• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to soil map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of the City of Jacksonville,...
 General nature of the survey...
 How this survey was made
 General soil map for broad land...
 Soil maps for detailed plannin...
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Soil series and morphology
 Classification of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Illustrations
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of city of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025725/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of city of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida
Physical Description: x, 113 p., 37 fold. leaves of plates : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Stem, Leon T
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1978
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Jacksonville   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Duval County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Jacksonville   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Duval County   ( lcsh )
Sols -- Cartes -- Floride -- Jacksonville   ( rvm )
Sols -- Cartes -- Floride -- Duval (Comté)   ( rvm )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 53.
Statement of Responsibility: by Leon T. Stem ... et al. ; United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025725
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001187251
notis - AFT7463
oclc - 05098337
lccn - 79600619

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page ia
        Page ib
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to soil map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
    Location of the City of Jacksonville, Duval County, in Florida
        Page x
    General nature of the survey area
        Page 1
        History and development
            Page 1
        Archeological factors
            Page 2
        Climate
            Page 2
        Farming
            Page 3
        Water resource
            Page 3
        Transportation
            Page 4
        Recreation
            Page 4
    How this survey was made
        Page 4
    General soil map for broad land use planning
        Page 5
        Soils of the sand ridges
            Page 5
            Aquic Quartzipsamments-Fripp
                Page 5
            Kershaw-Ortega
                Page 6
            Mandarin-Kureb
                Page 6
        Soils of the flatwoods
            Page 7
            Leon-Ortega
                Page 7
            Leon-Ridgeland-Wesconett
                Page 7
            Pelham-Mascotte-Sapelo
                Page 8
        Soils of the hardwood and cypress swamps
            Page 8
            Wesconnett-Maurepas-Stockade
                Page 8
        Soils of the tidal marsh
            Page 9
            Tisonia
                Page 9
    Soil maps for detailed planning
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 26
        Crops and pasture
            Page 26
            Yields per acre
                Page 27
            Capability classes and subclasses
                Page 28
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 28
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 29
        Coastal dune management
            Page 30
        Engineering
            Page 30
            Building site development
                Page 31
            Sanitary facilities
                Page 31
            Construction materials
                Page 32
            Water management
                Page 33
        Recreation
            Page 34
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 34
    Soil properties
        Page 35
        Engineering properties
            Page 36
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 36
        Soil and water features
            Page 37
        Physical and chemical analyses of selected soils
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Engineering test data
            Page 40
    Soil series and morphology
        Page 40
        Albany series
            Page 40
        Alpin series
            Page 41
        Blanton series
            Page 41
        Canaveral series
            Page 42
        Cornelia series
            Page 42
        Fripp series
            Page 42
        Kershaw series
            Page 43
        Kureb series
            Page 43
        Leon series
            Page 43
        Lynn Haven series
            Page 44
        Mandarin series
            Page 44
        Mascotte series
            Page 45
        Maurepas series
            Page 46
        Olustee series
            Page 46
        Ortega series
            Page 47
        Pamlico series
            Page 47
        Pelham series
            Page 47
        Pottsburg series
            Page 48
        Ridgeland series
            Page 48
        Sapelo series
            Page 49
        Stockade series
            Page 49
        Surrency series
            Page 50
        Tisonia series
            Page 50
        Wesconnett series
            Page 51
        Yonges series
            Page 51
        Yulee series
            Page 52
    Classification of the soils
        Page 52
    Reference
        Page 53
    Glossary
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Illustrations
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Tables
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    General soil map
        Page 114
    Index to map sheets
        Page 116
        Page 117
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
Full Text
























ciry of JAcksoNvillE
INDEPENDENT LIFE -





















dUVA1 COUNTY: fO1RidA

United States Department of Agriculture
oSoil Conservation Service
duval county, florida



Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department





HOW TO US

-- ----- --- -
Locate your area of interest on ,
the "Index to Map Sheets" (the
last page of this publication).

13 4\






L. ~^ *-----J --- -Sheet and turn to that sheet.











t i'a are in your a a
5 6 B4 134
-- ^ --- ----I\ 18




SList Note the number of the mapsymbols



Locat are in you r area of interest










S151C, 2 \ \27C




131 B1
134 148B
\14 \ 151 C






HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. --






........................












See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6. Contents) for location of additional data-.,
on a specific soil use.
















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7, agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.




























This is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort
of the United States Department of Agriculture and agencies of the States,
usually the Agricultural Experiment Stations. In some surveys, other Federal
and local agencies also contribute. The Soil Conservation Service has leader-
ship for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with
Department of Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to
all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in the period 1973-76.
Soil names and descriptions were approved in 1976. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in the publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1976.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department. It is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Duval Soil and Water Conservation District. The
Jacksonville City Council contributed financially to accelerate the completion of
fieldwork for the soil survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission, but any enlarge-
ment of these maps could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping and
result in erroneous interpretations. Enlarged maps do not show small areas of
contrasting soils that could have been shown at a larger mapping scale.










Cover: Heart of the downtown section of the City of Jacksonville.
The area is mapped as Urban land. (The use of the name
"Independent Life" on the cover does not constitute endorsement by
the federal government.)




ii














Contents

Page Page
Index to soil map units .......................................... iv Wildlife habitat............................. ..................... 34
Sum m ary of tables ...................................................... v Soil properties ...................................................... 35
Foreword ...................................................... ix Engineering properties ............................................... 36
General nature of the survey area.............................. 1 Physical and chemical properties ............................ 36
History and development ........................................ 1 Soil and water features....................................... 37
Archeological factors .......................... .................. 2 Physical and chemical analyses of selected soils .... 38
Clim ate ....................................................... 2 Engineering test data .................................................. 40
Farm ing ............................................. ....... .......... 3 Soil series and m orphology .......................................... 40
W after resources ............................... ...... .. ............ ... 3 A lbany series................................. ............... ...... 40
T transportation ................................ ........................ 4 A lpin series .................................... .......................... 41
R creation ......................................... ....................... 4 B lanton series ............................... ........................... 41
How this survey was made.......................................... 4 Canaveral series ................................ .................... 42
General soil map for broad land use planning........ 5 Cornelia series .................................................. 42
Soils of the sand ridges ........................ .................. 5 Fripp series........................................ ....... ......... 42
1. Aquic Quartzipsamments-Fripp ...................... 5 Kershaw series ....................................... .... 43
2. Kershaw-Ortega.................... ................. 6 Kureb series ........................................ ....... ........ 43
3. M andarin-Kureb........... ......... .................. 6 Leon series ........................................ ....... ......... 43
Soils of the flatwoods .......................... .................. 7 Lynn Haven series................................ .................. 44
4. Leon-Ortega ........................... ................... 7 M andarin series ........................... ........ ....... ...... 44
5. Leon-Ridgeland-Wesconnett .......................... 7 Mascotte series ................................. .................. ... 45
6. Pelham-Mascotte-Sapelo .............................. 8 Maurepas series ............................... ..................... 46
Soils of the hardwood and cypress swamps ......... 8 Olustee series ............................. .................... 46
7. Wesconnett-Maurepas-Stockade.................. 8 Ortega series............................ .............................. 47
Soils of the tidal marsh ........................................ 9 Pamlico series ......................... ............ ... ........... .... 47
8. Tisonia .......................................................... 9 Pelham series ............................ ............. .... .. 47
Soil maps for detailed planning .............................. 9 Pottsburg series ................................ ............ 48
Use and management of the soils ............................ 26 Ridgeland series .......... ............................. 48
Crops and pasture ............................... .... 26 Sapelo series ............................................ 49
Yields per acre ....................................... 27 Stockade series ............... ......... ..................... 49
Capability classes and subclasses .......................... 28 Surrency series.......................... .. ...... .............. 50
Woodland management and productivity ................ 28 Tisonia series................................................... 50
Windbreaks and environmental plantings................ 29 Wesconnett series ........................................... .. 51
Coastal dune management ........................................ 30 Yonges series ................................ ................. 51
Engineering.................. ......... ... ............... 30 Yulee series......................... ............... 52
Building site development ..................................... 31 Classification of the soils........................................ 52
Sanitary facilities ................. .................31 References..................... ........................... ....... 53
Construction materials ....................................... 32 Glossary ............................ .................... 53
Water management ............ ........................ 33 Illustrations ................................. .................... 59
R creation ..... ............................ 34 Tables ................................... ................................. 65








Issued May 1978








Ill














Index to Soil Map Units

Page Page
1 Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.............. 10 20 Mascotte fine sand ........................................ .... 18
2 Alpin fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ................ 10 21 Mascotte-Urban land complex ................................ 18
3 Aquic Quartzipsamments ........................................ 11 22 Maurepas muck.......................... ............... 18
4 A rents................................................ 11 23 Olustee fine sand ...................................................... 19
5 Arents, sanitary landfill ...................................... 12 24 Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ................ 19
6 Beaches................................................ 12 25 Pamlico muck .................................. ....... 20
7 Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 12 26 Pelham fine sand .................... ..................... 20
8 Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......... 13 27 Pelham-Urban land complex .................................. 21
9 Cornelia fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 13 28 Pits .................................... ................. 21
10 Fripp fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes .................. 13 29 Pottsburg fine sand ............................ 21
11 Kershaw fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes ........... 14 30 Ridgeland fine sand .................. ............. .. 22
12 Kershaw-Urban land complex ............................... 14 31 Sapelo fine sand ....................................... 22
13 Kershaw fine sand, smoothed ................................ 15 32 Stockade fine sandy loam........................................ 23
14 Kureb fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes.................. 15 33 Surrency fine sand............ .................... .. 23
15 Kureb fine sand, 8 to 20 percent slopes................ 15 34 Tisonia mucky peat .................................. 24
16 Leon fine sand .... ................................ 16 35 Urban land.................................................... 24
17 Leon-Urban land complex .............................. 16 36 Wesconnett fine sand ............ .......... ...... 24
18 Lynn Haven fine sand.................... ............ 17 37 Yonges fine sandy loam ................................... 25
19 M mandarin fine sand ...... .... .......... 17 38 Yulee clay ....................................................................... 25


































iv














Summary of Tables

Page
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (Table 4)............................ 68
Acres. Percent.
Building site development (Table 8) ............................... ... ............. 75
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial
buildings. Local roads and streets.
Capability classes and subclasses (Table 6) ................................. ......... 71
Class. Total acreage. Major management concerns
(Subclass)-Erosion (e), Wetness (w), Soil problem
(s), Climate (c).
Chemical properties of selected soils (Table 19) ......................................... 105
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases-Ca, Mg, Na, K,
Sum. Extractable acidity. Cation exchange capacity.
Base saturation. Organic carbon. Electrical conduc-
tivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable-C, Fe, Al,
C+A1/Clay. Citrate dithionite extractable-Al, Fe.
Classification of the soils (Table 22) ...................... .................... 113
Soil name. Family or higher taxonomic class.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (Table 20) .......................................... 109
Depth. Horizon. Montmorillonite. 14 angstrom inter-
grade. Kaolinite. Gibbsite. Quartz. Mica.
Construction materials (Table 10) .............................. ........ ................. 81
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Depth to water table in selected soils (Table 17) ........................................ 100
Elevation above MSL. Year. January. February.
March. April. May. June. July. August. September.
October. November. December.
Engineering properties and classifications (Table 14)................................. 91
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified,
AASHTO. Fragments greater than 3 inches. Per-
centage passing sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid
limit. Plasticity index.
Engineering test data (Table 21) ...................................... ... ............... 111
FDOT report number. Depth. Moisture densi-
ty-Maximum dry density, Optimum moisture con-
tent. Mechanical analysis-Percentage passing sieve
no. 10, no. 40, no. 200; Percentage smaller
than-0.05 mm, 0.02 mm, 0.005 mm, 0.002 mm.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Classifica-
tion-AASHTO, Unified.




V








Summary of Tables-Continued
Page
Freeze data (Table 2) ................................ .......... .... ........................ 66
Freeze threshold temperature. Mean date of last
spring occurrence. Mean date of first fall occur-
rence. Mean number of days between dates. Years of
record, spring. Number of occurrences in spring.
Years of record, fall. Number of occurrences in fall.
Physical and chemical properties of soils (Table 15) ................................... 95
Depth. Permeability. Available water capacity. Soil
reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell potential. Risk of
corrosion--Uncoated steel, Concrete. Erosion fac-
tors-K. T. Wind erodibility group.
Physical properties of selected soils (Table 18)............................................. 101
Depth. Horizon. Particle size distribution-Very
coarse sand, Coarse sand, Medium sand, Fine sand,
Very fine sand, Total sand, Silt, Clay. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content-1/10 bar,
1/3 bar, 15 bar.
Potentials and limitations of map units on the general soil map (Table 3) 67
Extent of area. Community development. Improved
pasture. Pine woodland.
Recreational development (Table 12) .............................................. ................. 86
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and
trails.
Sanitary facilities (Table 9) ............................................................ 78
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill.
Daily cover for landfill.
Soil and water features (Table 16)........................ ......................... 98
Hydrologic group. Flooding-Frequency, Duration,
Months. High water table-Depth, Kind, Months.
Bedrock-Depth, Hardness. Subsidence-Initial,
Total.
Temperature and precipitation data (Table 1)..................................... ....... 66
Temperature-Monthly normal mean; Normal
daily maximum; Normal daily minimum; Mean
number of days with temperature of-90 F or
higher, 32 F or lower. Precipitation-Normal total;
Maximum total; Minimum total; Mean number of
days with rainfall of-0.10 inch or more, 0.50 inch
or more.
W ater management (Table 11) ...................................................................... 83
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embank-
ments, dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated
ponds. Features affecting-Drainage, Terraces and
diversions, Grassed waterways.
W wildlife habitat potentials (Table 13) ........................................ ................... 89
Potential for habitat elements-Grain and seed
crops, Grasses and legumes, Wild herbaceous plants,



vi









Summary of Tables-Continued

Page
Hardwood trees, Coniferous plants, Shrubs, Wetland
plants, Shallow water areas. Potential as habitat
for-Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wet-
land wildlife.
Woodland management and productivity (Table 7) .................................... 72
Ordination symbol. Management concerns-Erosion
hazard, Equipment limitation, Seedling mortality,
Windthrow hazard, Plant competition. Potential
productivity-Common trees, Site index. Trees to
plant.
Yields per acre of pastures (Table 5) ............................................ ............ 69
Bahiagrass. Improved bermudagrass. Grass-clover.















































vii

















Foreword


The Soil Survey of the City of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida con-
tains much information useful in any land-planning program. Of prime im-
portance are the predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. Also
highlighted are limitations or hazards to land uses that are inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome these limitations, and the impact that
selected land uses will have on the environment.
This soil survey has been prepared for many different users. Farmers,
ranchers, foresters, and agronomists can use it to determine the potential of
the soil and the management practices required for food and fiber production.
Planners, community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and homebuyers
can use it to plan land use, select sites for construction, develop soil resources,
or identify any special practices that may be needed to insure proper per-
formance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation,
wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the soil sur-
vey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Many people assume that soils are all more or less alike. They are
unaware that great differences in soil properties can occur even within short
distances. Soils may be seasonally wet or subject to flooding. They may be
shallow to bedrock. They may be too unstable to be used as a foundation for
buildings or roads. Very clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to septic tank ab-
sorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or
underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map; the lo-
cation of each kind of soil is shown on detailed soil maps. Each kind of soil in
the survey area is described, and much information is given about each soil for
specific uses. Additional information or assistance in using this publication can
be obtained from the local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
We believe that this soil survey can help bring us a better environment
and a better life. Its widespread use can greatly assist us in the conservation,
development, and productive use of soil, water, and other resources.







William E. Austin
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service







ix




























PENSACOLA ,j
PENSACOLA 180 MILES 160 MILE( / JACKSONVILLE
TALLAHASSEE


GAINESVILLE *









1 TAMPA ^











MAMIA








State Agricultural Experiment Station


Location of the City of Jacksonville, Duval County, in Florida.


x











soil SURVEy of ciTy OFjAcksONViIE

duvAl COUNTy, FloRidA



United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department
By Leon T. Stem, Hershel D. Dollar,
David A. Howell, Douglas L. Lewis,
Carol A. Wettstein, and Howard Yamataki, Soil Conservation Service

Others participating in the field survey were
Elmer M. Ward and Francis J. Wilhelm, Soil Conservation Service



THE CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, History and development
is on the Atlantic Coast in the northeastern section of the
Florida Peninsula. It is bordered on the north by Nassau In 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon landed on the coast of
County, on the west by Baker County, on the south by northeast Florida and was credited with its discovery.
Clay and St. Johns Counties, and on the east by the At- Ayllon and Quexos, two Spanish explorers, in 1520
lantic Ocean. discovered what is now the St. Johns River and named it
The land area within the county is 497,280 acres, or 777 the River of Currents because of its swift flow. In 1562,
square miles. The entire county, with the exception of the Jean Ribault, A French leader and explorer, landed at the
municipalities of Baldwin, Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, mouth of this river and called it River of May (11). In
and Jacksonville Beach, is included within the 1564, French Huguenots built Fort Caroline on the south
metropolitan government of the City of Jacksonville. The bank of the St. Johns River. It was promptly destroyed
county is about 32 miles long from north to south and 39 by the Spanish, led by Pedro Menendez. In 1763, Great
miles from east to west. Approximate distances by air Britain acquired Florida and began developing the
from Jacksonville to the other principal cities in the State northern part of the territory. The famous "King's
are shown on the map on the facing page. Highway" passed through what is now the city of
Jacksonville is about 25 feet above sea level. Elevation Jacksonville, known at that time as Cowford.
in the county ranges from sea level to approximately 190 Favored by its location near the Atlantic Ocean and its
feet on the eastern edge of Trail Ridge. Average rainfall good access to a large agricultural and timber region,
in Duval County is about 54 inches. The period of heavi- Jacksonville became an important trade center and deep-
est rainfall is June through October. The average tem- water port. By the 1870's the city was gaining fame as a
perature is approximately 56 degrees F in January and 82 health resort, and hotels began to dominate its skyline.
degrees in August. For more information, see the section Railroads were extended into the area before and during
"Climate." the Civil War, and steamboats began to use the port for
both local and out-of-state commerce.
Jacksonville continued to grow in spite of a severe yel-
General nature of the survey area low fever epidemic and a great fire which nearly leveled
the city in 1901 (3). The city is now a regional center for
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that rail, highway, and water transportation as well as a
affect the use and management of soils in the survey area center for financial and insurance institutions. In 1950,
are discussed. The factors discussed are history and the population was 304,029; in 1960, it was 455,211; in
development; archeological factors; climate; farming; 1970, it was 528,865; and in 1975, it was estimated by the
water resources; transportation; and recreation. Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce to be 577,900.
1











soil SURVEy of ciTy OFjAcksONViIE

duvAl COUNTy, FloRidA



United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department
By Leon T. Stem, Hershel D. Dollar,
David A. Howell, Douglas L. Lewis,
Carol A. Wettstein, and Howard Yamataki, Soil Conservation Service

Others participating in the field survey were
Elmer M. Ward and Francis J. Wilhelm, Soil Conservation Service



THE CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, History and development
is on the Atlantic Coast in the northeastern section of the
Florida Peninsula. It is bordered on the north by Nassau In 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon landed on the coast of
County, on the west by Baker County, on the south by northeast Florida and was credited with its discovery.
Clay and St. Johns Counties, and on the east by the At- Ayllon and Quexos, two Spanish explorers, in 1520
lantic Ocean. discovered what is now the St. Johns River and named it
The land area within the county is 497,280 acres, or 777 the River of Currents because of its swift flow. In 1562,
square miles. The entire county, with the exception of the Jean Ribault, A French leader and explorer, landed at the
municipalities of Baldwin, Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, mouth of this river and called it River of May (11). In
and Jacksonville Beach, is included within the 1564, French Huguenots built Fort Caroline on the south
metropolitan government of the City of Jacksonville. The bank of the St. Johns River. It was promptly destroyed
county is about 32 miles long from north to south and 39 by the Spanish, led by Pedro Menendez. In 1763, Great
miles from east to west. Approximate distances by air Britain acquired Florida and began developing the
from Jacksonville to the other principal cities in the State northern part of the territory. The famous "King's
are shown on the map on the facing page. Highway" passed through what is now the city of
Jacksonville is about 25 feet above sea level. Elevation Jacksonville, known at that time as Cowford.
in the county ranges from sea level to approximately 190 Favored by its location near the Atlantic Ocean and its
feet on the eastern edge of Trail Ridge. Average rainfall good access to a large agricultural and timber region,
in Duval County is about 54 inches. The period of heavi- Jacksonville became an important trade center and deep-
est rainfall is June through October. The average tem- water port. By the 1870's the city was gaining fame as a
perature is approximately 56 degrees F in January and 82 health resort, and hotels began to dominate its skyline.
degrees in August. For more information, see the section Railroads were extended into the area before and during
"Climate." the Civil War, and steamboats began to use the port for
both local and out-of-state commerce.
Jacksonville continued to grow in spite of a severe yel-
General nature of the survey area low fever epidemic and a great fire which nearly leveled
the city in 1901 (3). The city is now a regional center for
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that rail, highway, and water transportation as well as a
affect the use and management of soils in the survey area center for financial and insurance institutions. In 1950,
are discussed. The factors discussed are history and the population was 304,029; in 1960, it was 455,211; in
development; archeological factors; climate; farming; 1970, it was 528,865; and in 1975, it was estimated by the
water resources; transportation; and recreation. Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce to be 577,900.
1








2 SOIL SURVEY

Since the end of the Second World War, industrial Many of the soils related to marine food acquisition are
development has increased greatly (fig. 1). Machinery and soils that have been modified by man. The inhabitation
transportation equipment, chemicals, bedding, fabricated of the site has actually created fertile soils, that is, the
metals, and construction materials are manufactured. sites are in areas that were originally low, wet, poorly
Large amounts of timber and pulpwood are major drained, unproductive sandy soils, but the sites developed
products. Large numbers of the population are employed because of easily exploited abundant food sources. Today,
in construction, and many more are employed in the the areas, because of midden accumulation, are higher
shipping industry along Jacksonville's waterfront. than the surrounding areas. The soils are better drained
Community facilities have expanded rapidly since 1968. and more fertile. These areas are quite visible on aerial
All parts of the county are adequately served by electric photographs because of the different vegetation of sur-
and telephone facilities. Natural gas is available in many rounding areas.
places. The relationship of the settlement of the area to good
farming lands is clearly indicated by the locations of the
Archeological factors early plantations. Generally the plantations were located
on prehistoric Indian sites-for example, the Greenfield,
LYNN NIDY, field archeologist, Florida Division of Archives and His- the Fitzpatrick, the Kingsley, and the Houston planta-
tory, helped prepare this section. tions.
Soils influence kinds and amounts of vegetation and The first European settlers in the Duval County area
amounts of water available and in this way indirectly in- lived on the hgh ridges along the south bankof the St.
fluence the kinds of wildlife that inhabit an area. Johns River and on the islands around its mouth. Except
Soil properties undoubtedly had an influence on site for sawmill grants in the interior of the county, the early
selection. Fats u ndoutedly had an influence on slte, settlements were on moderately well drained or exces-
selection. Factors such as wetness, flood hazard, slope, sively drained soils.
permeability, and fertility for crop production were im- An important exception to this trend was the settle-
portant criteria for site selection. The early inhabitants of ment in the late 18th century of the area on the
the area, with limited knowledge of soils and limited abili- northwest bank of the St. Johns River. This settlement
ty to alter the soil, had to use the soil in large part as it was later known as Cowford, and much later as the city
was. of Jacksonville. This area was settled because the St.
Inhabitants of the area at one time were probably hun- Johns River is at its narrowest, and the area was a popu-
ters and gatherers, that is, they did not plant crops but lar fording point. This area continued to develop, and in
gathered wild plants and hunted game. But even their 1882 the city of Jacksonville was officially founded.
subsistence practices were indirectly influenced by soil Conclusive archeological evidence proves that soils dis-
distribution and its relationship to the environment. tribution and topography had a strong influence on early
When Europeans first arrived in the area, they found settlement patterns in Duval County.
the native Americans planting crops (12).
Archeological site distribution in the area is closely re- Climate
lated to topography as well as soil distribution. According
to Fairchild (6): "The topography in Duval County is The climate in Duval County is characterized by long,
mostly low, gentle to flat, and composed of a series of an- warm, humid summers and mild winters. The Atlantic
cient marine terraces. The highest altitude is about 190 Ocean and the Gulf Stream have a moderating influence
feet above sea level in the extreme southwest corner of on maximum temperatures in summer and on minimum
the county, along the eastern slope of a prominent topo- temperatures in winter. This influence is pronounced
graphic feature known as 'Trail Ridge.' Trail Ridge is a along the coast but diminishes noticeably a few miles in-
remnant of the highest, ancient marine terrace (Coharie) land.
in Duval County. The terraces are parallel to the present Rainfall is heaviest in summer; about 65 percent of the
Atlantic shoreline and become progressively higher from annual total falls from June through October in an
east to west" average year. The other 35 percent is more or less evenly
The moderately well drained and excessively drained distributed throughout the remainder of the year. Max-
The moderately well drained and excessively drained imum temperatures show little day-to-day variation, and
soils, such as the Ortega, Kureb, Kershaw, Cornelia, and temperatures as high as 96 degrees F occur at least 1 day
Blanton soils, are located on the higher portions of in- a month during summer. Minimum temperatures in
dividual marine terraces. winter vary considerably from day to day, largely because
There are 36 large ceremonial sites recorded to date in of periodic invasions of cold, dry air moving southward
the county, 35 of which occur on the moderately well from across the continent. Summarized climatic data (17,
drained to excessively drained soils. Of the total 150 19), based on records collected at the Jacksonville Inter-
archeological sites recognized in the county, only those national Airport, are shown in table 1. Extreme tempera-
directly related to marine food acquisition are located on tures during the period 1941 to 1970 were a high of 105
very poorly drained soils, such as Tisonia or Maurepas degrees in July 1942 and a low of 12 degrees in December
soils. 1962 (19).








2 SOIL SURVEY

Since the end of the Second World War, industrial Many of the soils related to marine food acquisition are
development has increased greatly (fig. 1). Machinery and soils that have been modified by man. The inhabitation
transportation equipment, chemicals, bedding, fabricated of the site has actually created fertile soils, that is, the
metals, and construction materials are manufactured. sites are in areas that were originally low, wet, poorly
Large amounts of timber and pulpwood are major drained, unproductive sandy soils, but the sites developed
products. Large numbers of the population are employed because of easily exploited abundant food sources. Today,
in construction, and many more are employed in the the areas, because of midden accumulation, are higher
shipping industry along Jacksonville's waterfront. than the surrounding areas. The soils are better drained
Community facilities have expanded rapidly since 1968. and more fertile. These areas are quite visible on aerial
All parts of the county are adequately served by electric photographs because of the different vegetation of sur-
and telephone facilities. Natural gas is available in many rounding areas.
places. The relationship of the settlement of the area to good
farming lands is clearly indicated by the locations of the
Archeological factors early plantations. Generally the plantations were located
on prehistoric Indian sites-for example, the Greenfield,
LYNN NIDY, field archeologist, Florida Division of Archives and His- the Fitzpatrick, the Kingsley, and the Houston planta-
tory, helped prepare this section. tions.
Soils influence kinds and amounts of vegetation and The first European settlers in the Duval County area
amounts of water available and in this way indirectly in- lived on the hgh ridges along the south bankof the St.
fluence the kinds of wildlife that inhabit an area. Johns River and on the islands around its mouth. Except
Soil properties undoubtedly had an influence on site for sawmill grants in the interior of the county, the early
selection. Fats u ndoutedly had an influence on slte, settlements were on moderately well drained or exces-
selection. Factors such as wetness, flood hazard, slope, sively drained soils.
permeability, and fertility for crop production were im- An important exception to this trend was the settle-
portant criteria for site selection. The early inhabitants of ment in the late 18th century of the area on the
the area, with limited knowledge of soils and limited abili- northwest bank of the St. Johns River. This settlement
ty to alter the soil, had to use the soil in large part as it was later known as Cowford, and much later as the city
was. of Jacksonville. This area was settled because the St.
Inhabitants of the area at one time were probably hun- Johns River is at its narrowest, and the area was a popu-
ters and gatherers, that is, they did not plant crops but lar fording point. This area continued to develop, and in
gathered wild plants and hunted game. But even their 1882 the city of Jacksonville was officially founded.
subsistence practices were indirectly influenced by soil Conclusive archeological evidence proves that soils dis-
distribution and its relationship to the environment. tribution and topography had a strong influence on early
When Europeans first arrived in the area, they found settlement patterns in Duval County.
the native Americans planting crops (12).
Archeological site distribution in the area is closely re- Climate
lated to topography as well as soil distribution. According
to Fairchild (6): "The topography in Duval County is The climate in Duval County is characterized by long,
mostly low, gentle to flat, and composed of a series of an- warm, humid summers and mild winters. The Atlantic
cient marine terraces. The highest altitude is about 190 Ocean and the Gulf Stream have a moderating influence
feet above sea level in the extreme southwest corner of on maximum temperatures in summer and on minimum
the county, along the eastern slope of a prominent topo- temperatures in winter. This influence is pronounced
graphic feature known as 'Trail Ridge.' Trail Ridge is a along the coast but diminishes noticeably a few miles in-
remnant of the highest, ancient marine terrace (Coharie) land.
in Duval County. The terraces are parallel to the present Rainfall is heaviest in summer; about 65 percent of the
Atlantic shoreline and become progressively higher from annual total falls from June through October in an
east to west" average year. The other 35 percent is more or less evenly
The moderately well drained and excessively drained distributed throughout the remainder of the year. Max-
The moderately well drained and excessively drained imum temperatures show little day-to-day variation, and
soils, such as the Ortega, Kureb, Kershaw, Cornelia, and temperatures as high as 96 degrees F occur at least 1 day
Blanton soils, are located on the higher portions of in- a month during summer. Minimum temperatures in
dividual marine terraces. winter vary considerably from day to day, largely because
There are 36 large ceremonial sites recorded to date in of periodic invasions of cold, dry air moving southward
the county, 35 of which occur on the moderately well from across the continent. Summarized climatic data (17,
drained to excessively drained soils. Of the total 150 19), based on records collected at the Jacksonville Inter-
archeological sites recognized in the county, only those national Airport, are shown in table 1. Extreme tempera-
directly related to marine food acquisition are located on tures during the period 1941 to 1970 were a high of 105
very poorly drained soils, such as Tisonia or Maurepas degrees in July 1942 and a low of 12 degrees in December
soils. 1962 (19).







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 3
In many areas, particularly near the water, tempera- Trees, the largest acreage usage in the county, grow on
tures seldom drop below freezing. Temperatures fall to approximately 324,000 acres, or approximately 65 percent
freezing or below about 12 times a year, but it is rare of the total land area of the county. Production is primari-
when the temperature does not rise above freezing dur- ly from pine trees, but some hardwoods are harvested.
ing the day; in fact, there have been only five occasions Pulpwood is the major product, but sawtimber, poles, and
on which it failed to do so (19). Most notable of these was some naval stores are produced.
the great freeze of February 13, 1899, when the max- Milk production has declined over the past decade, ac-
imum for the day was only 27 degrees. Freeze data (18), cording to the County Extension Service of Duval Coun-
shown in table 2, were taken at the Jacksonville Interna- ty. In 1975, there were 32 dairies ranging in size from 150
tional Airport. The average date of the first freeze is to 5,000 acres. These dairies supported approximately
December 16, and the average date of the last is Februa- 16,000 producing dairy cattle. An urban tax base and
ry 6. pressures from urban development preclude any large in-
Most rainfall in summer occurs as afternoon and even- crease in this industry. At present, approximately 10,000
ing showers and thundershowers; sometimes, 2 to 3 acres are used for this purpose.
inches fall within an hour. Daylong rains in summer are There are small, but locally important, herds of beef
rare. Generally, they are associated with tropical storms, cattle and swine in Duval County. In 1975, there were
Rainfall in fall, winter, and spring is seldom as intense as 8,000 beef cattle and 12,000 swine.
in summer. According to Environmental Data Service at The poultry industry has declined over the past decade
the Jacksonville International Airport Weather Station, because of urban expansion, and the large producers have
rainfall in excess of 8 inches during a 24-hour period can moved to outlying rural counties. Small flocks are
be expected sometime during the year in about 1 year in produced, but production is limited.
10. Beekeeping is a minor industry, and many producers
Hail falls occasionally during thunderstorms, but hail- maintain 50 to 100 hives. The total number of hives, how-
stones are usually small and seldom cause much damage, ever, is small.
Snow is rare in Duval County; when it occurs, it usually
melts as it hits the ground. Snow has fallen in measurable Water resources
amounts only twice since 1871: 1.9 inches on February 12-
13, 1899, and 1.5 inches on February 13, 1958. Large quantities of surface water are available at many
Tropical storms can affect the area any time from early locations in Duval County (10). The St. Johns River and
in June through mid-November. The chances of winds its major in-county tributaries, the Trout, Ortega, and
reaching hurricane force, 74 miles per hour or greater, in Broward Rivers and Julington Creek, are potential
Duval County are about 1 in 14, according to Environ- sources of water for industrial uses. However, the St.
mental Data Service at the Jacksonville International Air- Johns River and the lower reaches of its major in-county
port Weather Station. The copious rains and the flooding tributaries are brackish and generally not suitable for
associated with these storms can cause considerable agricultural uses, or as a supply of potable water.
damage. The deep artesian wells that penetrate the Floridian
Extended periods of dry weather can occur in any Aquifer constitute the major source of fresh potable
season but are most common in spring and fall. Dry water in Duval County. However, a substantial quantity
periods in April and May are generally shorter than those of water is also obtained from shallow wells (20 to 200
in the fall but tend to be more serious; temperatures are feet deep) that penetrate the shallow aquifer system.
higher and the need for moisture greater. Because of increased growth in population and industry,
Prevailing winds are generally northeasterly in fall and the demands for fresh water have increased. As a result,
winter and southwesterly in spring and summer. Wind the shallow aquifer is becoming more important as an ad-
movement, which averages slightly less than 9 miles per ditional source of potable water.
hour, is 2 to 3 miles per hour higher in the early after- The Floridian Aquifer ranges from about 500 feet to
noon hours. It is slightly higher in spring than in other more than 1,000 feet in thickness. The top of the
seasons of the year. limestone is 260 feet to more than 600 feet below the sur-
face in Duval County. Some wells drilled into the aquifer
Farming yield more than 5,000 gallons per minute. The quality of
the deep aquifer water varies from good in or near the
Citrus was one of the first crops grown by the early recharge areas in the western part of the county to poor
settlers of Duval County, but severe freezes in 1894 and along the St. Johns River and near the coast where high
1895 and in ensuing years stopped this enterprise. Several concentrations of chloride and other constituents render
small citrus nurseries are located in the Mandarin section, the artesian waters unsuitable for most uses. An excep-
but no large commercial citrus groves exist today. Other tion is in the Jacksonville urban area, where good-quality
horticultural nurseries and ferneries are expanding due to water has been located in formations at a depth of about
the pressures of a rapidly growing urban area. 2,100 feet.







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 3
In many areas, particularly near the water, tempera- Trees, the largest acreage usage in the county, grow on
tures seldom drop below freezing. Temperatures fall to approximately 324,000 acres, or approximately 65 percent
freezing or below about 12 times a year, but it is rare of the total land area of the county. Production is primari-
when the temperature does not rise above freezing dur- ly from pine trees, but some hardwoods are harvested.
ing the day; in fact, there have been only five occasions Pulpwood is the major product, but sawtimber, poles, and
on which it failed to do so (19). Most notable of these was some naval stores are produced.
the great freeze of February 13, 1899, when the max- Milk production has declined over the past decade, ac-
imum for the day was only 27 degrees. Freeze data (18), cording to the County Extension Service of Duval Coun-
shown in table 2, were taken at the Jacksonville Interna- ty. In 1975, there were 32 dairies ranging in size from 150
tional Airport. The average date of the first freeze is to 5,000 acres. These dairies supported approximately
December 16, and the average date of the last is Februa- 16,000 producing dairy cattle. An urban tax base and
ry 6. pressures from urban development preclude any large in-
Most rainfall in summer occurs as afternoon and even- crease in this industry. At present, approximately 10,000
ing showers and thundershowers; sometimes, 2 to 3 acres are used for this purpose.
inches fall within an hour. Daylong rains in summer are There are small, but locally important, herds of beef
rare. Generally, they are associated with tropical storms, cattle and swine in Duval County. In 1975, there were
Rainfall in fall, winter, and spring is seldom as intense as 8,000 beef cattle and 12,000 swine.
in summer. According to Environmental Data Service at The poultry industry has declined over the past decade
the Jacksonville International Airport Weather Station, because of urban expansion, and the large producers have
rainfall in excess of 8 inches during a 24-hour period can moved to outlying rural counties. Small flocks are
be expected sometime during the year in about 1 year in produced, but production is limited.
10. Beekeeping is a minor industry, and many producers
Hail falls occasionally during thunderstorms, but hail- maintain 50 to 100 hives. The total number of hives, how-
stones are usually small and seldom cause much damage, ever, is small.
Snow is rare in Duval County; when it occurs, it usually
melts as it hits the ground. Snow has fallen in measurable Water resources
amounts only twice since 1871: 1.9 inches on February 12-
13, 1899, and 1.5 inches on February 13, 1958. Large quantities of surface water are available at many
Tropical storms can affect the area any time from early locations in Duval County (10). The St. Johns River and
in June through mid-November. The chances of winds its major in-county tributaries, the Trout, Ortega, and
reaching hurricane force, 74 miles per hour or greater, in Broward Rivers and Julington Creek, are potential
Duval County are about 1 in 14, according to Environ- sources of water for industrial uses. However, the St.
mental Data Service at the Jacksonville International Air- Johns River and the lower reaches of its major in-county
port Weather Station. The copious rains and the flooding tributaries are brackish and generally not suitable for
associated with these storms can cause considerable agricultural uses, or as a supply of potable water.
damage. The deep artesian wells that penetrate the Floridian
Extended periods of dry weather can occur in any Aquifer constitute the major source of fresh potable
season but are most common in spring and fall. Dry water in Duval County. However, a substantial quantity
periods in April and May are generally shorter than those of water is also obtained from shallow wells (20 to 200
in the fall but tend to be more serious; temperatures are feet deep) that penetrate the shallow aquifer system.
higher and the need for moisture greater. Because of increased growth in population and industry,
Prevailing winds are generally northeasterly in fall and the demands for fresh water have increased. As a result,
winter and southwesterly in spring and summer. Wind the shallow aquifer is becoming more important as an ad-
movement, which averages slightly less than 9 miles per ditional source of potable water.
hour, is 2 to 3 miles per hour higher in the early after- The Floridian Aquifer ranges from about 500 feet to
noon hours. It is slightly higher in spring than in other more than 1,000 feet in thickness. The top of the
seasons of the year. limestone is 260 feet to more than 600 feet below the sur-
face in Duval County. Some wells drilled into the aquifer
Farming yield more than 5,000 gallons per minute. The quality of
the deep aquifer water varies from good in or near the
Citrus was one of the first crops grown by the early recharge areas in the western part of the county to poor
settlers of Duval County, but severe freezes in 1894 and along the St. Johns River and near the coast where high
1895 and in ensuing years stopped this enterprise. Several concentrations of chloride and other constituents render
small citrus nurseries are located in the Mandarin section, the artesian waters unsuitable for most uses. An excep-
but no large commercial citrus groves exist today. Other tion is in the Jacksonville urban area, where good-quality
horticultural nurseries and ferneries are expanding due to water has been located in formations at a depth of about
the pressures of a rapidly growing urban area. 2,100 feet.







4 SOIL SURVEY

All the formations that overlie the Ocala Limestone of Many of the larger apartment complexes have
Eocene age comprise the shallow-aquifer system in Duval playgrounds, tennis courts, swimming pools, basketball
County. These formations range in age from Miocene to and volleyball courts, and indoor recreation areas. The
Holocene. The formations that lie above the Hawthorn city and county governments have developed many areas
Formation, of Miocene age, have not been given names specifically for recreation; these areas are strategically
and are referred to by their geologic age. In ascending located to provide access to as many people as possible.
order, they are the Hawthorn Formation, middle Miocene Beachfront parks, tennis courts, baseball diamonds,
age; upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits; and Pleistocene swimming pools, boating areas, zoos, golf courses, and
and Holocene deposits. over 300 neighborhood parks are some of the recreational
Water from most wells in the shallow aquifer system facilities.
and in the Floridian Aquifer system is suitable for Recreational potential in Duval County is high. The cli-
domestic use and for most industrial uses (9). Water from mate is conducive to out-of-doors, recreational activities.
wells in the shallow system is generally softer and con-
tains less dissolved mineral matter and more iron than How this survey was made
^ SHow this survey was made
water from wells in the deeper Floridian Aquifer system.
Wells in the Floridian Aquifer system closest to the Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
recharge area in the southwestern portion of the county soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
generally contain softer water that contains less dissolved can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
mineral matter than do wells in the central and northern ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
parts of the county, something about and perhaps identify some they had
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
Transportation and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
So D C i s b g t pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
Most of Duval County is served by good transportation the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
facilities. Several county, State, and Federal highways dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
provide ready access between population centers within sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
the county and the State; in addition, Jacksonville is a rail tends from the surface down into the parent material,
center and the headquarters of one of the major railroads which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
(fig. 2). The St. Johns River and the Trout and Ortega action of plant roots.
Rivers are crossed in several locations by a modern The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
system of bridges. Airline service is available, both com- profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
mercial and private, as well as rail and bus service. The with others in counties nearby and in places more distant.
Intercoastal Waterway provides an inland water route Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the
through the county. Blount Island, Dame Point, Eastport, soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures.
and downtown Jacksonville are deepwater ports where After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was
commercial ships load and unload cargo (fig. 3). The U.S. worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the
Naval Station in Mayport has a deepwater basin where individual soils on aerial photographs. These photographs
naval vessels dock. show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads, and other
details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. The
Recreation soil map at the back of this publication was prepared
from aerial photographs.
Recreation in Duval County is of considerable im- The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map units.
portance. Areas include beaches, national monuments, Some map units are made up of one kind of soil, others
State and city parks, campgrounds, golf courses, are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a few have
swimming pools, tennis courts, riding stables, zoos, fishing little or no soil material at all. Map units are discussed in
areas, boating areas, football and baseball stadiums, the sections "General soil map for broad land use
theaters, museums, and suburban neighborhood planning" and "Soil maps for detailed planning."
playgrounds. While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
The major recreation areas are located near the urban taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for en-
population. Recreational activities are usually centered gineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpreta-
around the many miles of coastal beaches and large ex- tions of their behavior are modified as necessary during
panses of inland waters in the Broward, Trout, Ortega, the course of the survey. New interpretations are added
and St. Johns Rivers, Thomas Creek, and the Intercoastal to meet local needs, mainly through field observations of
Waterway. The beaches attract many visitors, and surfing different kinds of soil in different uses under different
is popular. Boating, water skiing, and fishing are popular levels of management. Also, data are assembled from
on all the inland rivers as well as on the Intercoastal other sources, such as test results, records, field ex-
Waterway. Deep sea fishing is popular, perience, and information available from state and local







4 SOIL SURVEY

All the formations that overlie the Ocala Limestone of Many of the larger apartment complexes have
Eocene age comprise the shallow-aquifer system in Duval playgrounds, tennis courts, swimming pools, basketball
County. These formations range in age from Miocene to and volleyball courts, and indoor recreation areas. The
Holocene. The formations that lie above the Hawthorn city and county governments have developed many areas
Formation, of Miocene age, have not been given names specifically for recreation; these areas are strategically
and are referred to by their geologic age. In ascending located to provide access to as many people as possible.
order, they are the Hawthorn Formation, middle Miocene Beachfront parks, tennis courts, baseball diamonds,
age; upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits; and Pleistocene swimming pools, boating areas, zoos, golf courses, and
and Holocene deposits. over 300 neighborhood parks are some of the recreational
Water from most wells in the shallow aquifer system facilities.
and in the Floridian Aquifer system is suitable for Recreational potential in Duval County is high. The cli-
domestic use and for most industrial uses (9). Water from mate is conducive to out-of-doors, recreational activities.
wells in the shallow system is generally softer and con-
tains less dissolved mineral matter and more iron than How this survey was made
^ SHow this survey was made
water from wells in the deeper Floridian Aquifer system.
Wells in the Floridian Aquifer system closest to the Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
recharge area in the southwestern portion of the county soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
generally contain softer water that contains less dissolved can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
mineral matter than do wells in the central and northern ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
parts of the county, something about and perhaps identify some they had
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
Transportation and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
So D C i s b g t pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
Most of Duval County is served by good transportation the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
facilities. Several county, State, and Federal highways dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
provide ready access between population centers within sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
the county and the State; in addition, Jacksonville is a rail tends from the surface down into the parent material,
center and the headquarters of one of the major railroads which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
(fig. 2). The St. Johns River and the Trout and Ortega action of plant roots.
Rivers are crossed in several locations by a modern The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
system of bridges. Airline service is available, both com- profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
mercial and private, as well as rail and bus service. The with others in counties nearby and in places more distant.
Intercoastal Waterway provides an inland water route Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the
through the county. Blount Island, Dame Point, Eastport, soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures.
and downtown Jacksonville are deepwater ports where After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was
commercial ships load and unload cargo (fig. 3). The U.S. worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the
Naval Station in Mayport has a deepwater basin where individual soils on aerial photographs. These photographs
naval vessels dock. show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads, and other
details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. The
Recreation soil map at the back of this publication was prepared
from aerial photographs.
Recreation in Duval County is of considerable im- The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map units.
portance. Areas include beaches, national monuments, Some map units are made up of one kind of soil, others
State and city parks, campgrounds, golf courses, are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a few have
swimming pools, tennis courts, riding stables, zoos, fishing little or no soil material at all. Map units are discussed in
areas, boating areas, football and baseball stadiums, the sections "General soil map for broad land use
theaters, museums, and suburban neighborhood planning" and "Soil maps for detailed planning."
playgrounds. While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
The major recreation areas are located near the urban taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for en-
population. Recreational activities are usually centered gineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpreta-
around the many miles of coastal beaches and large ex- tions of their behavior are modified as necessary during
panses of inland waters in the Broward, Trout, Ortega, the course of the survey. New interpretations are added
and St. Johns Rivers, Thomas Creek, and the Intercoastal to meet local needs, mainly through field observations of
Waterway. The beaches attract many visitors, and surfing different kinds of soil in different uses under different
is popular. Boating, water skiing, and fishing are popular levels of management. Also, data are assembled from
on all the inland rivers as well as on the Intercoastal other sources, such as test results, records, field ex-
Waterway. Deep sea fishing is popular, perience, and information available from state and local







4 SOIL SURVEY

All the formations that overlie the Ocala Limestone of Many of the larger apartment complexes have
Eocene age comprise the shallow-aquifer system in Duval playgrounds, tennis courts, swimming pools, basketball
County. These formations range in age from Miocene to and volleyball courts, and indoor recreation areas. The
Holocene. The formations that lie above the Hawthorn city and county governments have developed many areas
Formation, of Miocene age, have not been given names specifically for recreation; these areas are strategically
and are referred to by their geologic age. In ascending located to provide access to as many people as possible.
order, they are the Hawthorn Formation, middle Miocene Beachfront parks, tennis courts, baseball diamonds,
age; upper Miocene or Pliocene deposits; and Pleistocene swimming pools, boating areas, zoos, golf courses, and
and Holocene deposits. over 300 neighborhood parks are some of the recreational
Water from most wells in the shallow aquifer system facilities.
and in the Floridian Aquifer system is suitable for Recreational potential in Duval County is high. The cli-
domestic use and for most industrial uses (9). Water from mate is conducive to out-of-doors, recreational activities.
wells in the shallow system is generally softer and con-
tains less dissolved mineral matter and more iron than How this survey was made
^ SHow this survey was made
water from wells in the deeper Floridian Aquifer system.
Wells in the Floridian Aquifer system closest to the Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
recharge area in the southwestern portion of the county soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
generally contain softer water that contains less dissolved can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
mineral matter than do wells in the central and northern ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
parts of the county, something about and perhaps identify some they had
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
Transportation and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
So D C i s b g t pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
Most of Duval County is served by good transportation the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
facilities. Several county, State, and Federal highways dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
provide ready access between population centers within sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
the county and the State; in addition, Jacksonville is a rail tends from the surface down into the parent material,
center and the headquarters of one of the major railroads which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
(fig. 2). The St. Johns River and the Trout and Ortega action of plant roots.
Rivers are crossed in several locations by a modern The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
system of bridges. Airline service is available, both com- profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
mercial and private, as well as rail and bus service. The with others in counties nearby and in places more distant.
Intercoastal Waterway provides an inland water route Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the
through the county. Blount Island, Dame Point, Eastport, soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures.
and downtown Jacksonville are deepwater ports where After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was
commercial ships load and unload cargo (fig. 3). The U.S. worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the
Naval Station in Mayport has a deepwater basin where individual soils on aerial photographs. These photographs
naval vessels dock. show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads, and other
details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. The
Recreation soil map at the back of this publication was prepared
from aerial photographs.
Recreation in Duval County is of considerable im- The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map units.
portance. Areas include beaches, national monuments, Some map units are made up of one kind of soil, others
State and city parks, campgrounds, golf courses, are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a few have
swimming pools, tennis courts, riding stables, zoos, fishing little or no soil material at all. Map units are discussed in
areas, boating areas, football and baseball stadiums, the sections "General soil map for broad land use
theaters, museums, and suburban neighborhood planning" and "Soil maps for detailed planning."
playgrounds. While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
The major recreation areas are located near the urban taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for en-
population. Recreational activities are usually centered gineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpreta-
around the many miles of coastal beaches and large ex- tions of their behavior are modified as necessary during
panses of inland waters in the Broward, Trout, Ortega, the course of the survey. New interpretations are added
and St. Johns Rivers, Thomas Creek, and the Intercoastal to meet local needs, mainly through field observations of
Waterway. The beaches attract many visitors, and surfing different kinds of soil in different uses under different
is popular. Boating, water skiing, and fishing are popular levels of management. Also, data are assembled from
on all the inland rivers as well as on the Intercoastal other sources, such as test results, records, field ex-
Waterway. Deep sea fishing is popular, perience, and information available from state and local







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

specialists. For example, data on crop yields under munity development includes residential developments
defined practices are assembled from farm records and with or without community sewage service. Improved
from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil. pasture refers to managed stands of pasture grasses or of
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils grasses and clovers that have been seeded, as opposed to
have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated native range plants. Pine woodland refers to land that is
on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and producing or is potentially capable of producing either
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed in- pine trees native to the area or introduced species.
formation then needs to be organized so that it is readily For a further discussion of soil potentials and defini-
available to different groups of users, among them far- tions of the different classes of soil potential, see the sec-
mers, managers of rangeland and woodland, engineers, tion "Soil maps for detailed planning."
planners, developers and builders, homebuyers, and those
seeking recreation. Soils of the sand ridges

The three units in this group consist of excessively
General soil map for broad land use drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to
planning moderately steep soils that are sandy to a depth of 80
inches or more. These soils are on ridges along the St.
The general soil map at the back of this publication Johns River and along the Atlantic Coast.
shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of
soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a unique 1. Aquic Quartzipsamments-Fripp
natural landscape. Typically, a map unit consists of one or Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and
more major soils and some minor soils. It is named for moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
the major soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in some have been modified by dredging and earthmoving
other units but in a different pattern. operations
The general soil map provides a broad perspective of
the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a This map unit is made up of a series of long ridges and
basis for comparing the potential of large areas for nearly level areas that have been reworked by man. It is
general kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most mostly along the coast near the Atlantic Ocean. The natu-
part, suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land ral vegetation is mostly sea oats, scrub oak, and cabbage
uses can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils palm on the ridges and side slopes, and waxmyrtle in the
having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer- sales. Vegetation is mostly sparse.
tain land uses can be located. This unit makes up about 4,975 acres, or about 1 per-
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the cent of the county. It is about 55 percent Aquic Quartzip-
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for samments, about 21 percent Fripp soils, and 24 percent
planning the management of a farm or field or for select- soils of minor extent.
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The Aquic Quartzipsamments are nearly level to gently
kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to sloping and moderately well drained. They are in the
place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other charac- swales except around the Mayport U.S. Naval Air Sta-
teristics that affect their management. tion, where they have been cut and filled or reworked by
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten- manmade dredging and earthmoving operations. Where
tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the they have not been reworked, the surface layer is light
map units shown on the general soil map and gives gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is white fine sand to
general ratings of the potential of each, in relation to the a depth of 20 inches, and mixed brown and white fine
other map units, for major land uses. Soil properties that sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Where the
pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings of soils have been reworked, the mixed soil material is light
soil potential are based on the assumption that practices gray, white, grayish brown, gray, light yellowish brown,
in common use in the survey area are being used to over- very pale brown, brownish yellow, and yellowish brown
come soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of fine sand and is not in an orderly sequence of horizons. In
overcoming the soil limitations and the probability of soil some places, the soil material has uniform color
problems persisting after such practices are used. throughout.
Deciding which land should be used for suburban Fripp soils are gently sloping to sloping and excessively
development is an important issue in the survey area. drained. They are on the ridges and side slopes. The sur-
Each year, a considerable acreage is being developed for face layer is grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick.
suburban and urban uses in Duval County. About 120,000 Below is very pale brown fine sand that contains horizon-
acres, or nearly 24 percent of the survey area, consists of tal bands of heavy minerals and that extends to a depth
suburban or urban areas, of 80 inches or more.
In table 3, each map unit is rated for community Of minor extent in this map unit are Arents, Cornelia,
development, improved pasture, and pine woodland. Com- and Kureb soils and Beaches.







