• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Jefferson County in...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Prime farmland
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 Map
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets






Title: Soil survey of Jefferson County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025723/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Jefferson County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 193 p., 3, 56 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Allen, William J
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1989]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Jefferson County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Jefferson County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 99).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "By William Jeffrey Allen"--P. 1.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 89-210-P.
General Note: "Issued February 1989"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025723
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001353175
notis - AGL4363
oclc - 19571516
lccn - 89601913

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this survey
        Page i
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Jefferson County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    How this survey was made
        Page 4
        Map unit composition
            Page 5
            Page 6
    General soil map units
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Prime farmland
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 51
        Crops and pasture
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Recreation
            Page 56
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 57
        Engineering
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
    Soil properties
        Page 63
        Engineering index properties
            Page 63
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 64
        Soil and water features
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 67
            Page 68
        Engineering index test data
            Page 69
            Page 70
    Classification of the soils
        Page 71
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 71
        Albany series
            Page 71
        Alpin series
            Page 72
        Bayvi series
            Page 73
        Bibb series
            Page 73
        Blanton series
            Page 74
        Bonifay series
            Page 74
        Byars series
            Page 75
        Chaires series
            Page 76
        Chiefland series
            Page 76
        Chipley series
            Page 77
        Cowarts series
            Page 78
        Dorovan series
            Page 78
        Dothan series
            Page 79
        Faceville series
            Page 79
        Fuquay series
            Page 80
        Lakeland series
            Page 80
        Leefield series
            Page 81
        Leon series
            Page 82
        Lucy series
            Page 82
        Lynchburg series
            Page 83
        Mascotte series
            Page 84
        Miccosukee series
            Page 84
        Nutall series
            Page 85
        Orangeburg series
            Page 86
        Ortega series
            Page 86
        Pamlico series
            Page 87
        Pelham series
            Page 87
        Plummer series
            Page 88
        Rains series
            Page 88
        Rutlege series
            Page 89
        Sapelo series
            Page 89
        Surrency series
            Page 90
        Tifton series
            Page 91
        Tooles series
            Page 91
        Troup series
            Page 92
    Formation of the soils
        Page 93
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 93
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 94
        Geology
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
    Reference
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Glossary
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Tables
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    General soil map
        Page 57
    Index to map sheets
        Page 58
        Page 59
Full Text

United States In cooperation with S
Department of University of Florida S oil S survey of
Agriculture institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, t
Soil Agricultural Experiment Jeffe rso n C o unty,
Conservation Stations and
Service Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of F lo r da
Agriculture and
Consumer Services









.},(





HOW TO USE

Locate your area of interest on
I the "Index to Map Sheets"
//

,_____,/ .Kokom.o\-


----

-" Note the number of the map
-_ --- -- sheet and turn to that sheet.





Locate your area of interest
3* on the map sheet.

'. -- ,.. ( .... T -"-,,tI"3\
15C
134A1345

S56B 13
134A1






S List the map unit symbols
that are in your area.
I-\- "^ - -- fc Symbols

\151C- 27C
134A 56B -56B
27C 131 8
56B 1 B-- 134A
/\ -( ^148B
134A[ --V 4j 151C





THIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. .


















See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6. Contents) for location of additional data .---_-- ...
on a specific soil use.















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.



















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, handicap, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1984. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1984. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1984. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the
Jefferson County Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.

Cover: The Jefferson County Courthouse is in an area of Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes. This soil is well suited to most urban uses.






















ii
















Contents


Index to map units.................................................. iv Soil properties .... .................. ....................... 63
Summary of tables........................................ v Engineering index properties.................. ........... 63
Foreword...................................................................... vii Physical and chemical properties........................... 64
General nature of the county ......................................... 1 Soil and water features............................................... 65
How this survey was made ............................................ 4 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
Map unit composition.................................................. 5 selected soils........................................................ 67
General soil map units ................................................. 7 Engineering index test data ........................................ 69
Detailed soil map units.... ................13 Classification of the soils..................................... 71
Detailed soil map units................................................ 13 Soil series and their morphology................................... 71
Prime farmland ........................................................... 49 Formation of the soils.................................................. 93
Use and management of the soils............. 51 Factors of soil formation.......................................... 93
Crops and pasture.................................................... 51 Processes of soil formation..................................... 94
Woodland management and productivity .............. 54 Geology ........................................................................ 94
Recreation ................................................................. 56 R eferences ..................................................................... 99
W wildlife habitat ....................................................... ... 57 G lossary ............................................................ ............ 101
Engineering ........................................ ................ ... 58 Tables .................................................................... 111


Soil Series

A lbany series ....................................... .................... 71 Lucy series ................................................................ 82
Alpin series.................................................................... 72 Lynchburg series ...................................................... 83
Bayvi series................................................................... 73 Mascotte series ........................................................ 84
Bibb series ..................................................................... 73 Miccosukee series .................................................... 84
Blanton series ................................................................ 74 N utall series ...................... ....... .......................... 85
Bonifay series .................................................................. 74 Orangeburg series............................................. 86
Byars series ..................................................................... 75 O rtega series ........ ................................ ........... 86
C haires series .................................................................. 76 Pam lico series .................................................................. 87
C hiefland series............................................................... 76 Pelham series................................. .......................... 87
C hipley series ................................................................... 77 Pelham se es .................................................................. 87
Cowarts series................................................................. 78 Pluer series..........................78 Plummer................................................................ 88
D orovan series........................................................... ... 78 R ains series ..................................................................... 88
Dothan series....................................... ..................... 79 Rutlege series........................................................... 89
Faceville series............................................................. 79 Sapelo series ........................................................ 89
Fuquay series................................................................ 80 Surrency series......................................................... 90
Lakeland series .......................................................... .. 80 Tifton series ................................ .. ............................ 91
Leefield series............................................................... 81 Tooles series ............................................................ 91
Leon series........................................... ..................... 82 Troup series .............................................................. 92
Issued February 1989









iii
















Index to Map Units


2-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............. 13 32-Faceville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
3-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 14 slopes, eroded ....................................................... 30
4- Surrency fine sand .................................................... 15 33- Leefield fine sand............................................... 31
5-Fuquay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 15 34-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 33
6-Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.... 16 35-Rutlege fine sand ... ... .................... 33
7-Dothan loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, 36-Lynchburg loamy fine sand................................. 34
eroded ....................................................................... 16 38-Miccosukee fine sandy loam .......................... 34
8-Chaires fine sand ......................................................17 39-Cowarts loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 35
10-Rains fine sandy loam ......................................19 41 -Byars fine sandy loam, frequently flooded........ 35
11-Lucy loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes....... 20 42-Faceville loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent
12-Lucy loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes....... 20 slopes, eroded ...................................................... 36
13-Orangeburg sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.. 22 43-Alpin fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............... 38
14-Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, 44-Troup fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes .... ... 38
eroded.................................................................... 22 45-Plummer fine sand, frequently flooded................. 39
15-Orangeburg sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent 46-Cowarts loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
slopes, eroded ...................................................... 23 eroded ................................................................ 39
16-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 23 47-Nutall-Tooles complex..................................... 40
17-Troup fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............. 24 52-Mascotte sand ...................................................... 40
18-Troup fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............. 24 54-Leon-Chaires fine sands .................. 42
19-Bibb loamy sand, frequently flooded ....................25 55-Lucy loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes .... 42
20- Albany sand ............................................................ 25
21-Bonifay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .........26 56-Tifton gravelly loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
22-Plummer fine sand ........................................... 26 slopes ................................................................. 44
23-Pelham fine sand ................................................. 27 57-Tifton gravelly loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
24-Fuquay fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........... 27 slopes, eroded ........................................ ............. 44
25-Pits ......................................................................... 28 58-Chiefland-Chiefland, frequently flooded, fine
26- Sapelo fine sand .................... .......................... 28 sands............................................................. ..... 45
28-Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 29 61 -Tooles-Tooles, depressional-Chaires,
30-Pamlico-Dorovan mucks...................................... 29 depressional, fine sands .................................. 46
31-Faceville fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 62-Nutall-Tooles fine sands, frequently flooded ....... 47
slopes..................................................................... 30 63- Bayvi m uck........................................................ 47


















iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)........................................................ 112
Freeze data (table 2) ....................................................................................... 112
Limitations and potential productivity of map units on the general soil
m ap (table 3).............................................................................................. ... 113
Extent of area. Limitations for-Cropland, Pasture,
Sanitary facilities, Building sites, Recreation uses, Roads
and streets. Potential productivity for woodland.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) ............................. 118
Acres. Percent.
Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5) .......... 119
Corn. Soybeans. Tobacco. Peanuts. Bahiagrass. Improved
bermudagrass. Small grain grazed.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 6)................................................. 122
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7)...................................... 123
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)............................................................... 134
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 9) .................................................................................. 138
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10) ............................................................. 141
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)............................................................................. 145
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction m materials (table 12) ................................................................... 149
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
W ater m management (table 13)........................................................................ 153
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.


v



















Engineering index properties (table 14) ........................................................ 159
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) ............................ 166
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 16)..................................................................... 170
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 17)................................................. 174
Depth. Horizon, Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 18)............................................... 180
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 19)................................................ 187
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 20) .......................................................... 190
Classification. Mechanical analysis. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density.
Classification of the soils (table 21)............................................................... 193
Family or higher taxonomic class.















vi
















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Jefferson County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior
for selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards
inherent in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be
used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly
suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil
poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service












vii

































































Location of Jefferson County in Florida.













Soil Survey of

Jefferson County, Florida

By William Jeffrey Allen, Soil Conservation Service

Fieldwork by William T. Crews, David Eminhizer, David M. Kriz,
Therman E. Sanders, Leland D. Sasser, Robert L. Weatherspoon,
and Christopher Andrew Williams, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




JEFFERSON COUNTY is in the northern part of the cool. The Gulf of Mexico moderates maximum and
Florida Peninsula. It is bordered to the north by Thomas minimum temperatures.
and Brooks Counties in Georgia; on the west by Leon Annual rainfall in the county averages about 55 inches.
and Wakulla Counties; on the east by Taylor and Rainfall is heaviest from June to September; about 44
Madison Counties; and to the south by the Gulf of percent of the annual rainfall occurs during this period.
Mexico. The county covers about 392,365 acres, or 611 Moderately intense rains of long duration occur in the
square miles. It is about 39 miles from north to south on spring. October and November are the driest months.
the western quarter, about 24 miles wide at the widest The remainder of the rainfall is evenly distributed
point, and about 5 miles wide in the southern quarter. throughout the rest of the year.
Agriculture is the largest industry in the county. Most summer rainfall comes from afternoon or early
evening local thundershowers. During June, July, August,
and September, measurable rainfall can be expected
General Nature of the County every other day. Summer showers are sometimes heavy;
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that 2 or 3 inches of rainfall can occur in an hour or two.
affect the use and management of soils in Jefferson Daylong rains in summer are rare and are almost always
County are described. These factors are climate, history, associated with a tropical storm. Winter and spring rains
natural resources, ground water, farming, and are generally associated with large scale, continental
transportation. weather developments and are of longer duration. Some
last for 24 hours or longer. These storms are generally
Climate not as intense as the thundershowers, but occasionally
they do release large amounts of rainfall over large
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation areas. A 24-hour rainfall of 7 inches or more falls about
for the survey area as recorded at the Agricultural 1 year in 10.
Research Center, Monticello, Florida, in the period 1937 Hail occurs at irregular intervals in thundershowers.
to 1978. Table 2 shows probable dates of the first freeze The individual pieces of hail are generally small and
in fall and the last freeze in spring, seldom cause much damage. Snow is very rare in the
In winter the average temperature is 55 degrees F, area and usually melts as it hits the ground.
and the average daily minimum temperature is 43 Tropical storms can affect the area at any time from
degrees. Jefferson County has a moderate climate, early June through mid-November. These storms
Summers are long, warm, and humid. Winters are mild to diminish in intensity quite rapidly as they move inland.







2 Soil Survey



The likelihood of a hurricane in Jefferson County is Florida was ceded by Spain to America in 1818.
about once every 13 years, but fringe effects are felt Settlement of Jefferson County was spurred both by its
about once every 5 years. Extended periods of dry proximity to Tallahassee, the newly selected capital, and
weather or droughts can occur in any season, but they by the suitability of its soil for cotton cultivation. Early
are most common in spring and fall. Droughts or dry settlers bought large tracts of virgin forest, or, if they
periods in April and May, although generally of shorter could, the old fields of the Indians. They cleared this
duration than those in fall, are intensified by higher land to plant cotton.
temperatures. Jefferson County was separated from Leon County in
As cold, continental air flows eastward across the 1827. Robison's Post Office was named its county seat,
Florida panhandle toward Jefferson County, the cold is superseding the older settlement of Waukeenah. The
appreciably modified. The coldest weather is generally county seat was soon renamed Monticello. The county
the second night after the arrival of the cold front after quickly acquired its first school, the Jefferson Academy,
heat is lost through radiation. The average date of the and a courthouse. Its prosperity suffered in the late
first freezing temperature is about November 23. The 1830's when many of the settlers went to fight in the
average date of the last freezing temperature is about Seminole War. The failure of the Union Bank in
March 3. Frost has occurred, however, as early as Tallahassee also affected the county. In the 1850's,
November 1 and as late as April 15. county residents who had been endeavoring to make the
Summer temperatures are moderated by the Gulf Wacissa and Aucilla Rivers navigable by canals adopted
breeze and by cumulus clouds that frequently shade the the railroad instead as their means of transportation. The
land without completely obscuring the sun. Mean arrival of the train at Station Number Two signaled the
average temperature in June, July, August, and birth of Lloyd, which prospered with the railroads until
September is about 78 degrees F. Temperatures of 86 the 1930's. The railroad also gave a boost to Aucilla, but
degrees or higher have occurred in May, June, July, Monticello was left stranded three miles north of the
August, and September, but 100 degrees is reached only main track.
rarely. In June, July, and August, the warmest months, The Civil War broke out while the county was still
the average maximum temperature is 90 degrees. burdened by its heavy railroad debt. In the war's
Temperatures above 95 degrees occur on fewer than 22 aftermath, county planters struggled with debt and
days. Temperature and precipitation data are shown in fluctuating cotton profits. Within a few years, farmers and
table 1. store owners all found themselves trapped in the
Fog occurs on an average of 6 mornings a month in endless cycle of credit, which characterized
winter and spring and almost never in summer and fall. sharecropping.
Prevailing winds are generally from the south in spring In the 1880's, farmers began looking for other crops.
and summer. In October, November, December, and William Cirardeau sent out the first shipment of
January, winds blow from the north. The mean watermelon seed in 1882, and 40 years later, Jefferson
windspeed for the year is 7.3 miles per hour. The lowest County produced 80 percent of the world's supply. The
monthly mean windspeed, 5.8 miles per hour, occurs in Le Conte pear was also produced, but pecans were a
August. The highest, 9 miles per hour, occurs in March. larger cash crop. The flatwoods in the southern part of
the county supplied both turpentine and lumber.
While Jefferson County held its own in agriculture after
History the Civil War, it failed to gather a large share of the new
arol Miller, Ph.D. in history, helped prepare this section. tourist trade. However, northerners did come to spend
Carol Miller, Ph.D. in history, helped prepare this sectiontheir winters at St. Elmo's Hotel in Monticello or to fish at
The first Europeans to enter what was to become the head of the Wacissa, but their role in the county's
Jefferson County were the members of Panfilo de economy was ultimately not that of the tourist. After the
Narvaez's expedition. They passed through an agricultural depression of the 1920's, several winter
Apalachee town in 1528. In the 17th century, the visitors bought up vast tracts of Jefferson County to use
Franciscans administered five missions in the county as hunting preserves.
along an east-west line near what would become U.S.
Highway 27. These missions were destroyed at the Natural Resources
beginning of the 18th century by the English governor of
South Carolina in retaliation against Spanish J. William Yon and Ronald W. Hoenstine, Florida Geological Survey,
depredations. When American settlers entered the helped prepare this section.
county in the 19th century, the land was occupied not by Located in the eastern part of the Florida panhandle,
the Apalachees, who had been dispersed when the Jefferson County encompasses a transitional geologic
missions were abandoned, but by Miccosukees, a area that separates the thick Tertiary carbonate
branch of the Creeks who became part of the Seminole sediment characteristic of the Florida peninsula from the
group. predominant age-equivalent clastic sediment of western







Jefferson County, Florida 3



Florida. This area is underlain by thick limestones, addition to recharge along the Aucilla River. In the
dolomites, sands, and clays in the northern half of the northeastern part of the county, leakage occurs from
county. swamp areas through the overlying sediment of the
The two major physiographic divisions in Jefferson Hawthorn and Miccosukee formations.
County are the Northern Highlands and the Coastal Secondary artesian aquifers are in northern Jefferson
Lowlands (9). The Northern Highlands extend over the County. These aquifers occur within discontinuous units
northern two-thirds of the county, and the Coastal of limestone, dolomite, and sand that formed the
Lowlands are in the remaining third of Jefferson County. Hawthorn Formation. The amount of water obtained from
The boundary between the two divisions is a well- the secondary aquifers is minimal in comparison to the
defined, southward-facing escarpment, the Cody Scarp. underlying Floridan Aquifer but may be sufficient for
This escarpment is considered to be one of the most small domestic supplies. In addition, the quality of water
persistent topographic breaks in Florida. is diminished relative to the Floridan Aquifer by the
The Northern Highlands include a prominent presence of more dissolved solids.
physiographic feature known as the Tallahassee Hills, Other sources of water within the county include water
which lies between the Florida-Georgia state line on the table aquifers that occur within the surficial sand
north and the Gulf Coastal Lowlands on the south. The deposits at higher elevations. These aquifers receive
Tallahassee Hills are erosional-remnant hills and ridges recharge primarily from rainfall or through upward
that have elevations up to 260 feet. However, a relatively percolation of underlying aquifers when their
large low area associated with a number of hills is along potentiometric surfaces are higher than that of the water
the eastern side of the county. Although the Tallahassee table. Water quality in these aquifers is diminished
Hills in this area have been highly dissected by stream because of the high concentration of iron.
erosion and subsurface solution, they probably once Wells provide the water supply for most of the homes
represented a nearly flat Miocene delta plain that and irrigated crops throughout the county. The wells are
covered all of northern Jefferson County. dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer and
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands are markedly lower in cased to the limestone.
elevations than the Northern Highlands. They include
such features as the Woodville Karst Plain, the River Farming
Valley Lowlands, and Pleistocene age terraces and
associated shorelines. The Woodville Karst Plain is a Agriculture is the dominant element of the Jefferson
low, gently sloping plain consisting of sand dunes lying County economy. About 15 percent of the population is
on a limestone surface that begins in the southern part employed on-farm, and another 10 percent is employed
of Leon County and extends southward through Wakulla in agricultural-related fields. It is estimated that over 30
County to the Gulf. The River Valley Lowlands are all percent of the gross county income is derived from
valleys in Jefferson County including those of the St. agriculture. Gross farm income in 1981 was estimated in
Marks, Wacissa and Penhook Rivers. The Pleistocene excess of 24 million dollars.
age terraces, beginning with the youngest and lowest in Production is extremely diversified. Livestock
elevation, are the Silver Bluff, Pamlico, and Wicomico. operations include cow-calf and stocker-grazer beef
Elevations of these terraces are 10 feet, 15 to 20 feet, production, dairying, and swine. About 2,500 cows are
and 100 feet, respectively. milked at six dairies. Cattle are grazed on permanent
Soil suitability for various uses is normally based on pasture and small grain-clover winter pasture. Row crop
evaluations of properties within the soil alone, production includes corn, soybeans, peanuts, grain and
Interpretations in this soil survey are made as to what forage sorghum, cotton, flue-cured tobacco, and small
effects these properties could have on use. Many grains. About 2,000 acres is in watermelons. Various
geologic features are not expressed within the soil but fresh vegetables are marketed at Thomasville State
may significantly affect the suitability of a site for a Farmers' Market. Jefferson County also has a livestock
particular use. Individual sites should be evaluated by auction market and several farm supply and grain buying
onsite examination and testing. In many cases, special facilities.
planning, design, and construction techniques can be Nursery stock contributes some 5 million dollars in
used to overcome geologic problems where they are gross sales annually. Woody ornamentals and fruit
identified and evaluated. nursery stock are produced. Jefferson County provides
up to 50 percent of the national supply of improved
Ground Water budded and grafted pecan trees from its nurseries. It is
the largest pecan (nut) producing county in Florida.
The Floridan Aquifer is the principal water-bearing unit Nursery stock is moved wholesale throughout the
in Jefferson County. It includes all of the Middle Eocene eastern United States. Timber for sawlogs, posts, and
to Early Miocene formations. This aquifer is believed to pulpwood is produced on large tracts as well as in farm
be recharged by Lake Miccosukee through sinkholes in woodlots. Plantations maintained for multipurpose of







4 Soil Survey



timber, crops, and recreation are in Jefferson County. climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
Quail, dove, turkey, and deer are also in the county. kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
Diversity is not only exemplified in many crop and landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
livestock enterprises, but also in farm size. More than observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
830 farms average 460 acres. However, a third of the position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
farms are 50 acres or less, and two-thirds are less than scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
180 acres. About 70 percent of the farms responding to were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the 1978 Census of Agriculture had gross sales of 20 the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
thousand dollars or less. More than 50 percent of the the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
farm operators hold off-farm jobs. Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
High quality water is relatively abundant for irrigation, into one another as their characteristics gradually
Jefferson County water use is managed by the change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil
Suwannee River Water Management District in the scientists must determine the boundaries between the
eastern part of the county and by the North West Florida soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
Water Management District in the western part. profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
The University of Florida Institute of Food and by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
Agricultural Science operates an Agricultural Research are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
Center of 120 acres and a faculty of five researchers. an area and to determine the boundaries.
Fruit and ornamental horticulture is the main area of Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
research. profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
Transportation rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
Jefferson County is well served by a network of describing the soils in the survey area and determining
county, state, and federal highways. Interstate Highway their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
10 and U.S. Highway 90 traverse the central part of the taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
county on an east-west route, and U.S. Highway 19 concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
serves north-south traffic through the county. U.S. characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
Highway 90 and U.S. Highway 19 intersect in Monticello. are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
The Seaboard System Railroad provides freight systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
transportation on east-west and north-south routes used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
across the county, and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
Reguwithin therly scheduled air transportation is not available horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
within hs available county. Emergency medical helicopter service classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
is available to county residents. Commercial air compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
passenger service is available at Tallahassee Municipal same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
Airport, about 30 miles from Monticello. confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
How This Survey Was Made While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory
This survey was made to provide information about the analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
soils in the survey area. The information includes a interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
description of the soils and their location and a well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general were field tested through observation of the soils in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants different uses under different levels of management.
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
profile extends from the surface down into the sources, such as research information, production
unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other data on crop yields under defined levels of management
living organisms and has not been changed by other were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
biological activity. experiments on the same kinds of soil.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief, soil properties but also on such variables as climate and







Jefferson County, Florida 5


biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units,
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have they are called soils of minor extent.
a high water table within certain depths in most years, Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
but they cannot assure that a high water table will patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
date. management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
After soil scientists located and identified the inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. or require different management. These are contrasting
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
accurately. because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
Map Unit Composition descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is complex that it was impractical to make enough
identified and named according to the taxonomic observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a landscape.
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties landscape into segments that have similar use and
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic management requirements. The delineation of such
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of information for the development of resource plans, but
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and in small areas.









7









General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication 1. Chipley-Alpin-Ortega
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general Nearly level to gently rolling, somewhat poorly drained,
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map moderately well drained, and excessively drained soils
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor that are sandy to a depth of at least 80 inches
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up This map unit is on sandy ridges on uplands and low
one unit can occur in other units but in a different ridges on the flatwoods in the western part of the
pattern, county, from Cody north and west along the Leon
The general soil map can be used to compare the County line, from Fanlew west to the Leon County line
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of and in the Calico Hills. Native vegetation includes
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, longleaf and slash pines, mixed hardwoods, and an
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. understory of honeysuckle, pineland threeawn, and
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for running oak.
planning the management of a farm or field or for This map unit makes up about 6,140 acres, or 1.6
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure, percent of the land area in the county. It is about 30
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place percent Chipley soils, 24 percent Alpin soils, 13 percent
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that Ortega soils, and 33 percent soils of minor extent.
affect management. Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained or
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their moderately well drained. Typically, the surface layer is
potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent very dark gray and dark grayish brown fine sand about
of the map units shown on the general soil map. It lists 12 inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand to a
the limitations of each map unit for major land uses and depth of at least 80 inches. To a depth of 39 inches, it is
the potential productivity for woodland. yellowish brown and light yellowish brown with brown
Each map unit is rated for cropland, pasture, and yellow mottles in the lower part. To a depth of 72
woodland, sanitary facilities, building sites, and recreation inches, the underlying material is very pale brown with
areas. Cropland is soil on which cultivated crops, such brown and reddish yellow mottles. Below that, it is light
as corn and soybeans, are grown extensively. Pasture is gray.
soil on which pasture forage is grown extensively. Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
Woodland refers to areas of native or introduced trees. surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 4
Building sites include residential and commercial inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of
developments. Recreation areas are campsites, picnic about 47 inches and is fine sand. It is yellowish brown to
areas, ballfields, and other areas that are subject to a depth of 20 inches, brownish yellow to a depth of 40
heavy foot traffic. inches, and yellow below that. The underlying material is
very pale brown fine sand that has strong brown loamy
Soils of the Ridges, Low Ridges, and Broad Flats fine sand lamellae bands 1 to 2 centimeters thick. It
Soils of the Ridges, Low Ridges, and Broad Flats deh o leas 80 inches.
extends to a depth of at least 80 inches.
The two general soil map units in this group are made Ortega soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the
up of soils that are excessively drained to poorly drained surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches
and nearly level to gently rolling. The soils are on sandy thick. The underlying material is fine sand to a depth of
ridges and broad flats of uplands and on natural river at least 80 inches. It is brown and light yellowish brown
levies in two major areas of the county. One area of to a depth of 41 inches, pale yellow with strong brown
these soils is on the east side of the county, and the and brownish yellow mottles to a depth of 58 inches,
other is on the west side south of Ashville and Lake and white with brownish yellow and reddish yellow
Miccosukee to the Cody Scarp. Some of the soils are mottles to a depth of 70 inches. It is white below that.
sandy throughout, some have thin lamellae below a Of minor extent in this map unit are the Albany,
depth of 40 inches, and some are sandy to a depth of Lakeland, Troup, Bibb, Blanton, Lucy, Rutlege, Plummer,
40 to 74 inches and loamy below. Sapello, and Leon soils.







8 Soil Survey



Some of the acreage of this map unit has been is in planted pines, but some remains in native
cleared for improved pasture, hay, or crops. Much of the woodlands of mixed hardwoods and pines.
acreage is in planted pines or natural woodland.
Soils of the Rolling Uplands
The two general soil map units in this group are made
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained, up of soils that are well drained and nearly level to
poorly drained, and moderately well drained soils that rolling. The soils are on uplands in the northern part of
are sandy to a depth of 40 to 79 inches and loamy the county. They are sandy or loamy and have a loamy
below or clayey subsoil within a depth of 20 inches, or they are
This map unit is on low knolls, natural river levies, and sandy from 0 to 40 inches and loamy below.
drainageways of uplands and on low knolls on the
flatwoods. It is on the eastern side of the county from 3. Orangeburg-Dothan-Fuquay
Ashville south along the Aucilla River to the Cody Scarp
just south of Lamont and on the western side from Lloyd Nearly level to rolling, well drained soils; some are loamy
to just south of Wacissa. Native trees include longleaf throughout, some are sandy to a depth of less than 20
pine, loblolly pine, slash pine, live oak, white oak, laurel inches and loamy below, and some are sandy to a depth
oak, water oak, sweetgum, hickory, and persimmon of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below
trees. The understory is woody brushes and vines. This map unit is on nearly level to rolling uplands in
This map unit makes up about 45,832 acres, or 11.9 the north central part of the county. It encompasses a
percent of the land area in the county. It is about 26 major part of the uplands of Jefferson County from the
percent Albany soils, 24 percent Plummer soils, 11 Cody Scarp just north of Wacissa, north to the Georgia
percent Blanton soils, and 39 percent soils of minor state line. There is also an area east of the Aucilla River
extent. in the Ashville area extending to Madison County and
Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the Georgia state line. Native trees include longleaf pine,
the surface layer is dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, live oak, red oak, white oak,
The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of 55 inches. It and hickory. The understory is woody bushes and vines.
is brown and pale brown in the upper part and white in This map unit makes up about 136,120 acres, or 36.1
the lower part. It has mottles in shades of brown and percent of the land area in the county. It is about 25
gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 percent Orangeburg soils, 22 percent Dothan soils, 19
inches. It is very pale brown sandy loam to a depth of 60 percent Fuquay soils, and 34 percent soils of minor
inches and light brownish gray sandy clay loam below extent.
that. The subsoil has mottles in shades of brown, yellow, Orangeburg soils are well drained. Typically, the
and gray. surface layer is very dark grayish brown sandy loam
Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the about 7 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of
surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The at least 80 inches. It is red sandy loam in the upper part
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 69 and red sandy clay in the lower part.
inches. It is grayish brown to a depth of 18 inches, gray Dothan soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
to a depth of 43 inches, and light gray below that. The layer is dark brown loamy fine sand about 9 inches thick.
subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is
light gray sandy loam in the upper part and light gray yellowish brown fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam in
sandy clay loam in the lower part. The subsoil has few to the upper part, and in the middle part, it is yellowish
common mottles in shades of brown and yellow, brown sandy clay loam that has more than 5 percent
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically, plinthite. The lower part of the subsoil is sandy clay
the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand loam. It is reticulately mottled in shades of brown, yellow,
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand red, and gray.
to a depth of 63 inches. It is yellowish brown, light Fuquay soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and very pale brown. layer is dark brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of at least 80 subsurface layer is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth
inches. To a depth of 74 inches, it is brownish yellow of about 37 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of at
with strong brown mottles, and below that, it is light gray least 80 inches. It is yellowish brown sandy loam and
with brownish yellow, strong brown, and yellowish red sandy clay loam in the upper part, and the lower part is
mottles. reticulately mottled red, yellowish brown, and light gray
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Lucy, Troup, sandy clay loam. The subsoil contains 6 to 10 percent
Sapelo, Fuquay, Leefield, Surrency, Pelham, Chipley, plinthite.
Dothan, and Bibb soils. Of minor extent in this map unit are the Lucy, Bonifay,
Some of the acreage of this map unit has been Cowarts, Troup, Blanton, Faceville, Albany, Tifton,
cleared for crops, pasture, or hay. Much of the acreage Leefield, Pelham, Surrency, and Miccosukee soils.







Jefferson County, Florida 9



Much of the acreage of this map unit is cleared for Orangeburg soils are well drained. Typically, the
hay, pasture, and cultivated crops (fig. 1). The rest is in surface layer is very dark grayish brown sandy loam
planted pines or native woodland. about 7 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of
more than 80 inches. It is red sandy clay loam in the
4. Orangeburg-Faceville-Dothan upper part and red sandy clay in the lower part.
Faceville soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
Gently undulating to rolling, well drained soils; some are layer is brown fine sandy loam about 14 inches thick.
loamy throughout and some are sandy or loamy and The subsoil is red and dark red sandy clay to a depth of
have a loamy or clayey subsoil within a depth of 20 80 inches. It has mottles in shades of yellow and brown.
inches Dothan soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
This map unit is on uplands in the northwest corner of layer is dark brown loamy fine sand about 9 inches thick.
the county, adjacent to Leon County and Georgia and is The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. To
north and east of Lake Miccosukee. It is made up of a depth of 49 inches, it is yellowish brown fine sandy
soils on gently undulating to rolling uplands and in loam and sandy clay loam, and to a depth of 62 inches,
strongly sloping areas near drainageways. Native trees it is yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has more than
include longleaf pine, loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, live 5 percent plinthite. Below that, the subsoil is sandy clay
oak, red oak, white oak, and hickory. The understory is loam that is reticulately mottled in shades of brown,
woody bushes and vines. yellow, red, and gray.
This map unit makes up about 23,400 acres, or 6 Of minor extent in this map unit are the Lucy, Fuquay,
percent of the land area in the county. It is 33 percent Pelham, Rains, Leefield, Cowarts, and Miccosukee soils.
Orangeburg soils, 32 percent Faceville soils, 14 percent
Dothan soils, and 21 percent soils of minor extent.
































Figure 1.-Soils of the Orangeburg-Dothan-Fuquay general soil map unit are moderately suitable for cultivated crops.







