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are suitable, but yields
are reduced by periodic droughts. Fertilizer and lime are
needed.
Typically, the Oak Hammock range site includes
areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a dense
canopy of predominantly live oak trees. Because of the
dense canopy and relatively open understory, cattle use


this range site mainly for shade and resting areas.
Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low panicums,
low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided indiangrass.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management are the
equipment use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. Slash pine, South Florida slash pine, and
longleaf pine are the best trees to plant.
This soil is moderately limited as a site for septic
tank absorption fields because of the wetness. The
absorption field should be slightly elevated. The soil is
well suited to use as a site for dwellings without
basements and local roads and streets.
The sandy surface is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. Suitable topsoil or pavement can be
used to stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Ills.

77-Satellite sand. This somewhat poorly drained
soil is on low knolls and ridges on flatwoods. Areas of
this soil range from 3 to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth
to convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 6 inches thick. The underlying material to a
depth of at least 80 inches is gray sand that grades to
grayish brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Archbold, Immokalee, Pomello, and Pompano soils.
Immokalee and Pomello soils have a dark subsoil.
Pompano soils are poorly drained. Archbold soils are
similar to the Satellite soil. The included soils make up
about 5 to 10 percent of the map unit.
This Satellite soil has a seasonal high water table
within a depth of 12 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months in
most years. The available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is very rapid.
The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, saw
palmetto, sand live oak, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or citrus
because of periodic wetness, droughtiness, and low
fertility.
This soil is only fairly suited to pastures of
pangolagrass and bahiagrass.
Typically, the Sand Pine Scrub range site includes
areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a fairly
dense stand of sand pine trees with a dense understory
of oak, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Because of
past timber management practices, sand pines are not
on all sites. Droughtiness limits the potential for
producing native forage. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
provide limited amounts of lopsided indiangrass,


63







Soil Survey


creeping bluestem, and switchgrass. Livestock generally
do not use this range site if more productive sites are
available. Summer shade, winter protection, and dry
bedding ground during wet periods are provided on this
range site.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
The major concerns in management are the equipment
use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
Slash pine, South Florida slash pine, and longleaf pine
are the best trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank
absorption fields, sanitary landfills, and sewage lagoons
because of the wetness and seepage. The wetness is a
severe limitation affecting sites for dwellings without
basements and small commercial buildings. Fill material
can be added to increase the effective depth to the high
water table.
The sandy surface and the wetness are severe
limitations affecting recreational uses. Suitable topsoil
or pavement can be used to stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Vis.

78-Paisley fine sand, stony subsurface. This
poorly drained soil is on low, broad flatwoods. Areas of
this soil range from 40 to several hundred acres.
Surface and subsurface boulders and stones occur
randomly in small groups, individually 20 to 100 feet
apart, or in large groups scattered throughout the map
unit. Cropland and improved pastureland generally have
fewer boulders and stones because many have been
removed, but the remaining boulders and stones can
damage equipment that penetrates the soil. Slopes are
smooth and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is gray and light gray stony fine sand to a depth of
about 18 inches. The subsoil is light brownish gray
sandy clay to a depth of about 22 inches and gray
sandy clay to a depth of about 34 inches. To a depth of
about 60 inches it is gray sandy clay that has many soft
limestone nodules. The underlying material is
unconsolidated limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bradenton, Felda, and Wabasso soils. Felda and
Wabasso soils have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to
40 inches. Bradenton soils are similar to the Paisley
soil. The included soils make up about 15 to 30 percent
of the map unit.
This Paisley soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during
most years. The available water capacity is moderate.


Permeability is slow in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, South
Florida slash pine, oak, sweetgum, and cabbage palm.
The understory includes saw palmetto, pineland
threeawn, gallberry, staggerbush, and low panicums.
Wetness is a severe limitation affecting cultivated
crops. Unless boulders and stones at or near the
surface are removed, they can cause problems during
operations that mix the surface layer. The slow
permeability makes adequate drainage difficult to
establish and maintain. If adequately drained, this soil is
suited to several important crops. A water-control
system is needed to remove excess surface and
subsurface water rapidly. Crop rotations should keep
close-growing, soil-improving crops on the land at least
two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer, applied according to
the needs of the crop, and occasional applications of
lime are needed for the highest yields.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It is suited only if a water-control system is used
that maintains the high water table at an effective
depth. Surface boulders and stones must be removed
before bedding. The trees should be planted on beds,
and a plant cover should be maintained between the
trees.
This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rainfall. Boulders and stones must be
removed to prevent damage to equipment.
Typically, the South Florida Flatwoods range site
includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is
scattered pine trees with an understory of saw palmetto
and grass. If good grazing management practices are
used, this range site has the potential to produce
significant amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various panicums. If
range deterioration occurs, saw palmetto and pineland
threeawn are dominant.
The potential productivity for pine trees is very high.
The major concerns in management, caused by the
wetness and boulders, are the severe equipment use
limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
Slash pine and South Florida slash pine are the best
trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban and
recreational uses because of the wetness, the high
shrink-swell potential, and the clayey subsoil. A
drainage system that lowers the seasonal high water
table can reduce or overcome the wetness limitation.
Because of the wetness and the slow permeability,


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Polk County, Florida


mounding is needed in places for septic tank absorption
fields. Random large boulders and stones can make it
necessary to modify installation of structures or to
select an alternate site within the map unit.
The sandy surface causes poor trafficability in
recreational areas. Good topsoil material or some type
of surface stabilization can easily overcome this
problem.
The capability subclass is Illw.

80-Chobee fine sandy loam, frequently flooded.
This very poorly drained soil is on flood plains. Areas of
this soil range from 50 to several hundred acres. Slopes
are smooth to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sandy loam
surface layer about 12 inches thick. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 55 inches. It is gray sandy clay
loam to a depth of about 18 inches. To a depth of about
32 inches, it is grayish brown sandy clay loam that has
pockets of soft, white carbonatic material. Below that
depth the subsoil is gray sandy loam. The underlying
material to a depth of at least 80 inches is light
brownish gray fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are Floridana,
Kaliga, Nittaw, and Paisley soils. Floridana soils have a
loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Kaliga soils
are organic. Nittaw and Paisley soils are similar to the
Chobee soil. The included soils make up 5 to 15
percent of the map unit.
This Chobee soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for more than 6 months
in most years. It is subject to flooding during periods of
heavy rainfall. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is slow or very slow in the subsoil.
Most of the acreage of this soil remains in natural
vegetation that is mainly mixed hardwoods,
baldcypress, red maple, and gum with an understory of
waxmyrtle, cabbage palm, and a few shade- and water-
tolerant forbs and grasses.
This soil is too wet for cultivated crops, citrus, or
pasture. The flooding and the wetness are difficult to
overcome.
The potential productivity for pine trees is low
because of the surface wetness. Pine trees can be
highly productive if water-control systems are
developed. The major concerns in management, caused
by wetness, are severe seedling mortality and the
equipment use limitation. Pine trees are generally not
planted on this soil.
This soil is not suited to urban and recreational uses
because of the wetness and the flooding.
The capability subclass is Vw.


81-St. Augustine sand. This somewhat poorly
drained soil is on ridges or mounds along the
Kissimmee River. It was formed by dredging the river.
Slopes generally are 0 to 2 percent; they are steeper on
the edge of the ridges or mounds.
Typically, this soil has a gray sand surface layer
about 2 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
of at least 80 inches is light gray sand that has shell
and fragments of shell. A few pockets of sandy loam
and sandy clay loam are at a depth of 25 to 60 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Kaliga and Samsula soils in which the sand extends to
a depth of less than 20 inches and shell fragments
cover the surface. Also included are areas of other St.
Augustine soils in which the sand is underlain by clay to
a depth of 40 to 80 inches. The included soils make up
less than 15 percent of the map unit.
This St. Augustine soil has a seasonal high water
table at a depth of 20 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in
most years and at a depth of at least 50 inches during
long, dry periods. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is rapid.
Some areas of this soil are used for improved
pasture. Most are nearly barren and have only a few
desirable grasses.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
the choice of plants and reduce potential crop yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay crops.
Grasses are difficult to establish because of the low
fertility and the droughtiness.
The potential productivity for pine trees is low.
Seedling mortality is a concern in management. Slash
pine is the best tree to plant. This soil has not been
used for commercial woodland.
This soil is severely limited for most urban uses
because it is too wet during periods of heavy rainfall
and too sandy during periods of drought. The high
water table interferes with the proper functioning of
septic tank absorption fields. The high water table and
seepage interfere with the proper functioning of sewage
lagoons and sanitary landfills. Wetness is a moderate
limitation affecting sites for buildings and local roads
and streets. It can be overcome by adding suitable fill
material.
The sandy surface is a severe limitation affecting
recreational uses. Suitable fill material can improve
trafficability.
The capability subclass is VIIs. A woodland
ordination symbol is not assigned to this soil.


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Soil Survey


82-Felda fine sand, frequently flooded. This poorly
drained soil is on the flood plains of well defined creeks
and streams. Areas of this soil range from 25 to several
hundred acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and are
0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 22 inches.
The subsoil is gray sandy loam to a depth of about 35
inches and light gray loamy sand to a depth of about 45
inches. The underlying material is greenish gray loamy
sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Floridana and Holopaw soils, which are similar to the
Felda soil. These soils make up 15 to 20 percent of the
map unit.
This Felda soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during
most years. On the average it is flooded more than
once during most years. The flooding results in
deposition on or scouring of the surface. In addition,
debris is deposited on the surface and sand is
deposited adjacent to the channel. The available water
capacity is moderate, and permeability is moderately
rapid in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation is mostly red maple, water
oak, cabbage palm, scattered pines, and many water-
tolerant grasses.
The frequent flooding prevents using this soil for
cultivated crops, citrus, or urban development.
If an adequate water-control system can be
established, the potential productivity for pine trees is
moderately high. Because of the frequent flooding and
the wetness, the equipment use limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Slash pine and South Florida slash pine are
the best trees to plant; however, pine trees are normally
not planted on this soil.
The capability subclass is Vw.

83-Archbold sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained soil is on uplands and knolls on
flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from about 15 to
several hundred acres. Slopes are smooth to concave.
Typically, this soil has a gray sand surface layer
about 4 inches thick. The underlying material is white
sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Duette and Satellite soils. Duette soils have a dark
subsoil. The included soils make up about 5 to 15
percent of the map unit.
This Archbold soil has a seasonal high water table at


a depth of 42 to 60 inches for 1 to 6 months in most
years and at a depth of 60 to 80 inches for most of the
rest of the year. The available water capacity is very
low, and permeability is very rapid.
Most areas of this soil are in native vegetation. Some
have been cleared and are used for citrus. Other areas
are used for urban development. The natural vegetation
is mostly sand pine, Chapman oak, myrtle oak, sand
live oak, scrub hickory, saw palmetto, pricklypear, and
scattered pineland threeawn.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops.
This soil is suited to citrus. A ground cover of close-
growing plants is needed between the trees to control
soil blowing. A well designed irrigation system that
maintains optimum moisture conditions is needed to
ensure the best yields. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime help to maintain plant vigor and produce the
best yields.
This soil is fairly suited to pasture grasses, such as
pangolagrass and bahiagrass, if good management
practices are used (fig. 9).
Typically, the Sand Pine Scrub range site includes
areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation is a fairly
dense stand of sand pine trees with a dense understory
of oak, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Because of
past timber management practices, sand pines are not
on all sites. Droughtiness limits the potential for
producing native forage. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
provide limited amounts of lopsided indiangrass,
creeping bluestem, and switchgrass. Livestock generally
do not use this range site if more productive sites are
available. Summer shade, winter protection, and dry
bedding ground during wet periods are provided on this
range site.
The potential productivity for pine trees is low. The
major concerns in management, caused by the
sandiness and the droughtiness, are the equipment use
limitation and seedling mortality. Sand pine is the best
tree to plant.
This soil is only slightly limited as a site for most
urban uses; however, seepage is a severe limitation
affecting sewage lagoons and landfill areas. The
sidewalls and bottom of lagoons and landfills should be
sealed.
The sandy surface causes poor trafficability in
recreational areas. Suitable topsoil or some form of
surfacing can reduce or overcome this limitation.
The capability subclass is VIs.

85-Winder fine sand, depressional. This very
poorly drained soil is in depressions on flood plains.


66







Polk County, Florida


Figure 9.-Fair yields of pasture and hay crops can be produced on Archbold sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


Areas of this soil range from 3 to several hundred
acres. Slopes are concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray fine sand surface
layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 16 inches.
The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of
about 50 inches. Vertical tongues of loamy sand are in
the upper 4 inches of the subsoil. The underlying
material is olive gray sandy loam to a depth of least 80
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chobee, Felda, Floridana, and Malabar soils. Felda,
Floridana, and Malabar soils have a loamy subsoil at a
depth of more than 20 inches. Chobee soils are similar
to the Winder soil. The included soils make up about 10
to 25 percent of the map unit.
This Winder soil is ponded for 6 months or more in
most years. Areas on flood plains are subject to
frequent flooding as well as ponding. The available
water capacity is moderate. Permeability is slow or
moderately slow in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation is mostly St. Johnswort,
pickerelweed, waxmyrtle, gallberry, maidencane, and


other water-tolerant forbs and grasses. A few areas are
in water-tolerant trees.
The ponding is a very severe limitation affecting
cultivated crops. Crops cannot be grown unless this soil
is drained, and suitable drainage outlets generally are
not available.
This soil is not suited to citrus because of the high
water table and a shallow root zone.
Because of the shallow root zone and the ponding,
this soil is not suited to pasture unless drainage outlets
are established.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and
other herbaceous plants in areas where the soil
generally is saturated or covered with water for at least
2 months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the
drier parts of the site, and maidencane is dominant in
the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low


67








Soil Survey


panicums. Periodic high water levels provide a much
needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to pine trees.
The major concerns in management, caused by the
wetness, are the equipment use limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition.
This soil is not suited to urban and recreational uses
because of the ponding. Reclamation is needed before
development.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

86-Felda fine sand, depressional. This very poorly
drained soil is in wet depressions on flatwoods. Areas
of this soil range from 3 to more than 100 acres. Slopes
are smooth to concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sand surface layer
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown and light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of
about 27 inches. The subsoil is dark grayish brown
sandy loam to a depth of about 38 inches and gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 45 inches. The
underlying material is gray loamy sand to a depth of at
least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Eaton, Floridana, and Holopaw soils. These soils are
similar to the Felda soil. The included soils make up 15
to 20 percent of the map unit.
This Felda soil is ponded for more than 6 months
during most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the subsoil.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural
vegetation that is mostly cypress and other water-
tolerant trees with an understory of waxmyrtle, vines,
shrubs, and water-tolerant grasses.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, citrus, or pasture. Crops cannot be
grown unless this soil is drained, and drainage outlets
are generally hard to establish.
Typically, the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range
site includes areas of this soil. The dominant vegetation
is an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rushes, and
other herbaceous plants in an area where the soil is
generally saturated or covered with water for at least 2
months during the year. If good grazing management
practices are used, this range site has the potential to
produce more forage than any of the other range sites.
Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the
drier parts of the site, and maidencane is dominant in
the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes


cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
panicums. The periodic high water levels provide a
much needed natural deferment from overgrazing. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of
the site.
This soil is not suited to pine trees unless surface
drainage or bedding is used. The major concerns in
management, caused by the high water table, are the
equipment use limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
competition.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban uses
because of the ponding.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

87-Basinger fine sand. This poorly drained soil is
in sloughs or poorly defined drainageways on flatwoods.
Areas of this soil generally range from about 25 to
several hundred acres. Slopes are smooth to concave
and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray fine sand surface
layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
gray fine sand to a depth of about 19 inches. The
subsoil is a mixture of brown and light brownish gray
fine sand to a depth of about 39 inches. The underlying
material is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of at
least 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Immokalee, Myakka, Smyrna, Placid, and St. Johns
soils. These soils are similar to the Basinger soil. They
make up about 15 to 30 percent of the map unit.
This Basinger soil has a seasonal high water table
within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months in
most years. During periods of heavy rainfall, the surface
is covered by shallow, slowly moving water for 1 to 7 or
more days. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is rapid.
Most areas of this soil are rangeland or woodland.
Some that have adequate water control are used for
truck crops or improved pasture. The natural vegetation
is mostly waxmyrtle, St. Johnswort, pineland threeawn,
and scattered cypress and pines.
Wetness and droughtiness are very severe limitations
affecting cultivated crops. If good water-control and soil-
improving measures are used, vegetable crops can be
grown.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It is suited only if a water-control system is used
that maintains the water table at an effective depth.
Citrus trees should be planted on beds, and a plant
cover should be maintained between the trees.
This soil is well suited to pastures of pangolagrass,


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Polk County, Florida


improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rainfall. Addition of lime and fertilizer
increases quantity and quality of forage.
Typically, the Slough range site includes areas of this
soil. The dominant vegetation is an open expanse of
grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area where the soil
is saturated during the rainy season. If good grazing
management practices are used, this range site has
potential forage production almost as high as that of the
Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. Desirable
forage includes blue maidencane, maidencane, chalky
bluestem, toothachegrass, and Florida bluestem. If
excessive grazing occurs, common carpetgrass, an
introduced plant, is dominant.


The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
The major concerns in management, caused by the
wetness, are the equipment use limitation and seedling
mortality. If surface drainage and bedding are adequate,
slash pine and South Florida slash pine are the best
trees to plant.
This soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank
absorption fields and building site development because
of the wetness and seepage. The wetness and the
sandy surface, which causes poor trafficability, are
severe limitations affecting recreational development. A
combination of drainage and fill improves conditions for
most urban and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IVw.


69










71


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in Polk County. It can be used to adjust land uses
to the limitations and potentials of natural resources and
the environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related
failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems,
and parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with
nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers
can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, real
estate agents, appraisers, and others may also find this
survey useful. The survey can help them plan the safe
disposal of wastes and locate sites for pavements,
sidewalks, campgrounds, playgrounds, lawns, and trees
and shrubs. It can also help to determine the market
value of residential and commercial sites.


Crops and Pasture
William F. Kuenstler, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service,
helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
About 508,539 acres in Polk County was used for
crops and pasture according to the 1982 Census of
Agriculture preliminary report. Of that total, 209,020
acres was used as pasture and rangeland; more than
138,143 acres was used for citrus; and 5,000 acres was
used for specialty crops, mainly cucumbers,
watermelons, snap beans, peppers, some squash, field
peas, sod nursery plants, grapes, blueberries,
strawberries, tomatoes, and green boiling peanuts.
The acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has
been gradually decreasing as more land is used for
urban development. At the completion of the survey,
about 61,000 acres was being used for urban
development. This acreage has increased at about 4
percent a year for the past 10 years according to
estimates of the Central Florida Regional Planning
Council.
Soil erosion caused by wind and water is a hazard on
many soils in Polk County if the soil is not protected by
a plant cover. The well drained Apopka soils, the
moderately well drained Millhopper and Tavares soils,
and the excessively drained Astatula and Candler soils







71


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in Polk County. It can be used to adjust land uses
to the limitations and potentials of natural resources and
the environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related
failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems,
and parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with
nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers
can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, real
estate agents, appraisers, and others may also find this
survey useful. The survey can help them plan the safe
disposal of wastes and locate sites for pavements,
sidewalks, campgrounds, playgrounds, lawns, and trees
and shrubs. It can also help to determine the market
value of residential and commercial sites.


Crops and Pasture
William F. Kuenstler, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service,
helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
About 508,539 acres in Polk County was used for
crops and pasture according to the 1982 Census of
Agriculture preliminary report. Of that total, 209,020
acres was used as pasture and rangeland; more than
138,143 acres was used for citrus; and 5,000 acres was
used for specialty crops, mainly cucumbers,
watermelons, snap beans, peppers, some squash, field
peas, sod nursery plants, grapes, blueberries,
strawberries, tomatoes, and green boiling peanuts.
The acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has
been gradually decreasing as more land is used for
urban development. At the completion of the survey,
about 61,000 acres was being used for urban
development. This acreage has increased at about 4
percent a year for the past 10 years according to
estimates of the Central Florida Regional Planning
Council.
Soil erosion caused by wind and water is a hazard on
many soils in Polk County if the soil is not protected by
a plant cover. The well drained Apopka soils, the
moderately well drained Millhopper and Tavares soils,
and the excessively drained Astatula and Candler soils








Soil Survey


that have slopes of more than 2 percent are susceptible
to wind and water erosion. The somewhat poorly
drained Sparr soils and poorly drained Smyrna, Myakka,
and Immokalee soils are susceptible to wind erosion if
they are not protected during the critical soil blowing
period of January through April. Soil blowing also
occurs on all cleared or scalped soils during the dry
season from January through April. Future development
or construction sites need to be temporarily protected
from soil losses and offsite damages.
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is
damaging because productivity is reduced as the
surface layer is lost and as part of the subsoil is
incorporated into the plow layer and because soil
erosion on farmland results in sediment entering
streams and lakes. If erosion is controlled, the pollution
of streams and lakes by sediment can be reduced and
the quality of water for municipal use, for recreation,
and for fish and wildlife can be improved.
Erosion control practices reduce runoff, increase
infiltration, and control soil blowing and water erosion. A
plant cover on the soil reduces the rate of movement of
water across the soil surface, thereby reducing the
potential of runoff. Infiltration is enhanced by plant roots
penetrating the surface and subsurface layers creating
voids in which water can move downward. The plant
cover holds the soil in place, reducing the potential of
soil blowing and water erosion.
Other conservation practices that help control erosion
are minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the
surface. A cropping system that keeps plant cover on
the soil for extended periods can hold soil losses to
amounts that will not reduce the productive capacity of
the soil. Legumes and grasses grown for forage help to
control erosion on sloping soils, provide nitrogen, and
improve soil tilth.
Conservation tillage leaves crop residue on the
surface. The surface residue increases infiltration,
reduces runoff, and helps to control erosion.
Conservation tillage can be used on most of the soils in
Polk County. No-tillage for citrus is effective in
controlling erosion on sloping soils. No-tillage in citrus
includes mowing, using herbicides under trees, and light
disking that leaves enough plant residue on the surface
to prevent erosion.
The soils in Polk County are so sandy and the slopes
are so short and irregular that contour tillage or
terracing is not practical. Diversions reduce the length
of the slope and help to control runoff and erosion.
They are practical on deep, well drained soils that have
regular slopes.
Soil blowing is a major hazard on sandy and organic


soils. It damages or destroys crops by sandblasting;
spreads diseases, insects, and weed seeds; and
creates health hazards and cleaning problems. In a few
hours it can damage soils and tender crops in open,
unprotected areas if the winds are strong and the soil is
dry and bare of vegetation and surface mulch.
Maintaining a plant cover or mulch on the surface
minimizes soil blowing.
Soil blowing reduces soil fertility by removing the
finer textured soil particles and organic matter from the
soil. Control of soil blowing minimizes duststorms and
improves air quality.
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such
as cypress in its natural habitat and southern redcedar,
and strip crops of small grains or other vegetables,
such as large Florida sweet onions, effectively reduce
crop damage from soil blowing. Field windbreaks and
strip crops are narrow plantings made at right angles to
the prevailing wind and at specific intervals across the
field. The intervals depend on the erodibility of the soil
and on the susceptibility of the crop to damage from
sandblasting.
Information on the design of erosion control practices
for each kind of soil is in the "Water and Wind Erosion
Control Handbook-Florida," which is available at the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soil drainage is a concern in management on much
of the acreage used for crops and pasture. The very
poorly drained Eaton, Felda, Floridana, Nittaw, Placid,
Myakka, Samsula, Kaliga, Holopaw, Hontoon, Basinger,
Chobee, Winder, and Anclote soils are naturally so wet
that the production of crops common to the area is
generally not practical.
Unless the poorly drained soils are artificially drained,
they are wet enough in the root zone to cause damage
to most crops during the wet season. Included in this
category are Basinger, EauGallie, Pomona, Lynne,
Malabar, St. Johns, Smyrna, Myakka, Immokalee, Ona,
Pompano, Wauchula, Felda, Oldsmar, Paisley,
Wabasso, Bradenton, and Valkaria soils and clayey
Haplaquents.
Unless some of the somewhat poorly drained soils
are artificially drained, they are wet enough to cause
damage to citrus crops during the wet season. Included
in this category are Adamsville, Satellite, Sparr,
Lochloosa, Electra, Narcoossee, and Zolfo soils. An
irrigation system is needed on these soils for adequate
crop production throughout the growing season.
The design of surface drainage and irrigation
systems varies with the kind of soil and cropping
system. For intensive pasture or hay production, a
combination of these systems is needed. Information on


72







Polk County, Florida


the drainage and irrigation needed for each kind of soil
and crop is available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low on most soils in Polk
County. Most of the soils have a sandy, light colored
surface layer low in organic matter. Apopka, Felda,
Millhopper, and Sparr soils have a loamy subsoil. The
Adamsville, Archbold, Astatula, Candler, and Tavares
soils have sandy material to a depth of at least 80
inches. Basinger, Duette, Electra, Pomello, Ona,
Smyrna, Myakka, Pomona, Wabasso, and EauGallie
soils have a dark, sandy subsoil that is coated with
organic matter.
Most of the soils in the county have a strongly acid or
very strongly acid surface layer. Ground limestone is
required to raise the pH level sufficiently for good
growth of crops. The levels of nitrogen, potassium, and
available phosphorus are naturally low in most of the
soils. On all of the soils, additions of lime and fertilizer
should be based on soil tests, the needs of the crop,
and the expected level of yields. Fertilizer should be
applied throughout the growing season. Split
applications of fertilizer minimize nutrient loss. The
Cooperative Extension Service can help determine the
kind and amount of fertilizer and lime to apply.
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
that have good tilth are granular and porous. Adding
organic matter to the soil improves the tilth.
Most of the soils in the county have a sandy surface
layer that is low to moderate in content of organic
matter. Some of the soils have a sandy, black or very
dark gray surface layer that is moderate to very high in
content of organic matter. Eaton, Anclote, Basinger,
Hontoon, Kaliga, and Samsula soils have a muck or
mucky fine sand surface layer that is very high in
content of organic matter. The structure of the surface
layer of most soils generally is weak. Most of the
excessively drained and well drained soils are low or
moderate in content of organic matter and are drought.
Returning crop residue to the soil improves soil
structure and increases the moisture available to crops.
Field crops are grown on a very small acreage in Polk
County. The acreage of corn varies yearly and ranges
from less than 100 acres to 400 acres. All of the corn
harvested is used by the local cattle industry.
Specialty crops grown commercially are citrus, cherry
tomatoes, watermelons, cucumbers, strawberries,
boiling peanuts, sweet onions, peppers, squash, snap
beans, grapes, blueberries, nursery plants, and sod. If
economic conditions are favorable, the acreage of


grapes, blueberries, nursery plants, and sod can be
increased.
If irrigated, deep soils that have good natural
drainage, such as Apopka and Candler soils on slopes
of less than 5 percent, are especially well suited to
small fruits. Well drained soils are well suited to
peanuts. If irrigated, the Millhopper, Sparr, Tavares, and
Zolfo soils are very well suited to citrus. If a water
management system is installed, the Adamsville, Felda,
Kaliga, Immokalee, Ona, Pompano, Smyrna, Myakka,
Wabasso, and Wauchula soils are very well suited to
vegetables.
The well drained and moderately well drained soils
are suitable for citrus and nursery plants. Soils in low
areas where air drainage is poor and frost pockets are
common generally are poorly suited to early vegetables,
small fruits, and citrus.
The latest information on specialty crops can be
obtained from local offices of the Soil Conservation
Service and the Cooperative Extension Service.
Pasture produces forage for beef and dairy cattle.
Cow-calf operations are the major livestock enterprises.
Bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass are the major
pasture plants grown. Bahiagrass seeds are harvested
and used for tame pasture plantings as well as for
commercial purposes. In summer, excess pangolagrass
and bermudagrass are harvested for feeding cattle in
winter.
The well drained Apopka soils, the excessively
drained Candler soils, and the moderately well drained
Tavares soils are well suited to bahiagrass and
improved bermudagrass. Under good management,
hairy indigo and Alyce clover can be grown in summer
and fall.
The somewhat poorly drained Adamsville, Sparr, and
Zolfo soils are well suited to bahiagrass, improved
bermudagrass, and legumes, such as clover and
aeschynomene, but adequate lime and fertilizer are
needed.
If a water management system is installed, Basinger,
Bradenton, Felda, Immokalee, Ona, Pomona,
Wauchula, Wabasso, Smyrna, Myakka, and Lynne soils
are well suited to pastures of bahiagrass and
limpograss. Irrigation increases the length of the
growing season and the total forage production.
Legumes, such as white clover and aeschynomene, are
well suited if adequate amounts of lime and fertilizer are
added to the soil.
In some parts of Polk County, pasture is greatly
depleted by continuous excessive grazing. This is
evidenced by invader plants, such as dogfennel,


73








Soil Survey


pawpaw, and ragweed. Yields of pasture forage are
increased by applying a system of rotation grazing,
adding lime and fertilizer, growing legumes, and using
other management practices.
Pasture yields are closely related to the kind of soil.
Management of pasture is based on the relationship of
soils, pasture plants, lime, fertilizer, and moisture. The
type of pasture is determined by soil characteristics. For
example, some pastures require well drained soils, and
others require poorly drained or somewhat poorly
drained soils.
The latest information and current practices in
pasture management can be obtained from the Soil
Conservation Service and the Cooperative Extension
Service.
Most of the land currently used as pasture in the
southwest quadrant of the county will be mined for
phosphate and eventually reclaimed. Much of the area
will probably be reseeded to tame pasture grasses,
such as bahiagrass.
Native range species, such as yellow indiangrass,
switchgrass, and panic grass, are being planted on
some of the reclaimed land. Pasture grasses,
vegetables, and pine trees are being planted on an
experimental basis on Arents and Neilhurst soils. Trial
plantings of vegetable crops and some grasses are on
Haplaquents. The major concern is water management,
specifically maintaining adequate moisture on Arents
and Neilhurst soils and removing excess water from
Haplaquents during periods of heavy rainfall.
Expected yields for a suitable grass and legume
under a high level of management are shown in table 5.

Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage,
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop


varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
the smallest possible loss.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a
minimum.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
likely to increase as new production technology is
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The
soils are grouped according to their limitations affecting
field crops, the risk of damage if they are used for
crops, and the way they respond to management. The
criteria used in grouping the soils do not include major,
and generally expensive, landforming that would
change slope, depth, or other characteristics of the
soils, nor do they include possible but unlikely major
reclamation projects. Capability classification is not a
substitute for interpretations designed to show suitability
and limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for
woodland, and for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey. These
levels are defined in the following paragraphs.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their


74








Polk County, Florida


use. There are no class I soils in Polk County.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production. There are no class VIII soils in Polk
County.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
w, or s, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter
e shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
a close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
corrected by artificial drainage); and s shows that the
soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or
stony.
The soils in class V are subject to little or no erosion,
but they have other limitations that restrict their use to
pasture, rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or
recreation. Class V contains only the subclasses
indicated by w or s.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and
subclass is shown in table 6. The capability
classification of each map unit is given in the section
"Detailed Soil Map Units."