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

specialists. For example, data on crop yields under munity development includes residential developments
defined practices are assembled from farm records and with or without community sewage service. Improved
from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil. pasture refers to managed stands of pasture grasses or of
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils grasses and clovers that have been seeded, as opposed to
have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated native range plants. Pine woodland refers to land that is
on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and producing or is potentially capable of producing either
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed in- pine trees native to the area or introduced species.
formation then needs to be organized so that it is readily For a further discussion of soil potentials and defini-
available to different groups of users, among them far- tions of the different classes of soil potential, see the sec-
mers, managers of rangeland and woodland, engineers, tion "Soil maps for detailed planning."
planners, developers and builders, homebuyers, and those
seeking recreation. Soils of the sand ridges

The three units in this group consist of excessively
General soil map for broad land use drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to
planning moderately steep soils that are sandy to a depth of 80
inches or more. These soils are on ridges along the St.
The general soil map at the back of this publication Johns River and along the Atlantic Coast.
shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of
soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a unique 1. Aquic Quartzipsamments-Fripp
natural landscape. Typically, a map unit consists of one or Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and
more major soils and some minor soils. It is named for moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
the major soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in some have been modified by dredging and earthmoving
other units but in a different pattern. operations
The general soil map provides a broad perspective of
the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a This map unit is made up of a series of long ridges and
basis for comparing the potential of large areas for nearly level areas that have been reworked by man. It is
general kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most mostly along the coast near the Atlantic Ocean. The natu-
part, suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land ral vegetation is mostly sea oats, scrub oak, and cabbage
uses can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils palm on the ridges and side slopes, and waxmyrtle in the
having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer- sales. Vegetation is mostly sparse.
tain land uses can be located. This unit makes up about 4,975 acres, or about 1 per-
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the cent of the county. It is about 55 percent Aquic Quartzip-
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for samments, about 21 percent Fripp soils, and 24 percent
planning the management of a farm or field or for select- soils of minor extent.
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The Aquic Quartzipsamments are nearly level to gently
kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to sloping and moderately well drained. They are in the
place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other charac- swales except around the Mayport U.S. Naval Air Sta-
teristics that affect their management. tion, where they have been cut and filled or reworked by
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten- manmade dredging and earthmoving operations. Where
tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the they have not been reworked, the surface layer is light
map units shown on the general soil map and gives gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is white fine sand to
general ratings of the potential of each, in relation to the a depth of 20 inches, and mixed brown and white fine
other map units, for major land uses. Soil properties that sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Where the
pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings of soils have been reworked, the mixed soil material is light
soil potential are based on the assumption that practices gray, white, grayish brown, gray, light yellowish brown,
in common use in the survey area are being used to over- very pale brown, brownish yellow, and yellowish brown
come soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of fine sand and is not in an orderly sequence of horizons. In
overcoming the soil limitations and the probability of soil some places, the soil material has uniform color
problems persisting after such practices are used. throughout.
Deciding which land should be used for suburban Fripp soils are gently sloping to sloping and excessively
development is an important issue in the survey area. drained. They are on the ridges and side slopes. The sur-
Each year, a considerable acreage is being developed for face layer is grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick.
suburban and urban uses in Duval County. About 120,000 Below is very pale brown fine sand that contains horizon-
acres, or nearly 24 percent of the survey area, consists of tal bands of heavy minerals and that extends to a depth
suburban or urban areas, of 80 inches or more.
In table 3, each map unit is rated for community Of minor extent in this map unit are Arents, Cornelia,
development, improved pasture, and pine woodland. Com- and Kureb soils and Beaches.







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

specialists. For example, data on crop yields under munity development includes residential developments
defined practices are assembled from farm records and with or without community sewage service. Improved
from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil. pasture refers to managed stands of pasture grasses or of
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils grasses and clovers that have been seeded, as opposed to
have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated native range plants. Pine woodland refers to land that is
on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and producing or is potentially capable of producing either
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed in- pine trees native to the area or introduced species.
formation then needs to be organized so that it is readily For a further discussion of soil potentials and defini-
available to different groups of users, among them far- tions of the different classes of soil potential, see the sec-
mers, managers of rangeland and woodland, engineers, tion "Soil maps for detailed planning."
planners, developers and builders, homebuyers, and those
seeking recreation. Soils of the sand ridges

The three units in this group consist of excessively
General soil map for broad land use drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to
planning moderately steep soils that are sandy to a depth of 80
inches or more. These soils are on ridges along the St.
The general soil map at the back of this publication Johns River and along the Atlantic Coast.
shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of
soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a unique 1. Aquic Quartzipsamments-Fripp
natural landscape. Typically, a map unit consists of one or Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and
more major soils and some minor soils. It is named for moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
the major soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in some have been modified by dredging and earthmoving
other units but in a different pattern. operations
The general soil map provides a broad perspective of
the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a This map unit is made up of a series of long ridges and
basis for comparing the potential of large areas for nearly level areas that have been reworked by man. It is
general kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most mostly along the coast near the Atlantic Ocean. The natu-
part, suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land ral vegetation is mostly sea oats, scrub oak, and cabbage
uses can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils palm on the ridges and side slopes, and waxmyrtle in the
having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer- sales. Vegetation is mostly sparse.
tain land uses can be located. This unit makes up about 4,975 acres, or about 1 per-
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the cent of the county. It is about 55 percent Aquic Quartzip-
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for samments, about 21 percent Fripp soils, and 24 percent
planning the management of a farm or field or for select- soils of minor extent.
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The Aquic Quartzipsamments are nearly level to gently
kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to sloping and moderately well drained. They are in the
place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other charac- swales except around the Mayport U.S. Naval Air Sta-
teristics that affect their management. tion, where they have been cut and filled or reworked by
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten- manmade dredging and earthmoving operations. Where
tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the they have not been reworked, the surface layer is light
map units shown on the general soil map and gives gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is white fine sand to
general ratings of the potential of each, in relation to the a depth of 20 inches, and mixed brown and white fine
other map units, for major land uses. Soil properties that sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Where the
pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings of soils have been reworked, the mixed soil material is light
soil potential are based on the assumption that practices gray, white, grayish brown, gray, light yellowish brown,
in common use in the survey area are being used to over- very pale brown, brownish yellow, and yellowish brown
come soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of fine sand and is not in an orderly sequence of horizons. In
overcoming the soil limitations and the probability of soil some places, the soil material has uniform color
problems persisting after such practices are used. throughout.
Deciding which land should be used for suburban Fripp soils are gently sloping to sloping and excessively
development is an important issue in the survey area. drained. They are on the ridges and side slopes. The sur-
Each year, a considerable acreage is being developed for face layer is grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick.
suburban and urban uses in Duval County. About 120,000 Below is very pale brown fine sand that contains horizon-
acres, or nearly 24 percent of the survey area, consists of tal bands of heavy minerals and that extends to a depth
suburban or urban areas, of 80 inches or more.
In table 3, each map unit is rated for community Of minor extent in this map unit are Arents, Cornelia,
development, improved pasture, and pine woodland. Com- and Kureb soils and Beaches.







6 SOIL SURVEY

Except where the soils have been reworked, areas are 3. Mandarin-Kureb
mostly still in natural vegetation. Nearly level to moderately steep, somewhat poorly
These soils have low potential for pine woodland drained and excessively drained soils that are sandy
because of drought conditions. throughout
Potential is low for improved pastures. Droughty condi-
tions restrict root development. Droughty conditions and This map unit is made up of slightly elevated areas of
soil blowing on the Fripp soils limit establishment and flatwoods surrounded by or adjacent to broad ridges. The
maintenance of pasture grasses, most extensive area is a long, broad area between the In-
These soils have medium potential for community tercoastal Waterway and the Atlantic Coast, south of the
development mainly because of slope and flooding. Con- St. Johns River. Another area occurs south of Blount
struction sites should be designed to fit the natural ter- Island along the St. Johns River, and other areas occur
rain and restricted to the back dune portion of the land- south of Nassau Sound. In the elevated flatwoods areas,
scape to afford protection from flooding during unusual the second growth vegetation is slash pine, scrub oak,
weather conditions. sawpalmetto, rosemary, and dwarf huckleberry. Native
grasses include various bluestems. The broad ridges have
2. Kershaw-Ortega natural vegetation of scrub oak, greenbrier, and scattered
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and sawpalmetto. Native grasses include pineland threeawn,
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and
paspalum.
This map unit is made up of broad, nearly level to slop- This unit makes up about 14,920 acres, or about 3 per-
ing ridges interspersed with narrow, wet sloughs that cent of the county. It is about 70 percent Mandarin soils,
generally parallel the ridges. It is along the St. Johns about 15 percent Kureb soils, and about 15 percent soils
River and extends inland about 4 miles to the north of of minor extent.
the river and about 9 miles to the south. The natural Mandarin soils are nearly level and somewhat poorly
vegetation is turkey oak, blackjack oak, and second drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of dark gray
growth slash pine and longleaf pine. Native grasses are fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
pineland threeawn, panicum, and grassleaf goldaster. fine sand about 22 inches thick; it is light brownish gray
This unit makes up about 29,835 acres, or 6 percent of in the upper 4 inches and light gray in the lower 18
the land area in the county. It is about 55 percent inches. A layer of dark colored, weakly cemented fine
Kershaw soils, 35 percent Ortega soils, and 10 percent sand occurs at a depth of about 26 inches. Light gray fine
soils of minor extent. About 40 percent of the Kershaw sand is at a depth of 46 inches. Another dark colored,
soils in this association occur in a complex with Urban weakly cemented layer occurs at a depth of about 73
land. inches and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Kershaw soils are on the higher ridges. They are gently Kureb soils are gently sloping to moderately steep and
sloping to sloping and excessively drained. Typically, they excessively drained. Typically, they have a surface layer
have a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand about 3 of dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick and a subsur-
inches thick. Below this to a depth of about 51 inches is face layer of white fine sand about 12 inches thick. Below
light yellowish brown fine sand, and to a depth of 80 this to a depth of 60 inches there is yellow fine sand. This
inches or more there is brownish yellow fine sand. is underlain by very pale brown fine sand that extends to
Ortega soils are on lower ridges. They are nearly level a depth of 82 inches or more.
to gently sloping and are moderately well drained. Typi- The minor soils are Ortega, Leon, and Stockade soils.
cally, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand about 5 Large areas of this map unit are still in natural vegeta-
inches thick. Below that there is very pale brown fine tion. Presently, a moderate acreage is undergoing urban
sand that extends to a depth of about 48 inches and white development.
fine sand that extends to a depth of 82 inches or more. These soils have medium potential for use as pine
The minor soils are Pottsburg, Alpin, and Ridgeland woodland mainly because of drought conditions.
soils. Potential is low for improved pasture because of
The soils in this map unit have low potential for pine drought conditions and low fertility.
trees because of drought conditions. These soils have high potential for community develop-
Potential is low for improved pasture. Droughty condi- ment. Seasonal wetness, high permeability, and slope af-
tions restrict root development, feet the use of this map unit for community development.
These soils have high potential for community develop- On the Mandarin soils, a properly designed water control
ment (fig. 4). Ortega soils, however, have medium poten- system can be used to lower the seasonally high water
tial for use as septic tank absorption fields, but this table to acceptable limits for septic tank use. On the
potential can be improved by adequate water control. Kureb soils, supplemental irrigation systems can be used
Supplemental irrigation helps establish ground cover on to alleviate drought conditions. In the sloping areas,
homesites and recreational sites, buildings should be designed to fit the natural terrain.







6 SOIL SURVEY

Except where the soils have been reworked, areas are 3. Mandarin-Kureb
mostly still in natural vegetation. Nearly level to moderately steep, somewhat poorly
These soils have low potential for pine woodland drained and excessively drained soils that are sandy
because of drought conditions. throughout
Potential is low for improved pastures. Droughty condi-
tions restrict root development. Droughty conditions and This map unit is made up of slightly elevated areas of
soil blowing on the Fripp soils limit establishment and flatwoods surrounded by or adjacent to broad ridges. The
maintenance of pasture grasses, most extensive area is a long, broad area between the In-
These soils have medium potential for community tercoastal Waterway and the Atlantic Coast, south of the
development mainly because of slope and flooding. Con- St. Johns River. Another area occurs south of Blount
struction sites should be designed to fit the natural ter- Island along the St. Johns River, and other areas occur
rain and restricted to the back dune portion of the land- south of Nassau Sound. In the elevated flatwoods areas,
scape to afford protection from flooding during unusual the second growth vegetation is slash pine, scrub oak,
weather conditions. sawpalmetto, rosemary, and dwarf huckleberry. Native
grasses include various bluestems. The broad ridges have
2. Kershaw-Ortega natural vegetation of scrub oak, greenbrier, and scattered
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and sawpalmetto. Native grasses include pineland threeawn,
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and
paspalum.
This map unit is made up of broad, nearly level to slop- This unit makes up about 14,920 acres, or about 3 per-
ing ridges interspersed with narrow, wet sloughs that cent of the county. It is about 70 percent Mandarin soils,
generally parallel the ridges. It is along the St. Johns about 15 percent Kureb soils, and about 15 percent soils
River and extends inland about 4 miles to the north of of minor extent.
the river and about 9 miles to the south. The natural Mandarin soils are nearly level and somewhat poorly
vegetation is turkey oak, blackjack oak, and second drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of dark gray
growth slash pine and longleaf pine. Native grasses are fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
pineland threeawn, panicum, and grassleaf goldaster. fine sand about 22 inches thick; it is light brownish gray
This unit makes up about 29,835 acres, or 6 percent of in the upper 4 inches and light gray in the lower 18
the land area in the county. It is about 55 percent inches. A layer of dark colored, weakly cemented fine
Kershaw soils, 35 percent Ortega soils, and 10 percent sand occurs at a depth of about 26 inches. Light gray fine
soils of minor extent. About 40 percent of the Kershaw sand is at a depth of 46 inches. Another dark colored,
soils in this association occur in a complex with Urban weakly cemented layer occurs at a depth of about 73
land. inches and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Kershaw soils are on the higher ridges. They are gently Kureb soils are gently sloping to moderately steep and
sloping to sloping and excessively drained. Typically, they excessively drained. Typically, they have a surface layer
have a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand about 3 of dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick and a subsur-
inches thick. Below this to a depth of about 51 inches is face layer of white fine sand about 12 inches thick. Below
light yellowish brown fine sand, and to a depth of 80 this to a depth of 60 inches there is yellow fine sand. This
inches or more there is brownish yellow fine sand. is underlain by very pale brown fine sand that extends to
Ortega soils are on lower ridges. They are nearly level a depth of 82 inches or more.
to gently sloping and are moderately well drained. Typi- The minor soils are Ortega, Leon, and Stockade soils.
cally, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand about 5 Large areas of this map unit are still in natural vegeta-
inches thick. Below that there is very pale brown fine tion. Presently, a moderate acreage is undergoing urban
sand that extends to a depth of about 48 inches and white development.
fine sand that extends to a depth of 82 inches or more. These soils have medium potential for use as pine
The minor soils are Pottsburg, Alpin, and Ridgeland woodland mainly because of drought conditions.
soils. Potential is low for improved pasture because of
The soils in this map unit have low potential for pine drought conditions and low fertility.
trees because of drought conditions. These soils have high potential for community develop-
Potential is low for improved pasture. Droughty condi- ment. Seasonal wetness, high permeability, and slope af-
tions restrict root development, feet the use of this map unit for community development.
These soils have high potential for community develop- On the Mandarin soils, a properly designed water control
ment (fig. 4). Ortega soils, however, have medium poten- system can be used to lower the seasonally high water
tial for use as septic tank absorption fields, but this table to acceptable limits for septic tank use. On the
potential can be improved by adequate water control. Kureb soils, supplemental irrigation systems can be used
Supplemental irrigation helps establish ground cover on to alleviate drought conditions. In the sloping areas,
homesites and recreational sites, buildings should be designed to fit the natural terrain.







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

Soils of the flatwoods have high potential for community development. Supple-
mental irrigation systems can be used to alleviate
The three map units in this group consist of moderately seasonal drought conditions.
well drained to very poorly drained, nearly level to gently
sloping, sandy soils. Most of the soils have a dark colored, 5. Leon-Ridgeland-Wesconnett
weakly cemented, sandy layer that is underlain by sandy Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
or loamy material. These units are well distributed soils that are sandy throughout
throughout the county.
This map unit is made up of broad areas of flatwoods
4. Leon-Ortega interspersed with shallow depressions and large
Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained drainageways. It occurs in very large to medium-sized
and poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout areas throughout the county. The natural vegetation of
the flatwoods is slash pine, longleaf pine, sawpalmetto,
This map unit is made up of broad areas of flatwoods gallberry, waxmyrtle, and fetterbush. Native grasses in-
interspersed with narrow to broad ridges. It occurs along clude lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, panicum,
the southern and eastern banks of the St. Johns River and bluestems. The depressions and drainageways
and throughout the southern part of the county. The generally remain in native vegetation consisting of
natural vegetation of the flatwoods is slash pine, longleaf cypress, bay, magnolia, sweetgum, blackgum, cabbage
pine, sawpalmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and fetterbush. palm, and pond pine.
Native grasses include lopsided indiangrass, pineland This map unit makes up about 169,075 acres, or about
threeawn, panicum, and bluestems. On the ridges, the 34 percent of the county. It is about 30 percent Leon
natural vegetation consists of turkey oak, blackjack oak, soils, about 14 percent Ridgeland soils, about 12 percent
second growth slash pine and longleaf pine, and scattered Wesconnett soils, and about 44 percent soils of minor ex-
sawpalmetto. Native grasses include pineland threeawn, tent. Some of the Leon soils occur in a complex with
low panicums, and grassleaf goldaster. Urban land.
This unit makes up about 34,810 acres, or about 7 per- Leon soils are nearly level and poorly drained. They are
cent of the county. It is about 40 percent Leon soils, in flatwood areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of
about 35 percent Ortega soils, and about 25 percent soils fine sand that is very dark gray in the upper 5 inches and
of minor extent. Some of the Leon soils occur in a com- dark gray in the lower 3 inches. The subsurface layer is
plex with Urban land. gray fine sand. A layer of dark colored, weakly cemented
Leon soils are nearly level and poorly drained. They fine sand occurs at a depth of about 18 inches, and a layer
occur in the broad flatwood areas. Typically, they have a of dark brown fine sand occurs between depths of 37 and
surface layer of fine sand that is very dark gray in the 45 inches. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
upper 5 inches and dark gray in the lower 3 inches. The another layer of dark colored, weakly cemented fine sand.
subsurface layer is gray fine sand. A layer of dark Ridgeland soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
colored, weakly cemented fine sand occurs at a depth of Typically, they have a surface layer of very dark gray
about 18 inches, and a layer of dark brown fine sand oc- fine sand about 6 inches thick and a layer of dark colored,
curs between depths of 37 and 45 inches. Below this, to a weakly cemented fine sand between depths of 6 and 16
depth of 80 inches or more, there is another layer of dark inches. Below this to a depth of about 31 inches is very
colored, weakly cemented fine sand. pale brown fine sand. Between depths of 31 and 80 inches
Ortega soils are nearly level to gently sloping and or more is another layer of dark colored, weakly ce-
moderately well drained. They occur on narrow to broad mented fine sand.
ridges. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine Wesconnett soils are nearly level and very poorly
sand about 5 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 48 drained. They occur in the shallow depressions and
inches is very pale brown fine sand. A layer of white fine drainageways. Typically, the surface layer is black fine
sand extends to a depth of 82 inches or more. sand about 2 inches thick. Below that a layer of dark
The minor soils in this map unit are the Lynn Haven, colored, weakly cemented fine sand extends to a depth of
Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Maurepas soils. about 32 inches. Underlying this is a layer of pale brown
These soils have medium potential for pine trees fine sand about 12 inches thick and a layer of dark
because of wetness. colored, weakly cemented fine sand that extends to a
Potential is medium for improved pasture because of depth of 80 inches or more.
wetness. Water control measures are needed to remove The minor soils in this unit are Lynn Haven, Olustee,
excess water during rainy periods. The Ortega soils are Mascotte, Mandarin, Ortega, and Pottsburg soils, and
limited by somewhat drought conditions. Arents.
The Leon soils have medium potential for community The soils in this map unit have overall medium poten-
development. Excessive wetness is the limitation. A tial for use as pine woodland because of wetness. The
properly designed water control system reduces the in- Wesconnett soils have low potential because of wetness
herent high water table to usable limits. The Ortega soils and flooding.







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

Soils of the flatwoods have high potential for community development. Supple-
mental irrigation systems can be used to alleviate
The three map units in this group consist of moderately seasonal drought conditions.
well drained to very poorly drained, nearly level to gently
sloping, sandy soils. Most of the soils have a dark colored, 5. Leon-Ridgeland-Wesconnett
weakly cemented, sandy layer that is underlain by sandy Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
or loamy material. These units are well distributed soils that are sandy throughout
throughout the county.
This map unit is made up of broad areas of flatwoods
4. Leon-Ortega interspersed with shallow depressions and large
Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained drainageways. It occurs in very large to medium-sized
and poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout areas throughout the county. The natural vegetation of
the flatwoods is slash pine, longleaf pine, sawpalmetto,
This map unit is made up of broad areas of flatwoods gallberry, waxmyrtle, and fetterbush. Native grasses in-
interspersed with narrow to broad ridges. It occurs along clude lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, panicum,
the southern and eastern banks of the St. Johns River and bluestems. The depressions and drainageways
and throughout the southern part of the county. The generally remain in native vegetation consisting of
natural vegetation of the flatwoods is slash pine, longleaf cypress, bay, magnolia, sweetgum, blackgum, cabbage
pine, sawpalmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and fetterbush. palm, and pond pine.
Native grasses include lopsided indiangrass, pineland This map unit makes up about 169,075 acres, or about
threeawn, panicum, and bluestems. On the ridges, the 34 percent of the county. It is about 30 percent Leon
natural vegetation consists of turkey oak, blackjack oak, soils, about 14 percent Ridgeland soils, about 12 percent
second growth slash pine and longleaf pine, and scattered Wesconnett soils, and about 44 percent soils of minor ex-
sawpalmetto. Native grasses include pineland threeawn, tent. Some of the Leon soils occur in a complex with
low panicums, and grassleaf goldaster. Urban land.
This unit makes up about 34,810 acres, or about 7 per- Leon soils are nearly level and poorly drained. They are
cent of the county. It is about 40 percent Leon soils, in flatwood areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of
about 35 percent Ortega soils, and about 25 percent soils fine sand that is very dark gray in the upper 5 inches and
of minor extent. Some of the Leon soils occur in a com- dark gray in the lower 3 inches. The subsurface layer is
plex with Urban land. gray fine sand. A layer of dark colored, weakly cemented
Leon soils are nearly level and poorly drained. They fine sand occurs at a depth of about 18 inches, and a layer
occur in the broad flatwood areas. Typically, they have a of dark brown fine sand occurs between depths of 37 and
surface layer of fine sand that is very dark gray in the 45 inches. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
upper 5 inches and dark gray in the lower 3 inches. The another layer of dark colored, weakly cemented fine sand.
subsurface layer is gray fine sand. A layer of dark Ridgeland soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
colored, weakly cemented fine sand occurs at a depth of Typically, they have a surface layer of very dark gray
about 18 inches, and a layer of dark brown fine sand oc- fine sand about 6 inches thick and a layer of dark colored,
curs between depths of 37 and 45 inches. Below this, to a weakly cemented fine sand between depths of 6 and 16
depth of 80 inches or more, there is another layer of dark inches. Below this to a depth of about 31 inches is very
colored, weakly cemented fine sand. pale brown fine sand. Between depths of 31 and 80 inches
Ortega soils are nearly level to gently sloping and or more is another layer of dark colored, weakly ce-
moderately well drained. They occur on narrow to broad mented fine sand.
ridges. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine Wesconnett soils are nearly level and very poorly
sand about 5 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 48 drained. They occur in the shallow depressions and
inches is very pale brown fine sand. A layer of white fine drainageways. Typically, the surface layer is black fine
sand extends to a depth of 82 inches or more. sand about 2 inches thick. Below that a layer of dark
The minor soils in this map unit are the Lynn Haven, colored, weakly cemented fine sand extends to a depth of
Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Maurepas soils. about 32 inches. Underlying this is a layer of pale brown
These soils have medium potential for pine trees fine sand about 12 inches thick and a layer of dark
because of wetness. colored, weakly cemented fine sand that extends to a
Potential is medium for improved pasture because of depth of 80 inches or more.
wetness. Water control measures are needed to remove The minor soils in this unit are Lynn Haven, Olustee,
excess water during rainy periods. The Ortega soils are Mascotte, Mandarin, Ortega, and Pottsburg soils, and
limited by somewhat drought conditions. Arents.
The Leon soils have medium potential for community The soils in this map unit have overall medium poten-
development. Excessive wetness is the limitation. A tial for use as pine woodland because of wetness. The
properly designed water control system reduces the in- Wesconnett soils have low potential because of wetness
herent high water table to usable limits. The Ortega soils and flooding.







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

Soils of the flatwoods have high potential for community development. Supple-
mental irrigation systems can be used to alleviate
The three map units in this group consist of moderately seasonal drought conditions.
well drained to very poorly drained, nearly level to gently
sloping, sandy soils. Most of the soils have a dark colored, 5. Leon-Ridgeland-Wesconnett
weakly cemented, sandy layer that is underlain by sandy Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
or loamy material. These units are well distributed soils that are sandy throughout
throughout the county.
This map unit is made up of broad areas of flatwoods
4. Leon-Ortega interspersed with shallow depressions and large
Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained drainageways. It occurs in very large to medium-sized
and poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout areas throughout the county. The natural vegetation of
the flatwoods is slash pine, longleaf pine, sawpalmetto,
This map unit is made up of broad areas of flatwoods gallberry, waxmyrtle, and fetterbush. Native grasses in-
interspersed with narrow to broad ridges. It occurs along clude lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, panicum,
the southern and eastern banks of the St. Johns River and bluestems. The depressions and drainageways
and throughout the southern part of the county. The generally remain in native vegetation consisting of
natural vegetation of the flatwoods is slash pine, longleaf cypress, bay, magnolia, sweetgum, blackgum, cabbage
pine, sawpalmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and fetterbush. palm, and pond pine.
Native grasses include lopsided indiangrass, pineland This map unit makes up about 169,075 acres, or about
threeawn, panicum, and bluestems. On the ridges, the 34 percent of the county. It is about 30 percent Leon
natural vegetation consists of turkey oak, blackjack oak, soils, about 14 percent Ridgeland soils, about 12 percent
second growth slash pine and longleaf pine, and scattered Wesconnett soils, and about 44 percent soils of minor ex-
sawpalmetto. Native grasses include pineland threeawn, tent. Some of the Leon soils occur in a complex with
low panicums, and grassleaf goldaster. Urban land.
This unit makes up about 34,810 acres, or about 7 per- Leon soils are nearly level and poorly drained. They are
cent of the county. It is about 40 percent Leon soils, in flatwood areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of
about 35 percent Ortega soils, and about 25 percent soils fine sand that is very dark gray in the upper 5 inches and
of minor extent. Some of the Leon soils occur in a com- dark gray in the lower 3 inches. The subsurface layer is
plex with Urban land. gray fine sand. A layer of dark colored, weakly cemented
Leon soils are nearly level and poorly drained. They fine sand occurs at a depth of about 18 inches, and a layer
occur in the broad flatwood areas. Typically, they have a of dark brown fine sand occurs between depths of 37 and
surface layer of fine sand that is very dark gray in the 45 inches. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
upper 5 inches and dark gray in the lower 3 inches. The another layer of dark colored, weakly cemented fine sand.
subsurface layer is gray fine sand. A layer of dark Ridgeland soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
colored, weakly cemented fine sand occurs at a depth of Typically, they have a surface layer of very dark gray
about 18 inches, and a layer of dark brown fine sand oc- fine sand about 6 inches thick and a layer of dark colored,
curs between depths of 37 and 45 inches. Below this, to a weakly cemented fine sand between depths of 6 and 16
depth of 80 inches or more, there is another layer of dark inches. Below this to a depth of about 31 inches is very
colored, weakly cemented fine sand. pale brown fine sand. Between depths of 31 and 80 inches
Ortega soils are nearly level to gently sloping and or more is another layer of dark colored, weakly ce-
moderately well drained. They occur on narrow to broad mented fine sand.
ridges. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine Wesconnett soils are nearly level and very poorly
sand about 5 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 48 drained. They occur in the shallow depressions and
inches is very pale brown fine sand. A layer of white fine drainageways. Typically, the surface layer is black fine
sand extends to a depth of 82 inches or more. sand about 2 inches thick. Below that a layer of dark
The minor soils in this map unit are the Lynn Haven, colored, weakly cemented fine sand extends to a depth of
Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Maurepas soils. about 32 inches. Underlying this is a layer of pale brown
These soils have medium potential for pine trees fine sand about 12 inches thick and a layer of dark
because of wetness. colored, weakly cemented fine sand that extends to a
Potential is medium for improved pasture because of depth of 80 inches or more.
wetness. Water control measures are needed to remove The minor soils in this unit are Lynn Haven, Olustee,
excess water during rainy periods. The Ortega soils are Mascotte, Mandarin, Ortega, and Pottsburg soils, and
limited by somewhat drought conditions. Arents.
The Leon soils have medium potential for community The soils in this map unit have overall medium poten-
development. Excessive wetness is the limitation. A tial for use as pine woodland because of wetness. The
properly designed water control system reduces the in- Wesconnett soils have low potential because of wetness
herent high water table to usable limits. The Ortega soils and flooding.







8 SOIL SURVEY

Potential is medium for improved pasture because of Soils of the hardwood and cypress swamps
wetness.
The Leon soils have medium potential for community These soils are in the eastern part of the county,
development. Excessive wetness is the limitation. A mostly along tributaries of the St. Johns River.
properly designed water control system reduces the in-
herent high water table to usable limits. The Wesconnett 7. Wesconnett-Maurepas-Stockade
soils have low potential for community development
because of excessive wetness and flooding. Because of the Level and nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some
low position of the soils along natural drainage patterns, and are sandy throughout, some are loamy within a depth of
even with a water control system, flooding occurs for short 20 inches, and others are organic
periods. This map unit is made up of freshwater hardwood and

6. Pelham-Mascotte-Sapelo cypress swamps. It occurs mostly along tributaries of the
St. Johns River in the eastern part of the county. Vegeta-
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a tion consists of blackgum, sweetum baldcypress wax-
depth of 20 inches or more and loamy below tion consists of blackgum, sweetgum, baldcypress, wax-
depth of 20 inches or more and loamy below
myrtle, fern, sweetbay, and sawgrass. Some areas have
This map unit is made up of nearly level, broad flat- pure stands of cypress.
wood areas. The largest areas are in the west-central part This unit makes up about 24,865 acres, or about 5 per-
of the county. Most areas of this unit are in second cent of the county. It is about 30 percent Wesconnett
growth slash pine and longleaf pine with an understory of 5 p M s 2 p
fetterbush, fern, gallberry, sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle. soils, 25 percent Maurepas soils, 20 percent nttockade soils,
Grasses include lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, an 5 percent soils of minor extent
panicum, and bluestems. Wesconnett soils are nearly level and very poorly
This unit makes up about 179,020 acres, or more than drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black fine
36 percent of the land area in the county. It is about 25 sand and a black to dark brown, weakly cemented layer
percent Pelham soils, 15 percent Mascotte soils, and 12 within 10 inches of the surface. Below this is pale brown
percent Sapelo soils. Some of the Pelham soils and fine sand over another weakly cemented layer that ex-
Mascotte soils occur in a complex with Urban land. Minor tends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
soils comprise the remaining 48 percent of this unit. Maurepas soils are nearly level and very poorly
Pelham soils are nearly level and poorly drained. Typi- drained. Typically, they are dark reddish brown muck to a
cally, they have a surface layer of very dark gray loamy depth of 55 inches and black muck to a depth of 80 inches.
fine sand and a subsurface layer of light gray fine sand. Stockade soils are nearly level and very poorly drained.
T'k c,,,il i ,* r 1,4. u i- f. 1 1 Stockade soils are nearly level and very poorly drained.
The subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy loam and
sandy clay loam that begins at a depth of about 21 inches Typically, they have a thick surface layer of black fine
and extends to a depth of 69 inches or more. sandy loam and a subsoil of sandy clay loam within a
Mascotte soils are nearly level and poorly drained. Typ- depth of 20 inches. Below this, at a depth of about 46
ically, they have a surface layer of black fine sand and a inches, is a layer of dark grayish brown and light
subsurface layer of gray and light brownish gray fine brownish gray fine sand that extends to a depth of more
sand. A layer of black, weakly cemented loamy fine sand than 65 inches.
occurs at a depth of about 15 inches. A layer of sandy Minor soils in the unit are Surrency, Leon, Pamlico, and
clay loam occurs at a depth of about 28 inches and ex- Pelham soils.
tends to a depth of about 58 inches. Below this is gray This unit is still in natural vegetation.
fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
These soils have high potential for pine woodland; how-
Sapelo soils are nearly level and poorly drained. Typi-
cally, they have a surface layer of fine sand that is black ever, excessive wetness and flooding are limitations.
in the upper 3 inches and dark gray in the lower 3 inches. Hardwood trees grow well on the Wesconnett and
The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand. A Stockade soils, and baldcypress grows well on the Mau-
dark colored, weakly cemented, sandy layer occurs at a repas soils.
depth of about 23 inches. At a depth of about 56 inches, Potential is medium for improved pastures because of
this soil has a gray, loamy subsoil which extends to a excessive wetness and flooding.
depth of 80 inches or more. These soils have low potential for community develop-
Minor soils in this unit are Surrency, Yonges, Olustee, ment. Excessive wetness and flooding affect the use of
Wesconnett, and Yulee soils.
Wesconnett and Yulee soils these soils. Because the soils are along natural drainage
These soils have high potential for pine woodland.
Potential is high for improved pastures; however, wet- patterns, they are subject to flooding, even with a water
ness is a limitation, control system, for short periods. The Maurepas soils
These soils have medium potential for community have very low potential for community development
development. Because wetness limits the soils for this because of low soil strength, excessive wetness, and flood-
use, a proper water control system is needed. ing.







8 SOIL SURVEY

Potential is medium for improved pasture because of Soils of the hardwood and cypress swamps
wetness.
The Leon soils have medium potential for community These soils are in the eastern part of the county,
development. Excessive wetness is the limitation. A mostly along tributaries of the St. Johns River.
properly designed water control system reduces the in-
herent high water table to usable limits. The Wesconnett 7. Wesconnett-Maurepas-Stockade
soils have low potential for community development
because of excessive wetness and flooding. Because of the Level and nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some
low position of the soils along natural drainage patterns, and are sandy throughout, some are loamy within a depth of
even with a water control system, flooding occurs for short 20 inches, and others are organic
periods. This map unit is made up of freshwater hardwood and

6. Pelham-Mascotte-Sapelo cypress swamps. It occurs mostly along tributaries of the
St. Johns River in the eastern part of the county. Vegeta-
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a tion consists of blackgum, sweetum baldcypress wax-
depth of 20 inches or more and loamy below tion consists of blackgum, sweetgum, baldcypress, wax-
depth of 20 inches or more and loamy below
myrtle, fern, sweetbay, and sawgrass. Some areas have
This map unit is made up of nearly level, broad flat- pure stands of cypress.
wood areas. The largest areas are in the west-central part This unit makes up about 24,865 acres, or about 5 per-
of the county. Most areas of this unit are in second cent of the county. It is about 30 percent Wesconnett
growth slash pine and longleaf pine with an understory of 5 p M s 2 p
fetterbush, fern, gallberry, sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle. soils, 25 percent Maurepas soils, 20 percent nttockade soils,
Grasses include lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, an 5 percent soils of minor extent
panicum, and bluestems. Wesconnett soils are nearly level and very poorly
This unit makes up about 179,020 acres, or more than drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black fine
36 percent of the land area in the county. It is about 25 sand and a black to dark brown, weakly cemented layer
percent Pelham soils, 15 percent Mascotte soils, and 12 within 10 inches of the surface. Below this is pale brown
percent Sapelo soils. Some of the Pelham soils and fine sand over another weakly cemented layer that ex-
Mascotte soils occur in a complex with Urban land. Minor tends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
soils comprise the remaining 48 percent of this unit. Maurepas soils are nearly level and very poorly
Pelham soils are nearly level and poorly drained. Typi- drained. Typically, they are dark reddish brown muck to a
cally, they have a surface layer of very dark gray loamy depth of 55 inches and black muck to a depth of 80 inches.
fine sand and a subsurface layer of light gray fine sand. Stockade soils are nearly level and very poorly drained.
T'k c,,,il i ,* r 1,4. u i- f. 1 1 Stockade soils are nearly level and very poorly drained.
The subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy loam and
sandy clay loam that begins at a depth of about 21 inches Typically, they have a thick surface layer of black fine
and extends to a depth of 69 inches or more. sandy loam and a subsoil of sandy clay loam within a
Mascotte soils are nearly level and poorly drained. Typ- depth of 20 inches. Below this, at a depth of about 46
ically, they have a surface layer of black fine sand and a inches, is a layer of dark grayish brown and light
subsurface layer of gray and light brownish gray fine brownish gray fine sand that extends to a depth of more
sand. A layer of black, weakly cemented loamy fine sand than 65 inches.
occurs at a depth of about 15 inches. A layer of sandy Minor soils in the unit are Surrency, Leon, Pamlico, and
clay loam occurs at a depth of about 28 inches and ex- Pelham soils.
tends to a depth of about 58 inches. Below this is gray This unit is still in natural vegetation.
fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
These soils have high potential for pine woodland; how-
Sapelo soils are nearly level and poorly drained. Typi-
cally, they have a surface layer of fine sand that is black ever, excessive wetness and flooding are limitations.
in the upper 3 inches and dark gray in the lower 3 inches. Hardwood trees grow well on the Wesconnett and
The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand. A Stockade soils, and baldcypress grows well on the Mau-
dark colored, weakly cemented, sandy layer occurs at a repas soils.
depth of about 23 inches. At a depth of about 56 inches, Potential is medium for improved pastures because of
this soil has a gray, loamy subsoil which extends to a excessive wetness and flooding.
depth of 80 inches or more. These soils have low potential for community develop-
Minor soils in this unit are Surrency, Yonges, Olustee, ment. Excessive wetness and flooding affect the use of
Wesconnett, and Yulee soils.
Wesconnett and Yulee soils these soils. Because the soils are along natural drainage
These soils have high potential for pine woodland.
Potential is high for improved pastures; however, wet- patterns, they are subject to flooding, even with a water
ness is a limitation, control system, for short periods. The Maurepas soils
These soils have medium potential for community have very low potential for community development
development. Because wetness limits the soils for this because of low soil strength, excessive wetness, and flood-
use, a proper water control system is needed. ing.







8 SOIL SURVEY

Potential is medium for improved pasture because of Soils of the hardwood and cypress swamps
wetness.
The Leon soils have medium potential for community These soils are in the eastern part of the county,
development. Excessive wetness is the limitation. A mostly along tributaries of the St. Johns River.
properly designed water control system reduces the in-
herent high water table to usable limits. The Wesconnett 7. Wesconnett-Maurepas-Stockade
soils have low potential for community development
because of excessive wetness and flooding. Because of the Level and nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some
low position of the soils along natural drainage patterns, and are sandy throughout, some are loamy within a depth of
even with a water control system, flooding occurs for short 20 inches, and others are organic
periods. This map unit is made up of freshwater hardwood and

6. Pelham-Mascotte-Sapelo cypress swamps. It occurs mostly along tributaries of the
St. Johns River in the eastern part of the county. Vegeta-
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a tion consists of blackgum, sweetum baldcypress wax-
depth of 20 inches or more and loamy below tion consists of blackgum, sweetgum, baldcypress, wax-
depth of 20 inches or more and loamy below
myrtle, fern, sweetbay, and sawgrass. Some areas have
This map unit is made up of nearly level, broad flat- pure stands of cypress.
wood areas. The largest areas are in the west-central part This unit makes up about 24,865 acres, or about 5 per-
of the county. Most areas of this unit are in second cent of the county. It is about 30 percent Wesconnett
growth slash pine and longleaf pine with an understory of 5 p M s 2 p
fetterbush, fern, gallberry, sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle. soils, 25 percent Maurepas soils, 20 percent nttockade soils,
Grasses include lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, an 5 percent soils of minor extent
panicum, and bluestems. Wesconnett soils are nearly level and very poorly
This unit makes up about 179,020 acres, or more than drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black fine
36 percent of the land area in the county. It is about 25 sand and a black to dark brown, weakly cemented layer
percent Pelham soils, 15 percent Mascotte soils, and 12 within 10 inches of the surface. Below this is pale brown
percent Sapelo soils. Some of the Pelham soils and fine sand over another weakly cemented layer that ex-
Mascotte soils occur in a complex with Urban land. Minor tends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
soils comprise the remaining 48 percent of this unit. Maurepas soils are nearly level and very poorly
Pelham soils are nearly level and poorly drained. Typi- drained. Typically, they are dark reddish brown muck to a
cally, they have a surface layer of very dark gray loamy depth of 55 inches and black muck to a depth of 80 inches.
fine sand and a subsurface layer of light gray fine sand. Stockade soils are nearly level and very poorly drained.
T'k c,,,il i ,* r 1,4. u i- f. 1 1 Stockade soils are nearly level and very poorly drained.
The subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy loam and
sandy clay loam that begins at a depth of about 21 inches Typically, they have a thick surface layer of black fine
and extends to a depth of 69 inches or more. sandy loam and a subsoil of sandy clay loam within a
Mascotte soils are nearly level and poorly drained. Typ- depth of 20 inches. Below this, at a depth of about 46
ically, they have a surface layer of black fine sand and a inches, is a layer of dark grayish brown and light
subsurface layer of gray and light brownish gray fine brownish gray fine sand that extends to a depth of more
sand. A layer of black, weakly cemented loamy fine sand than 65 inches.
occurs at a depth of about 15 inches. A layer of sandy Minor soils in the unit are Surrency, Leon, Pamlico, and
clay loam occurs at a depth of about 28 inches and ex- Pelham soils.
tends to a depth of about 58 inches. Below this is gray This unit is still in natural vegetation.
fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
These soils have high potential for pine woodland; how-
Sapelo soils are nearly level and poorly drained. Typi-
cally, they have a surface layer of fine sand that is black ever, excessive wetness and flooding are limitations.
in the upper 3 inches and dark gray in the lower 3 inches. Hardwood trees grow well on the Wesconnett and
The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand. A Stockade soils, and baldcypress grows well on the Mau-
dark colored, weakly cemented, sandy layer occurs at a repas soils.
depth of about 23 inches. At a depth of about 56 inches, Potential is medium for improved pastures because of
this soil has a gray, loamy subsoil which extends to a excessive wetness and flooding.
depth of 80 inches or more. These soils have low potential for community develop-
Minor soils in this unit are Surrency, Yonges, Olustee, ment. Excessive wetness and flooding affect the use of
Wesconnett, and Yulee soils.
Wesconnett and Yulee soils these soils. Because the soils are along natural drainage
These soils have high potential for pine woodland.
Potential is high for improved pastures; however, wet- patterns, they are subject to flooding, even with a water
ness is a limitation, control system, for short periods. The Maurepas soils
These soils have medium potential for community have very low potential for community development
development. Because wetness limits the soils for this because of low soil strength, excessive wetness, and flood-
use, a proper water control system is needed. ing.