10 Soil Survey



Much of the acreage of this map unit has been about 27 inches. The substratum is dark brown fine sand
cleared for hay and pasture or cultivated crops. The rest that extends to a depth of at least 80 inches.
is in planted pines or native woodland. Of minor extent in this map unit are the Plummer,
Mascotte, Sapelo, Rains, Leefield, Dorovan, Lynchburg,
Soils of the Upland River Drainages, Depressions, and Albany soils.
and Swamps Most of the acreage of this map unit is in natural
The three general soil map units in this group are vegetation, but some areas are in planted pines.
made up of soils that are poorly drained to very poorly
drained. The soils are on river flood plains, in 6. Byars-Pelham-Leefield
depressions and swamps, and along shore lines of lakes
throughout the northern half of the county. They are Nearly level to gently sloping, very poorly drained to
nearly level to gently sloping. Some of these soils are somewhat poorly drained soils along drainage ways;
nearlylevel to gently sloping. Some of thee soils ae some are loamy to a depth of less than 20 inches and
sandy to a depth of 40 inches and loamy below, some clayey below, and some are sandy to a depth of 20 to
are sandy to a depth of 68 inches and loamy below, 40 inches and loamy below
some are loamy to a depth of less than 20 inches and
clayey below, and other are organic to a depth of 12 to This map unit is along the Ward Creek flood plain
50 inches and loamy below, north of Monticello. It is made up of soils that are nearly
level to gently sloping. The native vegetation is

5. Surrency-Pelham-Pamlico blackgum, tupelo gum, slash pine, water oak, sweetgum,
and greenbriers.
Nearly level, very poorly drained or poorly drained soils; This map units makes up about 5,720 acres, or about
some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy 1.5 percent of the land area in the county. It is about 48
below, and some are organic to a depth of 50 inches percent Byars soils, 21 percent Pelham soils, 15 percent
and sandy below Leefield soils, and 16 percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit is in depressions, swamps, and The Byars soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
drainageways mostly to the east of Monticello in the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam about 12
Wolf Creek, Grease Swamp, Sneads Smokehouse Lake, inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay to a depth of 65
Anderson Bay, and Buggs Creek areas, but some small inches. It is gray in the upper part and light gray in the
areas are around Lake Miccosukee. Native vegetation is lower part. The underlying material is light gray sandy
mainly water-tolerant grasses and trees including loam to a depth of 80 inches.
baldcypress, sweetgum, blackgum, sweetbay, magnolia, The Pelham soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
water oak, slash pine, gallberry, bluestem, switchgrass, surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 8 inches
plumegrass, and sedges. thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish brown and
This map unit makes up about 49,575 acres, or about grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 34 inches.
12.8 percent of the land area in the county. It is about The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. To
38 percent Surrency soils, 25 percent Pelham soils, 12 a depth of 49 inches, it is light gray fine sandy loam that
percent Pamlico soils, and about 25 percent soils of has strong brown mottles. Below that, it is light gray
minor extent. sandy clay loam that has strong brown and red mottles.
The Surrency soils are very poorly drained. Typically, The Leefield soils are somewhat poorly drained.
the surface layer is dark gray and very dark gray fine Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
sand about 15 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
gray fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The to a depth of 32 inches. It is pale yellow and yellow to a
subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is depth of 29 inches and light yellowish brown with
light gray fine sandy loam in the upper part and light gray yellowish brown and gray mottles below that. The subsoil
sandy clay loam in the lower part. The subsoil has dark extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. To a depth of
yellowish brown mottles throughout. 38 inches, it is light yellowish brown sandy loam that has
The Pelham soils are poorly drained. Typically, the mottles in shades of brown and gray, and to a depth of
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 8 inches 63 inches it is gray sandy clay loam that has yellowish
thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish brown and brown mottles. The lower part of the subsoil is
grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 34 inches. reticulately mottled light gray, yellow, yellowish brown,
The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. To and strong brown sandy clay loam.
a depth of 49 inches, it is light gray fine sandy loam that Of minor extent in this map unit are the Pamlico,
has strong brown mottles, and below that, it is light gray Dorovan, Surrency, Rains, Lynchburg, Dothan, Albany,
sandy clay loam that has strong brown and red mottles. and Fuquay soils.
The Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, Most of the acreage of this map unit is in natural
the soil is very dark brown muck to a depth of about 4 vegetation. Some areas are in planted pines or cleared
inches. Beneath that, it is black muck to a depth of for pasture.







Jefferson County, Florida 11



7. Plummer, flooded depth of 80 inches and muck to a depth of more than 8
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of about 68 inches and loamy below
This map unit is mostly on the Aucilla River flood plain
in the western part of the county. It is made up of nearly Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some are sandy to a
level soils. The natural vegetation is blackgum, depth of 40 to 79 inches and loamy below, and some
sweetgum, slash pine, waxmyrtle, cypress, maple, are sandy throughout
maidencane, and smilax. This map unit is in the northern part of the flatwoods
This map unit makes up about 3,560 acres, or about south of Cody Scarp. One area of this map unit is south
0.9 percent of the land area in the county. It is about 75 and west of the Wacissa River, and another area is the
percent Plummer soils that are flooded and 25 percent sandier soils of the Calico Hills.
soils of minor extent.
soils of minor extent. The natural vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf
Plummer soils are poorly drained and frequently pine, water oak, laurel oak, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, and
flooded. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish broomsedge bluestem.
brown fine sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 68 This map unit makes up 59,220 acres, or about 15.3



Chaires soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Of minor extent in this map unit are Plummer soils that layer is very dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick.
do not flood, and Albany, Surrency, Rutlege, Bibb, and The subsurface horizon is white fine sand to a depth of
Pelham soils.
l o the of a in about 29 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of at
Almost all of the acreage of this map unit is in natural least 80 inches. It is very dark brown and very dark
vegetation. grayish brown fine sand and loamy fine sand in the
Soils of the Flatwoods and Coastal Marshes upper part and light olive gray and light greenish gray
fine sandy loam in the lower part.
The five general soil map units in this group are made Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
up of soils that are nearly level and moderately well layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
drained to very poorly drained. The soils are on the subsurface layer is gray and light gray fine sand to a
flatwoods. Some of the soils are sandy throughout, some depth of about 21 inches. The subsoil extends to a
are sandy to a depth of 40 to 79 inches and loamy depth of 53 inches. It is very dark brown and dark brown
below, and some are sandy to a depth of less than 20 to fine sand. The next layer to a depth of 57 inches is
40 inches and loamy below. Limestone bedrock is at a grayish brown fine sand, and to a depth of 80 inches or
depth of 21 to 60 inches in some theof the soils in ths pt more, it is black fine sand.
group. Of minor extent in this map unit are the Surrency,
8. Bayvi Pamlico, Dorovan, Tooles, Rutlege, Mascotte, Albany,
Chipley, and Plummer soils.
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are muck to a Most of the soils of this map unit are used for planted
depth of 5 inches and sandy to a depth of at least 80 pines. The wetter areas are in native hardwoods.
inches
This map unit is on the tidal marsh of the coast line of 10. Nutali-Tooles, flooded
Jefferson County. It is made up of nearly level soils. The
natural vegetation consists of needlegrass rushes, Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
saltgrass, smooth cordgrass, and marshhay cordgrass. depth of 10 to 40 inches and loamy below; underlain by
This map unit makes up about 4,010 acres, or about 1 limestone
percent of the land area in the county. It is about 65 This map unit is made up of soils that are very poorly
percent Bayvi l and e soils and 35 percent soils of minor extent drained. The soils are on flatwoods along the Wacissa
Bayvi soils are very poorly drained. Typically, these River and Welaunee Creek below the Cody Scarp,
soils are black muck about 5 inches thick. Below that, extending to the coastal marsh below the confluence of
they are black mucky loamy sand to a depth of 17 the Wacissa and Aucilla Rivers. Native trees include
inches and very dark grayish brown sand to a depth of tupelo, sweetgum, baldcypress, and water oak.
31 inches. The underlying material is gray sand to a This map unit makes up about 18,385 acres, or about
depth of 80 inches. 4.8 percent of the land area in the county. It is 40
Of minor extent in this map unit are Chaires percent Nutall soils that are flooded, 38 percent Tooles
depressional, Nutall, and Tooles soils and soils similar to soils that are flooded, and 22 percent soils of minor
the Bayvi soils but they have limestone bedrock within a extent.







12


Nutall soils are very poorly drained and frequently of about 9 inches. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
flooded. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand depth of about 17 inches. It is light gray in the upper part
about 6 inches thick. The next layer to a depth of 9 and brown in the lower part. The subsoil is light greenish
inches is very dark gray and light gray fine sand. The gray sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 17 of about 30 inches.
inches. It is light gray in the upper part and brown in the Of minor extent in this map unit are the Tooles
lower part. The subsoil is light greenish gray sandy clay depressional, Chaires depressional, Chaires, and
loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 30 Chiefland soils.
inches. Most of the acreage of this map unit has been
Tooles soils are very poorly drained and frequently clearcut, bedded, and planted to slash pines. Some of
flooded. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand the acreage is in natural stands of mixed hardwoods,
about 7 inches thick. The next layer is very dark gray pines, and palms.
and light gray fine sand to a depth of about 16 inches.
The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 39 12. Chief land-Chief land, flooded
inches. It is light gray in the upper part and brown in the
lower part. The subsoil is light greenish gray sandy clay Nearly level, moderately well drained soils that are sandy
loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 46 to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below;
inches. underlain by limestone containing solution holes between
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Nutall and depths of 40 and 60 inches
Tooles soils that are not flooded, Chaires depressional, This map unit is in the Goose Pastures area east of
Tooles depressional, and Bayvi soils, the Wacissa River to the Taylor County line. The natural
Most of the acreage of this map unit is in native vegetation is live oak, laurel oak, slash pine, longleaf
vegetation. Some of the dryer areas are used for planted pine, red maple, hackberry, chalky bluestem, and
pines. persimmon.
11. Tooles-Nutall This map unit makes up about 2,340 acres, or about
0.6 percent of the land areas in the county. It is about 40
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a percent Chiefland soils that are not flooded, 20 percent
depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below; underlain by Chiefland soils that are flooded, and 40 percent soils of
limestone minor extent.
This map unit is on the flatwoods and extends from Chiefland soils that are not flooded are moderately
south of the Calico Hills to the coastal marshes on the well drained. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine
west side of Wacissa River. It is also in a small area on sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
the east side of the Wacissa River along Cow Creek. gray fine sand to a depth of about 25 inches. The
The native trees include slash pine, longleaf pine, laurel subsoil is brownish yellow fine sandy loam to a depth of
oak, sweetgum, cabbage palm, red maple, and 32 inches. It is underlain by yellow, soft, weathered
waxmyrtle. limestone to a depth of about 49 inches. Limestone
This map unit makes up about 28,920 acres, or 7.5 bedrock is below this layer.
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 36 Chiefland soils that are flooded are also moderately
percent Tooles soils, 28 percent Nutall soils, and 36 well drained. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine
percent soils of minor extent. sand 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
Tooles soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface 40 inches, is pale brown, light yellowish brown, or very
layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The next pale brown fine sand. Mottles in shades of yellow or
layer is very dark gray and light gray fine sand to a depth brown are in the lower part of the subsurface layer. The
of about 9 inches. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a subsoil, to a depth of 52 inches, is yellowish brown
depth of about 32 inches. It is light gray in the upper part sandy loam that has fine yellowish brown mottles. It is
and brown in the lower part. The subsoil is light greenish underlain by soft limestone that contains solution holes.
gray sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth Of minor extent in this map unit are the Chaires soils
of about 46 inches. and flooded and nonflooded phases of the Nutall and
Nutall soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface Tooles soils.
layer is black fine sand about 4 inches thick. The next Most of the soils of this map unit are used for planted
layer is very dark gray and light gray fine sand to a depth pines.






13








Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The a special symbol on the soil maps.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
maps, can be used to determine the limitations of a soil have little or no soil material and support little or no
for specific uses. They also can be used to plan the vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
management needed for those uses. More information shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
on each map unit, or soil, is given under "Use and shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
Management of the Soils." maps.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
for which the unit is named. give properties of the soils and the limitations and
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit capabilities for many uses. The Glossary defines many of
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes the terms used in describing the soils.
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for soil is modtea finwell drained and nearly level to 5 percent slopes. This
specific uses. soil is moderately well drained and nearly level to gently
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up sloping. It is on convex knolls on uplands and flatwoods.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the Individual areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of Typically, the surf ace layer is very dark gray fine sand
a series have major horizons that are similar in Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
a series have major horizons that are similar in about 5 inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand
composition, thickness, and arrangement. to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is yellowish brown
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface and light yellowish brown to a depth of 41 inches, pale
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in yellow with strong brown and brownish yellow mottles to
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, a depth of 58 inches, and white with brownish yellow
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the and reddish yellow mottles to a depth of 70 inches.
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil Below that, it is white.
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil Included in mapping are small areas of Blanton,
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil Chipley, and Sapelo soils. Also included are small areas
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or of soils that have a thicker surface layer than that of the
management. For example, Plummer fine sand, Ortega soil. The included soils make up less than 15
frequently flooded, is one of several phases in the percent of the map unit.
Plummer series. This Ortega soil has a seasonal high water table that
Some map units are made up of two or more major fluctuates between depths of 60 and 72 inches for more
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, than 6 months in most years and is within a depth of 40
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such to 60 inches for 1 or 2 months during heavy rainfall
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they periods. The available water capacity is low in the
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The surface layer and very low in the underlying material.
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is low.
in all areas. Nutall-Tooles complex is an example. The natural vegetation is dominantly longleaf pines
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils and turkey oak with a ground cover of pineland
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some threeawn.
of these included soils have properties that differ This Ortega soil has severe limitations for most
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
differences could significantly affect use and plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduces
management of the soils in the map unit. The included potential yields of adapted crops. The high water table
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some between depths of 40 and 60 inches affects the







14 Soil Survey



availability of water by providing water through capillary Included in mapping are small areas of Albany, Ortega,
rise to supplement the low available water capacity. In and Sapelo soils. The included soils make up less than
very dry seasons, the high water table drops to well 15 percent of the map unit.
below the root zone, and little capillary water is available This Chipley soil has a seasonal high water table
to plants. Row crops need to be planted in strips on the within a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months and
contour with alternate strips of close-growing crops. Crop within a depth of 40 to 72 inches for the rest of the year.
rotations also need to include close-growing crops on The available water capacity is low in the surface layer
the land at least two-thirds of the time. This soil needs and very low in the underlying material. Permeability is
fertilizer and lime for all crops. Soil-improving cover rapid. Natural fertility is low.
crops and all crop residue need to be left on the ground. The natural vegetation is dominantly slash pine,
Irrigation of high-value crops is generally feasible where longleaf pine, mixed hardwoods, and a ground cover of
irrigation water is readily available. Intensive pineland threeawn.
management of soil fertility and water is needed for This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
optimum crop production. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients from
This soil has moderate limitations for use as pasture the soil limit the choice of plants and reduce potential
and for hay. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients yields of adapted crops. The high water table within 20
from the soil are the major limiting factors. Plants, such to 40 inches of the surface in wet seasons affects the
as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well availability of water in the root zone by providing water
adapted, but they require fertilizer and lime. Controlled through capillary rise to supplement the low available
grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants for water capacity. In very dry seasons, the water table
maximum yields. Intensive management of soil fertility drops well below the root zone and little capillary water
and water is needed for optimum productivity of this soil is available to plants. Row crops need to be planted in
for pasture and hay. strips on the contour with alternate strips of close-
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for growing crops. Crop rotations also need to include close-
longleaf and slash pines, and these pines are the best growing crops on the land at least two-thirds of the time.
trees to plant. Droughtiness is the major limitation. This soil needs lime and fertilizer for all crops. Soil-
improving cover crops and crop residue need to be left
This soil has severe limitations, and lawns for sanitary landfillsng. on the land. Irrigation of high-value crops is generally
shallow excavations, and lawns and landscaping. It has feasible where irrigation water is readily available. Tile or
moderate limitations for septic tank absorption field aand other drainage is needed for some crops that are
dwellings without basements. Wetness and seepage damaged by the high water table during the growing
affect these uses. See tables 10 and 11 for more seasons. Intensive management of soil fertility and water
complete information concerning factors that can affect is needed for optimum crop production.
urban development. The Chipley soil has moderate limitations for use as
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic pasture and for hay. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways nutrients from the soil are the major limiting factors.
mainly because of the sandy surface. See table 8 for Intensive management of soil fertility and water is
information concerning factors that can affect required for optimum productivity of this soil. Plants, such
recreational development. as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well
This Ortega soil is in capability subclass Ills and in adapted, but they require fertilizer and lime. Controlled
woodland suitability group 10S. grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants for
maximum yields.
3-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees.
soil is somewhat poorly drained or moderately well Slash pine and longleaf pine are the best trees to plant
drained and nearly level to gently sloping. It is on slightly Droughtiness of this sandy soil is the major limitation.
convex knolls on uplands and flatwoods. Individual areas This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
of this soil are irregular in shape and range from 5 to absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
150 acres. dwellings with basements, and lawns and landscaping. It
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray and dark has moderate limitations for dwellings without
grayish brown fine sand about 12 inches thick. The basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
underlying material is fine sand to a depth of at least 80 and streets. Wetness and seepage are some of the
inches. To a depth of 39 inches, it is yellowish brown limiting factors affecting these uses. See tables 10 and
and light yellowish brown with mottles in shades of 11 for more complete information concerning factors that
brown and yellow in the lower part. To a depth of 72 can affect urban development.
inches, the underlying material is very pale brown with This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
brown and reddish yellow mottles, and below that, it is areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways
light gray. mainly because of the sandy surface. See table 8 for







Jefferson County, Florida 15


more information concerning factors that can affect 5-Fuquay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
recreational development. soil is well drained and nearly level to gently undulating.
This Chipley soil is in capability subclass Ills and in It is on summits and foot slopes of uplands. Individual
woodland suitability group 11S. areas of this soil are irregular in shape and range from 5
to 150 acres.
4-Surrency fine sand. This soil is very poorly Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand
drained and nearly level. It is in drainageways and about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish
depressions on uplands and flatwoods. Individual areas brown fine sand to a depth of about 37 inches. The
of this soil are circular or irregular in shape and range subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is
from 3 to 800 acres. Slopes are less than 1 percent. yellowish brown sandy loam and sandy clay loam in the
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray and very dark upper part and is reticulately mottled red, yellowish
gray fine sand about 15 inches thick. The subsurface brown, and light gray sandy clay loam in the lower part.
layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 26 The subsoil contains 5 to 15 percent plinthite.
inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 Included in mapping are small areas of Bonifay,
inches. It is light gray fine sandy loam in the upper part Dothan, Miccosukee, and Lucy soils. Also included are
and light gray sandy clay loam in the lower part. It has areas of soils similar to the Fuquay soils but they have
dark yellowish brown mottles throughout slopes of 5 to 8 percent. The included soils make up
dark yellowish brown mottles throughout. t 15 p o t m
less than 15 percent of the map unit.
Included in mapping are small areas of Pamlico, This Fuquay soil has a perched high water table above
Pelham, and Plummer soils. Also included are small the subsoil for brief durations during wet periods. The
areas of soils that have a mucky surface layer less than available water capacity is low in the surface and
15 inches thick. The included soils make up less than 15 subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
percent of the map unit. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
This Surrency soils is ponded for 6 to 9 months of the layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and
year, and the high water table is at or near the surface slow in the lower part. Natural fertility is low.
for the remainder of the year. The available water The natural vegetation is dominantly slash pine,
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak, post oak, and
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the dogwood. The understory is native shrubs and grasses
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the including huckleberry, smilax, virginia creeper, and
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. pineland threeawn.
The natural vegetation is blackgum, cypress, This Fuquay soil has moderate limitations for cultivated
sweetbay, slash pine, and pond pine in the overstory, crops because of the thick, sandy surface layer. It can
and swamp cyrilla, little leaf cyrilla, azalea, gallberry, be cultivated safely with good farming methods, but
smilax, and brambles in the understory. droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
This Surrency.soil has severe limitations for cultivated the choice of crops and the potential yields of adapted
crops, hay, and pasture because of wetness. crops. Corn, watermelons, soybeans, peanuts, and
This soil is generally not suited to the production of tobacco can be grown if properly managed. Row crops
pine trees because of ponding or wetness. It may be need to be planted on the contour in alternate strips with
suited to cypress and hardwood production through cover crops. Crop rotations also need to include cover
natural regeneration. Equipment limitations, seedling crops that remain on the land at least half the time. For
mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in best yields, this soil needs good seedbed preparation,
management. fertilizer, and lime.
managemThis soil has severe limitations for septic tank The soil has slight limitations for use as pasture and
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank for hay. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well
absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, adapted and produce well if fertilizer and lime are added
dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and to the soil. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
streets, and lawns and landscaping. Flooding and vigorous plants for maximum yields and good cover.
ponding are the main limiting factors. See tables 10 and This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
11 for more complete information concerning factors that pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
can affect urban development. plant competition are the main concerns in management.
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic Slash and longleaf pines are the best trees to plant.
areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways Droughtiness of the sandy surface and subsurface is the
because of ponding. See table 8 for more complete major limitation.
information concerning factors that can affect This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank
recreational development. absorption fields, dwellings with basements, and lawns
This Surrency soil is in capability subclass Vlw and in and landscaping because of slope, permeability, and
woodland suitability group 2W. wetness. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete







16 Soil Survey



information concerning factors that can affect urban clovers, tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and improved
development. bahiagrass, are well adapted and produce well when
This Fuquay soil has moderate limitations for camp they are properly managed. Fertilizer, lime, and
areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and controlled grazing are needed to maintain vigorous
golf fairways because of the sandy surface. See table 8 plants and a good ground cover.
for more complete information concerning factors that This soil has high potential productivity for slash and
can affect recreational development. loblolly pines. Plant competition is the main concern in
This Fuquay soil is in capability subclass Ils and in management. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine
woodland suitability group 11S. are the best trees to plant.
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
6-Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, absorption fields, trench type sanitary landfills, shallow
This soil is well drained and gently undulating. It is on excavations, and dwellings with basements because of
summits and shoulders of uplands. Individual areas of wetness and moderately slow permeability. See tables
this soil are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 500 10 and 11 for more complete information concerning
acres. factors that can affect urban development.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy fine This soil has moderate limitations for playgrounds
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a because of slope. See tables 8 for more complete
depth of at least 80 inches. It is yellowish brown fine information concerning factors which can affect
sandy loam and yellowish brown sandy clay loam to a recreational development.
depth of 49 inches and yellowish brown sandy clay loam This Dothan soil is in capability subclass lie and in
that has about 15 percent plinthite to a depth of 62 woodland suitability group 11A.
inches. Below that, the subsoil is sandy clay loam that is
reticulately mottled in shades of brown, yellow, red, and 7-Dothan loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
gray. eroded. This soil is well drained and gently rolling. It is
Included in mapping are small areas of Fuquay, on hillsides on uplands. Individual areas of this soil are
Miccosukee, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. Also included irregular in shape and range from 3 to 40 acres.
are small areas of soils that have 5 percent or more Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
plinthite above a depth of 24 inches. The included soils loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. layer is yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of
This Dothan soil has a perched high water table above about 16 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of at
the subsoil for brief durations during wet periods. The least 80 inches. It is brownish yellow sandy clay loam to
available water capacity is low in the surface layer and a depth of 64 inches and mottled brownish yellow,
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid yellow, red, light gray, and strong brown sandy clay loam
in the surface layer, moderate in the upper part of the below that. More than 5 percent plinthite is between
subsoil, and moderately slow in the lower part. Natural depths of 24 and 60 inches.
fertility is low. Included in mapping are small areas of Fuquay and
The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, loblolly Miccosukee soils. Also included are small areas of soils
pine, longleaf pine, and mixed hardwoods, such as live that have more than 5 percent plinthite at a depth of
oak, sweetgum, and dogwood. The understory is native about 24 inches and soils that have more than 10
grasses and shrubs including huckleberry, briers, and percent ironstone in the subsoil. The included soils make
pineland threeawn. up less than 20 percent of the map unit.
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops This Dothan soil has a perched high water table above
because of the hazard of erosion. The variety of adapted the subsoil for brief periods during wet seasons. The
crops is somewhat limited by occasional wetness, but available water capacity is low in the surface and
crops, such as corn and peanuts, are adapted if they are subsurface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
properly managed. Erosion control measures include Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface and
terraces with stabilized outlets and contour cultivation of subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
row crops in alternate strips with cover crops. Crop subsoil, and moderately slow in the lower part. Natural
rotations also need to include cover crops that remain fertility is low.
on the land at least half the time. Crop residue and the The native vegetation includes longleaf pine, shortleaf
soil-improving cover crops need to be left on the ground. pine, loblolly pine, slash pine, live oak, hickory, and white
Tile drains are needed to maintain good drainage for oak. The understory is sassafras, briers, ferns, vines, and
crops, such as tobacco, that are damaged by the slight pineland threeawn.
wetness. For maximum yields, this soil needs good This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime. because of erosion (fig. 2). It is only moderately suited to
This Dothan soil has slight limitations for use as most crops, such as corn, soybeans, and peanuts. The
pasture and for hay. Improved pasture plants, such as variety of adapted crops is somewhat limited by







Jefferson County, Florida 17



occasional wetness. Intensive erosion control measures This soil has high potential productivity for slash pine,
include carefully designed terraces with stabilized loblolly pine, and longleaf pine, which are the best trees
outlets, contour cultivation of row crops grown in to plant on this soil. Plant competition is the main
alternate strips with close-growing crops, crop rotations concern in management.
that include close-growing cover crops, and crop residue This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
left on the land. Tile or open drains are needed to absorption fields, and moderate limitations for trench
intercept seepage water from high areas. Row crops type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, dwellings
need to be planted on beds. For maximum yields, this with basements, and small commercial buildings mainly
soil needs good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime. because of wetness and slope. See tables 10 and 11 for
This Dothan soil has moderate limitations for use as more complete information concerning factors that can
pasture and for hay because the eroded condition of the affect urban development.
soil causes problems in establishing the pasture and also This soil has moderate limitations for playgrounds
reduces yields. Coastal bermudagrass and improved because of slope. See table 8 for more information
bahiagrass are well adapted and moderate yields are concerning factors that can affect recreational
possible if this soil is fertilized and limed. Controlled development.
grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants for This Dothan soil is in capability subclass Ille and in
maximum yields and good soil cover. An established and woodland suitability group 11A.
well maintained pasture or hay crop is one of the best -hres fne snd. This soil is poorly drained and
usesfor this soni 8--Chaires fine sand. This soil is poorly drained and
nearly level. It is in broad, level areas on the flatwoods.

































Figure 2.-Dothan loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded, is only moderately suitable for cultivated crops. Cover crops are needed
on this field to help control erosion.







18 Soil Survey



Individual areas of this soil are irregular in shape and This Chaires soil is in the capability subclass IVw and
range from 10 to 1,500 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 in woodland suitability group 10W.
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand 9-Leon fine sand. This soil is poorly drained and
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine nearly level. It is in broad, flat areas on the flatwoods.
sand to a depth of 29 inches. The subsoil extends to a Individual areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
depth of at least 80 inches. It is very dark brown and range from 15 to 1,500 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2
very dark grayish brown fine sand and loamy fine sand percent.
to a depth of 52 inches and light olive gray and light Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
greenish gray fine sandy loam below that. inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and light gray
Included in mapping are small areas of Albany, fine sand to a depth of about 21 inches. The subsoil, to
Chipley, Leon, and Surrency soils. Also included are a depth of 53 inches, is very dark brown and dark brown
small areas of soils that are shallower to the subsoil than fine sand. The material between depths of 53 and 57
the Chaires soils, some soils that have a thicker surface inches is grayish brown fine sand. Below that to a depth
layer, and some soils that have limestone at depths of 80 inches or more is black fine sand.
between 60 and 80 inches. The included soils make up Included in mapping are small areas of Chaires,
less than 15 percent of the map unit. Chipley, Rutlege, and Surrency soils. The included soils
This Chaires soil has a seasonal high water table make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and at a This Leon soil has a seasonal high water table within a
depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more in most depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and at a depth of
years. The available water capacity is very low in the 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months in most years.
surface and subsurface layers, low in the upper part of The available water capacity is very low in the surface
the subsoil, and moderate in the lower part. Permeability and subsurface layers and low in the subsoil.
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
in the upper part of the subsoil, and moderately slow to and moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural
slow in the lower part. Natural fertility is low. fertility is low.
The natural vegetation is scattered bluejack, blackjack, The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine,
laurel oak, water oak, longleaf pine, and sweetgum in the water oak, myrtle, and a thick undergrowth of
overstory. The understory is sawpalmetto, dwarf sawpalmetto, running oak, fetterbush, gallberry, and
blueberry, greenbrier, fetterbush, gallberry, bromegrass, pineland threeawn.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
and pineland threeawn. because of wetness
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops This Leon soil has severe limitations for use as
because of wetness. pasture and for hay. A seasonal high water table and
This Chaires soil has severe limitations for use as rapid leaching of plant nutrients from the soil limit the
pasture and for hay. A seasonal high water table and choice of plants and reduce potential yields of adapted
rapid leaching of plant nutrients from the soil limit the crops. Intensive management of soil fertility and water is
choice of plants and reduce potential yields of adapted needed for optimum production of pasture and hay.
crops. Intensive management of soil fertility and water is This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine
needed for optimum production of pasture and hay. trees, and slash pines are the best trees to plant.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, windthrow
pine trees. Slash pine are the best trees to plant. hazard, and plant competition are the main concerns in
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant management. Planting trees on beds lowers the effective
competition are the main concerns in management. depth of the high water table.
Planting trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
high water table (fig. 3). absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, streets, and lawns and landscaping because of wetness.
dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and See tables 10 and 11 for more complete information
streets, and lawns and landscaping because of wetness. concerning factors that can affect urban development.
See tables 10 and 11 for more complete information This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
concerning factors that can affect urban development, areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic because of wetness and the sandy surface. See table 8
areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways for information concerning factors that can affect
mainly because of wetness and the sandy surface. See recreational development.
table 8 for information concerning factors that can affect This Leon soil is in capability subclass IVw and in
recreational development. woodland suitability group 8W.








Jefferson County, Florida 19

































Figure 3.-Chaires fine sand has been bedded for planting pine trees. The seasonal high water table is visible between the beds for 1 to 3
months in most years.



10-Rains fine sandy loam. This soil is poorly The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, slash
drained and nearly level. It is in low areas and poorly pine, sweetgum, and blackgum. The understory is native
defined drainageways on uplands. Individual areas of this shrubs and grasses and includes waxmyrtle and inkberry.
soil are irregular in shape and range from 3 to 300 acres. This Rains soil has severe limitations for cultivated
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. crops because of wetness.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sandy loam This soil has severe limitations for use as pasture and
about 7 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of for hay. A seasonal high water table limits the choice of
at least 80 inches. It is gray and light gray sandy clay plants and reduces potential yields of adapted crops.
loam to a depth of 34 inches and gray sandy clay below Intensive water management is needed for optimum
that. The subsoil has mottles throughout. production of pasture and hay.
Included in mapping are small areas of Pelham and p o
Plummer soils. Also included are some soils that have a This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees,
thicker A horizon than that of the Rains soil. The but the potential is attainable only in areas that have
included soils make up less than 15 percent of the map adequate surface drainage. Equipment limitations and
unit. seedling mortality are the main concerns in
This Rains soil has a seasonal high water table within management. Slash pine and loblolly pine are the best
12 inches of the surface for about 6 months in most trees to plant but only in areas that are adequately
years. This soil is ponded after heavy rainfall. The drained.
available water capacity is low in the surface layer and This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
surface layer and slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
low. streets, and lawns and landscaping because of wetness.