Rangeland
Dennis Thompson, field office conservationist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
Rangeland is land on which the native vegetation is
predominantly grasses, grasslike plants, forbs
(broadleaf flowering plants), and shrubs. Rangeland
covers about 200,000 acres of Polk County. It provides
livestock with a significant part of their year-round
forage needs. This forage is readily available and is


economical for livestock producers. Rangeland also
provides valuable wildlife habitat, watersheds, forest
products, recreational opportunities, and scenic beauty.
Most of the rangeland acreage is in the southeastern
part of the county.
In areas that have similar climate and topography,
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship
of the soils, vegetation, and water.
Table 7 shows, for each soil, the range site and the
total annual production of vegetation in favorable,
average, and unfavorable years. Only those soils that
are used as rangeland are listed. Explanation of the
column headings in table 7 follows.
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
produces a characteristic climax plant community that
differs from natural plant communities on other range
sites in kind, amount, or proportion of range plants. The
relationship between soils and vegetation was
established during this survey; thus, range sites
generally can be determined directly from the soil map.
Soil properties that affect moisture supply and plant
nutrients have the greatest influence on the productivity
of range plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a
seasonal high water table are also important.
Potential annual production for kind of growing season
is the amount of vegetation that can be expected to
grow annually on well managed rangeland that is
supporting the climax plant community. Potential
production includes all vegetation, whether or not it is
palatable to grazing animals. It includes the current
year's growth of leaves, twigs, and fruits of woody
plants, but it does not include the increase in stem
diameter of trees and shrubs. It is expressed in pounds
per acre of air-dry vegetation for favorable, average,
and unfavorable years. In a favorable year, the amount
and distribution of precipitation and the temperatures
make growing conditions substantially better than
average. In an average year, growing conditions are
about average. In an unfavorable year, growing
conditions are well below average, generally because of
low available soil moisture.
Range management requires a knowledge of the
kinds of soil and of the potential climax plant
community. It also requires an evaluation of the present
range condition. Range condition is determined by
comparing the present plant community with the climax
plant community on a particular range site. The more
closely the existing community resembles the climax
community, the better the range condition. Range


75








Soil Survey


condition is an ecological rating only. It does not convey
a meaning that pertains to the present plant community
for a given use.
Range conditions are excellent if the range is
producing 76-100 percent of the potential; good if the
range is producing 51-75 percent of the potential; fair if
the range is producing 26-50 percent of the potential;
and poor if the range is producing less than 26 percent
of the potential.
Native rangeland plants are classified in three
categories according to their response to grazing.
Decreasers generally are the most palatable plants to
livestock and are eliminated if the range is under
continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are plants less
palatable to livestock; they increase for a short time
under continuous heavy grazing but decrease if
excessive grazing persists. Invaders are plants native to
the site in small amounts but having little value as
forage. They increase as the range site deteriorates
from excessive grazing over a period of years.
The objective in range management is to control
grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about
the same in kind and amount as the potential climax
plant community for that site. Such management
generally results in the optimum production of
vegetation, reduction of undesirable brush species,
conservation of water, and control of erosion.
Sometimes, however, a range condition somewhat
below the potential meets grazing needs, provides
wildlife habitat, and protects soil and water resources.
Management of the range sites should be planned
with the potential productivity in mind. The wettest soils,
such as those in marshes, produce the most vegetation.
The drought, deep, sandy ridge soils generally
produce the least herbage annually. Soils that have the
highest production potential should be given the highest
priority if economic considerations are important.
Major management considerations are livestock
grazing, the length of time that the sites are grazed,
and the length of time and the season that the sites are
rested. Other management considerations are the
grazing pattern of livestock in a pasture that contains
more than one range site and the palatability of the
dominant plants within the site. Manipulation of a range
site often involves mechanical brush control, controlled
burning, and controlled livestock grazing. Predicting the
effects of these practices on range sites is important.
Monitoring the range site condition allows the resource
manager to determine the effects of range management
practices on the current plant community. Proper
management results in maximum sustained production,
conservation of the soil and water resources, and


improvement of the habitat for many wildlife species.

Woodland Management and Productivity
Cherry Wadsworth, county forester, Florida Division of Forestry,
helped prepare this section.
Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
influence tree growth. Climate determines the kinds of
trees that can grow on a site. Available water capacity
and depth of the root zone are major influences of tree
growth.
About 23 percent of the total land area in Polk
County is woodland. It is about 17,000 acres of
reserved woodland and 254,000 acres of commercial
woodland. More than 81 percent of the commercial
woodland is privately owned (18).
Predominant commercial species are slash pine,
South Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, sand pine,
baldcypress, pondcypress, sweetbay, loblollybay
gordonia, sweetgum, and blackgum. The pines are
harvested mainly for pulpwood and sawtimber. Trees in
wetlands produce fencing materials, sawtimber, and
mulch.
Over 2.8 million cubic feet of wood was harvested in
Polk County in 1984. Wood products generated an
estimated total income for the county of more than
$211,600,000 (5).
The woodland in Polk County is diverse, ranging from
flatwoods and swamps in the north, to sand hill scrub
on the ridge in the east and reclaimed phosphate mines
in the south.
The largest forestry operation in the county is in the
extreme southeast corner on 50,000 acres of the Avon
Park Air Force Bombing Range and 13,000 acres of
state owned land adjacent to Lake Arbuckle. On the Air
Force range, 15,000 acres is in planted pines ranging
from 66 to 76 years old. The pines are under multiple
use management, with grazing, wildlife, recreation, and
timber being the principal uses. About 8,000 acres of
natural South Florida slash pine and longleaf pine are
on the bombing range. All stands are managed for
natural regeneration with good results. Controlled
burning of pine stands in 3-year cycles keeps the fire
hazard at a minimum.
The tract on the west side of Lake Arbuckle is made
up of sand hill scrub and slash pine flatwoods. It is
managed for timber and wildlife on 10,000 acres and for
recreation on 3,000 acres.
The area north of Interstate 4 is generally referred to
as the Green Swamp. The predominant forest types in
this area are natural longleaf-slash pine flatwoods and


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Polk County, Florida


cypress-hardwood swamps. The Southwest Florida
Water Management District owns about 19,403 acres in
the part of the county along the Withlacoochee River
and bordering Lake and Sumter Counties. Most of this
acreage is natural longleaf-slash pine flatwoods and
hardwood riverine forest.
These natural stands are well stocked. The principal
management objectives on this tract are water
management and conservation. Management activities
are designed for maintenance and protection of the
woodlands. Harvests are limited to salvage and
sanitation cuts after fires, lightning strikes, and insect
attacks. Prescribed burning every third year encourages
natural regeneration, improves wildlife habitat and
forage for cattle, and reduces the fire hazard.
Phosphate mining companies own or control almost
210,000 acres in southern Polk County. Wetland
forests, pine flatwoods, and sand hill scrub are native to
this part of the county. Mining has impacted these
forest types. Mining regulations require acre for acre
reclamation, with specific requirements as to the
species and amounts to be planted. Efforts are being
made to reforest parts of mined lands to each of the
native forest types.
Timber generally is managed as a secondary
resource in conjunction with cattle or citrus operations.
More detailed information can be obtained at the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service, the Florida
Division of Forestry, or the County Extension Service.
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
land. Some soils respond better to fertilization than
others, and some are more susceptible to erosion after
roads are built and timber is harvested. Some soils
require special efforts to reforest.. In the section
"Detailed Soil Map Units," each map unit in the survey
area suitable for producing timber presents information
about productivity, limitations affecting harvesting
timber, and management concerns for producing timber.
The common forest understory plants are also listed.
Table 8 summarizes this forestry information and rates
the soils for a number of factors to be considered in
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be
considered in forest management.
The first tree listed for each soil under the column
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil.
An indicator species is a tree that is common in the
area and that is generally the most productive on a
given soil.
Table 8 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates


the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential
productivity is based on the site index and the point
where mean annual increment is the greatest.
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation affecting use
and management. The letter W indicates a soil in which
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes
a significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry,
sandy soil. The letter A indicates a soil that has no
significant restrictions or limitations affecting forest use
and management. If a soil has more than one limitation,
the priority is W and then S.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or
harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight
if no particular preventive measures are needed under
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control
measures are needed for particular silvicultural
activities; and severe if special precautions are needed
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings
of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of
roads, additional care in planning of harvesting and
reforestation operations, or use of specialized
equipment.
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
use of forest management equipment, year-round or
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer
to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. The
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil
wetness for less than 2 months and if special
equipment is not needed. The rating is moderate if soil
wetness restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per
year, if stoniness restricts ground-based equipment, or
if special equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil
compaction. The rating is severe if soil wetness restricts
equipment use for more than 6 months per year, if
stoniness restricts ground-based equipment, or if
special equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil
compaction. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate a
need to choose the most suitable equipment and to
carefully plan the timing of harvesting and other
management operations.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
death of naturally occurring or properly planted
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much


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Soil Survey


or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil for
seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth
and duration of the water table, rock fragments in the
surface layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the
slope. Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have
a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if,
after site preparation, expected mortality is less than 25
percent; moderate if expected mortality is between 25
and 50 percent; and severe if expected mortality
exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or severe
indicate that it may be necessary to use containerized
or larger than usual planting stock or to make special
site preparations, such as bedding, furrowing, installing
surface drainage, or providing artificial shade for
seedlings. Reinforcement planting is often needed if the
risk is moderate or severe.
Ratings of windthrow hazard indicate the likelihood of
trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting
depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth
can be restricted by a high water table or by a
combination of such factors as soil wetness, texture,
and structure. The risk is slight if strong winds cause
trees to break but do not uproot them; moderate if
strong winds cause an occasional tree to be blown over
and many trees to break; and severe if moderate or
strong winds commonly blow trees over. Ratings of
moderate or severe indicate the need for care in
thinning or possibly not thinning. Specialized equipment
may be needed to avoid damage to shallow root
systems in partial cutting operations. A plan for periodic
salvage of windthrown trees and the maintenance of a
road and trail system may be needed.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition becomes more severe on the more
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
inhibits adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
undesirable plants inhibits natural or artificial
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
ensure the development of an adequately stocked
stand. Managers must plan site preparation measures
to ensure reforestation without delays.
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil


is expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
the order of their observed general occurrence.
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
For the soils that are commonly used to produce
timber, the yield is predicted in cubic meters. The yield
is predicted at the point where mean annual increment
culminates.
The site index is determined by taking height
measurements and determining the age of selected
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
specified number of years. This index applies to fully
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. The site index
values given in table 8 are based on standard
procedures and techniques (12, 17, 20).
The productivity class represents an expected volume
produced by the most important trees, expressed in
cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
multiplying by 14.3. Cubic feet can be converted to
board feet by multiplying by a factor of about 5. For
example, a productivity class of 8 means the soil can be
expected to produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at
the point where mean annual increment culminates, or
about 570 board feet per acre per year.
Trees to plant are those that are used for
reforestation or, if suitable conditions exist, natural
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and will
produce a commercial wood crop. The desired product,
topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and
personal preference are three factors of many that can
influence the choice of trees to use for reforestation.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind, help to keep snow on the fields, and provide
food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.


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Polk County, Florida


Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a nursery.

Recreation
Polk County offers a variety of recreational activities,
including fishing, hunting, swimming, boating, canoeing,
and camping. Several freshwater lakes provide
excellent fishing. The Avon Park Air Force Range and
the Tenoroc Game Preserve provide excellent hunting
for deer, turkey, and feral hogs. Quail are also hunted.
Many of the freshwater lakes near population centers
have facilities for swimming, and boat docking facilities
are available at many of the major lakes. The scenic
Peace River is excellent for canoeing. Lake Kissimmee
State Park has facilities for overnight camping as well
as for fishing and boating.
In table 9, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means
that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by
planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe
means that soil properties are unfavorable and that
limitations can be offset by soil reclamation, special
design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a
combination of these measures.
The information in table 9 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
12 and interpretations for dwellings without basements


and for local roads and streets in table 11.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
The soils in Polk County support a wide diversity of
plant communities that are productive for a variety of
wildlife species. Primary ecological communities include
the lakes, marshes, swamp forests, pine flatwoods,
sand hills, sand pine scrub, oak hammock, and wetland
hardwood hammock.


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Polk County, Florida


Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a nursery.

Recreation
Polk County offers a variety of recreational activities,
including fishing, hunting, swimming, boating, canoeing,
and camping. Several freshwater lakes provide
excellent fishing. The Avon Park Air Force Range and
the Tenoroc Game Preserve provide excellent hunting
for deer, turkey, and feral hogs. Quail are also hunted.
Many of the freshwater lakes near population centers
have facilities for swimming, and boat docking facilities
are available at many of the major lakes. The scenic
Peace River is excellent for canoeing. Lake Kissimmee
State Park has facilities for overnight camping as well
as for fishing and boating.
In table 9, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means
that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by
planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe
means that soil properties are unfavorable and that
limitations can be offset by soil reclamation, special
design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a
combination of these measures.
The information in table 9 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
12 and interpretations for dwellings without basements


and for local roads and streets in table 11.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
The soils in Polk County support a wide diversity of
plant communities that are productive for a variety of
wildlife species. Primary ecological communities include
the lakes, marshes, swamp forests, pine flatwoods,
sand hills, sand pine scrub, oak hammock, and wetland
hardwood hammock.


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Soil Survey


Game species include white-tailed deer, wild turkey,
quail, fox squirrels, gray squirrels, cottontails, marsh
rabbits, dove, and several species of ducks. Nongame
species include raccoon, opossum, armadillo, red fox,
gray fox, Florida black bears, feral hogs, bobcat, otter,
mink, skunks, and a variety of songbirds, woodpeckers,
wading birds, predatory birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
Some of the most valuable habitat is the Green Swamp
area in the northern part of the county; the Kissimmee
River, Chain of Lakes, and Avon Park Bombing Range
in the eastern and southern parts; and the old
phosphate mine pits in the western and south-central
parts. The pits provide good habitat for waterfowl,
wading birds, otter, alligator, and fish. Bald eagles,
wood storks, white pelicans, Florida sandhill cranes,
and osprey are often seen in these areas.
Areas of concern are the impact of urbanization in
the central part of the county; the habitat changes
caused by intensive agricultural practices, such as
citrus and tame pasture; and the phosphate mining with
the monoculture type of reclamation that has been done
in the past. Present reclamation laws and rules require
that a diversity of land uses and plant covers be
reestablished during reclamation.
Polk County provides much fishery habitat with its
streams, swamps, marshes, and lakes. The 536 natural
lakes are more than 10 acres in size, and 110 of these
lakes are larger than 100 acres. Many lakes offer
excellent fishing. In some urban areas, however,
overenrichment of lakes results in fish kills. The main
species include largemouth bass, bluegill, speckled
perch (black crappie), redear sunfish, redbreast sunfish,
spotted sunfish, and catfish. Other prominent species
include gar, bowfin, lake chubsuckers, tilapia, and
gizzard shad.
A number of endangered and threatened wildlife
species are in Polk County. They range from the
seldom-seen red-cockaded woodpecker and short-tailed
snake to more common species, such as the wood
stork and bald eagle. A more detailed list of these
species with information on range and habitat needs is
available from the district conservationist at the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
plants.


In table 10, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element
of the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain
and seed crops are corn, soybeans, wheat,
browntopmillet, and grain sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood
hazard, and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture
are also considerations. Examples of grasses and
legumes are bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida
beggarweed, clover, and sesbania.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil


80







Polk County, Florida


moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are bluestem grasses, goldenrod,
beggarweed, partridge pea, and ragweed.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, palmetto, cherry, sweetgum, wild
grape, hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and
blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are
suitable for planting on soils rated good are firethorn,
wild plum, and beautyberry.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
and juniper.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice,
pickerelweed, cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are wetness, surface stoniness, slope, and
permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
in the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
and wild herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to
these areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark,
field sparrow, cottontail rabbit, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels,
gray fox, raccoon, deer, and bear.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife


attracted to such areas are ducks, herons, shore birds,
otter, mink, and alligator.

Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet,
and because of the map scale, small areas of different
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a
specific soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness,
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood
of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell
potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral
characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,


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Soil Survey


septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, roadfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same
or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
this survey can be used to make additional
interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.

Building Site Development
Table 11 shows the degree and kind of soil
limitations that affect shallow excavations, dwellings
with and without basements, small commercial
buildings, local roads and streets, and lawns and
landscaping. The limitations are considered slight if soil
properties and site features are generally favorable for
the indicated use and limitations, if any, are minor and
easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
features are somewhat restrictive for the indicated use
and special planning, design, or maintenance is needed
to overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if
soil properties or site features are so unfavorable that
special design, soil reclamation, and possibly increased
maintenance are required. Special feasibility studies
may be required where the soil limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by the very firm
dense layer, stone content, soil texture, and slope. The
time of the year that excavations can be made is
affected by the depth to a seasonal high water table
and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The
resistance of the excavation walls or banks to sloughing
or caving is affected by soil texture and the depth to the
water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
made for small commercial buildings without


basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
soil properties, site features, and observed performance
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell
potential, and organic layers can cause the movement
of footings. Depth to a high water table, large stones,
and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
and fills of more than 5 or 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. A high water table, flooding, large stones, and
slope affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification
of the soil), shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high
water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table, the
available water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the
content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect
plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, stoniness, and
the amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the
surface layer affect trafficability after vegetation is
established.

Sanitary Facilities
Table 12 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations, if any, are minor and easily overcome;
moderate if soil properties or site features are
moderately favorable for the indicated use and special
planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if one
or more soil properties or site features are unfavorable
for the use and special design, extra maintenance, or
alteration are required to overcome the unfavorable
properties.
Table 12 also shows the suitability of the soils for
use as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good
indicates that soil properties and site features are


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Polk County, Florida


favorable for the use and that good performance and
low maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that
soil properties and site features are moderately
favorable for the use and one or more soil properties or
site features make the soil less desirable than the soils
rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a high water table, and flooding
affect absorption of the effluent. Large stones and
bedrock or a cemented pan interfere with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel is less than 4 feet below the
base of the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or if
the water table is near the surface. There must be
unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption field to
filter the effluent effectively. Many local ordinances
require that this material be of a certain thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 12 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high
water table, flooding, large stones, and content of
organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the
level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high


content of organic matter is detrimental to proper
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic
activity. Slope can cause construction problems, and
large stones can hinder compaction of the lagoon floor.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
layer of soil from a source away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 12 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a high water table, slope, and
flooding affect both types of landfill. Texture, stones and
boulders, highly organic layers, soil reaction, and
content of salts and sodium affect trench type landfills.
Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that
part of the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For
deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate
may not be valid. Onsite investigation is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil
blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
enough over the water table to permit revegetation. The
soil material used as final cover for a landfill should be
suitable for plants. The surface layer generally has the
best workability, more organic matter, and the best
potential for plants. Material from the surface layer
should be stockpiled for use as the final cover.

Construction Materials
Table 13 gives information about the soils as a
source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils


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Soil Survey


are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
soil properties and site features that affect the removal
of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help determine the suitability
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not
considered in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. The
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
The ease of excavation is affected by large stones, a
high water table, and slope. How well the soil performs
in place after it has been compacted and drained is
determined by its strength (as inferred from the
engineering classification of the soil) and shrink-swell
potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have
layers of suitable material, but the material is less than
3 feet thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand
and gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 13,
only the probability of finding material in suitable


quantity is evaluated. The suitability of the material for
specific purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that
affect excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil),
the thickness of suitable material, and the content of
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at
least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight,
large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as
shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and
gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of
less than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble
salts, are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer,
and are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20
to 40 inches of suitable material, and soils that have an
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts.
The soils are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large
amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or have a
seasonal water table at or near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant-
available nutrients as it decomposes.


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