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

Soils of the tidal marsh the principal hazards and limitations are indicated, and
the management concerns and practices needed are
These soils are in broad expanses of tidal marsh, mainly discussed.
in the northeastern part of the county along the St. Johns The potential of a soil is the ability of that soil to
River, the Nassau River, and the Intercoastal Waterway. produce, yield, or support the given structure or activity
Sat a cost expressed in economic, social, or environmental
8. Tisonia units of value. The criteria used for rating soil potential
Level and nearly level, very poorly drained, saline, or- include the relative difficulty or cost of overcoming soil
ganic soils underlain by clayey materials limitations, the continuing limitations after practices in
is m uit c is o t i r in general use in overcoming the limitations are installed,
This map unit consists of the tidal marsh in the county. and the suitability of the soil relative to other soils in
The tidal marsh is saline in most places but is brackish t ty t t
Duval County.
where small feeder streams enter it. The unit is in the D .
where small feeder streams enter it. The unit is in the A five-class system of soil potential is used. The classes
northwestern portion of the county along the St. Johns are defined as follows:
River, the Nassau River, and the Intercoastal Waterway. re defined as follows:
ver e Na s sau River and the nteroastal Waterway Very high potential. Soil limitations are minor or are
Natural vegetation is needlegrass rush and sand relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the in-
cordgrass. This unit is flooded daily by tides, relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the in-
cordass. This unit is flooded daily by tidestended use is excellent. Soils with very high potential are
This unit makes up about 39,780 acres, or slightly more te bes in e cnty or the prtilr se
than 8 percent of the land area in the county. It is about the best in the ont or the particular use.
High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but practices
87 percent Tisonia soils and 13 percent soils of minor ex- H tenta ome s limitations es but practice
tent. necessary to overcome the limitations can be installed at
reasonable cost. Performance for the intended use is
Tisonia soils are level or nearly level and very poorly reasonable cost Performance for the intended use is
drained. Typically, they are dark grayish brown mucky good.
peat to a depth of 18 inches and dark olive gray clay to a Medium potential. Soil limitations exist and can be
depth of more than 65 inches. Tisonia soils have a high overcome with recommended practices; limitations, how-
content of sulfur, ever, are mostly of a continuing nature and require prac-
tices that have to be maintained or that are more difficult
Minor soils in this unit are Pamlico and Maurepas soils, ties that have to be mated or that are more difficult
and Leon, Lynn Haven, Mascotte, and Ridgeland soils or costly than average. Performance for the intended use
occur on the small islands in the unit. ranges from fair to good.
Except for a few small areas, this unit is still in natural Lowpotential. Serious soil limitations exst and they
vegetation. It is a nursing ground for many species of are difficult to overcome Practices necessary to overcome
commercially important finfish and shellfish. the limitations are relatively costly compared to those
These soils have very low potential for pine woodland required for soils of higher potential. Necessary practices
because of excessive wetness, flooding, and the excess can involve environmental values and considerations. Per-
salts that prevent growth, formance for the intended use is poor or unreliable.
Potential is very low for improved pasture because of Very low potential. Very serious soil limitations exist,
the unstable surface (low strength), excessive wetness, and they are most difficult to overcome. Initial cost of
flooding, and the saline condition of the soil. practices and maintenance cost are very high compared to
Potential for community development is very low those for soils with high potential. Environmental values
because of excessive wetness, flooding, high shrink-swell are usually depreciated. Performance for the intended use
potential, low soil strength, and high corrosivity. is inadequate or below acceptable standards.
The map units on the detailed soil maps represent an
area on the landscape made up mostly of the soil or soils
Soil maps for detailed planning for which the unit is named. Most of the delineations
shown on the detailed soil map are phases of soil series.
The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up a
back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the soil series. Except for allowable differences in texture of
survey area. They are described in this section. The the surface layer or of the underlying substratum, all the
descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in soils of a series have major horizons that are similar in
determining the potential of a soil and in managing it for composition, thickness, and arrangement in the profile. A
food and fiber production; in planning land use and soil series commonly is named for a town or geographic
developing soil resources; and in enhancing, protecting, feature near the place where a soil of that series was
and preserving the environment. More information for first observed and mapped. Pottsburg and Ortega, for ex-
each map unit, or soil, is given in the section "Use and ample, are the names of two soil series. All the soils in
management of the soils." the United States having the same series name have es-
Preceding the name of each map unit is the symbol that sentially the same characteristics.
identifies the soil on the detailed soil maps. Each soil Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
description includes general facts about the soil and a layer or in the underlying substratum and in slope, ero-
brief description of the soil profile. In each description, sion, stoniness, salinity, wetness, or other characteristics







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

Soils of the tidal marsh the principal hazards and limitations are indicated, and
the management concerns and practices needed are
These soils are in broad expanses of tidal marsh, mainly discussed.
in the northeastern part of the county along the St. Johns The potential of a soil is the ability of that soil to
River, the Nassau River, and the Intercoastal Waterway. produce, yield, or support the given structure or activity
Sat a cost expressed in economic, social, or environmental
8. Tisonia units of value. The criteria used for rating soil potential
Level and nearly level, very poorly drained, saline, or- include the relative difficulty or cost of overcoming soil
ganic soils underlain by clayey materials limitations, the continuing limitations after practices in
is m uit c is o t i r in general use in overcoming the limitations are installed,
This map unit consists of the tidal marsh in the county. and the suitability of the soil relative to other soils in
The tidal marsh is saline in most places but is brackish t ty t t
Duval County.
where small feeder streams enter it. The unit is in the D .
where small feeder streams enter it. The unit is in the A five-class system of soil potential is used. The classes
northwestern portion of the county along the St. Johns are defined as follows:
River, the Nassau River, and the Intercoastal Waterway. re defined as follows:
ver e Na s sau River and the nteroastal Waterway Very high potential. Soil limitations are minor or are
Natural vegetation is needlegrass rush and sand relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the in-
cordgrass. This unit is flooded daily by tides, relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the in-
cordass. This unit is flooded daily by tidestended use is excellent. Soils with very high potential are
This unit makes up about 39,780 acres, or slightly more te bes in e cnty or the prtilr se
than 8 percent of the land area in the county. It is about the best in the ont or the particular use.
High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but practices
87 percent Tisonia soils and 13 percent soils of minor ex- H tenta ome s limitations es but practice
tent. necessary to overcome the limitations can be installed at
reasonable cost. Performance for the intended use is
Tisonia soils are level or nearly level and very poorly reasonable cost Performance for the intended use is
drained. Typically, they are dark grayish brown mucky good.
peat to a depth of 18 inches and dark olive gray clay to a Medium potential. Soil limitations exist and can be
depth of more than 65 inches. Tisonia soils have a high overcome with recommended practices; limitations, how-
content of sulfur, ever, are mostly of a continuing nature and require prac-
tices that have to be maintained or that are more difficult
Minor soils in this unit are Pamlico and Maurepas soils, ties that have to be mated or that are more difficult
and Leon, Lynn Haven, Mascotte, and Ridgeland soils or costly than average. Performance for the intended use
occur on the small islands in the unit. ranges from fair to good.
Except for a few small areas, this unit is still in natural Lowpotential. Serious soil limitations exst and they
vegetation. It is a nursing ground for many species of are difficult to overcome Practices necessary to overcome
commercially important finfish and shellfish. the limitations are relatively costly compared to those
These soils have very low potential for pine woodland required for soils of higher potential. Necessary practices
because of excessive wetness, flooding, and the excess can involve environmental values and considerations. Per-
salts that prevent growth, formance for the intended use is poor or unreliable.
Potential is very low for improved pasture because of Very low potential. Very serious soil limitations exist,
the unstable surface (low strength), excessive wetness, and they are most difficult to overcome. Initial cost of
flooding, and the saline condition of the soil. practices and maintenance cost are very high compared to
Potential for community development is very low those for soils with high potential. Environmental values
because of excessive wetness, flooding, high shrink-swell are usually depreciated. Performance for the intended use
potential, low soil strength, and high corrosivity. is inadequate or below acceptable standards.
The map units on the detailed soil maps represent an
area on the landscape made up mostly of the soil or soils
Soil maps for detailed planning for which the unit is named. Most of the delineations
shown on the detailed soil map are phases of soil series.
The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up a
back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the soil series. Except for allowable differences in texture of
survey area. They are described in this section. The the surface layer or of the underlying substratum, all the
descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in soils of a series have major horizons that are similar in
determining the potential of a soil and in managing it for composition, thickness, and arrangement in the profile. A
food and fiber production; in planning land use and soil series commonly is named for a town or geographic
developing soil resources; and in enhancing, protecting, feature near the place where a soil of that series was
and preserving the environment. More information for first observed and mapped. Pottsburg and Ortega, for ex-
each map unit, or soil, is given in the section "Use and ample, are the names of two soil series. All the soils in
management of the soils." the United States having the same series name have es-
Preceding the name of each map unit is the symbol that sentially the same characteristics.
identifies the soil on the detailed soil maps. Each soil Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
description includes general facts about the soil and a layer or in the underlying substratum and in slope, ero-
brief description of the soil profile. In each description, sion, stoniness, salinity, wetness, or other characteristics







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

Soils of the tidal marsh the principal hazards and limitations are indicated, and
the management concerns and practices needed are
These soils are in broad expanses of tidal marsh, mainly discussed.
in the northeastern part of the county along the St. Johns The potential of a soil is the ability of that soil to
River, the Nassau River, and the Intercoastal Waterway. produce, yield, or support the given structure or activity
Sat a cost expressed in economic, social, or environmental
8. Tisonia units of value. The criteria used for rating soil potential
Level and nearly level, very poorly drained, saline, or- include the relative difficulty or cost of overcoming soil
ganic soils underlain by clayey materials limitations, the continuing limitations after practices in
is m uit c is o t i r in general use in overcoming the limitations are installed,
This map unit consists of the tidal marsh in the county. and the suitability of the soil relative to other soils in
The tidal marsh is saline in most places but is brackish t ty t t
Duval County.
where small feeder streams enter it. The unit is in the D .
where small feeder streams enter it. The unit is in the A five-class system of soil potential is used. The classes
northwestern portion of the county along the St. Johns are defined as follows:
River, the Nassau River, and the Intercoastal Waterway. re defined as follows:
ver e Na s sau River and the nteroastal Waterway Very high potential. Soil limitations are minor or are
Natural vegetation is needlegrass rush and sand relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the in-
cordgrass. This unit is flooded daily by tides, relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the in-
cordass. This unit is flooded daily by tidestended use is excellent. Soils with very high potential are
This unit makes up about 39,780 acres, or slightly more te bes in e cnty or the prtilr se
than 8 percent of the land area in the county. It is about the best in the ont or the particular use.
High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but practices
87 percent Tisonia soils and 13 percent soils of minor ex- H tenta ome s limitations es but practice
tent. necessary to overcome the limitations can be installed at
reasonable cost. Performance for the intended use is
Tisonia soils are level or nearly level and very poorly reasonable cost Performance for the intended use is
drained. Typically, they are dark grayish brown mucky good.
peat to a depth of 18 inches and dark olive gray clay to a Medium potential. Soil limitations exist and can be
depth of more than 65 inches. Tisonia soils have a high overcome with recommended practices; limitations, how-
content of sulfur, ever, are mostly of a continuing nature and require prac-
tices that have to be maintained or that are more difficult
Minor soils in this unit are Pamlico and Maurepas soils, ties that have to be mated or that are more difficult
and Leon, Lynn Haven, Mascotte, and Ridgeland soils or costly than average. Performance for the intended use
occur on the small islands in the unit. ranges from fair to good.
Except for a few small areas, this unit is still in natural Lowpotential. Serious soil limitations exst and they
vegetation. It is a nursing ground for many species of are difficult to overcome Practices necessary to overcome
commercially important finfish and shellfish. the limitations are relatively costly compared to those
These soils have very low potential for pine woodland required for soils of higher potential. Necessary practices
because of excessive wetness, flooding, and the excess can involve environmental values and considerations. Per-
salts that prevent growth, formance for the intended use is poor or unreliable.
Potential is very low for improved pasture because of Very low potential. Very serious soil limitations exist,
the unstable surface (low strength), excessive wetness, and they are most difficult to overcome. Initial cost of
flooding, and the saline condition of the soil. practices and maintenance cost are very high compared to
Potential for community development is very low those for soils with high potential. Environmental values
because of excessive wetness, flooding, high shrink-swell are usually depreciated. Performance for the intended use
potential, low soil strength, and high corrosivity. is inadequate or below acceptable standards.
The map units on the detailed soil maps represent an
area on the landscape made up mostly of the soil or soils
Soil maps for detailed planning for which the unit is named. Most of the delineations
shown on the detailed soil map are phases of soil series.
The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up a
back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the soil series. Except for allowable differences in texture of
survey area. They are described in this section. The the surface layer or of the underlying substratum, all the
descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in soils of a series have major horizons that are similar in
determining the potential of a soil and in managing it for composition, thickness, and arrangement in the profile. A
food and fiber production; in planning land use and soil series commonly is named for a town or geographic
developing soil resources; and in enhancing, protecting, feature near the place where a soil of that series was
and preserving the environment. More information for first observed and mapped. Pottsburg and Ortega, for ex-
each map unit, or soil, is given in the section "Use and ample, are the names of two soil series. All the soils in
management of the soils." the United States having the same series name have es-
Preceding the name of each map unit is the symbol that sentially the same characteristics.
identifies the soil on the detailed soil maps. Each soil Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
description includes general facts about the soil and a layer or in the underlying substratum and in slope, ero-
brief description of the soil profile. In each description, sion, stoniness, salinity, wetness, or other characteristics







10 SOIL SURVEY

that affect their use. On the basis of such differences, a Natural vegetation consists of scrub oak, second growth
soil series is divided into phases. The name of a soil phase slash pine and longleaf pine, and scattered sawpalmetto.
commonly indicates a feature that affects use or manage- Native grasses include pineland threeawn and various
ment. For example, Kureb fine sand, 2 to 8 percent bluestems.
slopes, is one of several phases within the Kureb series. This soil is well suited to improved pasture.
Some map units are made up of two or more dominant With high-level management, this soil has moderately
kinds of soil. Such map units are called soil complexes. high potential for longleaf pine and slash pine.
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
that are so intricately mixed or so small in size that they ments and local roads and streets. Wetness limits this soil
cannot be shown separately on the soil map. Each area in- for these uses. Maximum potential can be achieved
cludes some of each of the two or more dominant soils, through use of a water control system that lowers the in-
and the pattern and proportion are somewhat similar in herent water table.
all areas. Leon-Urban land complex is an example. The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
Most map units include small, scattered areas of soils fields is high. Its use is limited by wetness. A properly
other than those that appear in the name of the map unit. designed water control system can be used to lower the
Some of these soils have properties that differ substan- water table to acceptable limits.
tially from those of the dominant soil or soils and thus For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
could significantly affect use and management of the map limited by sandy textures. Maximum potential can be
unit. These soils are described in the description of each achieved by applying practices which control soil blowing
map unit. Some of the more unusual or strongly contrast- and alleviate the drought conditions which exist during
ing soils that are included are identified by a special sym- parts of the year. These practices are the addition of top-
bol on the soil map. soil, the planting of deep-rooted grasses, mulching, and
Most mapped areas include places that have little or no the installation of a supplemental irrigation system.
soil material and support little or no vegetation. Such This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or-
places are called miscellaneous areas; they are delineated namental plants. Good management that includes supple-
on the soil map and given descriptive names. Beaches is mental irrigation during dry periods, proper fertilization,
an example. and regular care is needed to realize the potential. Capa-
The acreage and proportionate extent of each map unit ability subclass IIIw.
are given in table 4, and additional information on proper- 2-Alpin fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This is a
ties, limitations, capabilities, and potentials for many soil nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soil on broad
uses is given for each kind of soil in other tables in this upland ridges. Individual areas range in size from 20 to
survey. (See "Summary of tables.") Many of the terms 200 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex.
used in describing soils are defined in the Glossary. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
1-Albany fine sand, 0. to 5 percent slopes. This is a about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light yel-
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained lowish brown fine sand to a depth of 11 inches and very
soil on narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls. In- pale brown fine sand to a depth of 48 inches. The next
dividual areas range in size from 3 to 200 acres. Slopes layer is very pale brown and white fine sand that con-
are smooth and convex. tains bands of strong brown loamy fine sand and that ex-
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand tends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
about 47 inches thick. The upper 26 inches is light yel- Blanton, Kershaw, Kureb, Ortega, and Pottsburg soils. In-
lowish brown, and the lower 21 inches is light gray and is cluded areas make up less than 10 percent of any mapped
finely mottled. The upper 13 inches of the subsoil is area.
strong brown sandy loam that is coarsely mottled with This soil has a water table at a depth of more than 72
light gray and red. The lower part is light gray sandy inches. Permeability is very rapid throughout. Natural
clay loam that is coarsely mottled with reddish yellow. It fertility and organic matter content are low. Available
extends below a depth of 80 inches. water capacity is low.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Natural vegetation consists of turkey oak, live oak,
Blanton, Mascotte, Pelham, and Sapelo soils. Also included blackjack oak, and scattered slash pine and longleaf pine
are small areas of similar soils that have loamy layers at with an understory of runner oak, dwarf huckleberry,
a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Included areas make up about sawpalmetto, and greenbrier. Native grasses are pineland
10 percent of any mapped area. threeawn, various bluestems, and panicum.
Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 1 to 3 months, and at a Droughty conditions somewhat restrict root development.
depth of 30 to 60 inches for 4 to 8 months or more during With high-level management, this soil has moderately
most years. Permeability is rapid above a depth of 50 high potential for slash pine and longleaf pine.
inches and moderate below. Natural fertility is low, and This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
organic matter content is low. Available water capacity is basements and local roads and streets. There are no
low. limitations for these uses.







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption soils have low potential for slash pine and longleaf pine.
fields is very high; however, due to very rapid permea- Droughty conditions restrict root development.
ability and sandy textures, a concentration of absorption These soils have high potential for dwellings without
fields near water supplies could be a pollution hazard. basements and local roads and streets. Wetness limits
For playgrounds, this soil has a medium potential. It is these soils for these uses. Maximum potential can be
limited by the sandy texture. Maximum potential can be achieved through use of a water control system that
achieved by applying practices which control soil blowing lowers the inherent water table.
and alleviate the drought conditions. These practices are The potential of these soils for septic tank absorption
the addition of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted fields is high. The soils are moderately limited by wet-
grasses, mulching, and the installation of a supplemental ness. A properly designed water control system can be
irrigation system. Playgrounds on soils having slopes of used to lower the water table to acceptable limits.
more than 6 percent may require land forming to over- For playgrounds, these soils have medium potential.
come the slope limitation. They are limited by sandy textures. Maximum potential
For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has can be achieved by applying practices which will control
medium potential. Droughty conditions restrict root soil blowing and alleviate the drought conditions which
development. Good management that includes supplemen- exist during parts of the year. These practices are the ad-
tal irrigation, proper fertilization, and regular care is edition of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted grasses,
needed to realize the potential. Capability subclass IVs. mulching, and the installation of a supplemental irrigation
3-Aquic Quartzipsamments. These are nearly level to system.
gently sloping, sandy soils that have been reworked by For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, these soils
manmade dredging and earthmoving operations, or they have low potential. Droughty conditions during parts of
have formed by natural deposition on islands along the the year restrict root development. Good management
Atlantic Coast. Individual areas range in size from 5 to that includes supplemental irrigation, proper fertilization,
200 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent and are and regular care is needed to realize the potential. Not
smooth to convex. assigned to a capability subclass.
Some areas of these soils were originally ridges that 4-Arents. These are nearly level, poorly drained soils
have been excavated to a depth below natural ground that have been reworked by manmade earthmoving
level and then reworked. Others are deep areas of dredge operations. Individual areas range in size from 5 to 500
spoil. Other areas are natural depositions which occur as acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent and are smooth to
swales between the high dunes; soils in these areas have convex.
no diagnostic horizons. The material has been deposited in Typically, the soils consist of mixed soil material. This
the last 150 years. material is light gray, grayish brown, very pale brown,
Where the soil has been reworked or mixed, it does not yellow, black, dark reddish brown, strong brown, and red
have an orderly sequence of horizons. The texture of the fine sand, sandy loam, and sandy clay loam. Sandy tex-
mixed material is fine sand. Colors are variable and range tures are dominant in most areas. The sandy loam and
from white to brownish yellow. The most common colors sandy clay loam part is fragments or pieces of subsoil
are white, light gray, gray, pale brown, very pale brown, material. Pieces of weakly cemented subsoil material are
light yellowish brown, yellowish brown, and brownish yel- also present in most of these soils. Thickness of the
low. Thickness of the mixed material ranges from 2 to 12 material ranges from 2 to 20 feet. This soil does not have
feet. an orderly sequence of horizons.
The soils that have been deposited naturally are fine Many areas of these soils are former shallow ponds or
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. They are commonly low flatwoods that have been filled with available soil
light brownish gray, light gray, pale brown, very pale material to surrounding ground level or to elevations
brown, and light yellowish brown. Few to many horizontal above natural ground level. Soil materials are moved long
bands of black heavy minerals, mostly rutile and ilmenite, distances by truck in some areas; in others the soil
occur throughout the pedon. material is available at the site and transportation of the
Included with these soils in mapping are a few areas in soil material is minimal.
which shell fragments or rock fragments occur in the Included with these soils in mapping are a few areas in
sandy materials. Included areas make up about 20 percent which shell fragments or rock fragments occur in the
of any mapped area. sandy materials. Included areas make up about 15 percent
Under natural conditions, these soils have a water table of any mapped area.
at a depth of less than 40 inches during most years. Under natural conditions, these soils have a water table
Permeability is very rapid throughout. Natural fertility is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months during
low. Organic matter content and available water capacity most years. Permeability is variable. Natural fertility is
are low. low, and organic matter content is variable. Available
These soils are poorly suited to improved pasture. water capacity is variable.
Droughty conditions during part of the year restrict root These soils are moderately suited to improved pastures.
development. Even with high-level management, these Water control measures are needed to remove excess








12 SOIL SURVEY

water during wet periods. Low fertility is also a limiting These soils have low potential for playgrounds. Undif-
factor. ferential settling would make maintenance cost high, and
These soils have medium potential for dwellings collapse of cells could be hazardous to people.
without basements and local roads and streets. Wetness These soils could revegetate naturally for use as nature
and uneven settling limit these soils for these uses. Max- study areas. Not assigned to a capability subclass.
imum potential can be achieved through use of a water 6-Beaches. Beaches consist of narrow strips of nearly
control system that lowers the inherent water table. Com- level fine sand along the Atlantic Ocean. These areas are
action of the soil material may be necessary to provide inundated with salt water daily at high tide. This material
sufficient strength. is a mixture of quartz sand; heavy minerals, principally
The potential of these soils for septic tank absorption rutile and ilmenite; and fragments of seashells. It is sub-
fields is high. This use is limited by excessive wetness. A ject to movement by wind and tide and is bare of vegeta-
properly designed water control system can be used to tion.
lower the water table to acceptable limits for septic tank Beaches are used intensively for sunbathing and water-
use. related recreational activities. Due to their unique loca-
For playgrounds, these soils have medium potential. tion, their value for recreational activities,, and the daily
They are limited by excessive wetness. Maximum poten- tidal flooding, other uses are not practical. Not assigned
tial can be achieved by a water control system designed to a capability subclass.
to remove excess water during rainy periods. 7-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a
For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, these soils nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
have medium potential. Good management that includes a soil on narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls. In-
water control system designed to remove excess water dividual areas range from 10 to 500 acres in size. Slopes
during rainy periods, proper fertilization, and regular care are smooth to convex.
is needed to realize the potential. Not assigned to a capa- Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
ability subclass. about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
5-Arents, sanitary landfill. These are nearly level to about 51 inches thick. The upper 33 inches is pale brown
gently sloping soils that have been reworked by manmade and very pale brown, and the lower 18 inches is white.
earthmoving operations. Individual areas range from 20 The upper 11 inches of the subsoil is yellowish brown fine
to 200 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent and sandy loam that has very pale brown, yellowish red, and
are smooth to convex. strong brown mottles. The lower part of the subsoil, to a
Typically, the upper 2 to 3 feet of these soils is a mix- depth of 83 inches or more, is strong brown fine sandy
ture of sandy materials interbedded with fragments or loam that has many dark yellowish brown and light gray
pieces of loamy subsoil material or weakly cemented, mottles and a few yellowish red mottles.
sandy subsoil material, or both. This material overlies Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
large cells of garbage and refuse which range in thickness Albany, Alpin, Mascotte, Pelham, Ortega, and Sapelo soils.
from 2 to 20 feet. In some areas, the mixture of sandy Included areas make up about 15 percent of any mapped
materials is used as a daily cover, and the garbage is in area.
stratified layers within the sandy material. Under natural conditions, this soil has a perched water
Some areas of this map unit are in former pits, and table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 2 to 5 months dur-
others were constructed on the surface of undisturbed ing most years. Permeability is rapid above a depth of 54
soils. inches and moderate below. Natural fertility is low, and
These soils have a variable water table that is depen- organic matter content is low. Available water capacity is
dent upon the water table of the nearby soils. Permeabili- low.
ty is variable but generally ranges from very rapid to Natural vegetation consists of turkey oak, blackjack
moderately rapid. Natural fertility is low. Organic matter oak, scrub oak, second growth slash pine and longleaf
content and available water capacity are variable, pine, and scattered sawpalmetto. Native grasses include
For esthetic purposes, with high-level management, grassleaf goldaster, pineland threeawn, and various
grasses or pine trees can be established. Commercial bluestems.
production, however, may not be practical. This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture.
These soils have very low potential for dwellings Droughty conditions somewhat restrict root development.
without basements and local roads and streets. Uneven With high-level management, this soil has moderately
settling and wetness in the lower areas limits these soils high potential for longleaf pine and slash pine.
for these uses. If dwellings are constructed, they should This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
be built on pilings with special foundations to support the basements and local roads and streets. There are no
intended load; however, driveways can collapse, and yards limitations for these uses.
can develop holes or an uneven surface because of uneven The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
settling. In wet areas, adequate water control is difficult, fields is high.
Septic tank absorption fields are not practical because For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
of the underlying cells of unstable garbage and refuse. limited by sandy textures. Maximum potential can be







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 13

achieved by applying practices which control soil blowing For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has
and alleviate the drought conditions. These practices are low potential. Droughty conditions restrict root develop-
the addition of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted ment. Good management that includes supplemental ir-
grasses, mulching, and the installation of a supplemental rigation, proper fertilization, and regular care is needed to
irrigation system. realize the potential. Capability subclass VIs.
For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has 9-Cornelia fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a
high potential. The soil is sandy and during dry periods nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil on
may need supplemental irrigation. Good management that broad upland ridges and high bluffs along the Atlantic
includes proper fertilization and regular care is needed to Coast. Individual areas range in size from 5 to 900 acres.
realize the potential. Capability subclass IIIs. Slopes are smooth to convex.
8-Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
a nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
to somewhat poorly drained soil on a broad ridge near the about 32 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is gray and the
Atlantic Coast. The area is about 160 acres in size. Slopes lower 6 inches is white. The subsoil extends to a depth
are smooth to convex of 106 inches. It is fine sand, and the sand grains are
are smooth to convex.
t s is dk g ih bown fine coated with organic matter. The upper 14 inches is dark
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine reddish brown, the next 20 inches is dark yellowish
sand about 6 inches thick. Below this is yellowish brown brown, the next 19 inches is dark brown, and the lower 14
fine sand to a depth of about 17 inches. To a depth of 34 inches is reddish brown.
inches is light yellowish brown fine sand; shell fragments Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
make up about 45 percent of this layer. Very pale brown Kureb, Leon, and Ortega soils. Included areas make up
shell fragments extend to a depth of 65 inches or more. about 10 percent of any mapped area.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil has a water table at a depth of more than 72
Fripp, Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, and Ridgeland soils. Also inches. Permeability is moderate in the weakly cemented
included are small areas of similar soils that have a thin, layers and rapid in all other layers. Natural fertility is
brown, weakly cemented layer at a depth of about 18 very low, and organic matter content is medium to high.
inches. Included areas make up about 25 percent of any Available water capacity is low.
mapped area. Natural vegetation consists of turkey oak, live oak,
Under natural conditions this soil has a water table at a southern magnolia, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, red bay, and
depth of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months and at a depth greenbrier. Native grasses include bluestems, pineland
of 40 to 60 inches for 4 to 8 months during most years, threeawn, and pinewoods dropseed.
Permeability is very rapid throughout. Natural fertility is This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture.
low, and organic matter content is low. Available water Droughty conditions severely restrict root growth.
capacity is very low. Even with high-level management, this soil has low
Natural vegetation consists of live oak, water oak, potential for longleaf pine and slash pine because of
cabbage palm, bay, hickory, waxmyrtle, and scattered drought conditions.
sawpalmetto. This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture. basements and local roads and streets. This soil has no
Droughty conditions restrict root development, limitations for these uses.
With high-level management, this soil has moderate The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
With high-level management, this soil has moderate
fields is high. No measures are needed to realize this
potential for slash pine. Droughty conditions during parts e o e e e eee to e e t
of the year restrict growth.playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base- For playground this soil has medium potential. It is
limited by sandy textures. Maximum potential can be
ments and local roads and streets. Wetness during por- achieved by applying practices which alleviate soil blow-
tions of the year limits this soil for these uses. Maximum ing and the drought conditions. These practices are the
potential can be achieved through use of a water control addition of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted grasses,
system that lowers the inherent high water table, mulching, and the installation of a supplemental irrigation
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption system.
fields is high. This use is limited by wetness. A properly For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has
designed water control system can be used to reduce the high potential. The soil is sandy and during dry periods
water table to acceptable limits, may need supplemental irrigation. Good management that
For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is includes proper fertilization and regular care is needed to
limited by sandy textures. Maximum potential can be realize the potential. Capability subclass VIs.
achieved by applying practices which control soil blowing 10-Fripp fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes. This is a
and alleviate the drought conditions that exist during gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained soil on nar-
parts of the year. These practices are the addition of top- row to broad ridges along the Atlantic Coast. Individual
soil, the planting of deep-rooted grasses, mulching, and areas range from 20 to 450 acres in size. Slopes are
the installation of a supplemental irrigation system. smooth to convex.








14 SOIL SURVEY

Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
about 6 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches Alpin, Pottsburg, and Ortega soils. Also included are
or more, is very pale brown fine sand that contains small areas of similar soils that have few to common
horizontal bands of black heavy minerals, streaks and splotches of light grayish brown within a
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of depth of 40 to 60 inches. Included areas make up less
Aquic Quartzipsamments and Mandarin and Leon soils, than 15 percent of any mapped area.
Also included are areas of soils in which slope is as much This soil has a water table at a depth of more than 72
as 20 percent. Included areas make up less than 15 per- inches. Permeability is very rapid throughout. Natural
cent of any mapped area. fertility and organic matter content are very low. Availa-
This soil has a water table at a depth of more than 72 ble water capacity is very low.
inches. Permeability is rapid throughout. Available water Natural vegetation consists of live oak, turkey oak,
capacity and organic matter content are very low. blackjack oak, and second growth slash pine and longleaf
Natural vegetation consists of live oak, cabbage palm, pine. Native grasses include pineland threeawn, panicum,
longleaf pine, slash pine, cedar, waxmyrtle, beach grasses, and grassleaf goldaster.
and sea oats. Some areas of this soil are devoid of vegeta- This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture.
tion. Droughty conditions severely restrict root development.
The nearness of this soil to the ocean and the drought Even with high-level management, this soil has low
conditions, which restrict root development, make this soil potential for slash pine and longleaf pine because of the
impractical for improved pasture. existing drought conditions.
This soil has low potential for slash pine and longleaf This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
pine because it is so near the ocean. Droughty conditions basements and local roads and streets. There are no
also restrict root growth. limitations for these uses.
This soil has medium potential for dwellings with base- The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
ments and local roads and streets. Storm tides limit this fields is very high; however, because of very rapid
soil for these uses. To achieve maximum potential, permeability and sandy texture, a concentration of ab-
dwellings should be designed to fit the natural terrain, sorption fields near water supplies could be a pollution
Dwellings and roads should be restricted to the back dune hazard.
portion of the landscape to afford protection from flood- For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential It is
ing during unusual weather conditions. limited by the sandy texture. Maximum potential can be
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption achieved by applying practices that control soil blowing
fields is very high. No measures are needed to realize this and alleviate the drought conditions. These practices in-
potential. Due to very rapid permeability and sandy tex- clude the addition of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted
tures, however, a concentration of absorption fields near grasses, mulching, and the installation of a supplemental
water supplies could be a pollution hazard, irrigation system. Playgrounds on soils having slopes of
For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is more than 6 percent may require land forming to over-
limited by sandy textures. Maximum potential can be come the slope limitation.
achieved by applying practices which control soil blowing For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has
and alleviate the drought conditions. These practices in- low potential. Droughty conditions restrict root develop-
clude the addition of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted ment. Good management that includes supplemental ir-
grasses, mulching, and the installation of a supplemental rigation, proper fertilization, and regular care is needed to
irrigation system. Playgrounds on soils having slopes of realize the potential. Capability subclass VIIs.
more than 6 percent may require land forming to over- 12-Kershaw-Urban land complex. This complex is
come the slope limitation, about 40 to 70 percent Kershaw fine sand, of which about
For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has 20 percent has been modified by cutting, grading, and
low potential. Droughty conditions restrict root develop- shaping. About 25 to 50 percent is Urban land, or areas
ment. Good management that includes supplemental ir- covered by houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking
rigation, proper fertilization, and regular care is needed to lots, and other related construction. The open areas of
realize the potential. Capability subclass VIIs. Kershaw fine sand are in lawns, vacant lots, or
11-Kershaw fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes. This is playgrounds, and generally are so small and intermixed
a gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained soil on with Urban land that it is impractical to map them
broad ridges and isolated knolls. Individual areas range in separately.
size from 10 to 1,500 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex. These soils have been reworked less in the older com-
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand munities than in the newer, more densely populated ones.
about 3 inches thick. The layer below that, to a depth of Excavating for streets to a depth below the original sur-
51 inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. The next face layer and spreading the soil material on adjacent
layer is brownish yellow fine sand that extends to a depth areas is a common practice in the newer developments.
of 80 inches or more. The excavated material is also used to fill low areas.







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

Included in the mapped areas are small areas of Blan- 14-Kureb fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes. This is a
ton and Ortega soils. These areas make up about 20 per- gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained soil on
cent of the map unit. broad upland ridges and bluffs along the St. Johns River.
These soils require good management practices to Individual areas range in size from 3 to 600 acres. Slopes
establish and maintain lawn grasses and ornamental are convex.
plants because of the drought nature of the soils and Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
their inherent very low natural fertility. Not assigned to about 4 inches thick. The next layer is white fine sand
a capability subclass. that extends to a depth of 16 inches. Below this, to a
13-Kershaw fine sand, smoothed. This is a nearly depth of 60 inches, is yellow fine sand that contains ton-
level to gently rolling, excessively drained soil on narrow gues of white fine sand from the layer above. These ton-
to broad ridges disturbed by recent mining operations. In- gues are surrounded by dark reddish brown, weakly ce-
dividual areas range from 30 to 500 acres in size. Slopes mented fine sand. Thin discontinuous layers of more dark
range from 2 to 8 percent and are smooth to convex. reddish brown, weakly cemented fine sand occur at ir-
Typically, the surface layer is light gray fine sand regular intervals along the upper boundary of this layer.
about 22 inches thick. Below this is very pale brown fine Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is very pale
sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. brown fine sand that contains tongues similar to those in
The content and particle size of the heavy minerals. the layer above.
The content and particle size of the heavy minerals, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
mainly rutile and ilmenite, have been reduced by mining, Cornelia, Kershaw, Mandarin, and Ortega soils. Included
and the remaining heavy minerals are well distributed areas make up less than 10 percent of any mapped area.
throughout the soil. This soil has a water table at a depth of more than 72
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of inches. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and organic
Leon and Ortega soils. Included areas make up about 15 matter content are low. Available water capacity is very
percent of any mapped area. low.
This soil has a water table at a depth of more than 72 Natural vegetation consists of scattered sand pine,
inches. Permeability is very rapid throughout. Natural scrub oak, sawpalmetto, fetterbush, rosemary, and dwarf
fertility and organic matter content are very low. Availa- huckleberry. Native grasses include various bluestems
ble water capacity is very low. and panicum.
This soil is devoid of vegetation except where reclama- This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture.
tion has taken place. Normally it is seeded to deep-rooted Droughty conditions severely restrict root growth.
grasses. i. Even with high-level management, this soil has low
This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture. potential for longleaf pine and slash pine because of the
Droughty conditions severely restrict root development. drought conditions.
Even with high-level management, this soil has low This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
potential for slash pine and longleaf pine because of the basements and local roads and streets. There are no
existing drought conditions, limitations for these uses.
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
nt, + d ll os id j. T e ie nL mIThe potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
basements and local roads and streets. There are no fields is very high; however, due. to rapid permeability
limitations for these uses. Supplemental irrigation and sandy textures, a concentration of absorption fields
systems can be used to alleviate the drought conditions. near water supplies could be a pollution hazard.
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
field ii ,ry i For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
fields is very high; however, due to very rapid permea- limited by sandy textures. Maximum potential can be
ability and sandy textures, a concentration of absorption achieved by applying practices that control soil blowing
fields near water supplies could be a pollution hazard. and alleviate the drought conditions. The practices are the
For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is addition of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted grasses, mulch-
limited by sandy textures. Maximum potential can be ing, and the installation of a supplemental irrigation system.
achieved by applying practices that control soil blowing Playgrounds on soils having slopes of more than 6 percent may
and alleviate the drought conditions. These are the addi- require land forming to overcome the slope limitation.
tion of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted grasses, For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has
mulching, and the installation of a supplemental irrigation low potential. Droughty conditions restrict root develop-
system. Playgrounds on soils having slopes of more than 6 ment. Good management that includes supplemental ir-
percent may require land forming to overcome the slope rigation, proper fertilization, and regular care is needed to
limitation. realize the potential. Capability subclass VIIs.
For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has 15-Kureb fine sand, 8 to 20 percent slopes. This is a
low potential. Droughty conditions restrict root develop- strongly sloping to moderately steep, excessively drained
ment. Good management that includes supplemental ir- soil on broad upland ridges and bluffs along the St. Johns
rigation, proper fertilization, and regular care is needed to River. Individual areas range in size from 15 to 200 acres.
realize the potential. Capability subclass VIIs. Slopes are convex.







16 SOIL SURVEY

Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 8 inches
about 1 inch thick. The next layer is white fine sand that thick. In the upper 5 inches it is very dark gray, and in
extends to a depth of 14 inches. Below this, to a depth of the lower 3 inches it is dark gray. The subsurface layer is
64 inches, is yellow fine sand that contains tongues of gray fine sand about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is fine
white sand from the layer above. These tongues are sur- sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The
rounded by dark reddish brown, weakly cemented fine upper 8 inches of subsoil is black and weakly cemented,
sand. Thin discontinuous layers of more dark reddish the next 11 inches is very dark gray and weakly ce-
brown, weakly cemented fine sand occur at irregular in- mented, the next 8 inches is dark brown, and the lower 35
tervals along the upper boundary of this layer. Below inches is dark reddish brown and weakly cemented.
this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is very pale brown Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
fine sand that contains tongues similar to those in the Mascotte, Ortega, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Wesconnett
layer above, soils. Also included are small areas of similar soils in
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of which the subsoil is at a depth of more than 30 inches. In-
Cornelia, Kershaw, and Ortega soils. Included soils make cluded soils make up about 10 percent of any mapped
up less than 10 percent of any mapped area. area.
This soil has a water table at a depth of more than 72 Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at
inches. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and organic a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a
matter content are low. Available water capacity is very depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8 months during most
low. years. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in
Natural vegetation consists of scrub oak, sawpalmetto, the weakly cemented layers and rapid in all other layers.
rosemary, and dwarf huckleberry. Native grasses include Natural fertility is low, and organic matter content is
various bluestems. medium. Available water capacity is moderate.
This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture. Natural vegetation includes second growth slash pine
Droughty conditions severely restrict root growth. and longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, and
Even with high-level management, this soil has low fetterbush. Native grasses include lopsided indiangrass,
potential for longleaf pine and slash pine because of the pineland threeawn, panicum, and bluestems.
drought conditions. This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture if
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base- water control measures are used to remove excess water
ments and local roads and streets. Slope limits this soil during rainy periods.
With high-level management, this soil has moderate
for these uses. Maximum potential can be achieved if tential g ing lnglea ie slash pine.
potential for growing longleaf pine and slash pine.
buildings are designed to fit the natural terrain and if T i ih ium i o d lng without
slope gradient for roads is reduced by cutting and filling. basements and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness
basements and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption limits these soils for these uses. Maximum potential can
fields is high. This use is limited by slope, which affects be achieved through the use of a water control system
layout and construction. Absorption fields should be in- that lowers the inherent high water table.
stalled on the contour. Due to rapid permeability and The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
sandy textures, a concentration of absorption fields near fields is medium. This use is limited by excessive wetness.
water supplies could be a pollution hazard. A properly designed water control system can be used to
For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is lower the water table to acceptable limits.
limited by slope and sandy textures. Maximum potential For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
can be achieved by applying practices that control soil limited by excessive wetness and sandy texture. Max-
blowing and alleviate the drought conditions. These are imum potential can be achieved through the use of a
the addition of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted water control system designed to remove excess water
grasses, mulching, and the installation of a supplemental during rainy periods and through the use of practices that
irrigation system. Slope gradient can be reduced to an ac- help control soil blowing during dry periods. Planting
ceptable level by cutting and filling, windbreaks, establishing vegetative cover, and keeping
For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has the surface moist help reduce or control soil blowing.
very low potential. Slope and drought conditions, which This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or-
restrict root development, are limitations. Unless the namental plants. For maximum potential, water control
slope gradient is reduced by cutting and filling, mowing measures are needed to remove excess water during
can be difficult. Good management that includes supple- rainy periods. Capability subclass IVw.
mental irrigation, proper fertilization, and regular care is 17-Leon-Urban land complex. This complex is about
needed to realize the potential. Capability subclass VIIs. 40 to 70 percent Leon fine sand, of which about 20 per-
16-Leon fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly cent has been modified by cutting, grading, and shaping.
drained soil in broad flatwood areas. Individual areas About 25 to 45 percent is Urban land, or areas covered by
range from 5 to 2,000 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and
2 percent and are smooth to convex, other related construction (fig. 5). The open areas of Leon







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

fine sand are in lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, and For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
generally are so small and intermixed with Urban land limited by excessive wetness and sandy texture. Max-
that it is impractical to map them separately. Slope imum potential can be achieved through the use of a
ranges from 0 to 2 percent. water control system designed to remove excess water
These soils have been reworked less in the older com- during rainy periods and through the use of practices that
munities than in the newer, more densely populated ones. help control soil blowing during dry periods. Planting
Excavating for streets to a depth below the original sur- windbreaks, establishing vegetative cover, and keeping
face layer and spreading the soil material on adjacent the surface moist help reduce or control soil blowing.
areas is a common practice in the newer developments. This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or-
The excavated material is also used to fill in low areas. namental plants. For maximum potential, water control
Included with this complex in mapping are small areas measures are needed to remove excess water during
of Pottsburg and Ortega soils. These areas make up about rainy periods. Capability subclass IVw.
10 percent of the map unit. 19-Mandarin fine sand. This is a nearly level,
If excess water is removed during rainy periods and somewhat poorly drained soil on narrow to broad ridges
good management practices are used, lawn grasses and slightly higher than the adjacent flatwoods. Individual
ornamental plants can be established and maintained. Not areas range in size from 5 to 600 acres. Slopes range from
assigned to a capability subclass. 0 to 2 percent and are smooth to convex.
18-Lynn Haven fine sand. This is a nearly level, Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
poorly drained soil in broad flatwood areas. Individual about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
areas range from 5 to 400 acres in size. Slopes range from about 22 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is light
0 to 2 percent and are smooth to convex, brownish gray, and the lower 18 inches is light gray. The
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 13 inches subsoil is fine sand that extends to a depth of 46 inches.
thick. The upper 7 inches is black, and the lower 6 inches Except for the lower 6 inches, it is weakly cemented and
is very dark gray. The subsurface layer is light gray and well coated with organic matter. The upper 4 inches is
gray fine sand extending to a depth of 21 inches. The sub- very dark grayish brown, the next 5 inches is very dark
soil is weakly cemented fine sand that extends to a depth brown, the next 5 inches is black, and the lower 6 inches
of 80 inches or more. The upper 14 inches is black, the is brown. Below this, to a depth of 56 inches, is light gray
next 27 inches is dark reddish brown, and the lower 18 fine sand. The next 6 inches is white fine sand, and the
inches is dark brown. next 11 inches is grayish brown fine sand. Between
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of depths of 73 and 80 inches is weakly cemented, black fine
Leon, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Wesconnett soils. In- sand, and the sand grains are coated with organic matter.
cluded areas make up about 10 percent of any mapped Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
area. Leon, Mascotte, Ortega, and Pottsburg soils. Also in-
Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at cluded are small areas of similar soils in which the subsoil
a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a is at a depth of more than 30 inches. Included areas make
depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8 months during most up about 10 percent of any mapped area.
years. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at
the weakly cemented layers and rapid in all other layers. a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 4 to 6 months during most
Natural fertility is low, and organic matter content is years. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 20 inches for
high. Available water capacity is moderate, periods of as much as 2 weeks in some years. Permeabili-
Natural vegetation consists of second growth slash pine ty is moderate to moderately rapid in the weakly ce-
and longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, and mented layers and rapid in all other, layers. Natural fer-
fetterbush. Native grasses include lopsided indiangrass, utility is low, and organic matter content is low to medium.
pineland threeawn, panicum, and bluestems. Available water capacity is low.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture if water Natural vegetation consists of second growth slash pine
control measures are used to remove excess water during and longleaf pine, scrub oak, greenbrier, and sawpalmetto.
rainy periods. Native grasses include pineland threeawn, creeping
With high-level management, this soil has moderately bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and paspalum.
high potential for slash pine and longleaf pine. This soil is poorly suited to improved pastures.
This soil has medium potential for dwellings without Droughty conditions during parts of the year and low fer-
basements and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness utility restrict root growth.
limits this soil for these uses. Maximum potential can be With high-level management, this soil has moderate
achieved through the use of a water control system, potential for longleaf pine and slash pine mainly because
designed for the intended use, that lowers the inherent of drought conditions.
high water table. This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption ments and local roads and streets. Wetness limits this soil
fields is medium. This use is limited by excessive wetness. for these uses. Maximum potential can be achieved
A properly designed water control system can be used to through the use of a water control system, designed for
lower the water table to acceptable limits, the intended use, that lowers the inherent water table.







18 SOIL SURVEY

The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption achieved through the use of a water control system,
fields is medium. This use is limited by wetness. A designed for the intended use, that lowers the inherent
properly designed water control system can be used to high water table.
lower the water table to acceptable limits. The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is fields is medium. This use is limited by excessive wetness.
limited by sandy textures. Maximum potential can be A properly designed water control system can be used to
achieved by applying practices that help control soil blow- lower the water table to acceptable limits for septic tank
ing during dry periods. Planting windbreaks, establishing use.
vegetative cover, and keeping the surface moist help For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
reduce or control soil blowing, limited by wetness and sandy textures. Maximum poten-
This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or- tial can be achieved by using a water control system
namental plants. Droughty conditions during part of the designed to remove excess water during rainy periods
year can restrict root development. Supplemental irriga- and by applying practices that help control soil blowing
tion, proper fertilization, and regular care are needed to during dry periods. Planting windbreaks, establishing
realize the potential. Capability subclass VIs. vegetative cover, and keeping the surface moist help
20-Mascotte fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly reduce or control soil blowing.
drained soil in broad flatwood areas. Individual areas This soil has high potential for lawn grasses and orna-
range from 5 to 2,000 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to mental plants. For maximum potential, water control
2 percent and are smooth to convex, measures are needed to remove excess water during
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 rainy periods. Capability subclass IVw.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 10 21-Mascotte-Urban land complex. This complex is
inches thick. The upper 3 inches is gray, and the lower 7 about 45 to 75 percent Mascotte fine sand, of which about
inches is light brownish gray. The upper part of the sub- 20 percent has been modified by cutting, grading, and
soil, between depths of 15 and 25 inches, is loamy fine shaping. About 25 to 40 percent is Urban land, or areas
sand. It is weakly cemented, and the sand grains are covered by houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking
coated with organic matter. The upper 6 inches is black, lots, and other related construction. The open areas of
the next 2 inches is very dusky red, and the lower 2 Mascotte fine sand are mostly lawns, vacant lots, or
inches is dark reddish brown. Below this is a layer of playgrounds, and generally they are so small and inter-
light gray and dark brown loamy fine sand about 3 inches mixed with Urban land that it is impractical to map them
thick. The lower part of the subsoil, between depths of 28 separately.
and 58 inches, is loamy. The upper 18 inches is coarsely These soils have been reworked less in the older com-
mottled gray and yellowish red sandy clay loam, and the munities than in the newer, more densely populated ones.
lower 12 inches is coarsely mottled light gray, strong Excavating to a depth below the original surface layer
brown, and red fine sandy loam. Below this, to a depth of and spreading the soil material on adjacent areas is a
80 inches, is gray fine sand. common practice in the newer developments. The ex-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of cavated material is also used to fill in low areas.
Albany, Sapelo, Leon, and Pelham soils. Included areas Included with this complex in mapping are small areas
make up about 15 percent of any mapped area. of Albany, Leon, Pelham, and Sapelo soils. These areas
Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a If excess water is removed during rainy periods and
depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8 months during most good management practices are used, lawn grasses and
years. Permeability is rapid to a depth of 15 inches, ornamental plants can be established and maintained. Not
moderate between depths of 15 and 58 inches, and rapid assigned to a capability subclass.
below. Natural fertility is moderate, and organic matter 22-Maurepas muck. This is a level to nearly level,
content is high. Available water capacity is moderate. very poorly drained soil on the tributaries of major
Natural vegetation consists of second growth slash pine streams, in large drainageways, and in depressions. In-
and longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, inkberry, blackberry, dividual areas range in size from 5 to 1,000( acres. Slopes
waxmyrtle, and fetterbush. Native grasses include lop- are less than 1 percent and are smooth to concave.
sided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, panicum, and Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck
bluestems. about 55 inches thick. Below is a layer of black muck that
This soil is well suited to improved pasture if water extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
control measures are used to remove excess water during Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
rainy periods. Leon, Pamlico, Ridgeland, Surrency, Tisonia, and Wescon-
With high-level management, this soil has moderately nett soils. Included areas make up about 10 percent of
high potential for longleaf pine and slash pine. any mapped area.
This soil has medium potential for dwellings without Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at
basements and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness a depth of less than 10 inches, or the soil is covered by
limits this soil for these uses. Maximum potential can be water for 6 to 12 months during most years. Permeability







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 19

is moderately rapid throughout. Natural fertility is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
moderate, and organic matter content is very high. Leon, Pelham, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Sapelo soils. In-
Available water capacity is high. cluded areas make up about 10 percent of any mapped
Natural vegetation consists of southern white cedar, area.
blackgum, common baldcypress, sweetgum, bay, fern, Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at
sawgrass, briers, and water-tolerant grasses. a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a
This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8 months during most
if water control measures are used to remove excess years. Permeability is rapid in the upper 6 inches and
water. Due to the difficulty of installing these measures between depths of 21 and 36 inches, and it is moderate in
and the lack of outlets in many areas, this soil is seldom the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate, and organic
used for pasture. In addition, stumps, logs, and other matter content is high. Available water capacity is
woody fragments are exposed when the water table is moderate.
lowered and the organic material subsides or oxidizes. Natural vegetation consists of oak, hickory, pine, saw-
This soil is unsuitable for slash pine and longleaf pine. palmetto, and inkberry. Native grasses include pineland
The high water table prevents the growth of pine trees, threeawn, panicum, and paspalum.
This soil has very low potential for dwellings without This soil is well suited to improved pasture if water
basements and local roads and streets. Wetness, flooding, control measures are used to remove excess water during
and low strength are the dominant features that restrict rainy periods.
this soil for these uses. If the soil is used for these pur- With high-level management, this soil has moderately
poses, the organic material should be removed and high potential for longleaf pine and slash pine.
replaced with suitable material, and water control mea- This soil has medium potential for dwellings without
sures should be installed to reduce wetness. Even with basements and local roads and streets. Wetness limits this
water control, some areas may still be subject to flooding. soil for these uses. Maximum potential can be achieved
When the water table is lowered, the organic material ox- through the use of a water control system that lowers the
idizes or slowly subsides, water table.
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
fields is very low. The major limitations are wetness and fields is medium. Wetness limits this soil for this use. A
flooding. There are no practical methods to control the properly designed water control system can be used to
flooding. There are no practical methods to control the lower the water table to acceptable limits.
flooding and keep the water table deep enough for the For playgrounds, this soil has me m te
absorption fields to function properly. For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
absorption fields to function properly limited by wetness and sandy texture. Maximum potential
For playgrounds, the potential use of these soils is very c be a eed y sn a wae nt tem desne
w rhm a*r w i, can be achieved by using a water control system designed
low. The major limitations are wetness, flooding, and ex- to remove excess water during rainy periods and by ap-
to remove excess water during rainy periods and by ap-
cess humus. If the soil is used for playgrounds, the or- plying practices that help control soil blowing during dry
ganic material should be removed and replaced with
ga material should be removed and replaced with periods. Planting windbreaks, establishing vegetative
suitable material and water control measures should be
cover, and keeping the surface moist help reduce or con-
installed to reduce wetness. Even with water control, trol soil blowing.
some areas may still be subject to flooding. This soil has high potential for lawn grasses and orna-
This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or- mental plants. For maximum potential, water control
namental plants. Wetness and flooding are the major measures are needed to remove excess water during
limitations, and in addition, woody fragments are exposed rainy periods. Capability subclass IIIw.
when the water table is lowered. Capability subclass 24-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a
VIIw. nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
23-Olustee fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly soil on narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls. In-
drained soil in broad flatwood areas. Individual areas dividual areas range from 2 to 2,000 acres in size. Slopes
range in size from 5 to 2,000 acres. Slopes range from 0 to are smooth to convex.
2 percent and are smooth to convex. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 about 5 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 48 inches is
inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil, between very pale brown fine sand. The next layer is white fine
depths of 6 and 21 inches, is fine sand. It is weakly ce- sand that extends to a depth of 82 inches or more.
mented, and the sand grains are well coated with organic Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
matter. The upper 5 inches is very dark gray, and the Kershaw, Leon, Mandarin, and Pottsburg soils. Also in-
lower 10 inches is black. Below this is a 15-inch layer of cluded are small areas of similar soils that show evidence
gray fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil, between of wetness within a depth of 30 inches, similar soils that
depths of 36 and 54 inches, is gray sandy clay loam. have a light gray subsurface layer, and similar soils that
Below this is a layer of dark gray fine sand about 10 have a dark colored subsoil within a depth of 70 to 80
inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, inches. Included areas make up about 15 percent of any
is mixed light gray and gray fine sand. mapped area.