20 Soil Survey



See tables 10 and 11 for more complete information bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted. Proper
concerning factors that can affect urban development, management of soil fertility is needed for optimum
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic productivity of this soil. Controlled grazing helps to
areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields and good
because of wetness. See table 8 for information cover.
concerning factors that can affect recreational This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
development. pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
This Rains soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in plant competition are the main concerns in management.
woodland suitability group 10W. Loblolly and slash pines are the best trees to plant.
This soil has severe limitations for area type sanitary
11-Lucy loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, landfills because of seepage, and it has moderate
This soil is well drained and nearly level to gently limitations for shallow excavations because cutbanks
undulating. It is on summits and foot slopes of uplands. cave. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete
Individual areas of this soil are irregular in shape and information concerning factors that can affect urban
range from 5 to 150 acres. development.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown and This soil has moderate limitations for playgrounds
brown loamy fine sand about 13 inches thick. The because of slope. See table 8 for more complete
subsurface layer is yellowish brown, strong brown, and information concerning factors that can affect
yellowish red loamy fine sand to a depth of about 34 recreational development.
inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 This Lucy soil is in capability subclass IIs and in
inches. It is yellowish red fine sandy loam to a depth of woodland suitability group 11S.
42 inches and red sandy clay loam below that.
Included in mapping are small areas of Albany, 12-Lucy loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Orangeburg, and Troup soils. Also included are areas of This soil is well drained and gently rolling. It is on back
soils that have a thicker surface layer. The included soils slopes and foot slopes of uplands. Individual areas of
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. this soil are elongated and irregular in shape and range
This Lucy soil does not have a high water table within from 3 to 50 acres.
a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is low Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the loamy fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and layer is strong brown loamy fine sand to a depth of
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural about 26 inches. The subsoil is red sandy clay loam to a
fertility is low. depth of at least 80 inches.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf Included in mapping are small areas of Orangeburg
pine, live oak, post oak, red oak, and dogwood (fig. 4). and Troup soils. The included soils make up less than 15
The understory consists of native shrubs and grasses percent of the map unit.
including huckleberry, southern dewberry, smilax, virginia This Lucy soil does not have a high water table within
creeper, American beautyberry, muscadine grape, and a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is low
sparse pineland threeawn. in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
because of poor soil qualities, but it can be cultivated subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
safely if proper farming methods are used. Droughtiness fertility is low.
and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live
crops and the potential yields of adapted crops. If good oak, post oak, red oak, and dogwood. The understory is
management practices are used, such crops as corn, native shrubs and grasses including huckleberry,
soybeans, peanuts, and tobacco can be grown. Row southern dewberry, smilax, virginia creeper, American
crops need to be planted on the contour in alternate beautyberry, muscadine grape, yaupon, and sparse
strips with cover crops. Crop rotations also need to pineland threeawn.
include cover crops that remain on the land at least half This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
the time. For best yields, this soil requires good seedbed because of poor soil qualities that require special soil-
preparation, fertilizer, and lime. Irrigation of some high- improving measures. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
value crops, such as tobacco, is generally feasible where plant nutrients severely limits the use of this soil for most
irrigation water is readily available. Erosion is a hazard in row crops. Steepness of slope makes cultivation more
steeper areas of this soil. Proper management of soil difficult and increases the hazard of erosion. Cultivated
fertility is needed for optimum production of cultivated row crops need to be planted in strips on the contour
crops. alternating with wider strips of close-growing, soil
This Lucy soil has slight limitations for use as pasture improving crops. Crop rotations also need to include
and for hay. Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal close-growing crops that remain on the land at least two-







Jefferson County, Florida 21
























.'... .......

















Figure 4.-Many plantations In Jefferson County maintain large areas of scenic open woodlands. This woodland is in an area of Lucy
loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.



thirds of the time. Residue of all other crops should also This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
be left on the land. Fertilizer and lime are needed for all pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
crops on this soil. plant competition are the main concerns in management.
This Lucy soil has moderate limitations for use as Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
pasture and for hay. Deep-rooting plants, such as This soil has severe limitations for area type sanitary
coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted. landfills because of seepage. It has moderate limitations
Steepness of slope increases the hazard of erosion and for shallow excavations and small commercial buildings
reduces potential yields. Good stands of grass can be because of slope and cutbanks caving. See tables 10
produced by adding fertilizer and lime to this soil. and 11 for more complete information concerning factors
Controlled grazing is needed to maintain plant vigor to that can affect urban development.
provide good protective cover.







22 Soil Survey



This soil has severe limitations for playgrounds factors that can affect urban and recreational
because of slope. See table 8 for information concerning development.
factors that affect recreational development. The Orangeburg soil is in capability subclass lie and in
This Lucy soil is in capability subclass Ills and in woodland suitability group 9A.
woodland suitability group 11S.
14-Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
13-Orangeburg sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, eroded. This soil is well drained and gently
slopes. This soil is well drained and gently undulating. It rolling. It is on shoulders and back slopes of uplands.
is on summits on uplands. Individual areas of this soil Individual areas of this soil are elongated or irregular in
are irregular in shape and range from 3 to 500 acres. shape and range from 5 to 200 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown and
sandy loam about 7 inches thick. The subsoil extends to dark brown sandy loam about 9 inches thick. The
a depth of at least 80 inches. It is red sandy clay loam in subsurface layer is strong brown sandy clay loam to a
the upper part and red sandy clay in the lower part. depth of about 16 inches. The subsoil extends to a
Included in mapping are small areas of Cowarts, depth of at least 80 inches. It is yellowish red sandy clay
Dothan, Lucy, and Troup soils. The included soils make loam to a depth of about 34 inches and red sandy clay
up less than 15 percent of the map unit. below that.
The Orangeburg soil does not have a high water table Included in mapping are small areas of Cowarts,
within a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity Dothan, Lucy, and Troup soils. The included soils make
is low in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and This Orangeburg soil does not have a high water table
moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. within a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity
The natural vegetation is longleaf, slash, and loblolly is low in the surface layer and moderate in the
pines and mixed hardwoods, such as water oak, red oak, subsurface layer and the subsoil. Permeability is
beech, black cherry, sweetgum, and hickory. The moderately rapid in the surface and moderate in the
understory is native grasses and shrubs including subsurface layer and the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
huckleberry, briers, and pineland threeawn. Many areas The natural vegetation is longleaf, slash, and loblolly
of this soil have been cleared and are used for crops or pines and mixed hardwoods, such as water oak, red oak,
pasture. beech, black cherry, sweetgum, and hickory. The
This Orangeburg soil has moderate limitations for understory is native grasses and shrubs including
cultivated crops because of the hazard of erosion. A huckleberry, briers, and pineland threeawn. Many areas
wide variety of cultivated crops are well adapted, and of this soil have been cleared and are used for crops or
such crops as corn and soybeans grow well if properly pasture.
managed. Moderate erosion control practices are This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
needed that include a system of well designed terraces because of the hazard of erosion. A wide variety of
that have stabilized outlets and contour cultivation of row cultivated crops are well adapted. Corn and soybeans
crops in alternate strips with cover crops. Crop rotations grow well if properly managed. Intensive erosion control
also need to include cover crops that remain on the land practices are needed that include a system of well
at least half the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all designed terraces with stabilized outlets and contour
crop residue should be left on the soil. For maximum cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with cover
yields, this soil needs good seedbed preparation, crops. Crop rotations also need to include cover crops.
fertilizer, and lime. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue should
This Orangeburg soil has slight limitations for use as be left on the soil or plowed under. For maximum yields,
pasture and for hay. Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, this soil needs good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and
and improved bahiagrass are well adapted. Clovers and lime.
other legumes are also adapted and grow well if properly This Orangeburg soil has moderate limitations for use
managed. Fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing help to as pasture and for hay. Because of the eroded condition
maintain vigorous plants for highest yields and good soil of the soil, pastures are hard to establish and yields are
cover. reduced. Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and
This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees. improved bahiagrass are well adapted. Clovers and other
Plant competition is the main concern in management. legumes are also adapted and grow well if properly
Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. managed. This soil requires fertilizer and lime, and
This soil has only slight limitations for most urban uses controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants
including septic tank absorption fields. It has moderate for highest yields and good soil cover. An established
limitations for playgrounds because of slope. See tables and well maintained pasture or hay crop is one of the
8, 10, and 11 for more complete information concerning best uses for this soil.







Jefferson County, Florida 23



This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees. This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees.
Plant competition is the main concern in management. Plant competition is the main concern in management.
Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
This soil has moderate limitations for small commercial This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank
buildings and playgrounds because of slope. It has slight absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
limitations for septic tank absorption fields. See tables 8, dwellings, local roads and streets, and lawns and
10, and 11 for more urban and recreational development landscaping. It has severe limitations for small
information. commercial buildings. Slope is the main limiting factor.
This Orangeburg soil is in capability subclass Ille and See tables 10 and 11 for more complete information
in woodland suitability group 9A. concerning factors that can affect urban development.
This soil has moderate limitations for camp areas,
15-Orangeburg sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent picnic areas, and golf fairways and severe limitations for
slopes, eroded. This soil is well drained and rolling. It is playgrounds because of the slope. See table 8 for more
on shoulders and back slopes of uplands. Individual complete information concerning factors that can affect
areas of this soil are elongated or irregular in shape and recreational development.
range from 5 to 80 acres. This Orangeburg soil is in capability subclass IVe and
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown in woodland suitability group 9A.
sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The subsoil extends to
a depth of at least 80 inches. It is yellowish red sandy 16-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
clay loam to a depth of about 26 inches and red sandy soil is moderately well drained and nearly level to gently
clay loam below that. sloping. It is on low knolls, foot slopes, and toe slopes
Included in mapping are small areas of Dothan, on uplands. Individual areas of this soil are elongated or
Cowarts, Lucy, and Troup soils. The included soils make irregular in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres.
up less than 15 percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
This Orangeburg soil does not have a high water table fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
within a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity fine sand to a depth of 63 inches. It is yellowish brown,
is low in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil, light yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and very pale
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and brown. The subsoil is sandy clay loam and sandy clay to
moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. a depth of at least 80 inches. To a depth of 74 inches, it
The natural vegetation is longleaf, slash, and loblolly is brownish yellow with strong brown mottles, and below
pines and mixed hardwoods, such as water oak, red oak, that it is light gray with brownish yellow, strong brown,
beech, black cherry, sweetgum, and hickory. The and yellowish red mottles.
understory is native grasses and shrubs including Included in mapping are small areas of Albany,
huckleberry, briers, and pineland threeawn. Some areas Chipley, Leefield, and Troup soils. The included soils
of this soil have been cleared and are used for crops or make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
pasture. This Blanton soil has a perched high water table
This Orangeburg soil has severe limitations for above the subsoil during wet seasons, but it is generally
cultivated crops because of the hazard of erosion. The at a depth of more than 72 inches. The available water
slopes are too steep to be effectively terraced, and capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers
erosion control measures are limited to the use of and moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
vegetative cover. When row crops are grown, they need surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
to be planted in narrow strips on the contour with subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
alternating wider strips of close-growing vegetation. Crop The natural vegetation is dominantly slash pine,
rotations also need to include close-growing vegetation loblolly pine, longleaf pine, bluejack oak, red oak, and
that remains on the soil. All crop residue should also be live oak with an understory of dwarf huckleberry and
left on the land. This soil needs lime and fertilizers for pineland threeawn.
best yields of row crops and close-growing crops. This soil has severe limitations for most cultivated
This soil has moderate limitations for use as pasture crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
and for hay. Because of the eroded condition of the soil, limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of
pastures are hard to establish and yields are reduced. adapted crops. Row crops need to be planted in strips
Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and improved on the contour with alternating strips of close-growing
bahiagrass are well suited. Fertilizer, lime, and controlled crops. Crop rotations also need to include close-growing
grazing are needed for best yields and to assure a cover crops. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop
complete vegetative cover to prevent severe erosion. An residue should be left of the ground. Irrigation of high-
established and well maintained pasture or hay crop is value crops is generally feasible where water is readily
one of the best uses for this soil. available.







24 Soil Survey



This Blanton soil has moderate limitations for use as adapted crops. Row crops need to be planted on the
pasture and for hay. Deep-rooting coastal bermudagrass contour in alternating strips with close-growing, soil-
and improved bahiagrass are well adapted but yields are improving crops. Crop rotations also need to include
reduced by periodic droughts. Regular applications of close-growing, soil-improving crops. This soil needs lime
fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing needs to be and fertilizer for all crops. Irrigation of high-value crops,
controlled to maintain plant vigor and a good ground such as watermelons and tobacco, is generally feasible
cover. where irrigation water is readily available.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for This Troup soil has moderate limitations for use as
pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and pasture and for hay. Deep-rooting plants, such as
plant competition are the main concerns in management. coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well
Slash pines are the best trees to plant. adapted. They grow well and produce good ground
This Blanton soil has moderate limitations for septic cover when lime and fertilizer are added to the soil.
tank absorption fields, trench type sanitary landfills, Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants
dwellings with basements, and lawns and landscaping. It for maximum yields. Yields are greatly reduced by
has severe limitations for area type sanitary landfills and extended droughts.
shallow excavations. Wetness and the sandy surface are This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
some of the limiting factors affecting these uses. See pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
tables 10 and 11 for more complete information are the main concerns in management. Slash and
concerning factors that can affect urban development. loblolly pines are the best trees to plant.
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic This soil has severe limitations for shallow excavation
areas, and paths and trails because of the sandy surface and area type sanitary landfills and moderate limitations
and for golf fairways because of droughtiness. It has for trench type sanitary landfills, lawns and landscaping,
moderate limitations for playgrounds because of the because cutbanks cave and the surface is sandy. See
slope. See table 8 for more complete information tables 10 and 11 for more complete information
concerning factors that can affect recreational concerning factors that can affect urban development
development. This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
This Blanton soil is in capability subclass Ills and in areas, playgrounds, and paths and trails because of the
woodland suitability group 11S. sandy surface. See table 8 for more complete
information concerning factors that can affect
17-Troup fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This recreational development.
soil is well drained and nearly level to gently sloping. It is This Troup soil is in capability subclass Ills and in
on summits and foot slopes of uplands. Individual areas woodland suitability group 8S.
of this soil are elongated or irregular in shape and range
from 5 to 50 acres. 18-Troup fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand soil is well drained and moderately sloping. It is on back
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand slopes and foot slopes of uplands. Individual areas of
to a depth of 43 inches. It is brown to a depth of 21 this soil are elongated and range from 5 to 40 acres.
inches and strong brown below that. The subsoil is red Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a depth of at sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
least 80 inches. sand to a depth of about 50 inches. It is yellowish brown
Included in mapping are small areas of Albany, to a depth of 18 inches, brownish yellow to a depth of
Blanton, and Lucy soils. The included soils make up less 28 inches, and yellow with pockets of white uncoated
than 15 percent of the map unit. sand grains below that. The subsoil is yellowish brown
This Troup soil does not have a high water table within sandy clay loam to a depth of at least 80 inches.
a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is low Included in mapping are small areas of Albany,
in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the Blanton, Bonifay, and Lucy soils. Also included are small
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and areas of Troup soils that have slopes of 0 to 5 percent.
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural The included soils make up less than 15 percent of the
fertility is low. map unit.
The natural vegetation is dominantly slash pine, This Troup soil does not have a high water table within
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, water oak, red oak, beech, a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is low
black cherry, hickory, magnolia, and sweetgum. The in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
understory is native shrubs and grasses including subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
huckleberry, smilax, and sparse pineland threeawn. subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. fertility is low.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit The natural vegetation is dominantly slash pine,
the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of loblolly pine, red oak, water oak, beech, hickory, black







Jefferson County, Florida 25



cherry, magnolia, and sweetgum. The understory is Included in mapping are small areas of Albany,
smilax, huckleberry, and sparse pineland threeawn. Leefield, Pelham, and Plummer soils. The included soils
This soil has severe limitations for crops. make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
Droughtiness, steepness of slope, and rapid leaching of This Bibb soil has a seasonal high water table within
plant nutrients from the soil limit the choice of plants and 12 inches of the surface for 6 months or more in most
reduce potential yields of adapted crops. Row crops years. Flooding is common after heavy rainfalls. The
need to be planted on the contour in alternating strips available water capacity is low in the surface layer,
with close-growing, soil-improving crops. Crop rotations moderate in the upper part of the underlying material,
also need to include close-growing, soil-improving crops and low in the lower part. Permeability is rapid in the
that remain on the land at least two-thirds of the time. surface layer and moderate in the underlying material.
Lime and fertilizer are needed for all crops. Irrigation of Natural fertility is low.
high-value crops, such as watermelons and tobacco, is The natural vegetation is water-tolerant species of bay,
generally feasible where irrigation water is readily gum, beech, cypress, and oak. The understory is
available. waxmyrtle, titi, and water-tolerant shrubs. Most areas of
This Troup soil has moderate limitations for use as this soil are in native vegetation. In some of the more
pasture and for hay. Deep-rooting plants, such as accessible areas, marketable trees have been cut.
coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well This Bibb soil has severe limitations for cultivated
adapted. They grow well and produce good ground crops, hay, and pasture because of flooding.
cover if lime and fertilizer are added to the soil. This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants pine, and they are the best trees to plant. Equipment
for maximum yields. Yields are greatly reduced by limitations and seedling mortality are the main concerns
extended droughts. An established and well maintained in management.
pasture or hay crop is the best use for this soil. This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
are the main concerns in management. Slash and streets, and lawns and landscaping. Flooding and
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. wetness are the main limiting factors. See tables 10 and
This soil has severe limitations for area type sanitary 11 for more complete information concerning factors that
landfills and shallow excavations. It has moderate can affect urban development.
limitations for trench type sanitary landfills, small This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
commercial buildings, and lawns and landscaping. areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways
Cutbanks caving and the sandy surface are some of the because of wetness. See table 8 for more complete
limiting factors. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete information concerning factors that can affect
information concerning factors that can affect urban recreational development.
development. This Bibb soil is in capability subclass Vw and in
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic woodland suitability group 9W.
areas, playgrounds, and paths and trails because of the
sandy surface. See table 8 for more complete 20-Albany sand. This soil is somewhat poorly
information concerning factors that can affect drained and nearly level. It is on low knolls on uplands
recreational development, and flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil are irregular in
This Troup soil is in capability subclass IVs and in shape and range from 5 to 80 acres.
woodland suitability group 8S. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of
19-Bibb loamy sand, frequently flooded. This soil 55 inches. It is brown and pale brown in the upper part
is poorly drained and nearly level. It is in drainageways and white in the lower part. It has mottles in shades of
and on flood plains that are subject to frequent flooding, brown and yellow below a depth of 21 inches. The
Individual areas of this soil are elongated or irregular in subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is
shape and range from 20 to 500 acres. Slopes range very pale brown sandy loam to a depth of 60 inches and
from 0 to 2 percent. light brownish gray sandy clay loam below that. The
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand subsoil has mottles in shades of brown, yellow, and gray.
about 3 inches thick and dark grayish brown loamy sand Included in mapping are small areas of Blanton,
to a depth of about 10 inches. The underlying material to Leefield, Pelham, and Plummer soils. The included soils
a depth of 60 inches is dark grayish brown and grayish make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
brown sandy loam that has yellowish brown mottles. To This Albany soil has a seasonal high water table within
a depth of at least 80 inches, it is stratified light brownish a depth of 12 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
gray loamy sand and sand that has yellowish brown years. The available water capacity is very low in the
mottles. surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the






26 Soil Survey



subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sandy clay loam that has red plinthite. Below that, it is
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural sandy clay that is reticulately mottled in shades of red,
fertility is low. white, and brown.
The natural vegetation is loblolly, longleaf, and slash Included in mapping are small areas of Blanton,
pines and mixed hardwoods including water oak, red Fuquay, Albany, and Troup soils. The included soils
oak, sweetgum, and hickory. The understory is native make up less than 15 percent of the map unit
grasses and shrubs including huckleberry, briers, and This Bonifay soil has a perched high water table above
pineland threeawn. the subsoil for brief periods during the wet season. The
This Albany soil has severe limitations for cultivated available water capacity is low in the surface and
crops because of periodic wetness and droughtiness in subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
the root zone. The number of adapted crops is very Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
limited unless intensive water control measures are and moderate to moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural
used. With adequate water control, corn, soybeans, and fertility is low.
peanuts are moderately well adapted. Good The natural vegetation on this soil is mainly oaks,
management measures include close-growing, soil- slash pine, and hickory. The undergrowth is dogwood,
improving crops in rotation with row crops. The close- brackenfern, switchgrass, and panicum.
growing crops should be on the land at least two-thirds This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
of the time. Fertilizer and lime are needed for best yields. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
This soil has moderate limitations for use as pasture the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of
and for hay. It requires good management for best adapted crops. Row crops need to be planted on the
yields. Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers contour in alternating strips with close-growing, soil-
are well adapted. The soil responds well to fertilizers and improving crops. Crop rotations also need to include
lime. Simple drainage can remove excess internal water close-growing crops that remain on the land at least two-
in wet seasons. Grazing needs to be controlled to thirds of the time. Lime and fertilizer are needed for all
maintain vigorous plants for best yields. crops. Irrigation of high-value crops, such as
This soil has high potential productivity for slash, watermelons and tobacco, is generally feasible where
loblolly, and longleaf pines. Moderate equipment irrigation water is readily available.
limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are This Bonifay soil has moderate limitations for use as
the main concerns in management. Slash pines and pasture and for hay. Deep-rooting plants, such as
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted. They
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank grow well and produce good ground cover if lime and
absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, fertilizer are added to the soil. Controlled grazing is
dwellings with basements, small commercial buildings, needed to maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields.
and lawns and landscaping. It has moderate limitations Yields are occasionally greatly reduced by extended
for dwellings without basements and local roads and severe drought.
streets. Wetness is the main limiting factor. See tables This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
10 and 11 for more complete information concerning pine trees. Equipment limitations, plant competition, and
factors that can affect urban development, seedling mortality are the main concern in management.
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic Slash pines are the best trees to plant.
areas, playgrounds, and paths and trails because of the This soil has severe limitations for shallow
sandy surface and wetness. It has severe limitations for excavations, and lawns and landscaping because of
golf fairways because of droughtiness. See table 8 for cutbanks caving and droughtiness. See tables 10 and 11
more complete information concerning factors that can for more complete information concerning factors that
affect recreational development, can affect urban development.
This Albany soil is in capability subclass IIlw and in This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
woodland suitability group 10W. areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways
because of the sandy surface and droughtiness. See
21-Bonifay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This table 8 for more complete information concerning factors
soil is well drained and nearly level to gently undulating. that can affect recreational development
It is on summits and foot slopes of uplands. Individual This Bonifay soil is in capability subclass Ills and in
areas of this soil are irregular in shape and range from 5 woodland suitability group 10S.
to 100 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand 22-Plummer fine sand. This soil is poorly drained
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish and nearly level. It is in poorly defined drainageways on
brown fine sand to a depth of 48 inches. The subsoil uplands and flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil are
extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. To a depth of elongated or irregular in shape and range from 20 to 800
59 inches, it is yellowish brown fine sandy loam and acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.







Jefferson County, Florida 27



Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark
depth of about 69 inches. It is grayish brown to a depth grayish brown and grayish brown fine sand to a depth of
of 18 inches, gray to a depth of 43 inches, and light gray about 34 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of at
below that. The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 least 80 inches. To a depth of 49 inches, it is light gray
inches. It is light gray sandy loam in the upper part and fine sandy loam that has strong brown mottles, and
light gray sandy clay loam in the lower part. The subsoil below that it is light gray sandy clay loam that has strong
has few to common mottles in shades of yellow and brown and red mottles.
brown. Included in mapping are small areas of Leefield,
Included in mapping are small areas of Leefield, Plummer, Rains, and Surrency soils. The included soils
Pelham, Sapelo, and Surrency soils. The included soils make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. This Pelham soil has a seasonal high water table
This Plummer soil has a seasonal high water table at within 15 inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months in most
the surface or within 15 inches of the surface for 3 to 6 years. This soil is subject to brief flooding after heavy
months in most years. The available water capacity is rains. The available water capacity is low in the surface
low to very low in the surface and subsurface layers and and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. The natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine,
The natural vegetation on this soil is mainly water oak, sweetgum, blackgum, and water oak. The understory
loblolly pine, slash pine, sweetgum, and blackgum. The includes greenbriers, waxmyrtle, and inkberry.
understory is inkberry, waxmyrtle, ferns, and pineland This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
threeawn. because of wetness.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops This Pelham soil has severe limitations for use as
because of wetness. pasture and for hay. Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass,
This Plummer soil has severe limitations for use as and bahiagrass are best adapted. Good management
pasture and for hay, and it is poorly suited to most includes water control to remove excess surface water
improved grasses and legumes. With good management, and applications of fertilizer and lime. Grazing needs to
poor to moderate yields of pasture grasses can be be controlled to prevent overgrazing and reduction of the
produced. Good management includes water control, vitality of the plants.
controlled grazing, and applications of fertilizer and lime. This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees,
This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees but adequate surface drainage is needed before full
but only in areas that have adequate surface drainage, potential productivity can be reached. Equipment
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
competition are concerns in management. Slash and the main concern in management. Slash and loblolly
loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. Planting the pines are the best trees to plant, but tree planting is
trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water feasible only if this soil is adequately drained.
table. This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. Wetness is the main
streets, and lawns and landscaping because of wetness. limiting factor for most of these uses. See tables 10 and
See tables 10 and 11 for more complete information 11 for more complete information concerning factors that
concerning factors that can affect urban development, can affect urban development.
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways
because of the sandy surface and wetness. See table 8 because of the sandy surface and wetness. See tables 8
for more complete information concerning factors that for more complete information concerning factors that
can affect recreational development, can affect recreational development.
This Plummer soil is in capability subclass IVw and in This Pelham soil is in capability subclass Vw and in
woodland suitability group 11W. woodland suitability group 11W.

23-Pelham fine sand. This soil is poorly drained and 24-Fuquay fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
nearly level. It is on broad flats, and in drainageways on soil is well drained and gently rolling. It is on summits
uplands and flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil are and back slopes of uplands. Individual areas of this soil
irregular or elongated in shape and range from 5 to 600 are irregular or elongated in shape and range from 5 to
acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. 50 acres.







28 Soil Survey



Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is areas, playgrounds, and paths and trails because of the
yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 19 inches and sandy surface and slope. See table 8 for more complete
brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of 35 inches. The information concerning factors that can affect
subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of at least 80 recreational development.
inches. It is strong brown to a depth of 64 inches and This Fuquay soil is in capability subclass Ills and in
mottled reddish yellow, light gray, brownish yellow, and woodland suitability group 8S.
red below that. The subsoil contains about 10 percent
plinthite. 25-Pits. This miscellaneous area consists of open
Included in mapping are small areas of Bonifay, excavations from which soil and geologic material have
Dothan, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. The included soils been removed. This material is used for construction
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. work, roadbeds, and fill. The pits range from 2 to 100
This Fuquay soil has a perched high water table above acres and are 3 to 30 feet deep. They are throughout
the lower part of the subsoil for brief durations during the county.
wet periods. The available water capacity is low in the 26-Sapelo fine sand. This soil is poorly drained and
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the nearly level. It is on the flatwoods. Individual areas of
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and this soil are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 200
subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
subsoil, and slow in the lower part. Natural fertility is low. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3
The natural vegetation is dominantly slash and loblolly inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a
pines and water and red oaks. The understory includes depth of about 10 inches. The upper part of the subsoil
huckleberry, smilax, and pineland threeawn. is loamy fine sand to a depth of about 19 inches. It is
This Fuquay soil has severe limitations for cultivated dark reddish brown in the upper part and dark brown in
crops and requires special soil-improving practices. the lower part. The dark color is organic matter that
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients coats the sand grains. Beneath this part of the subsoil is
severely limits the use of this soil for most row crops. a layer of light gray sand that extends to a depth of
Because of steepness of slopes, cultivation is more about 54 inches. It has mottles in shades of brown and
difficult and the hazard of erosion is increased, yellow. The lower part of the subsoil is light gray and
Cultivated row crops need to be planted in strips on the light brownish gray sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a
contour alternating with wider strips of close-growing depth of at least 80 inches.
cover crops. Crop rotations also need to include close- Included in mapping are small areas of Albany,
growing crops that remain on the land at least two-thirds Chipley, Leon, and Mascotte soils. The included soils
of the time. Fertilizer and lime should be added make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
according to the need for the crop selected for planting. This Sapelo soil has a seasonal high water table within
Soil-improving cover crops and residue of all crops a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and at a depth of
should be left on the land. 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more in most years. The
This soil has moderate limitations for use as pasture available water capacity is very low to low in the surface
and for hay. Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
Steepness of slope increases the hazard of erosion and and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
reduces the potential yields. Good stands of grass can The natural vegetation consists dominantly of loblolly
be produced by adding fertilizer and lime. Controlled pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak, and water oak.
grazing permits the plants to maintain their vigor and The understory is sawpalmetto, fetterbush, gallberry, and
provide good land cover. An established and well pineland threeawn.
maintained pasture or hay crop is the best use for this This Sapelo soil has severe limitations for cultivated
soil. crops because of wetness.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for This soil has severe limitations for use as pasture and
pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and for hay. Coastal bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass,
plant competition are the main concerns in management. and several legumes are adapted. Water control
Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. measures are needed to remove excess water during
This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
absorption fields, dwellings with basements, small are needed. Grazing needs to be controlled to maintain
commercial buildings, and lawns and landscaping vigorous plants for best yields.
because of slope and the moderate permeability. See This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
tables 10 and 11 for more complete information pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
concerning factors that can affect urban development, plant competition are the main concerns in management







Jefferson County, Florida 29


Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best trees to This soil has moderate limitations for use as pasture
plant. and for hay. Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted, but
absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
streets, lawns and landscaping, and golf fairways needs to be controlled to permit plants to maintain vigor
because of wetness. See tables 10 and 11 for more for best yields.
information concerning factors that can affect urban This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
development. longleaf, slash, and loblolly pines. Equipment limitations
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic and seedling mortality are the main concerns in
areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways management. Slash pines or sand pines are the best
mainly because of the sandy surface and wetness. See trees to plant.
table 8 for information concerning factors that can affect This soil has severe limitations for sanitary landfills,
recreational development. shallow excavations, and lawns and landscaping
This Sapelo soil is in capability subclass IVw and in because of seepage and the sandy surface. See tables
woodland suitability group 7W. 10 and 11 for more complete information concerning
factors that can affect urban development.
28-Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
is excessively drained and nearly level to gently areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways
undulating. It is on summits, shoulders, and back slopes because of the sandy surface and droughtiness. See
of uplands. Individual areas of this soil are irregular in table 8 for more complete information concerning factors
shape and range from 5 to 200 acres. that can affect recreational development.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine This Alpin soil is in capability subclass IVs and in
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a woodland suitability group 8S.
depth of about 47 inches, is fine sand. It is yellowish
brown to a depth of 20 inches, brownish yellow to a 30-Pamlico-Dorovan mucks. The Pamlico and
depth of 40 inches, and yellow below that. The Dorovan soils are very poorly drained and nearly level.
underlying layer to a depth of at least 80 inches is very The individual areas of these soils are too mixed to
pale brown fine sand that has thin, strong brown loamy conform to the scale used for maps in the back of this
fine sand lamellae 1 to 2 centimeters thick. publication. These soils are on the flatwoods, along
Included in mapping are small areas of Blanton, some flood plains, and along the edges of gently sloping
Lakeland, and Ortega soils. A few areas of Alpin soil that to sloping uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape
has slopes ranging to about 12 percent are also and range from 20 to 200 acres. Slopes range from 0 to
included. The included soils make up less than 15 1 percent.
percent of the map unit. Pamlico muck makes up about 40 to 60 percent of the
This Alpin soil does not have a high water table within map unit. Typically, this soil is very dark brown muck to a
a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is low depth of about 4 inches and black muck to a depth of 27
to very low throughout. Permeability is moderately rapid inches. The underlying material is dark grayish brown
in the surface layer, rapid in the subsurface layer, and sand to a depth of at least 80 inches.
moderately rapid in the underlying layer. Natural fertility Pamlico soils have a high water table within a depth of
is low. 15 inches throughout most years and at or above the
The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, turkey surface for 5 to 8 months in some years. The available
oak, bluejack oak, post oak, and blackjack oak. The water capacity is very high in the organic layers and low
understory is honeysuckle, pineland threeawn, and in the underlying material. Permeability is moderate in
running oak. the organic layers and rapid in the underlying material.
This Alpin soil has severe limitations for cultivated Dorovan muck makes up about 20 to 50 percent of
crops, and intensive soil management practices are the map unit. Typically, this soil is very dark brown muck
needed if the soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and rapid to a depth of about 4 inches and black and dark grayish
leaching of plant nutrients reduce the variety and brown muck to a depth of about 65 inches. The
potential yields of adapted crops. Row crops need to be underlying material is dark grayish brown sand to a
planted in strips on the contour alternating with strips of depth of at least 80 inches.
close-growing crops. Crop rotations also need to include Dorovan soils have a high water table within a depth
close-growing plants that remain on the land at least of 10 inches throughout most years and at or above the
three-fourths of the time. Only a few crops produce good surface for 5 to 8 months in some years. Permeability is
yields without irrigation, but irrigation of crops is generally moderate, and the available water capacity is very high.
feasible where irrigation water is readily available. Natural fertility is low.