20 SOIL SURVEY

Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at and organic matter content is very high. Available water
a depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6 months during capacity is high.
most years. Permeability is very rapid to a depth of 80 Natural vegetation consists of sweetgum, bay, mag-
inches. Natural fertility and organic matter content are nolia, pond pine, hickory, and waxmyrtle. Native grasses
low. Available water capacity is low. include sawgrass, needlerush, and spartina.
Natural vegetation consists of turkey oak, blackjack This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture
oak, second growth slash pine and longleaf pine, and scat- if water control measures are used to remove excess
tered sawpalmetto. Native grasses include pineland water. Due to the difficulty of installing these measures
threeawn, panicum, and grassleaf goldaster. and the lack of outlets in many areas, it is seldom used
This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture. for pasture.
Droughty conditions during part of the year somewhat This soil is unsuitable for slash pine and longleaf pine.
restrict root development. The high water table prevents the growth of pine trees.
With high-level management, this soil has moderately This soil has very low potential for dwellings without
high potential for longleaf pine and slash pine. basements and local roads and streets. Wetness, flooding,
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without and low strength are the dominant features that restrict
basements and local roads and streets. There are no this soil for these uses. If the soil is used for these pur-
limitations for these uses. poses, the organic material should be removed and
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption replaced with suitable material, and water control mea-
fields is very high. This use can be limited somewhat by sures should be installed to reduce wetness. Even with
very rapid permeability, wetness, and sandy texture, water control, some areas may still be subject to flooding.
since absorption fields near water supplies could be a pol- When the water table is lowered, the organic material ox-
lution hazard. The water table is at a depth of about 4 idizes or slowly subsides.
feet for part of the year and fills the lower part of the The potential use of this soil for septic tank absorption
absorption field. fields is very low. The major limitations are wetness and
For playgrounds, this soil has high potential. It i flooding. There are no practical methods to control the
limited by sandy texture. Maximum potential can be
e by s y M m p a ca b flooding and keep the water table deep enough for the
achieved by applying practices which control soil blowing fooin an te ter te ep eu fr
absorption fields to function properly.
and alleviate the drought conditions. These practices are For pl ouds t p f these sois is ve
the addition of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted For playgrounds, the potential use of these soils is very
the addition of topsoil, the planting of deep-rooted low. The major limitations are wetness, folding, and ex-
low. The major limitations are wetness, flotxding, and ex-
grasses, mulching, and the installation of a supplemental s l, -
irrigation system. cess humus. If the soil is used for playgrounds, the or-
For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has ganic material should be removed and replaced with
medium potential. Droughty conditions restrict root suitable material, and water control measures should be
development. Supplemental irrigation, proper fertilization, installed to reduce wetness. Even with water control,
and regular care are needed to realize the potential, some areas may still be subject to flooding.
Capability subclass IIIs. This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or-
25-Pamlico muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly namental plants. Wetness and flooding are the major
drained soil on tributaries of major streams, in depres- limitations. Capability subclass VIIw.
sions, and in drainageways. Individual areas range in size 26-Pelham fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
from 20 to 1,000 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent drained soil in broad flatwood areas. Individual areas
and are smooth to concave, range in size from 2 to 2,000 acres. Slopes range from 0 to
Typically, the surface layer is black, well decomposed 2 percent and are smooth to convex.
muck about 8 inches thick over 24 inches of very dusky Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy
red muck. A layer of dark brown muck extends to a fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
depth of 37 inches. The next layers are very dark grayish fine sand about 15 inches thick. It is grayish brown in the
brown fine sand about 25 inches thick and dark brown upper 8 inches and light gray in the lower 7 inches. The
fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. subsoil is between depths of 21 and 69 inches. It is light
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of brownish gray fine sandy loam in the upper 5 inches, light
Leon, Lynn Haven, Maurepas, and Wesconnett soils. Also brownish gray sandy clay loam in the middle 34 inches,
included are small areas of similar soils in which reaction and light brownish gray fine sandy loam in the lower 9
is higher than extremely acid and small areas of soils that inches.
have loamy horizons below a depth of 40 inches. Included Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
areas make up about 15 percent of any mapped area. Albany, Mascotte, Olustee, Sapelo, and Yonges soils. Also
Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at included are similar soils in which the combined thickness
a depth of less than 10 inches, and the soil is covered with of the surface layer and subsoil is less than 60 inches and
water for more than 6 months during most years. soils in which the depth to the subsoil is less than 20
Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper 38 inches inches. Included areas make up about 15 percent of any
and rapid below that depth. Natural fertility is moderate, mapped area.








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 21

Under natural conditions this soil has a water table at a other uses is not discussed. Not assigned to a capability
depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a subclass.
depth of 10 to 30 inches for 4 to 12 months during most 28-Pits. Pits consist of excavations from which soil
years. Permeability is rapid to a depth of 21 inches and and geologic material have been removed for use in road
moderate below. Natural fertility is moderate, and or- construction or for foundation purposes. Pits, locally
ganic matter content is high. Available water capacity is called borrow pits, range from small to large.
moderate. Many pits have been excavated to a depth below the
Natural vegetation consists of second growth slash pine normal water table and are ponded for 9 months or more
and longleaf pine, sweetgum, bay, grape, blackberry, wax- each year. Most are abandoned, though excavation is con-
myrtle, and inkberry. Native grasses include lopsided in- tinuing in a few places. Some of the older pits are used
diangrass, panicum, and chalky bluestem. for fishing, and they are also used by wading birds and
This soil is well suited to improved pasture if water waterfowl as feeding areas. Most of these pits that con-
control measures are used to remove excess water during tain water can be improved by stocking with fish. Not as-
rainy periods, signed to a capability subclass.
With high-level management, this soil has high poten- 29-Pottsburg fine sand. This is a nearly level,
tial for longleaf pine and slash pine. somewhat poorly drained soil on the flatwoods at slightly
This soil has low potential for dwellings without base- higher elevations than the surrounding soils. Individual
ments and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness and areas range from 5 to 800 acres in size. Slopes range from
flooding limit this soil for these uses. Maximum potential 0 to 2 percent and are smooth to convex.
can be achieved through the use of a water control Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
system, designed for the intended use, that lowers the in- inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of
herent high water table. 57 inches. It is brown fine sand 7 inches thick, grayish
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption brown fine sand 24 inches thick, and light gray fine sand
fields is low. This use is limited by excessive wetness and 23 inches thick. The subsoil, between depths of 57 and 80
flooding. A properly designed water control system can inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand that is weakly ce-
be used to lower the water table to acceptable limits, mented and well coated with organic matter.
For playgrounds, this soil has low potential. It is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
limited by excessive wetness. Maximum potential can be Kershaw, Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, Ridgeland, and
achieved by a water control system designed to remove Wesconnett soils. Included areas make up about 15 per-
excess water during rainy periods. cent of any mapped area.
This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or- Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at
namental plants. Wetness and flooding are limitations, a depth of 6 to 12 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a depth
For maximum potential, water control measures are of 12 to 40 inches for 6 to 9 months or longer during most
needed to remove excess water. Capability subclass IVw. years. Permeability is rapid to a depth of 57 inches and
27-Pelham-Urban land complex. This complex is moderate below that depth. Natural fertility and organic
about 40 to 70 percent Pelham fine sand, of which about matter content are low. Available water capacity is low.
20 percent has been modified by cutting, grading, and Natural vegetation consists of second-growth slash pine
shaping. About 25 to 45 percent is Urban land, or areas and longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, blackjack oak, and inkber-
covered by houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking ry. Native grasses include pineland threeawn, broomsedge
lots, and urban construction. The open areas of Pelham bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, wild
fine sand are mostly lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, grape, and other perennial grasses.
and generally they are so small and intermixed with This soil is well suited to improved pasture.
Urban land that it is impractical to map them separately With high-level management, this soil has moderately
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. high potential for longleaf pine and slash pine (fig. 6).
These soils have been reworked less in the older com- This soil has medium potential for dwellings without
munities than in the newer, more densely populated ones. basements and local roads and streets. Wetness limits this
Excavating for streets to a depth below the original sur- soil for these uses. Maximum potential can be achieved
face and spreading the soil material on adjacent areas is a through the use of a water control system, designed for
common practice in the newer developments. The ex- the intended use, that removes excess water during rainy
cavated material is also used to fill in low areas. periods.
Included in the mapped areas of this complex are small The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
areas of Albany, Leon, Mascotte, and Sapelo soils. These fields is medium. This use is limited by wetness. A
areas make up about 15 percent of the map unit. properly designed water control system can be used to
If excess water is removed during rainy periods and lower the water table to acceptable limits.
good management practices are used, lawn grasses and For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
ornamental plants can be established and maintained, limited by sandy texture. Maximum potential can be
Since the present and future use of these soils has al- achieved by applying practices which control soil blowing
ready been determined, the potential of these soils for and alleviate the drought conditions which exist during







22 SOIL SURVEY

parts of the year. These practices are the addition of top- For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
soil, the planting of deep-rooted grasses, mulching, and limited by wetness and sandy textures. Maximum poten-
the installation of a supplemental irrigation system. tial can be achieved by a water control system designed
For lawn grasses and ornamental plants, this soil has to remove excess water during rainy periods and by ap-
medium potential. Droughty conditions during part of the plying practices that help control soil blowing during dry
year can restrict root development. Good management periods. Planting windbreaks, establishing vegetative
that includes supplemental irrigation, proper fertilization, cover, and keeping the surface moist help reduce or con-
and regular care is needed to realize the potential. Capa- trol soil blowing.
ability subclass IVw. This soil has high potential for lawn grasses and orna-
30-Ridgeland fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly mental plants. For maximum potential, water control
drained soil in broad flatwood areas. Individual areas measures are needed to remove excess water during
range in size from 5 to 800 acres. Slopes range from 0 to rainy periods. Capability subclass IIIw.
2 percent and are smooth to convex. 31-Sapelo fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand drained soil in broad flatwood areas. Individual areas
about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil, range in size from 2 to 2,000 acres. Slopes range from 0 to
between depths of 6 and 16 inches, is fine sand. It is dark 2 percent and are smooth to convex.
brown and weakly cemented, and the sand grains are well Typically, the surface layer is black and dark gray fine
coated with organic matter. Below this is a layer of very sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends
pale brown fine sand about 15 inches thick. The lower to a depth of 23 inches. It is light brownish gray fine
part of the subsoil, between depths of 31 and 80 inches, is sand. The upper part of the subsoil, between depths of 23
fine sand. It is weakly cemented, and the sand grains are and 38 inches, is fine sand. It is weakly cemented, and the
coated with organic matter. The upper 8 inches is dark sand grains are coated with organic matter. The upper 7
reddish brown, and the rest is black, inches is black and dark reddish brown; the next 2 inches
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of is black, dark reddish brown, and very dusky red; and the
Leon, Lynn Haven, Ortega, Pottsburg, and Wesconnett lower 6 inches is dark brown. Below this is a layer of
soils. Included areas make up about 10 percent of any very pale brown fine sand that extends to a depth of 56
mapped area. inches. The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 80
Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at inches or more, is gray. The upper 6 inches is sandy clay
a depth of less than 10 inches for brief periods of 2 to 4 loam, and the lower 18 inches is fine sandy loam.
weeks, at a depth of 10 to 20 inches for 2 to 4 months, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and at a depth of 20 to 40 inches most of the remainder Mascotte, Olustee, Pelham, and Yonges soils. Included
of the year during most years. A few small areas of this areas make up about 15 percent of any mapped area.
soil are covered with water for periods of 1 to 2 weeks. Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at
Permeability is rapid in the upper 6 inches and between a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months or more
depths of 16 and 31 inches and moderate to moderately and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months during
rapid between depths of 6 and 16 inches and below a most years. Permeability is very rapid to a depth of 23
depth of 31 inches. Natural fertility is moderate, and or- inches, moderate to a depth of 38 inches, very rapid to a
ganic matter content is high. Available water capacity is depth of 56 inches, and moderate below that depth. Natu-
low. ral fertility is moderate, and organic matter content is
Natural vegetation consists of second growth slash pine medium. Available water capacity is low.
and longleaf pine, loblolly bay, sawpalmetto, and inkberry. Natural vegetation consists of second growth slash pine
Native grasses include pineland threeawn and lopsided in- and longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, inkberry, blackberry,
diangrass. waxmyrtle, and fetterbush. Native grasses include lop-
This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture sided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, panicum, and
if water control measures are used to remove excess bluestems.
water during rainy periods. This soil is moderately well suited to improved pastures
With high-level management, this soil has moderately if water control measures are used to remove excess
high potential for longleaf pine and slash pine. water during rainy periods.
This soil has medium potential for dwellings without With high-level management, this soil has moderately
basements and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness high potential for slash pine and longleaf pine.
limits this soil for these uses. Maximum potential can be This soil has medium potential for dwellings without
achieved through the use of a water control system, basements and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness
designed for the intended use, that lowers the inherent limits this soil for these uses. Maximum potential can be
high water table. achieved through the use of a water control system,
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption designed for the intended use, that lowers the inherent
fields is medium. This use is limited by excessive wetness. high water table.
A properly designed water control system can be used to The potential use of this soil for septic tank absorption
lower the water table to acceptable limits, fields is medium. This use is limited by excessive wetness.







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

A properly designed water control system can be used to The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption
lower the water table to acceptable limits, fields is low. This use is limited by excessive wetness and
For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is flooding. Maximum potential can be achieved with a
limited by wetness and sandy textures. Maximum poten- water control system; however, a flood hazard would still
tial can be achieved by a water control system designed exist because this soil occurs along natural drainage pat-
to remove excess water during rainy periods and by ap- terns.
plying practices that help control soil blowing during dry For playgrounds, this soil has medium potential. It is
periods. Planting windbreaks, establishing vegetative limited by excessive wetness and flooding. Maximum
cover, and keeping the surface moist help reduce or con- potential can be achieved with a water control system
trol soil blowing, designed to remove excess water during rainy periods.
This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or- This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or-
namental plants. For maximum potential, water control namental plants. Wetness and flooding are limitations.
measures are needed to remove excess water during For maximum potential, water control measures are
rainy periods. Capability subclass IVw. needed to remove excess water. Capability subclass IVw.
32-Stockade fine sandy loam. This is a nearly level, 33-Surrency fine sand. This is a nearly level, very
very poorly drained soil in shallow depressions and large poorly drained soil in shallow depressions and broad
drainageways. Individual areas range from 5 to 1,500 drainageways. Individual areas range in size from 5 to
acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent and are 900 acres. Slopes are less than 1 percent and are smooth
concave, to concave.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sandy loam Typically, the surface layer is about 18 inches thick.
about 12 inches thick. The subsoil, between depths of 12 The upper 14 inches is black loamy fine sand, and the
and 46 inches, is sandy clay loam. The upper 14 inches is lower 4 inches is dark brown fine sand. The subsurface
very dark gray, and the lower 20 inches is dark gray. layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 8 inches
Below this is dark grayish brown and light brownish gray thick. The subsoil, between depths of 26 and 70 inches, is
fine sand extending to a depth of 65 inches or more. fine sandy loam. The upper 12 inches is dark grayish
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of brown and has light gray and dark brown mottles, the
Leon, Ortega, Pottsburg, and Ridgeland soils. Also in- next 11 inches is dark gray and has light brownish gray
cluded are small areas of similar soils in which reaction in1 i s is
the subsoil is very strongly acid and strongly acid and a mot a th o inches is greenish grayBe
this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is greenish gray
few areas of soils that have a loamy fine sand surface sandy clay loam.
layer. Included areas make up about 15 percent of any d h this soil in are sma areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
mapped area.
under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at Pottsburg, Leon, Mascotte, Olustee, Pelham, and Wescon-
S nett soils. Also included are small areas of similar soils in
a depth of less than 10 inches, or the soil is covered with nt si. so included are sma a s of il s
which reaction ranges from medium acid to mildly al-
water for more than 6 months during most years.
ter for more than 6 months during most year, kaline and small areas of soils in which the surface layer
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer, .
derate to i moderately rapid in the subil, and rap is fine sand. Included areas make up about 15 percent of
moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid
below. Natural fertility and organic matter content are any mapped area.
high. Available water capacity is moderate. Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at
Natural vegetation consists of sweetgum, blackgum, a depth of less than 10 inches or the soil is covered with
water oak, swamp chestnut oak, scattered pine, and water for 6 to 12 months during most years. Permeability
cypress with an understory of cinnamonfern, waxmyrtle, is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
greenbrier, scattered maidencane, and other perennial moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate, and
forbs and shrubs. organic matter content is high. Available water capacity
This soil is well suited to improved pastures if water is moderate.
control measures can be established to remove excess Natural vegetation consists of cypress, bay, waxmyrtle,
water. sweetgum, water oak, and smilax.
With high-level management, this soil has very high This soil is seldom used for improved pastures due to
potential for longleaf pine and slash pine. Water control is the difficulty of installing water control measures to
necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized. remove excess water.
This soil has low potential for dwellings without base- With high-level management, this soil has high poten-
ments and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness and tial for slash pine and longleaf pine. Water control is
flooding limit this soil for these uses. Maximum potential necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized.
can be achieved through the use of a water control This soil has low potential for dwellings without base-
system, designed for the intended use, that lowers the in- ments and local roads and streets. Flooding and excessive
herent high water table. Due to the low position of this wetness limit this soil for these uses. Maximum potential
soil and its occurrence along the natural drainage pat- can be achieved through the use of a water control
terns in the county, a flood hazard would still exist for system, designed for the intended use, that lowers the in-
short periods even if a water control system were in use. herent high water table. Due to the low position of this








24 SOIL SURVEY

soil and its occurrence along the natural drainage pat- cial buildings, parking lots, shopping centers, industrial
terns in the county, a flood hazard would still exist for parks, airports, and related facilities.
short periods even if a water control system were in use. Small areas of undisturbed soils, such as Kershaw,
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption Blanton, Kureb, Leon, Pottsburg, Mascotte, Pelham, and
fields is low. This use is limited by excessive wetness and Ortega soils, are mostly in lawns, parks, vacant lots, and
flooding. Maximum potential can be achieved with a playgrounds. Other areas are made up of undifferentiated
water control system; however, a flood hazard would still soil materials. These areas are in tracts too small to be
exist because this soil occurs along natural drainage pat- mapped separately. Not assigned to a capability subclass.
terns. 36-Wesconnett fine sand. This is a nearly level, very
For playgrounds, this soil has low potential. It is poorly drained soil in shallow depressions and large
limited by excessive wetness and flooding. Maximum drainageways. Individual areas range in size from 4 to
potential can be achieved by a water control system 1,200 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent and are
designed to remove excess water during rainy periods. smooth to concave.
This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or- Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 2
namental plants. Wetness and flooding are limitations. inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil, between
For maximum potential, water control measures are depths of 2 and 32 inches, is weakly cemented fine sand.
needed to remove excess water. Capability subclass Vw. The upper 8 inches is black, the next 16 inches is dark
34-Tisonia mucky peat. This is a level to nearly level, reddish brown, and the lower 6 inches is dark brown.
very poorly drained soil on broad tidal marshes. In- Below this is a layer of pale brown fine sand about 12
dividual areas range in size from 4 to 4,000 acres. Slopes inches thick. The lower part of the subsoil, between
range from 0 to 1 percent. depths of 44 and 80 inches, is fine sand. It is weakly ce-
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown mented, and the sand grains are well coated with organic
mucky peat about 18 inches thick. It is underlain by dark matter. The upper 28 inches is reddish black, and the
olive gray clay that extends to a depth of 65 inches or lower 8 inches is very dusky red.
more. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Leon, Lynn Haven, Maurepas, Pamlico, Pottsburg, and
Leon, Maurepas, Pamlico, and Ridgeland soils. Also in- Ridgeland soils. Also included are small areas of similar
cluded are small areas of similar soils that have a surface soils that are slightly acid to moderately alkaline. Areas
layer less than 16 inches in thickness. Included soils make of this soil along Yellow Water and McGirt's Creeks have
up about 10 percent of any mapped area. natural depositions of sandy materials 2 to 4 feet thick
Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at overlying the natural soil. Included areas make up about
a depth of less than 10 inches, or the soil is covered by 20 percent of any mapped area.
water for 6 to 12 months during most years. Tidal action Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at
inundates this soil twice daily. Permeability is rapid in the a depth of 0 to 10 inches, or the soil is covered by water
surface layer and very slow in the clayey material. Natu- for 6 to 12 months during most years. Permeability is
ral fertility is low, and organic matter content is very rapid in the surface layer and between depths of 32 and
high. Available water capacity is high. 44 inches and moderate to moderately rapid between
Natural vegetation is dominantly needlegrass rush, depths of 2 and 32 inches and below a depth of 44 inches.
seashore saltgrass, marshhay cordgrass, and smooth Natural fertility is moderate, and organic matter content
cordgrass. is high. Available water capacity is moderate.
This soil is unsuited to improved pastures. Wetness, Natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, sweetbay,
flooding, high salinity, and high sulfur content are un- magnolia, sweetgum, cabbage palm, holly, and water oak
favorable properties. If diked and drained, exposure of with an understory of waxmyrtle and sparse amounts of
the soil to air would lower the soil reaction too much for creeping bluestem, hairy bluestem, and toothachegrass.
the growth of pastures. Needed additions of lime would This soil is moderately well suited to improved pastures
be too large to be practical. if water control measures are used to remove excess
This soil is unsuitable for slash pine and longleaf pine. water. Due to the difficulty of installing these measures
Inundation by salt water retards tree growth, and the lack of outlets in many areas, the soil is seldom
This soil has very low potential for dwellings without used for pasture.
basements, local roads and streets, septic tank absorption With high-level management, this soil has high poten-
fields, playgrounds, and lawn grasses and ornamental tial for slash pine and longleaf pine. Water control is
plants. The major limitations are twice-daily flooding by necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized.
tidal action and wetness. Dwellings could be specially This soil has low potential for dwellings without base-
designed and built above the water level on pilings; how- ments and local roads and streets. Flooding and excess
ever, these areas are breeding and feeding grounds for a wetness limit this soil for these uses. Maximum potential
wide variety of marine life. Capability subclass VIIIw. can be achieved through the use of a water control
35-Urban land. Urban land consists of areas that are system, designed for the intended use, that lowers the in-
85 percent or more covered with streets, houses, commer- herent high water table. Due to the low position of this







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 25

soil and its occurrence along the natural drainage pat- control is necessary if the potential productivity is to be
terns in the county, a flood hazard would still exist for realized.
short periods even if a water control system were in use. This soil has low potential for dwellings without base-
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption ments and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness and
fields is low. This use is limited by excessive wetness and flooding are the dominant features that limit this soil for
flooding. Maximum potential can be achieved with a these uses. Maximum potential can be achieved through
water control system; however, a flood hazard would still the use of a water control system that lowers the in-
exist because this soil occurs along natural drainage pat- herent high water table, but the moderately slow permea-
terns. ability of this soil needs to be considered in design.
For playgrounds, this soil has very low potential. It is Potential of this soil for septic tank absorption fields is
limited by excessive wetness and flooding. Maximum very low. This use is limited by excessive wetness,
potential can be achieved with a water control system moderately slow permeability, and flooding. Even if
designed to remove excess water during rainy periods. adequate water control is available, the size of the septic
This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or- tank absorption fields should be greatly increased because
namental plants. Wetness and flooding are limitations, of the moderately slow permeability.
For maximum potential, water control measures are For playgrounds, this soil has low potential. It is
needed to remove excess water. Capability subclass VIw. limited by excessive wetness and flooding. Maximum
37-Yonges fine sandy loam. This is a nearly level, potential can be achieved with a water control system
poorly drained soil on low-lying parts of the Coastal Plain. designed to remove excess water during rainy periods.
Individual areas range in size from 5 to 300 acres. Slopes This soil has high potential for lawn grasses and orna-
range from 0 to 2 percent and are smooth to concave, mental plants. Wetness and flooding are limitations. For
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine maximum potential, water control measures are needed to
sandy loam about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is remove excess water. Capability subclass IIIw.
gray loamy fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsoil ex- 38-Yulee clay. This is a nearly level, very poorly
tends between depths of 6 and 80 inches. The upper layer drained soil in shallow depressions and large
of subsoil is gray and yellow, mottled sandy clay loam drainageways. Individual areas range in size from 5 to
about 19 inches thick. The next layer is gray and dark 1,500 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent and are con-
gray sandy clay loam that contains coarse, brownish yel- cave.
low mottles and that extends to a depth of 31 inches. The Typically, the surface layer is black clay about 14
next 24 inches is mixed gray, yellowish brown, and yellow inches thick. The subsoil, between depths of 14 and 66
sandy clay loam. Below this is greenish gray sandy clay inches, is sandy clay. The upper layer, 14 inches thick, is
loam that contains coarse yellowish brown mottles and very dark gray and has strong brown mottles. The next
that is about 10 inches thick. The next layer extends to a two layers are dark gray and have yellowish brown mot-
depth of 80 inches; it is mixed dark greenish gray, tles; they extend to a depth of 48 inches. The layer below
greenish gray, and light olive brown sandy clay loam. this, about 18 inches thick, is dark gray and has coarse
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of strong brown and dark red mottles. Below this is a layer
Mascotte, Pelham, Sapelo, and Stockade soils. Also in- of pale yellow sandy clay loam that has dark reddish
cluded are small areas of similar soils in which reaction brown and dark yellowish brown mottles and that is
ranges from medium acid to very strongly acid. Also in- about 9 inches thick. Below this, and extending to a depth
cluded are a few areas of soils that have a loamy fine of 80 inches or more, is a layer of coarsely mottled
sand surface layer. Included areas make up about 10 per- greenish gray, dark greenish gray, and olive clay loam.
cent of any mapped area. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at Mascotte, Olustee, Pelham, Sapelo, and Yonges soils. Also
a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months during included are small areas of similar soils that are very
most years. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid strongly acid and similar soils that have a clay loam sur-
in the surface layer, moderately slow in the subsoil, and face layer. Included areas make up about 15 percent of
moderate below. Natural fertility is moderate, and or- any mapped area.
ganic matter content is low. Available water capacity is Under natural conditions, this soil has a water table at
high. a depth of less than 10 inches, or the soil is covered with
Natural vegetation consists of water oak, live oak, water for more than 6 months during most years.
sweetgum, blackgum, waxmyrtle, scattered sawpalmetto, Permeability is moderately slow to a depth of 14 inches
and inkberry. Native grasses include lopsided indiangrass, and moderate below. Natural fertility and organic matter
panicum, and maidencane. content are high. Available water capacity is medium to
This soil is well suited to improved pastures if water high.
control measures are used to remove excess water during Natural vegetation consists of sweetgum, blackgum,
rainy periods. water oak, scattered pond pine, and cypress with an un-
With high-level management, this soil has very high derstory of cinnamonfern, waxmyrtle, greenbrier, scat-
potential for slash pine and longleaf pine. Some water tered maidencane, and other perennial forbs and shrubs.







26 SOIL SURVEY

This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture soil properties and performance are used as a basis for
if water control measures are used to remove excess predicting soil behavior.
water. Due to the difficulty of installing these measures Information in this section is useful in planning use and
and the lack of outlets in many areas, the soil is seldom management of soils for crops and pasture, woodland, and
used for pasture. woodland grazing; as sites for buildings, highways and
With high-level management, this soil has very high other transportation systems, sanitary facilities, and
potential for slash pine and longleaf pine. Water control is parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized, habitat. From the data presented, the potential of each
This soil has very low potential for dwellings without soil for specified land uses can be determined, soil limita-
basements and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness tions to these land uses can be identified, and costly
and flooding are the primary limitations of this soil for failures in houses and other structures, caused by un-
these uses. Maximum potential can be achieved through favorable soil properties, can be avoided. A site where
the use of a water control system, designed for the in- soil properties are favorable can be selected, or practices
tended use, that lowers the inherent high water table. that will overcome the soil limitations can be planned.
Due to the low position of this soil and its occurrence Planners and others using the soil survey can evaluate
along the natural drainage patterns in the county, a flood the impact of specific land uses on the overall productivi-
hazard would still exist for short periods even if a water ty of the survey area or other broad planning area and on
control system were in use. The moderate shrink-swell the environment. Productivity and the environment are
potential of the surface layer is a limitation for building closely related to the nature of the soil. Plans should
foundations. This limitation can be overcome by removing maintain or create a land-use pattern in harmony with the
the surface layer or by strengthening the foundation. To natural soil.
overcome the low strength limitation of the soil for local Contractors can find information that is useful in locat-
roads and streets, the soil material needs to be removed ing sources of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. Other
and replaced with material of high strength. information indicates the presence of wetness or organic
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption soils that cause difficulty because of their low strength.
fields is low. This use is limited by excessive wetness and Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and many
by flooding. Maximum potential can be achieved with a other specialists also can find useful information in this
water control system; however, a flood hazard would still soil survey. The safe disposal of wastes, for example, is
exist because this soil occurs along natural drainage pat- closely related to properties of the soil. Pavements, side-
terns. walks, campsites, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and
For playgrounds, this soil has very low potential. It is shrubs are influenced by the nature of the soil.
limited by excessive wetness, flooding, and clayey texture
in the surface layer. Maximum potential can be achieved Crops and pasture
with a water control system designed to remove excess Soil Cons n S ,
JOHN D. GRIFFIN, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
water during rainy periods, prepare this section.
This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or-
namental plants. Wetness and flooding are limitations. The major management concerns in the use of the soils
For maximum potential, water control measures are for crops and pasture are described in this section. In ad-
needed to remove excess water. Capability subclass VIIw. edition, the crops or pasture plants best suited to the soil,
including some not commonly grown in the survey area,
are discussed; the system of land capability classification
Use and management of the soils used by the Soil Conservation Service is explained; and
the predicted yields of the main crops and hay and
The soil survey is a detailed inventory and evaluation pasture plants are presented for each soil
of the most basic resource of the survey area-the soil. It This section provides information about the overall
is useful in adjusting land use, including urbanization, to agricultural potential of the survey area and about the
the limitations and potentials of natural resources and the management practices that are needed. The information is
environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related failures useful to equipment dealers, land improvement contrac-
in uses of the land. tors, fertilizer companies, processing companies, planners,
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists, con- conservationists, and others. For each kind of soil, infor-
servationists, engineers, and others keep extensive notes mation about management is presented in the section
about the nature of the soils and about unique aspects of "Soil maps for detailed planning." Planners of manage-
behavior of the soils. These notes include data on erosion, ment systems for individual fields or farms, should also
drought damage to specific crops, yield estimates, flood- consider the detailed information given in the description
ing, the functioning of septic tank disposal systems, and of each soil.
other factors affecting the productivity, potential, and Less than 30,000 acres in the survey area was used for
limitations of the soils under various uses and manage- crops and pasture in 1967, according to the Conservation
ment. In this way, field experience and measured data on Needs Inventory (7). Of this total, 26,000 acres was used







26 SOIL SURVEY

This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture soil properties and performance are used as a basis for
if water control measures are used to remove excess predicting soil behavior.
water. Due to the difficulty of installing these measures Information in this section is useful in planning use and
and the lack of outlets in many areas, the soil is seldom management of soils for crops and pasture, woodland, and
used for pasture. woodland grazing; as sites for buildings, highways and
With high-level management, this soil has very high other transportation systems, sanitary facilities, and
potential for slash pine and longleaf pine. Water control is parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized, habitat. From the data presented, the potential of each
This soil has very low potential for dwellings without soil for specified land uses can be determined, soil limita-
basements and local roads and streets. Excessive wetness tions to these land uses can be identified, and costly
and flooding are the primary limitations of this soil for failures in houses and other structures, caused by un-
these uses. Maximum potential can be achieved through favorable soil properties, can be avoided. A site where
the use of a water control system, designed for the in- soil properties are favorable can be selected, or practices
tended use, that lowers the inherent high water table. that will overcome the soil limitations can be planned.
Due to the low position of this soil and its occurrence Planners and others using the soil survey can evaluate
along the natural drainage patterns in the county, a flood the impact of specific land uses on the overall productivi-
hazard would still exist for short periods even if a water ty of the survey area or other broad planning area and on
control system were in use. The moderate shrink-swell the environment. Productivity and the environment are
potential of the surface layer is a limitation for building closely related to the nature of the soil. Plans should
foundations. This limitation can be overcome by removing maintain or create a land-use pattern in harmony with the
the surface layer or by strengthening the foundation. To natural soil.
overcome the low strength limitation of the soil for local Contractors can find information that is useful in locat-
roads and streets, the soil material needs to be removed ing sources of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. Other
and replaced with material of high strength. information indicates the presence of wetness or organic
The potential of this soil for septic tank absorption soils that cause difficulty because of their low strength.
fields is low. This use is limited by excessive wetness and Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and many
by flooding. Maximum potential can be achieved with a other specialists also can find useful information in this
water control system; however, a flood hazard would still soil survey. The safe disposal of wastes, for example, is
exist because this soil occurs along natural drainage pat- closely related to properties of the soil. Pavements, side-
terns. walks, campsites, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and
For playgrounds, this soil has very low potential. It is shrubs are influenced by the nature of the soil.
limited by excessive wetness, flooding, and clayey texture
in the surface layer. Maximum potential can be achieved Crops and pasture
with a water control system designed to remove excess Soil Cons n S ,
JOHN D. GRIFFIN, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
water during rainy periods, prepare this section.
This soil has medium potential for lawn grasses and or-
namental plants. Wetness and flooding are limitations. The major management concerns in the use of the soils
For maximum potential, water control measures are for crops and pasture are described in this section. In ad-
needed to remove excess water. Capability subclass VIIw. edition, the crops or pasture plants best suited to the soil,
including some not commonly grown in the survey area,
are discussed; the system of land capability classification
Use and management of the soils used by the Soil Conservation Service is explained; and
the predicted yields of the main crops and hay and
The soil survey is a detailed inventory and evaluation pasture plants are presented for each soil
of the most basic resource of the survey area-the soil. It This section provides information about the overall
is useful in adjusting land use, including urbanization, to agricultural potential of the survey area and about the
the limitations and potentials of natural resources and the management practices that are needed. The information is
environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related failures useful to equipment dealers, land improvement contrac-
in uses of the land. tors, fertilizer companies, processing companies, planners,
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists, con- conservationists, and others. For each kind of soil, infor-
servationists, engineers, and others keep extensive notes mation about management is presented in the section
about the nature of the soils and about unique aspects of "Soil maps for detailed planning." Planners of manage-
behavior of the soils. These notes include data on erosion, ment systems for individual fields or farms, should also
drought damage to specific crops, yield estimates, flood- consider the detailed information given in the description
ing, the functioning of septic tank disposal systems, and of each soil.
other factors affecting the productivity, potential, and Less than 30,000 acres in the survey area was used for
limitations of the soils under various uses and manage- crops and pasture in 1967, according to the Conservation
ment. In this way, field experience and measured data on Needs Inventory (7). Of this total, 26,000 acres was used







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 27

for permanent pasture and less than 4,000 acres was used Special crops grown commercially in the survey area
for special crops, are vegetables, small fruits, tree fruits, and nursery
Acreage in crops and pasture has gradually been plants. A small acreage throughout the survey area is
decreasing as more and more land is used for urban used for melons, blueberries, sweet corn, tomatoes, other
development. In 1975 there were about 120,000 acres of vegetables, citrus, and small fruits.
urban and suburban land in the survey area, and this The latest information and suggestions for growing
figure has been increasing at the rate of about 500 acres special crops can be obtained from local offices of the
per year. The use of this soil survey to help make land Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation
use decisions that will influence the future role of farm- Service.
ing in the county is discussed in the section "General soil Pasture production in many parts of the survey area
map for broad land use planning." has been greatly depleted by continued excessive use.
Soil erosion is not a major problem on the cropland and Productivity of the pasture can be increased by using
pastureland in Duval County. management practices that are effective for the specific
Soil blowing can be a hazard on the sandy, better kinds of soil and pasture plants involved.
drained soils and on the more poorly drained, sandy soils Most farm income is derived from livestock, principally
after they have been drained. Soil blowing can damage dairy cattle. On many dairies, the forage produced on
these soils in a few hours if winds are strong and the pastureland is supplemented by green chop, small grain,
soils are dry and bare of vegetation or surface mulch, and millet.
Maintaining vegetative cover or surface mulch minimizes In areas of similar climate and topography, differences
soil blowing on these soils. Windbreaks of adapted plants, in the kinds and amount of forage that pasture can
such as pine, redcedar, and myrtle, are effective in reduc- produce are related closely to the kind of soil. Effective
ing soil blowing, management is based on the relationships among soils,
Information for the design of erosion control practices pasture plants, and water management.
for each kind of soil is available in local offices of the Soil Table 5 shows, for each kind of soil, the potential an-
Conservation Service. nual production of pasture in animal unit months. An
Soil drainage is the major management need on most of animal unit month refers to the number of months during
the acreage used for special crops and pasture in the sur- the normal growing season that will provide grazing for
vey area. Some soils are wet and need drainage or water one animal without injury to the sod. One animal unit is
control for the production of special crops and pasture defined as one cow, horse, or steer, or five hogs.
grasses. These include the poorly drained Leon, Lynn The major pasture plants are improved bermudagrass,
Haven, Mascotte, Olustee, Pelham, Ridgeland, Sapelo, and bahiagrass, white clover, and ryegrass. Small grains are
Yonges soils and the very poorly drained Stockade, Sur- used during the winter to supplement the permanent
rency, Wesconnett, and Yulee soils. These soils make up pastures. Millet, sorghum, and Sudan hybrids are grown
about 279,320 acres in the survey area. Also in this during the summer for green chop and grazing.
category are the organic soils-Maurepas and Pamlico The latest information and suggestions for growing and
soils-which make up about 13,855 acres. Alpin, Blanton, managing pasture can be obtained from local offices of
Kershaw, Kureb, and Ortega soils have good natural the Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conserva-
drainage, and they tend to dry out quickly after rains. tion Service.
The design of both surface and subsurface drainage
systems varies with the kind of soil. Surface drainage is Yields per acre
needed in most areas of the poorly drained and very The average yields per acre that can be expected of the
poorly drained soils used for special crops and pasture. principal varieties of grasses and legumes under a high
Finding adequate outlets for drainage systems is difficult level of management are shown in table 5. In any given
in many areas of Pamlico, Surrency, Wesconnett, Yonges, year, yields may be higher or lower than those indicated
and Yulee soils. in the table because of variations in rainfall and other cli-
Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the survey matic factors.
area. Most of the soils are naturally acid. Canaveral, The estimated yields were based mainly on the ex-
Stockade, Yonges, and Yulee soils range from slightly perience and records of farmers, conservationists, and ex-
acid to mildly alkaline and are higher in plant nutrients tension agents. Results of field trials and demonstrations
than most of the other soils. and available yield data from nearby counties were also
On all soils, additions of lime and fertilizer should be considered.
based on the results of soil tests, on the need of the crop, The yields were estimated assuming that the latest soil
and on the expected level of yields. The Cooperative Ex- and crop management practices were used. They were
tension Service can help in determining the kinds and estimated for the most productive varieties of grasses
amounts of fertilizer and lime to apply. and legumes suited to the climate and the soil. A few far-
Field crops, although suited to the soils and climate of mers may be using more advanced practices and obtain-
the survey area, are not commonly grown. ing average yields higher than those shown in table 5.








28 SOIL SURVEY

The management needed to achieve the indicated yields Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
of the various varieties of grasses and legumes depends generally unsuitable for cultivation.
on the kind of soil. Such management provides drainage Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
and protection from flooding; the proper planting and them unsuitable for cultivation.
seeding rates; suitable high-yielding varieties; control of Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production.
reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class;
potassium, and trace elements; and harvesting crops with they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c,
the smallest possible loss. to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The letter e shows
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless close-
the soils for the grasses and legumes shown in the table. growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water in
Yields are likely to increase as new production technology or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation
is developed. The productivity of a given soil compared (in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by ar-
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change. tificial drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly
A few crops are grown in the survey area, but esti- because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in
mated yields are not included because the acreage of only some parts of the United States, shows that the
these crops is small. The local offices of the Soil Conser- chief limitation is climate that is too cold or too dry.
vation Service and the Cooperative Extension Service can In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
provide information about the management concerns and this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
productivity of the soils for these crops. subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in class
V are subject to little or no erosion, though they have
Capability classes and subclasses other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, range-
land, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
Capability classes and subclasses show, in a general la, wola, wildlife habitat, or r tion
The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
way, soils or o i i class is indicated in table 6. All land in the survey area
The soils are classed according to their limitations when except Pits, Urban land, and complexes mae up of a soil
except Pits, Urban land, and complexes made up of a soil
they are used for field crops, the risk of damage when and Urban land are included. Some of the soils that are
they are used, and the way they respond to treatment. moderately well suited to crops and pasture are in
The grouping does not take into account major and woodland or other low-intensity use, for example, soils in
generally expensive landforming that would change slope, capability class III. Data in this table can be used to
depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not take determine the farming potential of such soils.
into consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation The capability subclass is identified in the description
projects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticul- of each soil map unit in the section "Soil maps for
tural crops, or other crops that require special manage- detailed planning."
ment. Capability classification is not a substitute for in-
terpretations designed to show suitability and limitations Woodland management and productivity
of groups of soils for rangeland, for forest trees, or for
engineering purposes. CARL D. DEFAZIO, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and FRANK S
In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped at HILL, District Forester, Division of Forestry, helped prepare this sec-
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Capability tion.
class and subclass are defined in the following para- Woodland covers approximately 321,000 acres, or 65
graphs. A survey area may not have soils of all classes. percent, of the total land area of the survey area. The
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designated soils and climate of Duval County are suitable for grow-
by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals in- ing timber; most of the forest land is on acid flatwood
dicate progressively greater limitations and narrower cho- soils, such as those of the Leon, Lynn Haven, Pelham, and
ices for practical use. The classes are defined as follows: Wesconnett series. The woodland resources are evenly
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. distributed throughout the county, and most are owned
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the by large wood-using industries.
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation Slash pine is the dominant species in Duval County.
practices. Other major species are longleaf pine and sand pine. Sand
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the pine occurs extensively on the sandhills in the eastern
choice of plants, or that require special conservation prac- portion of the county. The major soil in this area is
tices, or both. Kershaw fine sand. Many hardwood species, such as tur-
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce key, laurel, live, and water oaks, grow in the flatwoods
the choice of plants, or that require very careful manage- and sandhills. Sweetgum, blackgum, sweetbay, and bald-
ment, or both. cypress grow along the St. Johns River.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other Timber management consists primarily of clearcutting
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use. and planting with intensive site preparation. Prescribed








28 SOIL SURVEY

The management needed to achieve the indicated yields Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
of the various varieties of grasses and legumes depends generally unsuitable for cultivation.
on the kind of soil. Such management provides drainage Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
and protection from flooding; the proper planting and them unsuitable for cultivation.
seeding rates; suitable high-yielding varieties; control of Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production.
reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class;
potassium, and trace elements; and harvesting crops with they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c,
the smallest possible loss. to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The letter e shows
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless close-
the soils for the grasses and legumes shown in the table. growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water in
Yields are likely to increase as new production technology or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation
is developed. The productivity of a given soil compared (in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by ar-
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change. tificial drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly
A few crops are grown in the survey area, but esti- because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in
mated yields are not included because the acreage of only some parts of the United States, shows that the
these crops is small. The local offices of the Soil Conser- chief limitation is climate that is too cold or too dry.
vation Service and the Cooperative Extension Service can In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
provide information about the management concerns and this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
productivity of the soils for these crops. subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in class
V are subject to little or no erosion, though they have
Capability classes and subclasses other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, range-
land, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
Capability classes and subclasses show, in a general la, wola, wildlife habitat, or r tion
The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
way, soils or o i i class is indicated in table 6. All land in the survey area
The soils are classed according to their limitations when except Pits, Urban land, and complexes mae up of a soil
except Pits, Urban land, and complexes made up of a soil
they are used for field crops, the risk of damage when and Urban land are included. Some of the soils that are
they are used, and the way they respond to treatment. moderately well suited to crops and pasture are in
The grouping does not take into account major and woodland or other low-intensity use, for example, soils in
generally expensive landforming that would change slope, capability class III. Data in this table can be used to
depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not take determine the farming potential of such soils.
into consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation The capability subclass is identified in the description
projects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticul- of each soil map unit in the section "Soil maps for
tural crops, or other crops that require special manage- detailed planning."
ment. Capability classification is not a substitute for in-
terpretations designed to show suitability and limitations Woodland management and productivity
of groups of soils for rangeland, for forest trees, or for
engineering purposes. CARL D. DEFAZIO, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and FRANK S
In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped at HILL, District Forester, Division of Forestry, helped prepare this sec-
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Capability tion.
class and subclass are defined in the following para- Woodland covers approximately 321,000 acres, or 65
graphs. A survey area may not have soils of all classes. percent, of the total land area of the survey area. The
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designated soils and climate of Duval County are suitable for grow-
by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals in- ing timber; most of the forest land is on acid flatwood
dicate progressively greater limitations and narrower cho- soils, such as those of the Leon, Lynn Haven, Pelham, and
ices for practical use. The classes are defined as follows: Wesconnett series. The woodland resources are evenly
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. distributed throughout the county, and most are owned
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the by large wood-using industries.
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation Slash pine is the dominant species in Duval County.
practices. Other major species are longleaf pine and sand pine. Sand
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the pine occurs extensively on the sandhills in the eastern
choice of plants, or that require special conservation prac- portion of the county. The major soil in this area is
tices, or both. Kershaw fine sand. Many hardwood species, such as tur-
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce key, laurel, live, and water oaks, grow in the flatwoods
the choice of plants, or that require very careful manage- and sandhills. Sweetgum, blackgum, sweetbay, and bald-
ment, or both. cypress grow along the St. Johns River.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other Timber management consists primarily of clearcutting
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use. and planting with intensive site preparation. Prescribed







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 29

burning is important in controlling living and dead un- equipment generally needed in woodland management or
derstory vegetation and reducing the probability of wild- harvesting. A rating of slight indicates that use of equip-
fire. It also encourages the establishment of grasses and ment is not limited to a particular kind of equipment or
forbs which help support various wildlife species such as time of year; moderate indicates a short seasonal limita-
deer, turkey, and quail. tion or a need for some modification in management or
Markets are plentiful for the wood of Duval County. equipment; severe indicates a seasonal limitation, a need
Two pulpmills are in Jacksonville, and two are in Fernan- for special equipment or management, or a hazard in the
dino Beach. There are a few saw mills in the area. They use of equipment.
saw mainly baldcypress. Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree that the
The first efforts at fire control in Duval County were soil affects expected mortality of planted tree seedlings.
begun in 1929 in a cooperative venture with the Florida Plant competition is not considered in the ratings.
Forest Service. This was a time of open range, and much Seedlings from good planting stock that are properly
land was burned for spring cattle grazing. In 1933, Duval planted during a period of sufficient rainfall are rated. A
County instituted countywide fire control by contract rating of slight indicates that the expected mortality of
with the Board of County Commissioners. There was an the planted seedlings is less than 25 percent; moderate, 25
interruption of service from 1939 to 1941. Service then to 50 percent; and severe, more than 50 percent.
continued until January of 1969, when the State Forest Considered in the ratings of windthrow hazard are
Service was reorganized and renamed the Division of characteristics of the soil that affect the development of
Forestry, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Ser- tree roots and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly.
vices. In 1972, forest fire control became mandatory for A rating of slight indicates that trees in wooded areas are
all counties in the State. not expected to be blown down by commonly occurring
For more information relating to woodland resources, winds; moderate, that some trees are blown down during
contact the Florida Division of Forestry, the Soil Conser- periods of excessive soil wetness and strong winds; and
vation Service, or the County Extension Service. severe, that many trees are blown down during periods of
Table 7 contains information useful to woodland owners excessive soil wetness and moderate or strong winds.
or forest managers in planning the use of soils for wood Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to
crops. Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed, which undesirable plants are expected to invade or grow
and the ordination symbol for each soil is given. All soils if openings are made in the tree canopy. The invading
bearing the same ordination symbol require the same plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings by
general kinds of woodland management and have about impeding or preventing their growth. A rating of slight
the same potential productivity, indicates little or no competition from other plants;
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, in- moderate indicates that plant competition is expected to
dicates the potential productivity of the soils for impor- hinder the development of a fully stocked stand of desira-
tant trees. The number 1 indicates very high productivity; ble trees; severe means that plant competition is expected
2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low. The to prevent the establishment of a desirable stand unless
second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the major the site is intensively prepared, weeded, or otherwise
kind of soil limitation. The letter x indicates stoniness or managed for the control of undesirable plants.
rockiness; w, excessive water in or on the soil; t, toxic The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is
substances in the soil; d, restricted root depth; c, clay in expressed as a site index (5, 8, 15). This index is the
the upper part of the soil; s, sandy texture; f high con- average height, in feet, that dominant and codominant
tent of coarse fragments in the soil profile; and r, steep trees of a given species attain in a specified number of
slopes. The letter o indicates insignificant limitations or years. The site index applies to fully stocked, even-aged,
restrictions. If a soil has more than one limitation, priori- unmanaged stands. Important trees are those that
ty in placing the soil into a limitation class is in the fol- woodland managers generally favor in intermediate or im-
lowing order: x, w, t, d, c, s, f, and r. provement cuttings. They are selected on the basis of
In table 7 the soils are also rated for a number of fac- growth rate, quality, value, and marketability.
tors to be considered in management. Slight, moderate, Trees to plant are those that are suitable for commer-
and severe are used to indicate the degree of major soil cial wood production and that are suited to the soils.
limitations.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss Windbreaks and environmental plantings
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the
expected soil loss is small, moderate if some measures are Windbreaks are established to protect livestock,
needed to control erosion during logging and road con- buildings, and yards from wind. Windbreaks also help
struction, and severe if intensive management or special protect fruit trees and gardens, and they furnish habitat
equipment and methods are needed to prevent excessive for wildlife. Several rows of low- and high-growing broad-
loss of soil. leaved and coniferous species provide the most protection.
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the charac- Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
teristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use of the angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals







30

across the field, the interval depending on erodibility of This section provides information about the use of soils
the soil. They protect cropland and crops from wind and for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction material,
provide food and cover for wildlife, and water management. Among those who can benefit
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen from this information are engineers, landowners, commu-
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants, nity planners, town and city managers, land developers,
mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. A builders, contractors, and farmers and ranchers.
healthy planting stock of suitable species planted properly The ratings in the engineering tables are based on test
on a well prepared site and maintained in good condition data and estimated data in the "Soil properties" section.
can insure a high degree of plant survival. The ratings were determined jointly by soil scientists and
Additional information about planning windbreaks and engineers of the Soil Conservation Service using known
screens and the planting and care of trees can be ob- relationships between the soil properties and the behavior
trained from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service of soils i various engneerig uses.
r te Among the soil properties and site conditions identified
or the Cooperative Extension Service or from
r e per e ese or from by a soil survey and used in determining the ratings in
nuthis section were grain-size distribution, liquid limit,
plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness
Coastal dune management of bedrock that is within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil

JOHN D. GRIFFIN, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope,
prepare this section. likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure or aggrega-
tion, in-place soil density, and geologic origin of the soil
In geological time, the coastal dune is a very recent for- material. Where pertinent, data about kinds of clay
mation. The coastal dune is under the control of ocean minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
waves and of winds. The resulting soil moisture, soil the kind of absorbed cations were also considered.
salinity, and salt spray create a harsh environment for On the basis of information assembled about soil pro-
most plants. perties, ranges of values can be estimated for erodibility,
Dune stabilization is dependent upon the anchoring of permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available
vegetation. If the use of shallow wells lowers ground water capacity, shear strength, compressibility, slope sta-
water below a critical level, the stabilizing plants will die. ability, and other factors of expected soil behavior in en-
The vegetation is very fragile and vulnerable to tram- gineering uses. As appropriate, these values can be ap-
pling. Small jetties extending from the shore arrest the plied to each major horizon of each soil or to the entire
littoral drift and prevent the sand from supplementing profile.
the dunes. These factors of soil behavior affect construction and
The beach is tolerant to such uses as swimming, pic- maintenance of roads, airport runways, pipelines, founda-
nicking, shell collecting, fishing, and sunbathing, but the tons for small buildings, ponds and small d s, irrigation
primary dune is absolutely intolerant of heavy use. It can- projects, drainage systems, sewage and refuse disposal
nt sn an ta It .r systems, and other engineering works. The ranges of
not stand any trampling. It should be crossed on bridges. values can be used to (1) select potential residential, com-
The trough is much more tolerant, and incidental develop- mercial, industrial, and recreational areas; (2) make
ment can occur; however, lowering of the ground water preliminary estimates pertinent to construction in a par-
can cause the vegetation to die. ticular area; (3) evaluate alternative routes for roads,
The inland dune is the second line of defense and is as streets, highways, pipelines, and underground cables; (4)
vulnerable as the primary dune. It is intolerant of and not evaluate alternative sites for location of sanitary landfills,
suitable for development. onsite sewage disposal systems, and other waste disposal
The backdune has a more permissive location. It pro- facilities; (5) plan detailed onsite investigations of soils
vides the most suitable environment on the coastal dune and geology; (6) find sources of gravel, sand, clay, and
for man and development. topsoil; (7) plan farm drainage systems, irrigation
The final zone is the estuarine and bayshore environ- systems, ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and
ments, which are among the most productive aquatic water conservation; (8) relate performance of structures
areas in the world. Infants of the important fish species already built to the properties of the kinds of soil on
live here, and so do the valuable shellfish, which they are built so that performance of similar struc-
Some of the more important plants on the coastal dune tures on the same or a similar soil in other locations can
are sea-oats, marshhay cordgrass, beach morning glory, be predicted; and (9) predict the trafficability of soils for
baybean, shoredune panicum, seagrape, and myrtle. cross-country movement of vehicles and construction
equipment.
Engineering Data presented in this section are useful for land-use
planning and for choosing alternative practices or
ELWYN COOPER, civil engineer, and BISHOP C. BEVILLE, sanitary en- general designs that will overcome unfavorable soil pro-
gineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare this section. perties and minimize soil-related failures. Limitations to







30

across the field, the interval depending on erodibility of This section provides information about the use of soils
the soil. They protect cropland and crops from wind and for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction material,
provide food and cover for wildlife, and water management. Among those who can benefit
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen from this information are engineers, landowners, commu-
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants, nity planners, town and city managers, land developers,
mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. A builders, contractors, and farmers and ranchers.
healthy planting stock of suitable species planted properly The ratings in the engineering tables are based on test
on a well prepared site and maintained in good condition data and estimated data in the "Soil properties" section.
can insure a high degree of plant survival. The ratings were determined jointly by soil scientists and
Additional information about planning windbreaks and engineers of the Soil Conservation Service using known
screens and the planting and care of trees can be ob- relationships between the soil properties and the behavior
trained from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service of soils i various engneerig uses.
r te Among the soil properties and site conditions identified
or the Cooperative Extension Service or from
r e per e ese or from by a soil survey and used in determining the ratings in
nuthis section were grain-size distribution, liquid limit,
plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness
Coastal dune management of bedrock that is within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil

JOHN D. GRIFFIN, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope,
prepare this section. likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure or aggrega-
tion, in-place soil density, and geologic origin of the soil
In geological time, the coastal dune is a very recent for- material. Where pertinent, data about kinds of clay
mation. The coastal dune is under the control of ocean minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
waves and of winds. The resulting soil moisture, soil the kind of absorbed cations were also considered.
salinity, and salt spray create a harsh environment for On the basis of information assembled about soil pro-
most plants. perties, ranges of values can be estimated for erodibility,
Dune stabilization is dependent upon the anchoring of permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available
vegetation. If the use of shallow wells lowers ground water capacity, shear strength, compressibility, slope sta-
water below a critical level, the stabilizing plants will die. ability, and other factors of expected soil behavior in en-
The vegetation is very fragile and vulnerable to tram- gineering uses. As appropriate, these values can be ap-
pling. Small jetties extending from the shore arrest the plied to each major horizon of each soil or to the entire
littoral drift and prevent the sand from supplementing profile.
the dunes. These factors of soil behavior affect construction and
The beach is tolerant to such uses as swimming, pic- maintenance of roads, airport runways, pipelines, founda-
nicking, shell collecting, fishing, and sunbathing, but the tons for small buildings, ponds and small d s, irrigation
primary dune is absolutely intolerant of heavy use. It can- projects, drainage systems, sewage and refuse disposal
nt sn an ta It .r systems, and other engineering works. The ranges of
not stand any trampling. It should be crossed on bridges. values can be used to (1) select potential residential, com-
The trough is much more tolerant, and incidental develop- mercial, industrial, and recreational areas; (2) make
ment can occur; however, lowering of the ground water preliminary estimates pertinent to construction in a par-
can cause the vegetation to die. ticular area; (3) evaluate alternative routes for roads,
The inland dune is the second line of defense and is as streets, highways, pipelines, and underground cables; (4)
vulnerable as the primary dune. It is intolerant of and not evaluate alternative sites for location of sanitary landfills,
suitable for development. onsite sewage disposal systems, and other waste disposal
The backdune has a more permissive location. It pro- facilities; (5) plan detailed onsite investigations of soils
vides the most suitable environment on the coastal dune and geology; (6) find sources of gravel, sand, clay, and
for man and development. topsoil; (7) plan farm drainage systems, irrigation
The final zone is the estuarine and bayshore environ- systems, ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and
ments, which are among the most productive aquatic water conservation; (8) relate performance of structures
areas in the world. Infants of the important fish species already built to the properties of the kinds of soil on
live here, and so do the valuable shellfish, which they are built so that performance of similar struc-
Some of the more important plants on the coastal dune tures on the same or a similar soil in other locations can
are sea-oats, marshhay cordgrass, beach morning glory, be predicted; and (9) predict the trafficability of soils for
baybean, shoredune panicum, seagrape, and myrtle. cross-country movement of vehicles and construction
equipment.
Engineering Data presented in this section are useful for land-use
planning and for choosing alternative practices or
ELWYN COOPER, civil engineer, and BISHOP C. BEVILLE, sanitary en- general designs that will overcome unfavorable soil pro-
gineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare this section. perties and minimize soil-related failures. Limitations to







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

the use of these data, however, should be well understood. without basements and for dwellings with and without
First, the data are generally not presented for soil basements. For such structures, soils should be suffi-
material below a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Also, because of the ciently stable that cracking or subsidence of the structure
scale of the detailed map in this soil survey, small areas from settling or shear failure of the foundation does not
of soils that differ from the dominant soil may be in- occur. These ratings were determined from estimates of
cluded in mapping. Thus, these data do not eliminate the the shear strength, compressibility, and shrink-swell
need for onsite investigations, testing, and analysis by potential of the soil. Soil texture, plasticity, soil wetness,
personnel having expertise in the specific use contem- and depth to a seasonal high water table were also con-
plated. sidered. Soil wetness and depth to a seasonal high water
The information is presented mainly in tables. Table 8 table indicate potential difficulty in providing adequate
shows, for each kind of soil, the degree and kind of limita- drainage for basements, lawns, and gardens. Slope is also
tions for building site development; table 9, for sanitary an important consideration in the choice of sites for these
facilities; and table 11, for water management. Table 10 structures and was considered in determining the ratings.
shows the suitability of each kind of soil as a source of Susceptibility to flooding is a serious hazard.
construction materials. Local roads and streets referred to in table 8 have an
The information in the tables, along with the soil map, all-weather surface that can carry light to medium traffic
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this sur- all year. They consist of a subgrade of the underlying soil
vey, can be used to make additional interpretations and to material; a base of gravel, crushed rock fragments, or soil
construct interpretive maps for specific uses of land. material stabilized with lime or cement; and a flexible or
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a spe- rigid surface, commonly asphalt or concrete. The roads
cial meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are are graded with soil material at hand, and most cuts and
defined in the Glossary. fills are less than 6 feet deep.
The load supporting capacity and the stability of the
Building site development soil as well as the quantity and workability of fill material
The degree and kind of soil limitations that affect shal- available are important in design and construction of
low excavations, dwellings with and without basements, roads and streets. The classifications of the soil and the
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets soil texture, density, shrink-swell potential, and potential
are indicated in table 8. A slight limitation indicates that frost action are indicators of the traffic supporting capaci-
soil properties generally are favorable for the specified ty used in making the ratings. Soil wetness, flooding,
use; any limitation is minor and easily overcome. A slope, depth to very compact layers, and content of large
moderate limitation indicates that soil properties and site stones affect stability and ease of excavation.
features are unfavorable for the specified use, but the In addition to the limitations listed in table 8 for build-
limitations can be overcome or minimized by special ing site development, soil erosion can be a major problem
planning and design. A severe limitation indicates that one when the existing vegetation is removed and erosion con-
or more soil properties or site features are so unfavorable trol measures have not been properly installed.
or difficult to overcome that a major increase in construc- Erosion by water damages structures, fills streams and
tion effort, special design, or intensive maintenance is ponds with sediment, and damages fish habitat.
required. For some soils rated severe, such costly mea- Erosion by wind can be a problem on sandy soils that
sures may not be feasible. are dry and bare of vegetation. Wind erosion pollutes the
Shallow excavations are made for pipelines, sewerlines, air and endangers automotive traffic.
communications and power transmission lines, open Vegetative measures to control erosion are: leaving as
ditches, and cemeteries. Such digging or trenching is in- much native vegetation during the clearing of land as
fluenced by soil wetness caused by a seasonal high water possible, planting temporary cover, applying mulch, and
table; the texture and consistence of soils; the tendency establishing permanent vegetation as soon as possible.
of soils to cave in or slough; and the presence of very The latest information and suggestions for controlling
firm, dense soil layers. In addition, excavations are af- erosion can be obtained from local offices of the Coopera-
fected by slope of the soil and the probability of flooding. tive Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
Ratings do not apply to soil horizons below a depth of 6 Sanitary facilities
feet unless otherwise noted.
In the soil series descriptions, the consistence of each Favorable soil properties and site features are needed
soil horizon is given, and the presence of very firm or ex- for proper functioning of septic tank absorption fields,
tremely firm horizons, usually difficult to excavate, is in- sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The nature of the
dicated. soil is important in selecting sites for these facilities and
Dwellings and small commercial buildings referred to in identifying limiting soil properties and site features to
in table 8 are built on undisturbed soil and have founda- be considered in design and installation. Also, those soil
tion loads of a dwelling no more than three stories high. properties that affect ease of excavation or installation of
Separate ratings are made for small commercial buildings these facilities will be of interest to contractors and local







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

the use of these data, however, should be well understood. without basements and for dwellings with and without
First, the data are generally not presented for soil basements. For such structures, soils should be suffi-
material below a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Also, because of the ciently stable that cracking or subsidence of the structure
scale of the detailed map in this soil survey, small areas from settling or shear failure of the foundation does not
of soils that differ from the dominant soil may be in- occur. These ratings were determined from estimates of
cluded in mapping. Thus, these data do not eliminate the the shear strength, compressibility, and shrink-swell
need for onsite investigations, testing, and analysis by potential of the soil. Soil texture, plasticity, soil wetness,
personnel having expertise in the specific use contem- and depth to a seasonal high water table were also con-
plated. sidered. Soil wetness and depth to a seasonal high water
The information is presented mainly in tables. Table 8 table indicate potential difficulty in providing adequate
shows, for each kind of soil, the degree and kind of limita- drainage for basements, lawns, and gardens. Slope is also
tions for building site development; table 9, for sanitary an important consideration in the choice of sites for these
facilities; and table 11, for water management. Table 10 structures and was considered in determining the ratings.
shows the suitability of each kind of soil as a source of Susceptibility to flooding is a serious hazard.
construction materials. Local roads and streets referred to in table 8 have an
The information in the tables, along with the soil map, all-weather surface that can carry light to medium traffic
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this sur- all year. They consist of a subgrade of the underlying soil
vey, can be used to make additional interpretations and to material; a base of gravel, crushed rock fragments, or soil
construct interpretive maps for specific uses of land. material stabilized with lime or cement; and a flexible or
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a spe- rigid surface, commonly asphalt or concrete. The roads
cial meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are are graded with soil material at hand, and most cuts and
defined in the Glossary. fills are less than 6 feet deep.
The load supporting capacity and the stability of the
Building site development soil as well as the quantity and workability of fill material
The degree and kind of soil limitations that affect shal- available are important in design and construction of
low excavations, dwellings with and without basements, roads and streets. The classifications of the soil and the
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets soil texture, density, shrink-swell potential, and potential
are indicated in table 8. A slight limitation indicates that frost action are indicators of the traffic supporting capaci-
soil properties generally are favorable for the specified ty used in making the ratings. Soil wetness, flooding,
use; any limitation is minor and easily overcome. A slope, depth to very compact layers, and content of large
moderate limitation indicates that soil properties and site stones affect stability and ease of excavation.
features are unfavorable for the specified use, but the In addition to the limitations listed in table 8 for build-
limitations can be overcome or minimized by special ing site development, soil erosion can be a major problem
planning and design. A severe limitation indicates that one when the existing vegetation is removed and erosion con-
or more soil properties or site features are so unfavorable trol measures have not been properly installed.
or difficult to overcome that a major increase in construc- Erosion by water damages structures, fills streams and
tion effort, special design, or intensive maintenance is ponds with sediment, and damages fish habitat.
required. For some soils rated severe, such costly mea- Erosion by wind can be a problem on sandy soils that
sures may not be feasible. are dry and bare of vegetation. Wind erosion pollutes the
Shallow excavations are made for pipelines, sewerlines, air and endangers automotive traffic.
communications and power transmission lines, open Vegetative measures to control erosion are: leaving as
ditches, and cemeteries. Such digging or trenching is in- much native vegetation during the clearing of land as
fluenced by soil wetness caused by a seasonal high water possible, planting temporary cover, applying mulch, and
table; the texture and consistence of soils; the tendency establishing permanent vegetation as soon as possible.
of soils to cave in or slough; and the presence of very The latest information and suggestions for controlling
firm, dense soil layers. In addition, excavations are af- erosion can be obtained from local offices of the Coopera-
fected by slope of the soil and the probability of flooding. tive Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
Ratings do not apply to soil horizons below a depth of 6 Sanitary facilities
feet unless otherwise noted.
In the soil series descriptions, the consistence of each Favorable soil properties and site features are needed
soil horizon is given, and the presence of very firm or ex- for proper functioning of septic tank absorption fields,
tremely firm horizons, usually difficult to excavate, is in- sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The nature of the
dicated. soil is important in selecting sites for these facilities and
Dwellings and small commercial buildings referred to in identifying limiting soil properties and site features to
in table 8 are built on undisturbed soil and have founda- be considered in design and installation. Also, those soil
tion loads of a dwelling no more than three stories high. properties that affect ease of excavation or installation of
Separate ratings are made for small commercial buildings these facilities will be of interest to contractors and local







32 SOIL SURVEY

officials. Table 9 shows the degree and kind of limitations Sanitary landfill is a method of disposing of solid
of each soil for such uses and for use of the soil as daily waste by placing refuse in successive layers either in ex-
cover for landfills. It is important to observe local or- cavated trenches or on the surface of the soil. The waste
dinances and regulations. is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin layer
If the degree of soil limitation is expressed as slight, of soil material. Landfill areas are subject to heavy
soils are generally favorable for the specified use and vehicular traffic. Risk of polluting ground water and traf-
limitations are minor and easily overcome; if moderate, ficability affect the suitability of a soil for this use. The
soil properties or site features are unfavorable for the best soils have moderate to slow permeability, are deep to
specified use, but limitations can be overcome by special a seasonal water table, and are not subject to flooding.
planning and design; and if severe, soil properties or site Clayey soils are likely to be sticky and difficult to spread.
features are so unfavorable or difficult to overcome that Sandy oils generally have rapid permeability, which
major soil reclamation, special designs, or intensive main- might allow noxious liquids to contaminate found water.
tenance is required. Soil suitability is rated by the terms Soil wetness can be a limitation because operating heavy
good, fair, and poor, which, respectively, mean about the S wetness can ba imitation because operating hea
same as the terms slight, moderate, and severe, equipment on a wet soil is difficult. Seepage into the
Septic tank absorption fields are subsurface systems of refuse increases the risk of pollution of ground water.
tile or perforated pipe that distribute effluent from a sep- Ease of excavation affects the suitability of a soil for
tic tank into the natural soil. Only the soil horizons the trench type of landfill. A suitable soil is deep to
between depths of 18 and 72 inches are evaluated for this bedrock and free of large stones and boulders. If the
use. The soil properties and site features considered are seasonal water table is high, water will seep into
those that affect the absorption of the effluent and those trenches.
that affect the construction of the system. Unless otherwise stated, the limitations in table 9 apply
Properties and features that affect absorption of the only to the soil material within a depth of about 6 feet. If
effluent are permeability, depth to seasonal high water the trench is deeper, a limitation of slight or moderate
table, depth to bedrock, and susceptibility to flooding. may not be valid. Site investigation is needed before a
Stones, boulders, and shallowness to bedrock interfere site is selected.
with installation. Excessive slope can cause lateral Daily cover for landfill should be soil that is easy to
seepage and surfacing of the effluent. Also, soil erosion excavate and spread over the compacted fill in wet and
and soil slippage are hazards if absorption fields are in- dry periods. Clayey soils may be sticky and difficult to
stalled on sloping soils. spread; sandy soils may be subject to soil blowing.
SPercolation tests are performed to determine the ab- The soils selected for final cover of landfills should be
sorptive capacity of the soil and its suitability for septic suitable for growing plants. Of all the horizons, the A
tank absorption fields. These tests should be performed horizon in most soils has the best workability, more or-
during the season when the water table is highest and the ganic matter, and the best potential for growing plants.
soil is at minimum absorptive capacity. Thus, for either the area- or trench-type landfill, stockpil-
On many of the soils that have moderate or severe ing material from the A horizon for use as the surface
limitations for use as septic tank absorption fields, a layer of the final cover is desirable.
system to lower the seasonal water table can be installed If it is necessary to bring in soil material for daily or
or the size of the absorption field can be increased so that final cover, thickness of suitable soil material available
performance is satisfactory. and depth to a seasonal high water table in soils sur-
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to hold rounding the sites should be evaluated. Other factors to
municipal sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the be evaluated are those that affect reclamation of the bor-
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons have a nearly level floor row areas. These factors include slope, eroibiity, and
and cut slopes or embankments of compacted soil materi- potential for plant growth.clude and
al. Aerobic lagoons generally are designed to hold sewage
within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly impervious soil Construction materials
material for the lagoon floor and sides is required to
minimize seepage and contamination of ground water. The suitability of each soil as a source of roadfill, sand,
Soils that are very high in content of organic matter are gravel, and topsoil is indicated in table 10 by ratings of
not suitable. Unless the soil has very slow permeability, good, fair, or poor. The texture, thickness, and organic-
contamination of ground water is a hazard where the matter content of each soil horizon are important factors
seasonal high water table is above the level of the lagoon in rating soils for use as construction materials. Each soil
floor. Where the water table is seasonally high, seepage is evaluated to the depth observed, generally about 6 feet.
of ground water into the lagoon can seriously reduce the Roadfill is soil material used in embankments for
lagoon's capacity for liquid waste. Slope and susceptibility roads. Soils are evaluated as a source of roadfill for low
to flooding also affect the suitability of sites for sewage embankments, which generally are less than 6 feet high
lagoons or the cost of construction. Shear strength and and less exacting in design than high embankments. The
permeability of compacted soil material affect the per- ratings reflect the ease of excavating and working the
formance of embankments, material and the expected performance of the material







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 33

where it has been compacted and adequately drained. The inches thick or soils that have appreciable amounts of
performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or ce- gravel, stones, or soluble salt.
ment is not considered in the ratings, but information Soils rated poor are very sandy soils or very firm
about some of the soil properties that influence such per- clayey soils; soils with suitable layers less than 8 inches
formance is given in the descriptions of the soil series, thick; soils having large amounts of soluble salt; steep
The ratings apply to the soil material between the A soils; and poorly drained soils.
horizon and a depth of 5 to 6 feet. It is assumed that soil Although a rating of good is not based entirely on high
horizons will be mixed during excavation and spreading. content of organic matter, a surface horizon is generally
Many soils have horizons of contrasting suitability within preferred for topsoil because of its organic-matter con-
their profile. The estimated engineering properties in tent. This horizon is designated as Al or Ap in the soil se-
table 14 provide specific information about the nature of ries descriptions. The absorption and retention of
each horizon. This information can help determine the moisture and nutrients for plant growth are greatly in-
suitability of each horizon for roadfill. creased by organic matter.
Soils rated good are coarse grained. They have low
shrink-swell potential, low frost action potential, and few Water management
cobbles and stones. They are at least moderately well Many soil properties and site features that affect water
drained and have slopes of 15 percent or less. Soils rated management practices have been identified in this soil
fair have a plasticity index of less than 15 and have other survey. In table 11 the degree of soil limitation and soil
limiting features, such as moderate shrink-swell potential, and site features that affect use are indicated for each
moderately steep slopes, wetness, or many stones. If the kind of soil. This information is significant in planning, in-
thickness of suitable material is less than 3 feet, the en- stalling, and maintaining water control structures.
tire soil is rated poor. Soil and site limitations are expressed as slight,
Sand is used in great quantities in many kinds of con- moderate, and severe. Slight means that the soil proper-
struction. The ratings in table 10 provide guidance as to ties and site features are generally favorable for the
where to look for probable sources and are based on the specified use and that any limitation is minor and easily
probability that soils in a given area contain sizable quan- overcome. Moderate means that some soil properties or
overcome. Moderate means that some soil properties or
titles of sand. A soil rated good or fair has a layer of u u u u
site features are unfavorable for the specified use but can
suitable material at least 3 feet thick, the top of which is
within a depth of 6 feet. Fine-grained soils are not suita- be overcome or modified by special planning and design.
ble sources of sand and gravel. Severe means that the soil properties and site features
The ratings do not take into account depth to the water are so unfavorable and so difficult to correct or overcome
table or other factors that affect excavation of the that major soil reclamation, special design, or intensive
material. Descriptions of grain size, kinds of minerals, maintenance is required.
reaction, and stratification are given in the soil series Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or em-
descriptions and in tables 15 and 18. bankment. Soils best suited to this use have a low
Topsoil is used in areas where vegetation is to be seepage potential, which is determined by permeability
established and maintained. Suitability is affected mainly and the depth to permeable material.
by the ease of working and spreading the soil material in Embankments, dikes, and levees require soil material
preparing a seedbed and by the ability of the soil material that is resistant to seepage, erosion, and piping and has
to support plantlife. Also considered is the damage that favorable stability, shrink-swell potential, shear strength,
can result at the area from which the topsoil is taken. and compaction characteristics. Organic matter in a soil
The ease of excavation is influenced by the thickness of downgrades the suitability of the soil for use in embank-
suitable material, wetness, slope, and amount of stones. ments, dikes, and levees.
The ability of the soil to support plantlife is determined Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are bodies of water made
by texture, structure, and the amount of soluble salts or by excavating a pit or dugout into a ground-water
toxic substances. Organic matter in the Al or Ap horizon aquifer. Excluded are ponds that are fed by surface ru-
greatly increases the absorption and retention of moisture noff and embankment ponds that impound water 3 feet or
and nutrients. Therefore, the soil material from these more above the original surface. Ratings in table 11 are
horizons should be carefully preserved for later use. for ponds that are properly designed, located, and con-
Soils rated good have at least 16 inches of friable loamy structed. Soil properties and site features that affect
material at their surface. They are free of stones and cob- aquifer-fed ponds are depth to a permanent water table,
bles, are low in content of gravel, and have gentle slopes, permeability of the aquifer, quality of the water, and ease
They are low in soluble salts that can restrict plant of excavation.
growth. They are naturally fertile or respond well to fer- Drainage of soil is affected by such soil properties as
tilizer. They are not so wet that excavation is difficult permeability; texture; depth to layers that affect the rate
during most of the year. of water movement; depth to the water table; slope; sta-
Soils rated fair are loose sandy soils or firm loamy or ability of ditchbanks; susceptibility to flooding; salinity and
clayey soils in which the suitable material is only 8 to 16 alkalinity; and availability of outlets for drainage.







34 SOIL SURVEY

Terraces and diversions are embankments or a com- Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
bination of channels and ridges constructed across a slope vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
to intercept runoff. They allow water to soak into the soil areas. The best soils for use as picnic areas are firm when
or flow slowly to an outlet. Features that affect suitabili- wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to flood-
ty of a soil for terraces are uniformity and steepness of ing during the period of use.
slope; depth to bedrock or other unfavorable material; Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
permeability; ease of establishing vegetation; and re- foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
distance to water erosion, soil blowing, soil slipping, and wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
piping, surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry.
Grassed waterways are constructed to channel runoff to Paths and trails for walking, horseback riding,
outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Features that affect the bicycling, and other uses should require little or no
use of soils for waterways are slope, permeability, erodi- cutting and filling. The best soils for this use are those
ability, wetness, and suitability for permanent vegetation, that are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when
dry, and are not subject to flooding more than once dur-
Recreation ing the annual period of use. They should have moderate
slopes.
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 12 ac-
cording to limitations that affect their suitability for Wildlife habitat
recreation uses. The ratings are based on such restrictive
soil features as flooding, wetness, slope, and texture of Wildlife is a minor resource in Duval County. Urbaniza-
the surface layer. Not considered in these ratings, but im- tion has eliminated habitat suitable for many game and
portant in evaluating a site, are location and accessibility nongame species, and only in undeveloped areas in the
of the area, size and shape of the area and its scenic southeastern and western portions of the county are wil-
quality, the ability of the soil to support vegetation, ac- dlife still numerous.
cess to water, potential water impoundment sites availa- Wildlife in the survey area includes bobwhite quail,
ble, and either access to public sewerlines or capacity of mourning dove, rabbits, gray squirrel, fox squirrel, tur-
the soil to absorb septic tank effluent. Soils subject to key, white-tailed deer, wild hogs, raccoon, and numerous
t to species of waterfowl.
flooding are limited, in varying degree, for recreation use All soils in the county are suited to and can support one
by the duration and intensity of flooding and the season All soils in the county are suited to and can support one
by the duration and intensity of flooding and the season representative of
or more species of wildlife. The district representative of
when flooding occurs. Onsite assessment of height, dura- the Soil Conservation Service can provide landowners
tion, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential in with technical guides for establishing and maintaining wil-
planning recreation facilities. dlife habitats and for stocking and managing fishponds.
The degree of the limitation of the soils is expressed as Soils directly affect the kind and amount of vegetation
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that the soil pro- that is available to wildlife as food and cover, and they af-
perties are generally favorable and that the limitations fect the construction of water impoundments. The kind
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that the and abundance of wildlife that populate an area depend
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, largely on the amount and distribution of food, cover, and
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil water. If any one of these elements is missing, is in-
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be off- adequate, or is inaccessible, wildlife either are scarce or
set only by costly soil reclamation, special design, inten- do not inhabit the area.
sive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of If the soils have the potential, wildlife habitat can be
these measures. created or improved by planting appropriate vegetation,
The information in table 12 can be supplemented by in- by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by helping the
formation in other parts of this survey. Especially helpful natural establishment of desirable plants.
are interpretations for septic tank absorption fields, given In table 13, the soils in the survey area, are rated ac-
in table 9, and interpretations for dwellings without base- cording to their potential to support the main kinds of
ments and for local roads and streets, given in table 8. wildlife habitat in the area. This information can be used
Camp areas require such site preparation as shaping in planning for parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas,
and leveling for tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads and other developments for wildlife; selecting areas that
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facili- are suitable for wildlife; selecting soils that are suitable
ties and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy for creating, improving, or maintaining specific elements
foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils for of wildlife habitat; and determining the intensity of
this use have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to management needed for each element of the habitat.
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
rainfall readily but remains firm, and is not dusty when very poor. A rating of good means that the element of
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of con- wildlife habitat or the kind of habitat is easily created,
structing camping sites. improved, or maintained. Few or no limitations affect







34 SOIL SURVEY

Terraces and diversions are embankments or a com- Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
bination of channels and ridges constructed across a slope vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
to intercept runoff. They allow water to soak into the soil areas. The best soils for use as picnic areas are firm when
or flow slowly to an outlet. Features that affect suitabili- wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to flood-
ty of a soil for terraces are uniformity and steepness of ing during the period of use.
slope; depth to bedrock or other unfavorable material; Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
permeability; ease of establishing vegetation; and re- foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
distance to water erosion, soil blowing, soil slipping, and wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
piping, surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry.
Grassed waterways are constructed to channel runoff to Paths and trails for walking, horseback riding,
outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Features that affect the bicycling, and other uses should require little or no
use of soils for waterways are slope, permeability, erodi- cutting and filling. The best soils for this use are those
ability, wetness, and suitability for permanent vegetation, that are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when
dry, and are not subject to flooding more than once dur-
Recreation ing the annual period of use. They should have moderate
slopes.
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 12 ac-
cording to limitations that affect their suitability for Wildlife habitat
recreation uses. The ratings are based on such restrictive
soil features as flooding, wetness, slope, and texture of Wildlife is a minor resource in Duval County. Urbaniza-
the surface layer. Not considered in these ratings, but im- tion has eliminated habitat suitable for many game and
portant in evaluating a site, are location and accessibility nongame species, and only in undeveloped areas in the
of the area, size and shape of the area and its scenic southeastern and western portions of the county are wil-
quality, the ability of the soil to support vegetation, ac- dlife still numerous.
cess to water, potential water impoundment sites availa- Wildlife in the survey area includes bobwhite quail,
ble, and either access to public sewerlines or capacity of mourning dove, rabbits, gray squirrel, fox squirrel, tur-
the soil to absorb septic tank effluent. Soils subject to key, white-tailed deer, wild hogs, raccoon, and numerous
t to species of waterfowl.
flooding are limited, in varying degree, for recreation use All soils in the county are suited to and can support one
by the duration and intensity of flooding and the season All soils in the county are suited to and can support one
by the duration and intensity of flooding and the season representative of
or more species of wildlife. The district representative of
when flooding occurs. Onsite assessment of height, dura- the Soil Conservation Service can provide landowners
tion, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential in with technical guides for establishing and maintaining wil-
planning recreation facilities. dlife habitats and for stocking and managing fishponds.
The degree of the limitation of the soils is expressed as Soils directly affect the kind and amount of vegetation
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that the soil pro- that is available to wildlife as food and cover, and they af-
perties are generally favorable and that the limitations fect the construction of water impoundments. The kind
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that the and abundance of wildlife that populate an area depend
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, largely on the amount and distribution of food, cover, and
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil water. If any one of these elements is missing, is in-
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be off- adequate, or is inaccessible, wildlife either are scarce or
set only by costly soil reclamation, special design, inten- do not inhabit the area.
sive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of If the soils have the potential, wildlife habitat can be
these measures. created or improved by planting appropriate vegetation,
The information in table 12 can be supplemented by in- by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by helping the
formation in other parts of this survey. Especially helpful natural establishment of desirable plants.
are interpretations for septic tank absorption fields, given In table 13, the soils in the survey area, are rated ac-
in table 9, and interpretations for dwellings without base- cording to their potential to support the main kinds of
ments and for local roads and streets, given in table 8. wildlife habitat in the area. This information can be used
Camp areas require such site preparation as shaping in planning for parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas,
and leveling for tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads and other developments for wildlife; selecting areas that
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facili- are suitable for wildlife; selecting soils that are suitable
ties and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy for creating, improving, or maintaining specific elements
foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils for of wildlife habitat; and determining the intensity of
this use have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to management needed for each element of the habitat.
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
rainfall readily but remains firm, and is not dusty when very poor. A rating of good means that the element of
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of con- wildlife habitat or the kind of habitat is easily created,
structing camping sites. improved, or maintained. Few or no limitations affect







CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

management, and satisfactory results can be expected if ty, and wetness. Examples of coniferous plants are pine,
the soil is used for the designated purpose. A rating of cedar, and cypress.
fair means that the element of wildlife habitat or kind of Shrubs are bushy woody plants that produce fruit,
habitat can be created, improved, or maintained in most buds, twigs, bark, or foliage used by wildlife or that pro-
places. Moderately intensive management is required for vide cover and shade for some species of wildlife. Major
satisfactory results. A rating of poor means that limita- soil properties that affect the growth of shrubs are depth
tions are severe for the designated element or kind of of the root zone, available water capacity, salinity, and
wildlife habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or moisture. Examples of shrubs are sumac, waxmyrtle,
maintained in most places, but management is difficult huckleberry, blackberry, blueberry, bayberry, gallberry,
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor means that yaupon, elderberry, American beautyberry, Japanese
restrictions for the element of wildlife habitat or kind of honeysuckle, and sawpalmetto.
habitat are very severe and that unsatisfactory results Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild her-
can be expected. Wildlife habitat is impractical or even baceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites, exclusive
impossible to create, improve, or maintain on soils having of submerged or floating aquatics. They produce food or
such a rating. cover for wildlife that use wetland as habitat. Major soil
The elements of wildlife habitat are briefly described in properties affecting wetland plants are texture of the
the following paragraphs, surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, and slope. Exam-
Grain and seed crops are seed-producing annuals used ples of wetland plants are smartweed, wild millet, rushes,
by wildlife. The major soil properties that affect the sedges, reeds, saltgrass, cordgrass, and cattail.
growth of grain and seed crops are depth of the root Shallow water areas are bodies of water that have an
zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capaci- average depth of less than 5 feet and that are useful to
ty, wetness, slope, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and wildlife. They can be naturally wet areas, or they can be
soil moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain created by dams or levees or by water-control structures
and seed crops are corn, oats, millet, cowpeas, and sun- in marshes or streams. Major soil properties affecting
flowers, shallow water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, slope,
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses and permeability. The availability of a dependable water
and herbaceous legumes that are planted for wildlife food supply is important if water areas are to be developed.
and cover. Major soil properties that affect the growth of Examples of shallow water areas are muskrat marshes,
grasses and legumes are depth of the root zone, texture waterfowl feeding areas, wildlife watering developments,
of the surface layer, available water capacity, wetness, beaver ponds, and other wildlife ponds.
flood hazard, and slope. Soil temperature and soil The kinds of wildlife habitat are briefly described in
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grasses and the following paragraphs.
legumes are lovegrass, Pensacola bahiagrass, Argentine Openland habitat consists of cropland, pasture,
bahiagrass, hairy indigo, lespedeza, and sesbania. meadows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses,
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and
established grasses and forbs, including weeds, that pro- seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous
vide food and cover for wildlife. Major soil properties that plants. The kinds of wildlife attracted to these areas in-
affect the growth of these plants are depth of the root clude bobwhite quail, mourning dove, meadowlark, field
zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capaci- sparrow, killdeer, cottontail rabbit, and red fox.
ty, wetness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil Woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild har- conifers, or a mixture of both, and associated grasses,
baceous plants are bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, golden- legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Examples of wildlife
rod, beggarweed, pokewee, and partridgepea. attracted to these areas are wild turkey, woodcock,
Hardwood trees and the associated woody understory thrushes, vireos, warblers, woodpeckers, squirrels, bob-
provide cover for wildlife and produce nuts or other fruit, cats, gray fox, opossum, raccoon, and deer.
buds, catkins, twigs, bark, or foliage that wildlife eat. Wetland habitat consists of open, marshy or swampy,
Major soil properties that affect growth of hardwood shallow water areas where water-tolerant plants grow.
trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, available The kinds of wildlife attracted to this habitat include
water capacity, and wetness. Examples of hardwood ducks, geese, herons, shore birds, rails, and kingfishers.
plants are oak, magnolia, cherry, sweetgum, bay, maple,
dogwood, persimmon, sassafras, sumac, hickory, cabbage
palm, blackberry, grape, viburnum, blueberry, bayberry, Soil properties
and smilax.
Coniferous plants are cone-bearing trees, shrubs, or Extensive data about soil properties are summarized on
ground cover plants that furnish habitat or supply food in the following pages. The two main sources of these data
the form of browse, seeds, or fruitlike cones. Soil proper- are the many thousands of soil borings made during the
ties that have a major effect on the growth of coniferous course of the survey and the laboratory analyses of
plants are depth of the root zone, available water capaci- selected soil samples from typical profiles.







36 SOIL SURVEY

In making soil borings during field mapping, soil fraction less than 3 inches in diameter, plasticity index,
scientists can identify several important soil properties, liquid limit, and organic-matter content. Soils are grouped
They note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the into 15 classes-eight classes of coarse-grained soils,
presence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six
the profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL,
material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils,
gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the identified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two
natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed classes have a dual classification symbol, for example, SP-
soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place SM.
under the existing soil moisture conditions. They record The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those
the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of properties that affect their use in highway construction
the soil, and identify any free carbonates. and maintenance. In this system a mineral soil is clas-
Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory sified in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1
to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid
determine all major properties of key soils, especially pro- limit, and plasticity index. Soils in group A-1 are coarse
perties that cannot be estimated accurately by field ob- grained and low in content of fines. At the other extreme,
servation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for all in group A-7, are fine-grained soils. Highly organic soils
soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspec-
many soil series not tested are available from nearby sur- tion.
vey areas. When laboratory data are available, the A-i, A-2, and
The available field and laboratory data are summarized A-7 groups are further classified as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b,
in tables. The tables give the estimated range of en- A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As an addi-
gineering properties, the engineering classifications, and tional refinement, the desirability of soils as subgrade
the physical and chemical properties of each major material can be indicated by a group index number. These
horizon of each soil in the survey area. They also present numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
data about pertinent soil and water features, engineering 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
test data, and data obtained from physical and chemical for soils tested in the survey area, with group index num-
laboratory analyses of soils. bers in parentheses, is given in table 21. The estimated
classification, without group index numbers, is given in
Engineering properties table 14.
Percentage of the soil material less than 3 inches in
Table 14 gives estimates of engineering properties and diameter that passes each of four sieves (U.S. standard)
classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the is estimated for each major horizon. The estimates are
survey area. based on tests of soils that were sampled in the survey
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons area and in nearby areas and on field estimates from
of contrasting properties. Table 14 gives information for many borings made during the survey.
each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile. Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each horizon water on the strength and consistence of soil These in-
is indicated. More information about the range in depth dexes are used in both the Unified and AASHTO soil
and about other properties in each horizon is given for classification systems. They are also used as indicators in
each soil series in the section "Soil series and morpholo- making general predictions of soil behavior. Range in
gy' liquid limit and in plasticity index is estimated on the
Texture is described in table 14 in the standard terms basis of test data from the survey area or from nearby
used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms areas and on observations of the many soil brings made
are defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and during the survey.
clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Sandy clay loam," for example, is soil material Physical and chemical properties
that is 20 to 35 percent clay, less than 28 percent silt, and
45 percent or more sand. Other USDA texture terms are Table 15 shows estimated values for several soil charac-
defined in the Glossary. teristics and features that affect behavior of soils in en-
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils for gineering uses. These estimates are given for each major
engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification System horizon, at the depths indicated, in the typical pedon of
(2) and the system adopted by the American Association each soil. The estimates are based on field observations
of State Highway and Transportation Officials and on test data for these and similar soils.
(AASHTO) (1). Permeability is estimated on the basis of known rela-
The Unified system classifies soils according to proper- tionships among the soil characteristics observed in the
ties that affect their use as construction material. Soils field-particularly soil structure, porosity, and gradation
are classified according to grain-size distribution of the or texture-that influence the downward movement of







36 SOIL SURVEY

In making soil borings during field mapping, soil fraction less than 3 inches in diameter, plasticity index,
scientists can identify several important soil properties, liquid limit, and organic-matter content. Soils are grouped
They note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the into 15 classes-eight classes of coarse-grained soils,
presence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six
the profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL,
material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils,
gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the identified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two
natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed classes have a dual classification symbol, for example, SP-
soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place SM.
under the existing soil moisture conditions. They record The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those
the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of properties that affect their use in highway construction
the soil, and identify any free carbonates. and maintenance. In this system a mineral soil is clas-
Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory sified in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1
to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid
determine all major properties of key soils, especially pro- limit, and plasticity index. Soils in group A-1 are coarse
perties that cannot be estimated accurately by field ob- grained and low in content of fines. At the other extreme,
servation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for all in group A-7, are fine-grained soils. Highly organic soils
soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspec-
many soil series not tested are available from nearby sur- tion.
vey areas. When laboratory data are available, the A-i, A-2, and
The available field and laboratory data are summarized A-7 groups are further classified as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b,
in tables. The tables give the estimated range of en- A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As an addi-
gineering properties, the engineering classifications, and tional refinement, the desirability of soils as subgrade
the physical and chemical properties of each major material can be indicated by a group index number. These
horizon of each soil in the survey area. They also present numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
data about pertinent soil and water features, engineering 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
test data, and data obtained from physical and chemical for soils tested in the survey area, with group index num-
laboratory analyses of soils. bers in parentheses, is given in table 21. The estimated
classification, without group index numbers, is given in
Engineering properties table 14.
Percentage of the soil material less than 3 inches in
Table 14 gives estimates of engineering properties and diameter that passes each of four sieves (U.S. standard)
classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the is estimated for each major horizon. The estimates are
survey area. based on tests of soils that were sampled in the survey
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons area and in nearby areas and on field estimates from
of contrasting properties. Table 14 gives information for many borings made during the survey.
each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile. Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each horizon water on the strength and consistence of soil These in-
is indicated. More information about the range in depth dexes are used in both the Unified and AASHTO soil
and about other properties in each horizon is given for classification systems. They are also used as indicators in
each soil series in the section "Soil series and morpholo- making general predictions of soil behavior. Range in
gy' liquid limit and in plasticity index is estimated on the
Texture is described in table 14 in the standard terms basis of test data from the survey area or from nearby
used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms areas and on observations of the many soil brings made
are defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and during the survey.
clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Sandy clay loam," for example, is soil material Physical and chemical properties
that is 20 to 35 percent clay, less than 28 percent silt, and
45 percent or more sand. Other USDA texture terms are Table 15 shows estimated values for several soil charac-
defined in the Glossary. teristics and features that affect behavior of soils in en-
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils for gineering uses. These estimates are given for each major
engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification System horizon, at the depths indicated, in the typical pedon of
(2) and the system adopted by the American Association each soil. The estimates are based on field observations
of State Highway and Transportation Officials and on test data for these and similar soils.
(AASHTO) (1). Permeability is estimated on the basis of known rela-
The Unified system classifies soils according to proper- tionships among the soil characteristics observed in the
ties that affect their use as construction material. Soils field-particularly soil structure, porosity, and gradation
are classified according to grain-size distribution of the or texture-that influence the downward movement of








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

water in the soil. The estimates are for vertical water avoid or minimize damage resulting from the corrosion.
movement when the soil is saturated. Not considered in Uncoated steel intersecting soil boundaries or soil
the estimates is lateral seepage or such transient soil fea- horizons is more susceptible to corrosion than an installa-
tures as plowpans and surface crusts. Permeability of the tion that is entirely within one kind of soil or within one
soil is an important factor to be considered in planning soil horizon.
and designing drainage systems, in evaluating the poten- Erosion factors are used to predict the erodibility of a
tial of soils for septic tank systems and other waste soil and its tolerance to erosion in relation to specific
disposal systems, and in many other aspects of land use kinds of land use and treatment. The soil erodibility fac-
and management. tor (K) is a measure of the susceptibility of the soil to
Available water capacity is rated on the basis of soil erosion by water. Soils having the highest K values are
characteristics that influence the ability of the soil to hold the most erodible. K values range from 0.10 to 0.64. To
water and make it available to plants. Important charac- estimate annual soil loss per acre, the K value of a soil is
teristics are content of organic matter, soil texture, and modified by factors representing plant cover, grade and
soil structure. Shallow-rooted plants are not likely to use length of slope, management practices, and climate. The
the available water from the deeper soil horizons. Availa- soil-loss tolerance factor (T) is the maximum rate of soil
ble water capacity is an important factor in the choice of erosion, whether from rainfall or soil blowing, that can
plants or crops to be grown and in the design of irrigation occur without reducing crop production or environmental
systems. quality. The rate is expressed in tons of soil loss per acre
Soil reaction is expressed as a range in pH values. The per year.
range in pH of each major horizon is based on many field Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
checks. For many soils, the values have been verified by similar properties that affect their resistance to soil blow-
laboratory analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting ing if cultivated. The groups are used to predict the
the crops, ornamental plants, or other plants to be grown; susceptibility of soil to blowing and the amount of soil
in evaluating soil amendments for fertility and stabiliza- lost as a result of blowing.
tion; and in evaluating the corrosivity of soils. In this survey area, soils are in wind erodibility group
Salinity is expressed as the electrical conductivity of 2 only. The soils are very highly erodible, but they can
the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at 25 be used for crops if intensive measures to control soil
degrees C. Estimates are based on field and laboratory blowing are used.
measurements at representative sites of the nonirrigated
soils. The salinity of individual irrigated fields is affected Soil and water features
by the quality of the irrigation water and by the frequen-
cy of water application. Hence, the salinity of individual Table 16 contains information helpful in planning land
fields can differ greatly from the value given in table 15. uses and engineering projects that are likely to be af-
Salinity affects the suitability of a soil for crop produc- fected by soil and water features.
tion, its stability when used as a construction material, Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
and its potential to corrode metal and concrete. from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
Shrink-swell potential depends mainly on the amount placed in one of four groups on the basis of the intake of
and kind of clay in the soil. Laboratory measurements of water after the soils have been wetted and have received
the swelling of undisturbed clods were made for many precipitation from long-duration storms.
soils. For others the swelling was estimated on the basis The four hydrologic soil groups are:
of the kind and amount of clay in the soil and on mea- Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low ru-
surements of similar soils. The size of the load and the noff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly
magnitude of the change in soil moisture content also in- of deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
fluence the swelling of soils. Shrinking and swelling of gravels. These soils have a high rate of water transmis-
some soils can cause damage to building foundations, sion.
basement walls, roads, and other structures unless special Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
designs are used. A high shrink-swell potential indicates thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
that special design and added expense may be required if or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
the planned use of the soil will not tolerate large volume that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
changes. texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water trans-
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced mission.
chemical action that dissolves or weakens uncoated steel Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
or concrete. The rate of corrosion of uncoated steel is re- thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils that have a
lated to soil moisture, particle-size distribution, total acidi- layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
ty, and electrical conductivity of the soil material. The soils that have moderately fine texture or fine texture.
rate of corrosion of concrete is based mainly on the These soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
sulfate content, texture, and acidity of the soil. Protective Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
measures for steel or more resistant concrete help to runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist








38 SOIL SURVEY

chiefly of clay soils that have a high shrink-swell poten- curs over a period of several years as a result of the ox-
tial, soils that have a permanent high water table, soils idation or compression of organic material.
that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, Depth to bedrock is shown for all soils that are under-
and soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material, lain by bedrock at a depth of 6 feet or more. The depths
These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission, shown are based on measurements made in many soil
Flooding is the temporary covering of soil with water borings and on other observations during the mapping of
from overflowing streams, with runoff from adjacent the soils.
slopes, and by tides. Water standing for short periods
after rains is not considered flooding, nor is water in Physical and chemical analyses of selected
swamps and marshes. Flooding is rated in general terms soils
that describe the frequency and duration of flooding and
the time of year when flooding is most likely. The ratings By M.A. GRANGER, visiting assistant professor, and V.W. CARLISLE
are based on evidence in the soil profile of the effects of and R.E. CALDWELL, professors of soil science, Agricultural Experiment
flooding, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or, in Stations, Soil Science Department, University of Florida
places, clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in Physical, chemical, and mineral properties of represen-
organic-matter content with increasing depth; and tative pedons sampled in Duval County are presented in
absence of distinctive soil horizons that form in soils of tables 18, 19, and 20. The analyses were conducted and
the area that are not subject to flooding. The ratings are coordinated by the Soil Characterization Laboratory at
also based on local information about floodwater levels in the University of Florida. Detailed profile descriptions of
the area and the extent of flooding; and on information soils analyzed are given in alphabetical order in the sec-
that relates the position of each soil on the landscape to tion "Soil series and morphology." Laboratory data and
historic floods. profile information for additional soils in Duval County as
The generalized description of flood hazards is of value well as for other counties in Florida are on file at the Soil
in land-use planning and provides a valid basis for land- Science Department, University of Florida.
use restrictions. The soil data are less specific, however, Soils were sampled from pits at carefully selected loca-
than those provided by detailed engineering surveys that tions that represented typical pedons. Samples were air-
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency dried, crushed, and sieved through a 2-mm screen. Most
levels. of the analytical methods used are outlined in Soil Survey
High water table is the highest level of a saturated Investigations Report No. 1 (14).
zone more than 6 inches thick for a continuous period of Particle size distribution was determined by using a
more than 2 weeks during most years. The depth to a modification of the Bouyoucos hydrometer procedure with
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. Esti- sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. Hydraulic
mates are based mainly on the relationship between gray- conductivity, bulk density, and water content were deter-
ish colors or mottles in the soil and the depth to free mined on undisturbed core samples. Organic carbon was
water observed in many borings made during the course determined by a modification of the Walkley-Black wet
of the soil survey. The water tables in 27 pedons combustion method. Extractable bases were obtained by
representing 9 series were measured twice monthly for 3 leaching soils with ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
consecutive years during the course of the soil survey. Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined by
The pedons selected were typical of the series as mapped flame photometry, and calcium and magnesium by atomic
in the county and were as far removed from any artificial absorption spectroscopy. Extractable acidity was deter-
drainage as possible. The measured water tables for 8 of mined by the barium chloride-triethanolamine method at
the major series are shown in table 17 for the years 1974 pH 8.2. Cation exchange capacity was calculated by sum-
and 1975. Normal precipitation fell during that period. In- mation of extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base
dicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal high saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation
water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched, ar- exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH measure-
tesian, or apparent; and the months of the year that the ments were made with a glass electrode using a soil-
water table commonly is high. Only saturated zones above water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01M calcium chloride solution in a
a depth of 5 or 6 feet are indicated. 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and an N potassium chloride solu-
Information about the seasonal high water table helps tion in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
in assessing the need for specially designed foundations Carbon, iron, and aluminum were extracted from
and the need for specific kinds of drainage systems. Such suspected spodic horizons with 0.1M sodium
information is also needed to determine how septic tank phyrophosphate. Determination of iron and aluminum was
absorption fields and other underground installations will by atomic absorption spectroscopy and of extracted car-
function. Also, a seasonal high water table affects ease of bon by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
excavation. Mineralogy of the clay fraction was ascertained by X-ray
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils. Initial diffraction. Peak heights were taken at 18 angstrom, 14
subsidence generally results from drainage. Total sub- angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, 4.83 angstrom, and 4.31 angstrom
sidence is initial subsidence plus the slow sinking that oc- positions. These positions represent montmorillonite, in-








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

terstratified expandible vermiculite, or 14-angstrom inter- Soils that have a high base status and high cation
grades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz, respectively. They exchange capacity are more fertile.
were measured, summed, and normalized to give percent- Organic carbon in surface horizons ranged from more
age of soil minerals identified in the X-ray diffracto- than 0.5 percent in the Fripp soil to more than 6 percent
grams. This percentage is not an absolute quantity but a in the Mascotte soil. However, most soils have organic
relative distribution of clay minerals in the clay fraction, carbon content of about 1 to 2 percent in their surface
The absolute percentage would require additional horizon. The organic carbon content decreases with depth
knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, and crystal lattice in all pedons except those that have a Bh horizon. Organic
substitution, carbon content in the Bh horizon ranges from less than
Physical characteristics of important soils in the City of 0.5 percent in the weakly expressed subhorizons of Leon
Jacksonville (Duval County) are reported in table 18. soils and in the lower sequum of Ridgeland soils to more
With few exceptions the soils are inherently sandy. Many than 3 percent in the Bh horizon of Mascotte soils. In its
pedons, including those of the Alpin, Fripp, Kershaw, native form organic carbon appears to be the primary
Kureb, Leon, Mandarin, Pottsburg, and Ridgeland soils, source of cation exchange capacity in the upper horizons
have sand texture and no more than about 6 to 7 percent of soils in Duval County. It is directly responsible for im-
clay throughout their profile to a depth of about 2 meters. proving the physical condition and the nutrient and water
Other pedons, such as those of the Albany, Blanton, retention capacities, particularly in the sandy soils. The
Mascotte, Olustee, Pelham, and Sapelo soils, have textural lack of significant quantities of clay in these upper
increases of clay in the lower horizons. The Yonges and horizons dictates that the proper agronomic use of these
Stockade soils have a surface layer in which the clay con- soils includes programs for the conservation and main-
tent is greater than 10 percent and a subsoil in which the tenance of this vital component.
clay content is as much as 32 percent. In every instance Soil reaction in calcium chloride (not shown in table 19)
the sand fraction of these soils is dominated by fine sand. is uniformly low. There is a narrow range among horizons
Calculations of sand ratios arbitrarily using fine sand to of the same pedon, and this seldom differs by more than
very fine sand indicate some consistency with depth; how- 1 pH unit throughout the depth of the pedon. Soil reac-
ever, variation of this ratio with depth in the subsoil of tion of the Yonges soil is the only exception; it ranges
Fripp and Mascotte soils may imply inconsistencies due to from pH 6.8 in the surface layer to about pH 7.7 in the
lithology rather than pedogenesis. subsoil. Correlation between pH and base saturation is
The textural implication for sandy soils is droughtiness. neither always evident nor positive, but the degree of
Based on bulk densities and the moisture retained positive correlation is to some extent influenced by the
between 1/10 or 1/3 bars and 15 bars, these soils will hold cation exchange capacity. The higher the cation exchange
as little as 2.0 centimeters of plant-available water in capacity, the poorer the relationship because of the in-
their upper 50 centimeters and as much as 25 centimeters creased buffering associated with increased cation
in their upper 1 meter. Hydraulic conductivity is high in exchange capacity.
many of these soils-often in excess of 60 cm/hr. Mineralogy of the coarser fraction (more than 0.002
Chemical properties are reported in table 19. Extracta- mm) is invariably siliceous-predominantly quartz in all
ble bases, cation-exchange capacity (sum of cations), and pedons-and is not reported here. Crystalline components
base saturation are low. This is indicative of low natural of the clay (less than 0.002 mm) are reported in table 20 for
fertility. Calcium and magnesium are the predominant selected horizons of each sampled pedon even though the
bases, and there are no more than traces of potassium. total clay content (table 18) in many of these soils is rela-
This low content of potassium is further supported by the tively low. In general the clay mineralogical suite is of
absence of appreciable quantities of weatherable minerals montmorillonite, a 14 angstrom intergrade mineral,
(not reported) in these soils. The cation exchange capacity kaolinite, and quartz. Detectable amounts of gibbsite were
is less than 10 meg/100 grams of soil in most pedons due noted in the subsoil of Albany, Kershaw, and Ridgeland
primarily to their sandy nature and consequent small soils, and detectable amounts of mica were noted in Al-
total surface area. Cation exchange capacities of surface bany, Blanton, Fripp, and Kershaw soils. Neither gibbsite
Bh horizons are expectably relatively higher because of nor mica was dominant in any pedon, although the subsoil
increased reactivity of the associated organic material. of Ridgeland soils had gibbsite content of as much as 39
This phenomenon is exemplified by all surface horizons percent. Significant quantities of montmorillonite occur
and the Bh horizons of Cornelia, Leon, Mandarin, throughout Yonges, Pelham, and Stockade soils; in the
Mascotte, Ridgeland, and Sapelo soils. Dominant cations surface horizon of Fripp, Kershaw, Mandarin, Ridgeland,
are primarily acid forming, as implied by extractable and Sapelo soils; and in the Bh horizon of Leon and Cor-
acidity and the relatively low base saturation in all but nelia soils. The presence of montmorillonite in the Bh
the Yonges soil. Soils with low cation exchange capacities horizon is thought to be no more than a transient phase
require only small amounts of bases to significantly alter having been rendered temporarily stable because of a
their base status and soil reaction, at least in their upper coating or close association with the organic complex.
horizons. Consequently, successful crop production However, its dominance in the argillic horizons of
requires small but frequent applications of fertilizers. Mascotte, Yonges, Pelham, and Stockade soils is expected.








40 SOIL SURVEY

Kaolinite and 14 angstrom intergrade minerals occurred Soil series and morphology
in most of the soils. In some instances, as in the Albany,
Alpin, and Ridgeland soils, the 14 angstrom intergrade In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey
mineral decreased with a concomitant increase of area is described in detail. The descriptions are arranged
kaolinite with depth. This trend is not universal, since in alphabetic order by series name.
Kershaw, Leon, Mascotte, and Sapelo soils increased in Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
both kaolinite and 14 angstrom intergrade minerals with formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then
depth. In many pedons the clay-sized quartz content was compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other se-
relatively high but exhibited no consistent trend to in- ries. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
crease or decrease with depth. With only a few excep- that is typical of the soil series in the survey area, is
tons, the clay content is not high enough for the clay described. The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon
tions, the clay content is not high enough for the clay
mineralogy to significantly influence the management and follow standards in the Soil Survey Manual (13). Unless
mineralogy to significantly influence the management and otherwise noted, colors described are for moist soil
use of these soils.
Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
Engineering test data Phases, or map units, of each soil series are described in
Table 21 contains engineering test data made by the the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major Albany series
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to The Albany series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The clas- thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
sifications given are based on data obtained by mechani- nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained,
cal analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits and acid soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy and
plastic limits. loamy materials. These soils occur on narrow to broad
The mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve ridges and isolated knolls. Slopes range from 0 to 5 per-
and hydrometer methods (4). In this method, the various cent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the depth of 10 to 30 inches for 1 to 3 months, and at a depth
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2 of 30 to 60 inches for 4 to 8 months or more during most
millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in years.
this method should not be used in naming textural classes Albany soils are geographically associated with Blanton,
of soils. Sapelo, Mascotte, and Pelham soils. Albany soils differ
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in from Blanton soils by having a seasonal water table
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively within 30 inches of the surface. Albany soils do not have a
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive ef- spodic horizon, whereas Sapelo and Mascotte soils have a
fort remains constant, the density of the compacted spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Albany soils
material increases until the optimum moisture content is differ from Pelham soils by not having gray colors in the
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in upper portion of the A2 horizon and by being better
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the drained.
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a Typical pedon of Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the slopes, 100 feet east of Biscayne Road, 1.75 miles north of
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. Dunn Avenue, Land Grant 38, T. 1 N., R. 26 E.:
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of Al-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material. granular structure; very friable; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from A21-3 to 29 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 64) fine sand few
fine faint yellow mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a wavy boundary.
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased, A22-29 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; common medium
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The faint yellow (25Y 7/6) and few fine distinct reddish yellow mottles;
S. single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil B21t-50 to 63 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sandy loam; common
material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state; and coarse distinct light gray (5Y 7/1) and red (25YR 4/8) mottles;
the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; medium acd;
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-63 to 88 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy clay loam; few fine
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the prominent red (10R 4/8) and common coarse prominent reddish yel-
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of low (7.5YR 6/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky struc-
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. ture; friable; clay skins present on ped faces; strongly acid.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table Solum thickness ranges from 60 to 96 inches. Soil reaction ranges
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples, from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the A horizon and from very








40 SOIL SURVEY

Kaolinite and 14 angstrom intergrade minerals occurred Soil series and morphology
in most of the soils. In some instances, as in the Albany,
Alpin, and Ridgeland soils, the 14 angstrom intergrade In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey
mineral decreased with a concomitant increase of area is described in detail. The descriptions are arranged
kaolinite with depth. This trend is not universal, since in alphabetic order by series name.
Kershaw, Leon, Mascotte, and Sapelo soils increased in Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
both kaolinite and 14 angstrom intergrade minerals with formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then
depth. In many pedons the clay-sized quartz content was compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other se-
relatively high but exhibited no consistent trend to in- ries. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
crease or decrease with depth. With only a few excep- that is typical of the soil series in the survey area, is
tons, the clay content is not high enough for the clay described. The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon
tions, the clay content is not high enough for the clay
mineralogy to significantly influence the management and follow standards in the Soil Survey Manual (13). Unless
mineralogy to significantly influence the management and otherwise noted, colors described are for moist soil
use of these soils.
Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
Engineering test data Phases, or map units, of each soil series are described in
Table 21 contains engineering test data made by the the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major Albany series
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to The Albany series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The clas- thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
sifications given are based on data obtained by mechani- nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained,
cal analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits and acid soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy and
plastic limits. loamy materials. These soils occur on narrow to broad
The mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve ridges and isolated knolls. Slopes range from 0 to 5 per-
and hydrometer methods (4). In this method, the various cent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the depth of 10 to 30 inches for 1 to 3 months, and at a depth
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2 of 30 to 60 inches for 4 to 8 months or more during most
millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in years.
this method should not be used in naming textural classes Albany soils are geographically associated with Blanton,
of soils. Sapelo, Mascotte, and Pelham soils. Albany soils differ
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in from Blanton soils by having a seasonal water table
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively within 30 inches of the surface. Albany soils do not have a
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive ef- spodic horizon, whereas Sapelo and Mascotte soils have a
fort remains constant, the density of the compacted spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Albany soils
material increases until the optimum moisture content is differ from Pelham soils by not having gray colors in the
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in upper portion of the A2 horizon and by being better
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the drained.
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a Typical pedon of Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the slopes, 100 feet east of Biscayne Road, 1.75 miles north of
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. Dunn Avenue, Land Grant 38, T. 1 N., R. 26 E.:
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of Al-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material. granular structure; very friable; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from A21-3 to 29 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 64) fine sand few
fine faint yellow mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a wavy boundary.
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased, A22-29 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; common medium
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The faint yellow (25Y 7/6) and few fine distinct reddish yellow mottles;
S. single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil B21t-50 to 63 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sandy loam; common
material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state; and coarse distinct light gray (5Y 7/1) and red (25YR 4/8) mottles;
the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; medium acd;
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-63 to 88 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy clay loam; few fine
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the prominent red (10R 4/8) and common coarse prominent reddish yel-
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of low (7.5YR 6/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky struc-
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. ture; friable; clay skins present on ped faces; strongly acid.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table Solum thickness ranges from 60 to 96 inches. Soil reaction ranges
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples, from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the A horizon and from very








40 SOIL SURVEY

Kaolinite and 14 angstrom intergrade minerals occurred Soil series and morphology
in most of the soils. In some instances, as in the Albany,
Alpin, and Ridgeland soils, the 14 angstrom intergrade In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey
mineral decreased with a concomitant increase of area is described in detail. The descriptions are arranged
kaolinite with depth. This trend is not universal, since in alphabetic order by series name.
Kershaw, Leon, Mascotte, and Sapelo soils increased in Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
both kaolinite and 14 angstrom intergrade minerals with formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then
depth. In many pedons the clay-sized quartz content was compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other se-
relatively high but exhibited no consistent trend to in- ries. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
crease or decrease with depth. With only a few excep- that is typical of the soil series in the survey area, is
tons, the clay content is not high enough for the clay described. The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon
tions, the clay content is not high enough for the clay
mineralogy to significantly influence the management and follow standards in the Soil Survey Manual (13). Unless
mineralogy to significantly influence the management and otherwise noted, colors described are for moist soil
use of these soils.
Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
Engineering test data Phases, or map units, of each soil series are described in
Table 21 contains engineering test data made by the the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major Albany series
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to The Albany series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The clas- thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
sifications given are based on data obtained by mechani- nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained,
cal analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits and acid soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy and
plastic limits. loamy materials. These soils occur on narrow to broad
The mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve ridges and isolated knolls. Slopes range from 0 to 5 per-
and hydrometer methods (4). In this method, the various cent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the depth of 10 to 30 inches for 1 to 3 months, and at a depth
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2 of 30 to 60 inches for 4 to 8 months or more during most
millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in years.
this method should not be used in naming textural classes Albany soils are geographically associated with Blanton,
of soils. Sapelo, Mascotte, and Pelham soils. Albany soils differ
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in from Blanton soils by having a seasonal water table
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively within 30 inches of the surface. Albany soils do not have a
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive ef- spodic horizon, whereas Sapelo and Mascotte soils have a
fort remains constant, the density of the compacted spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Albany soils
material increases until the optimum moisture content is differ from Pelham soils by not having gray colors in the
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in upper portion of the A2 horizon and by being better
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the drained.
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a Typical pedon of Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the slopes, 100 feet east of Biscayne Road, 1.75 miles north of
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. Dunn Avenue, Land Grant 38, T. 1 N., R. 26 E.:
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of Al-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material. granular structure; very friable; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from A21-3 to 29 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 64) fine sand few
fine faint yellow mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a wavy boundary.
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased, A22-29 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; common medium
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The faint yellow (25Y 7/6) and few fine distinct reddish yellow mottles;
S. single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil B21t-50 to 63 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sandy loam; common
material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state; and coarse distinct light gray (5Y 7/1) and red (25YR 4/8) mottles;
the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; medium acd;
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-63 to 88 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy clay loam; few fine
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the prominent red (10R 4/8) and common coarse prominent reddish yel-
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of low (7.5YR 6/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky struc-
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. ture; friable; clay skins present on ped faces; strongly acid.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table Solum thickness ranges from 60 to 96 inches. Soil reaction ranges
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples, from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the A horizon and from very








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

strongly acid to medium acid in the B2t horizon. Depth to the underly- loamy fine sand or sandy loam. Lamellae range in thickness from 2 to 25
ing argillic horizon is 44 to 76 inches. millimeters and are 1 to 5 inches apart. They range from 5 centimeters
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of to more than 1 meter in horizontal length and extend to a depth of more
1, or value of 3 through 6 and chroma of 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 5 than 80 inches. Total combined thickness of lamellae 1 centimeter or
inches. Texture is fine sand. more thick within a depth of 2 meters is less than 15 centimeters.
The upper part of the A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through
7, and chroma of 3 or 4, or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 through 8, and chroma Blanton series
of 4. The lower part has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 through 7, and nton erie
chroma of 2, or hue of 10YR, value of 7, and chroma of 1. Thickness
ranges from 38 to 58 inches. Texture is fine sand. The Blanton series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR and 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 2; or nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 8 with mottles in shades of soils that formed in marine deposits of sandy and loamy
brown, yellow, gray, and red. The B2tg part of the argillic horizon has sediments. These soils occur on narrow to broad ridges
dominant hue of 2.5Y or 5Y in the matrix and dominant chroma of 2 or
less on ped surfaces. The B2t horizon extends to a depth of more than and isolated knolls. Slopes are smooth to convex, ranging
80 inches. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. from 0 to 5 percent. Under natural conditions, a perched
water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 2 to 5
Alpin series months during most years.
Blanton soils are geographically associated with Albany,
The Alpin series is a member of the thermic, coated Alpin, Sapelo, Mascotte, Pelham, and Ortega soils. Blanton
family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of nearly soils differ from Albany soils in that they are better
level to sloping, excessively drained soils that formed in drained. Blanton soils have an argillic horizon below a
thick beds of sandy marine or sandy eolian deposits. depth of 40 inches, whereas Alpin soils have lamellae with
These soils occur on broad upland ridges. Slopes are a cumulative thickness of 1 to 6 inches within a depth of
smooth to convex, ranging from 0 to 8 percent. The water 80 inches. Blanton soils differ from Sapelo and Mascotte
table is below a depth of 72 inches throughout the year. soils by not having a spodic horizon. Blanton soils differ
Alpin soils are geographically associated with Blanton, from Pelham soils by not having an argillic horizon within
Kershaw, Kureb, Ortega, and Pottsburg soils. Alpin soils a depth of 40 inches and in that they are better drained.
have lamellae, while the associated soils do not. In addi- Blanton soils differ from Ortega soils by having an argil-
tion, Blanton soils have an argillic horizon within a depth lic horizon.
of 40 to 80 inches. Kershaw and Ortega soils have Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
moisture equivalent of less than 2 percent or less than 5 slopes, 0.7 mile south of Interstate 295, 0.3 mile east of
percent silt plus clay within a depth of 80 inches, and Interstate 95, Land Grant 50, T. 1 S., R. 26 E.:
Pottsburg soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of more
than 50 inches. A1-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
structure; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Typical pedon of Alpin fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, A21-3 to 9 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; few fine distinct
0.1 mile north of Moncrief Road and 1.5 miles west of white and yellow mottles; single grained; loose; acid; gradual wavy
Lem Turner Road, Land Grant 39, T. 1 S., R. 26 E.: boundary.
A22-9 to 21 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; few fine
A1-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; weak fine granu- distinct white and few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/6) mot-
lar structure; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. tles; single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A21-5 to 11 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand; single A23-21 to 36 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand, few fine
grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. faint white and very pale brown mottles and few fine distinct
A22-11 to 30 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; single strong brown mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. smooth boundary.
A23-30 to 48 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; single A24-36 to 54 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; few fine and medium
grained; loose; common white (10YR 8/2) streaks; very strongly faint very pale brown mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid;
acid; clear smooth boundary. clear wavy boundary.
A2&B1-48 to 80 inches; mixed very pale brown (10YR 7/4) and white B21t-54 to 65 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy loam; few
(10YR 8/2) fine sand; single grained; loose; common strong brown medium faint very pale brown mottles, few fine prominent yel-
(7.5YR 5/8) loamy fine sand lamellae 2 to 25 millimeters thick and 1 lowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles, and common coarse faint strong
to 5 inches apart; sand grains in lamellae are coated; lamellae are brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky struc-
discontinuous in length within pedon; very strongly acid. ture; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22t--65 to 80 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine sandy loam; many
Solum thickness exceeds 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from very coarse prominent dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) mottles, many
strongly acid to strongly acid. Texture of the Al horizon and all other coarse distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles, and few fine distinct
horizons is fine sand except that lamellae are loamy fine sand or fine yellowish red mottles with large pockets of pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4)
sandy loam. Lamellae begin at a depth of 40 to 70 inches and have a cu- fine sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; strongly
mulative thickness of 1 to 6 inches within a depth of 80 inches. acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or
2. Solum thickness exceeds 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from very
The A2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma strongly acid to medium acid in the A horizon and from very strongly
of 3 through 6. acid to strongly acid in the B2t horizon.
The A2 portion of the A2&B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 Texture of the A horizon is fine sand. The Al horizon has hue of
through 8, and chroma of 1 through 4. The B1 portion of this horizon has 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges
hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 6 through 8. Texture is from 2 to 6 inches.








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

strongly acid to medium acid in the B2t horizon. Depth to the underly- loamy fine sand or sandy loam. Lamellae range in thickness from 2 to 25
ing argillic horizon is 44 to 76 inches. millimeters and are 1 to 5 inches apart. They range from 5 centimeters
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of to more than 1 meter in horizontal length and extend to a depth of more
1, or value of 3 through 6 and chroma of 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 5 than 80 inches. Total combined thickness of lamellae 1 centimeter or
inches. Texture is fine sand. more thick within a depth of 2 meters is less than 15 centimeters.
The upper part of the A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through
7, and chroma of 3 or 4, or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 through 8, and chroma Blanton series
of 4. The lower part has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 through 7, and nton erie
chroma of 2, or hue of 10YR, value of 7, and chroma of 1. Thickness
ranges from 38 to 58 inches. Texture is fine sand. The Blanton series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR and 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 2; or nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 8 with mottles in shades of soils that formed in marine deposits of sandy and loamy
brown, yellow, gray, and red. The B2tg part of the argillic horizon has sediments. These soils occur on narrow to broad ridges
dominant hue of 2.5Y or 5Y in the matrix and dominant chroma of 2 or
less on ped surfaces. The B2t horizon extends to a depth of more than and isolated knolls. Slopes are smooth to convex, ranging
80 inches. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. from 0 to 5 percent. Under natural conditions, a perched
water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 2 to 5
Alpin series months during most years.
Blanton soils are geographically associated with Albany,
The Alpin series is a member of the thermic, coated Alpin, Sapelo, Mascotte, Pelham, and Ortega soils. Blanton
family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of nearly soils differ from Albany soils in that they are better
level to sloping, excessively drained soils that formed in drained. Blanton soils have an argillic horizon below a
thick beds of sandy marine or sandy eolian deposits. depth of 40 inches, whereas Alpin soils have lamellae with
These soils occur on broad upland ridges. Slopes are a cumulative thickness of 1 to 6 inches within a depth of
smooth to convex, ranging from 0 to 8 percent. The water 80 inches. Blanton soils differ from Sapelo and Mascotte
table is below a depth of 72 inches throughout the year. soils by not having a spodic horizon. Blanton soils differ
Alpin soils are geographically associated with Blanton, from Pelham soils by not having an argillic horizon within
Kershaw, Kureb, Ortega, and Pottsburg soils. Alpin soils a depth of 40 inches and in that they are better drained.
have lamellae, while the associated soils do not. In addi- Blanton soils differ from Ortega soils by having an argil-
tion, Blanton soils have an argillic horizon within a depth lic horizon.
of 40 to 80 inches. Kershaw and Ortega soils have Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
moisture equivalent of less than 2 percent or less than 5 slopes, 0.7 mile south of Interstate 295, 0.3 mile east of
percent silt plus clay within a depth of 80 inches, and Interstate 95, Land Grant 50, T. 1 S., R. 26 E.:
Pottsburg soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of more
than 50 inches. A1-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
structure; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Typical pedon of Alpin fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, A21-3 to 9 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; few fine distinct
0.1 mile north of Moncrief Road and 1.5 miles west of white and yellow mottles; single grained; loose; acid; gradual wavy
Lem Turner Road, Land Grant 39, T. 1 S., R. 26 E.: boundary.
A22-9 to 21 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; few fine
A1-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; weak fine granu- distinct white and few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/6) mot-
lar structure; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. tles; single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A21-5 to 11 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand; single A23-21 to 36 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand, few fine
grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. faint white and very pale brown mottles and few fine distinct
A22-11 to 30 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; single strong brown mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. smooth boundary.
A23-30 to 48 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; single A24-36 to 54 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; few fine and medium
grained; loose; common white (10YR 8/2) streaks; very strongly faint very pale brown mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid;
acid; clear smooth boundary. clear wavy boundary.
A2&B1-48 to 80 inches; mixed very pale brown (10YR 7/4) and white B21t-54 to 65 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy loam; few
(10YR 8/2) fine sand; single grained; loose; common strong brown medium faint very pale brown mottles, few fine prominent yel-
(7.5YR 5/8) loamy fine sand lamellae 2 to 25 millimeters thick and 1 lowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles, and common coarse faint strong
to 5 inches apart; sand grains in lamellae are coated; lamellae are brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky struc-
discontinuous in length within pedon; very strongly acid. ture; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22t--65 to 80 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine sandy loam; many
Solum thickness exceeds 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from very coarse prominent dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) mottles, many
strongly acid to strongly acid. Texture of the Al horizon and all other coarse distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles, and few fine distinct
horizons is fine sand except that lamellae are loamy fine sand or fine yellowish red mottles with large pockets of pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4)
sandy loam. Lamellae begin at a depth of 40 to 70 inches and have a cu- fine sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; strongly
mulative thickness of 1 to 6 inches within a depth of 80 inches. acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or
2. Solum thickness exceeds 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from very
The A2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma strongly acid to medium acid in the A horizon and from very strongly
of 3 through 6. acid to strongly acid in the B2t horizon.
The A2 portion of the A2&B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 Texture of the A horizon is fine sand. The Al horizon has hue of
through 8, and chroma of 1 through 4. The B1 portion of this horizon has 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges
hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 6 through 8. Texture is from 2 to 6 inches.








42 SOIL SURVEY

The upper part of the A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through Cornelia soils are geographically associated with Kureb,
8, and chroma of 3 through 8, and the lower part has hue of 10YR, value Leon, and Ortega soils. Cornelia soils differ from Kureb
of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 42 to 66 si i i i i fr
inches. Total thickness of the A horizon is 45 to 72 inches. soils by having a continuous spodic horzon, from Leon
The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma soils by being excessively drained, from Ortega soils by
of 3 through 8. Mottles are in shades of red, yellow, and brown. Texture having a spodic horizon and by being better drained.
is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Typical pedon of Cornelia fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
The B22t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and chroma of 4
through 8; or value of 6 and chroma of 3 through 8; or hue of 2.5Y, slopes, 2,700 feet north of Edgewood Drive and 3,000 feet
value of 6, and chroma of 4. Mottles are in shades of red, gray, yellow, east of Palmetto Avenue, Ft. George Island, Land Grant
and brown. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. 37, T. 1 S., R. 29 E.:

Canaveral series A1-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
structure; very friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
The Canaveral series is a member of the mixed, A21-7 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
hi of Aquic Udipsamments. extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
hyperthermic family of Aquic Udipsamments. It consists A22-13 to 39 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
of nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained very strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
to somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in a thick B21h-39 to 44 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) loamy fine sand;
marine deposit of sand and shell fragments. These soils weak fine granular structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains
occur on a broad ridge near the Atlantic coast. Slopes are well coated with organic matter; extremely acid; gradual wavy
smooth to convex and range from 0 to 5 percent. Under boundary.
B22h--44 to 53 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) fine sand; weak
natural conditions, the water table is at a depth of 10 to fine subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand
40 inches for 2 to 6 months and at a depth of 40 to 60 grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
inches for 4 to 8 months during most years. wavy boundary.
Canaveral soils are geographically associated with B23h-53 to 73 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) fine sand; weak
Fripp, Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, and Ridgeland soils. fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; weakly cemented;
sand grains coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
Canaveral soils differ from Leon, Mandarin, and Ridge- smooth boundary.
land soils by having shell fragments and by not having a B24h-73 to 92 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand; weak fine sub-
spodic horizon. Canaveral soils differ from Fripp and Or- angular blocky structure; very friable; weakly cemented; sand
tega soils by having shell fragments. grains well coated with organic matter; strongly acid; gradual
Typical pedon of Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent smooth boundary.
1,100 feet east of Mayport Road, 2,300 feet south B25h-92 to 106 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) fine sand; weak fine
lopes, 1,100 feet east of Mayport Road, 2,300 feet south subangular blocky structure; very friable; weakly cemented; sand
of Wonderwood Road, Land Grant 37, T. 2 S., R. 29 E.: grains well coated with organic matter; strongly acid.
A1-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand; single Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid.
grained; loose; mildly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 or
C1-6 to 17 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; single 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 8 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR,
grained; loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2, and it is 23 to 42 inches
C2-17 to 34 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand mixed thick Total thickness of the A horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches Tex-
with multicolored shell fragments; single grained; loose; about 45 ture of the A horizon is fine sand.
percent by volume shell fragments ranging in size to 3 millimeters; The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 1
moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. through 4; and it extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. It is weakly
C3-34 to 65 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) shell fragments; single cemented, and the sand grains are well coated with organic matter. Tex-
grained; loose; about 95 percent by volume shell fragments ranging ture of the Bh horizon is fine sand or loamy fine sand.
in size to 3 millimeters; moderately alkaline.
Soil reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline. The A Fripp series
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Thickness ranges from 1 to 8 inches. Texture is fine sand. The Fripp series is a member of the mixed, thermic
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 2 family of Typic Udipsamments. It consists of gently slop
through 4; and it extends to depth of more than 65 inches. Texture is family of Typic Udipsamments. It consists of gently slop-
sand or fine sand; in some pedons the soil is mixed with broken shell ing to sloping, excessively drained soils that formed from
fragments, but in most pedons sand and shell fragments are stratified, marine sands reworked by wind and wave action. These
Content of shell fragments ranges from 15 to 60 percent in the C1 and soils occur on narrow to broad ridges along the Atlantic
C2 horizons and to as much as 95 percent in the C3 horizon. coast. Slopes are smooth to convex and rge from 2 to 8
coast. Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 2 to 8
Cornelia series percent. The water table is at a depth of more than 72
inches.
The Cornelia series is a member of the the sandy, Fripp soils are geographically associated with Aquic
siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Haplohumods. It con- Quartzipsamments and Mandarin and Leon soils. Man-
sists of level to gently sloping, excessively drained soils darin and Leon soils have a spodic horizon and are less
that formed in thick beds of marine sands. These soils well drained than Fripp soils. Aquic Quartzipsamments
occur on broad upland ridges. Slopes are smooth to con- have a water table within a depth of 40 inches, while
vex and range from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is at Fripp soils have a water table at a depth of more than 72
a depth of more than 72 inches, inches.








42 SOIL SURVEY

The upper part of the A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through Cornelia soils are geographically associated with Kureb,
8, and chroma of 3 through 8, and the lower part has hue of 10YR, value Leon, and Ortega soils. Cornelia soils differ from Kureb
of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 42 to 66 si i i i i fr
inches. Total thickness of the A horizon is 45 to 72 inches. soils by having a continuous spodic horzon, from Leon
The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma soils by being excessively drained, from Ortega soils by
of 3 through 8. Mottles are in shades of red, yellow, and brown. Texture having a spodic horizon and by being better drained.
is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Typical pedon of Cornelia fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
The B22t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and chroma of 4
through 8; or value of 6 and chroma of 3 through 8; or hue of 2.5Y, slopes, 2,700 feet north of Edgewood Drive and 3,000 feet
value of 6, and chroma of 4. Mottles are in shades of red, gray, yellow, east of Palmetto Avenue, Ft. George Island, Land Grant
and brown. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. 37, T. 1 S., R. 29 E.:

Canaveral series A1-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
structure; very friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
The Canaveral series is a member of the mixed, A21-7 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
hi of Aquic Udipsamments. extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
hyperthermic family of Aquic Udipsamments. It consists A22-13 to 39 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
of nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained very strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
to somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in a thick B21h-39 to 44 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) loamy fine sand;
marine deposit of sand and shell fragments. These soils weak fine granular structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains
occur on a broad ridge near the Atlantic coast. Slopes are well coated with organic matter; extremely acid; gradual wavy
smooth to convex and range from 0 to 5 percent. Under boundary.
B22h--44 to 53 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) fine sand; weak
natural conditions, the water table is at a depth of 10 to fine subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand
40 inches for 2 to 6 months and at a depth of 40 to 60 grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
inches for 4 to 8 months during most years. wavy boundary.
Canaveral soils are geographically associated with B23h-53 to 73 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) fine sand; weak
Fripp, Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, and Ridgeland soils. fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; weakly cemented;
sand grains coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
Canaveral soils differ from Leon, Mandarin, and Ridge- smooth boundary.
land soils by having shell fragments and by not having a B24h-73 to 92 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand; weak fine sub-
spodic horizon. Canaveral soils differ from Fripp and Or- angular blocky structure; very friable; weakly cemented; sand
tega soils by having shell fragments. grains well coated with organic matter; strongly acid; gradual
Typical pedon of Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent smooth boundary.
1,100 feet east of Mayport Road, 2,300 feet south B25h-92 to 106 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) fine sand; weak fine
lopes, 1,100 feet east of Mayport Road, 2,300 feet south subangular blocky structure; very friable; weakly cemented; sand
of Wonderwood Road, Land Grant 37, T. 2 S., R. 29 E.: grains well coated with organic matter; strongly acid.
A1-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand; single Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid.
grained; loose; mildly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 or
C1-6 to 17 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; single 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 8 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR,
grained; loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2, and it is 23 to 42 inches
C2-17 to 34 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand mixed thick Total thickness of the A horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches Tex-
with multicolored shell fragments; single grained; loose; about 45 ture of the A horizon is fine sand.
percent by volume shell fragments ranging in size to 3 millimeters; The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 1
moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. through 4; and it extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. It is weakly
C3-34 to 65 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) shell fragments; single cemented, and the sand grains are well coated with organic matter. Tex-
grained; loose; about 95 percent by volume shell fragments ranging ture of the Bh horizon is fine sand or loamy fine sand.
in size to 3 millimeters; moderately alkaline.
Soil reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline. The A Fripp series
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Thickness ranges from 1 to 8 inches. Texture is fine sand. The Fripp series is a member of the mixed, thermic
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 2 family of Typic Udipsamments. It consists of gently slop
through 4; and it extends to depth of more than 65 inches. Texture is family of Typic Udipsamments. It consists of gently slop-
sand or fine sand; in some pedons the soil is mixed with broken shell ing to sloping, excessively drained soils that formed from
fragments, but in most pedons sand and shell fragments are stratified, marine sands reworked by wind and wave action. These
Content of shell fragments ranges from 15 to 60 percent in the C1 and soils occur on narrow to broad ridges along the Atlantic
C2 horizons and to as much as 95 percent in the C3 horizon. coast. Slopes are smooth to convex and rge from 2 to 8
coast. Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 2 to 8
Cornelia series percent. The water table is at a depth of more than 72
inches.
The Cornelia series is a member of the the sandy, Fripp soils are geographically associated with Aquic
siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Haplohumods. It con- Quartzipsamments and Mandarin and Leon soils. Man-
sists of level to gently sloping, excessively drained soils darin and Leon soils have a spodic horizon and are less
that formed in thick beds of marine sands. These soils well drained than Fripp soils. Aquic Quartzipsamments
occur on broad upland ridges. Slopes are smooth to con- have a water table within a depth of 40 inches, while
vex and range from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is at Fripp soils have a water table at a depth of more than 72
a depth of more than 72 inches, inches.








42 SOIL SURVEY

The upper part of the A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through Cornelia soils are geographically associated with Kureb,
8, and chroma of 3 through 8, and the lower part has hue of 10YR, value Leon, and Ortega soils. Cornelia soils differ from Kureb
of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 42 to 66 si i i i i fr
inches. Total thickness of the A horizon is 45 to 72 inches. soils by having a continuous spodic horzon, from Leon
The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma soils by being excessively drained, from Ortega soils by
of 3 through 8. Mottles are in shades of red, yellow, and brown. Texture having a spodic horizon and by being better drained.
is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Typical pedon of Cornelia fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
The B22t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and chroma of 4
through 8; or value of 6 and chroma of 3 through 8; or hue of 2.5Y, slopes, 2,700 feet north of Edgewood Drive and 3,000 feet
value of 6, and chroma of 4. Mottles are in shades of red, gray, yellow, east of Palmetto Avenue, Ft. George Island, Land Grant
and brown. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. 37, T. 1 S., R. 29 E.:

Canaveral series A1-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
structure; very friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
The Canaveral series is a member of the mixed, A21-7 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
hi of Aquic Udipsamments. extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
hyperthermic family of Aquic Udipsamments. It consists A22-13 to 39 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
of nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained very strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
to somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in a thick B21h-39 to 44 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) loamy fine sand;
marine deposit of sand and shell fragments. These soils weak fine granular structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains
occur on a broad ridge near the Atlantic coast. Slopes are well coated with organic matter; extremely acid; gradual wavy
smooth to convex and range from 0 to 5 percent. Under boundary.
B22h--44 to 53 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) fine sand; weak
natural conditions, the water table is at a depth of 10 to fine subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand
40 inches for 2 to 6 months and at a depth of 40 to 60 grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
inches for 4 to 8 months during most years. wavy boundary.
Canaveral soils are geographically associated with B23h-53 to 73 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) fine sand; weak
Fripp, Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, and Ridgeland soils. fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; weakly cemented;
sand grains coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
Canaveral soils differ from Leon, Mandarin, and Ridge- smooth boundary.
land soils by having shell fragments and by not having a B24h-73 to 92 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand; weak fine sub-
spodic horizon. Canaveral soils differ from Fripp and Or- angular blocky structure; very friable; weakly cemented; sand
tega soils by having shell fragments. grains well coated with organic matter; strongly acid; gradual
Typical pedon of Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent smooth boundary.
1,100 feet east of Mayport Road, 2,300 feet south B25h-92 to 106 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) fine sand; weak fine
lopes, 1,100 feet east of Mayport Road, 2,300 feet south subangular blocky structure; very friable; weakly cemented; sand
of Wonderwood Road, Land Grant 37, T. 2 S., R. 29 E.: grains well coated with organic matter; strongly acid.
A1-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand; single Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid.
grained; loose; mildly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 or
C1-6 to 17 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; single 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 8 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR,
grained; loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2, and it is 23 to 42 inches
C2-17 to 34 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand mixed thick Total thickness of the A horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches Tex-
with multicolored shell fragments; single grained; loose; about 45 ture of the A horizon is fine sand.
percent by volume shell fragments ranging in size to 3 millimeters; The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 1
moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. through 4; and it extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. It is weakly
C3-34 to 65 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) shell fragments; single cemented, and the sand grains are well coated with organic matter. Tex-
grained; loose; about 95 percent by volume shell fragments ranging ture of the Bh horizon is fine sand or loamy fine sand.
in size to 3 millimeters; moderately alkaline.
Soil reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline. The A Fripp series
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Thickness ranges from 1 to 8 inches. Texture is fine sand. The Fripp series is a member of the mixed, thermic
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 2 family of Typic Udipsamments. It consists of gently slop
through 4; and it extends to depth of more than 65 inches. Texture is family of Typic Udipsamments. It consists of gently slop-
sand or fine sand; in some pedons the soil is mixed with broken shell ing to sloping, excessively drained soils that formed from
fragments, but in most pedons sand and shell fragments are stratified, marine sands reworked by wind and wave action. These
Content of shell fragments ranges from 15 to 60 percent in the C1 and soils occur on narrow to broad ridges along the Atlantic
C2 horizons and to as much as 95 percent in the C3 horizon. coast. Slopes are smooth to convex and rge from 2 to 8
coast. Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 2 to 8
Cornelia series percent. The water table is at a depth of more than 72
inches.
The Cornelia series is a member of the the sandy, Fripp soils are geographically associated with Aquic
siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Haplohumods. It con- Quartzipsamments and Mandarin and Leon soils. Man-
sists of level to gently sloping, excessively drained soils darin and Leon soils have a spodic horizon and are less
that formed in thick beds of marine sands. These soils well drained than Fripp soils. Aquic Quartzipsamments
occur on broad upland ridges. Slopes are smooth to con- have a water table within a depth of 40 inches, while
vex and range from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is at Fripp soils have a water table at a depth of more than 72
a depth of more than 72 inches, inches.








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

Typical pedon of Fripp fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes, These soils occur on broad upland ridges. Slopes are con-
2.3 miles north of Park office, 1.4 miles east of Highway vex and range from 2 to 20 percent. The water table is at
A1A, on northern tip of Little Talbot Island State Park: a depth of more than 72 inches.
Kureb soils are geographically associated with Cornelia,
A1-0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single grained; Kureb soils are geographically associated with Cornelia,
loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Kershaw, Mandarin, and Ortega soils. Kureb soils have a
C-6 to 90 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine sand; single grained; yellow to strong brown B horizon, whereas Cornelia soils
loose; common horizontal bands of rutile and ilmenite; slightly acid. have a spodic horizon of low value and chroma. Kureb
Content of silt plus clay is less than 5 percent, and texture is fine soils differ from Kershaw soils by having an albic horizon,
sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from from Mandarin soils by not having a spodic horizon of low
strongly acid through mildly alkaline in the Al horizon and from medi- value and chroma and by being excessively drained, and
um acid to mildly alkaline in the C horizon, from Ortega soils by having an albic horizon and by being
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or excessively drained.
2. Thickness ranges from 0 to 6 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 and 8, and chroma of 2 or Typical pedon of Kureb fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes,
3. Few to many horizontal bands of black heavy mineral, mostly rutile 1 mile east of Monument Road, 0.75 mile south of the east
and ilmenite, occur in this horizon. This horizon extends to a depth of end of Ft. Caroline Road, Land Grant 45, T. 1 S., R. 28 E.:
more than 80 inches.
Al-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
Kershaw series very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A2-4 to 16 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
The Kershaw series is a member of the thermic, un- C&Bh-16 to 60 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single grained;
coated family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of loose; common tongues filled with light colored fine sand from the
gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained, acid soils A horizon above, outer edges of the tongues are dark reddish brown
that formed in thick deposits of marine sands. These soils (5YR 3/2) and are weakly cemented; very strongly acid; gradual
occur on broad ridges and isolated knolls. Slopes are wavy boundary.
C-60 to 82 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) fine sand; single
smooth to convex and range from 2 to 8 percent. The grained; loose; few firm tongues of reddish brown (5YR 4/4);
water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. strongly acid.
Kershaw soils are geographically associated with Alpin, Sand thickness exceeds 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from very
Pottsburg, and Ortega soils. Kershaw soils differ from strongly acid to slightly acid. Texture of all horizons is fine sand.
Alpin soils by not having lamellae within a depth of 80 The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of
inches. Kershaw soils have a thin A horizon and a pale 1. Thickness ranges from 1 to 4 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR,
brown to yellow C horizon, whereas Pottsburg soils have value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 5 to 25 inches thick.
a spodic horizon at a depth of more than 50 inches. The C part of the C&Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 4 through 8. Thickness ranges from 16 to 47 inches. Common
Kershaw soils differ from Ortega soils by showing no to many coarse tongues of A2 material are present in the C&Bh horizon.
evidence of wetness within a depth of 40 to 60 inches. The Bh part occurs as thin (usually less than 2 inches thick), weakly ce-
Typical pedon of Kershaw fine sand, 2 to 8 percent mented, discontinuous layers at the contact of the A2 horizon and the
slopes, 0.75 mile east of Monument Road, 1.25 miles south edges of the tongues of A2 material. The Bh part has hue of 10YR,
of Mt. Pleasant Road, NE1/4NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 4, T. 2 S., value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 3 or 4; hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and
R. 28 E.: chroma of 2 through 4; or hue of 5YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2
through 4.
Al-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; single grained; The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 4; or value
loose; few medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. of 7 and 8 and chroma of 4 through 8. It extends to a depth of more
Cl3 to 51 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand; single than 80 inches. In some pedons tongues of Bh horizon material extend
C1--3 to 51 inches; light yellowish brown (1YR 6/4) fine sand; single downward into the C horizon.
grained; loose; few to many fine roots; strongly acid; gradualthe hozon
smooth boundary.
C2-51 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine sand; single Leon series
grained; loose; few fine roots; medium acid.
The Leon series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid. Texture Thrmic family e a n
of all horizons is fine sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. Content of thermic fa ly of Aeric Haplaquods. It consists of nearly
silt plus clay within the 10- to 40-inch control section is less than 5 per- level, poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of
cent. marine sands. These soils occur in broad flatwoods areas.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 per-
1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 5 inches. cent Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 through 8, and chroma of 3 c U
through 8. It extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a
depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8 months or more during
Kureb series most years.
Leon soils are geographically associated with Mascotte,
The Kureb series is a member of the thermic, uncoated Ortega, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Wesconnett soils. Leon
family of Spodic Quartzipsamments. It consists of gently soils differ from Mascotte soils by not having an argillic
sloping to moderately steep, excessively drained soils that horizon beneath the spodic horizon. Leon soils differ from
formed in thick beds of marine, fluvial, or eolian sands. Ortega soils by having a spodic horizon and by being








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

Typical pedon of Fripp fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes, These soils occur on broad upland ridges. Slopes are con-
2.3 miles north of Park office, 1.4 miles east of Highway vex and range from 2 to 20 percent. The water table is at
A1A, on northern tip of Little Talbot Island State Park: a depth of more than 72 inches.
Kureb soils are geographically associated with Cornelia,
A1-0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single grained; Kureb soils are geographically associated with Cornelia,
loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Kershaw, Mandarin, and Ortega soils. Kureb soils have a
C-6 to 90 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine sand; single grained; yellow to strong brown B horizon, whereas Cornelia soils
loose; common horizontal bands of rutile and ilmenite; slightly acid. have a spodic horizon of low value and chroma. Kureb
Content of silt plus clay is less than 5 percent, and texture is fine soils differ from Kershaw soils by having an albic horizon,
sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from from Mandarin soils by not having a spodic horizon of low
strongly acid through mildly alkaline in the Al horizon and from medi- value and chroma and by being excessively drained, and
um acid to mildly alkaline in the C horizon, from Ortega soils by having an albic horizon and by being
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or excessively drained.
2. Thickness ranges from 0 to 6 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 and 8, and chroma of 2 or Typical pedon of Kureb fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes,
3. Few to many horizontal bands of black heavy mineral, mostly rutile 1 mile east of Monument Road, 0.75 mile south of the east
and ilmenite, occur in this horizon. This horizon extends to a depth of end of Ft. Caroline Road, Land Grant 45, T. 1 S., R. 28 E.:
more than 80 inches.
Al-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
Kershaw series very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A2-4 to 16 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
The Kershaw series is a member of the thermic, un- C&Bh-16 to 60 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single grained;
coated family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of loose; common tongues filled with light colored fine sand from the
gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained, acid soils A horizon above, outer edges of the tongues are dark reddish brown
that formed in thick deposits of marine sands. These soils (5YR 3/2) and are weakly cemented; very strongly acid; gradual
occur on broad ridges and isolated knolls. Slopes are wavy boundary.
C-60 to 82 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) fine sand; single
smooth to convex and range from 2 to 8 percent. The grained; loose; few firm tongues of reddish brown (5YR 4/4);
water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. strongly acid.
Kershaw soils are geographically associated with Alpin, Sand thickness exceeds 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from very
Pottsburg, and Ortega soils. Kershaw soils differ from strongly acid to slightly acid. Texture of all horizons is fine sand.
Alpin soils by not having lamellae within a depth of 80 The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of
inches. Kershaw soils have a thin A horizon and a pale 1. Thickness ranges from 1 to 4 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR,
brown to yellow C horizon, whereas Pottsburg soils have value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 5 to 25 inches thick.
a spodic horizon at a depth of more than 50 inches. The C part of the C&Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 4 through 8. Thickness ranges from 16 to 47 inches. Common
Kershaw soils differ from Ortega soils by showing no to many coarse tongues of A2 material are present in the C&Bh horizon.
evidence of wetness within a depth of 40 to 60 inches. The Bh part occurs as thin (usually less than 2 inches thick), weakly ce-
Typical pedon of Kershaw fine sand, 2 to 8 percent mented, discontinuous layers at the contact of the A2 horizon and the
slopes, 0.75 mile east of Monument Road, 1.25 miles south edges of the tongues of A2 material. The Bh part has hue of 10YR,
of Mt. Pleasant Road, NE1/4NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 4, T. 2 S., value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 3 or 4; hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and
R. 28 E.: chroma of 2 through 4; or hue of 5YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2
through 4.
Al-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; single grained; The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 4; or value
loose; few medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. of 7 and 8 and chroma of 4 through 8. It extends to a depth of more
Cl3 to 51 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand; single than 80 inches. In some pedons tongues of Bh horizon material extend
C1--3 to 51 inches; light yellowish brown (1YR 6/4) fine sand; single downward into the C horizon.
grained; loose; few to many fine roots; strongly acid; gradualthe hozon
smooth boundary.
C2-51 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine sand; single Leon series
grained; loose; few fine roots; medium acid.
The Leon series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid. Texture Thrmic family e a n
of all horizons is fine sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. Content of thermic fa ly of Aeric Haplaquods. It consists of nearly
silt plus clay within the 10- to 40-inch control section is less than 5 per- level, poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of
cent. marine sands. These soils occur in broad flatwoods areas.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 per-
1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 5 inches. cent Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 through 8, and chroma of 3 c U
through 8. It extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a
depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8 months or more during
Kureb series most years.
Leon soils are geographically associated with Mascotte,
The Kureb series is a member of the thermic, uncoated Ortega, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Wesconnett soils. Leon
family of Spodic Quartzipsamments. It consists of gently soils differ from Mascotte soils by not having an argillic
sloping to moderately steep, excessively drained soils that horizon beneath the spodic horizon. Leon soils differ from
formed in thick beds of marine, fluvial, or eolian sands. Ortega soils by having a spodic horizon and by being








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

Typical pedon of Fripp fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes, These soils occur on broad upland ridges. Slopes are con-
2.3 miles north of Park office, 1.4 miles east of Highway vex and range from 2 to 20 percent. The water table is at
A1A, on northern tip of Little Talbot Island State Park: a depth of more than 72 inches.
Kureb soils are geographically associated with Cornelia,
A1-0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single grained; Kureb soils are geographically associated with Cornelia,
loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Kershaw, Mandarin, and Ortega soils. Kureb soils have a
C-6 to 90 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine sand; single grained; yellow to strong brown B horizon, whereas Cornelia soils
loose; common horizontal bands of rutile and ilmenite; slightly acid. have a spodic horizon of low value and chroma. Kureb
Content of silt plus clay is less than 5 percent, and texture is fine soils differ from Kershaw soils by having an albic horizon,
sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from from Mandarin soils by not having a spodic horizon of low
strongly acid through mildly alkaline in the Al horizon and from medi- value and chroma and by being excessively drained, and
um acid to mildly alkaline in the C horizon, from Ortega soils by having an albic horizon and by being
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or excessively drained.
2. Thickness ranges from 0 to 6 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 and 8, and chroma of 2 or Typical pedon of Kureb fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes,
3. Few to many horizontal bands of black heavy mineral, mostly rutile 1 mile east of Monument Road, 0.75 mile south of the east
and ilmenite, occur in this horizon. This horizon extends to a depth of end of Ft. Caroline Road, Land Grant 45, T. 1 S., R. 28 E.:
more than 80 inches.
Al-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
Kershaw series very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A2-4 to 16 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
The Kershaw series is a member of the thermic, un- C&Bh-16 to 60 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single grained;
coated family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of loose; common tongues filled with light colored fine sand from the
gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained, acid soils A horizon above, outer edges of the tongues are dark reddish brown
that formed in thick deposits of marine sands. These soils (5YR 3/2) and are weakly cemented; very strongly acid; gradual
occur on broad ridges and isolated knolls. Slopes are wavy boundary.
C-60 to 82 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) fine sand; single
smooth to convex and range from 2 to 8 percent. The grained; loose; few firm tongues of reddish brown (5YR 4/4);
water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. strongly acid.
Kershaw soils are geographically associated with Alpin, Sand thickness exceeds 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from very
Pottsburg, and Ortega soils. Kershaw soils differ from strongly acid to slightly acid. Texture of all horizons is fine sand.
Alpin soils by not having lamellae within a depth of 80 The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of
inches. Kershaw soils have a thin A horizon and a pale 1. Thickness ranges from 1 to 4 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR,
brown to yellow C horizon, whereas Pottsburg soils have value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 5 to 25 inches thick.
a spodic horizon at a depth of more than 50 inches. The C part of the C&Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 4 through 8. Thickness ranges from 16 to 47 inches. Common
Kershaw soils differ from Ortega soils by showing no to many coarse tongues of A2 material are present in the C&Bh horizon.
evidence of wetness within a depth of 40 to 60 inches. The Bh part occurs as thin (usually less than 2 inches thick), weakly ce-
Typical pedon of Kershaw fine sand, 2 to 8 percent mented, discontinuous layers at the contact of the A2 horizon and the
slopes, 0.75 mile east of Monument Road, 1.25 miles south edges of the tongues of A2 material. The Bh part has hue of 10YR,
of Mt. Pleasant Road, NE1/4NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 4, T. 2 S., value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 3 or 4; hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and
R. 28 E.: chroma of 2 through 4; or hue of 5YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2
through 4.
Al-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; single grained; The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 4; or value
loose; few medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. of 7 and 8 and chroma of 4 through 8. It extends to a depth of more
Cl3 to 51 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand; single than 80 inches. In some pedons tongues of Bh horizon material extend
C1--3 to 51 inches; light yellowish brown (1YR 6/4) fine sand; single downward into the C horizon.
grained; loose; few to many fine roots; strongly acid; gradualthe hozon
smooth boundary.
C2-51 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine sand; single Leon series
grained; loose; few fine roots; medium acid.
The Leon series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid. Texture Thrmic family e a n
of all horizons is fine sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. Content of thermic fa ly of Aeric Haplaquods. It consists of nearly
silt plus clay within the 10- to 40-inch control section is less than 5 per- level, poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of
cent. marine sands. These soils occur in broad flatwoods areas.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 per-
1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 5 inches. cent Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 through 8, and chroma of 3 c U
through 8. It extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a
depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8 months or more during
Kureb series most years.
Leon soils are geographically associated with Mascotte,
The Kureb series is a member of the thermic, uncoated Ortega, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Wesconnett soils. Leon
family of Spodic Quartzipsamments. It consists of gently soils differ from Mascotte soils by not having an argillic
sloping to moderately steep, excessively drained soils that horizon beneath the spodic horizon. Leon soils differ from
formed in thick beds of marine, fluvial, or eolian sands. Ortega soils by having a spodic horizon and by being









44 SOIL SURVEY

more poorly drained. Leon soils have a spodic horizon at a Lynn Haven soils differ from Ridgeland soils by having
depth of less than 30 inches, whereas Pottsburg soils have an albic horizon and from Leon and Pottsburg soils by
a spodic horizon at a depth of more than 50 inches. Leon having an umbric epipedon. In addition, Pottsburg soils
soils differ from Ridgeland and Wesconnett soils by hav- have a spodic horizon at a depth of more than 50 inches.
ing an albic horizon. Lynn Haven soils differ from Ortega soils by having an
Typical pedon of Leon fine sand, 800 feet west of U.S. umbric horizon and a spodic horizon and by being more
Highway 17, 1,600 feet north of Duval Road, poorly drained. Lynn Haven soils differ from Wesconnett
NE1/4NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 20, T. 1 N., R. 27 E.: soils by having an albic horizon, and in addition, Wescon-
All--0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine nett soils are very poorly drained.
granular structure; very friable; extremely acid; gradual smooth Typical pedon of Lynn Haven fine sand, 100 feet north
boundary, of Yellow Bluff Road, 1.44 miles east of U.S. Highway 17,
A12-5 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single grained; SE1/4NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 3, T. 1 N., R. 27 E.:
loose; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A2-8 to 18 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; All-0 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine granular struc-
strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. ture; very friable; few uncoated sand grains; extremely acid;
B21h-18 to 26 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; moderate medium sub- gradual wavy boundary.
angular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well A12-7 to 13 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine
coated with organic matter; extremely acid; gradual smooth bounda- granular structure; very friable; many uncoated sand grains; very
ry. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22h-26 to 37 inches; very dark gray (5YR 3/1) fine sand; common A2-13 to 21 inches; mixed light gray (10YR 7/1) and gray (10YR 6/1)
medium faint black (N 2/0) splotches; weak medium subangular fine sand; single grained; loose; many root channels filled with black
blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated (10YR 2/1) and very dark gray (10YR 3/1); very strongly acid; dear
with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. wavy boundary.
B3-37 to 45 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; common fine B21h-21 to 35 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine subangular
faint very dark grayish brown mottles; weak fine subangular blocky blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated
structure; very friable; very strongly acid; gradual smooth bounda- with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
ry. B22h-35 to 48 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine sand; weak
B'2h-45 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few tongues of black (SYR
fine subangular blocky structure; nonsticky; weakly cemented; sand 2/1) fine sand extend from above horizon; weakly cemented; sand
grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly acid. grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid, and in some B31h-48 to 62 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) fine sand; few fine
pedons the reaction in the A horizons ranges to neutral where lime has faint dark brown mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
been applied. Texture of all horizons is fine sand. structure; friable; sand grains well coated with organic matter;
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or N, value of 2 through 4, strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
and chroma of 1 or less. Thickness ranges from 3 to 9 inches. The A2 B32h-62 to 80 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/3) fine sand; moderate
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It medium subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented;
is 9 to 18 inches thick. Total thickness of the A horizon is less than 30 sand grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly acid.
inches.
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid. Texture of
through 4; or it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2. Thickness all horizons is fine sand.
ranges from 11 to 20 inches. This horizon is weakly cemented, and sand The Al horzon has hue of 1YR or N, value of 2 throughh 4e and
grains are well coated with organic matter. chroma of 1 or less. Thickness ranges from 11 to 17 inches.
The B3 horizon as described does not occur in all pedons. Where The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of
The B3 horizon as described does not occur in all pedons. Where 1 or 2. It is 3 to 15 inches thick. Total thickness of the A horizons is less
present, it has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2 or 3. Thickness or 2 It isto 15 ches ck Total ness of the A horizons is less
ranges from 0 to 11 inches. than 30 inches.
Some pedons also have an A'2 horizon. This horizon has hue of 10YR The B2h horizon as hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1
value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 0 to 18 through 4; hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 through 3; or
inches. hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2. Thickness ranges from 9 to 30
The B'2h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 inches. This horizon is weakly cemented, and sand grains are well coated
through 3. It extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. with organic matter.
The B3h horizons have hue of 10YR and 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 2 through 4; hue of 5YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of
Lynn Haven series 2 through 6. Thickness ranges from 0 to 34 inches.
Some pedons have an A'2 horizon and a B'2h horizon. The A'2 horizon
The Lynn Haven series is a member of the sandy, has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 through 4. It is
siliceous, thermic family of Typic Haplaquods. It consists 0 to 15 inches thick. The B'2h horizon has hue of 10YX, value of 2 or 3,
of nearly level, poorly drained soils that formed in thick and chroma of 1 through 3; hue of N, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 0. It
of nearly level, poorly drained soils that formed in thick extends to a depth of more than 80 inches.
beds of marine sand. These soils occur in broad flatwood
areas. Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 Mandarin series
percent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a The Mandarin series is a member of the sandy,
depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8 months during most siliceous, thermic family of Typic Haplohumods. It con-
years. sists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained, acid soils
Lynn Haven soils are geographically associated with that formed in thick beds of acid marine sands. These
Leon, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, Ortega, and Wesconnett soils, soils occur on narrow to broad ridges slightly higher than









44 SOIL SURVEY

more poorly drained. Leon soils have a spodic horizon at a Lynn Haven soils differ from Ridgeland soils by having
depth of less than 30 inches, whereas Pottsburg soils have an albic horizon and from Leon and Pottsburg soils by
a spodic horizon at a depth of more than 50 inches. Leon having an umbric epipedon. In addition, Pottsburg soils
soils differ from Ridgeland and Wesconnett soils by hav- have a spodic horizon at a depth of more than 50 inches.
ing an albic horizon. Lynn Haven soils differ from Ortega soils by having an
Typical pedon of Leon fine sand, 800 feet west of U.S. umbric horizon and a spodic horizon and by being more
Highway 17, 1,600 feet north of Duval Road, poorly drained. Lynn Haven soils differ from Wesconnett
NE1/4NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 20, T. 1 N., R. 27 E.: soils by having an albic horizon, and in addition, Wescon-
All--0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine nett soils are very poorly drained.
granular structure; very friable; extremely acid; gradual smooth Typical pedon of Lynn Haven fine sand, 100 feet north
boundary, of Yellow Bluff Road, 1.44 miles east of U.S. Highway 17,
A12-5 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single grained; SE1/4NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 3, T. 1 N., R. 27 E.:
loose; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A2-8 to 18 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; All-0 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine granular struc-
strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. ture; very friable; few uncoated sand grains; extremely acid;
B21h-18 to 26 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; moderate medium sub- gradual wavy boundary.
angular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well A12-7 to 13 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine
coated with organic matter; extremely acid; gradual smooth bounda- granular structure; very friable; many uncoated sand grains; very
ry. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22h-26 to 37 inches; very dark gray (5YR 3/1) fine sand; common A2-13 to 21 inches; mixed light gray (10YR 7/1) and gray (10YR 6/1)
medium faint black (N 2/0) splotches; weak medium subangular fine sand; single grained; loose; many root channels filled with black
blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated (10YR 2/1) and very dark gray (10YR 3/1); very strongly acid; dear
with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. wavy boundary.
B3-37 to 45 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; common fine B21h-21 to 35 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine subangular
faint very dark grayish brown mottles; weak fine subangular blocky blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated
structure; very friable; very strongly acid; gradual smooth bounda- with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
ry. B22h-35 to 48 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine sand; weak
B'2h-45 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few tongues of black (SYR
fine subangular blocky structure; nonsticky; weakly cemented; sand 2/1) fine sand extend from above horizon; weakly cemented; sand
grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly acid. grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid, and in some B31h-48 to 62 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) fine sand; few fine
pedons the reaction in the A horizons ranges to neutral where lime has faint dark brown mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
been applied. Texture of all horizons is fine sand. structure; friable; sand grains well coated with organic matter;
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or N, value of 2 through 4, strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
and chroma of 1 or less. Thickness ranges from 3 to 9 inches. The A2 B32h-62 to 80 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/3) fine sand; moderate
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It medium subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented;
is 9 to 18 inches thick. Total thickness of the A horizon is less than 30 sand grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly acid.
inches.
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid. Texture of
through 4; or it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2. Thickness all horizons is fine sand.
ranges from 11 to 20 inches. This horizon is weakly cemented, and sand The Al horzon has hue of 1YR or N, value of 2 throughh 4e and
grains are well coated with organic matter. chroma of 1 or less. Thickness ranges from 11 to 17 inches.
The B3 horizon as described does not occur in all pedons. Where The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of
The B3 horizon as described does not occur in all pedons. Where 1 or 2. It is 3 to 15 inches thick. Total thickness of the A horizons is less
present, it has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2 or 3. Thickness or 2 It isto 15 ches ck Total ness of the A horizons is less
ranges from 0 to 11 inches. than 30 inches.
Some pedons also have an A'2 horizon. This horizon has hue of 10YR The B2h horizon as hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1
value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 0 to 18 through 4; hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 through 3; or
inches. hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2. Thickness ranges from 9 to 30
The B'2h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 inches. This horizon is weakly cemented, and sand grains are well coated
through 3. It extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. with organic matter.
The B3h horizons have hue of 10YR and 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 2 through 4; hue of 5YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of
Lynn Haven series 2 through 6. Thickness ranges from 0 to 34 inches.
Some pedons have an A'2 horizon and a B'2h horizon. The A'2 horizon
The Lynn Haven series is a member of the sandy, has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 through 4. It is
siliceous, thermic family of Typic Haplaquods. It consists 0 to 15 inches thick. The B'2h horizon has hue of 10YX, value of 2 or 3,
of nearly level, poorly drained soils that formed in thick and chroma of 1 through 3; hue of N, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 0. It
of nearly level, poorly drained soils that formed in thick extends to a depth of more than 80 inches.
beds of marine sand. These soils occur in broad flatwood
areas. Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 Mandarin series
percent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a The Mandarin series is a member of the sandy,
depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8 months during most siliceous, thermic family of Typic Haplohumods. It con-
years. sists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained, acid soils
Lynn Haven soils are geographically associated with that formed in thick beds of acid marine sands. These
Leon, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, Ortega, and Wesconnett soils, soils occur on narrow to broad ridges slightly higher than








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

the adjacent flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex and The B'h horizon has the same color range as the Bh horizon. It ex-
range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the tends to a depth of more than 80 inches. This horizon is weakly ce-
water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 4 to 6 mented, and the sand grains are coated with organic matter.
months during most years. It is at a depth of 10 to 20 Masotte series
inches for periods of as much as 2 weeks in some years.
Mandarin soils are geographically associated with Leon, The Mascotte series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
Mascotte, Ortega, and Pottsburg soils. Mandarin soils are thermic family of Ultic Haplaquods. It consists of nearly
somewhat poorly drained, whereas Leon and Mascotte level, poorly drained soils that formed in marine deposits
soils have a water table above a depth of 10 inches for of sandy and loamy sediments. These soils occur in broad
some periods during the year. Also, Mascotte soils have flatwood areas. Slopes are smooth to convex and range
an argillic horizon below the spodic horizon. Mandarin from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the water
soils differ from Ortega and Pottsburg soils by having a table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months
spodic horizon at a depth of less than 30 inches, and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8 months during
Typical pedon of Mandarin fine sand, 3,000 feet north most years.
of Atlantic Boulevard, 0.7 mile west of Girvin Road, Mascotte soils are geographically associated with Al-
NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 22, T. 2 S., R. 28 E.: bany, Leon, Pelham, and Sapelo soils. Mascotte soils differ
A1-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak fine granular from Albany soils by having a spodic horizon. Mascotte
structure; very friable; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. soils have an argillic horizon, whereas Leon soils do not.
A21-4 to 8 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; single Mascotte soils differ from Pelham soils by having a spodic
grained; loose; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. horizon. Mascotte soils differ from Sapelo soils by having
A22-8 to 26 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; single grained;
loose; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. an argillic horizon at a depth of less than 40 inches.
B21h-26 to 30 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) fine sand; Typical pedon of Mascotte fine sand, 500 feet north of
weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; weakly ce- Duval Station Road, 200 feet east of Starrett Road, Land
mented; sand grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly Grant 37, T. 1 N., R. 27 E.:
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22h-30 to 35 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine sand; few medi- A1--0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular struc-
um faint dark brown mottles; weak fine subangular blocky struc- ture; very friable; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
ture; very friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated with A21-5 to 8 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B23h-35 to 40 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; few fine faint yel- A22-8 to 15 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; single
lowish brown mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky struc- grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
ture; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated with organic B21h-15 to 21 inches; black (5YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; weak fine sub-
matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. angular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well
B3-40 to 46 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single grained; loose; coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth
medium acid; gradual smooth boundary, boundary.
A'21-46 to 56 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; single grained; B22h-21 to 23 inches; very dusky red (2.5YR 2/2) loamy fine sand;
loose; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly ce-
A'22-56 to 62 inches; white (10YR 8/1) find sand; few medium faint mented; sand grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly
very pale brown mottles; single grained; loose; neutral; gradual acid; clear wavy boundary.
wavy boundary. B23h-23 to 25 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) loamy fine sand;
A'23-62 to 73 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly ce-
grained; loose; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. mented; sand grains well coated with organic matter; very strongly
B'2h-73 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few fine distinct acid; clear wavy boundary.
white mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; A'2&B3-25 to 28 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) and dark brown (7.5YR
weakly cemented; sand grains coated with organic matter; medium 4/4) loamy fine sand; few fine faint brownish yellow and many fine
acid. faint light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; weak fine subangu-
lar blocky structure; strongly acid; friable; clear wavy boundary.
Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to medium acid in the A and B21tg-28 to 46 inches; coarsely mottled gray (10YR 6/1) and yellowish
Bh horizons and from medium acid to neutral in the B3, A'2, and B'2h red (5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
The Al horizon hasll hue horizons is finvalue sand.of 2 through 6, and chroma of structure; slightly sticky; very strongly acid; gradual wavy bounda-
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 6, and chroma of ry.
1; or it has hue of N, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 0. Thickness 22tg-46 to 58 inches; coarsely mottled light gray (N 7/0), strong
ranges from 2 to 6 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 brown (7.5YR 5/8), and red (0R 4/8) fine sandy loam; moderate
through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 14 to 24 inches thick. Total fine subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; strongly acid;
thickness of the A horizon is less than 30 inches. gradual wavy boundary.
The Bh horizon has hue of 2.5YR, value of 2.5 or 3, and chroma of 2 Cg-58 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sand; common medium faint light
through 4; hue of 5YR, value of 2.5 or 3, and chroma of 1 through 4; hue brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; single grained; nonsticky; medi-
of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, um acid.
and chroma of 1 through 3. Thickness ranges from 5 to 34 inches. This
horizon is weakly cemented, and the sand grains are well coated with or- Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid throughout
ganic matter. the solum and from extremely acid to medium acid in the C horizon.
The B3 horizon occurs in most pedons. It has hue of 10YR, value of 4 Depth to the underlying argillic horizon is 29 to 38 inches.
through 6, and chroma of 2 through 4; or it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and
and chroma of 2 through 4; or value of 5 and chroma of 4. It is 0 to 17 chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 3 to 8 inches. Texture is fine sand.
inches thick. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of
The A'2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma 1 or 2. It is 9 to 18 inches thick. Texture is fine sand. Total thickness of
of 1 or 2. the A horizon is less than 30 inches.








46 SOIL SURVEY

The B2h horizon has hue of 2.5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2 Olustee series
through 4; hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 through 3; hue
of 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 through 4; hue of 10YR, value The Olustee series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of N, value of 2, and chroma of 0. Tex- thermic family of Ultic Haplaquods. It consists of nearly
ture is fine sand or loamy fine sand. Thickness ranges from 5 to 17 level poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of
inches. This horizon is weakly cemented, and sand grains are well coated
with organic matter. sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils occur in
The A'2&B3 horizon as described does not occur in all pedons. Where broad flatwood areas. Slopes are smooth to convex and
present, the A'2 part has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the
of 2 or 3. The B3 part has hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 4; or water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4
hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 3. It ranges in months and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8
thickness from 0 to 16 inches. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand. months during most years.
The B'2tg horizon has hue of N, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 Olustee soils are geographically associate with Leon,
or 2; hue of N, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 0; or hue of 2.5Y, elustee soils are geographically assorted with Leon,
value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2. It has mottles in shades of yellow, Pelham, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Sapelo soils. Olustee
brown, and red. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. soils differ from Leon soils by having an argillic horizon.
Thickness ranges from 18 to 34 inches. Olustee soils have a spodic horizon, whereas Pelham soils
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 1 or do not. Olustee soils differ from Pottsburg soils by having
2. This horizon is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 80 inches or a spodic horizon within a depth of 12 inches, by having an
more. argillic horizon, and by being more poorly drained.
Maurepas series Olustee soils differ from Ridgeland soils by having an ar-
r gillic horizon. Olustee soils have an argillic horizon within
The Maurepas series is a member of the euic, thermic a depth of 40 inches, whereas Sapelo soils have an argillic
horizon below a depth of 40 inches.
family of Typic Medisaprists. It consists of nearly level, horizon below a depth of 40 iches.
very poorly drained, organic soils that formed from her- Interstate Highway 295, 250 feet west of Lem Turner
baceous and woody fibrous hydrophytic plant remains. Road, SW1/4SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 33, T. 1 N., R. 26 E.:
These soils occur in large drainageways and depressions.
Slopes are smooth to concave, and slope is less than 1 A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular struc-
ture; very friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
percent. Under natural conditions, either the water table B21h-6 to 11 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine
is at a depth of less than 10 inches or the soil is covered granular structure; very friable; weakly cemented; many uncoated
by water for 6 to 12 months during most years. sand grains; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
Maurepas soils are geographically associated with Leon, B22h-11 to 21 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak medium suban-
s gular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well
Pamlico, Pottsburg, Surrency, Tisonia, and Wesconnett coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy bounda-
soils. All of the associated soils are of mineral origin ex- ry.
cept Pamlico soils. Maurepas soils differ from Pamlico A'2-21 to 36 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
soils by being less acid and by having sapric horizons at a B'2tg-36 to 54 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; few fine
depth of more than 52 inches. prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and many medium distinct
Typical pedon of Maurepas muck, 100 feet south of brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; many medium distinct reddish
Timuquana Road and 700 feet east of the Ortega River, yellow (7.5YR 6/8) mottles that appear to be in old root channels;
i ana R a 7 f e o t O a R moderate medium subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; very
Land Grant 42, T. 3 S., R. 26 E.: strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Clg-54 to 64 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; few fine faint
Oal-0 to 55 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) unrubbed and gray mottles; few medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mot-
rubbed muck; about 30 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent tles that appear to be in old root channels; weak medium subangu-
fiber rubbed; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; lar blocky structure; nonsticky; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
estimated mineral content 20 percent; common woody fragments of boundary.
roots, logs, and stumps; mildly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. C2g-64 to 80 inches; mixed light gray (5Y 7/1) and gray (5Y 6/1) fine
0a2-55 to 80 inches; black (N 2/0) unrubbed and rubbed muck; about sand; single grained; nonsticky; very strongly acid.
45 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; massive,
parts to weak medium subangular blocky structure; estimated Depth to the underlying argillic horizon is 24 to 38 inches Soil reac-
mineral content 20 percent; common woody fragments of roots, logs, horizons and is very strongly acid or strongly acid in the other horizons
and stumps; moderately alkaline. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of
Soil reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline. The Oa 1. Thickness ranges from 5 to 9 inches Texture is fine sand.
horizon is well decomposed organic matter. It has hue of 10YR or 5YR, The B2h horizon has hue of R and 7.YR, vale of 2 or 3, and
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of N, value of 2, and chroma of 1 through 4; or hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of N, value of 2, and through 3. Thickness ranges from 13 to 28 inches. This horizon is weakly
chroma of 0. Before rubbing, the fiber content is 20 to 50 percent; after cemented, and sand grains are well coated with organic matter. Texture
rubbing, the fiber content is 2 to 16 percent. Fibers are typically those is fine sand.
of nonwoody plants, but some pedons contain fiber of woody plants. The A'2 horizon has hue of 10 YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of
Content of woody fibers ranges from 10 to 30 percent, unrubbed, of the 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow brown, or black.
organic volume. Mineral content ranges from 10 to 30 percent. Thickness Thickness ranges from 4 to 25 inches. Texture is fine sand.
of organic horizons exceeds 65 inches. Underlying materials are sandy or The B'2g horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1
clayey. through 3; or hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.








46 SOIL SURVEY

The B2h horizon has hue of 2.5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2 Olustee series
through 4; hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 through 3; hue
of 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 through 4; hue of 10YR, value The Olustee series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of N, value of 2, and chroma of 0. Tex- thermic family of Ultic Haplaquods. It consists of nearly
ture is fine sand or loamy fine sand. Thickness ranges from 5 to 17 level poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of
inches. This horizon is weakly cemented, and sand grains are well coated
with organic matter. sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils occur in
The A'2&B3 horizon as described does not occur in all pedons. Where broad flatwood areas. Slopes are smooth to convex and
present, the A'2 part has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the
of 2 or 3. The B3 part has hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 4; or water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4
hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 3. It ranges in months and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 8
thickness from 0 to 16 inches. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand. months during most years.
The B'2tg horizon has hue of N, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 Olustee soils are geographically associate with Leon,
or 2; hue of N, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 0; or hue of 2.5Y, elustee soils are geographically assorted with Leon,
value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2. It has mottles in shades of yellow, Pelham, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, and Sapelo soils. Olustee
brown, and red. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. soils differ from Leon soils by having an argillic horizon.
Thickness ranges from 18 to 34 inches. Olustee soils have a spodic horizon, whereas Pelham soils
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 1 or do not. Olustee soils differ from Pottsburg soils by having
2. This horizon is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 80 inches or a spodic horizon within a depth of 12 inches, by having an
more. argillic horizon, and by being more poorly drained.
Maurepas series Olustee soils differ from Ridgeland soils by having an ar-
r gillic horizon. Olustee soils have an argillic horizon within
The Maurepas series is a member of the euic, thermic a depth of 40 inches, whereas Sapelo soils have an argillic
horizon below a depth of 40 inches.
family of Typic Medisaprists. It consists of nearly level, horizon below a depth of 40 iches.
very poorly drained, organic soils that formed from her- Interstate Highway 295, 250 feet west of Lem Turner
baceous and woody fibrous hydrophytic plant remains. Road, SW1/4SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 33, T. 1 N., R. 26 E.:
These soils occur in large drainageways and depressions.
Slopes are smooth to concave, and slope is less than 1 A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular struc-
ture; very friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
percent. Under natural conditions, either the water table B21h-6 to 11 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak fine
is at a depth of less than 10 inches or the soil is covered granular structure; very friable; weakly cemented; many uncoated
by water for 6 to 12 months during most years. sand grains; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
Maurepas soils are geographically associated with Leon, B22h-11 to 21 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak medium suban-
s gular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well
Pamlico, Pottsburg, Surrency, Tisonia, and Wesconnett coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy bounda-
soils. All of the associated soils are of mineral origin ex- ry.
cept Pamlico soils. Maurepas soils differ from Pamlico A'2-21 to 36 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
soils by being less acid and by having sapric horizons at a B'2tg-36 to 54 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; few fine
depth of more than 52 inches. prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and many medium distinct
Typical pedon of Maurepas muck, 100 feet south of brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; many medium distinct reddish
Timuquana Road and 700 feet east of the Ortega River, yellow (7.5YR 6/8) mottles that appear to be in old root channels;
i ana R a 7 f e o t O a R moderate medium subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; very
Land Grant 42, T. 3 S., R. 26 E.: strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Clg-54 to 64 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; few fine faint
Oal-0 to 55 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) unrubbed and gray mottles; few medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mot-
rubbed muck; about 30 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent tles that appear to be in old root channels; weak medium subangu-
fiber rubbed; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; lar blocky structure; nonsticky; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
estimated mineral content 20 percent; common woody fragments of boundary.
roots, logs, and stumps; mildly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. C2g-64 to 80 inches; mixed light gray (5Y 7/1) and gray (5Y 6/1) fine
0a2-55 to 80 inches; black (N 2/0) unrubbed and rubbed muck; about sand; single grained; nonsticky; very strongly acid.
45 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed; massive,
parts to weak medium subangular blocky structure; estimated Depth to the underlying argillic horizon is 24 to 38 inches Soil reac-
mineral content 20 percent; common woody fragments of roots, logs, horizons and is very strongly acid or strongly acid in the other horizons
and stumps; moderately alkaline. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of
Soil reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline. The Oa 1. Thickness ranges from 5 to 9 inches Texture is fine sand.
horizon is well decomposed organic matter. It has hue of 10YR or 5YR, The B2h horizon has hue of R and 7.YR, vale of 2 or 3, and
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of N, value of 2, and chroma of 1 through 4; or hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of N, value of 2, and through 3. Thickness ranges from 13 to 28 inches. This horizon is weakly
chroma of 0. Before rubbing, the fiber content is 20 to 50 percent; after cemented, and sand grains are well coated with organic matter. Texture
rubbing, the fiber content is 2 to 16 percent. Fibers are typically those is fine sand.
of nonwoody plants, but some pedons contain fiber of woody plants. The A'2 horizon has hue of 10 YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of
Content of woody fibers ranges from 10 to 30 percent, unrubbed, of the 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow brown, or black.
organic volume. Mineral content ranges from 10 to 30 percent. Thickness Thickness ranges from 4 to 25 inches. Texture is fine sand.
of organic horizons exceeds 65 inches. Underlying materials are sandy or The B'2g horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1
clayey. through 3; or hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow, brown, or red. Texture is aprists. It consists of nearly level, very poorly drained,
fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 15 to 48 acid soils that formed from nonwoody fibrous hydrophytic
inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and plant remains overlying sandy mineral sediments. These
chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow, red, or soils occur on tributaries of major streams and in depres-
brown. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand. The C horizon extends sions and drainageways. Slopes are smooth to concave
to a depth of more than 80 inches. and range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions,
the water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches or the
Ortega series soil is covered with water for more than 6 months during

The Ortega series is a member of the thermic, uncoated most years.
Pamlico soils are geographically associated with Leon,
family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of nearly Pamlico soils are geographically associated with Leon,
Lynn Haven, Maurepas, and Wesconnett soils. All of the
level to gently sloping, moderately well drained, acid soils Lynn Haven, Maurepas, and Wesconnett soils. All of the
that formed in thick deposits of marine sands. These soils associated soils are of mineral origin except Maurepas
So n t b rid is kno soils. Pamlico soils differ from Maurepas soils by being
occur on narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls.
organic to a depth of less than 40 inches.
Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 5 per- Typic to a dp of amli c c le east a
cent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a of ak 15 l of ha
depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6 months. fee Road, 0.4 mile south of Normandy Boulevard,
Ortega soils are geographically associated with Pott- NE1/4NW /4 sec. 7, T. 3 S., R. 25 E.:
sburg, Leon, Mandarin, and Kershaw soils. Ortega soils Oi-0 to 2 inches; spongy layer of partially decomposed and undecom-
have a light yellowish brown to yellow C horizon whereas posed moss, roots, leaves, and twigs; extremely acid.
Pottsburg soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of 50 Oal-2 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) muck; about 30 percent fiber, 15 per-
cent rubbed; very weak subangular blocky structure; friable; ex-
inches or more. Ortega soils differ from Leon soils by not tremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
having a spodic horizon and by being better drained. Or- Oa2-8 to 32 inches; very dusky red (2.5YR 2/2) muck; about 25 percent
tega soils differ from Mandarin soils by not having a fiber, 5 percent rubbed; very weak subangular blocky structure; fri-
spodic horizon. Ortega soils differ from Kershaw soils by able; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
showing evidence of wetness within a depth of 40 to 60 Oa3--32 to 37 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) muck; less than 5 percent
i rubbed; friable; slightly sticky; extremely acid; gradual wavy boun-
inches. dary.
Typical pedon of Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent IIC1-37 to 62 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) fine sand;
slopes, 1,100 feet east of St. Johns Bluff Road, 1.44 miles single grained; slightly sticky; strongly acid; gradual wavy bounda-
south of Beach Boulevard, NW1/4NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 5, T. ry.
3 S., R. 28 E.: IIC2-62 to 80 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine sand; single grained;
loose; strongly acid.
A1-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; weak fine granu- Depth to the underlying sandy material ranges from 18 to 40 inches.
lar structure; very friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. The i horizon is a layer of partially decomposed and undecomposed
to 33 inces; vry pa le brwn ( R 7) fe sad; e moss, roots, leaves, and twigs. Reaction is extremely acid. Thickness
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. ranges from 0 to 3 inches
C2-33 to 48 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common fine ranges from 0 to 3 inches.
C2--33 to 48 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common fine The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma
and medium distinct white (10YR 8/2) and reddish yellow (7.5YR of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of
6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid; clear smooth boun- 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of N, value of 2 or 3, and
dary. o i chroma of 0. Before rubbing, the fiber content is 20 to 33 percent; after
-48 to 63 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; common medium rubbing, the fiber content is 2 to 16 percent. Reaction is extremely acid.
distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) Thickness ranges from 18 to 38 inches.
mottles; single grained; nonsticky; slightly acid; clear smooth boun- The IC horizons have hue of 75YR or YR, value of 2 through 4,
dary. and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand, and the
C4-63 to 82 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; common coarse distinct o e s to a d of 80 ihes more eaton anger
black (5YR 2/1) mottles; single grained; nonsticky; slightly acid. extremely acid to strongly acid.
extremely acid to strongly acid.
Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid
throughout. Texture in all horizons is fine sand; silt plus clay content is Pelham series
less than 5 percent within a depth of 10 to 40 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Pelham series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
Thickness is 1 to 6 inches. ric family
The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and thermic family of Arenic Paleaquults. It consists of nearly
chroma of 3 through 8. Some pedons have mottles of a higher or lower level, poorly drained soils that formed in marine deposits
chroma. Thickness ranges from 33 to 59 inches. of sandy and loamy sediments. These soils occur in broad
The C3 and C4 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and flatwood areas. Slopes are smooth to convex and range
chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow, yel- from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the water
lowish brown, strong brown, and black The C4 horizon extends to a t i a a d
depth of more than 80 inches. table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months
and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 4 to 12 months or
Pamlico series longer during most years.
Pelham soils are geographically associated with Albany,
The Pamlico series is a member of the sandy or sandy- Mascotte, Olustee, Sapelo, and Yonges soils. Pelham soils
skeletal, siliceous, dysic, thermic family of Terric Medis- differ from the Albany soils by having an argillic horizon








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow, brown, or red. Texture is aprists. It consists of nearly level, very poorly drained,
fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 15 to 48 acid soils that formed from nonwoody fibrous hydrophytic
inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and plant remains overlying sandy mineral sediments. These
chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow, red, or soils occur on tributaries of major streams and in depres-
brown. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand. The C horizon extends sions and drainageways. Slopes are smooth to concave
to a depth of more than 80 inches. and range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions,
the water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches or the
Ortega series soil is covered with water for more than 6 months during

The Ortega series is a member of the thermic, uncoated most years.
Pamlico soils are geographically associated with Leon,
family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of nearly Pamlico soils are geographically associated with Leon,
Lynn Haven, Maurepas, and Wesconnett soils. All of the
level to gently sloping, moderately well drained, acid soils Lynn Haven, Maurepas, and Wesconnett soils. All of the
that formed in thick deposits of marine sands. These soils associated soils are of mineral origin except Maurepas
So n t b rid is kno soils. Pamlico soils differ from Maurepas soils by being
occur on narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls.
organic to a depth of less than 40 inches.
Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 5 per- Typic to a dp of amli c c le east a
cent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a of ak 15 l of ha
depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6 months. fee Road, 0.4 mile south of Normandy Boulevard,
Ortega soils are geographically associated with Pott- NE1/4NW /4 sec. 7, T. 3 S., R. 25 E.:
sburg, Leon, Mandarin, and Kershaw soils. Ortega soils Oi-0 to 2 inches; spongy layer of partially decomposed and undecom-
have a light yellowish brown to yellow C horizon whereas posed moss, roots, leaves, and twigs; extremely acid.
Pottsburg soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of 50 Oal-2 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) muck; about 30 percent fiber, 15 per-
cent rubbed; very weak subangular blocky structure; friable; ex-
inches or more. Ortega soils differ from Leon soils by not tremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
having a spodic horizon and by being better drained. Or- Oa2-8 to 32 inches; very dusky red (2.5YR 2/2) muck; about 25 percent
tega soils differ from Mandarin soils by not having a fiber, 5 percent rubbed; very weak subangular blocky structure; fri-
spodic horizon. Ortega soils differ from Kershaw soils by able; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
showing evidence of wetness within a depth of 40 to 60 Oa3--32 to 37 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) muck; less than 5 percent
i rubbed; friable; slightly sticky; extremely acid; gradual wavy boun-
inches. dary.
Typical pedon of Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent IIC1-37 to 62 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) fine sand;
slopes, 1,100 feet east of St. Johns Bluff Road, 1.44 miles single grained; slightly sticky; strongly acid; gradual wavy bounda-
south of Beach Boulevard, NW1/4NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 5, T. ry.
3 S., R. 28 E.: IIC2-62 to 80 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine sand; single grained;
loose; strongly acid.
A1-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; weak fine granu- Depth to the underlying sandy material ranges from 18 to 40 inches.
lar structure; very friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. The i horizon is a layer of partially decomposed and undecomposed
to 33 inces; vry pa le brwn ( R 7) fe sad; e moss, roots, leaves, and twigs. Reaction is extremely acid. Thickness
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. ranges from 0 to 3 inches
C2-33 to 48 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common fine ranges from 0 to 3 inches.
C2--33 to 48 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common fine The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma
and medium distinct white (10YR 8/2) and reddish yellow (7.5YR of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of
6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid; clear smooth boun- 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of N, value of 2 or 3, and
dary. o i chroma of 0. Before rubbing, the fiber content is 20 to 33 percent; after
-48 to 63 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; common medium rubbing, the fiber content is 2 to 16 percent. Reaction is extremely acid.
distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) Thickness ranges from 18 to 38 inches.
mottles; single grained; nonsticky; slightly acid; clear smooth boun- The IC horizons have hue of 75YR or YR, value of 2 through 4,
dary. and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand, and the
C4-63 to 82 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; common coarse distinct o e s to a d of 80 ihes more eaton anger
black (5YR 2/1) mottles; single grained; nonsticky; slightly acid. extremely acid to strongly acid.
extremely acid to strongly acid.
Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid
throughout. Texture in all horizons is fine sand; silt plus clay content is Pelham series
less than 5 percent within a depth of 10 to 40 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Pelham series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
Thickness is 1 to 6 inches. ric family
The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and thermic family of Arenic Paleaquults. It consists of nearly
chroma of 3 through 8. Some pedons have mottles of a higher or lower level, poorly drained soils that formed in marine deposits
chroma. Thickness ranges from 33 to 59 inches. of sandy and loamy sediments. These soils occur in broad
The C3 and C4 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and flatwood areas. Slopes are smooth to convex and range
chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow, yel- from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the water
lowish brown, strong brown, and black The C4 horizon extends to a t i a a d
depth of more than 80 inches. table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months
and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 4 to 12 months or
Pamlico series longer during most years.
Pelham soils are geographically associated with Albany,
The Pamlico series is a member of the sandy or sandy- Mascotte, Olustee, Sapelo, and Yonges soils. Pelham soils
skeletal, siliceous, dysic, thermic family of Terric Medis- differ from the Albany soils by having an argillic horizon








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow, brown, or red. Texture is aprists. It consists of nearly level, very poorly drained,
fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 15 to 48 acid soils that formed from nonwoody fibrous hydrophytic
inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and plant remains overlying sandy mineral sediments. These
chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow, red, or soils occur on tributaries of major streams and in depres-
brown. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand. The C horizon extends sions and drainageways. Slopes are smooth to concave
to a depth of more than 80 inches. and range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions,
the water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches or the
Ortega series soil is covered with water for more than 6 months during

The Ortega series is a member of the thermic, uncoated most years.
Pamlico soils are geographically associated with Leon,
family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists of nearly Pamlico soils are geographically associated with Leon,
Lynn Haven, Maurepas, and Wesconnett soils. All of the
level to gently sloping, moderately well drained, acid soils Lynn Haven, Maurepas, and Wesconnett soils. All of the
that formed in thick deposits of marine sands. These soils associated soils are of mineral origin except Maurepas
So n t b rid is kno soils. Pamlico soils differ from Maurepas soils by being
occur on narrow to broad ridges and isolated knolls.
organic to a depth of less than 40 inches.
Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 5 per- Typic to a dp of amli c c le east a
cent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a of ak 15 l of ha
depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6 months. fee Road, 0.4 mile south of Normandy Boulevard,
Ortega soils are geographically associated with Pott- NE1/4NW /4 sec. 7, T. 3 S., R. 25 E.:
sburg, Leon, Mandarin, and Kershaw soils. Ortega soils Oi-0 to 2 inches; spongy layer of partially decomposed and undecom-
have a light yellowish brown to yellow C horizon whereas posed moss, roots, leaves, and twigs; extremely acid.
Pottsburg soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of 50 Oal-2 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) muck; about 30 percent fiber, 15 per-
cent rubbed; very weak subangular blocky structure; friable; ex-
inches or more. Ortega soils differ from Leon soils by not tremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
having a spodic horizon and by being better drained. Or- Oa2-8 to 32 inches; very dusky red (2.5YR 2/2) muck; about 25 percent
tega soils differ from Mandarin soils by not having a fiber, 5 percent rubbed; very weak subangular blocky structure; fri-
spodic horizon. Ortega soils differ from Kershaw soils by able; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
showing evidence of wetness within a depth of 40 to 60 Oa3--32 to 37 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) muck; less than 5 percent
i rubbed; friable; slightly sticky; extremely acid; gradual wavy boun-
inches. dary.
Typical pedon of Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent IIC1-37 to 62 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) fine sand;
slopes, 1,100 feet east of St. Johns Bluff Road, 1.44 miles single grained; slightly sticky; strongly acid; gradual wavy bounda-
south of Beach Boulevard, NW1/4NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 5, T. ry.
3 S., R. 28 E.: IIC2-62 to 80 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine sand; single grained;
loose; strongly acid.
A1-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; weak fine granu- Depth to the underlying sandy material ranges from 18 to 40 inches.
lar structure; very friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. The i horizon is a layer of partially decomposed and undecomposed
to 33 inces; vry pa le brwn ( R 7) fe sad; e moss, roots, leaves, and twigs. Reaction is extremely acid. Thickness
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. ranges from 0 to 3 inches
C2-33 to 48 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common fine ranges from 0 to 3 inches.
C2--33 to 48 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common fine The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma
and medium distinct white (10YR 8/2) and reddish yellow (7.5YR of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of
6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid; clear smooth boun- 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of N, value of 2 or 3, and
dary. o i chroma of 0. Before rubbing, the fiber content is 20 to 33 percent; after
-48 to 63 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; common medium rubbing, the fiber content is 2 to 16 percent. Reaction is extremely acid.
distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) Thickness ranges from 18 to 38 inches.
mottles; single grained; nonsticky; slightly acid; clear smooth boun- The IC horizons have hue of 75YR or YR, value of 2 through 4,
dary. and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand, and the
C4-63 to 82 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; common coarse distinct o e s to a d of 80 ihes more eaton anger
black (5YR 2/1) mottles; single grained; nonsticky; slightly acid. extremely acid to strongly acid.
extremely acid to strongly acid.
Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid
throughout. Texture in all horizons is fine sand; silt plus clay content is Pelham series
less than 5 percent within a depth of 10 to 40 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Pelham series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
Thickness is 1 to 6 inches. ric family
The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and thermic family of Arenic Paleaquults. It consists of nearly
chroma of 3 through 8. Some pedons have mottles of a higher or lower level, poorly drained soils that formed in marine deposits
chroma. Thickness ranges from 33 to 59 inches. of sandy and loamy sediments. These soils occur in broad
The C3 and C4 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and flatwood areas. Slopes are smooth to convex and range
chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow, yel- from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the water
lowish brown, strong brown, and black The C4 horizon extends to a t i a a d
depth of more than 80 inches. table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months
and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 4 to 12 months or
Pamlico series longer during most years.
Pelham soils are geographically associated with Albany,
The Pamlico series is a member of the sandy or sandy- Mascotte, Olustee, Sapelo, and Yonges soils. Pelham soils
skeletal, siliceous, dysic, thermic family of Terric Medis- differ from the Albany soils by having an argillic horizon








48 SOIL SURVEY

at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Pelham soils do not have a Wesconnett soils. Pottsburg soils differ from Kershaw
spodic horizon, whereas Mascotte, Olustee, and Sapelo soils by having a spodic horizon at a depth of more than
soils have a spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. 50 inches and by being more poorly drained. Pottsburg
Pelham soils have base saturation of less than 35 percent, soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of more than 50
have mixed mineralogy, are in a fine-loamy family, and inches, whereas Leon and Mandarin soils have a spodic
are arenic, whereas Yonges soils have base saturation of horizon at a depth of less than 30 inches. Pottsburg soils
more than 35 percent and are not arenic. differ from Ortega soils by having a spodic horizon and
Typical pedon of Pelham fine sand, 0.12 mile south of by not having a light yellowish brown C horizon above a
Edgewood Avenue, 400 feet east of U.S. Highway 1, Land depth of 40 inches. Pottsburg soils differ from Ridgeland
Grant 44, T. 1 S., R. 26 E.: and Wesconnett soils by having an albic horizon.
Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; fine granular Typical pedon of Pottsburg fine sand, 02 mile east of
structure; friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. U.S. Highway 1, 0.3 mile south of Greenland Road,
A21-6 to 14 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; very fine NW1/4SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 7, T. 4 S.,R. 28 E.:
granular structure; very friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary. Al-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine granular struc-
A22-14 to 21 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; few fine distinct ture; very friable; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
yellow and strong brown mottles; single grained; loose; very A21-3 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; common fine faint
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. light gray mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable; medi-
B21tg-21 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sandy loam; ur acid; gradual wavy boundary.
common medium distinct yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles and few fine A22-10 to 34 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; common
distinct strong brown mottles; weak fine subangular blocky struc- coarse faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) and few fine faint yellowish
ture; friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. brown mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual smooth
B22tg-26 to 44 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sandy clay loam; boundary.
few fine distinct strong brown mottles and common medium distinct A23-34 to 57 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few medium faint
reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular very pale brown mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual
blocky structure; firm; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, smooth boundary.
B23tg-44 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sandy clay loam; B2h-57 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) fine sand; common
many coarse faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles and common fine faint black mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine suban- very friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated with organic
gular blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy matter; strongly acid.
boundary.
B24tg-60 to 69 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sandy loam; Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly ad in the A
common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak horizon and from very strongly acid to medium acid in the Bh horizon.
fine subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; Texture of all horizons is fine sand.
gradual wavy boundary. The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 8 inches
Solum thickness is 60 inches or more. Soil reaction is very strongly The A21 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma
acid or strongly acid. Depth to the underlying argillic horizon is 20 to 37 of 2 or 3. It is 6 to 26 inches thick. The A22 and A23 horizons have hue
inches, of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1; or of the A2 horizon ranges from 45 to 70 inches. Total thickness of the A
hue of N, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 0. Thickness ranges from 2 to 8 horizons exceeds 50 inches.
inches. The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR, value of 2 through
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to 7, and chroma 4; and chroma of 2 through 4. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or
of 1 or 2. It ranges from 14 to 29 inches in thickness. Total thickness of more. The sand grains in this horizon are well coated with organic
the A horizon is 20 to 40 inches. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand. matter and are weakly cemented.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 2.5Y, 10YR, or N; value of 4 to 6; and
chroma of 2 or less; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 4 through 6, and Ridgeland series
chroma of 1. Mottles are strong brown, yellowish brown, and yellowish
red. The B2tg horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches in thickness. Texture The Ridgeland series is a member of the sandy, mixed,
is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
thermic family of Typic Haplaquods. The weatherable
Pottsburg series minerals are too low in the profile to meet the require-
ments for a mixed family, but this difference does not
The Pottsburg series is a member of the sandy, alter the use and behavior of the soil. The series consists
siliceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Haplaquods. It of nearly level, poorly drained, acid soils that formed in
consists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils marine sands. These soils occur in broad flatwood areas
that formed in thick deposits of marine sands. These soils Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 per-
occur on slightly higher elevations in the flatwoods. cent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 per- depth of less than 10 inches for brief periods of 2 to 4
cent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a weeks, at a depth of 10 to 20 inches for 2 to 4 months,
depth of 6 to 12 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a depth and at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for most of the
of 12 to 40 inches for 6 to 9 months or longer during most remainder of the year during most years.
years. Ridgeland soils are geographically associated with
Pottsburg soils are geographically associated with Leon, Lynn Haven, Ortega, Pottsburg, and Wesconnett
Kershaw, Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, Ridgeland, and soils. Ridgeland soils differ from Leon and Lynn Haven