30 Soil Survey



Included in mapping are small areas of Pelham, least half of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all
Plummer, Surrency, Plummer flooded, and Chaires crop residue should be left on the soil. For maximum
depressional soils. The included soils make up less than yields, this soil needs good seedbed preparation,
25 percent of the map unit. fertilizer, and lime.
The natural vegetation is mainly cypress and an This Faceville soil has slight limitations for use as
understory of ferns, various shrubs, and vines, pasture and for hay. Coastal bermudagrass and
The Pamlico and Dorovan soils have severe limitations improved bahiagrass are well adapted. Clovers and other
for cultivated crops, hay, and for use as pasture because legumes are also adapted and grow well if property
of wetness. managed. Fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing are
These soils, under natural conditions, are not suitable needed to maintain vigorous plants for highest yields and
for pine tree production, good soil cover.
The Pamlico and Dorovan soils have severe limitations This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
for septic tank absorption fields, sanitary landfills, pine trees. There are no significant limitations or
shallow excavations, dwellings, small commercial restrictions for woodland use and management Slash,
buildings, local roads and streets, and lawns and loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best trees to plant.
landscaping because of ponding. See tables 10 and 11 This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank
for most complete information concerning factors that absorption fields, trench type sanitary landfills, shallow
can affect urban development, excavation, and local roads and streets because of the
These soils have severe limitations for camp areas, clayey subsoil and moderate permeability. See tables 10
picnic areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf and 11 for more complete information concerning factors
fairways mainly because of ponding and excess humus. that can affect urban development.
See table 8 for more complete information concerning This soil has moderate limitations for playgrounds
factors that can affect recreational development, because of slope. See table 8 for more complete
The Pamlico and Dorovan soils are in capability information concerning factors that can affect
subclass IVw and in woodland suitability group 7W. recreational development.
This Faceville soil is in capability subclass lie and in
31-Faceville fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent woodland suitability group 8A.
slopes. This soil is well drained and gently undulating. It
is on summits and back slopes of uplands. Individual 32-Faceville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
areas of this soil are irregular in shape and range from 5 slopes, eroded. This soil is well drained and gently
to 1,500 acres. rolling. It is on shoulders and back slopes of uplands.
Typically, the surface layer is brown fine sandy loam Individual areas of this soil are elongated or irregular in
about 14 inches thick. The subsoil is red and dark red shape and range from 5 to 80 acres.
sandy clay to a depth of at least 80 inches. It has Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
mottles in shades of yellow and brown between depths sandy loam about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy
of 20 and 80 inches. clay to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is yellowish red
Included in mapping are small areas of Dothan, to a depth of 26 inches, red to a depth of 40 inches, and
Fuquay, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. The included soils below that it is yellowish red with mottles in shades of
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. white and brown.
This Faceville soil does not have a high water table Included in mapping are small areas of Dothan, Lucy,
within a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity and Orangeburg soils. Also included are small areas of
is low in the surface layer and moderate to high in the soils that are less eroded than this Faceville soil and
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and some soils that have 5 to 15 percent ironstone nodules
moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. on the surface. The included soils make up less than 15
The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, loblolly percent of the map unit.
pine, slash pine, red oak, hickory, beech, black cherry, This Faceville soil does not have a high water table
and water oak. The understory includes briers, ferns, within a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity
sassafras, dogwood, and pineland threeawn. is low in the surface layer and moderate to high in the
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
because of the hazard of erosion, but a wide variety of moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
cultivated crops is well adapted (fig. 5). Corn and The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, loblolly
soybeans grow well if properly managed. Moderate pine, slash pine, red oak, hickory, and water oak. The
erosion control measures are needed. These measures understory includes sassafras, briers, ferns, vines, and
include a system of well designed terraces with pineland threeawn.
stabilized outlets and contour cultivation of row crops in This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
alternate strips with cover crops. Crop rotations also because of the hazard of erosion and the eroded
need to include cover crops that remain on the land at condition of the soil, but it is moderately suited to a wide








Jefferson County, Florida 31




























Figure 5.-Small cultivated fields, such as this one on Faceville fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, are common on plantations in
Jefferson County.



variety of crops. Corn and soybeans grow well if properly This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank
managed. Intensive erosion control measures are absorption fields, trench type sanitary landfills, shallow
needed. These measures include a system of well excavations, small commercial buildings, and local roads
designed terraces with stabilized outlets and contour and streets (fig. 6) because of the slope and clayey
cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with cover subsoil. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete
crops. Crop rotations also need to include cover crops information concerning factors that can affect urban
that remain on the land at least two-thirds of the time. development.
Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue should This soil has severe limitations for playgrounds
be left on the soil. For maximum yields, this soil needs because of the slope. See table 8 for information
good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime. concerning factors that can affect recreational
This Faceville soil has moderate limitations for use as development.
pasture and for hay. Because of the eroded condition of This Faceville soil is in capability subclass Ille and in
the soil, pastures are hard to establish and yields are woodland suitability group 8A.
reduced. Coastal bermudagrass and improved 33-Leefield fine sand. This soil is somewhat poorly
bahiagrass are well adapted. Clovers and legumes are 33-Leefield fine sand. This soil is somewhat poorly
also adapted and grow well if properly managed. drained and nearly level to gently sloping. It is in
Fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing are needed to drainageways and on low knolls and foot slopes on
maintain vigorous plants for highest yields and good soil uplands. Individua areas of this soil are irregular in
cover. An established and well maintained pasture or shape and range from 3 to 100 acres. Slopes range from
hay crop is the best use for this soil. Typically, the surface ltoayer is very dark gray fine spercent.an
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layers ery fine sand

restrictions for woodland use and management. Slash, yellow to a depth of 29 inches, and below that it is light
loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best trees to plant. yellowish brown with yellowish brown and gray mottles.
Soil-imp rovin g tree ere cr ops andoal c rop residue shouldeThis h bo wn h s s vere limitations a d layg motnles
belfto hesil o mxmm yed, hs soi ed eas ftesoe e al nomto








32 Sod Survey





































Figure 6.-Scenic rural dirt roads are common on Faceville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded. These roads are easily braled
in dry weather, but become difficult for standard vehicles during periods of extended rainfall.



The subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. To The natural vegetation includes red oak, water oak,
a depth of 38 inches, it is light yellowish brown sandy slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. Honeysuckle,
loam that has brown and gray mottles. To a depth of 63 waxmyrtle, greenbrier, and sawpalmetto dominate the
inches, the subsoil is light gray sandy clay loam that has understory.
yellowish brown mottles. Below that, it is reticulately This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
mottled light gray, yellow, yellowish brown, and strong because of wetness. It is suited to some cultivated
brown sandy clay loam. crops, but the variety is limited by the high water table.
Included in mapping are small areas of Albany, Corn and soybeans are adapted only if the soil is
Blanton, Lynchburg, and Pelham soils. These soils make properly drained. Tile drains or open ditches are needed
up less than 15 percent of the map unit. to protect crops from wetness. Row crops need to be
This Leefield soil has a seasonal high water table at a planted in rotation with cover crops that remain on the
depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months in most land at least half the time. For best yields, this soil needs
years. The available water capacity is low in the surface good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime.
and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. This Leefield soil has slight limitations for use as
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface pasture and for hay. Coastal bermudagrass and
layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and bahiagrass grow well with good management. White
moderately slow in the lower part. Natural fertility is low. clovers and other legumes are moderately adapted.








Jefferson County, Florida 33


Fertilizer, lime, and carefully controlled grazing are applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
needed to maintain plant vigor for best yields. needs to be controlled to permit plants to maintain vigor
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for for best yields. Intensive management of soil fertility and
pine trees. The main concerns in management are water is needed for optimum production of pasture and
equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant hay.
competition. Loblolly, slash, and longleaf pines are the This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
best trees to plant. pine trees. Seedling mortality and equipment limitations
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank are the major concerns in management. Slash pines are
absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, the best trees to plant.
and dwellings with basements. It has moderate This soil has severe limitations for sanitary landfills,
limitations for dwellings without basements, small shallow excavations, and lawns and landscaping mainly
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and lawns because of the sandy texture and seepage. See tables
and landscaping. Wetness is the main limiting factor for 10 and 11 for more complete information concerning
most uses. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete factors that can affect recreational development.
information concerning factors that can affect urban This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
development. areas, playgrounds, and paths and trails because of the
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic sandy surface. See table 8 for more information
areas, playgrounds, and paths and trails because of the concerning factors that can affect recreational
sandy surface. See tables 8 for more complete development.
information concerning factors that can affect This Lakeland soil is in capability subclass IVs and in
recreational development. woodland suitability group 10S.
This Leefield soil is in capability subclass IIw and in
woodland suitability group 8W. 35-Rutlege fine sand. This soil is very poorly
drained and nearly level. It is in shallow depressions and
34-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil natural drainageways on uplands and flatwoods.
is excessively drained and nearly level to gently sloping. Individual areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
It is on summits of uplands. Individual areas of this soil range from 10 to 150 acres. Slopes are less than 1
are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 150 acres. range from 10 to 150 acres. Slopes are less than 1
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand percent.
about 8 inches thick. The underlying material is brown, Typically, the surface layer is fine sand 12 inches
dark yellowish brown, and yellowish brown sand to a thick. It is black to a depth of about 7 inches and very
depth of 40 inches, and to a depth of at least 80 inches, dark gray below that. The underlying material is fine
it is brownish yellow fine sand that has pockets of white sand to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is dark grayish
uncoated sand grains, brown and grayish brown to a depth of about 39 inches,
Included in mapping are small areas of Alpin, Blanton, light brownish gray to a depth of about 43 inches, and
Chipley, and Ortega soils. The included soils make up light gray below that. It has mottles in shades of brown
less than 15 percent of the map unit. and gray throughout.
This Lakeland soil does not have a high water table Included in mapping are small areas of Plummer,
within a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity Pelham, and Surrency soils. The included soils make up
is low in the surface layer and the underlying material. less than 15 percent of the map unit.
Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is low. This Rutlege soil has a high water table above or near
The natural vegetation includes turkey oak, longleaf the surface for about 4 to 6 months of the year. It is
pine, blackjack oak, and post oak. The understory subject to ponding after heavy rainfall. The available
includes pineland threeawn and scattered wild lupine. water capacity is low, and permeability is rapid. Natural
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops fertility is low.
because of its sandy texture. Intensive soil management The natural vegetation in many areas of this soil is
practices are needed if this soil is cultivated. sweetbay, blackgum, and pond cypress. Some areas do
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients not have trees, and the natural vegetation is
reduce the variety and potential yields of adapted crops. pitcherplants, sedges, and beak rushes.
Row crops need to be planted on the contour in This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops,
alternating strips with close-growing crops. Crop hay, and for use as pasture because of wetness.
rotations need to include close-growing plants that This Rutlege soil is generally not suited to the
remain on the land at least three-fourths of the time. production of pine trees because of ponding or extended
This Lakeland soil has moderate limitations for use as wetness. It can be suited to cypress and hardwood
pasture and for hay. Deep-rooting plants, such as production through natural regeneration. Equipment
coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted, limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular concerns in management.







34 Soil Survey



This soil has severe limitations for septic tank concerns in management. Slash and loblolly pines are
absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, the best trees to plant.
dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
streets, and lawns and landscaping because of wetness absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
and ponding. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
information concerning factors that can affect urban streets, and lawns and landscaping because of wetness.
development. See tables 10 and 11 for information concerning factors
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic that can affect urban development.
areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
because of the sandy surface and ponding. See table 8 areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways
for more complete information concerning factors that because of wetness. See table 8 for more complete
can affect recreational development, information concerning factors that can affect
This Rutlege soil is in capability subclass VIw and in recreational development.
woodland suitability group 2W. This Lynchburg soil is in capability subclass IIw and in
woodland suitability group 12W.
36-Lynchburg loamy fine sand. This soil is
somewhat poorly drained and nearly level. It is in 38-Miccosukee fine sandy loam. This soil is
drainageways and on foot slopes on uplands. Individual moderately well drained and nearly level. It is in shallow
areas of this soil are elongated or irregular in shape and depressions on uplands of the Coastal Plain. Individual
range from 5 to 100 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 areas of this soil are circular or irregular in shape and
percent. range from 5 to 30 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2
Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about 9 percent.
inches thick. It is very dark grayish brown to a depth of 7 Typically, the surface layer is about 43 inches thick. It
inches and dark gray below that. The subsurface layer is is very dark grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of
light gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 17 inches. The about 9 inches, very dark grayish brown clay loam to a
subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of about 61 inches. depth of about 15 inches, and very dark grayish brown
It is pale brown in the upper part and light brownish gray and very dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about
It is pale brown in the upper part and light brownish gray 37 inches. The next layer is intermingled dark yellowish
in the lower part. The underlying material to a depth of at brown and dark gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a
least 80 inches is mottled light brownish gray, yellowish depth of 80 inches. The upper part is dark yellowish
brown, and light reddish brown sandy clay loam. brown fine sandy loam and the lower part is yellowish
Included in mapping are small areas of Albany, brown sandy clay.
Leefield, and Rains soils. Also included are areas of soils Included in mapping are small areas of Dothan,
that have a fine sand surface layer. The included soils Fuquay, Leefield, and Lynchburg soils. The included soils
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
This Lynchburg soil has a seasonal high water table This Miccosukee soil is ponded for 1 or 2 days
within a depth of 12 to 30 inches for 1 to 3 months in immediately after intense rainfalls. The available water
most years. The available water capacity is low in the capacity is moderate to high, and permeability is
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the moderately rapid to slow. Natural fertility is medium.
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and The natural vegetation is dominantly loblolly pine,
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural slash pine, longleaf pine, sweetgum, American
fertility is low. beautyberry, greenbrier, switchgrass, purpletop, longleaf
The natural vegetation is sweetgum, blackgum, uniola, chalky bluestem, low panicums, pineland
longleaf pine, slash pine, loblolly pine, and an understory threeawn, pinewood dropseed, and annual forbs.
of inkberry and pineland threeawn. Many areas are This soil has slight limitations for cultivated crops. A
cleared and used for improved pasture grasses. wide variety of crops are well adapted. The brief ponding
This Lynchburg soil has moderate limitations for after heavy rains is the main concern in management
cultivated crops because of wetness. It is well suited to that could reduce yields. For maximum yields, this soil
some cultivated crops, but the variety is limited by the needs good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime.
high water table near the surface. If this soil is The Miccosukee soil has slight limitations for use as
adequately drained, corn, soybeans, and peanuts can be pasture and for hay. Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass,
grown. Crop rotations need to include a close-growing and improved bahiagrass are well adapted. Clovers and
crop that remains on the land at least half the time. For other legumes are also adapted. Fertilizer, lime, and
high yields, this soil needs fertilizer, lime, and good controlled grazing help to maintain vigorous plants for
seedbed preparation with the rows bedded. highest yields and good soil cover.
This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees. This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees.
Equipment limitations and plant competition are the main There are no significant limitations or restrictions for







Jefferson County, Florida 35



woodland use and management. Slash, loblolly, and This Cowarts soil has slight limitations for use as
longleaf pines are the best trees to plant. pasture and for hay. Clovers, coastal bermudagrass, and
This soil has severe limitations for trench type sanitary improved bahiagrass are well adapted and produce well
landfills. It has moderate limitations for septic tank if properly managed. Fertilizer, lime, and controlled
absorption fields, area type sanitary landfills, shallow grazing are needed to maintain vigorous plants and a
excavations, dwellings with basements, local roads and good ground cover.
streets, and lawns and landscaping. Wetness and low This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees.
strength are some of the limiting factors. See tables 8, Plant competition is the main concern in management.
10, and 11 for more complete information concerning Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best trees to
factors that can affect urban and recreational plant.
development. This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank
This Miccosukee soil is in capability subclass lie and in absorption fields because of the moderately slow
woodland suitability group 9A. permeability. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete
information concerning factors that can affect urban
39-Cowarts loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent development.
slopes. This soil is well drained and gently undulating. It This soil has moderate limitations for camp areas,
is on shoulders and summits of uplands. Individual areas picnic areas, and playgrounds because of the
of this soil are irregular in shape and range from 30 to permeability. See table 8 for more complete information
200 acres. concerning factors that can affect recreational
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown development.
loamy fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface This Cowarts soil is in capability subclass lie and in
layer is brownish yellow loamy fine sand about 4 inches woodland suitability group 9A.
thick. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 36
inches. It is yellowish brown to a depth of about 28 41-Byars fine sandy loam, frequently flooded.
inches and strong brown sand below that. The This soil is very poorly drained and nearly level. It is on a
underlying material is coarsely mottled reddish yellow, broad flood plain that is one area of about 2,800 acres.
red, yellowish brown, dark yellowish brown, and white Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
sandy clay loam to a depth of at least 80 inches. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy
Included in mapping are small areas of Dothan, loam about 12 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay to
Fuquay, and Orangeburg soils. Also included are small a depth of 65 inches. It is gray to a depth of 45 inches
areas of soils that have more than 5 percent plinthite and light gray below that. The underlying material is light
above a depth of 24 inches. The included soils make up gray sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches.
less than 20 percent of the map unit. Included in mapping are small areas of Rains,
This Cowarts soil does not have a high water table Surrency, Pamlico, Dorovan, and Pelham soils. Also
within a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity included are soils similar to the Byars soil except they
is low in the surface and subsurface layers and have a mucky fine sandy loam or mucky loam surface
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid layer. The included soils make up less than 15 percent
in the surface and subsurface layers and moderately of the map unit.
slow to moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low, This soil has a high water table from 36 inches above
but response to fertilizer and lime is good. the surface to 18 inches below (fig. 8). The available
The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, loblolly water capacity is moderate in the surface layer, high in
pine, slash pine, red oak, black cherry, hickory, and water capacity is moderate in the surface layer, high in
water oak. The understory includes sassafras, briers, the subsoil, and moderate to high in the underlying
ferns, vines, and pineland threeawn. material. Permeability is moderate in the surface layer
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops and slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
because of the hazard of erosion (fig. 7). A wide variety The natural vegetation is sweetgum, blackgum, tupelo,
of cultivated crops are well adapted, and such crops as baldcypress, and water oak.
corn and soybeans grow well if properly managed. This This Byars soil has severe limitations for cultivated
soil is well suited to fruits and nuts, such as peaches, crops, hay, and for use as pasture because of wetness.
pears, and pecans. Moderate erosion control measures Because of wetness, this soil is not normally used for
are needed if cultivated crops are grown. These planting trees. Equipment limitation and seedling
measures include terraces with stabilized outlets and mortality are the main concerns in management.
contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
cover crops. Crop rotations also need to include cover absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
crops that remain on the land at least half the time. Soil- dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
improving cover crops and all crop residue should be left streets, and lawns and landscaping. Wetness and
on the land. For maximum yields, this soil needs good flooding are some of the limiting factors affecting these
seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime. uses. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete








36 Soil Survey



information concerning factors that can affect urban about 10 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of at
development. least 80 inches. It is yellowish red sandy loam to a depth
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic of 16 inches, yellowish red and red sandy clay to a
areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways depth of 53 inches, and coarsely mottled yellowish
because of wetness and flooding. See table 8 for more brown, red, brownish yellow, strong brown, and white
complete information concerning factors that can affect sandy clay below that.
recreational development. Included in mapping are small areas of Dothan, Lucy,
This Byars soil is in capability subclass VIw and in and Orangeburg soils. Also included are small areas of
woodland suitability group 7W. soils that are moderately or severely eroded and have
15 to 25 percent smooth, hard concretions on the
42-Faceville loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent surface. The included soils make up less than 15
slopes, eroded. This soil is well drained and rolling. It is percent of the map unit.
on back slopes and summits of uplands. Individual areas This Faceville soil does not have a high water table
of this soil are elongated and range from 5 to 15 acres. within a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity
Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
loamy fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface moderate to high in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in
layer is strong brown loamy fine sand to a depth of






































Figure 7.-Terraces are constructed in this area of Cowarts loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, to help control erosion.







Jefferson County, Florida 37



























subsoil. Natural fertility is low. close-growing crops.













understory is mainly briers and bahiagrass. bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass. Because of the
A --AA
































This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops eroded condition of the soil, pastures are hard to
because of the hazard of erosion and the eroded establish and yields are reduced. A severe erosion
condition of the soil. The slopes are too steep to be hazard exists during the establishment period, and
effectively terraced, and erosion control measures arThe patena erosion control measures are needed.
limited to the use of vegetative cover. If row crops are Fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing are needed for
grown, they should be planted in narrow strips on the best yields and to assure a complete vegetative cover to
contour with alternating wider strips of close-growing prevent severe erosion. An established and well
vegetation. Crop rotations need to include close-growing maintained pasture or hay crop is the best use for this
crops that remain on the soil at least three-fourths of the soi]
time. All crop residue should be left on the land. This soil
P4 P_ I



. 'I%
,., .. ,.. ,,
Figue 8--Barsfinesany lamfreqenty foodd, as sver liitaionsformos uss beaus ofwetess
the~~kw sufc4n1usraelyr n oeaei h edslm n etlzrfrbs ilso o rp n





















time. All crop residue should be left on the land. This soil







38 Soil Survey



This soil has moderately high potential productivity for seedling mortality are the main concerns in
pine trees. There are no significant limitations or management. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the
restrictions for woodland use and management. Slash, best trees to plant.
loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best trees to plant. This soil has severe limitations for sanitary landfills,
This soil has severe limitations for small commercial shallow excavations, and lawns and landscaping. It has
buildings. It has moderate limitations for septic tank moderate limitations for small commercial buildings.
absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, Seepage and the sandy surface are some of the limiting
dwellings, local roads and streets, and lawns and factors affecting these uses. See tables 10 and 11 for
landscaping. Slope is the main limiting factor for most of more complete information concerning factors that can
these uses. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete affect urban development.
information concerning factors that can affect urban This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
development. areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways
This soil has severe limitations for playgrounds and because of sandy surface. See table 8 for more
moderate limitations for camp areas, picnic areas, and complete information concerning factors that can affect
golf fairways. Slope is the main limiting factor. See table recreational development.
8 for information concerning factors that can affect This Alpin soil is in capability subclass VIs and in
recreational development. woodland suitability group 8S.
This Faceville soil is in capability subclass IVe and in
woodland suitability group 8A. 44-Troup fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This
soil is well drained and strongly sloping. It is on back
43-Alpin fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil slopes and foot slopes of uplands. Individual areas of
is excessively drained and gently rolling. It is on summits this soil are elongated and range from 5 to 30 acres.
and back slopes of uplands. Individual areas of this soil Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
are irregular in shape and range from 3 to 80 acres. fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine fine sand to a depth of 49 inches. It is yellowish brown
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine to a depth of 24 inches, light yellowish brown to a depth
sand to a depth of about 65 inches. It is yellowish brown of 38 inches, brownish yellow to a depth of 43 inches,
and light yellowish brown to a depth of 30 inches, yellow and yellowish brown below that. The subsoil to a depth
to a depth of 45 inches, and very pale brown below that. of at least 80 inches is yellowish red sandy clay loam.
The underlying layer is white fine sand that has yellowish
brown loamy sand lamellae less than 1 inch thick. This Included in mapping are small areas of Blanton,
layer extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. Fuquay, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. Also included are
Included in mapping are small areas of Fuquay, Lucy, small areas of soils similar to the Troup soil that has
and Troup soils. Also included are many sinkholes, some slope of 5 to 8 percent. The included soils make up less
of which hold water year-round. The included soils make than 15 percent of the map unit.
up less than 15 percent of the map unit. This Troup soil does not have a high water table within
This Alpin soil does not have a high water table within a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is low
a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
to very low, and permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
low. subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
The natural vegetation includes loblolly pine, longleaf fertility is low.
pine, turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, and blackjack The natural vegetation includes loblolly pine, slash
oak. The understory is honeysuckle, pineland threeawn, pine, blackjack oak, and bluejack oak. The understory
and running oak. includes sassafras, blackberries, sumac, and pineland
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. threeawn.
Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and the This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
slope are the main limitations. Intensive soil because of the hazard of erosion.
management practices are needed if this soil is used for This Troup soil has moderate limitations for use as
cultivated crops. pasture and for hay, but it is well suited to tall fescue,
This Alpin soil has moderate limitations for use as coastal bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass.
pasture and for hay. Deep-rooting plants, such as Fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing are needed for
coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted, best yields and to assure a complete vegetation cover to
but yields are reduced by droughts and depletion of prevent severe erosion. An established and well
nutrients. Intensive management of soil fertility and water maintained pasture or hay crop is the best use for this
is needed to fully utilize this soil for pasture and hay. soil.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
slash and loblolly pines. Equipment limitations and pine trees. Plant competition is the main concern in







Jefferson County, Florida 39



management. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
best trees to plant. absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary landfills, dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
shallow excavations, small commercial buildings, and streets, and lawns and landscaping. Wetness and
lawns and landscaping because of slope and the sandy flooding are the main limiting factors. See tables 10 and
texture. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete 11 for more complete information concerning factors that
information concerning factors that can affect urban can affect urban development.
development. This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways
areas, playgrounds, and paths and trails because of because of wetness and flooding. See table 8 for more
slope and the sandy surface. See table 8 for more complete information concerning factors that can affect
complete information concerning factors that can affect recreational development.
recreational development. This Plummer soil is in capability subclass IVw and in
This Troup soil is in capability subclass VIs and in woodland suitability group 7W.
woodland suitability group 8S.
46-Cowarts loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
45-Plummer fine sand, frequently flooded. This slopes, eroded. This soil is well drained and gently
soil is poorly drained and nearly level. It is in poorly rolling. It is on shoulders and summits of uplands.
defined drainageways on uplands and flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
Individual areas of this soil are elongated or irregular in range from 5 to 120 acres.
shape and range from 40 to 400 acres. Slopes range Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy fine
from 0 to 2 percent. sand about 4 inches thick. The next layer is strong
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about 8 inches. The
sand about 18 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine bo i sandy loam to a depth of inches. T
sand to a depth of 68 inches. It is dark grayish brown to so n to a depth of inches t
a depth of 27 inches, and to a depth of 39 inches, it is strong brown to a depth of 15 inches, yellowish red to a
brown with few dark grayish brown mottles. Below that, depth of 29 inches, and strong brown below that. The
the subsurface is grayish brown with few strong brown underlying material extends to a depth of at least 80
mottles. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is gray inches. It is strong brown and yellowish red sandy clay
sandy clay loam that has common yellowish brown loam to a depth of 57 inches, and below that, it is
mottles. reticulately mottled very pale brown, reddish yellow, and
Included in mapping are small areas of Surrency, Bibb, red sandy loam that has pockets of sandy clay loam and
Pelham, and Plummer soils. The included soils make up sandy clay. About 2 percent plinthite is in layers within a
less than 20 percent of the map unit. depth of 29 inches.
This Plummer soil is subject to stream overflow during Included in mapping are small areas of Orangeburg,
periods of intense rainfall. This rainfall generally occurs 2 Dothan, Lucy, and Troup soils. The included soils make
to 3 times a year in late winter and early in spring. The up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
high water table is from 36 inches above the surface to This Cowarts soil does not have a high water table
15 inches below for 1 to 2 months; it is within 15 inches within a depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity
of the surface for 3 to 6 months in most years. The is low in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
available water capacity is low to very low in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and
Permeability is moderately rapid to rapid in the surface moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The natural vegetation is longleaf, slash, and loblolly
Natural fertility is low. pines, and mixed hardwoods, such as red oak, water
The natural vegetation on this soil is mainly sweetgum, oak, sweetgum, and hickory. The understory is native
loblolly pine, slash pine, baldcypress, water oak, grasses and shrubs including huckleberry, briers, and
American beech, and laurel oak. The understory is pineland threeawn. Many areas have been cleared and
inkberry, ferns, and other vines and water-tolerant are used for crops and pasture.
shrubs. This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
This Plummer soil has severe limitations for cultivated because of the hazard of erosion, but a wide variety of
crops, hay, and for use as pasture because of wetness. crops is well adapted. Corn and soybeans grow well if
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for properly managed. Intensive erosion control practices
trees, but equipment limitations, plant competition, need to include a system of well designed terraces with
seedling mortality, and field operation scheduling are stabilized outlets and contour cultivation of row crops in
concerns in management. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf alternate strips with cover crops. Crop rotations also
pines are the best trees to plant, but planting is feasible need to include cover crops. The soil-improving cover
only where drainage is adequate. crops and all crop residue should be left on the soil or







40 Soil Survey



plowed under. For maximum yields, this soil needs good about 32 inches. It is light gray in the upper part and
seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime. brown in the lower part. The subsoil is light greenish gray
This Cowarts soils has moderate limitations for use as sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of
pasture and for hay. Because of the eroded conditions of about 46 inches.
this soil, pastures are difficult to establish and yields are This soil has a seasonal high water table within 10
reduced. Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and inches of the surface during 6 to 8 months of the year.
improved bahiagrass are well adapted. Clovers and other The available water capacity is low in the surface layer
legumes are also adapted and grow well if properly and high in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
managed. Fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing are surface layer and slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is
needed to maintain vigorous plants for highest yields and low.
good soil cover. An established and well maintained Included in mapping are small areas of Surrency,
pasture or hay crop is the best use for this soil. Chaires, and Leon soils. Also included are small areas of
This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees. very poorly drained soils. The included soils make up
Plant competition is the main concern in management. less than 20 percent of the map unit.
Slash and loblolly pines are the best trees to plant. Thetural vegetation includes slash pine lonleaf
This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank pinThe natural oak, weetgum, cabbage palm, red maple
absorption fields and small commercial buildings. pine, laurel oak sweetgum cabbage palm, red maple,
Moderately slow to slow permeability and slope are the sweetbay, and waxmyrtle (fig. 9).
main limiting factors. See tables 10 and 11 for more The Nutall and Tooles soils have severe limitations for
complete information concerning factors that can affect cultivated crops, hay, and for use as pasture because of
urban development, wetness.
This soil has severe limitations for playgrounds These soils have moderately high potential productivity
because of the steepness of slope. It has moderate for pine trees. Equipment limitations and plant
limitations for camp areas and picnic areas because of competition are the main concerns in management
the moderately slow to slow permeability. See table 8 for Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the best trees to
more complete information concerning factors that can plant.
affect recreational development. The Tooles and Nutall soils have severe limitations for
This Cowarts soil is in capability subclass IVe and in septic tank absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow
woodland suitability group 9A. excavations, dwellings, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. Wetness
47-Nutall-Tooles complex. The Nutall and Tooles is the primary limiting factor. Tables 10 and 11 have
soils are poorly drained and nearly level. They are too more complete and exact information concerning factors
intermixed to map separately at the scale used for the that can affect urban development.
maps in the back of this publication. The soils are on These soils have severe limitations for camp areas,
broad, level landscapes on the flatwoods. The mapped picnic areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf
areas are irregular in shape and range from 20 to 800
acres. Individual areas of each soil range from about 0.1 fairways because of wetness. Table 8 has more
acre to 3.0 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent. complete and exact information concerning factors that
The Nutall soil makes up about 40 to 45 percent of can affect recreational development.
the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is black fine The Nutall soil is in capability subclass IVw and in
sand about 4 inches thick. The next layer, to a depth of woodland suitability group 6W. The Tooles soil is in
about 9 inches, is very dark gray and light gray fine capability subclass IIIw and in woodland suitability group
sand. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 11W.
about 17 inches. The upper part is light gray and the
lower part is brown. The subsoil is light greenish gray 52-Mascotte sand. This soil is poorly drained and
sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of nearly level. It is in broad, low, flat areas on the
about 30 inches. flatwoods. Individual areas of this soil are irregular in
This soil has a seasonal high water table within 10 shape and range from 5 to 200 acres. Slopes range from
inches of the surface for 6 to 8 months. The available 0 to 2 percent.
water capacity is low in the surface layer and high in the Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 4
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray sand to a
slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. depth of about 10 inches. The upper part of the subsoil
The Tooles soil makes up about 35 to 40 percent of extends to a depth of 17 inches. It is very dark brown
the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is black fine and dark brown sand. Next is a layer of light yellowish
sand about 5 inches thick. The next layer, to a depth of brown and grayish brown sand to a depth of 30 inches.
about 9 inches, is very dark gray and light gray fine The lower part of the subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to
sand. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of a depth of at least 80 inches.







Jefferson County, Florida 41






A.'.





















F4 !







Figure 9.-Pine and cabbage palm trees are typical native vegetation on soils of the Nutall-Tooles complex.



Included in mapping are small areas of Leon, Pelham, needed to remove excess water. Regular applications of
Plummer, Sapelo, and Chaires soils. The included soils fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing needs to be
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. controlled to maintain vigorous plant growth.
This soil has a seasonal high water table within a This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months in periods of high pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
rainfall and within a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 6 plant competition are the main concerns in management.
months or more in most years. The available water Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and the high water table. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the are the best trees to plant.
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
The natural vegetation is longleaf, loblolly, and slash dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
pines. The understory is sawpalmetto, dwarf blueberry, streets, and lawns and landscaping. Wetness is the main
greenbrier, fetterbush, gallberry, and bromegrass. limiting factor. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops information concerning factors that can affect urban
because of wetness. development.
This Mascotte soil has severe limitations for use as This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic
pasture and for hay. A good water control system is areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways







42 Soil Survey



because of the sandy surface and wetness. See table 8 waxmyrtle, fetterbush, inkberry, sawpalmetto, titi, and
for more complete information concerning factors that pineland threeawn.
can affect recreational development. The Leon and Chaires soils have severe limitations for
This Mascotte soil is in capability subclass IVw and in cultivated crops because of wetness.
woodland suitability group 10W. These soils have severe limitations for use as pasture
and for hay. A seasonal high water table and rapid
54-Leon-Chaires fine sands. This map unit consists leaching of plant nutrients from the soil limit the choice
of soils that are poorly drained and nearly level, of plants and reduce potential yields of adapted crops.
Individual areas of these soils are too mixed to be Intensive management of soil fertility and water is
mapped separately at the scale used for the maps in the required for optimum production of pasture and hay.
back of this publication. These soils are on broad, nearly The Leon soil has moderate potential for pine tree
level landscapes on the flatwoods. The mapped areas production, and the Chaires soil has moderately high
are irregular in shape and are 20 to about 800 acres. potential. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
Individual areas of each soil in this map unit range from plant competition are the main concerns in management.
about 0.12 acre to 3.0 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of
percent. the water table. Slash pines are the best trees to plant
The Leon soil makes up about 35 to 40 percent of the (fig. 10).
map unit. Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown These soils have severe limitations for septic tank
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
fine sand to a depth of 30 inches. It is dark gray to a dwellings, small commercial buildings, local road and
depth of about 14 inches, gray to a depth of 21 inches, streets, and lawns and landscaping. Wetness is the main
and light gray below that. The subsoil is fine sand to a limiting factor for most of these uses. See tables 10 and
depth of at least 80 inches. It is dark brown to a depth of 11 for more complete information concerning factors that
about 32 inches, yellowish brown to a depth of about 46 can affect urban development.
inches and brown and very dark grayish brown below These soils have severe limitations for camp areas,
that. picnic areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf
This soil has a seasonal high water table within a fairways because of wetness. See table 8 for more
depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and at a depth of complete information concerning factors that can affect
10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months in most years. recreational development.
The available water capacity is very low in the surface The Leon-Chaires soils are in capability subclass IVw.
and subsurface layers and low in the subsoil. The Leon soils are in woodland suitability group 8W, and
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers the Chaires soils are in woodland suitability group 10W.
and moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural 55-Lucy loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
fertility is low' This soil is well drained and rolling. It is on back slopes
The Chaires soil makes up about 30 to 40 percent of and shoulders of uplands. Individual areas of this soil are
the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is black fine elongated and irregular in shape and range from 3 to 40
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray acres.
fine sand to a depth of about 15 inches. The subsoil Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is very dark loamy fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
grayish brown, dark brown and white fine sand to a layer is fine sand to a depth of 33 inches. It is yellowish
depth of about 45 inches, and light gray sandy clay loam brown to a depth of 15 inches and strong brown below
below that. that. The subsoil to a depth of at least 80 inches is
This soil has a seasonal high water table within a yellowish red sandy clay loam.
depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and at a depth of Included in mapping are small areas of Troup and
10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more in most years. The Fuquay soils. Also included are small areas of soils that
available water capacity is very low in the surface and have slopes of less than 8 percent. The included soils
subsurface layers, low in the upper part of the subsoil make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
and medium in the lower part. Permeability is rapid in the This soil does not have a high water table within a
surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the upper depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is low
part of the subsoil, and moderately slow in the lower in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
part. Natural fertility is low. subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
Included in mapping are small areas of Surrency, subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
Albany, Plummer, and Rutlege soils. The included soils fertility is low.
make up less than 20 percent of the map unit. The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, red
The natural vegetation includes longleaf and slash oak, water oak, sweetgum, beech, black cherry, and
pines and water and laurel oaks. The understory is hickory. The understory is native shrubs and grasses







Jefferson County, Florida 43























-













Figure 10.-Pines are the best trees to plant in this area of Leon-Chaires fine sands.


including huckleberry, southern dewberry, smilax, Virginia crops. Soil-improving cover crops and residue of all other
creeper, American beautyberry, muscadine grape, crops should be left on the land.
yaupon, and sparse pineland threeawn. This soil has moderate limitations for use as pasture
This Lucy soil has severe limitations for cultivated and for hay. Because of the slope, pastures are hard to
crops because of poor soil qualities. Soil-improving establish and erosion is a hazard. Deep-rooting plants,
measures are needed. Droughtiness and rapid leaching such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well
of plant nutrients severely limit the suitability of this soil adapted, but potential yields are reduced because of
for most row crops. The steepness of slopes further steepness of the slope. Good stands of grass can be
limits the suitability by making cultivation more difficult produced if fertilizer and lime are added to the soil.
and by increasing the hazard of erosion. Cultivated row Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants
crops need to be planted in strips on the contour that provide good protective cover. An established and
alternating with wider strips of close-growing, soil- well maintained pasture or hay crop is the best use for
improving crops. Crop rotations also need to include this soil.
close-growing crops that remain on the land at least two- This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
thirds of the time. Fertilizer and lime are needed for all trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
thirds of the time. Fertilizer and lime are needed for all trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant






44 Soil Survey


competition are the main concerns in management. crops that remain on the land at least half the time. Crop
Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the best trees to residue and the soil-improving cover crops should be left
plant. on the ground or plowed under. Tile drainageways help
This soil has severe limitations for area type sanitary to maintain good drainage for cash crops, such as
landfills because of seepage and severe limitations for tobacco, that are damaged by the slight wetness. For
small commercial buildings because of the slope. It has maximum yields, this soil needs good seedbed
moderate limitations for septic tank absorption fields, preparation, fertilizer, and lime.
trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, This Tifton soil has slight limitations for use as pasture
dwellings, local roads and streets, and lawns and and for hay. Improved pasture plants, such as clovers,
landscaping because of the slope and cutbanks caving, tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and improved
See tables 10 and 11 for more complete information bahiagrass, are well adapted and produce well if they
concerning factors that can affect urban development, are properly managed. Fertilizer, lime, and controlled
This soil has severe limitations for playgrounds grazing help to maintain vigorous plants for a good
because of the slope. See table 8 for more complete ground cover.
information concerning factors that can affect This soil has high potential productivity for pine trees,
recreational development. and it does not have any significant restrictions or
This Lucy soil is in capability subclass IVs and in limitations for woodland use. Slash and loblolly pines are
woodland suitability group 11S. the best trees to plant.
This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank
56-Tifton gravelly loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent absorption fields, shallow excavations, and dwellings
slopes. This soil is well drained and gently undulating. It with basements because of the moderately slow
is on shoulders and summits of uplands. Individual areas p met eteofe ae so
of this soil are irregular in shape and range from 5 to permeability and wetness. See tables 10 and 11 for
120 acres. more complete information concerning factors that can
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown affect urban development.
gravelly loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The This soil has moderate limitations for playgrounds
subsurface layer is yellowish brown gravelly sandy loam because of slope. See table 8 for more complete
to a depth of about 10 inches. The subsoil extends to a information concerning factors that can affect
depth of at least 80 inches. It is yellowish brown gravelly recreational development.
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 45 inches. Below This Tifton soil is in capability subclass lie and in
that, the subsoil is sandy clay loam that is yellowish woodland suitability group 9A.
brown to a depth of about 60 inches and reticulately
mottled yellowish brown, red, very pale brown, and light 57-Tifton gravelly loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
gray below that. slopes, eroded. This soil is well drained and gently
Included in mapping are small areas of Dothan, rolling. It is on shoulders and summits on uplands.
Cowarts, Orangeburg, and Fuquay soils. The included Individual areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
soils make up less than 20 percent of the map unit. range from 5 to 120 acres.
This Tifton soil does not have a high water table within Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
a depth of 80 inches during most of the year. It has a gravelly loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
perched high water table above the subsoil briefly during subsurface layer is yellowish brown gravelly sandy loam
wet periods. The available water capacity is low in the to a depth of about 10 inches. The subsoil is sandy clay
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the loam to a depth of at least 80 inches. It is strong brown
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and to a depth of 29 inches, brownish yellow to a depth of
subsurface layers and moderately slow in the subsoil. 40 inches, yellowish brown to a depth of 50 inches, and
Natural fertility is low. reticulately mottled yellowish brown, red, very pale
The natural vegetation is longleaf, slash, and loblolly brown, and light gray below that.
pines, and mixed hardwoods, such as red oak, water Included in mapping are small areas of Dothan,
oak, sweetgum, hickory, beech, and black cherry. The Cowarts, Orangeburg, and Fuquay soils. The included
understory is native grasses and shrubs including soils make up less than 20 percent of the map unit.
huckleberry, briers, and pineland threeawn. Many areas This Tifton soil does not have a high water table within
have been cleared and are used for crops and pasture. a depth of 80 inches for most of the year, but a perched
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops high water table is above the subsoil briefly during wet
because of the hazard of erosion. Corn and peanuts are periods. The available water capacity is low in the
adapted if properly managed. Erosion control measures surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
need to include terraces with stabilized outlets and subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with subsurface layers and moderately slow in the subsoil.
cover crops. Crop rotations also need to include cover Natural fertility is low.







Jefferson County, Florida 45



The natural vegetation is longleaf, slash, and loblolly are irregular in shape and range from 25 to 1,200 acres.
pines and mixed hardwoods, such as red oak, water oak, Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
sweetgum, hickory, black cherry, and beech. The The Chiefland soil that is not flooded makes up about
understory is native grasses and shrubs including 35 to 50 percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface
huckleberry, briers, and pineland threeawn. Many areas layer is dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
have been cleared and are used for crops and pasture, subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops about 25 inches. The subsoil is brownish yellow fine
because of the hazard of erosion and the eroded sandy loam to a depth of 32 inches. It is underlain by
condition of the soil. It is only moderately suited to most yellow, soft weathered limestone. Limestone bedrock is
crops including corn, soybeans, and peanuts. The variety at a depth of 49 inches.
of adapted crops is also somewhat limited by occasional This Chiefland soil has a high water table between
wetness. Intensive erosion control measures are needed depths of 50 and 72 inches after periods of heavy
to utilize this soil for crops. Such measures include rainfall.
carefully designed terraces with stabilized outlets, The Chiefland, frequently flooded, soil makes up about
contour cultivation of row crops grown in alternate strips 20 to 30 percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface
with close-growing crops, and crop rotations that include layer is fine sand 28 inches thick. It is very pale brown,
close-growing crops on the land at least two-thirds of the pale brown, and light yellowish brown with common
time. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue yellowish brown distinct mottles in the lower part of the
should be left on the land. Tile or open drainageways are layer. The subsoil, to a depth of 52 inches, is yellowish
needed to intercept seepage water from higher areas. brown sandy loam that has many very fine distinct
Rows crops need to be planted on beds. Good seedbed yellowish brown mottles. Soft limestone bedrock is at a
preparation, fertilizer, and lime are needed for maximum depth of 52 inches.
yields. This Chiefland soil floods for 8 to 30 days after
This Tifton soil has moderate limitations for use as extended periods of rain, usually early in spring. It has a
pasture and for hay. Because of the eroded condition of high water table within a depth of 50 inches for an
the soil, pastures are difficult to establish and yields are water table is between depths of 50 and 72 inches for
reduced. Coastal bermudagrass and improved the remainder of the year
bahiagrass are well adapted and produce moderate The available water capacity in the Chiefland soils is
yields if fertilizer and lime are added. Controlled grazing very low in the surface and subsurface layers and low in
helps to maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
and good soil cover. An established and well maintained subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
pasture or hay crop is the best use for this soil. fertility is low.
This soil has high potential productivity for slash, Included in mapping are small areas of Nutall, Tooles,
loblolly, and longleaf pines, and it does not have any Chaires-Tooles depressional, and Chaires depressional
significant limitations or restrictions for woodland use. soils. The included soils make up less than 30 percent of
Slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines are the best trees to the map unit.
plant. The natural vegetation is live oak, post oak, slash
This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank pine, longleaf pine, and hickory. The understory is red
absorption fields, shallow excavations, dwellings with maple, huckleberry, chalky bluestem, and persimmon.
basements, and small commercial buildings because of The Chiefland soils have severe limitations for
wetness and slope. See tables 10 and 11 for more cultivated crops because of wetness and flooding.
complete information concerning factors that can affect These soils have severe limitations for use as pasture
urban development. and for hay. Flooding and periodic droughts during the
This soil has severe limitations for playgrounds year are the main limiting factors. Deep-rooting coastal
because of slope. See table 8 for more complete bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass are moderately
information concerning factors that can affect well adapted. Grazing needs to be controlled to maintain
recreational development. plant vigor and a good ground cover.
This Tifton soil is in capability subclass Ille and in These soils have moderately high potential productivity
woodland suitability group 9A. for pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
and timing of the harvest are the main concerns in
58-Chiefland-Chiefland, frequently flooded, fine management. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the
sands. This mapping unit consists of soils that are nearly best trees to plant.
level and moderately well drained. These soils are on The Chiefland soil that does not flood has severe
the lower Coastal Plain and are too intermixed to be limitations for septic tank absorption fields, sanitary
mapped separately at the scale used for the maps in the landfills, shallow excavations, and lawns and
back of this publication. Individual areas of these soils landscaping. It has moderate limitations for dwellings






46 Soil Survey


with basements. Depth to bedrock and seepage are light greenish gray sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock
some of the limiting factors affecting those uses. See occurs at a depth of about 46 inches.
tables 10 and 11 for more complete information This soil has a high water table as much as 24 inches
concerning factors that can affect urban development, above the surface for 8 to 10 months. It has a seasonal
This soil also has severe limitations for camp areas, high water table between the surface and a depth of 10
picnic areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf inches for most of the remainder of the year. The
fairways because of the sandy surface and droughtiness. available water capacity is low in the surface and
See table 8 for more complete information concerning subsurface layers and high in the subsoil. Permeability is
factors that can affect recreational development, rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and slow in
The Chiefland, frequently flooded, soil has severe the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
limitations for septic tank absorption fields, sanitary The Chaires, depressional, soil makes up about 25 to
landfills, shallow excavations, dwellings, small 30 percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and lawns dark brown fine sand 9 inches thick. The subsurface
and landscaping because of flooding. See tables 10 and layer is dark grayish brown and light gray fine sand to a
11 for more complete and exact information concerning depth of 28 inches. The subsoil is very dark brown fine
factors that can affect urban development, sand to a depth of 54 inches and gray and light greenish
This soil also has severe limitations for camp areas, gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches.
picnic areas, playgrounds, and paths and trails because This soil has a high water table as much as 24 inches
of flooding and the sandy surface. Droughtiness is a above the surface for 4 to 6 months. It has seasonal
severe limitation for golf fairways. See table 8 for more high water table between the surface and a depth of 12
complete information concerning factors that can affect inches for most of the remainder of the year. The
recreational development, available water capacity is very low in the surface and
This Chiefland-Chiefland, frequently flooded, soils are subsurface layers and ranges from low to high in the
in capability subclass Ills and in woodland suitability subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
group 11S. subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil, but it
is slow in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is
61-Tooles-Tooles, depressional-Chaires, low.
depressional, fine sands. This map unit consists of Included in mapping are small areas of Nutall,
soils that are poorly drained or very poorly drained and Surrency, Chaires, and Leon soils. The included soils
nearly level. These soils are too intermixed to be make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
mapped separately at the scale used for the maps in the The natural vegetation includes cabbage palm,
back of this publication. These soils are on broad, level sweetgum, red maple, sweetbay, slash pine, pond
landscapes on the flatwoods. The mapped areas are cypress, and blackgum.
irregular in shape and range from 20 to 800 acres. The soils of this map unit have severe limitations for
Individual areas of each soil range from about 0.1 acre cultivated crops, hay, and for use as pasture because of
to 3.0 acres. wetness.
The Tooles soil that is not depressional makes up These soils have moderately high potential productivity
about 35 to 40 percent of the map unit. Typically, the for woodland, although baldcypress and blackgum trees
surface layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The grow in the wetter areas. Equipment limitations and
next layer, to a depth of about 9 inches, is very dark gray seedling mortality are the main concerns in
and light gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is fine management. Planting trees on beds lowers the effective
sand to a depth of about 32 inches. It is light gray in the depth of the high water table.
upper part and brown in the lower part. The subsoil is These soils have severe limitations for septic tank
light greenish gray sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
occurs at a depth of about 46 inches. dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
This soil has a seasonal high water table within 10 streets, and lawns and landscaping because of wetness
inches of the surface during 6 to 8 months of the year. and ponding. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete
The available water capacity is low in the surface and information concerning factors that can affect
subsurface layers and high in the subsoil. Permeability is recreational development.
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and slow in These soils have severe limitations for camp areas,
the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. picnic areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf
The Tooles, depressional, soil makes up about 25 to fairways because of wetness and ponding. See table 8
30 percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is for more complete information concerning factors that
black fine sand about 10 inches thick. The next layer to can affect recreational development.
a depth of about 18 inches, is very dark gray and light The Tooles soil is in capability subclass IIIw; the
gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is light gray to Tooles, depressional, soil is in capability subclass VIlw;
brown fine sand to a depth of 39 inches. The subsoil is and the Chaires, depressional, soil is in capability







Jefferson County, Florida 47



subclass VIw. The Tooles soils is in woodland suitability These soils have moderately high potential productivity
group 11W, and the Tooles, depressional, and Chaires, for woodland; however, pine trees do not grow well on
depressional, soils are in woodland suitability group 2W. these soils. Hardwoods, baldcypress, and sweetgum
trees grow well.
62-Nutall-Tooles fine sands, frequently flooded. These soils have severe limitations for septic tank
This map unit consists of soils that are very poorly absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
drained and nearly level. The Nutall and Tooles soils are dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
too intermixed to be mapped separately at the scale streets, and lawns and landscaping because of flooding
used for the maps at the back of this publication. These and wetness. See tables 10 and 11 for more complete
soils are along major drainageways on the flatwoods. information concerning factors that can affect urban
The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from development.
20 to several thousand acres. Individual areas of each These soils have severe limitations for camp areas,
soil range from about 0.12 acre to 3.0 acres. Slopes picnic areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf
range from 0 to 1 percent. fairways mainly because of wetness and flooding. See
The Nutall soil makes up about 40 to 50 percent of table 8 for more complete information concerning factors
the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is black fine that can affect recreational development.
sand about 6 inches thick. The next layer, to a depth of The Nutall and Tooles soils are in capability subclass
about 9 inches, is very dark gray and light gray fine Vw and in woodland suitability group 7W.
sand. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of
about 23 inches. It is light gray in the upper part and 63-Bayvi muck. This soil is very poorly drained and
brown in the lower part. The subsoil is light greenish gray nearly level. It is in the coastal tidal marsh. Individual
sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock occurs at a depth areas of this soil are elongated. Slopes range from 0 to
of about 30 inches. 2 percent.
This soil is flooded with water to as much as 48 inches Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 5
above the surface 6 to 8 months during the year. A inches thick, black mucky loamy sand to a depth of 17
seasonal high water table is between the surface and a inches, and very dark grayish brown sand to a depth of
depth of 12 inches for most of the remainder of the year. 31 inches. The underlying material is grayish brown sand
The available water capacity is low in the surface and to a depth of 53 inches and gray sand to a depth of 80
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. inches.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers Included in mapping are small areas of soils that have
and slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. limestone bedrock between depths of 50 and 80 inches
The Tooles, flooded, soil makes up about 40 to 50 and areas of soils that have muck more than 8 inches in
percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is depth. The included soils make up less than 35 percent
black fine sand about 7 inches thick. The next layer, to a of the map unit. Also included are small islands,
depth of about 9 inches, is very dark gray and light gray generally less than 2 acres in size, which support a
fine sand. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth mixed growth of palms, pines, and cedars. The islands
of about 39 inches. It is light gray in the upper part and make up less than 1 percent of the map unit.
brown in the lower part. The subsoil is light greenish gray This Bayvi soil is flooded daily by normal high tides.
sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock occurs at a depth The available water capacity is high in the surface layer
of about 46 inches. and very low in the underlying material. Permeability is
This soil is flooded with water to as much as 48 inches moderate in the surface layer and rapid in the underlying
above the surface for 6 to 8 months during the year. A material. Natural fertility is low.
seasonal high water table is between the surface and a The natural vegetation is dominantly needlegrass (fig.
depth of 12 inches for most of the remainder of the year. 11), rushes, saltgrass, and smooth and marshhay
The available water capacity is low in the surface and cordgrass.
subsurface layers and high in the subsoil. Permeability is This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops,
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and slow in hay, and for use as pasture because of wetness and
the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. salinity.
Included in mapping are small areas of Chaires, This soil does not grow trees and is not rated for the
Chaires depressional, Surrency, and nonflooded phases production of pine trees.
of Nutall and Tooles soils. The included soils make up This Bayvi soil has severe limitations for septic tank
less than 20 percent of the map unit. absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
The natural vegetation includes red maple, sweetgum, dwellings, small commercial buildings, local roads and
cabbage palm, tupelo, baldcypress, and water oak. streets, and lawns and landscaping because of wetness
The Nutall and Tooles soils have severe limitations for and flooding. See table 10 and 11 for more complete
cultivated crops, hay, and for use as pasture because of information concerning factors that can affect urban
wetness and flooding, development.








48







































Figure 11.-Bayvi muck has severe limitations for most uses because of wetness. Most areas of this soil remain in native grasses, such as
this needlegrass.



This soil has severe limitations for camp areas, picnic complete information concerning factors that can affect
areas, playgrounds, paths and trails, and golf fairways recreational development.
because of wetness and flooding. See table 8 for more This Bayvi soil is in capability subclass VIllw. It is not
assigned to a woodland suitability group.






49









Prime Farmland


In this section, prime farmland is defined and acceptable. The soils have few or no rocks and are
discussed, and the prime farmland soils in Jefferson permeable to water and air. They are not excessively
County are listed. erodible or saturated with water for long periods and are
Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important not subject to frequent flooding during the growing
farmland defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. season. The slope ranges mainly from 0 to 6 percent.
It is of major importance in meeting the nation's short- About 81,600 acres, or nearly 21 percent of Jefferson
and long-range needs for food and fiber. The acreage of County, meets the soil requirements for prime farmland.
high-quality farmland is limited, and the U.S. Department The trend of land use to urban and related uses has
of Agriculture recognizes that government at local, state, resulted in the loss of some prime farmland. This loss
and federal levels, as well as individuals, must puts pressure on marginal land, which generally is more
encourage and facilitate the wise use of our nation's erodible, drought, and difficult to cultivate, and usually
prime farmland. less productive.
Prime farmland soils, as defined by the U.S. The following map units, or soils, make up prime
Department of Agriculture, are soils that are best suited farmland in Jefferson County. The location of each map
to producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops. unit is shown on the detailed soil maps at the back of
Such soils have properties that are favorable for the this publication. The extent of each unit is given in table
economic production of sustained high yields of crops. 4. The soil qualities that affect use and management are
The soils need only to be treated and managed using described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units." This
acceptable farming methods. The moisture supply, of list does not constitute a recommendation for a particular
course, must be adequate, and the growing season has land use.
to be sufficiently long. Prime farmland soils produce the Soils that have limitations, such as a high water table
highest yields with minimal inputs of energy and or flooding, may qualify as prime farmland if these
economic resources. Farming these soils results in the limitations are overcome by such measures as drainage
least damage to the environment, or flood control. In the following list, the measures
Prime farmland soils may presently be in use as needed to overcome the limitations of a map unit, if any,
cropland, pasture, or woodland, or they may be in other are shown in parentheses after the map unit name.
uses. They either are used for producing food or fiber or Onsite evaluation is necessary to determine if the
are available for these uses. Urban or built-up land, limitations have been overcome by the corrective
public land, and water areas cannot be considered prime measures.
farmland. Urban or built-up land is any contiguous unit of 6 Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
land 10 acres or more in size that is used for such 7 Dothan loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
purposes as housing, industrial, and commercial sites, eroded
sites for institutions or public buildings, small parks, golf 13 Orangeburg sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
courses, cemeteries, railroad yards, airports, sanitary 14 Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
landfills, sewage treatment plants, and water control eroded
structures. Public land is land not available for farming in 31 Faceville fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
national forests, national parks, military reservations, and 32 Faceville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
state parks. eroded
Prime farmland soils usually get an adequate and 56 Tifton gravelly loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
dependable supply of moisture from precipitation or slopes
irrigation. The temperature and growing season are 57 Tifton gravelly loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
favorable. The acidity or alkalinity level of the soils is slopes, eroded









51








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the estimated yields of the main crops and hay and pasture
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land plants are listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, About 113,900 acres in Jefferson County was used for
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses crops and pasture. Of this, 25,000 acres was used for
and management. Field experience and collected data pasture; 78,900 acres for field crops, and 10,000 acres
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis for special crops. This information is according to the
for predicting soil behavior. 1978 Census of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Information in this section can be used to plan the use records, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as Service Rural Development Report, and Cooperative
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary Extension Service estimates.
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and The soils in Jefferson County have good potential for
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife increased food production. An equal amount of
habitat. It can be used to identify the limitations of each potentially good cropland is currently used as woodland
soil for specific land uses and to help prevent and as pasture. This land could be converted to
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil cropland, but intensive conservation measures should be
properties. used to control erosion during the conversion phase. In
Planners and others using soil survey information can addition to the reserve capacity represented by soils now
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity used as woodland and pasture, food production could be
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. increased considerably by extending the latest crop
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a production technology to all cropland in the county. This
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. soil survey can help in the application of such
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of technology.
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to The acreage in crops and pasture has remained fairly
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil constant, but the acreage in woodland has gradually
layers can cause difficulty in excavationincreased as more and more land is converted because
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and of economic conditions of farming. In 1980, about 5,168
athes oials, fthig ey o efials Tenee and acres of urban land was in the county. This acreage has
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can increased gradually for the past 10 years, according to
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate the Comprehensive Plan for Jefferson County. A greater
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, rate of increase is expected in the future.
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. Soil erosion is a problem on about two-thirds of the
cropland and pastureland in Jefferson County. If slope is
Crops and Pasture more than 2 percent on the well drained and moderately
well drained Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, Orangeburg,
Gary J. Reckner, soil conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, Tifton, and Troup soils, erosion is a hazard. It is also a
helped prepare this section. hazard on the somewhat poorly drained Leefield and
General management needed for crops and pasture is Chipley soils.
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants Productivity is reduced as the topsoil and nutrients are
best suited to the soils in the survey area are identified, eroded and part of the subsoil is incorporated into the
the system of land capability classification used by the plow layer. Soil erosion on farmland also results in
Soil Conservation Service is explained, and the sediment, fertilizer, and pesticides entering streams.






51








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the estimated yields of the main crops and hay and pasture
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land plants are listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, About 113,900 acres in Jefferson County was used for
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses crops and pasture. Of this, 25,000 acres was used for
and management. Field experience and collected data pasture; 78,900 acres for field crops, and 10,000 acres
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis for special crops. This information is according to the
for predicting soil behavior. 1978 Census of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Information in this section can be used to plan the use records, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as Service Rural Development Report, and Cooperative
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary Extension Service estimates.
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and The soils in Jefferson County have good potential for
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife increased food production. An equal amount of
habitat. It can be used to identify the limitations of each potentially good cropland is currently used as woodland
soil for specific land uses and to help prevent and as pasture. This land could be converted to
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil cropland, but intensive conservation measures should be
properties. used to control erosion during the conversion phase. In
Planners and others using soil survey information can addition to the reserve capacity represented by soils now
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity used as woodland and pasture, food production could be
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. increased considerably by extending the latest crop
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a production technology to all cropland in the county. This
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. soil survey can help in the application of such
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of technology.
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to The acreage in crops and pasture has remained fairly
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil constant, but the acreage in woodland has gradually
layers can cause difficulty in excavationincreased as more and more land is converted because
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and of economic conditions of farming. In 1980, about 5,168
athes oials, fthig ey o efials Tenee and acres of urban land was in the county. This acreage has
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can increased gradually for the past 10 years, according to
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate the Comprehensive Plan for Jefferson County. A greater
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, rate of increase is expected in the future.
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. Soil erosion is a problem on about two-thirds of the
cropland and pastureland in Jefferson County. If slope is
Crops and Pasture more than 2 percent on the well drained and moderately
well drained Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, Orangeburg,
Gary J. Reckner, soil conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, Tifton, and Troup soils, erosion is a hazard. It is also a
helped prepare this section. hazard on the somewhat poorly drained Leefield and
General management needed for crops and pasture is Chipley soils.
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants Productivity is reduced as the topsoil and nutrients are
best suited to the soils in the survey area are identified, eroded and part of the subsoil is incorporated into the
the system of land capability classification used by the plow layer. Soil erosion on farmland also results in
Soil Conservation Service is explained, and the sediment, fertilizer, and pesticides entering streams.







52 Soil Survey



Control of erosion minimizes this pollution of streams on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the
and improves the quality of the water for municipal and crops to damage from sandblasting.
recreational uses and for fish and wildlife. Information for the design of erosion control practices
Erosion control practices provide protective surface for each kind of soil is in the "Erosion Control
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. Vegetative Handbook-Florida," which is available in the local office
cover on the soil for extended periods can hold soil of the Soil Conservation Service.
erosion losses to amounts that will not reduce the Soil drainage is not a major management need for
productive capacity of the soil. On livestock farms that acreage currently used for crops and pasture in
need pasture and hay, legume and grass forage crops in Jefferson County. Soils that are poorly drained and very
the cropping system reduce erosion on erodible, sloping poorly drained are not normally used for crops and
land. These crops also provide nitrogen and improve tilth pastures.
for the crop that follows in the cropping system. Soil fertility is naturally low on most soils in the county.
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the Most of the soils have a sand or loamy sand surface
surface increase infiltration and reduce the hazards of layer. Many of the soils have a loamy subsoil. In this
runoff and erosion by intense rains. These practices can category are the Albany, Blanton, Dothan, Fuquay,
be implemented on most soils in the county, but they are Leefield, Lucy, Orangeburg, Tifton, and Troup soils. The
more difficult to use successfully on eroded soils. No-till Chipley, Lakeland, and Ortega soils have sandy material
systems for corn and soybeans are effective in reducing to a depth of 80 inches or more. The Chaires, Leon,
erosion on sloping land and can be utilized on most soils Mascotte, and Sapelo soils have an organically stained
in the county. layer within their sandy subsoil. Most soils have a
Terraces, diversions, and stripcropping reduce runoff surface layer that is strongly acid or very strongly acid.
and erosion by reducing the length of slope. These Lime is needed to raise the pH level sufficiently for good
practices are more practical on deep, well drained soils growth of crops. Nitrogen, potash, and available
practices are more practical on deep, well drained soils phosphorus levels are naturally low in most of these
that have regular slopes. Diversions and sod waterways, soils. All additions of lime and fertilizer should be based
which reduce runoff and erosion, can be installed on on the results of soil tests, on the needs of the crops,
most soils in the county. Terraces and diversions are and on the expected level of yields. The Cooperative
more difficult to install successfully on the soils that have Extension Service can help in determining the kinds and
a clayey surface layer. Contouring is seldom used in amounts of fertilizer and lime to apply.
Jefferson County except in areas that have parallel Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
terraces, seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils that
Wind erosion is a hazard on soils that have a sandy or have good tilth are granular and porous.
loamy sand surface layer. Less than 500 acres of the Most soils in the county used for crops and pasture
county's cropland soils is sandy and is subject to wind are low to moderate in organic matter content.
erosion. Wind erosion can damage soils and tender Generally, the structure of the surface layer of these
crops in a few hours in open, unprotected areas if the soils is weak. Soils low in organic matter content form a
winds are strong and the soil surface is dry and bare of slight crust following intense rainfall. The crust is slightly
vegetation and mulch. Maintaining plant cover and hard when it is dry and is slightly impervious to water.
surface mulch minimizes wind erosion. Once the crust forms, it reduces infiltration and
Wind erosion reduces soil fertility by removing finer increases runoff. The increased runoff causes soil
soil particles and organic matter; damages or destroys erosion. Regular additions of crop residue, manure, and
crops by sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and other organic material can improve soil structure and
weed seeds; causes problems to drainage ditches, reduce crust formation.
roads, fences, and equipment; and contributes to air Fall plowing for spring planting is generally not a good
pollution. With increased use of herbicides and other practice in Jefferson County. About two-thirds of the
pesticides, windblown soil is becoming an increasing cropland is on sloping soils that are subject to damaging
chemical drift hazard. Control of wind erosion minimizes erosion if they are plowed and exposed all winter.
dust storms and improves air quality for more healthful Field crops grown in the county include corn,
living conditions. soybeans, peanuts, cotton, tobacco, wheat, oats, and
Maintaining plant cover and surface mulch minimizes forage and grain sorghum. Oats, ryegrass, rye, and
soil blowing. Field windbreaks of adapted trees and wheat are the common close-growing crops sown for
shrubs, such as Carolina cherry laurel, sand pine, winter grazing. They are often grown with clovers,
southern redcedar; and strip crops of small grain are specifically arrow-leaf clover.
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage. Special crops grown commercially in the county are
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings pecan and nursery crops, watermelons, snap beans,
made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at peas, and some squash, blueberries, grapes, and
specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend blackberries. If economic conditions are favorable, there







Jefferson County, Florida 53



is potential to increase blueberries, grapes, blackberries, The yields are based mainly on the experience and
and nursery plants. Nursery production is both field and records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
container grown. Woody ornamentals, fruits, and pecans agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
are produced in nurseries, results of field trials and demonstrations are also
Deep soils that have good natural drainage are considered.
especially well suited to many vegetables and small The management needed to obtain the indicated
fruits. The Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, Orangeburg, and Tifton yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
soils on slopes of less than 8 percent are in this and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
category. If irrigated, Blanton, Bonifay, Lakeland, and control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
Troup soils that have slopes of less than 8 percent are and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
well suited to vegetables and small fruit. In addition, if appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
adequately drained, the Albany, Chipley, and Leefield diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
soils are well suited to vegetables and small fruits. and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
Most of the well drained and moderately well drained and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
soils in the county are suitable for orchards and nursery residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and
plants. However, if these soils are in low areas that have harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
poor air drainage and frequent frost pockets, they are
not as well suited to early vegetables, small fruits, and For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
orchards. irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
Pastures are used to produce forage for beef and grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
dairy cattle. Stocker-grazer cattle and cow-calf applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
operations are the major beef cattle systems. Bahiagrass The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
and coastal bermudagrass are the major pasture plants. each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
Grass seeds could be harvested from bahiagrass for to increase as new production technology is developed.
improved pasture plantings as well as commercial The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
purposes. Many cattlemen seed small grain on cropland other soils, however, is not likely to change.
and overseed ryegrass on pastures in the fall for winter Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in
and spring grazing. Small grain, arrowleaf clover, and the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
ryegrass winter pastures, followed by crabgrass grazing because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
can supply forage for up to 9 months. Excess grass is office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
harvested from coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass as Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
hay during the summer for feeding during the winter, about the management and productivity of the soils for
The well drained and moderately well drained Dothan, those crops.
Fuquay, Lucy, Orangeburg, and Tifton soils are well
suited to use for bahiagrass, alfalfa, and improved Land Capability Classification
bermudagrass hay fields and pastures. If adequate lime
and fertilizer are added, the somewhat poorly drained Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
Albany, Chipley, and Leefield soils are well suited to the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that
bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass with legumes, require special management are excluded. The soils are
such as white, crimson, and arrowleaf clover. Where grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the
irrigation is needed and used, the total forage production risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way
will increase on these soils. they respond to management. The criteria used in
Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly depleted grouping the soils do not include major, and generally
by continuous excessive grazing. Pasture yields can be expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth,
increased with the proper use of lime, fertilizer, legumes, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include
drainage, irrigation, and other management practices. possible but unlikely major reclamation projects.
The amount and kind of pasture yields are related Capability classification is not a substitute for
closely to the kind of soil. Proper management of interpretations designed to show suitability and
pasture is based on the relationship of soils, pasture limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for woodland,
plants, lime, fertilizer, and moisture. and for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
Yields Per Acre three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
The average yields per acre that can be expected of class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
the principal crops under a high level of management are defined in the following paragraphs.
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and







54 Soil Survey



narrower choices for practical use. The classes are owned by large wood-using industries, and 3 percent is
defined as follows: held by county, state, and federal ownerships (7).
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. Slash pine, the dominant species on the lower
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the flatwoods makes up about 90 percent of the forest land
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation in the area. Loblolly pine and upland hardwoods share
practices. about equal stocking in the upland areas. The most
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the common hardwoods are sweetgum, water oak, live oak,
choice of plants or that require special conservation bays, and blackgum, and the most common pines are
practices, or both. slash, loblolly, longleaf, and shortleaf.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce Pulpwood, sawlogs, poles, and veneers are some of
the choice of plants or that require very careful the major products produced. About 44.5 million board
management, or both. feet of sawtimber is removed annually. This accounts for
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have about 11.5 million dollars of revenue generated from the
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their forest industry in the area each year (8). Improved
use. management could greatly increase this figure.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them Reforestation has been increasing in the past few years
generally unsuitable for cultivation, because of the strong demand for wood and paper
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make products. Regeneration, both naturally and artificially, of
them unsuitable for cultivation, about 2,400 acres of pines is carried out each year.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have Besides growing timber for economic benefits,
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial woodland is also maintained for recreation, aesthetics,
crop production. and soil loss protection. Numerous large hunting
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class, plantations, ranging from 3,000 to 25,000 acres, utilize
They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, or s the timber as food and cover for wildlife.
to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e shows Timber management varies from intensive thinning,
that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless a close- clearcutting, and planting on corporate land to less
growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water in intensive selective cutting and harvesting on private land.
or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation Fire is important in reducing hazardous ground litter and
(in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by in exposing mineral soil as a seedbed for natural
artificial drainage); and s shows that the soil is limited reproduction. It also encourages grasses and forbs,
mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony. which help support various wildlife, such as deer, turkey,
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils and quail.
of this class have few limitations. None of the soils in Markets for wood crops are plentiful in the area. Pulp
Jefferson County are in capability class I. The soils in and paper mills are the major outlets. Several sawmills in
class V are subject to little or no erosion, but they have the area are in operation for the production of lumber
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, and veneers. About 18 wood-using industries buy wood
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class in Jefferson County.
V contains only the subclasses indicated by w or s. More detailed information on woodland and woodland
The acreage of soils in each capability class and management can be obtained from local consulting
subclass is shown in table 6. The capability classification foresters, Florida Division of Forestry, and the Soil
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed Soil Conservation Service.
Map Units." Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
Woodland Management and Productivity determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
Available water capacity and depth of the root zone are
Phillip W. Worley, forestry consultant, helped prepare this section. ma influences of tree growth. Elevation and aspect
major influences of tree growth. Elevation and aspect
The management of woodland in Jefferson County is are of particular importance in mountainous areas.
extremely important to the agriculture program in the This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
area. About 279,130 acres, or 71 percent of the county, planning ways to increase the productivity of forest land.
is forest land. The soils and climate are ideally suited to Some soils respond better to fertilization than others,
timber production, which results in high yields and fast some are more susceptible to landslides and erosion
growth in well managed stands. The northern part of the after building roads and harvesting timber, and some
county primarily produces quality loblolly pine and upland require special efforts to reforest. In the section
hardwoods, and the southern part produces slash pine "Detailed soil map units," each map unit in the survey
and bottom land hardwoods. About 50 percent of the area suitable for producing timber presents information
woodland is owned by private landowners, 47 percent is about productivity, limitations for harvesting timber, and







Jefferson County, Florida 55



management concerns for producing timber. The The rating is severe if slopes are steep enough that
common forest understory plants are also listed. Table 7 tracked equipment cannot be operated safely across the
summarizes this forestry information and rates the soils slope, if soil wetness restricts equipment use for more
for a number of factors to be considered in than 6 months per year, if stoniness restricts ground-
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to based equipment, or if special equipment is needed to
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or
considered in forest management. severe indicate a need to choose the most suitable
The first tree listed for each soil under the column equipment and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil. An and other management operations.
indicator species is a tree that is common in the area Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
and that is generally the most productive on a given soil. death of naturally occurring or properly planted seedlings
Table 7 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as influenced
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates by kinds of soil or topographic features. Seedling
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator mortality is caused primarily by too much water or too
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the little water. The factors used in rating a soil for seedling
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth and
productivity is based on the site index and the point duration of the water table, rock fragments in the surface
where mean annual increment is the greatest. layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the slope.
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter, Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have a sandy
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if, after site
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which preparation, expected mortality is less than 25 percent;
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes a moderate if expected mortality is between 25 and 50
significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry, sandy percent; and severe if expected mortality exceeds 50
soil. The letter A indicates a soil that has no significant percent. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it
restrictions or limitations for forest use and management. may be necessary to use containerized or larger than
If a soil has more than one limitation, the priority is as usual planting stock or to make special site preparations,
follows: W and S. such as bedding, furrowing, installing surface drainage,
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability or providing artificial shade for seedings. Reinforcement
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or severe.
harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight if Ratings of windthrow hazard consider the likelihood of
no particular preventive measures are needed under trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth
measures are needed for particular silvicultural activities; can be restricted by a high water table, fragipan, or
and severe if special precautions are needed to control bedrock, or by a combination of such factors as soil
erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings of wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is slight if
moderate or severe indicate the need for construction of strong winds cause trees to break but do not uproot
higher standard roads, additional maintenance of roads, them; moderate if strong winds cause an occasional tree
additional care in planning of harvesting and to be blown over and many trees to break; and severe if
reforestation operations, or use of specialized moderate or strong winds commonly blow trees over.
equipment. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate the need for care
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the in thinning or possibly not thinning. Specialized
use of forest management equipment, year-round or equipment may be needed to avoid damage to shallow
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope, root systems in partial cutting operations. A plan for
wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer periodic salvage of windthrown trees and the
to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it maintenance of a road and trail system may be needed.
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used. On the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot completion becomes more severe on the more
operate; more sophisticated systems are needed. The productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
wetness for less than 2 months and if special equipment risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
is not needed. The rating is moderate if slopes are steep reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
enough that wheeled equipment cannot be operated does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
safely across the slope, if soil wetness restricts maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if stoniness undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial
restricts ground-based equipment, or if special reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation
equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil compaction. and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if







56 Soil Survey



competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
ensure the development of an adequately stocked stand. limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
Managers must plan site preparation measures to ensure design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
reforestation without delays. properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
the order of their observed general occurrence. of these measures.
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate. The information in table 8 can be supplemented by
The site index is determined by taking height other information in this survey, for example,
mi a interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the 11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a specified 11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
number of years. This index applies to fully stocked, and for local roads and streets in table 10.
even-aged, unmanaged stands. The procedure and Camp areas require ste preparation such as shaping
technique for doing this are given in the site index tables and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
used for the Jefferson County Soil Survey (3, 4, 5, 6, 10, and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
14). facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
The productivity class represents an expected volume heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
produced by the most important trees, expressed in soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected to constructing campsites.
produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568 vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
board feet per acre per year. areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
as a low, wet area), and personal preference are three Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
use for reforestation. wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
Recreation and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
In table 8, the soils of the survey area are rated depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for considered.
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, or no stones or boulders on the surface.
vegetation, access to water, potential water Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, not considered in rating the soils.
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.







Jefferson County, Florida 57



Wildlife Habitat satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
prepare this section. maintained in most places, but management is difficult
The soils of Jefferson County support a wide diversity and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
of vegetative communities, which provide good habitat that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
for wildlife. These communities include the upland mixed very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
hardwood-pine and sandhills; the pine flatwoods; expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
freshwater lakes, rivers, and marshes; swamp forests impractical or impossible.
and wetland hardwood hammocks; and the salt marshes The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
along the coast. following paragraphs.
Larger areas of importance to wildlife include the Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
swamps along the Aucilla and Wacissa Rivers; the 5,200 producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
acre Lake Miccosukee; the 80,000 acres of the Aucilla features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
Wildlife Management Area; and the 8,000 acres in St. are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
Marks National Wildlife Refuge. In addition, several large available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
private plantations are managed primarily for wildlife, stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
The primary game are white-tailed deer, bobwhite moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and
quail, gray and fox squirrels, wild turkey, mourning dove, seed crops are corn, soybeans, cowpeas, and millet.
and waterfowl. Other wildlife includes raccoon, Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
oppossum, fox, skunk, bobcat, otter, rabbit, armadillo, and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
and a wide variety of songbirds, wading birds, that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
shorebirds, woodpeckers, reptiles, and amphibians. A of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
wide variety of fish, both freshwater and saltwater, water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
provide good fishing. Largemouth bass, bluegill, redear anslope. Soil temperatu and so moisture are so
and red breasted sunfish, spotted sunfish, and catfish considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
are the primary freshwater fish, and speckled trout and ryegrass, bahiagrass, hairy indigo, clover, and lespedeza.
redfish are important saltwater fish. ryegrass, bahiagrass, hairy indigo, clover, and lespedeza.
A number of threatened or endangered species, such Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
as the red-cockaded woodpecker, are in the county. A established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
detailed listing with information on range and habitat may properties and features that affect the growth of these
be obtained from the Soil Conservation Service. plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and herbaceous plants are partridgepea, goldenrod,
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can beggarweed, low panicum, and ragweed.
be created or improved by planting appropriate Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants. properties and features that affect the growth of
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
according to their potential for providing habitat for the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in these plants are oak, poplar, cherry, sweetgum,
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and sawpalmetto, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are gallberry.
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining properties and features that affect the growth of
the intensity of management needed for each element of coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the habitat. the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or Examples of coniferous plants are pine, spruce, fir,
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or cedar, and juniper.
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be properties and features affecting wetland plants are
established, improved, or maintained in most places. texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
Moderately intensive management is required for slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland







58 Soil Survey



plants are smartweed, wild millet, cattail, rushes, sedges, section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
and reeds. considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less Soil properties, site features, and observed
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are performance were considered in determining the ratings
created by dams, levees, or other water-control in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
ponds. table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
the following paragraphs. kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce swell potential, available water capacity, and other
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas This information can be used to: evaluate the potential
include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow, of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and
cottontail, and sparrow hawk. recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate
fox, raccoon, deer, wild hog, and owl. potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil;
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife terraces, and other structures for soil and water
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, ibis, conservation; and predict performance of proposed small
kingfisher, mink, otter, alligator, and beaver. structures and pavements by comparing the performance
of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils.
Engineering The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
This section provides information for planning land survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
uses related to urban development and to water Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are Glossary.
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water Building Site Development
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
test data in the "Soil properties" section. that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
Information in this section is intended for land use without basements, small commercial buildings, local
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
planning site investigations prior to design and limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
construction. The information, however, has limitations, features are generally favorable for the indicated use
For example, estimates and other data generally apply and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet, if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
and because of the map scale, small areas of different indicated use and special planning, design, or
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
specific soil. limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
The information is not site specific and does not are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or special design, significant increases in construction
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
design and construction of engineering works. Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict limitations are severe.
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
not considered in preparing the information in this maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,







Jefferson County, Florida 59



utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The are generally favorable for the indicated use and
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to indicated use and special planning, design, or
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer, maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
stone content, soil texture, and slope. The time of the limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
year that excavations can be made is affected by the are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
depth to a seasonal high water table and the special design, significant increases in construction
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table. as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed and that good performance and low maintenance can be
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
for small commercial buildings without basements, for more soil properties or site features make the soil less
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site that one or more soil properties or site features are
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
layers can cause the movement of footings. Depth to a costly alteration.
high water table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
pan, large stones, and flooding affect the ease of effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
excavation and construction. Landscaping and grading through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
that require cuts and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
considered. evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface features, and observed performance of the soils.
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of bedrock or to a cemented pan, and flooding affect
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a absorption of the effluent. Large stones and bedrock or
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally a cemented pan interfere with installation.
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
properties, site features, and observed performance of fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, depth surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
to a high water table, flooding, large stones, and slope public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
(as inferred from the engineering classification of the than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
soil), shrink-swell potential, frost-action potential, and slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
depth to a high water table affect the traffic-supporting surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
capacity. the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and thickness.
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
reaction, depth to a high water table, depth to bedrock and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
or to a cemented pan, the available water capacity in the floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
upper 40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
sulfidic materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
slope, stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
organic matter in the surface layer affect trafficability required to minimize seepage and contamination of
after vegetation is established. ground water.
yFacilities Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
Sanitary acilitiesup the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
are considered slight if soil properties and site features observed performance of the soils. Considered in the







60 Soil Survey



ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high water Construction Materials
table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, Table 12 gives information about the soils as a source
large stones, and content of organic matter.
large stones, and content of organic matter oof roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
Excessive b seepagenhibit o rapoid permebiity. S o fpegood, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil




bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction evalconstruction practices are assumed. Each soil is
problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
the lagoon floor. Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is and used in road embankments in another place. In this
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low

landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered exacting in design than higher embankments.
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
the surface of the soil. The soil. The waste is spread, compacted, layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
away from the site. their profile. The table showing engineering index
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy properties provides detailed information about each soil
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground layer. This information can help determine the suitability
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
needs to be considered. after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties, in the ratings.
site features, and observed performance of the soils. The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
depth to a water table, slope, and flooding affect both suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
types of landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly excavation is affected by large stones, a high water
organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place
sodium affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise after it has been compacted and drained is determined
stated, the ratings apply only to that part of the soil by its strength (as inferred from the engineering
within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
limitation rated slight or moderate may not be valid. Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
Onsite investigation is needed. or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type an area type sanitary stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
to the landfill, and spread over the waste than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized clay-sized particles and have a
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or siltyor silty soils that are many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing, more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
After soil material has been removed, the soil material the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit thick.
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
generally has the best workability, more organic matter, gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
and the best potential for plants. Material from the Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only
surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
cover, evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific







Jefferson County, Florida 61



purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect properties and site features are generally favorable for
excavation of the material, the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
by the engineering classification of the soil), the design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain overcome that special design, significant increase in
sizes is given in the table on engineering index construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
properties. are required.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean This table also gives the restrictive features that affect
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and diversions,
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 and grassed waterways.
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel, potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is of the reservoir area.
the reclamation potential of the borrow area. Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and constructed to impound water or to protect land against
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material, and compacted during construction.
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less depth greater than the height of the embankment can
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts, affect performance and safety of the embankment.
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
not so wet that excavation is difficult. determine these properties.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
not so wet that excavation is difficult. A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less It also affects trafficability.
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
near the surface. only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of water table, permeability of the aquifer, and the salinity
moisture and releases a variety of plant-available of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content of large
nutrients as it decomposes. stones affect the ease of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
Water Management subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
site features that affect water management. The degree bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding;







62



subsidence of organic layers; and potential frost action. Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks combination of channels and ridges constructed across
are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving, intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings. an excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to adversely affect maintenance.
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
and management of an irrigation system are affected by channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding, stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability, cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
sodium, and soil reaction. construction.







63









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 20. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Engineering Index Properties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engineering Index Properties5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Mosi soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 20.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.







63









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 20. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Engineering Index Properties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engineering Index Properties5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Mosi soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 20.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.







64 Soil Survey



Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) Available water capacity is an important factor in the
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design
estimates are based on test data from the survey area, and management of irrigation systems. Available water
or from nearby areas, and on field examination, capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
actually available to plants at any given time.
Physical and Chemical Properties Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
The estimates are based on field observations and on and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
test data for these and similar soils, fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of corrosion.
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
in diameter, laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
operations. construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root measurements of similar soils.
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of often needed.
movement of water through the soil when the soil is Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
construction where the rate of water movement under less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
saturated conditions affects behavior, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water is sometimes used.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
varies, depending on soil properties that affect the to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
most important properties are the content of organic per year. These estimates are based primarily on
matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4







Jefferson County, Florida 65



percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values of The content of organic matter of a soil can be
K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
water, infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum other nutrients for crops.
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop Soil and Water Features
productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per
year. Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have features. The estimates are used in land use planning
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind that involves engineering considerations.
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following groups. They are grouped according to the intake of
distinctions: water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine precipitation from long-duration storms.
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. The four hydrologic soil groups are:
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
establish. potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind transmission.
erosion are used.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
control wind erosion are used. that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided transmission.
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
are used. layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
control wind erosion are used. runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell potential, soils
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and that have a permanent high water table, soils that have a
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
control wind erosion are used. Some of the soils in table 16 are shown as having
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and dual hydrologic groups, such as B/D. The B/D listing
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, means that under natural conditions the soil belongs to
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly hydrologic group D, but by artificial methods the water
erodible. Crops can easily be grown. table can be lowered sufficiently so that the soil fits in
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay hydrologic group B. Since there are different degrees of
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. drainage or water table control, onsite investigation is
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily needed to determine the hydrologic group of the soil at a
be grown. particular location.
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface by
to wind erosion. flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high tides.
soil at various stages of decomposition. Shallow water standing or flowing for short periods after
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding. Standing
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil water in swamps and marshes or in a closed depression
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. is considered ponding.







66 Soil Survey



Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot. The first
and the time of year when flooding is most likely to numeral in the range indicates the highest water level. A
occur. plus sign preceding the range in depth indicates that the
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence water table is above the surface of the soil. "More than
are estimated. Frequency generally is expressed as 6.0" indicates that the water table is below a depth of 6
none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None means that feet or that the water table exists for less than a month.
flooding is not probable. Rare means that flooding is Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
unlikely but possible under unusual weather conditions of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
(there is a near 0 to 5 percent chance of flooding in any on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
year). Occasional means that flooding occurs specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
infrequently under normal weather conditions (there is a fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
5 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any year). machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
weather conditions (there is more than a 50 percent needed for excavation.
chance of flooding in any year). common is used when Subsidence is the settlement of oranic soils or of
classification as occasional or frequent does not affect Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils of very low density. Subsidence
interpretations. Duration is expressed as very brief (less saturated m eithneral soils of low desiccation and shrinkage or oxubsidence
than 2 days), brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days to 1 results from either desiccation and shrnkage or oxidation
month), and very long (more than 1 month). The time of of organic material, or both, following drainage.
year that floods are most likely to occur is expressed in Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period
months. November-May, for example, means that of several years. Table 16 shows the expected initial
flooding can occur during the period November through subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and
May. About two-thirds to three-fourths of all flooding total subsidence, which results from a combination of
occurs during the stated period, factors.
The information on flooding is based on evidence in Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in water throughout an extensive area as a result of
organic matter content with increasing depth; and lowering the water table.
absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
of soils that are not subject to flooding, electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
Also considered are local information about the extent weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
levels. Special site examination and design may be needed if
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a the combination of factors creates a severely corrosive
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the sl within one .
soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal of soil or within one soil layer.
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched, For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
or apparent; and the months of the year that the water low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
table commonly is highest. A water table that is total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
table 16. For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is extract.
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched
water table is water standing above an unsaturated
zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is
separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth"
column indicate the normal range in depth to a saturated







Jefferson County, Florida 67



Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical sodium pyrophosphate. The determination of aluminum
Analyses of Selected Soils and iron was by atomic absorption and extracted carbon
by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor of soil science, and Dr. Mary E. Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns
Collins, assistant professor of soil science, University of Florida, Soil was determined by X-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18-,
Science Department, prepared this section. 14-, 7.2-, and 4.31-angstrom positions represent
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical montmorillonite, interstratified expandable vermiculite or
properties of representative pedons sampled in Jefferson 14-angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz,
County are presented in tables 17, 18, and 19. The respectively. Peaks were measured, summed, and
analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil normalized to give the percent of the soil minerals
Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida. identified in the X-ray diffractograms. These percentage
Detailed profile descriptions of soils analyzed are given values do not indicate absolute determined quantities of
in the section "Soil Series and Their Morphology." soil minerals but do imply a relative distribution of
Laboratory data and profile information for other soils in minerals in a particular mineral suite. Absolute
Jefferson County, as well as for other counties in Florida, percentages would require additional knowledge of
are on file at the University of Florida, Soil Science particle-size, crystallinity, unit structure substitution, and
Department. matrix problems.
Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully Sands are the dominant particle-size fraction in
selected locations. Samples were air-dried, crushed, and practically all horizons of all pedons listed in table 17.
sieved through a 2 millimeter screen. Most analytical More than 90 percent sand occurred throughout the
methods used are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations Alpin, Lakeland, and Leon soils; to a depth of more than
Report No. 1 (13). 1 meter in the Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, and Chaires
Particle-size distribution was determined using a soils; and to a depth of more than 0.5 meter in
modified pipette method with sodium Chiefland, Tooles, Mascotte, Nutall, Pelham, and
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity Surrency soils.
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil Alpin and Lakeland soils have less than 5 percent clay
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from throughout. Clay content increased considerably within a
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe depth of 1 meter in the Chiefland, Cowarts, Dothan,
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at Tooles, Fuquay, Lucy, Lynchburg, Mascotte, Miccosukee,
100 centimeters water (1/10 bar) and 345 centimeters Nutall, Orangeburg, Pelham, Rains, Sapelo, Surrency,
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water and Tifton soils. It also increased below a depth of 1
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were oven meter in the Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chaires, Plummer,
dried and ground to pass a 2 millimeter sieve, and the and Troup soils. Since there is a general tendency for
15-bar water retention was determined. Organic carbon clays to move downward with percolating water, the
was determined by a modification of the Walkley-Black amount of translocated clay often reveals the state and
wet combustion method. degree of soil development.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with Silt content generally ranged between 3 and 8 percent
1 normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium in most soils in the county; however, silt content in
and potassium in the extract were determined by flame excess of 20 percent occurred in some horizons of the
emission. Calcium and magnesium extractable were Chiefland, Lynchburg, Miccosukee, and Pelham soils.
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Conversely, one or more horizons with less than 2
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium percent silt occurred in the Chiefland, Lakeland, Leon,
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation- Mascotte, Nutall, and Surrency soils.
exchange capacity was calculated by summation of Fine sand dominated the sand fractions in all pedons
extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base sampled. The Alpin, Blanton, Chaires, Tooles, Leon, and
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation- Nutall soils had more than 50 percent fine sand, and
exchange capacity expression in percent. The pH some horizons of Bonifay, Chiefland, Dothan, Lakeland,
measurements were made with a glass electrode using a Lucy, Pelham, Surrency, and Troup soils contained like
soil-water of 1:1, a 0.01 molar calcium chloride solution amounts. The content of medium sand generally ranged
in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and 1 normal potassium between 10 and 20 percent; however, the Lakeland soil
chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio. contained in excess of 30 percent medium sand, and the
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with Chiefland, Tooles, Leon, and Nutall soils contained less
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron than 6 percent. The content of very fine sand commonly
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate ranged between 10 and 20 percent, coarse sand
were determined by atomic absorption generally occurred in amounts of less than 6 percent,
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were and the content of very coarse sand seldom exceeded
extracted from a probable spodic horizon with 0.1 molar 0.5 percent.







68 Soil Survey



Very low hydraulic conductivity values of 5 centimeters exchange capacity exceeded 10 milliequivalents per 100
per hour or less were recorded throughout the grams in at least one horizon below the surface horizon
Lynchburg and Surrency soils, and values of 1 in the Albany, Bonifay, Chaires, Chiefland, Tooles, Leon,
centimeter per hour or less were recorded for subsoil Mascotte, Miccosukee, Nutall, Orangeburg, Rains,
horizons of the Albany, Blanton, Chaires, Chiefland, Sapelo, Surrency, and Tifton soils. Soils that have low
Cowarts, Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, Lynchburg, Mascotte, cation-exchange capacities in the surface horizon, such
Sapelo, Surrency, Tifton, and Troup soils. Design and as the Chiefland soils, require only small amounts of lime
function of septic tank absorption fields are affected by to significantly alter the base status and soil reaction in
such low hydraulic conductivity values. The Chaires, the upper horizons. Generally, soils of low inherent soil
Leon, Mascotte, and Sapelo soils have an organic- fertility are associated with low values for extractable
enhanced spodic horizon that has hydraulic conductivity bases and low cation-exchange capacities. Fertile soils
values of less than 5 centimeters per hour. are associated with high values for extractable bases,
Available water capacity for plants can be estimated high base saturation values, and high cation-exchange
from bulk density and water content data. Generally, capacities.
excessively sandy soils, such as the Alpin and Lakeland The content of organic carbon was more than 2
soils and the upper part of the Blanton, Lucy, and Troup percent only in the surface horizon of the Leon,
soils, have low content of organic matter and low Lynchburg, Miccosukee, Nutall, Orangeburg, Pelham,
available water capacity. Droughtiness is a common Plummer, Rains, Sapelo, and Tooles soils. It was more
characteristic of these sandy soils, particularly those that than 2 percent in the spodic horizon of the Sapelo soils.
are moderately well drained, well drained, or excessively The content of organic carbon was less than 2 percent
drained. The available water is high in the Dothan, throughout all soils sampled except the Miccosukee
Lynchburg, Orangeburg, and Tifton soils. soils. The organic carbon content decreased rapidly with
The chemical soil properties, as presented in table 18, increased depth in all soils except the Chaires, Leon,
show that a low amount of extractable bases is in most Mascotte, and Sapelo soils, which have Bh horizons that
soils in Jefferson County. The Alpin, Lakeland, Mascotte, contain enhanced amounts of organic carbon. Since the
Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils contain less than 1 content of organic carbon is directly related to the soil
milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases nutrient and water retention capacity of sandy soils,
throughout. Only one horizon of the Blanton, Chaires, conservation practices that conserve and maintain
Fuquay, Leon, and Lynchburg soils have extractable organic carbon content are desirable.
bases in excess of 1 milliequivalent per 100 grams. Electrical conductivity values were generally very low,
Values of less than 5 milliequivalents per 100 grams exceeding 0.1 millimhos per centimeter only in one
commonly occurred in most other soils. The Chaires, horizon of the Chiefland soil. The data indicate that the
Chiefland, Tooles, Nutall, Orangeburg, and Rains soils soluble salt content of soils sampled in Jefferson County,
have more than 5 milliequivalents per 100 grams with exception of the immediate coastal areas, are
extractable bases in some horizons. The mild, humid insufficient to detrimentally affect the growth of salt-
climate in Jefferson County results in depletion of basic sensitive plants.
soil cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and Soil reaction in water generally ranged between pH 4.5
potassium) through leaching. and 6.0; however, reactions in excess of 7.0 occurred in
Calcium is the dominant base in the soils in Jefferson deeper horizons of the Chiefland, Nutall, and Tooles
County. Amounts range from 0.01 to 32.50 soils. With few exceptions, soil reaction was 0.5 to 1.2
milliequivalents per 100 grams. The Chiefland, pH units lower in calcium chloride and potassium
Orangeburg, Rains, and Surrency soils had more than 1 chloride than in water. Maximum plant nutrient availability
milliequivalent per 100 grams of magnesium in some is generally attained when soil reaction is between pH
horizons. A lower content of magnesium was detectable 6.5 and 7.5; however, under Florida conditions,
throughout all other soils in the county. Sodium generally maintaining soil reaction above pH 6.5 is not
occurred in amounts of less than 0.05 milliequivalents economically feasible for most agricultural production
per 100 grams. Most Jefferson County soils have very purposes.
low content of potassium. The Orangeburg soils have Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron did not exceed
more than 0.5 milliequivalents per 100 grams of 0.01 percent in the Bh horizon of the Chaires, Leon,
potassium in one horizon. Potassium was not detectable Mascotte, and Sapelo soils. The ratio of pyrophosphate
in the Alpin, Blanton, Chaires, Chiefland, Tooles, Leon, extractable carbon and aluminum to clay in the Chaires,
Mascotte, Nutall, Plummer, Sapelo, and Surrency soils. Leon, Mascotte, and Sapelo soils was sufficient to meet
Values for exchange capacity, an indication of plant the chemical criteria for spodic horizons.
nutrient capacity, exceeded 10 milliequivalents per 100 Citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the argillic horizon
grams in the surface horizon of Tooles, Lakeland, Leon, of Ultisols was generally less than 1 percent; however,
Lynchburg, Miccosukee, Nutall, Orangeburg, Pelham, values exceeding 2 percent were recorded for deeper
Plummer, Rains, Sapelo, and Tifton soils. The cation- horizons of the Orangeburg and Tifton soils. The values







Jefferson County, Florida 69



in the Bh horizon ranged from 0.02 percent in the occurrence of relatively large amounts of 14-angstrom
Chaires and Leon soils to 0.04 percent in the Sapelo intergrades and the general tendency for these minerals
soil. Aluminum extracted by citrate-dithionite from the Bt to decrease as soil depth increases suggest that the 14-
horizon ranges from 0.03 percent in the Plummer soil to angstrom intergrade minerals are among the most stable
1.75 percent in the Bonifay soil. Amounts of iron and species in the present weathering environment. The
aluminum in the soils of Jefferson County are not general tendency for kaolinite to increase as soil depth
sufficient to detrimentally affect phosphorus availability, increases indicates that this mineral species is less
Sand fractions of 2 to 0.05 millimeters were siliceous stable than the 14-angstrom intergrades in the severe
with quartz overwhelmingly dominant in all soils. Small weathering environment near the soil surface. Clay-sized
amounts of heavy minerals occurred in most horizons quartz has primarily resulted from decrements of the silt
with the greatest concentration in the very fine sand fraction. Soils dominated by montmorillonite and 14-
fraction. No weatherable minerals were observed, angstrom intergrades have a higher cation-exchange
Crystalline mineral components of the clay fraction of capacity and retain more plant nutrients than soils
less than 0.002 millimeters are reported in table 19 for dominated by kaolinite or quartz.
major horizons of the soils sampled. The clay
mineralogical suite was composed of montmorillonite, a Engineering Index Test Data
14-angstrom intergrade, kaolinite, and quartz.
Montmorillonite occurred in about two-thirds of the Table 20 shows laboratory test data for several
soils sampled, but detectable amounts were not in the pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
Alpin, Bonifay, Cowarts, Dothan, Lakeland, Lynchburg, area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
Orangeburg, and Tifton soils. In most pedons, the clay described in the section "Soil Series and Their
fraction was dominated by 14-angstrom intergrade Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the Soils
minerals and kaolinite. The 14-angstrom intergrade Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
minerals occurred in all soils, but detectable amounts Bureau of Materials and Research.
were not in all horizons of the Leon, Mascotte, Sapelo, These tests were made to help evaluate the soils for
and Tooles soils. Kaolinite occurred throughout all soils engineering purposes. The classifications given are
sampled. Quartz was in all soils, but detectable amounts based on data obtained by mechanical analysis and by
were not in all horizons of the Bonifay and Cowarts soils. tests to determine liquid limits and plastic limits.
Montmorillonite appears to have been inherited by The mechanical analyses were made by combined
Jefferson County soils and is probably the least stable sieve and hydrometer methods. In this method, the
mineral component in the present acidic environment, various grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis
Relatively large amounts of montmorillonitic clays are in of all the material in the soil sample, including that
the subsoil of the Chiefland, Nutall, Sapelo, and Tooles coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The mechanical
soils. Considerable volume changes can result from analyses used in this method should not be used in
shrinkage when dry and swelling when wet. The naming textural classes of soils.









71









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (11). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid,
or on laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the mesic Typic Fluvaquents.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/l. An layer or of the substratum within a series. An example is
example is Entisol. the Bibb series, which is a member of the coarse-loamy,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, siliceous, acid, thermic family of Typic Fluvaquents.
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the Soil Series and Their Morphology
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning In this section, each soil series recognized in the
water, plus ent, from Entisol). survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great in alphabetic order.
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic formed are identified for each series. The soil is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
base status. Each great group is identified by the name other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
the soil. An example is Fluvaquents (Fluv, meaning flood described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
plain, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols that has follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (12). Many
an aquic moisture regime). of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup, defined in Soil Taxonomy (11). Unless otherwise stated,
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not pedon description is the range of important
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are characteristics of the soils in the series.
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. The map units of each soil series are described in the
Extragrades have some properties that are not section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each Albany Series
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great drained, nearly level soils that formed in deposits of
group. An example is Typic Fluvaquents. sandy and loamy marine sediments of the Coastal Plain.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on The soils are on low knolls on uplands and flatwoods. A
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12 to 30
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the inches for 2 to 4 months in most years. Slopes range
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where from 0 to 2 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous,
there is much biological activity. Among the properties thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.






71









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (11). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid,
or on laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the mesic Typic Fluvaquents.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/l. An layer or of the substratum within a series. An example is
example is Entisol. the Bibb series, which is a member of the coarse-loamy,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, siliceous, acid, thermic family of Typic Fluvaquents.
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the Soil Series and Their Morphology
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning In this section, each soil series recognized in the
water, plus ent, from Entisol). survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great in alphabetic order.
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic formed are identified for each series. The soil is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
base status. Each great group is identified by the name other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
the soil. An example is Fluvaquents (Fluv, meaning flood described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
plain, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols that has follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (12). Many
an aquic moisture regime). of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup, defined in Soil Taxonomy (11). Unless otherwise stated,
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not pedon description is the range of important
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are characteristics of the soils in the series.
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. The map units of each soil series are described in the
Extragrades have some properties that are not section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each Albany Series
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great drained, nearly level soils that formed in deposits of
group. An example is Typic Fluvaquents. sandy and loamy marine sediments of the Coastal Plain.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on The soils are on low knolls on uplands and flatwoods. A
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12 to 30
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the inches for 2 to 4 months in most years. Slopes range
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where from 0 to 2 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous,
there is much biological activity. Among the properties thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.






71









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (11). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid,
or on laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the mesic Typic Fluvaquents.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/l. An layer or of the substratum within a series. An example is
example is Entisol. the Bibb series, which is a member of the coarse-loamy,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, siliceous, acid, thermic family of Typic Fluvaquents.
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the Soil Series and Their Morphology
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning In this section, each soil series recognized in the
water, plus ent, from Entisol). survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great in alphabetic order.
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic formed are identified for each series. The soil is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
base status. Each great group is identified by the name other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
the soil. An example is Fluvaquents (Fluv, meaning flood described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
plain, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols that has follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (12). Many
an aquic moisture regime). of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup, defined in Soil Taxonomy (11). Unless otherwise stated,
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not pedon description is the range of important
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are characteristics of the soils in the series.
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. The map units of each soil series are described in the
Extragrades have some properties that are not section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each Albany Series
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great drained, nearly level soils that formed in deposits of
group. An example is Typic Fluvaquents. sandy and loamy marine sediments of the Coastal Plain.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on The soils are on low knolls on uplands and flatwoods. A
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12 to 30
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the inches for 2 to 4 months in most years. Slopes range
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where from 0 to 2 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous,
there is much biological activity. Among the properties thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.







72 Soil Survey



Albany soils are associated with Blanton, Fuquay, Alpin Series
Pelham, Plummer, and Troup soils. Blanton soils are
moderately well drained and are in slightly higher The Alpin series consists of excessively drained,
positions on the landscape than Albany soils. Fuquay nearly level to gently rolling soils that formed in thick
and Troup soils are well drained. Pelham and Plummer beds of sandy eolian or marine deposits on the Coastal
soils are in lower positions and are poorly drained. Plain. The soils are on summits, shoulders, and back
Typical pedon of Albany sand; in a cultivated field, 0.5 slopes of uplands. They do not have a high water table
mile west of Aucilla River, 1,000 feet north and 2,500 within a depth of 80 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 8
feet east of the southeast corner of sec. 5, T. 1 S., R. 6 percent. The soils are thermic, coated Typic
E. Quartzipsamments.
Alpin soils are associated with Blanton, Lakeland,
Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak Ortega, and Troup soils. Blanton and Troup soils have
very fine granular structure; very friable; few fine an argillic horizon between depths of 40 and 80 inches.
roots; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. Blanton soils are moderately well drained, and Troup
E1-8 to 21 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single soils are well drained. Lakeland soils do not have
grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid; lamellae. Ortega soils do not have lamellae and are
gradual wavy boundary. moderately well drained.
E2-21 to 43 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few Typical pedon of Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
medium prominent light gray (2.5Y 7/2) mottles and slopes; in a wooded area, about 0.5 mile south of U.S.
few medium distinct brownish yellow (1 OYR 6/6) Highway 27 and 0.5 mile east of the Leon County line,
mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly acid; NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 18, T. 1 S., R. 3 E.
clear wavy boundary.
E3-43 to 55 inches; white (2.5Y 8/2) sand; few medium A-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
prominent very pale brown (10YR 7/4) and yellow sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
(10YR 7/6) mottles; single grained; loose; very common fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. smooth boundary.
Bt-55 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sandy E1-4 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
loam; common medium and coarse prominent sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles and common medium roots; charcoal chips; strongly acid; clear
medium faint light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; wavy boundary.
moderate fine and medium subangular blocky E2-20 to 40 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
structure; friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; many fine
boundary. charcoal chips; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg-60 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) E3-40 to 47 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single
sandy clay loam; common medium prominent grained; loose; discontinuous brownish yellow (10YR
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and yellow (10YR 7/6) 6/8) loamy fine sand lamellae 1 to 2 cm thick;
mottles; moderate fine and medium subangular medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
blocky structure; firm; very strongly acid. E/B-47 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine
sand (E); single grained; loose; uncoated sand
Albany soils are extremely acid to slightly acid in the A grains; common strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) loamy
or Ap horizon and slightly acid to very strongly acid in fine sand lamellae (B) about 1 to 2 cm thick;
the E and Bt horizons. The solum is more than 80 inches lamellae discontinuous in length; strongly acid.
thick.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value Alpin soils are very strongly acid to slightly acid
of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand, throughout. The solum is at least 80 inches thick. Depth
sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. to lamellae ranges from 40 to 78 inches. The lamellae
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to does not exceed 15 centimeters in total thickness.
8, and chroma of 2 to 6. It has few to many mottles in The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
shades of brown, yellow, or gray. Total thickness of the and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is sand or fine sand.
A and E horizons is more than 40 inches. The texture is The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
fine sand, sand, or loamy sand. chroma of 4 to 6, or value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 3 to
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 8. Lamellae are commonly in the lower part of this
8, and chroma of 3 to 8. It has few to common mottles horizon. It is fine sandy loam, loamy sand, or fine sand 1
in shades of brown, yellow, and gray. The Btg horizon is to 2 centimeters thick. The lamellae has hue of 10YR,
gleyed. It has hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 2. value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 7 or 8. Some pedons do
The texture of the Bt and Btg horizons is sandy loam or not have lamellae. The texture of the E horizon is fine
sandy clay loam. sand or sand.








Jefferson County, Florida 73



The E part of the E/B horizon has hue of 10YR, value The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to
of 7 or 8, and chroma of 2 to 5. The texture is fine sand 7, chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or loamy fine
or sand. The B part of the E/B horizon is loamy fine sand.
sand, fine sandy loam or loamy sand lamellae 1 to 2
centimeters thick. It has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and Bibb Series
chroma of 6 or 8; and hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 4 to 7. The Bibb series consists of nearly level, poorly drained
A Bt horizon is in some pedons below a depth of 2 soils that formed in stratified sandy and loamy sediments
meters and is not diagnostic for the series, on flood plains of streams on the Coastal Plain. The
soils are in small to large drainageways and on flood
Bayvi Series plains, and they are subject to frequent flooding. The
The Bayvi series consists of very poorly drained, high water table is within 12 inches of the surface for 6
nearly level soils that formed in marine sediment in months or more in most years. Slopes range from 0 to 2
coastal tidal marshes. The soils are flooded daily by percent. The soils are coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid,
normal high tides. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The thermic Typic Fluvaquents.
soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Cumulic Haplaquolls. Bibb soils are associated with Albany, Chaires,
Bayvi soils are associated with Tooles, Nutall, and Plummer, and Rutlege soils. Albany soils are somewhat
Chaires soils. These soils are in positions adjacent to the poorly drained and have an argillic horizon. Plummer and
tidal marsh, and they have an argillic horizon within a Chaires soils also have an argillic horizon. Rutlege soils
depth of 80 inches. Nutall and Tooles soils have are sandy throughout. They are very poorly drained and
limestone bedrock between depths of 20 and 60 inches. have an umbric epipedon more than 10 inches thick.
Chaires soils also have a spodic horizon. Typical pedon of Bibb loamy sand, frequently flooded;
Typical pedon of Bayvi muck; in coastal tidal marsh, near the intersection of U.S. Highway 27 and Burnt Mill
1,000 feet east and 900 feet north of the southwest Creek, about 0.75 mile east of the Jefferson County line,
corner of sec. 19, T. 4 S., R. 3 E. SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 7, T. 1 S., R. 3 E.
Oa-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 30 A-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand;
percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent fiber weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
rubbed; massive; sticky; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
roots; neutral wet; gradual wavy boundary. Ag-3 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
A1-5 to 17 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky loamy loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; very
sand; massive; friable; slightly sticky, many fine and friable; common fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
medium roots; neutral (wet); clear wavy boundary. boundary.
A2-17 to 31 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR Cg-10 to 25 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
3/2) sand; single grained; loose; many medium and sandy loam; common fine prominent yellowish
fine roots; slightly acid (wet); gradual wavy brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; massive; sticky; few fine
boundary. roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C1-31 to 53 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; sr wavy bd
few to common clean sand grains; single grained; Cg2-25 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
acidaloam; common medium prominent yellowish brown
loose; common cfine and medium roots; slightlyeai loam; common medium prominent yellowish brown
loose; common fine and medium roots; slightly (10YR 5/8) mottles; massive; sticky; strongly acid;
(wet); gradual wavy boundary. clear wavy boundary.
C2-53 to 64 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few to clear wavy boundary.
common clean sand grains; single grained; loose; Cg3-60 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
few fine roots; slightly acid (wet); gradual wavy stratified loamy sand and sand lenses; common
boundary. medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
C3-64 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single mottles and few fine prominent yellowish brown
grained; loose; slightly acid (wet). (10OYR 5/6) mottles; slightly sticky; strongly acid.
In the natural wet state, Bayvi soils range from Bibb soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid
medium acid to neutral in the Oa horizon and from throughout.
slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the A and C The A horizon has hue of 10OYR or 7.5YR, value of 2
horizons. The Oa horizon is up to 7 inches thick. Some to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand, loamy
pedons do not have an Oa horizon, sand, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam. The A horizon
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 or ranges from 7 to 17 inches thick.
3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is mucky loamy The Cg horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of 4 to
sand, mucky sand, sand, or loamy sand. The A horizon 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It has few to common
is 24 to 48 inches thick. mottles in shades of brown, red, and yellow. The texture








Jefferson County, Florida 73



The E part of the E/B horizon has hue of 10YR, value The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to
of 7 or 8, and chroma of 2 to 5. The texture is fine sand 7, chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or loamy fine
or sand. The B part of the E/B horizon is loamy fine sand.
sand, fine sandy loam or loamy sand lamellae 1 to 2
centimeters thick. It has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and Bibb Series
chroma of 6 or 8; and hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 4 to 7. The Bibb series consists of nearly level, poorly drained
A Bt horizon is in some pedons below a depth of 2 soils that formed in stratified sandy and loamy sediments
meters and is not diagnostic for the series, on flood plains of streams on the Coastal Plain. The
soils are in small to large drainageways and on flood
Bayvi Series plains, and they are subject to frequent flooding. The
The Bayvi series consists of very poorly drained, high water table is within 12 inches of the surface for 6
nearly level soils that formed in marine sediment in months or more in most years. Slopes range from 0 to 2
coastal tidal marshes. The soils are flooded daily by percent. The soils are coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid,
normal high tides. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The thermic Typic Fluvaquents.
soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Cumulic Haplaquolls. Bibb soils are associated with Albany, Chaires,
Bayvi soils are associated with Tooles, Nutall, and Plummer, and Rutlege soils. Albany soils are somewhat
Chaires soils. These soils are in positions adjacent to the poorly drained and have an argillic horizon. Plummer and
tidal marsh, and they have an argillic horizon within a Chaires soils also have an argillic horizon. Rutlege soils
depth of 80 inches. Nutall and Tooles soils have are sandy throughout. They are very poorly drained and
limestone bedrock between depths of 20 and 60 inches. have an umbric epipedon more than 10 inches thick.
Chaires soils also have a spodic horizon. Typical pedon of Bibb loamy sand, frequently flooded;
Typical pedon of Bayvi muck; in coastal tidal marsh, near the intersection of U.S. Highway 27 and Burnt Mill
1,000 feet east and 900 feet north of the southwest Creek, about 0.75 mile east of the Jefferson County line,
corner of sec. 19, T. 4 S., R. 3 E. SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 7, T. 1 S., R. 3 E.
Oa-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 30 A-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand;
percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent fiber weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
rubbed; massive; sticky; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
roots; neutral wet; gradual wavy boundary. Ag-3 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
A1-5 to 17 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky loamy loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; very
sand; massive; friable; slightly sticky, many fine and friable; common fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
medium roots; neutral (wet); clear wavy boundary. boundary.
A2-17 to 31 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR Cg-10 to 25 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
3/2) sand; single grained; loose; many medium and sandy loam; common fine prominent yellowish
fine roots; slightly acid (wet); gradual wavy brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; massive; sticky; few fine
boundary. roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C1-31 to 53 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; sr wavy bd
few to common clean sand grains; single grained; Cg2-25 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
acidaloam; common medium prominent yellowish brown
loose; common cfine and medium roots; slightlyeai loam; common medium prominent yellowish brown
loose; common fine and medium roots; slightly (10YR 5/8) mottles; massive; sticky; strongly acid;
(wet); gradual wavy boundary. clear wavy boundary.
C2-53 to 64 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few to clear wavy boundary.
common clean sand grains; single grained; loose; Cg3-60 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
few fine roots; slightly acid (wet); gradual wavy stratified loamy sand and sand lenses; common
boundary. medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
C3-64 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single mottles and few fine prominent yellowish brown
grained; loose; slightly acid (wet). (10OYR 5/6) mottles; slightly sticky; strongly acid.
In the natural wet state, Bayvi soils range from Bibb soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid
medium acid to neutral in the Oa horizon and from throughout.
slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the A and C The A horizon has hue of 10OYR or 7.5YR, value of 2
horizons. The Oa horizon is up to 7 inches thick. Some to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand, loamy
pedons do not have an Oa horizon, sand, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam. The A horizon
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 or ranges from 7 to 17 inches thick.
3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is mucky loamy The Cg horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of 4 to
sand, mucky sand, sand, or loamy sand. The A horizon 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It has few to common
is 24 to 48 inches thick. mottles in shades of brown, red, and yellow. The texture







74 Soil Survey



is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam, or stratified solum ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 80
layers of sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. inches.
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4,
Blanton Series and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is sand, fine sand,
loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. The A horizon is 6 to 14
The Blanton series consists of moderately well inches thick. It is less than 10 inches thick where the
drained, nearly level to gently sloping soils that formed in value is 3.5 or less.
sandy and loamy marine or eolian deposits of the The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
Coastal Plain. The soils are on low knolls, foot slopes, chroma of 4 to 8, or value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 1 to
and toe slopes on uplands. A perched high water table is 8. Most pedons have many pockets of white uncoated
above the subsoil during wet seasons and below a depth sand grains. Mottles in shades of brown or yellow are
of 72 inches throughout the remainder of the year. common in the lower part of the E horizon. The texture
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are loamy, is fine sand, sand, or loamy fine sand. The E horizon can
siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudults. be 40 to 73 inches thick, but it is most commonly 40 to
Blanton soils are associated with Albany, Lucy, and 65 inches thick.
Troup soils. Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
Lucy soils are well drained and have sandy A and E chroma of 6 or 8; or value of 6 and chroma of 3 to 7
horizons 20 to 40 inches thick. Troup soils are well with few to common mottles in shades of brown, yellow,
drained and are in higher positions on the landscape or red. Some pedons have 2 chroma mottles in this
than the Blanton soils. horizon. The texture is sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or
Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent fine sandy loam.
slopes; in a pasture, 3,000 feet south of U.S. Highway 90 The Btg horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of 6
and 200 feet east of Old Tung Grove Road, or 7, and chroma of 2. It has mottles in shades of yellow,
NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 4, T. 1 N., R. 3 E. red, and brown. This horizon extends to a depth of more
Ap-0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish ^brown (1OYR 3/2) than 80 inches. The texture is sandy clay loam, sandy
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; loam, or fine sandy loam; sandy clay is in the lower part
many fine and medium roots; medium acid; abrupt of this horizon n some pedons.
smooth boundary.
E1-7 to 15 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) Bonifay Series
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. The Bonifay series consists of well drained, nearly
E2-5 to 30 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) level to gently undulating soils that formed in thick
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; deposits of sandy and loamy marine sediments of the
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Coastal Plain. The soils are on summits and foot slopes
E3-30 to 38 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine on uplands. The high water table is perched above the
sand; white (10YR 8/1) uncoated sand grains; single subsoil briefly during the wet seasons. Slopes range
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous,
E4-38 to 63 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine thermic Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults.
sand; white (10YR 8/1) uncoated sand grains; single Bonifay soils are associated with Albany, Blanton,
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. Fuquay, and Troup soils. Albany soils are somewhat
Bt-63 to 74 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy poorly drained and are in lower positions on the
clay loam; common fine prominent strong brown landscape than Bonifay soils. Blanton soils are
(7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular moderately well drained. Fuquay soils have less than 40
blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual inches of sand above the subsoil. Troup soils do not
wavy boundary. have more than 5 percent plinthite.
Btg-74 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay; Typical pedon of Bonifay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
common moderate prominent brownish yellow slopes; in a pasture, 0.5 mile north of Interstate 10 and
(10YR 6/6) mottles, common moderate prominent 0.75 mile west of County Road 59, NW1/4NW1/4 sec.
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles, and few fine 16, T. 1 N., R. 3 E.
prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
very strongly acid. weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
and few medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt
Blanton soils range from very strongly acid to medium smooth boundary.
acid in the surface and subsurface horizons and are very E1 -8 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
strongly acid or strongly acid in the Bt horizon. The sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots;







74 Soil Survey



is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam, or stratified solum ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 80
layers of sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. inches.
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4,
Blanton Series and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is sand, fine sand,
loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. The A horizon is 6 to 14
The Blanton series consists of moderately well inches thick. It is less than 10 inches thick where the
drained, nearly level to gently sloping soils that formed in value is 3.5 or less.
sandy and loamy marine or eolian deposits of the The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
Coastal Plain. The soils are on low knolls, foot slopes, chroma of 4 to 8, or value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 1 to
and toe slopes on uplands. A perched high water table is 8. Most pedons have many pockets of white uncoated
above the subsoil during wet seasons and below a depth sand grains. Mottles in shades of brown or yellow are
of 72 inches throughout the remainder of the year. common in the lower part of the E horizon. The texture
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are loamy, is fine sand, sand, or loamy fine sand. The E horizon can
siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudults. be 40 to 73 inches thick, but it is most commonly 40 to
Blanton soils are associated with Albany, Lucy, and 65 inches thick.
Troup soils. Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
Lucy soils are well drained and have sandy A and E chroma of 6 or 8; or value of 6 and chroma of 3 to 7
horizons 20 to 40 inches thick. Troup soils are well with few to common mottles in shades of brown, yellow,
drained and are in higher positions on the landscape or red. Some pedons have 2 chroma mottles in this
than the Blanton soils. horizon. The texture is sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or
Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent fine sandy loam.
slopes; in a pasture, 3,000 feet south of U.S. Highway 90 The Btg horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of 6
and 200 feet east of Old Tung Grove Road, or 7, and chroma of 2. It has mottles in shades of yellow,
NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 4, T. 1 N., R. 3 E. red, and brown. This horizon extends to a depth of more
Ap-0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish ^brown (1OYR 3/2) than 80 inches. The texture is sandy clay loam, sandy
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; loam, or fine sandy loam; sandy clay is in the lower part
many fine and medium roots; medium acid; abrupt of this horizon n some pedons.
smooth boundary.
E1-7 to 15 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) Bonifay Series
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. The Bonifay series consists of well drained, nearly
E2-5 to 30 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) level to gently undulating soils that formed in thick
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; deposits of sandy and loamy marine sediments of the
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Coastal Plain. The soils are on summits and foot slopes
E3-30 to 38 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine on uplands. The high water table is perched above the
sand; white (10YR 8/1) uncoated sand grains; single subsoil briefly during the wet seasons. Slopes range
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous,
E4-38 to 63 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine thermic Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults.
sand; white (10YR 8/1) uncoated sand grains; single Bonifay soils are associated with Albany, Blanton,
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. Fuquay, and Troup soils. Albany soils are somewhat
Bt-63 to 74 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy poorly drained and are in lower positions on the
clay loam; common fine prominent strong brown landscape than Bonifay soils. Blanton soils are
(7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular moderately well drained. Fuquay soils have less than 40
blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual inches of sand above the subsoil. Troup soils do not
wavy boundary. have more than 5 percent plinthite.
Btg-74 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay; Typical pedon of Bonifay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
common moderate prominent brownish yellow slopes; in a pasture, 0.5 mile north of Interstate 10 and
(10YR 6/6) mottles, common moderate prominent 0.75 mile west of County Road 59, NW1/4NW1/4 sec.
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles, and few fine 16, T. 1 N., R. 3 E.
prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
very strongly acid. weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
and few medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt
Blanton soils range from very strongly acid to medium smooth boundary.
acid in the surface and subsurface horizons and are very E1 -8 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
strongly acid or strongly acid in the Bt horizon. The sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots;







Jefferson County, Florida 75



pockets of dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand and Byars Series
bits of charcoal; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E2-18 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine The Byars series consists of very poorly drained,
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; few nearly level soils that formed in loamy and clayey marine
pockets of white (10YR 8/1) sand stripping and dark or fluvial sediments of the Coastal Plain. The soils are on
yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) organic stained sand broad flood plains of the Miccosukee Lake Drainage
grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Basin. A high water table normally ranges from 36
E3-30 to 48 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine inches above the surface to 18 inches below. Byars soils
sand; single grained; loose; about 5 percent are normally flooded for a major part of the year. Slopes
ironstone nodules; many fine pockets of white range from 0 to 1 percent. The soils are clayey,
ronstone nodules many fine pockets of white kaolinitic, thermic Umbric Paleaquults.
(10YR 8/1) uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; kaolinitic thermic Umbric Paleauud with Pelham, s ummer,
clear wavy boundary. Byars soils are associated with Pelham, Plummer,
clear wavy boundary. Rains, Surrency, Pamlico, Dorovan, Leefield, and
Bt-48 to 52 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine Lynchburg soils. Pelham, Plummer, Rains, Leefield, and
sandy loam; few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR Lynchburg soils do not have an umbric epipedon.
5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky Pamlico and Dorovan soils are organic. Surrency soils
structure; friable; few ironstone nodules; strongly are in the loamy family.
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Byars fine sandy loam, frequently
Btv-52 to 59 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy flooded; in a gum, pine, and cypress stand on a flood
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky plain northwest of Monticello, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 2, T. 2
structure; friable; about 15 percent red (2.5YR 4/8) N., R. 4. E.
plinthite nodules; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B't-59 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled red (2.5YR A-0 to 12 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy
4/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), white (10YR 8/2), loam; many fine distinct yellowish brown mottles;
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), and red (10YR 4/6) weak fine granular structure; very friable; few coarse
sandy clay; strong medium subangular blocky and many fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
structure; firm; very strongly acid. clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-12 to 45 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay;
Bonifay soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid many medium distinct strong brown mottles;
throughout except where lime has been added. The moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; firm;
solum ranges in thickness from 60 to 80 inches or more. few medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy
Depth to 5 percent or more plinthite ranges from 45 to boundary.
60 inches. Btg2-45 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay;
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and many medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
chroma of 2, or value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 1 to 3. It mottles; moderate coarse subangular blocky
is 5 to 8 inches thick. structure; firm; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and Btg3-50 to 65 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay;
chroma of 3 to 8. Many pockets of uncoated sand grains many medium distinct brownish yellow (1 OYR 6/6)
are in this horizon. The E horizon is 37 to 49 inches and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate
thick. Combined thickness of the A and E horizons is coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; very
more than 40 inches. The texture of the A and E strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
horizons is fine sand, sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine Cg-65 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy loam;
sand. many medium distinct brownish yellow and strong
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, brown mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
chroma of 4 to 8. It has mottles in shades of red and structure; friable; very strongly acid.
brown. The texture is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or Byars soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid
sandy clay loam. throughout. The solum is more than 60 inches thick.
The Btv horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and The A horizon contains 2 to 8 percent organic matter.
chroma of 4 to 8. The texture is fine sandy loam, sandy It has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1.
loam, or sandy clay loam. Plinthite ranges from 5 to 15 The texture is fine sandy loam, loam, or sandy loam. The
percent. A horizon is 10 to 16 inches thick.
The B't horizon does not have matrix colors and is The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
reticulately mottled in shades of red, brown, yellow, or chroma of 1. Mottles are common to many in shades of
white. The texture ranges from sandy clay loam to sandy yellow and brown. The texture is sandy clay, clay, or
clay. sandy clay loam that has more than 35 percent clay in
the particle-size control section.







76 Soil Survey



The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and Chaires soils range from extremely acid to strongly
chroma of 1. The texture ranges from sandy loam to acid in the A and Bh horizons and from very strongly
clay. Some pedons do not have a Cg horizon, acid to neutral in the Btg horizons. The solum is 80
inches or more thick. Total thickness of the A and E
Chaires Series horizons is less than 30 inches.
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value
The Chaires series consists of poorly drained, nearly of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 4 to 13
level soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine inches thick. Where value is less than 3.5, this horizon is
sediments of the Coastal Plain. The soils are on broad, less than 10 inches thick. The texture is sand or fine
nearly level flatwoods. A seasonal high water table is sand.
within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and within The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more in most chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have organic staining
years. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The soils are of sand grains in this horizon. The texture is sand or fine
sandy, siliceous, thermic Alfic Haplaquods. sand.
Chaires soils are associated with Leon and Surrency The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
soils. Leon soils do not have an argillic horizon. Surrency chroma of 1 or 2, value of 3 and chroma of 2 or 3, or
soils are very poorly drained and do not have a spodic value of 4 and chroma of 3 or 4; or it has hue of 7.5YR,
horizon, value of 4, and chroma of 4. Consistence is friable or
Typical pedon of Chaires fine sand; 0.5 mile southeast weakly cemented. The texture is fine sand, sand, or
of County Road 257, 6 miles south of Lamont, loamy fine sand.
NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 29, T. 2 S., R. 5 E. Some pedons have an E' horizon. It has hue of 10YR,
value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 4. The texture is
A-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; sand or fine sand.
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots Some pedons have an Bh' horizon. It has colors
and few coarse roots; many clean sand grains; very similar to those of the Bh horizon and is fine sand, sand,
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. or loamy fine sand.
E-8 to 29 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; many The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and
fine prominent dark brown (10YR 3/3) organic chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma
stained sand grains along root channels; single of 1 or 2; or hue of 5GY, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots and few 1 or 2. The texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
coarse roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. sandy clay loam. The lower part of the Btg horizon in
Bhl-29 to 34 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine some pedons is sandy clay that has few to common
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; mottles in shades of red, brown, or gray.
weakly cemented; common fine and few medium
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Chiefland Series
Bh2-34 to 48 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; The Chiefland series consists of moderately well
sand grains coated with colloidal organic matter; 10 drained, nearly level soils that formed on the lower part
percent strongly cemented organic nodules; very of the Coastal Plain in beds of marine sediment
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. underlain by limestone. The seasonal high water table is
Bh3-48 to 52 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) between depths of 50 and 72 inches after periods of
loamy fine sand; weak medium subangular blocky heavy rain in the nonflooded areas of Chiefland. In the
structure; friable; few fine roots; weakly cemented in area of Chiefland frequently flooded, the seasonal high
the upper part; sand grains coated with colloidal water is above the surface for 2 months or less and
organic matter; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy within a depth of 50 inches for an additional month after
boundary. flood water recedes. It is between depths of 50 and 72
Btg1-52 to 55 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) fine inches the remainder of the year. Slopes range from 0 to
sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky 2 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic
structure; firm; few fine roots; very strongly acid; Hapludalfs.
clear wavy boundary. Chiefland soils are associated with Chaires, Nutall, and
Btg2-55 to 80 inches; light greenish gray (5GY 7/1) fine Tooles soils. The associated soils are poorly drained.
sandy loam; common medium prominent very dark Chaires soils have a spodic horizon, and Nutall soils
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) mottles and few medium have an argillic horizon within a depth of 20 inches.
prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; Typical pedon of Chiefland fine sand, in an area of
massive; firm; few fine roots in the upper part; very Chiefland-Chiefland, frequently flooded, fine sands; in
strongly acid. planted pines, 2.5 miles east of Goose Pasture, 0.5 mile







76 Soil Survey



The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and Chaires soils range from extremely acid to strongly
chroma of 1. The texture ranges from sandy loam to acid in the A and Bh horizons and from very strongly
clay. Some pedons do not have a Cg horizon, acid to neutral in the Btg horizons. The solum is 80
inches or more thick. Total thickness of the A and E
Chaires Series horizons is less than 30 inches.
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value
The Chaires series consists of poorly drained, nearly of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 4 to 13
level soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine inches thick. Where value is less than 3.5, this horizon is
sediments of the Coastal Plain. The soils are on broad, less than 10 inches thick. The texture is sand or fine
nearly level flatwoods. A seasonal high water table is sand.
within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and within The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more in most chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have organic staining
years. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The soils are of sand grains in this horizon. The texture is sand or fine
sandy, siliceous, thermic Alfic Haplaquods. sand.
Chaires soils are associated with Leon and Surrency The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
soils. Leon soils do not have an argillic horizon. Surrency chroma of 1 or 2, value of 3 and chroma of 2 or 3, or
soils are very poorly drained and do not have a spodic value of 4 and chroma of 3 or 4; or it has hue of 7.5YR,
horizon, value of 4, and chroma of 4. Consistence is friable or
Typical pedon of Chaires fine sand; 0.5 mile southeast weakly cemented. The texture is fine sand, sand, or
of County Road 257, 6 miles south of Lamont, loamy fine sand.
NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 29, T. 2 S., R. 5 E. Some pedons have an E' horizon. It has hue of 10YR,
value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 4. The texture is
A-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; sand or fine sand.
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots Some pedons have an Bh' horizon. It has colors
and few coarse roots; many clean sand grains; very similar to those of the Bh horizon and is fine sand, sand,
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. or loamy fine sand.
E-8 to 29 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; many The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and
fine prominent dark brown (10YR 3/3) organic chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma
stained sand grains along root channels; single of 1 or 2; or hue of 5GY, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots and few 1 or 2. The texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
coarse roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. sandy clay loam. The lower part of the Btg horizon in
Bhl-29 to 34 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine some pedons is sandy clay that has few to common
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; mottles in shades of red, brown, or gray.
weakly cemented; common fine and few medium
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Chiefland Series
Bh2-34 to 48 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; The Chiefland series consists of moderately well
sand grains coated with colloidal organic matter; 10 drained, nearly level soils that formed on the lower part
percent strongly cemented organic nodules; very of the Coastal Plain in beds of marine sediment
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. underlain by limestone. The seasonal high water table is
Bh3-48 to 52 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) between depths of 50 and 72 inches after periods of
loamy fine sand; weak medium subangular blocky heavy rain in the nonflooded areas of Chiefland. In the
structure; friable; few fine roots; weakly cemented in area of Chiefland frequently flooded, the seasonal high
the upper part; sand grains coated with colloidal water is above the surface for 2 months or less and
organic matter; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy within a depth of 50 inches for an additional month after
boundary. flood water recedes. It is between depths of 50 and 72
Btg1-52 to 55 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) fine inches the remainder of the year. Slopes range from 0 to
sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky 2 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic
structure; firm; few fine roots; very strongly acid; Hapludalfs.
clear wavy boundary. Chiefland soils are associated with Chaires, Nutall, and
Btg2-55 to 80 inches; light greenish gray (5GY 7/1) fine Tooles soils. The associated soils are poorly drained.
sandy loam; common medium prominent very dark Chaires soils have a spodic horizon, and Nutall soils
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) mottles and few medium have an argillic horizon within a depth of 20 inches.
prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; Typical pedon of Chiefland fine sand, in an area of
massive; firm; few fine roots in the upper part; very Chiefland-Chiefland, frequently flooded, fine sands; in
strongly acid. planted pines, 2.5 miles east of Goose Pasture, 0.5 mile







Jefferson County, Florida 77



north of Good Pasture Road, SW1/4SW1/4NE1/4 sec. Chipley soils are associated with Alpin and Ortega
21, T. 3 S., R. 4 E. soils. Alpin soils are excessively drained and have
lamellae below a depth of 40 inches. Ortega soils are
Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak moderately well drained and have uncoated sand grains.
fine granular structure; very friable; many uncoated Typical pedon of Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
sand grains; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; slopes; in planted pines, 1,600 feet west and 250 feet
medium acid; clear wavy boundary. south of the northeast corner of sec. 18, T. 1 S., R. 3 E.
E-7 to 25 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common medium roots; Ap-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary. weak medium and fine granular structure; very
Bt-25 to 32 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine friable; few coarse, common medium, and many fine
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
structure; few medium and coarse roots; neutral; A-4 to 12 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
clear wavy boundary. sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
IICr-32 to 49 inches; yellow (10YR 8/6) soft weathered coarse and common fine and very fine roots; very
limestone. strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
R-49 inches; limestone bedrock. C1-12 to 32 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine

Chiefland soils range from strongly acid to slightly acid sand; single grained; loose; few medium and
in the A and E horizons and from slightly acid to common fine and very fine roots; strongly acid;
moderately alkaline in the Bt horizon. The solum over gradual wavy boundary.
soft limestone ranges from 30 to 60 inches thick. C2-32 to 39 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
Solution holes in which the solum extends to a depth of fine sand; few fine prominent yellowish brown (1 OYR
more than 60 inches are in about 15 to 30 percent of the 5/8) mottles and common medium distinct brownish
pedons. Limestone boulders are on the surface of some yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; loose;
pedons. many fine and very fine roots; strongly acid; gradual
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and wavy boundary.
chroma of 1 to 3. It is 5 to 12 inches thick. C3-39 to 56 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and sand; common medium prominent yellowish brown
chroma of 2 to 6. Some pedons have brown or yellow (10YR 5/8) mottles and few fine prominent reddish
mottles in the lower part of this horizon. The texture of yellow (7.5YR 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose;
the A and E horizons is sand or fine sand. few very fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5 boundary.
or 6, and chroma of 6 to 8. Some pedons have mottles. C4-56 to 72 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
The texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy sand; common fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR
clay loam. In some pedons, the lower part of this horizon 5/6) mottles and many medium prominent reddish
is about 3 to 10 percent limestone coarse fragments. yellow (7.5YR 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose;
The Cr horizon is soft limestone interspersed with few very fine roots; medium acid; gradual wavy
solution holes filled with Bt material. The surface of this boundary.
limestone is irregular. The limestone is soft enough to be C5g-72 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
dug with light power equipment. single grained; loose; medium acid.
The Chiefland soil in Jefferson County are taxadjuncts
to the series because the soils are moderately well Chipley soils are sand or fine sand to a depth of at
drained; the soils of the series are defined as well least 80 inches. They range from extremely acid to
drained, medium acid in the A horizon and from very strongly acid
to slightly acid in the C horizon.
Chipley Series The Ap and A horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 3
to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. They range from 4 to 15
The Chipley series consists of somewhat poorly inches thick. Where value is less than 3.5, they are less
drained or moderately well drained, nearly level to gently than 10 inches thick.
sloping soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7, and
marine sediment of the Coastal Plain. The soils are on chroma of 1 to 8, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2 to 8,
low knolls on the flatwoods and low uplands. A seasonal or value of 4 and chroma of 3; hue 2.5Y, value of 6 to 8,
high water table is within a depth of 20 to 40 inches for and chroma of 4; hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma
2 to 4 months, and within a depth of 30 to 72 inches for of 2 to 6; or hue of 5Y, value of 7, and chroma of 3.
the rest of the year. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. Common to many gray mottles or yellowish red or
The soils are thermic, coated Aquic Quartzipsamments. reddish yellow segregated iron mottles are at a depth of







78 Soil Survey



24 to 40 inches. Some pedons have a few gray mottles C3-57 to 80 inches; mixed reticulate mottled very pale
within 20 inches of the surface. brown (01YR 7/3, 8/3), reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6,
6/8), and red (2.5YR 5/6) sandy loam, pockets of
Cowarts Series sandy clay loam and sandy clay; massive; firm; very
The Cowarts series consists of well drained, gently strongly acid.
undulating to gently rolling soils that formed in loamy Cowarts soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid
marine sediment of the Coastal Plain. The soils are on except where the surface has been limed. The solum
shoulders and summits of uplands. The high water table ranges in thickness from 20 to 40 inches.
is below a depth of 80 inches throughout the year. The Ap and BE horizons have hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
Slopes range from 2 to 8 percent. The soils are fine- value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 3 to 6. These horizons
loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic Hapludults. are generally 4 to 11 inches thick, but they are less than
Cowarts soils are associated with Dothan, Fuquay, 6 inches thick if the color value, moist, is less than 3.5.
Leefield, and Orangeburg soils. Fuquay and Leefield
soils have combined A and E horizons 20 to 40 inches The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR to iOYR, value of 5 or
thick and contain more than 5 percent plinthite. The 6, and chroma of 6 to 8. The texture is fine sandy loam
Leefield soils are somewhat poorly drained. The solum or sandy clay loam.
of the Orangeburg and Dothan soils is more than 60 The C horizon is mottled in hue of 10YR to 10OR, value
inches thick, and the Dothan soils contain more than 5 of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 8. The texture is loamy fine
percent plinthite. sand to sandy clay loam. Pockets and layers of coarser
Typical pedon of Cowarts loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 and finer material are common.
percent slopes, eroded; in a field, 300 feet north and 70
feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 12, T. 2 N., R. Dorovan Series
5 E.
The Dorovan series consists of very poorly drained,
Ap-0 to 4 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) loamy fine nearly level soils of the Coastal Plain. They formed in
sand; weak fine and medium granular structure; very highly decomposed organic material more than 51
friable; few medium and common very fine and fine inches thick. The soils are on level and depressional
roots; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. surfaces on uplands and flatwoods. The high water table
BE-4 to 8 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) fine sandy is within a depth of 10 inches. It is at or above the
loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very surface for 5 to 8 months in most years. Slopes are less
friable; few medium and common very fine and fine than 1 percent. The soils are dysic, thermic Typic
roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. Medisaprists.
Btl-8 to 15 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sandy Dorovan soils are associated with Pamlico Pelham
clay loam; moderate fine and medium subangular -Dorovan soils are associated with Pamlico, Pelham,
clay loam; moderate fine and medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; common fine and very fine Plummer, Surrency, Plummer flooded, and Chaires
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. depressional soils. Pamlico soils have an organic layer
Bt2-15 to 29 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy 16 to 51 inches thick. Pelham, Plummer, Surrency,
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky Plummer flooded, and Chaires depressional are mineral
structure; friable; common very fine and fine roots; 2 soils.
percent plinthite and iron nodules; very strongly acid; Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, in an area of
gradual wavy boundary. Pamlico-Dorovan mucks; in a swamp, about 3,000 feet
Bt3-29 to 40 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy north of Interstate 10, SW1/4NE1/4 sec.23, T. 1 N., R. 5
clay loam; few reticulate very pale brown (10YR E.
8/3) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles;
strong and moderate medium subangular blocky Oal -0 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) muck;
structure; firm; few fine and common very fine roots; partly decomposed roots, leaves, and grass; about
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. 35 percent fiber unrubbed and less than 10 percent
C1-40 to 45 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy rubbed; massive; slightly sticky; extremely acid;
clay loam; reticulate brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, gradual wavy boundary.
6/8), very pale brown (10YR 8/3), and yellowish red Oa2-4 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; partly
(5YR 5/8) mottles; massive; friable; very strongly decomposed roots and twigs; about 15 percent fiber
acid; clear wavy boundary. unrubbed and less than 5 percent rubbed; massive;
C2-45 to 57 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy clay nonsticky; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
loam; reticulate reddish yellow (5YR 6/8), brownish Oa3-9 to 65 inches; black (10YR 2/1) and dark brown
yellow (10YR 6/8), and very pale brown (10YR 8/3) (7.5YR 3/2) muck; about 15 percent fiber unrubbed
mottles; massive; firm; very strongly acid; gradual and less than 5 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky;
wavy boundary,. extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.







78 Soil Survey



24 to 40 inches. Some pedons have a few gray mottles C3-57 to 80 inches; mixed reticulate mottled very pale
within 20 inches of the surface. brown (01YR 7/3, 8/3), reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6,
6/8), and red (2.5YR 5/6) sandy loam, pockets of
Cowarts Series sandy clay loam and sandy clay; massive; firm; very
The Cowarts series consists of well drained, gently strongly acid.
undulating to gently rolling soils that formed in loamy Cowarts soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid
marine sediment of the Coastal Plain. The soils are on except where the surface has been limed. The solum
shoulders and summits of uplands. The high water table ranges in thickness from 20 to 40 inches.
is below a depth of 80 inches throughout the year. The Ap and BE horizons have hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
Slopes range from 2 to 8 percent. The soils are fine- value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 3 to 6. These horizons
loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic Hapludults. are generally 4 to 11 inches thick, but they are less than
Cowarts soils are associated with Dothan, Fuquay, 6 inches thick if the color value, moist, is less than 3.5.
Leefield, and Orangeburg soils. Fuquay and Leefield
soils have combined A and E horizons 20 to 40 inches The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR to iOYR, value of 5 or
thick and contain more than 5 percent plinthite. The 6, and chroma of 6 to 8. The texture is fine sandy loam
Leefield soils are somewhat poorly drained. The solum or sandy clay loam.
of the Orangeburg and Dothan soils is more than 60 The C horizon is mottled in hue of 10YR to 10OR, value
inches thick, and the Dothan soils contain more than 5 of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 8. The texture is loamy fine
percent plinthite. sand to sandy clay loam. Pockets and layers of coarser
Typical pedon of Cowarts loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 and finer material are common.
percent slopes, eroded; in a field, 300 feet north and 70
feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 12, T. 2 N., R. Dorovan Series
5 E.
The Dorovan series consists of very poorly drained,
Ap-0 to 4 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) loamy fine nearly level soils of the Coastal Plain. They formed in
sand; weak fine and medium granular structure; very highly decomposed organic material more than 51
friable; few medium and common very fine and fine inches thick. The soils are on level and depressional
roots; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. surfaces on uplands and flatwoods. The high water table
BE-4 to 8 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) fine sandy is within a depth of 10 inches. It is at or above the
loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very surface for 5 to 8 months in most years. Slopes are less
friable; few medium and common very fine and fine than 1 percent. The soils are dysic, thermic Typic
roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. Medisaprists.
Btl-8 to 15 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sandy Dorovan soils are associated with Pamlico Pelham
clay loam; moderate fine and medium subangular -Dorovan soils are associated with Pamlico, Pelham,
clay loam; moderate fine and medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; common fine and very fine Plummer, Surrency, Plummer flooded, and Chaires
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. depressional soils. Pamlico soils have an organic layer
Bt2-15 to 29 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy 16 to 51 inches thick. Pelham, Plummer, Surrency,
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky Plummer flooded, and Chaires depressional are mineral
structure; friable; common very fine and fine roots; 2 soils.
percent plinthite and iron nodules; very strongly acid; Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, in an area of
gradual wavy boundary. Pamlico-Dorovan mucks; in a swamp, about 3,000 feet
Bt3-29 to 40 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy north of Interstate 10, SW1/4NE1/4 sec.23, T. 1 N., R. 5
clay loam; few reticulate very pale brown (10YR E.
8/3) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles;
strong and moderate medium subangular blocky Oal -0 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) muck;
structure; firm; few fine and common very fine roots; partly decomposed roots, leaves, and grass; about
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. 35 percent fiber unrubbed and less than 10 percent
C1-40 to 45 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy rubbed; massive; slightly sticky; extremely acid;
clay loam; reticulate brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, gradual wavy boundary.
6/8), very pale brown (10YR 8/3), and yellowish red Oa2-4 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; partly
(5YR 5/8) mottles; massive; friable; very strongly decomposed roots and twigs; about 15 percent fiber
acid; clear wavy boundary. unrubbed and less than 5 percent rubbed; massive;
C2-45 to 57 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy clay nonsticky; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
loam; reticulate reddish yellow (5YR 6/8), brownish Oa3-9 to 65 inches; black (10YR 2/1) and dark brown
yellow (10YR 6/8), and very pale brown (10YR 8/3) (7.5YR 3/2) muck; about 15 percent fiber unrubbed
mottles; massive; firm; very strongly acid; gradual and less than 5 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky;
wavy boundary,. extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.








Jefferson County, Florida 79



2Cg-65 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) Dothan soils are very strongly acid to medium acid
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid. except where the surface has been limed. The solum
ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 80 inches.
Dorovan soils are extremely acid in the organic layers Depth to horizons that contain 5 percent or more
and strongly acid or very strongly acid in the 2Cg plinthite ranges from 24 to 60 inches. Content of
horizon. ironstone pebbles range from 0 to 5 percent in the A
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 2 horizon and the upper part of the B horizon.
or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. Fiber content is less than 10 The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
percent after rubbing. Total thickness of the Oa horizon and chroma of 2 or 3, or value of 6 or 7, and chroma of
exceeds 51 inches. 4. It is 6 to 10 inches thick.
The 2Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 Some pedons have an E horizon. It has the same
to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand, loamy Some pedons have an E horizon. It has the same
sand, or oandy loam. range in colors as those of the A horizon. The texture of
the A and E horizons is sandy loam, fine sandy loam,

Dothan Series loamy fine sand, or loamy sand. Combined thickness of
the A and E horizons range from 10 to 18 inches.
The Dothan series consists of well drained, gently The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
undulating to gently rolling soils that formed in thick beds chroma of 6 or 8; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and
of loamy marine sediment of the Coastal Plain. The soils chroma of 6 or 8. The texture is sandy loam, sandy clay
are on shoulders and summits of uplands. A perched loam, or clay loam.
high water table is above the subsoil very briefly during The Btv horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
wet periods. Slopes range from 2 to 8 percent. The soils chroma of 4 or 6; or it is reticulately mottled. The texture
are fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Paleudults. is fine sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam and
Dothan soils are associated with Fuquay, Lucy, and ranges to include sandy clay in the lower part of the
Orangeburg soils. Fuquay and Lucy soils have sandy A horizon. The Btv horizon contains from 10 to 15 percent,
and E horizons 20 to 40 inches thick. Orangeburg soils by volume, plinthite.
have a redder subsoil than that of the Dothan soils.
Typical pedon of Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes; in a wooded area, 1.5 miles south of Faceville Series
U.S. Highway 90 and 0.6 mile west of County Road 158, The Faceville series consists of well drained, gently
NW1 /4SE1 /4 sec. 33, T. 2 N., R. 4 E. undulating to rolling soils that formed in clayey marine
Ap-0 to 9 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) loamy fine sediment of the Coastal Plain. The soils are on summits,
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; shoulders, and back slopes of uplands. They do not
many fine, medium, and coarse roots; strongly acid; have a high water table within a depth of 80 inches.
abrupt wavy boundary. Slopes range from 2 to 12 percent. The soils are clayey,
Btl-9 to 17 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine kaolinitic, thermic Typic Paleudults.
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky Faceville soils are associated with Dothan, Fuquay,
structure; very friable; few medium roots; few Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. Dothan soils have more
ironstone nodules; strongly acid; gradual wavy than 5 percent plinthite within a depth of 60 inches.
boundary. Fuquay and Lucy soils have sandy A and E horizons 20
Bt2-17 to 49 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy to 40 inches thick. Orangeburg soils have less than 35
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky percent clay in the control section.
structure; friable; few ironstone nodules; strongly Typical pedon of Faceville fine sandy loam, 2 to 5
acid; gradual wavy boundary. percent slopes; in a wooded area, 2,500 feet west and
Btv1 -49 to 62 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) 700 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 30, T. 3
sandy clay loam; many medium prominent strong N., R. 4 E.
brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; about 15 Ap-0 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sandy loam;
percent, by volume, red (2.5YR 4/8) plinthite weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
nodules; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. and medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth
Btv2-62 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled red (10YR boundary.
4/8), yellowish red (5YR 5/8), light gray (10YR 7/1), AB-7 to 14 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sandy loam;
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), and reddish yellow weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure;
(7.5YR 6/8) sandy clay loam; strong medium friable; common fine and medium roots; strongly
subangular blocky structure; friable; about 10 acid; clear wavy boundary.
percent, by volume, red (2.5YR 4/8) plinthite Bt1-14 to 20 inches; red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay;
nodules; strongly acid. moderate medium subangular blocky structure;








Jefferson County, Florida 79



2Cg-65 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) Dothan soils are very strongly acid to medium acid
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid. except where the surface has been limed. The solum
ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 80 inches.
Dorovan soils are extremely acid in the organic layers Depth to horizons that contain 5 percent or more
and strongly acid or very strongly acid in the 2Cg plinthite ranges from 24 to 60 inches. Content of
horizon. ironstone pebbles range from 0 to 5 percent in the A
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 2 horizon and the upper part of the B horizon.
or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. Fiber content is less than 10 The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
percent after rubbing. Total thickness of the Oa horizon and chroma of 2 or 3, or value of 6 or 7, and chroma of
exceeds 51 inches. 4. It is 6 to 10 inches thick.
The 2Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 Some pedons have an E horizon. It has the same
to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand, loamy Some pedons have an E horizon. It has the same
sand, or oandy loam. range in colors as those of the A horizon. The texture of
the A and E horizons is sandy loam, fine sandy loam,

Dothan Series loamy fine sand, or loamy sand. Combined thickness of
the A and E horizons range from 10 to 18 inches.
The Dothan series consists of well drained, gently The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
undulating to gently rolling soils that formed in thick beds chroma of 6 or 8; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and
of loamy marine sediment of the Coastal Plain. The soils chroma of 6 or 8. The texture is sandy loam, sandy clay
are on shoulders and summits of uplands. A perched loam, or clay loam.
high water table is above the subsoil very briefly during The Btv horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
wet periods. Slopes range from 2 to 8 percent. The soils chroma of 4 or 6; or it is reticulately mottled. The texture
are fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Paleudults. is fine sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam and
Dothan soils are associated with Fuquay, Lucy, and ranges to include sandy clay in the lower part of the
Orangeburg soils. Fuquay and Lucy soils have sandy A horizon. The Btv horizon contains from 10 to 15 percent,
and E horizons 20 to 40 inches thick. Orangeburg soils by volume, plinthite.
have a redder subsoil than that of the Dothan soils.
Typical pedon of Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes; in a wooded area, 1.5 miles south of Faceville Series
U.S. Highway 90 and 0.6 mile west of County Road 158, The Faceville series consists of well drained, gently
NW1 /4SE1 /4 sec. 33, T. 2 N., R. 4 E. undulating to rolling soils that formed in clayey marine
Ap-0 to 9 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) loamy fine sediment of the Coastal Plain. The soils are on summits,
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; shoulders, and back slopes of uplands. They do not
many fine, medium, and coarse roots; strongly acid; have a high water table within a depth of 80 inches.
abrupt wavy boundary. Slopes range from 2 to 12 percent. The soils are clayey,
Btl-9 to 17 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine kaolinitic, thermic Typic Paleudults.
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky Faceville soils are associated with Dothan, Fuquay,
structure; very friable; few medium roots; few Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. Dothan soils have more
ironstone nodules; strongly acid; gradual wavy than 5 percent plinthite within a depth of 60 inches.
boundary. Fuquay and Lucy soils have sandy A and E horizons 20
Bt2-17 to 49 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy to 40 inches thick. Orangeburg soils have less than 35
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky percent clay in the control section.
structure; friable; few ironstone nodules; strongly Typical pedon of Faceville fine sandy loam, 2 to 5
acid; gradual wavy boundary. percent slopes; in a wooded area, 2,500 feet west and
Btv1 -49 to 62 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) 700 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 30, T. 3
sandy clay loam; many medium prominent strong N., R. 4 E.
brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; about 15 Ap-0 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sandy loam;
percent, by volume, red (2.5YR 4/8) plinthite weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
nodules; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. and medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth
Btv2-62 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled red (10YR boundary.
4/8), yellowish red (5YR 5/8), light gray (10YR 7/1), AB-7 to 14 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sandy loam;
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), and reddish yellow weak fine and medium subangular blocky structure;
(7.5YR 6/8) sandy clay loam; strong medium friable; common fine and medium roots; strongly
subangular blocky structure; friable; about 10 acid; clear wavy boundary.
percent, by volume, red (2.5YR 4/8) plinthite Bt1-14 to 20 inches; red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay;
nodules; strongly acid. moderate medium subangular blocky structure;







80 Soil Survey



friable; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; E1-7 to 23 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
gradual boundary. sand; single grained; loose; many fine roots; strongly
Bt2-20 to 38 inches; red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay; few acid; gradual wavy boundary.
medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) E2-23 to 37 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky sand; single grained; loose; many fine roots; many
structure; friable; few fine roots; strongly acid; dark brown (10YR 4/3) organic stained sand grains;
gradual wavy boundary. about 5 percent ironstone nodules; strongly acid;
BC-38 to 80 inches; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) sandy clay; clear wavy boundary.
common coarse prominent brownish yellow (10YR Btv1-37 to 43 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
6/8) mottles and few coarse prominent very pale sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
brown (10YR 7/4) mottles in the lower part; medium structure; friable; few fine roots; 5 to 10 percent red
subangular blocky structure; firm; strongly acid. (2.5YR 4/8) plinthite nodules; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Solum thickness ranges from 65 to 80 inches or more. Btv2-43 to 54 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
Faceville soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular
throughout except where the the surface has been limed, blocky structure; friable; 10 to 15 percent red (2.5YR
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, 4/8) plinthite nodules; very strongly acid; gradual
and chroma of 2 to 4. The E or AB horizon has hue of wavy boundary.
7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Btv3-54 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled light gray
The texture of the A and E horizons are loamy sand, (10YR 7/1), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), red (10R
loamy fine sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy 4/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and yellowish red
clay loam. (5YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; strong medium
The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 4 or (5YR 5/6) sandy clay structure; friable; about 5 percent
5, and chroma of 4, 6, or 8. The lower part of the Bt subangular blocky structure; friable; about 5 percent
horizon in some pedons and the BC horizon have hue of plinthite nodules; very strongly acid.
10YR and 2.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 6. Mottles in Fuquay soils range from very strongly acid to medium
shades of yellow, brown, and red ranges from few to acid throughout except where lime has been added. The
common in the lower part of the Bt horizon and in the solum is more than 80 inches thick. Depth to plinthite
BC horizon. The texture of the Bt and the BC horizons is ranges from 35 to 60 inches.
clay, clay loam, or sandy clay. Weighted average clay The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
content is more than 35 percent in the particle-size and chroma of 1 or 3. The texture is sand, fine sand,
control section. loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. This horizon is 4 to 9
inches thick.
Fuquay Series The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
The Fuquay series consists of well drained, nearly chroma of 3 to 6. The texture is sand, fine sand, loamy
level to gently rolling soils that formed in loamy marine sand, or loamy fine sand. The E horizon is 16 to 31
sediment of the Coastal Plain. The soils are on summits inches thick.
and foot slopes of uplands. A perched high water table The upper part of the Btv horizon has hue of 7.5YR to
is above the subsoil briefly during wet periods. Slopes 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The texture
range from 0 to 8 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous, is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. The
thermic Arenic Plinthic Paleudults. lower part of the Btv horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR,
Fuquay soils are associated with Dothan, Leefield, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 8; or it is reticulately
Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. Dothan and Orangeburg mottled. The texture is sandy clay loam. The Btv horizon
soils have A and E horizons with a combined thickness contains from 5 to 15 percent, by volume, plinthite.
of less than 20 inches. Lucy soils have less than 5
percent plinthite within a depth of 35 to 60 inches. Lakeland Series
Leefield soils have mottles that have chroma of 2 in the
upper part of the Bt horizon. The Lakeland series consists of excessively drained,
Typical pedon of Fuquay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent nearly level to gently undulating soils that formed in thick
slopes; in a pasture, 1.75 miles west of County Road 59 deposits of eolian or marine sands of the Coastal Plain.
and 50 feet north of a dirt road, SW1 /4SE1 /4 sec. 29, T. The soils are on summits of uplands. They do not have a
1 N., R. 3 E. high water table within a depth of 80 inches. Slopes
range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are thermic, coated
Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; Typic Quartzipsamments.
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine Lakeland soils are associated with Alpin, Blanton,
and medium roots; medium acid; abrupt smooth Ortega, and Troup soils. Alpin soils have lamellae below
boundary. a depth of 40 inches. Blanton soils are moderately well







80 Soil Survey



friable; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; E1-7 to 23 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
gradual boundary. sand; single grained; loose; many fine roots; strongly
Bt2-20 to 38 inches; red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay; few acid; gradual wavy boundary.
medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) E2-23 to 37 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky sand; single grained; loose; many fine roots; many
structure; friable; few fine roots; strongly acid; dark brown (10YR 4/3) organic stained sand grains;
gradual wavy boundary. about 5 percent ironstone nodules; strongly acid;
BC-38 to 80 inches; dark red (2.5YR 3/6) sandy clay; clear wavy boundary.
common coarse prominent brownish yellow (10YR Btv1-37 to 43 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
6/8) mottles and few coarse prominent very pale sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
brown (10YR 7/4) mottles in the lower part; medium structure; friable; few fine roots; 5 to 10 percent red
subangular blocky structure; firm; strongly acid. (2.5YR 4/8) plinthite nodules; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Solum thickness ranges from 65 to 80 inches or more. Btv2-43 to 54 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
Faceville soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular
throughout except where the the surface has been limed, blocky structure; friable; 10 to 15 percent red (2.5YR
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, 4/8) plinthite nodules; very strongly acid; gradual
and chroma of 2 to 4. The E or AB horizon has hue of wavy boundary.
7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Btv3-54 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled light gray
The texture of the A and E horizons are loamy sand, (10YR 7/1), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), red (10R
loamy fine sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy 4/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and yellowish red
clay loam. (5YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; strong medium
The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 4 or (5YR 5/6) sandy clay structure; friable; about 5 percent
5, and chroma of 4, 6, or 8. The lower part of the Bt subangular blocky structure; friable; about 5 percent
horizon in some pedons and the BC horizon have hue of plinthite nodules; very strongly acid.
10YR and 2.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 6. Mottles in Fuquay soils range from very strongly acid to medium
shades of yellow, brown, and red ranges from few to acid throughout except where lime has been added. The
common in the lower part of the Bt horizon and in the solum is more than 80 inches thick. Depth to plinthite
BC horizon. The texture of the Bt and the BC horizons is ranges from 35 to 60 inches.
clay, clay loam, or sandy clay. Weighted average clay The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
content is more than 35 percent in the particle-size and chroma of 1 or 3. The texture is sand, fine sand,
control section. loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. This horizon is 4 to 9
inches thick.
Fuquay Series The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
The Fuquay series consists of well drained, nearly chroma of 3 to 6. The texture is sand, fine sand, loamy
level to gently rolling soils that formed in loamy marine sand, or loamy fine sand. The E horizon is 16 to 31
sediment of the Coastal Plain. The soils are on summits inches thick.
and foot slopes of uplands. A perched high water table The upper part of the Btv horizon has hue of 7.5YR to
is above the subsoil briefly during wet periods. Slopes 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The texture
range from 0 to 8 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous, is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. The
thermic Arenic Plinthic Paleudults. lower part of the Btv horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR,
Fuquay soils are associated with Dothan, Leefield, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 8; or it is reticulately
Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. Dothan and Orangeburg mottled. The texture is sandy clay loam. The Btv horizon
soils have A and E horizons with a combined thickness contains from 5 to 15 percent, by volume, plinthite.
of less than 20 inches. Lucy soils have less than 5
percent plinthite within a depth of 35 to 60 inches. Lakeland Series
Leefield soils have mottles that have chroma of 2 in the
upper part of the Bt horizon. The Lakeland series consists of excessively drained,
Typical pedon of Fuquay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent nearly level to gently undulating soils that formed in thick
slopes; in a pasture, 1.75 miles west of County Road 59 deposits of eolian or marine sands of the Coastal Plain.
and 50 feet north of a dirt road, SW1 /4SE1 /4 sec. 29, T. The soils are on summits of uplands. They do not have a
1 N., R. 3 E. high water table within a depth of 80 inches. Slopes
range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are thermic, coated
Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; Typic Quartzipsamments.
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine Lakeland soils are associated with Alpin, Blanton,
and medium roots; medium acid; abrupt smooth Ortega, and Troup soils. Alpin soils have lamellae below
boundary. a depth of 40 inches. Blanton soils are moderately well




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