48 SOIL SURVEY

at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Pelham soils do not have a Wesconnett soils. Pottsburg soils differ from Kershaw
spodic horizon, whereas Mascotte, Olustee, and Sapelo soils by having a spodic horizon at a depth of more than
soils have a spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. 50 inches and by being more poorly drained. Pottsburg
Pelham soils have base saturation of less than 35 percent, soils have a spodic horizon at a depth of more than 50
have mixed mineralogy, are in a fine-loamy family, and inches, whereas Leon and Mandarin soils have a spodic
are arenic, whereas Yonges soils have base saturation of horizon at a depth of less than 30 inches. Pottsburg soils
more than 35 percent and are not arenic. differ from Ortega soils by having a spodic horizon and
Typical pedon of Pelham fine sand, 0.12 mile south of by not having a light yellowish brown C horizon above a
Edgewood Avenue, 400 feet east of U.S. Highway 1, Land depth of 40 inches. Pottsburg soils differ from Ridgeland
Grant 44, T. 1 S., R. 26 E.: and Wesconnett soils by having an albic horizon.
Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; fine granular Typical pedon of Pottsburg fine sand, 02 mile east of
structure; friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. U.S. Highway 1, 0.3 mile south of Greenland Road,
A21-6 to 14 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; very fine NW1/4SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 7, T. 4 S.,R. 28 E.:
granular structure; very friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary. Al-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine granular struc-
A22-14 to 21 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; few fine distinct ture; very friable; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
yellow and strong brown mottles; single grained; loose; very A21-3 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; common fine faint
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. light gray mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable; medi-
B21tg-21 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sandy loam; ur acid; gradual wavy boundary.
common medium distinct yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles and few fine A22-10 to 34 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; common
distinct strong brown mottles; weak fine subangular blocky struc- coarse faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) and few fine faint yellowish
ture; friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. brown mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual smooth
B22tg-26 to 44 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sandy clay loam; boundary.
few fine distinct strong brown mottles and common medium distinct A23-34 to 57 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few medium faint
reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular very pale brown mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual
blocky structure; firm; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, smooth boundary.
B23tg-44 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sandy clay loam; B2h-57 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) fine sand; common
many coarse faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles and common fine faint black mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine suban- very friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated with organic
gular blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy matter; strongly acid.
boundary.
B24tg-60 to 69 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sandy loam; Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly ad in the A
common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak horizon and from very strongly acid to medium acid in the Bh horizon.
fine subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; Texture of all horizons is fine sand.
gradual wavy boundary. The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 8 inches
Solum thickness is 60 inches or more. Soil reaction is very strongly The A21 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma
acid or strongly acid. Depth to the underlying argillic horizon is 20 to 37 of 2 or 3. It is 6 to 26 inches thick. The A22 and A23 horizons have hue
inches, of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1; or of the A2 horizon ranges from 45 to 70 inches. Total thickness of the A
hue of N, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 0. Thickness ranges from 2 to 8 horizons exceeds 50 inches.
inches. The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR, value of 2 through
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to 7, and chroma 4; and chroma of 2 through 4. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or
of 1 or 2. It ranges from 14 to 29 inches in thickness. Total thickness of more. The sand grains in this horizon are well coated with organic
the A horizon is 20 to 40 inches. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand. matter and are weakly cemented.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 2.5Y, 10YR, or N; value of 4 to 6; and
chroma of 2 or less; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 4 through 6, and Ridgeland series
chroma of 1. Mottles are strong brown, yellowish brown, and yellowish
red. The B2tg horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches in thickness. Texture The Ridgeland series is a member of the sandy, mixed,
is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
thermic family of Typic Haplaquods. The weatherable
Pottsburg series minerals are too low in the profile to meet the require-
ments for a mixed family, but this difference does not
The Pottsburg series is a member of the sandy, alter the use and behavior of the soil. The series consists
siliceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Haplaquods. It of nearly level, poorly drained, acid soils that formed in
consists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils marine sands. These soils occur in broad flatwood areas
that formed in thick deposits of marine sands. These soils Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 per-
occur on slightly higher elevations in the flatwoods. cent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a
Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 per- depth of less than 10 inches for brief periods of 2 to 4
cent. Under natural conditions, the water table is at a weeks, at a depth of 10 to 20 inches for 2 to 4 months,
depth of 6 to 12 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a depth and at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for most of the
of 12 to 40 inches for 6 to 9 months or longer during most remainder of the year during most years.
years. Ridgeland soils are geographically associated with
Pottsburg soils are geographically associated with Leon, Lynn Haven, Ortega, Pottsburg, and Wesconnett
Kershaw, Leon, Mandarin, Ortega, Ridgeland, and soils. Ridgeland soils differ from Leon and Lynn Haven








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 49

soils by not having an albic horizon. Ridgeland soils differ All-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
from Ortega soils by having a spodic horizon and being structure; very friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
more poorly drained. Ridgeland soils differ from Pott- A12-3 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single grained;
more poorly drained. Ridgeland soils differ from Pott- loose; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
sburg soils by having a spodic horizon at a depth of 10 A2-6 to 23 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; few fine
inches or less and by not having an albic horizon. Ridge- faint light yellowish brown mottles; single grained; loose; slightly
land soils are poorly drained, whereas Wesconnett soils acid; clear wavy boundary.
are very poorly drained. B21h-23 to 30 inches; mixed black (5YR 2/1) and dark reddish brown
ical pedon of Ridgeland fine sand, 1,000 feet west of (5YR 2/2) fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
typical pedon of Ridgeland fe sand, 1,000 feet west of weakly cemented; sand grains well coated with organic matter; very
Boney Road, 2,200 feet north of Cedar Point Road, strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
SW1/4SE1/4NE1/ sec. 31, T. 1 N., R. 28 E.: B22h-30 to 32 inches; mixed black (5YR 2/1), dark reddish brown (5YR
3/2), and very dusky red (2.5YR 2/2) fine sand; weak fine subangu-
Al-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) fine sand; weak fine granular lar blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains coated
structure; friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary, with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B2h-6 to 16 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine sand; weak fine granu- Bh&B3-32 to 38 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; common
lar structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated coarse weakly cemented dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) bodies; weak
with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; strongly acid;
A'2-16 to 31 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand; few fine gradual wavy boundary.
distinct brownish yellow mottles; single grained; nonstick; strongly A'2-38 to 56 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; few fine
acid; gradual smooth boundary. faint and distinct dark yellowish brown and dark brown mottles;
B'21h-31 to 39 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) fine sand; weak single grained; nonsticky; many medium roots; extremely acid; clear
fine subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand wavy boundary.
grains well coated with organic matter; strongly acid; gradual B'21tg-56 to 62 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam; few fine distinct
smooth boundary. yellowish brown and brownish yellow mottles; weak fine subangular
B'22h-39 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; medium subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; strongly acid; gradual smooth
blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated boundary.
with organic matter; strongly acid. B'22tg-62 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam; common medium
Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid. In some distinct dark brown (10YR 4/3) and many coarse prominent yel-
pedons reaction in the A horizon ranges to neutral where lime has been lowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky struc-
applied. Texture of all horizons is fine sand. ture; slightly sticky; strongly acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR or N, value of 2 through 4, and Si i i i i
chroma of 1 or less. Thickness ranges from 5 to 10 inches. Soilz reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acd all
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 2 or 3; and horizons accept the A horizon which ranges from extremely acid to
chroma of 1 through 3. It is 8 to 17 inches thick This horizon is weakly slightly acid. Depth to the underlying argillic horizon is 40 to80 inches
cemented, and sand grains are well coated with organic matter. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of
The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 1. Thickness ranges from 2 to 8 inches. Texture is fine sand.
through 3. It is 5 to 35 inches thick The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of
The B'2h horizon has hue of 5YR, or 10YR; value of 2 or 3; 1 or 2. It is 10 to 24 inches thick. Texture is fine sand. Total thickness of
and chroma of 1 through 3. It extends to a depth of 80 inches. It is the A horizon is less than 30 inches.
weakly cemented, and the sand grains are well coated with organic The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 2 through
matter. 4; and chroma of 1 through 4; or it has hue of N, value of 2, and chroma
of 0. It ranges in thickness from 9 to 36 inches. Texture is fine sand.
The B3 portion of the B3&Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or
Sapelo series 5, and chroma of 3 through 6. The Bh portion has the same color range
as the B2h horizon. Texture is fine sand. Thickness ranges from 0 to 6
The Sapelo series is a member of the sandy, siliceous, inches.
thermic family of Ultic Haplaquods. It consists of nearly The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of
level, poorly drained, acid soils that formed in thick 1 through 3; or it has hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 2
deposits of loamy marine sediments. These soils occur in through 4. It is 2 to 18 inches thick Texture is fine sand.
The B'2tg horizons have hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 5 through
broad flatwood areas. Slopes are smooth to convex and 7; and chroma of 1 or 2r Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the These horizons extend to a depth of more than 80 inches.
water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4
months or more, and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to Stockade series
6 months during most years.
Sapelo soils are geographically associated with The Stockade series is a member of the fine-loamy,
Mascotte, Olustee, Pelham, and Yonges soils. Sapelo soils mixed, thermic family of Typic Umbraqualfs. It consists
differ from Mascotte soils by not having a Bt horizon of nearly level, very poorly drained soils that formed in a
within a depth of 40 inches, and from Olustee soils by thick bed of unconsolidated, moderately fine textured
having an albic horizon and by having an argillic horizon materials. These soils occur in shallow depressions and
at a depth of more than 40 inches. Sapelo soils differ from large drainageways. Slopes are concave and range from 0
Pelham soils by having a spodic horizon and an argillic to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the water table is
horizon at a depth of more than 40 inches, and from at a depth of less than 10 inches, or the soil is covered
Yonges soils by having a spodic horizon. with water for more than 6 months during most years.
Typical pedon of Sapelo fine sand, 40 feet east of Oliver Stockade soils are geographically associated with Leon,
Road, 350 feet north of Terrell Road, SW1/4SE1/4NE1/4 Ortega, Pottsburg, and Ridgeland soils. Stockade soils
sec. 20, T. 1 N., R. 26 E.: have an argillic horizon, whereas Leon, Pottsburg, and








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 49

soils by not having an albic horizon. Ridgeland soils differ All-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
from Ortega soils by having a spodic horizon and being structure; very friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
more poorly drained. Ridgeland soils differ from Pott- A12-3 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single grained;
more poorly drained. Ridgeland soils differ from Pott- loose; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
sburg soils by having a spodic horizon at a depth of 10 A2-6 to 23 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; few fine
inches or less and by not having an albic horizon. Ridge- faint light yellowish brown mottles; single grained; loose; slightly
land soils are poorly drained, whereas Wesconnett soils acid; clear wavy boundary.
are very poorly drained. B21h-23 to 30 inches; mixed black (5YR 2/1) and dark reddish brown
ical pedon of Ridgeland fine sand, 1,000 feet west of (5YR 2/2) fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
typical pedon of Ridgeland fe sand, 1,000 feet west of weakly cemented; sand grains well coated with organic matter; very
Boney Road, 2,200 feet north of Cedar Point Road, strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
SW1/4SE1/4NE1/ sec. 31, T. 1 N., R. 28 E.: B22h-30 to 32 inches; mixed black (5YR 2/1), dark reddish brown (5YR
3/2), and very dusky red (2.5YR 2/2) fine sand; weak fine subangu-
Al-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) fine sand; weak fine granular lar blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains coated
structure; friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary, with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B2h-6 to 16 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine sand; weak fine granu- Bh&B3-32 to 38 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; common
lar structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated coarse weakly cemented dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) bodies; weak
with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; strongly acid;
A'2-16 to 31 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand; few fine gradual wavy boundary.
distinct brownish yellow mottles; single grained; nonstick; strongly A'2-38 to 56 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; few fine
acid; gradual smooth boundary. faint and distinct dark yellowish brown and dark brown mottles;
B'21h-31 to 39 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) fine sand; weak single grained; nonsticky; many medium roots; extremely acid; clear
fine subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand wavy boundary.
grains well coated with organic matter; strongly acid; gradual B'21tg-56 to 62 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam; few fine distinct
smooth boundary. yellowish brown and brownish yellow mottles; weak fine subangular
B'22h-39 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; medium subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; strongly acid; gradual smooth
blocky structure; friable; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated boundary.
with organic matter; strongly acid. B'22tg-62 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam; common medium
Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid. In some distinct dark brown (10YR 4/3) and many coarse prominent yel-
pedons reaction in the A horizon ranges to neutral where lime has been lowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky struc-
applied. Texture of all horizons is fine sand. ture; slightly sticky; strongly acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR or N, value of 2 through 4, and Si i i i i
chroma of 1 or less. Thickness ranges from 5 to 10 inches. Soilz reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acd all
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 2 or 3; and horizons accept the A horizon which ranges from extremely acid to
chroma of 1 through 3. It is 8 to 17 inches thick This horizon is weakly slightly acid. Depth to the underlying argillic horizon is 40 to80 inches
cemented, and sand grains are well coated with organic matter. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of
The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 1. Thickness ranges from 2 to 8 inches. Texture is fine sand.
through 3. It is 5 to 35 inches thick The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of
The B'2h horizon has hue of 5YR, or 10YR; value of 2 or 3; 1 or 2. It is 10 to 24 inches thick. Texture is fine sand. Total thickness of
and chroma of 1 through 3. It extends to a depth of 80 inches. It is the A horizon is less than 30 inches.
weakly cemented, and the sand grains are well coated with organic The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value of 2 through
matter. 4; and chroma of 1 through 4; or it has hue of N, value of 2, and chroma
of 0. It ranges in thickness from 9 to 36 inches. Texture is fine sand.
The B3 portion of the B3&Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or
Sapelo series 5, and chroma of 3 through 6. The Bh portion has the same color range
as the B2h horizon. Texture is fine sand. Thickness ranges from 0 to 6
The Sapelo series is a member of the sandy, siliceous, inches.
thermic family of Ultic Haplaquods. It consists of nearly The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of
level, poorly drained, acid soils that formed in thick 1 through 3; or it has hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 2
deposits of loamy marine sediments. These soils occur in through 4. It is 2 to 18 inches thick Texture is fine sand.
The B'2tg horizons have hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 5 through
broad flatwood areas. Slopes are smooth to convex and 7; and chroma of 1 or 2r Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the These horizons extend to a depth of more than 80 inches.
water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4
months or more, and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to Stockade series
6 months during most years.
Sapelo soils are geographically associated with The Stockade series is a member of the fine-loamy,
Mascotte, Olustee, Pelham, and Yonges soils. Sapelo soils mixed, thermic family of Typic Umbraqualfs. It consists
differ from Mascotte soils by not having a Bt horizon of nearly level, very poorly drained soils that formed in a
within a depth of 40 inches, and from Olustee soils by thick bed of unconsolidated, moderately fine textured
having an albic horizon and by having an argillic horizon materials. These soils occur in shallow depressions and
at a depth of more than 40 inches. Sapelo soils differ from large drainageways. Slopes are concave and range from 0
Pelham soils by having a spodic horizon and an argillic to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the water table is
horizon at a depth of more than 40 inches, and from at a depth of less than 10 inches, or the soil is covered
Yonges soils by having a spodic horizon. with water for more than 6 months during most years.
Typical pedon of Sapelo fine sand, 40 feet east of Oliver Stockade soils are geographically associated with Leon,
Road, 350 feet north of Terrell Road, SW1/4SE1/4NE1/4 Ortega, Pottsburg, and Ridgeland soils. Stockade soils
sec. 20, T. 1 N., R. 26 E.: have an argillic horizon, whereas Leon, Pottsburg, and









50 SOIL SURVEY

Ridgeland soils have a spodic horizon. In addition, Pott- All-0 to 14 inches; black (N 2/0) loamy fine sand; common medium
sburg soils have a sandy epipedon more than 50 inches distinct gray (10YR 5/1) splotches; weak fine granular structure;
thick. ck sil diffe fr O sil b i very friable; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
thick. Stockade soils differ from Ortega soils by having an A12-14 to 18 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine sand; weak fine
argillic horizon and by being more poorly drained, granular structure; very friable; very strongly acid; dear wavy
Typical pedon of Stockade fine sandy loam, 2,000 feet boundary.
north of Atlantic Boulevard, 1.5 miles west of Girvin A2-18 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; few fine
Road, NW1/4NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 21, T. 2 S., R. 28 E.: distinct strong brown mottles; single grained; nonstick; very
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Al-0 to 12 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular B21tg-26 to 38 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sandy loam;
blocky structure; very friable; common fine roots; strongly acid; common medium faint light gray (10YR 7/2) and few fine faint dark
gradual wavy boundary, brown mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; slightly
B21tg-12 to 26 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy clay loam; few sticky; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
fine distinct yellowish brown and few fine faint dark grayish brown B22tg-38 to 49 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy loam; common
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly medium faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; weak fine su-
acid; gradual smooth boundary. bangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; very strongly acid;
B22tg-26 to 46 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay loam; weak gradual wavy boundary.
medium subangular blocky structure; few fine brown sand streaks; B23tg-49 to 70 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) fine sandy loam; weak
friable; neutral; clear wavy boundary. coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; very strongly
C1-46 to 65 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and light brownish acid; gradual wavy boundary.
gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; moderate medium granular structure; Cg-70 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) sandy clay loam; massive;
very friable; neutral. slightly sticky; extremely acid.
Solum thickness ranges from 40 to 60 inches. Soil reaction ranges Solum thickness ranges from 60 to 80 inches or more. Soil reaction
from strongly acid to slightly acid in the A horizon and from medium ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid.
acid to neutral in the Bt and C horizons. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or
The A horizon has hue of N or 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of N, value of 2 or
or less. Thickness ranges from 10 to 20 inches. Texture is fine sandy 3, and chroma of 0. Texture of the All horizon is loamy fine sand, and
loam. texture of the A12 horizon is fine sand or loamy fine sand. Thickness of
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1. the Al horizon ranges from 13 to 20 inches.
It is 23 to 36 inches thick. Where color value is less than 4, organic The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of
matter content is less than 1 percent. Texture is sandy clay loam or fine 1 or 2. It is 8 to 17 inches thick Texture is fine sand. Total thickness of
sandy loam. Clay content ranges from 18 to 30 percent; silt content is the A horizon is 20 to 37 inches.
less than 20 percent. Common fine or medium carbonate nodules occur The upper part of the B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of
in the lower portion of this horizon in some pedons. Thickness ranges 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. There are few to common grayish,
from 26 to 44 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 brownish, or yellowish mottles. The lower part of the B2tg horizon has
or 2. It extends to a depth of 65 inches or more. Texture is fine sand or the same colors as the upper part, but also has color in hue of 5Y, value
loamy fine sand. of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it has hue of 5GY, value of 5 through
7, and chroma of 1. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
Thickness ranges from 24 to 50 inches.
Surrency series The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 5 through 7, and
chroma of 2 or less; or it has hue of 5GY, value of 5 through 7, and
The Surrency series is a member of the loamy, chroma of 1. Texture is fine sand, loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, or
siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Umbric Paleaquults. sandy clay loam. The C horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Base saturation is slightly too high within the critical
classification depth to meet the requirements for Ultisols, Tisonia series
but this difference does not alter the use and behavior of
the soil. The series consists of nearly level, very poorly The Tisonia series is a member of the clayey, mont-
drained, acid soils that formed in marine deposits of morillonitic, euic, thermic family of Typic Sulfihemists It
sandy and loamy sediments. These soils occur in small consists of level to nearly level, very poorly drained, or-
depressions and drainageways. Slopes are smooth to con- ganic soils that formed from nonwoody halophytic plant
cave and range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural condi- remains over fine textured sediments. These soils occur
tions, the water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches on broad tidal marshes. Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
or the soil is covered with water for 6 to 12 months dur- Under natural conditions, the water table is at a depth of
ing most years. less than 10 inches or the soil is covered with water for 6
Surrency soils are geographically associated with Pott- to 12 months during most years. Tidal action inundates
sburg, Leon, Mascotte, Olustee, Pelham, and Wesconnett the soil twice daily.
soils. Surrency soils differ from Olustee and Mascotte Tisonia soils are geographically associated with Leon,
soils by not having a spodic horizon, and from Pelham Pamlico, Ridgeland, and Maurepas soils Tisonia soils
soils by having an umbric epipedon. Surrency soils have differ from Leon and Ridgeland soils by being organic in-
an argillic horizon, whereas Leon, Pottsburg, and Wescon- stead of mineral. Tisonia soils have fine textured horizons
nett soils have a spodic horizon, within the control section, whereas Pamnlico soils have
Typical pedon of Surrency fine sand, 150 feet north of sandy horizons and Maurepas soils do not have a mineral
Owens Road, 1.5 miles west of Interstate Highway 95, horizon within a depth of 65 inches. In addition, none of
SE1/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 23, T. 1 N., R. 26 E.: the associated soils has the sulfur content of Tisonia soils.









50 SOIL SURVEY

Ridgeland soils have a spodic horizon. In addition, Pott- All-0 to 14 inches; black (N 2/0) loamy fine sand; common medium
sburg soils have a sandy epipedon more than 50 inches distinct gray (10YR 5/1) splotches; weak fine granular structure;
thick. ck sil diffe fr O sil b i very friable; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
thick. Stockade soils differ from Ortega soils by having an A12-14 to 18 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine sand; weak fine
argillic horizon and by being more poorly drained, granular structure; very friable; very strongly acid; dear wavy
Typical pedon of Stockade fine sandy loam, 2,000 feet boundary.
north of Atlantic Boulevard, 1.5 miles west of Girvin A2-18 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; few fine
Road, NW1/4NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 21, T. 2 S., R. 28 E.: distinct strong brown mottles; single grained; nonstick; very
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Al-0 to 12 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular B21tg-26 to 38 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sandy loam;
blocky structure; very friable; common fine roots; strongly acid; common medium faint light gray (10YR 7/2) and few fine faint dark
gradual wavy boundary, brown mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; slightly
B21tg-12 to 26 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy clay loam; few sticky; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
fine distinct yellowish brown and few fine faint dark grayish brown B22tg-38 to 49 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy loam; common
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly medium faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; weak fine su-
acid; gradual smooth boundary. bangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; very strongly acid;
B22tg-26 to 46 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay loam; weak gradual wavy boundary.
medium subangular blocky structure; few fine brown sand streaks; B23tg-49 to 70 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) fine sandy loam; weak
friable; neutral; clear wavy boundary. coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; very strongly
C1-46 to 65 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and light brownish acid; gradual wavy boundary.
gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; moderate medium granular structure; Cg-70 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) sandy clay loam; massive;
very friable; neutral. slightly sticky; extremely acid.
Solum thickness ranges from 40 to 60 inches. Soil reaction ranges Solum thickness ranges from 60 to 80 inches or more. Soil reaction
from strongly acid to slightly acid in the A horizon and from medium ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid.
acid to neutral in the Bt and C horizons. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or
The A horizon has hue of N or 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of N, value of 2 or
or less. Thickness ranges from 10 to 20 inches. Texture is fine sandy 3, and chroma of 0. Texture of the All horizon is loamy fine sand, and
loam. texture of the A12 horizon is fine sand or loamy fine sand. Thickness of
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1. the Al horizon ranges from 13 to 20 inches.
It is 23 to 36 inches thick. Where color value is less than 4, organic The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of
matter content is less than 1 percent. Texture is sandy clay loam or fine 1 or 2. It is 8 to 17 inches thick Texture is fine sand. Total thickness of
sandy loam. Clay content ranges from 18 to 30 percent; silt content is the A horizon is 20 to 37 inches.
less than 20 percent. Common fine or medium carbonate nodules occur The upper part of the B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of
in the lower portion of this horizon in some pedons. Thickness ranges 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. There are few to common grayish,
from 26 to 44 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 brownish, or yellowish mottles. The lower part of the B2tg horizon has
or 2. It extends to a depth of 65 inches or more. Texture is fine sand or the same colors as the upper part, but also has color in hue of 5Y, value
loamy fine sand. of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it has hue of 5GY, value of 5 through
7, and chroma of 1. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
Thickness ranges from 24 to 50 inches.
Surrency series The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 5 through 7, and
chroma of 2 or less; or it has hue of 5GY, value of 5 through 7, and
The Surrency series is a member of the loamy, chroma of 1. Texture is fine sand, loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, or
siliceous, thermic family of Arenic Umbric Paleaquults. sandy clay loam. The C horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Base saturation is slightly too high within the critical
classification depth to meet the requirements for Ultisols, Tisonia series
but this difference does not alter the use and behavior of
the soil. The series consists of nearly level, very poorly The Tisonia series is a member of the clayey, mont-
drained, acid soils that formed in marine deposits of morillonitic, euic, thermic family of Typic Sulfihemists It
sandy and loamy sediments. These soils occur in small consists of level to nearly level, very poorly drained, or-
depressions and drainageways. Slopes are smooth to con- ganic soils that formed from nonwoody halophytic plant
cave and range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural condi- remains over fine textured sediments. These soils occur
tions, the water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches on broad tidal marshes. Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
or the soil is covered with water for 6 to 12 months dur- Under natural conditions, the water table is at a depth of
ing most years. less than 10 inches or the soil is covered with water for 6
Surrency soils are geographically associated with Pott- to 12 months during most years. Tidal action inundates
sburg, Leon, Mascotte, Olustee, Pelham, and Wesconnett the soil twice daily.
soils. Surrency soils differ from Olustee and Mascotte Tisonia soils are geographically associated with Leon,
soils by not having a spodic horizon, and from Pelham Pamlico, Ridgeland, and Maurepas soils Tisonia soils
soils by having an umbric epipedon. Surrency soils have differ from Leon and Ridgeland soils by being organic in-
an argillic horizon, whereas Leon, Pottsburg, and Wescon- stead of mineral. Tisonia soils have fine textured horizons
nett soils have a spodic horizon, within the control section, whereas Pamnlico soils have
Typical pedon of Surrency fine sand, 150 feet north of sandy horizons and Maurepas soils do not have a mineral
Owens Road, 1.5 miles west of Interstate Highway 95, horizon within a depth of 65 inches. In addition, none of
SE1/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 23, T. 1 N., R. 26 E.: the associated soils has the sulfur content of Tisonia soils.








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

Typical pedon of Tisonia mucky peat, 100 feet east of B22h-10 to 26 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine sand; weak
Eagle Bend Island Boulevard, 1,000 feet north of Yellow fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common splotches of light
Bluff Road, NW1/4NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 33, T. 2 S., R. 27 E.: gray; weakly cemented; many clean sand grains; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Oe-0 to 18 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) mucky peat; about 60 B23h-26 to 32 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine sand; weak fine sub-
percent fiber, 30 percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate angular blocky structure; friable; common splotches of light gray;
extract color is light gray (10YR 6/1); about 30 percent mineral weakly cemented; many clean sand grains; very strongly acid; clear
material; 1.66 percent sulfur and 22.6 mmhos/cm conductivity in the wavy boundary.
upper 9 inches and 2.96 percent sulfur and 27.8 mmhos/cm conduc- A'2-32 to 44 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; common medium
tivity in the lower 9 inches; slightly acid in water at field moisture distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) mottles; single grained; loose;
(air dry pH 5.2 in 0.01M calcium chloride); gradual smooth bounda- strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
ry. B'21h-44 to 72 inches; reddish black (10R 2/1) fine sand; massive,
IIC-18 to 65 inches; dark olive gray (5Y 3/2) clay; massive; flows easily breaks to weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly
between the fingers when squeezed; 2.73 percent sulfur and 48.2 cemented; sand grains well coated with organic matter; strongly
mmhos/cm conductivity in the upper 6 inches and 2.27 percent sul- acid; gradual wavy boundary.
fur and 36.2 mmhos/cm conductivity in the remainder; n value is B'22h-72 to 80 inches; very dusky red (10R 2/2) fine sand; massive,
2.86; neutral in water at field moisture (air dry pH 5.2 in 0.01M cal- breaks to weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly
cium chloride). cemented; sand grains well coated with organic matter; strongly
acid.
Sulfur content ranges from 1.5 to about 3.5 percent. The organic
layers in all tiers are dominantly hemic materials. Thickness of the or- Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid. Texture of
ganic material is 16 to 27 inches. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to all horizons is fine sand.
mildly alkaline in water throughout the profile in its natural state; after The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or
air drying, pH in 0.01M calcium chloride decreases to medium acid or 2; or it has hue of N, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 0. Some
lower. Conductivity of the saturation extract ranges from 22 to 51 pedons have mottles of gray or light gray. Thickness ranges from 2 to 8
mmhos/cm. inches.
The Oe horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 2 The B2h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1;
through 4; and chroma of 2. Fiber content ranges from 35 to 80 percent hue of 5YR, value of 2.5 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value
unrubbed and from 20 to 40 percent rubbed, of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2; or hue of N, value of 2, and chroma of 0. This
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 3 through 5; horizon is weakly cemented, and the sand grains are well coated with or-
and chroma of 1 or 2. It extends to a depth of more than 65 inches. Tex- ganic matter. The B21h horizon has mottles of gray or light gray in
ture is clay. The material in this horizon flows easily between the fin- some pedons. Thickness ranges from 12 to 36 inches.
gers when squeezed. The n value is more than 1. There are no lenses of The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of
loamy fine sand and sandy loam at a depth of more than 40 inches, or 2 through 4. It is 10 to 32 inches thick.
the lenses range to common. The B'2h horizon has the same color range as the Bh horizon, but it
also has color in hue of 10R or 2.5YR, value of 2.5, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Wesconnett series It extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. This horizon is weakly ce-
mented, and the sand grains are well coated with organic matter.
The Wesconnett series is a member of the sandy,
siliceous, thermic family of Typic Haplaquods. It consists Yonges series
of nearly level, very poorly drained soils that formed in
thick deposits of marine sands. These soils occur in shal- The Yonges series is a member of the fine-loamy,
low depressions and large drainageways. Slopes are mixed, thermic family of Typic Ochraqualfs. It consists of
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. Under nearly level, poorly drained soils that formed in loamy
natural conditions, the water table is at a depth of 0 to 10 marine sediments. These soils occur on low-lying areas of
inches or the soil is covered with water for 6 to 12 the Coastal Plain. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
months during most years. from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the water
Wesconnett soils are geographically associated with table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months
Leon, Lynn Haven, Maurepas, Pamlico, Pottsburg, and during most years.
Ridgeland soils. Wesconnett soils are very poorly drained, Yonges soils are geographically associated with
whereas Leon, Lynn Haven, and Ridgeland soils are Mascotte, Pelham, Sapelo, and Stockade soils. Yonges
poorly drained, and Pottsburg soils are somewhat poorly soils differ from Mascotte and Sapelo soils by not having
drained. In addition, Wesconnett soils differ from Leon, a spodic horizon. Yonges soils differ from Pelham soils by
Lynn Haven, and Pottsburg soils by not having an albic having an argillic horizon at a depth of less than 20
horizon. Wesconnett soils differ from Pamlico and Mau- inches. Yonges soils differ from Stockade soils by not
repas soils by being of mineral origin, having a mollic epipedon.
Typical pedon of Wesconnett fine sand, 0.3 mile south Typical pedon of Yonges fine sandy loam, 600 feet east
of Plummer Road, 660 feet east of Nassau County line, of Bulls Bay Road, 600 feet south of Pritchard Road,
NW1/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 11, T. 1 S., R. 24 E.: NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 34, T. 1 S., R. 25 E.:
A1-0 to 2 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular struc- Ap-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy loam; weak
ture; very friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary. fine granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; neutral; clear
B21h-2 to 10 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine subangular smooth boundary.
blocky structure; friable; common fine and medium splotches of A2-3 to 6 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine sand; many medium faint
light gray; weakly cemented; many clean sand grains; extremely light gray mottles; moderate fine granular structure; very friable;
acid; diffuse smooth boundary, mildly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.








CITY OF JACKSONVILLE, DUVAL COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

Typical pedon of Tisonia mucky peat, 100 feet east of B22h-10 to 26 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine sand; weak
Eagle Bend Island Boulevard, 1,000 feet north of Yellow fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common splotches of light
Bluff Road, NW1/4NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 33, T. 2 S., R. 27 E.: gray; weakly cemented; many clean sand grains; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Oe-0 to 18 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) mucky peat; about 60 B23h-26 to 32 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine sand; weak fine sub-
percent fiber, 30 percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate angular blocky structure; friable; common splotches of light gray;
extract color is light gray (10YR 6/1); about 30 percent mineral weakly cemented; many clean sand grains; very strongly acid; clear
material; 1.66 percent sulfur and 22.6 mmhos/cm conductivity in the wavy boundary.
upper 9 inches and 2.96 percent sulfur and 27.8 mmhos/cm conduc- A'2-32 to 44 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; common medium
tivity in the lower 9 inches; slightly acid in water at field moisture distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) mottles; single grained; loose;
(air dry pH 5.2 in 0.01M calcium chloride); gradual smooth bounda- strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
ry. B'21h-44 to 72 inches; reddish black (10R 2/1) fine sand; massive,
IIC-18 to 65 inches; dark olive gray (5Y 3/2) clay; massive; flows easily breaks to weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly
between the fingers when squeezed; 2.73 percent sulfur and 48.2 cemented; sand grains well coated with organic matter; strongly
mmhos/cm conductivity in the upper 6 inches and 2.27 percent sul- acid; gradual wavy boundary.
fur and 36.2 mmhos/cm conductivity in the remainder; n value is B'22h-72 to 80 inches; very dusky red (10R 2/2) fine sand; massive,
2.86; neutral in water at field moisture (air dry pH 5.2 in 0.01M cal- breaks to weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; weakly
cium chloride). cemented; sand grains well coated with organic matter; strongly
acid.
Sulfur content ranges from 1.5 to about 3.5 percent. The organic
layers in all tiers are dominantly hemic materials. Thickness of the or- Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid. Texture of
ganic material is 16 to 27 inches. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to all horizons is fine sand.
mildly alkaline in water throughout the profile in its natural state; after The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or
air drying, pH in 0.01M calcium chloride decreases to medium acid or 2; or it has hue of N, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 0. Some
lower. Conductivity of the saturation extract ranges from 22 to 51 pedons have mottles of gray or light gray. Thickness ranges from 2 to 8
mmhos/cm. inches.
The Oe horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 2 The B2h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1;
through 4; and chroma of 2. Fiber content ranges from 35 to 80 percent hue of 5YR, value of 2.5 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value
unrubbed and from 20 to 40 percent rubbed, of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2; or hue of N, value of 2, and chroma of 0. This
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value of 3 through 5; horizon is weakly cemented, and the sand grains are well coated with or-
and chroma of 1 or 2. It extends to a depth of more than 65 inches. Tex- ganic matter. The B21h horizon has mottles of gray or light gray in
ture is clay. The material in this horizon flows easily between the fin- some pedons. Thickness ranges from 12 to 36 inches.
gers when squeezed. The n value is more than 1. There are no lenses of The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of
loamy fine sand and sandy loam at a depth of more than 40 inches, or 2 through 4. It is 10 to 32 inches thick.
the lenses range to common. The B'2h horizon has the same color range as the Bh horizon, but it
also has color in hue of 10R or 2.5YR, value of 2.5, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Wesconnett series It extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. This horizon is weakly ce-
mented, and the sand grains are well coated with organic matter.
The Wesconnett series is a member of the sandy,
siliceous, thermic family of Typic Haplaquods. It consists Yonges series
of nearly level, very poorly drained soils that formed in
thick deposits of marine sands. These soils occur in shal- The Yonges series is a member of the fine-loamy,
low depressions and large drainageways. Slopes are mixed, thermic family of Typic Ochraqualfs. It consists of
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. Under nearly level, poorly drained soils that formed in loamy
natural conditions, the water table is at a depth of 0 to 10 marine sediments. These soils occur on low-lying areas of
inches or the soil is covered with water for 6 to 12 the Coastal Plain. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
months during most years. from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, the water
Wesconnett soils are geographically associated with table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months
Leon, Lynn Haven, Maurepas, Pamlico, Pottsburg, and during most years.
Ridgeland soils. Wesconnett soils are very poorly drained, Yonges soils are geographically associated with
whereas Leon, Lynn Haven, and Ridgeland soils are Mascotte, Pelham, Sapelo, and Stockade soils. Yonges
poorly drained, and Pottsburg soils are somewhat poorly soils differ from Mascotte and Sapelo soils by not having
drained. In addition, Wesconnett soils differ from Leon, a spodic horizon. Yonges soils differ from Pelham soils by
Lynn Haven, and Pottsburg soils by not having an albic having an argillic horizon at a depth of less than 20
horizon. Wesconnett soils differ from Pamlico and Mau- inches. Yonges soils differ from Stockade soils by not
repas soils by being of mineral origin, having a mollic epipedon.
Typical pedon of Wesconnett fine sand, 0.3 mile south Typical pedon of Yonges fine sandy loam, 600 feet east
of Plummer Road, 660 feet east of Nassau County line, of Bulls Bay Road, 600 feet south of Pritchard Road,
NW1/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 11, T. 1 S., R. 24 E.: NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 34, T. 1 S., R. 25 E.:
A1-0 to 2 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular struc- Ap-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy loam; weak
ture; very friable; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary. fine granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; neutral; clear
B21h-2 to 10 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine subangular smooth boundary.
blocky structure; friable; common fine and medium splotches of A2-3 to 6 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine sand; many medium faint
light gray; weakly cemented; many clean sand grains; extremely light gray mottles; moderate fine granular structure; very friable;
acid; diffuse smooth boundary, mildly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.








52 SOIL SURVEY

B21tg-6 to 25 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam; many coarse All-0 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) clay; moderate fine granular structure;
distinct yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles and few fine faint yellowish friable; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
brown mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very A12-7 to 14 inches; black (N 2/0) clay; few fine distinct yellowish
sticky; common large light gray (10YR 7/1) loamy fine sand streaks; brown mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; sticky;
many clay skins along fracture faces; moderately alkaline; gradual clay skins on ped faces; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
wavy boundary. B21g-14 to 28 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy clay loam; few
B22tg-25 to 31 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) and dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine distinct strong brown mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
sandy clay loam; many coarse faint brownish yellow mottles; structure; slightly sticky; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boun-
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very sticky; many dary.
medium and large soft calcium carbonate accumulations; many fine B22g-28 to 40 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay loam; common
dark concretions (oxides); moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boun- medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak coarse
dary. subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; moderately alkaline;
B23tg-31 to 55 inches; gray (5Y 6/1), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), and gradual smooth boundary.
yellow (10YR 7/8) sandy clay loam; strong medium subangular B23g-40 to 48 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) sandy clay loam; common
blocky structure; very sticky; few medium and large soft calcium medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak coarse
carbonate accumulations; few large dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; few fine light gray
loam streaks along root channels; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy sand pockets; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
boundary. B24g-48 to 66 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) sandy clay loam; many coarse
B24tg-55 to 65 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) sandy clay loam; many prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and dark red (2.5YR 3/6) mot-
coarse prominent mottles of yellowish brown (10YR 5/8); moderate tles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; few
medium subangular blocky structure; very sticky; olive (5Y 5/6) fine light gray sand pockets; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth
sandy loam streaks; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. boundary.
B3g-65 to 80 inches; dark greenish gray (5GY 4/1), greenish gray (5GY IIC1-66 to 75 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) sandy clay loam; few fine
5/1), and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) sandy clay loam; weak medium prominent dark reddish brown and many fine distinct dark yel-
subangular blocky structure; sticky; common medium white (10YR lowish brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; massive; friable; moderately al-
8/1) sandy loam streaks; moderately alkaline. kaline; gradual wavy boundary.
IIC2-75 to 80 inches; coarsely mottled greenish gray (5BG 5/1), dark
Solum thickness is 40 to 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from slightly greenish gray (5BG 4/1), and olive (5Y 5/6) clay loam; massive; very
acid to mildly alkaline in the A horizon and from slightly acid to friable; moderately alkaline.
moderately alkaline in the B horizon.
Texture of the Al or Ap horizon is fine sandy loam. The Al or Ap Solum thickness exceeds 60 inches. Soil reaction ranges from strongly
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1, or value of 3 or 4 acid to mildly alkaline in the A horizon and from medium acid to
and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 7 inches. moderately alkaline in the B and C horizons. Base saturation exceeds 50
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of percent throughout the profile.
1 or 2. It is 3 to 10 inches thick. Total thickness of the A horizon is less The Al horizon has hue of N, 5YR, or 10YR, value of 1 or 2, and
than 20 inches. Texture of the A2 horizon is fine sandy loam. chroma of 2 or less. Texture is clay. Thickness ranges from 10 to 19
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 through 6, and inches.
chroma of 1 or 2, or it has hue of 5GY, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1. The B2g horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 3 through 5, and
It has mottles of yellow, brown, or red. Thickness ranges from 33 to 61 chroma of 1 or 2. It has mottles of yellow, brown, and red. Texture is
inches. Texture is sandy clay loam. sandy clay loam. Clay content ranges from 21 to 35 percent, and silt con-
The B3g horizon has hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 tent, from 10 to 20 percent. Total thickness of the B2g horizon is 36 to
through 6; hue of 5Y, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 1 through 4; 60 inches.
or hue of 5GY, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1. The horizon is a The C horizon has hue of 5Y, 2.5Y, 5BG, or 5GY, value of 4 through 7,
mixture of these colors in some pedons, and in others, one of these and chroma of 4 or less. It has mottles of yellow, brown, or red. It ex-
colors is dominant and the horizon is mottled. Texture is sandy clay tends to a depth of more than 80 inches. Texture is sandy clay loam or
loam or fine sandy loam. clay loam.

Yulee series Classification of the soils

The Yulee series is a member of the fine-loamy, mixed,
thermic family of Typic Haplaquolls. It consists of nearly The system of soil classification currently used was
level, very poorly drained soils that formed in loamy and adopted by the National Cooperative Soil Survey in 1965.
Readers interested in further details about the system
clayey marine sediments. These soils occur in shallow Readers erestedn rather details a ut the system
should refer to "Soil taxonomy" (16).
depressions and large drainageways. Slopes are concave The system of classification has six categories
and range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
the water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches or the i,
soil is covered with water for more than 6 months, order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series.
Yulee soils a o w 6 th In this system the classification is based on the different
Yulee soils are closely associated with Mascotte,
lee ils ae closely a associated with Mscotte, soil properties that can be observed in the field or those
Olustee, Pelham, Sapelo, and Yonges soils. Yulee soils
Oap ad Ynges s s. Yuee s s that can be inferred either from other properties that are
differ from these other soils by not having an argillic observable in the field or from the combined data of soil
horizon. Also, Mascotte, Olustee, and Sapelo soils differ science and other disciplines. The properties selected for
science and other disciplines. The properties selected for
from Yulee soils by having a spodic horizon.
from Yuee sois by having a spodic horizon, the higher categories are the result of soil genesis or of
Typical pedon of Yulee clay, 1.25 miles north of Thomas factors that affect soil genesis. In table 22, the soils of the
Road, 150 feet east of U.S. Highway 1, SE1/4SE1/4SW1/4 classified according to the system.
survey area are classified according to the system.
se. 26, T. 1 N. R. 25 E.: Categories of the system are discussed in the following
01-2 inches to 0; partially decayed leaves, moss, and twigs. paragraphs.








52 SOIL SURVEY

B21tg-6 to 25 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam; many coarse All-0 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) clay; moderate fine granular structure;
distinct yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles and few fine faint yellowish friable; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
brown mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very A12-7 to 14 inches; black (N 2/0) clay; few fine distinct yellowish
sticky; common large light gray (10YR 7/1) loamy fine sand streaks; brown mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; sticky;
many clay skins along fracture faces; moderately alkaline; gradual clay skins on ped faces; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
wavy boundary. B21g-14 to 28 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy clay loam; few
B22tg-25 to 31 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) and dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine distinct strong brown mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
sandy clay loam; many coarse faint brownish yellow mottles; structure; slightly sticky; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boun-
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very sticky; many dary.
medium and large soft calcium carbonate accumulations; many fine B22g-28 to 40 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay loam; common
dark concretions (oxides); moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boun- medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak coarse
dary. subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; moderately alkaline;
B23tg-31 to 55 inches; gray (5Y 6/1), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), and gradual smooth boundary.
yellow (10YR 7/8) sandy clay loam; strong medium subangular B23g-40 to 48 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) sandy clay loam; common
blocky structure; very sticky; few medium and large soft calcium medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak coarse
carbonate accumulations; few large dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; few fine light gray
loam streaks along root channels; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy sand pockets; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
boundary. B24g-48 to 66 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) sandy clay loam; many coarse
B24tg-55 to 65 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) sandy clay loam; many prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and dark red (2.5YR 3/6) mot-
coarse prominent mottles of yellowish brown (10YR 5/8); moderate tles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; few
medium subangular blocky structure; very sticky; olive (5Y 5/6) fine light gray sand pockets; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth
sandy loam streaks; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary. boundary.
B3g-65 to 80 inches; dark greenish gray (5GY 4/1), greenish gray (5GY IIC1-66 to 75 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) sandy clay loam; few fine
5/1), and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) sandy clay loam; weak medium prominent dark reddish brown and many fine distinct dark yel-
subangular blocky structure; sticky; common medium white (10YR lowish brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; massive; friable; moderately al-
8/1) sandy loam streaks; moderately alkaline. kaline; gradual wavy boundary.
IIC2-75 to 80 inches; coarsely mottled greenish gray (5BG 5/1), dark
Solum thickness is 40 to 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from slightly greenish gray (5BG 4/1), and olive (5Y 5/6) clay loam; massive; very
acid to mildly alkaline in the A horizon and from slightly acid to friable; moderately alkaline.
moderately alkaline in the B horizon.
Texture of the Al or Ap horizon is fine sandy loam. The Al or Ap Solum thickness exceeds 60 inches. Soil reaction ranges from strongly
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1, or value of 3 or 4 acid to mildly alkaline in the A horizon and from medium acid to
and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 7 inches. moderately alkaline in the B and C horizons. Base saturation exceeds 50
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of percent throughout the profile.
1 or 2. It is 3 to 10 inches thick. Total thickness of the A horizon is less The Al horizon has hue of N, 5YR, or 10YR, value of 1 or 2, and
than 20 inches. Texture of the A2 horizon is fine sandy loam. chroma of 2 or less. Texture is clay. Thickness ranges from 10 to 19
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 through 6, and inches.
chroma of 1 or 2, or it has hue of 5GY, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1. The B2g horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 3 through 5, and
It has mottles of yellow, brown, or red. Thickness ranges from 33 to 61 chroma of 1 or 2. It has mottles of yellow, brown, and red. Texture is
inches. Texture is sandy clay loam. sandy clay loam. Clay content ranges from 21 to 35 percent, and silt con-
The B3g horizon has hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 tent, from 10 to 20 percent. Total thickness of the B2g horizon is 36 to
through 6; hue of 5Y, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 1 through 4; 60 inches.
or hue of 5GY, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1. The horizon is a The C horizon has hue of 5Y, 2.5Y, 5BG, or 5GY, value of 4 through 7,
mixture of these colors in some pedons, and in others, one of these and chroma of 4 or less. It has mottles of yellow, brown, or red. It ex-
colors is dominant and the horizon is mottled. Texture is sandy clay tends to a depth of more than 80 inches. Texture is sandy clay loam or
loam or fine sandy loam. clay loam.

Yulee series Classification of the soils

The Yulee series is a member of the fine-loamy, mixed,
thermic family of Typic Haplaquolls. It consists of nearly The system of soil classification currently used was
level, very poorly drained soils that formed in loamy and adopted by the National Cooperative Soil Survey in 1965.
Readers interested in further details about the system
clayey marine sediments. These soils occur in shallow Readers erestedn rather details a ut the system
should refer to "Soil taxonomy" (16).
depressions and large drainageways. Slopes are concave The system of classification has six categories
and range from 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
the water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches or the i,
soil is covered with water for more than 6 months, order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series.
Yulee soils a o w 6 th In this system the classification is based on the different
Yulee soils are closely associated with Mascotte,
lee ils ae closely a associated with Mscotte, soil properties that can be observed in the field or those
Olustee, Pelham, Sapelo, and Yonges soils. Yulee soils
Oap ad Ynges s s. Yuee s s that can be inferred either from other properties that are
differ from these other soils by not having an argillic observable in the field or from the combined data of soil
horizon. Also, Mascotte, Olustee, and Sapelo soils differ science and other disciplines. The properties selected for
science and other disciplines. The properties selected for
from Yulee soils by having a spodic horizon.
from Yuee sois by having a spodic horizon, the higher categories are the result of soil genesis or of
Typical pedon of Yulee clay, 1.25 miles north of Thomas factors that affect soil genesis. In table 22, the soils of the
Road, 150 feet east of U.S. Highway 1, SE1/4SE1/4SW1/4 classified according to the system.
survey area are classified according to the system.
se. 26, T. 1 N. R. 25 E.: Categories of the system are discussed in the following
01-2 inches to 0; partially decayed leaves, moss, and twigs. paragraphs.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs