• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Lafayette County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025722/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Lafayette County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 201 p., 33 p. of plates : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Weatherspoon, Robert L
United States -- Natural Resources Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: [1998]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Lafayette County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Lafayette County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 111-112).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "By Robert L. Weatherspoon ... et al."--P. 1.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025722
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002397528
notis - AMA2445
oclc - 39982395
lccn - 98195962

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    How this survey was made
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    General soil map units
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 21
        Penney sand, 0-5 percent slopes
            Page 21
        Blanton-Ortega complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Otela-Penney complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Oaky-Rawhide, depressional, complex
            Page 26
        Chaires-Chaires, depressional, complex
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Sapelo-Chaires, depressional, complex
            Page 29
        Pamlico and Dorovan soils, frequently flooded
            Page 30
        Pamlico and Dorovan soils, depressional
            Page 31
        Meadowbrook-Chaires complex
            Page 31
            Page 32
        Leon fine sand
            Page 33
        Wesconnett and Lynn Haven soils, depressional
            Page 33
        Tooles fine sand
            Page 34
        Surrency, Plummer, and Clara soils, depressional
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Plummer fine sand
            Page 37
        Rawhide and Harbeson soils, depressional
            Page 37
        Ridgewood-Hurricane complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 38
        Albany-Ridgewood complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 39
        Clara and Meadowbrook soils, frequently flooded
            Page 40
        Fluvaquents, frequently flooded
            Page 41
        Chaires, low-Meadowbrook complex
            Page 42
        Chaires and Meadowbrook soils, depressional
            Page 43
        Tooles-Meadowbrook, limestone substratum-Rawhide complex, frequently flooded
            Page 43
            Page 44
        Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 45
        Wampee fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 46
        Pantego and surrency soils, depressional
            Page 47
        Pantego and surrency soils, frequently flooded
            Page 48
        Eunola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 49
        Meadowbrook and Harbeson soils, depressional
            Page 50
        Sapelo, low-Clara-Surrency, depressional, complex
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Garcon-Albany-Meadowbrook complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded
            Page 52
        Albany-Ousley-Meadowbrook complex, 0 to 5 prcent slopes, occasionally flooded
            Page 53
        Wekiva-Rawhide-Tooles complex, occasionally flooded
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Tooles-Rawhide complex, frequently flooded
            Page 57
        Otela, limestone substratum-Shadeville-Penney complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 57
            Page 58
        Mandarin fine sand
            Page 59
        Penney sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 60
        Garcon-Eunola complex 2 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 63
        Crops and pasture
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 66
            Page 67
        Grazing land
            Page 68
            Page 69
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 70
        Recreation
            Page 70
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 71
        Engineering
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
    Soil properties
        Page 77
        Engineering index properties
            Page 77
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 78
        Soil and water features
            Page 79
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 80
        Engineering index test data
            Page 81
            Page 82
    Classification of the soils
        Page 83
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 83
        Albany series
            Page 83
        Blanton series
            Page 84
        Chaires series
            Page 85
        Clara series
            Page 85
        Dorovan series
            Page 86
        Eunola series
            Page 86
        Garcon series
            Page 87
        Harbeson series
            Page 88
        Hurricane series
            Page 88
        Leon series
            Page 89
        Lynn Haven series
            Page 90
        Mandarin series
            Page 90
        Meadowbrook series
            Page 91
        Oaky series
            Page 92
        Ortega series
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
        Otela series
            Page 97
        Ousley series
            Page 97
        Pamlico series
            Page 98
        Pantego series
            Page 98
        Penney series
            Page 99
        Plummer series
            Page 99
        Rawhide series
            Page 100
        Ridgewood series
            Page 101
        Sapelo series
            Page 101
        Shadeville series
            Page 102
        Surrency series
            Page 102
        Tooles series
            Page 103
        Wampee series
            Page 103
        Wekiva series
            Page 104
        Wesconnett series
            Page 105
            Page 106
    Formation of the soils
        Page 107
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 107
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
    Reference
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Glossary
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Tables
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
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        Page 158
        Page 159
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        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
    General soil map
        Page 202
    Index to map sheets
        Page 203
        Page 204
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 32
        Page 33
Full Text


USDA United States
iU Department of
Agriculture
Natural
Resources
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with the
University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil and
Water Science
Department, and the
Florida Department of
Agricultural and Consumer
Services


Soil Survey of

Lafayette County,

Florida


















How to Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area divided
into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the use and management of
large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the map unit in the area
on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units for a general description of the soils in
your area.


Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas

To find information about your
area of interest, locate that I J 4 N
area on the Index to Map '
Sheets, which precedes the .....6 ) .
soil maps. Note the number of T --
the map sheet and turn to that ..... ..
sheet. 17 .. ....... ..- .9 -

Locate your area of interest on INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
the map sheet. Note the map
units symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Contents,
which lists the map units by
symbol and name and shows
the page where each map unit
is described.

The Summary of Tables
shows which table has data on
a specific land use for each
detailed soil map unit. See
Contents for sections of this
publication that may address
your specific needs.


fflffl
Kok( mo



MAP SHEET


AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
letters, or they may be a combination
of numbers and letters.






















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint
effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal agencies,
State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The
Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has
leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1991. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1992. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this
publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1992. This survey was made
cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service and the University of
Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations,
and Soil and Water Science Department; the Florida Department of Agricultural and
Consumer Services; the Florida Department of Transportation; and the Lafayette
County Board of Commissioners. The survey is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Lafayette County Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of these
maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If enlarged,
maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at
a larger scale.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in its
programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability,
political beliefs, and marital or familial status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all
programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication
of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's
TARGET Center at 202-720-2600 (voice and TDD).
To file a complaint, write the Secretary of Agriculture, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250 or call 1-800-245-6340 (voice) or 202-720-1127
(TDD). USDA is an equal employment opportunity employer.


Cover: An area of Otela-Penney complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, in Lafayette County. The flowers
are mostly phlox, and they enhance the beauty of the countryside.


















Contents


Sum m ary of Tables ..................................................... v
Forew ord ...... .............................. vii
G general Nature of the County ......................................... 1
How This Survey W as M ade ......................................... 10
General Soil Map Units ........................ 13
Detailed Soil M ap Units ............................................ 21
2-Penney sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes..................21
4-Blanton-Ortega complex, 0 to 5 percent
s lo p e s ......................................... .. ................ 2 2
5-Otela-Penney complex, 0 to 5 percent
s lo p e s ............................................................... 24
6-Oaky-Rawhide, depressional, complex ............. 26
7-Chaires-Chaires, depressional, complex .............27
9-Sapelo-Chaires, depressional, complex ............ 29
10-Pamlico and Dorovan soils, frequently
flo o d e d ................................... .............. ........... 30
11-Pamlico and Dorovan soils, depressional........... 31
13-Meadowbrook-Chaires complex...................... 31
14- Leon fine sand .................................................. 33
15-Wesconnett and Lynn Haven soils,
depressional ............................... ................... 33
16- Tooles fine sand .......................... ................. 34
18-Surrency, Plummer, and Clara soils,
depressional ................. .............. ................... 35
20-Plummer fine sand ..........................................37
24-Rawhide and Harbeson soils, depressional ....... 37
26-Ridgewood-Hurricane complex, 0 to 5
percent slopes .................................................. 38
27-Albany-Ridgewood complex, 0 to 5 percent
s lo p e s ...................................... .......... ............... 3 9
28-Clara and Meadowbrook soils, frequently
flo o d e d ........................................................... 4 0
29-Fluvaquents, frequently flooded ......................41
31-Chaires, low-Meadowbrook complex ..............42
32-Chaires and Meadowbrook soils,
depression l ................................................... 43
33-Tooles-Meadowbrook, limestone
substratum-Rawhide complex, frequently
flooded ...................................... ................... 4 3


34-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .............45
36-Wampee fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes..........46
37-Pantego and Surrency soils, depressional .........47
38-Pantego and Surrency soils, frequently
flooded .................... ....... ............................... 48
39-Eunola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .............49
41-Meadowbrook and Harbeson soils,
depressional ............................... ................... 50
42-Sapelo, low-Clara-Surrency, depressional,
co m p le x ................................... .. ..................... 5 0
43-Garcon-Albany-Meadowbrook complex,
0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded ........ 52
44-Albany-Ousley-Meadowbrook complex,
0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded ........ 53
45-Wekiva-Rawhide-Tooles complex,
occasionally flooded ......................................... 54
46-Tooles-Rawhide complex, frequently
flooded ..................................................... ....... 57
48-Otela, limestone substratum-Shadeville-
Penney complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...........57
52-Mandarin fine sand ............................................ 59
53-Penney sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ...................60
54-Garcon-Eunola complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, occasionally flooded....:.......................... 60
Use and Management of the Soils...........................63
C rops and Pasture .................................................. 63
Woodland Management and Productivity ...............66
G razing La nd ........................................................... 68
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings .............. 70
Recreation ............. ............ ...... .......... 70
W wildlife H habitat ................................... .................. 71
Engineering ............ ......................................... 72
S oil P properties ..................................... ................... 77
Engineering Index Properties ...................................77
Physical and Chemical Properties ..........................78
Soil and Water Features .........................................79
Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Analyses
of Selected Soils ........................ ................... 80
Engineering Index Test Data ..................................... 81























Classification of the Soils ........................................ 83
Soil Series and Their Morphology ................................ 83
Albany Series ................ ...................................... 83
Blanton Series ....................................................... 84
Chaires Series ......................................................... 85
Clara Series ........................................................... 85
Dorovan Series ...................................................... 86
Eunola Series .......................................................... 86
Garcon Series ..... ....... .................. 87
Harbeson Series ...................................................... 88
Hurricane Series .................................................... 88
Leon Series ............................................................ 89
Lynn Haven Series ................................................. 90
Mandarin Series ..................................................... 90
Meadowbrook Series ................... .................. 91
Oaky Series ........................................................... 92
Ortega Series......................................................... 92
Otela Series ............................................................. 97
Ousley Series ...... .... ..................... 97


Pamlico Series ....................................................... 98
Pantego Series ............................ .......................... 98
Penney Series ........................................................ 99
Plummer Series ..................................................... 99
Rawhide Series ........................... ...................... 100
Ridgewood Series .................................................. 101
Sapelo Series ...................................... ................ 101
Shadeville Series ........................ ...................... 102
Surrency Series .......................... ...................... 102
Tooles Series .............................. ..................... 103
W ampee Series .................................. .................. 103
W ekiva Series ................... .................. ............... 104
W esconnett Series ...................... ...................... 105
Form ation of the Soils ................... ..................... 107
Factors of Soil Formation...................................... 107
Processes of Horizon Differentiation ...................... 108
References .............. ......................................... 111
Glossary ............. .............................................. 113
Tables ........ ...... ............................................ 121


Issued 1998
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) .................. .... ................. 122

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 2) ......................... 123

Growing season (table 3) ............................................... ................... 123

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) ......................... 124

Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5) ....................................... 125

Woodland management and productivity (table 6) ................................... 126

Recreational development (table 7) ........................ ........................ 140

Wildlife habitat (table 8) ................. ........................ 146

Building site develop ent (table 9) ......................... ........................ 150

Sanitary facilities (table 10) ............ ............................................... 156

Construction materials (table 11) ......................... ........................... 163

W ater m management (table 12) ................................. .... ................... 168

Engineering index properties (table 13) .............................................. 176

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 14) ........................ 185

Soil and w ater features (table 15) .......................... ......................... 191

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 16)....................................... 195

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 17) ...................................... 197

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 18) ......................................... 199

Engineering index test data (table 19) ................................................ 200

Classification of the soils (table 20) ..................................................... 201



















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that affects land use planning in Lafayette
County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The survey also
highlights soil limitations, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers, foresters,
and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan land
use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to ensure
proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in
recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the
survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Various land use regulations of Federal, State, and local governments may impose
special restrictions on land use or land treatment. The information in this report is
intended to identify soil properties that are used in making various land use or land
treatment decisions. Statements made in this report are intended to help the land
users identify and reduce the effects of soil limitations that affect various land uses.
The landowner or user is responsible for identifying and complying with existing laws
and regulations.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some soils
are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock. Some are too
unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are
poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil
poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this soil
survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location of each
soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is described.
Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this publication and
additional information are available at the local office of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.





T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service














Soil Survey of


Lafayette County, Florida


By Robert L. Weatherspoon, Keith Anderson, William Anzalone,
Richard Bednarek, John Chibirka, Eddie Cummings, Rodney Dahl,
Charlie French, Dale Jakel, William R. Johnson, Richard W. Neilson,
and Dan Shurtliff, Natural Resources Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil and Water Science Department,
and the Florida Department of Agricultural and Consumer Services


LAFAYETTE COUNTY is in the north-central part of Florida
(fig. 1). It is more than 30 miles long and extends from the
Madison County line to the Dixie County line. At its widest
point, which is between the Suwannee River and Taylor
County, the county is about 29 miles wide. Lafayette
County is bounded on the west and southwest by Taylor
County and on the south by Dixie County. The Suwannee
River, made famous by Stephen Foster's song, separates
Lafayette County from Suwannee and Gilchrist Counties
to the east.
The total area of Lafayette Counly is about 348,928
acres, or about 545 square miles. The county seat is
Mayo, which is located in the north-central part of the
county.
In 1990 the population of Lafayette County was
about 5,578, which represents an increase of 38 percent
since 1980. During the same period, the population of
Mayo increased about 3 percent to a total of 917. The
housing developments and apartments within the city
limits attract both townspeople and newcomers to the
area.
Agriculture, forestry, timber, and dairy operations
are the principal sources of income in Lafayette
County, and many related enterprises support these
industries.
Only the Eunola soils in Lafayette County meet all of
the requirements for prime farmland soils, as defined by
the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The other soils are
either too wet as a result of the seasonal high water
table or flooding or are too drought during the growing
season.


Figure 1.-Location of Lafayette County in Florida.


General Nature of the County
This section provides general information about the
county. It describes the history and development; climate;







Soil Survey


geomorphology, geology, and hydrogeology; mineral
and energy resources; farming; recreation; and
transportation.

History and Development

Lafayette County was created by an act of the General
Assembly of Florida on December 23, 1856. The act
created Lafayette and Taylor Counties out of part of
Madison County, which was formed from part of Jackson
County in 1827. The county was established eleven years
after Florida was admitted into the union, and it was
named in honor of Marquis de Lafayette.
Florida was occupied by three major group of Indians.
The Calosa were in the southwestern part of the state, the
Apalachees were west of the Aucilla River, and the
Timicuas lived in an area that included present-day
Lafayette County. The first European known to come into
the survey area was the Spanish explorer, Navarez, who
crossed the Suwannee River near present-day Old Town
about May 17, 1528.
By 1650, the Spanish had established many missions
between St. Augustine and Tallahassee. In April 1818,
General Andrew Jackson successfully led two thousand
Tennessee Volunteers and American Regulars and a large
group of Creek Indians through the survey area to drive
out the Seminole Indians on the Spanish-Florida border.
Afterwards, settlers from Georgia, Alabama, and the
Carolinas began migrating into the area. In 1860, the
census reported 2,068 people in Lafayette County.
Most residents during this time were farmers or
laborers. The crops that were grown in the area included
cotton, corn, oats, rye, rice, sugarcane, and potatoes.
In the early 1900's, Lafayette County reached a peak
population of almost 7,000 people, and new steel bridges
spanned the Suwannee River at Brandford and Luraville.
In 1921, the southern part of Lafayette County was lost
when Dixie County was created.
Lafayette County currently has a population of 5,578
and a total area of 545 square miles, or 348,928 acres.
Agriculture is still an important part of the economy. The
county contains about 95,847 acres of cropland, which
yields a gross income of $32,910, and 286,790 acres of
woodland, which yields a gross income of $28,477,000.
The main agricultural industries include dairy, beef, swine,
and poultry operations; the production of field crops; and
woodland operations. The main field crops include
tobacco, watermelons, corn, peanuts, soybeans, peas,
wheat, oats, and sorghum.
The major employers include Mayo Correctional, the
Lafayette County School District, Lafayette County, FRP
Industries, Central Florida Lands and Timber, Lafayette
Forest Products, Gillman Paper Company, Croft's
Thriftway, and J&J Gas Company.


Climate

Lafayette County has a moderate climate that is
favorable for the production of crops, livestock, and pine
forests. Summers are long, hot, and humid. Winters,
although punctuated by periodic invasions of cool to
occasionally cold air from the north, are generally mild
because the county is located at a southern latitude and is
only a short distance from the relatively warm Gulf of
Mexico.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation for
the survey area as recorded in the period 1957 to 1987.
Table 2 shows probable dates of the first freeze in fall and
the last freeze in spring. Table 3 provides data on length of
the growing season.
The mean annual precipitation in Lafayette County is
50.46 inches, based on data from nearby Perry, Florida.
October and November are the driest months. About 60
percent of the annual precipitation falls from April through
September. About once every 10 years, however,
excessive rainfall during the spring causes rivers to
overflow their banks. Heavy summer thundershowers can
produce 2 or 3 inches of rainfall in 1 or 2 hours. Day-long
rains during the summer are rare. They are generally
associated with tropical storms. The average relative
humidity is about 75 percent.
Hail falls occasionally during thundershowers, but the
hailstones are generally small in size and seldom cause
much damage. Snow is very rare, and it generally melts
as it hits the ground.
Tropical storms can strike the area any time from early
June through November. Hurricane-force winds rarely
develop because of the inland location of the county. The
winds and rain associated with the tropical storms can
cause timber and crop damage and local flooding.
Extended dry periods can occur any time during the
year, but they are most common in the spring and fall.
These dry periods can adversely affect the growth of
plants and crops. The high temperatures in summer can
also affect plants during dry periods because of the
increased evaporation rate.
Tornadoes occasionally accompany heavy
thunderstorms or tropical storms. They generally cause
limited damage in local areas.

Geomorphology, Geology, and
Hydrogeology
Jonathan D. Arthur, Florida Geological Survey. prepared this section.

Geomorphology
Lafayette County lies within both the Northern and
Central geomorphic zones, according to White (28). The
Northern Zone is described as broad highlands that run







Lafayette County, Florida


MADISON COUNTY X I



4r- STATE / COUNTY ROADS
A- U.S. HIGHWAY
O-r WELL LOCATION
-__- A DAY S CROSS SECTION LOCATION
W- 4942 SWAMP
A SPRING 0 2

| 0 2 4
W-6534 % SCA





4-0
I --W-3014

S. SAN W-400

-I 'PEDRO A- MAYO
H BAY Y A
A A W-20A, 0 ,W- 1576 A 0



I W-15954 -5
44- k- 4BAY A W-1580

| 4- f- W-1866
W-15951 -4r- fc 4
-'k_ J NORTHERN ZONE--
1 --- -- --
k- ILI C5 CENTRAL ZONE

MALLORY SWAMP
"- =k W-1578 A k
__
LI W ODf C Or eN
DIXIE COUNTY


-


4 MILES

6 KILOMETERS
LE


Figure 2.-Geomorphic features in Lafayette County and the locations of cross sections.


from the East Coast across the Florida Panhandle. The
Central Zone generally consists of a series of valleys that
separate coast-parallel ridges; however, none of the
Central Zone ridges are within Lafayette County. The


maximum elevations in Lafayette County are in the
Northern Zone, and they are more than 120 feet above
mean sea level (MSL). The lowest elevations, which are
less than 25 feet MSL, are in the Suwannee River Basin in







Soil Survey


the southeastern part of the county and along the
Steinhatchee River in the southwestern corner of the
county.
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands is a major geomorphic
province that lies within both the Northern and Central
Zones. It encompasses all of Lafayette County. This
geomorphic province is typically a flat, sandy plain that is
commonly incised by river and stream valleys. It also
contains relict beach ridge deposits and wetlands. In
Lafayette County, however, the only paleo-coastal
feature is the relatively flat topography due to terracing
by Plio-Pleistocene seas. Healy's map of Florida's
terraces and shorelines (12) indicates that most of the
county lies within the elevation range of the Wicomico
marine terrace, or about 70 to 100 feet above mean sea
level.
Wetlands make up about one-half of Lafayette County


MSL 0


-50





-75


--100


(fig. 2). In addition to the flat, low-lying topography of the
county, the location of these swampy areas is also
controlled by hydrogeological factors. Refer to the
"Hydrogeology" section for a discussion of the relationship
between hydrogeology and the wetlands in Lafayette
County.
The most extensive wetlands in the survey area are
San Pedro Bay and Mallory Swamp. San Pedro Bay is
along the western edge of the county, and Mallory Swamp
is in the south-central third of the county. The surface
drainage from Mallory Swamp is limited. Water drains
toward the south and southwest, eventually draining into
the Steinhatchee River in Dixie County via Eight Mile
Creek. Mallory Swamp drains into the Suwannee River via
one or two intermittent tributaries. San Pedro Bay is
drained via tributaries of the Steinhatchee River, including
Reedy, Wolf, Owl, and Kettle Creeks, which are in the


0)0

3 Undifferentiated L 0 0
Sand and Clay I
F-rz


Ocala Limestone





SCALE
0 2 4 MILES
Avon Park
0 2 4 6 KILOMETERS


VERTICAL EXAGGERATION
200 264 TIMES TRUE SCALE
NO SAMPLES


Suwonnee
Limestone

cala Limestone






Formation


TD = 1111' BLS


TD = 1113' BS


-300


NNW


SSE


Figure 3.-Geologic cross section of A to A'.







Lafayette County, Florida





B


TD = 1111' BLS


Limestone


Avon Park


SCALE
0 2 4 MILES
0 2 4 6 KILOMETERS
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION
264 TIMES TRUE SCALE
j NO SAMPLES


Formation


TD = 4560' BLS


TD = 1100' BLS


TD = 3507' BLS


wE


Figure 4.-Geologic cross section of B to B'.


southwestern part of Lafayette County. The head waters
of the Steinhatchee River originate in the clayey sands in
the central part of the county.
The Suwannee River makes up the eastern border of
Lafayette County. The soils that are adjacent to the
Suwannee River include the somewhat poorly drained
Albany, Garcon, and Ousley soils and the very poorly
drained Meadowbrook soils. The Suwannee River
Valley extends three to five miles into Lafayette County
and is floored by limestone. These Eocene limestones
have outcrops along the river, especially during the dry


season. Due to artesian conditions in the Floridan aquifer
system (see the "Hydrogeology" section), numerous
springs are along the Suwannee and Steinhatchee
Rivers.
The springs in Lafayette County that flow into the
Suwannee River include Alan Mill Pond and Blue, Convict,
Fletcher, Mearson, Owens, Perry, Ruth, Troy, and Turtle
Springs. Iron Spring and Steinhatchee Spring are
associated with the Steinhatchee River. Of the 12 springs
in Lafayette County, Troy Spring is the only one that is
classified as a first magnitude spring (20). This


MSL 0


Suwannee
Limestone


-100






--200






--300








Soil Survey


classification indicates that the spring has an average
discharge of 100 cubic feet per second or more.
Geology
Lafayette County is underlain by several thousand feet
of sedimentary rocks. The basement rocks beneath the
region are made up of Paleozoic (Ordovician through
Devonian) quartz sandstones and shales (3) which are
found at a depth of more than 4,000 feet below land
surface (bls). These rocks have been penetrated by oil
test wells and are part of the Paleozoic Suwannee
Basin. The oldest geologic unit penetrated by water
wells is the Eocene Avon Park Formation. The Eocene
through Oligocene units make up the upper part of the
Floridan aquifer system in the region, which is the
county's main source of drinking water. The following
summary of the geology of Lafayette County will be
limited to these Eocene-age and younger rocks. Figure 2
shows the location of geologic cross sections, which are
shown in figures 3 and 4, depicting subsurface
relationships of these geologic units. Interpretations in
the cross sections are based on the analysis of wells
shown in figure 2 and data from wells that are not shown.
Figure 5 is a generalized geologic map that indicates the
extent of near-surface (20 feet or less bls) stratigraphic
units.
Eocene Series

Avon Park Formation. The Avon Park Formation (17)
underlies all of Lafayette County. It generally consists of
tan to buff dolostones and dolomitic limestones that have
occasional organic-rich laminations. This formation ranges
in age from approximately 47 to 43 million years old
(mya), which corresponds to the Middle Eocene Epoch.
The Lower to Middle Eocene Oldsmar Limestone lies
beneath the Avon Park Formation in Lafayette County at a
depth of more than 900 feet bls. The examination of well
cuttings indicates that the uppermost part of the Avon Park
Formation is generally a tan to grayish-orange, sucrosic
dolostone. The most diagnostic fossils recognized in
cuttings are the foraminifera Dictyoconus sp. and
Coskinolina floridana. A variety of echinoids is also found
in this unit. The Avon Park Formation is fairly uniform in
thickness beneath Lafayette County, ranging from 500 to
700 feet thick (17). It thickens to more than 800 feet in the
south-bordering counties (19). The top of the formation is
between 110 to 160 feet bis and is unconformably overlain
by the Ocala Limestone.
No samples were recovered from intervals at or very
near the top of the Avon Park Formation in the three wells
used in this study. These intervals may be indicative of
cavities formed from carbonate dissolution at the
formation boundary. Alternatively, the lack of recovery may


be the result of washout of unconsolidated, possibly
organic-rich sediments that are occasionally found in this
stratigraphic position.
Ocala Limestone. The Ocala Limestone, which was first
named by Dall and Harris (8), consists of white to light
gray limestone that has a diverse fossil assemblage. This
formation is Late Eocene in age (approximately 40 to 38
mya) and contains characteristic fossils, such as the
formaminifera Lepidocyclina sp. and echinoids such as
Eupatagus antillarum. Other fossils observed in the unit
include pelecypods, bryzoans, gastropods, and additional
foraminifera such as Nummulities. The top of the Ocala
Limestone is either a surface exposure or an
unconformable contact with the Suwannee Limestone or
the Hawthorn Group of undifferentiated sands and clays.
Accordingly, the depth to the top of the formation ranges
from the surface to approximately 90 feet bls. An analysis
of well cuttings and core selected for this study suggests
that the Ocala Limestone ranges in thickness from 70 to
160 feet.
Dolostones observed at the top of the Ocala Limestone
may be part of the Steinhatchee Dolomite Member. The
Steinhatchee Dolomite has been described by Puri as a
tan, granular, impure dolostone that occurs in the basal
position of the Crystal River Formation (upper Ocala

Limestone) outcropping near Horseshoe Beach in Dixie
County (19). Scott (22), however, has observed other
dolostones that are similar in appearance and are
interbedded with and at the top of the upper Ocala
Limestone in the region. He notes that other unpublished
field studies have found Oligocene-age fossils in some of
these dolostone lithologies. In order to better understand
the age, occurrence, and extent of the Steinhatchee
Dolomite Member, further study is needed.
Oligocene Series

Suwannee Limestone. The occurrence of the Lower
Oligocene Suwannee Limestone (7) beneath Lafayette
County is sporadic. This unit, which ranges in age from 38
to 33 mya, consists of a thin discontinuous layer above the
Ocala Limestone. It is unconformably overlain by
Hawthorn Group sediments. The lithology of the
Suwannee Limestone, as observed from well cuttings,
ranges from a light to tannish gray limestone to a tan
sucrosic dolostone. Fossils in the unit include gastropods,
pelecypods, echinoids (for example, Rhyncholampus
gouldii), abundant milliolids, and other benthic
foraminifera, such as Dictyoconus sp. The top of the
Suwannee Limestone is found at a depth of 30 to 80 feet
bis. The thickness of the unit ranges from 0 to 25 feet. The
formation erosionally pinches out to the northeast against
the Ocala Limestone, where the Ocala occurs as a
stratigraphic high and crops out in a band paralleling the







Lafayette County, Florida 7




MADISON COUNTY

... ... 77 EXPLANATION

n. .7.:q POST-MIOCENE CLAYEY SAND
*- MIOCENE HAWTHORN GROUP -N-

.. .. EOCENE OCALA LIMESTONE


7 o '1- 0 2 4 MILES

77_-.o- 0 2 4 6 KILOMETERS


































DIXIE COUNTY
0 7...




























Figure 5.-A geologic map of Lafayette County. The map reflects the geologic formations encountered at a depth of 20 feet or less.

Suwannee River (figs. 3 and 5). Toward the west-central Miocene Series
part of the county, as evidenced by W-15954 (fig. 4), the
formation is also absent. Existing data suggests that the Hawthorn Group. Hawthorn Group sediments (22) are
extent of the Suwannee Limestone is limited to the central Miocene in age (approximately 25 to 5 mya) and generally
part of the county. consist of phosphatic siliciclastics (sands, silts and clays)
-'7 .77HF H EH H
-_H-HEH 77-*--EE


DIXIE OUNTY

Fiur 5-- golgi mpofLaaytt Cuny.Th apreletsth golgi oraton econtre.a..dpt.o 2.fetorles
Suwannee~7 ...... 7.g.3ad5.Twr h ws-eta icn Sre
part ~~~ ~ ~ ~_ of the *ounty, aseiecd7yW194(fg.)h
formtio isals abent Exstig daa sggets hattheHawhor Grup. awtornGrop sdimnts(22 ar







Soil Survey


and carbonates. In Lafayette County, the Hawthorn Group
sediments are noticeably less fossiliferous than the
underlying Eocene and Oligocene carbonates. Samples of
the Hawthorn Group in Lafayette County include
lithologies of white, sandy, phosphatic carbonate and very
pale orange to light gray phosphatic clay. Some of the
clayey lithologies can be considered "hard rock"
phosphate. The subsurface extent of the Hawthorn
sediments approximately coincides with that of the
underlying Suwannee Limestone. In limited areas, the
Hawthorn Group may lie unconformably above the Ocala
Limestone (fig. 3). The depth to the top of the Hawthorn
Group, where present, ranges from 5 to 45 feet bls.
Available data indicate that all of this unit is overlain by
Post-Micocene sediments. Figure 5 shows three locations
where Hawthorn Group sediments lie within 20 feet of land
surface in the Northern geomorphic zone. The Hawthorn
Group averages 20 feet thick and ranges from 0 to 40 feet
thick in the subsurface of Lafayette County.
Post-Miocene Series

Undifferentiated Sands and Clays. The distribution of
post-Miocene series (younger than 5 mya) clayey sands is
shown in figure 5. Deposits more than 20 feet thick are
limited to the central and western parts of the county.
These sediments lie above the Hawthorn Group
sediments, the Suwannee Limestone, or the Ocala
Limestone (figs. 3 and 4). They are generally moderate
yellowish brown to brown in color and have variable
amounts of organic material. The thickness ranges from 0
to 45 feet, and it averages about 25 feet.
Hydrogeology
Ground water is the water within pore spaces of rocks
and sediments in the subsurface layer. When the pore
spaces are interconnected (permeable), ground water is
free to flow under the influence of gravity or pressure. If
the pore spaces are not present or are not interconnected,
such as in clay-rich strata, the flow of the ground water is
restricted. The physical parameters of rocks as they relate
to ground water movement and storage have led to the
classification of hydrogeologic units in Florida (23). In
Lafayette County, the main units include the surficial
aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the
Floridan aquifer system. An aquifer system is "a
heterogeneous body of intercalated permeable and poorly
permeable material that functions regionally as a water-
yielding hydraulic unit" (18).
The extent of the surficial aquifer system in the county
has not been well defined. This aquifer system is a water-
table aquifer (unconfined) within post-Miocene clayey
sands of the central and western parts of the county. In
the San Pedro Bay area of adjacent Taylor County, a


surficial (water table) aquifer system that reaches a
maximum thickness of 50 feet has been reported (6).
The intermediate confining unit, where present, is
comprised of clayey Miocene (Hawthorn Group)
sediments and, in some cases, relatively clay-rich post-
Miocene sediments. A map that shows general
hydrogeologic conditions of the region (6) delineates a
"Class II-semiconfined Floridan aquifer," which roughly
corresponds to the distribution of clayey sands shown in
figure 5. The "Class II" area includes the central and
western parts of Lafayette County and presumably the
surficial aquifer system, which may overlie the confining
unit in places. A thin (less than 5 feet thick) Miocene
confining unit was also reported to be beneath the surficial
aquifer system in the San Pedro Bay area of Taylor
County.
As previously noted, the Floridan aquifer system is the
major source of drinking water in Lafayette County. It
underlies the entire county and is approximately 1,250 to
1,475 feet thick (17). The depth to this aquifer system
ranges from the surface to about 60 feet bls. Along the
Suwannee River and the southern border of the county,
the Floridan aquifer system is unconfined (6). The
uppermost geologic formation of this system includes the
Suwannee Limestone, where present, or the Ocala
Limestone.
The potentiometric surface of an aquifer system reflects
the surface (or elevation) to which the ground water will
rise due to hydrostatic pressure. When an aquifer system
is confined by overlying impermeable beds, the
potentiometric surface may be situated above the land
surface. Under such (artesian) conditions, if an unconfined
path exists between the aquifer system and the surface,
the ground water will flow freely at the surface in the form
of seeps and springs. As noted in the "Geomorphology"
section and shown in figure 2, numerous springs occur
along the Suwannee and Steinhatchee Rivers, indicating
that the ground water in those areas is under some
amount of pressure from the Floridan aquifer system with
respect to the river stage.
In addition to the presence of springs, the
potentiometric surface is also one of the variables that
influences the location and extent of wetlands in the
county. Figure 5 shows that carbonates of the Floridan
aquifer system comprise the majority of the bedrock in the
region. Approximately half of the county lacks a significant
aquifer confining unit (6), and the potentiometric surface of
the Floridan aquifer system is at or near land-surface
elevation (4). These combined factors cause standing
water conditions, or wetlands, when drainage and
evaporation do not counter the effects. In areas where
wetlands lie above the intermediate confining unit clayeyy
sands) and the potentiometric surface is high, surficial








Lafayette County, Florida


waters are unable to infiltrate into the ground and wetland
conditions are thus sustained.

Mineral and Energy Resources

Lafayette County has several potential geological
resources; however, no commercial development of these
resources is currently taking place (24). Surficial deposits
in the county include clayey sand, limestone, and peat. In
the deep subsurface layers, test wells have been drilled in
search of oil and gas.
Sand and Clay
Surficial sediment deposits in the county are mainly
clayey sands (15) (fig. 5). No commercial deposits of sand
or clay are reported or mined. Small, localized borrow pits
that are scattered throughout the county have been used
for roadfill. The underlying sediments (the Hawthorn
Group) may contain thin, localized layers of clay (5);
however, none are suitable for mining.
Limestone and Dolostone
Surface exposures of limestone are along the
Suwannee River (15), and limestone and dolostone are in
the southwestern corner of the county near the
Steinhatchee River (fig. 5). Five limestone quarries are
known to have been in operation in the county; however,
none are currently active. The Dowling Pit, which was
most recently active, is in the northeastern corner of the
county, adjacent to the Suwannee River (21). The
remaining quarry sites are also along the Suwannee River
and probably developed product from the Ocala
Limestone.
Peat
Localized peat deposits are associated with wetland
areas in Lafayette County. A statewide investigation of
peat deposits revealed peat in swamps in the south-
central part of Lafayette County (Mallory Swamp) and
about 2 miles south-southwest of Mayo in Bear Bay (9).
However, no data is available for the occurrence of fuel-
grade peat deposits (11). Dorovan and Pamlico soils are
organic soils. They are on the detailed soil maps in map
units 10 and 11.
Oil and Gas
During the 1940's, the first oil and gas exploration wells
wildcatss) were drilled in Lafayette County. To date, a total
of eight wildcats have been drilled to a depth of 3,507 to
10,077 feet bls. All of these wells were dry and were
subsequently plugged. As our nation's energy resources
and needs are reassessed, a renewed interest in the


Paleozoic sediments beneath Lafayette County may lead
to future drilling. In the near future, however, no drilling for
oil and gas is proposed.

Farming

Lafayette County is a general farming and tree-
producing area. The main crops are corn, tobacco,
soybeans, peanuts, watermelon, small grains, and a few
vegetables. Most of the crops are grown in the northern
part of the county.
Most of the soils that are used for crops in Lafayette
County are deep, drought sands that are subject to water
erosion and wind erosion. Historically, deep plowing and
clean cultivation have been used in this county. Gully-
control structures, grassed waterways, windbreaks, and
permanent vegetative cover are needed to help control
erosion.
The enactment of legislation in 1937 to create Soil
Conservation District stirred the interest of many
landowners in Lafayette County. The Lafayette County
Soil and Water Conservation District has promoted
farming, tree planting, and other farming practices with the
goal of assisting farmers, public agencies, and other land
users with problems related to soil and water
conservation. This soil survey is part of that assistance.
For more information about farming, see the section
"Crops and Pasture" in this publication.

Recreation

Lafayette County offers a wide variety of opportunities
for recreation. Many of these are dependent on the
county's wide open spaces and its favorable climate.
Lafayette County has two parks in its boundary. Blue
Spring Park is the most popular recreation site in the
county. The spring that rises within the park and flows
southward attracts thousands of swimmers, divers,
canoers, and other visitors each year (fig. 6). Troy Spring
County Park offers water activities on the Suwannee
River. Camping, hiking, picnicking, and observing wildlife
are popular activities.
The county's rivers provide opportunities for canoeing,
kayaking, swimming, diving, and sightseeing. The great
Suwannee River Canoeing and Kayaking Competition has,
been held on a part of the Suwannee River that borders
Suwannee County.
Recreational activities of a more organized nature are
found in or near Mayo. Facilities are available for outdoor
games, baseball, tennis, racquetball, and basketball ih
Mayo. Civic clubs and church groups sponsor many of
these activities.







Soil Survey


Figure 6.-Blue Springs attracts thousands of swimmers, divers, canoers, and other visitors each year.


Transportation
In Lafayette County, many county, state, and federal
highways facilitate the transportation of goods from farm
to market. The major highways are U.S. Highways 27 and
51. Interstates 1-10 and 1-75 run to the north and east of
the county.

How This Survey Was Made

This survey was made to provide information about the
soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a discussion
of the suitability, limitations, and management of the soils
for specified uses. Soil scientists observed the steepness,
length, and shape of slopes; the general pattern of
drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants growing on
the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes
to study the soil profile, which is the sequence of natural
layers, or horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the
surface down into the unconsolidated material from which
the soil formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of
roots and other living organisms and has not been
changed by other biological activity.


The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
that is related to the geology, landforms, relief, climate,
and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind of soil is
associated with a particular kind of landscape or with a
segment of the landscape. By observing the soils in the
survey area and relating their position to specific
segments of the landscape, a soil scientist develops a
concept, or model, of how the soils were formed. Thus,
during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to
predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind of
soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge into
one another as their characteristics gradually change. To
construct an accurate soil map, however, soil scientists
must determine the boundaries between the soils. They
can observe only a limited number of soil profiles.
Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented by an
understanding of the soil-landscape relationship, are
sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an area
and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and







Lafayette County, Florida


other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind and
character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the same
taxonomic class in other areas so that they could confirm
data and assemble additional data based on experience
and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists interpret
the data from these analyses and tests as well as the
field-observed characteristics and the soil properties to
determine the expected behavior of the soils under
different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils are field
tested through observation of the soils in different uses
under different levels of management. Some
interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, and
some new interpretations are developed to meet local
needs. Data are assembled from other sources, such as
research information, production records, and field
experience of specialists. For example, data on crop
yields under defined levels of management are assembled
from farm records and from field or plot experiments on
the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over long
periods of time, but they are not predictable from year to
year. For example, soil scientists can predict with a fairly
high degree of accuracy that a given soil will have a high
water table within certain depths in most years, but they
cannot assure that a high water table will always be at a
specific level in the soil on a specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the significant
natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they drew the
boundaries of these bodies on aerial photographs and
identified each as a specific map unit. Aerial photographs
show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and rivers, all of which
help in locating boundaries accurately.

Map Unit Composition

A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an area
dominated by one major kind of soil or an area dominated
by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is identified and


named according to the taxonomic classification of the
dominant soil or soils. Within a taxonomic class there are
precisely defined limits for the properties of the soils. On
the landscape, however, the soils are natural objects. In
common with other natural objects, they have a
characteristic variability in their properties. Thus, the range
of some observed properties may extend beyond the limits
defined for a taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single
taxonomic class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without
including areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, each map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils in other
taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units, the latter
soils are called inclusions or included soils. In the general
soil map units, they are called soils of minor extent.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral patterns
similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in the map
unit, and thus they do not affect use and management.
These are called noncontrasting (similar) inclusions. They
may or may not be mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have properties
and behavior divergent enough to affect use or require
different management. These are contrasting (dissimilar)
inclusions. They generally occupy small areas and cannot
be shown separately on the soil maps because of the
scale used in mapping. The inclusions of contrasting soils
are mentioned in the map unit descriptions. A few
inclusions may not have been observed and consequently
are not mentioned in the descriptions, especially where
the soil pattern was so complex that it was impractical to
make enough observations to identify all of the kinds of
soils on the landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses in
small areas.

Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar

In Lafayette County, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR)
system (10, 14) was used to document the type and
variability of soils that occur in the detailed map units.
Random transects were made with the GPR and by hand.
Information from notes and ground-truth observations
made in the field were used with radar data from this
study to classify the soils and to determine the
composition of map units. The map units described in the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units" are based on this data.












Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information

The statements about soil behavior in this survey can
be thought of in terms of probability; they are predictions
of soil behavior. The behavior of a soil depends not only
on its own properties but on responses to such variables
as climate and biological activity. Long-term soil conditions
are predictable, but predictable reliability is less for any
given year. For example, while soil scientists can state
that a given soil has a high water table in most years, they
cannot say with certainty that the water table will be
present next year.
Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
probability that the composition of a map unit or a property
of the soil will vary within prescribed limits. Confidence
limits can be assigned numerical values based on a
random sample. In the absence of specific data to
determine confidence limits, the natural variability of soils
and the methods used to make soil surveys must be
considered. The composition of map units and other
information are derived largely from extrapolations made
from small samples. Also, the information relates only to


soils within a depth of 6 feet. The information presented in
the soil survey is not meant to be used as a substitute for
onsite investigation. Soil survey information can be used
to select from among alternative practices or to select
general designs that may be needed to minimize the
possibility of soil-related failures. It cannot be used to
interpret specific points on the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
units in Lafayette County were determined by random
transects with the GPR across mapped areas. The data
are statistically summarized in the description on each soil
in the "Detailed Soil Map Units" section. Soil scientists
made enough transects and took enough samples to
characterize each map unit at a specific confidence level.
This means, for example, that the resulting composition
would read "in 80 percent of the areas mapped as Penney
sand, the percentage of Penney soil will be within the
range given in the map unit description. In about 20
percent of this map unit, the percentage of Penney soil is
higher or lower than the given range."
The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
map units was based on the judgment of the soil scientist
and by a statistical procedure.


















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of soils,
relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general soil
map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it consists of
one or more major soils and some minor soils. It is named
for the major soils. The soils making up one unit can occur
in another but in a different pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure.
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place in
slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that
affect management.
Soils on Sand Ridges
The general soil map unit in this group consists of
excessively drained, nearly level to moderately sloping
sandy soils that are on uplands. Most of the soils are
sandy throughout the profile. The mapped areas are in the
northeastern part of the county and adjoin Suwannee
County and Madison County.
1. Penney
Nearly level to moderately sloping, excessively drained
soils; sandy throughout
This map unit makes up about 27,914 acres, or about 8
percent, of Lafayette County. It is about 95 percent
Penney soils and 5 percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit is in broad areas on uplands. Most of the
areas are in the northeastern part of the county, adjacent
to the Suwannee County line. The landscape is
interspersed with sharp-breaking, long and narrow, steep
slopes. The natural vegetation consists of turkey oak,
bluejack oak, post oak, blackjack oak, live oak, laurel oak,
and scattered areas of pines. The understory consists
mostly of pineland threeawn, indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, greenbriar, and panicum.
Typically, the surface layer of Penney soils is very dark
grayish brown sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying
material is sand to a depth of about 55 inches and fine


sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 17
inches of underlying material is yellowish brown. The next
31 inches is very pale brown. The lower 25 inches is very
pale brown fine sand, and it contains thin layers of
yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Blanton,
Ortega, Otela, and Ridgewood soils. Blanton, Ortega, and
Otela soils are on side slopes. Ridgewood soils are in the
slightly lower, wetter areas.
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture and
planted pines. Most areas are poorly suited for crops,
moderately suited for pasture, and moderately suited for
pine trees. The droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
nutrients are the main limitations for plant growth.
This map unit is well suited for urban development.
Soils on Uplands and Limestone Plains
The two general soil map units in this group consist of
excessively drained to moderately well drained, nearly
level to gently sloping soils. Some are sandy throughout
the profile. Some have loamy material at a depth of more
than 40 inches. The mapped areas are in the northeastern
and southeastern parts of the county along the Suwannee
River.
2. Otela-Penney
Nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained and
moderately well drained soils; some are sandy throughout
and some are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more and
are loamy below that depth
This map unit makes up about 34,893 acres, or about
10 percent, of Lafayette County. It is about 55 percent
Otela soils, 43 percent Penney soils, and 2 percent soils
of minor extent.
This map unit is on uplands that have sinkholes. It is in
the northeastern and southeastern parts of the county.
The depth to limestone is variable, but it is generally below
a depth of 80 inches. The natural vegetation consists of
live oak, laurel oak, post oak, water oak, hickory, slash
pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The understory
consists mostly of lopsided indiangrass, panicums,
greenbriar, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum,
hairy tick clover, dwarf huckleberry, bluestems, and
pineland threeawn.








Soil Survey


Otela soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth
of 60 inches. The upper 15 inches is brown, the next 10
inches is pale brown, the next 9 inches is very pale brown,
and the lower 20 inches is yellowish brown. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 5
inches is yellowish brown sandy loam, the next 10 inches
is yellowish brown sandy loam, and the lower 5 inches is
light gray sandy clay loam.
Penney soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 7 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand that extends to a
depth of 60 inches. The upper 10 inches is yellowish
brown, and the lower 43 inches is very pale brown. Below
this to a depth of 80 inches is very pale brown loamy fine
sand and thin layers of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Albany,
Blanton, Ortega, and Ridgewood soils. These minor soils
generally are in small areas that are intermixed with areas
of major soils.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited for crops,
moderately suited for pasture, and moderately suited for
pine trees. The droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
nutrients are the main limitations for plant growth.
This map unit is well suited for urban development.
3. Blanton-Ortega-Penney
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained and
excessively drained soils; some are sandy to a depth of 40
inches or more and are loamy below that depth, and some
are sandy throughout
This map unit makes up about 10,468 acres, or about 3
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent Blanton soils,
38 percent Ortega soils, 20 percent Penney soils, and 2
percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit is on uplands and along the Suwannee
River. It is in the southeastern part of the county. The
landscape is on uplands and in transitional areas between
uplands and flood plains. It is interspersed with a few
cypress ponds, swamps, and small grassy and wet
depressions. Some of the depressional areas are
connected by narrow drainageways. The natural
vegetation consists of live oak, turkey oak, laurel oak, post
oak, slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The
understory consists mostly of lopsided indiangrass,
panicums, greenbriar, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf
paspalum, hairy tick clover, dwarf huckleberry, bluestems,
and pineland threeawn.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 46 inches.
The upper 23 inches is light yellowish brown, and the
lower 15 inches is very pale brown. The subsoil is sandy


clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 16
inches is brownish yellow, and the lower 20 inches is gray.
Ortega soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand about 6
inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand, and it
extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper part is brown
and pale brown, and the part below a depth of 52 inches is
light gray.
Penney soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 7 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown and very
pale brown sand to a depth of about 55 inches. Below this
depth is about 25 inches of very pale brown fine sand and
thin lamellae of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Albany,
Hurricane, and Ridgewood soils in the uplands and
Surrency, Plummer, and Clara soils in the cypress ponds,
swamps, and small grassy and wet depressions. These
minor soils generally are in small areas that are intermixed
with areas of major soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used for crops, pasture,
and planted pines. A few areas are used for urban
development.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited for crops,
moderately suited for pasture, and moderately well suited
for pine trees. The droughtiness and rapid leaching of
plant nutrients are the main limitations for plant growth.
This map unit is moderately suited to well suited for
urban development.
Soils in Depressions and on Flatwoods and
Transitional Areas Between the Uplands and
Flatwoods
The map units in this group consist of somewhat poorly
drained, poorly drained, and very poorly drained, nearly
level to gently sloping soils. Some of the soils are sandy
throughout the profile, some have a sandy subsoil that is
coated with organic matter, and some have a loamy
subsoil. These map units are throughout the county.
4. Ridgewood-Albany-Hurricane
Nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soils; some are sandy throughout, some are sandy to a
depth of 40 inches or more and have a loamy subsoil, and
some have an organic coated subsoil
This map unit makes up about 17,446 acres, or about 5
percent of the county. It is about 54 percent Ridgewood
soils, 25 percent Albany soils, 15 percent Hurricane soils,
and 6 percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit is in transitional areas between the
flatwoods and the uplands. It is in the southeastern and
northern parts of the county. The landscape is
interspersed with cypress ponds, swamps, and small
grassy and wet depressions. Some of the depressional








Lafayette County, Florida


areas are connected by narrow drainageways. The natural
vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly pine, and
longleaf pine. The understory consists mostly of lopsided
indiangrass, hairy panicum, chalky bluestem, creepy
bluestem, pineland threeawn, grassleaf goldaster, and a
few saw palmettos.
Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand,
and it extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper
12 inches is brown; the next 21 inches is very pale brown;
and the lower 41 inches is light gray.
Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 64
inches. The upper 6 inches is yellowish brown, the next 9
inches is brown, the next 4 inches is light brownish gray,
and the lower 39 inches is light gray. The upper part of the
subsoil is light gray fine sandy loam, and it extends to a
depth of 72 inches. The lower part is light gray sandy clay
loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Hurricane soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand, and it
extends to a depth of 51 inches. The upper 11 inches is
grayish brown, the next 9 inches is brown, and the next 26
inches is pale brown. The subsoil is fine sand, and it
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 4
inches is dark brown, the next 11 inches is dark reddish
brown, and the lower 14 inches is black.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Chaires,
Leon, and Sapelo soils. These minor soils generally are
in small areas that are intermixed with areas of major
soils.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited for crops,
moderately suited for pasture, and well suited for pine
trees. Wetness is the main limitation.
This map unit is moderately suited for urban
development.
5. Sapelo-Surrency-Clara
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils;
some are sandy and have a subsoil coated with organic
matter and a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches,
some are sandy to a depth of 20 inches and are loamy
below that depth, and some are sandy throughout
This map unit makes up about 17,447 acres, or about 5
percent of the county. It is about 53 percent Sapelo soils,
15 percent Surrency soils, 12 percent Clara soils, and 20
percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit is on the flatwoods in the northern part of
the county. The landscape is interspersed with a few slight
knolls and large to small depressions. Some of the


depressional areas are connected by narrow
drainageways. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The
understory consists mostly of saw palmetto, gallberry,
waxmyrtle, dwarf huckleberry, blackberry, bluestems, and
pineland threeawn. In the wetter areas, cypress,
blackgum, sweetbay, red maple, and pond pine are
predominant. In the understory, cordgrass, bullrush, button
bush, elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and
dollarwort are common.
Sapelo soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 28 inches. The
upper 7 inches is gray, and the lower 15 inches is light
gray. The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand, and it
extends to a depth of 60 inches. The upper 6 inches is
black, the next 11 inches is dark reddish brown, and the
lower 15 inches is light gray. The lower part of the subsoil
is fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
upper 13 inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 7
inches is gray.
Surrency soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 10 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 28
inches. The upper 6 inches is light brownish gray, and the
lower 12 inches is light gray. The subsoil is light grayish
brown sandy loam to a depth of 45 inches and is grayish
brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Clara soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine
sand, and it extends to a depth of 18 inches. The subsoil
is fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 5
inches is dark brown, the next 25 inches is brown, and the
lower 32 inches is light brownish gray.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Leon,
Plummer, and Wesconnett soils. These minor soils
generally are in small areas that are intermixed with areas
of major soils.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited for crops
and urban development, well suited for pasture, and
moderately well suited for pine trees. Wetness is the main
limitation. Areas that are ponded for long periods are
unsuited for these uses.
6. Pamlico-Dorovan-Wesconnett
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some have organic
material 16 to 51 inches thick and have a sandy
substratum, some have organic material 51 inches or
more thick, and some are sandy and have an organic
coated subsoil
This map unit makes up about 66,296 acres, or about
19 percent of the county. It is about 32 percent Pamlico







Soil Survey


soils, 26 percent Dorovan soils, 23 percent Wesconnett
soils, and 19 percent soils of minor extent. Most of the
minor soils are on the flatwoods.
This map unit is in depressions on the flatwoods. It is in
the eastern, southern, and northern parts of the county.
The landscape consists mostly of large depressions
interspersed with low flatwood ridges. Some of the
depressional areas are connected by narrow
drainageways. The natural vegetation consists of cypress,
pond pine, Carolina ash, blackgum, sweetbay, and red
maple. The understory consists mostly of cordgrass,
bullrush, button bush, elderberry, water hyacinth,
arrowhead, and dollarwort. Pine trees and an understory
of saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, dwarf huckleberry,
blackberry, bluestems, and pineland threeawn are on the
flatwood ridges.
Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black muck to a depth of about 31 inches.
The underlying material is light brownish gray fine sand to
a depth of 80 inches.
Dorovan soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black muck to a depth of about 45 inches
and is dark reddish brown muck to a depth of 57 inches.
The underlying material is gray fine sand to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Wesconnett soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 14 inches
thick. The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand, and it
extends to a depth of 28 inches. The first 7 inches is
very dark gray, and the lower 7 inches is dark brown.
Below this depth is pale brown fine sand to a depth of 45
inches. The lower part of the subsoil is very dark gray
fine sand to a depth of 61 inches. The underlying
material is light gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Chaires,
Clara, Harbeson, Leon, Lynn Haven, Pantego, and Tooles
soils. These minor soils generally are in small areas that
are intermixed with areas of major soils.
Most areas of this map unit are unsuited for crops,
pasture, planted pine trees, and urban development.
Prolonged wetness is the main limitation.

7. Leon-Wesconnett-Lynn Haven
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
that are sandy and have a subsoil coated with organic
matter
This map unit makes up about 69,786 acres, or about
20 percent of the county. It is about 51 percent Leon soils,
25 percent Wesconnett soils, 20 percent Lynn Haven
soils, and 4 percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit is on the flatwoods in the southern and


northwestern parts of the county. The landscape consists
of broad flatwoods interspersed with a few slight knolls
and depressions. Some of the depressional areas are
connected by narrow drainageways. In the flatwoods, the
natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly pine, and
longleaf pine. The understory consists mostly of saw
palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, dwarf huckleberry,
blackberry, bluestems, and pineland threeawn. In the
wetter areas, cypress, blackgum, sweetbay, red maple,
Carolina ash, and pond pine trees are predominant. The
understory consists mostly of cordgrass, bullrush, button
bush, elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and
dollarweed.
Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is black fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of 10 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is fine
sand, and it extends to a depth of 24 inches. The upper 7
inches is dark reddish brown, and the next 7 inches is
yellowish brown. Below this depth is light gray and light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 63 inches. The lower
part of the subsoil, at a depth of 63 to 80 inches, is very
dark brown fine sand.
Wesconnett soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 14 inches
thick. The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand, and it
extends to a depth of 28 inches. The first 7 inches is very
dark gray, and the lower 7 inches is dark brown. Below
this is pale brown fine sand to a depth of 45 inches. The
lower part of the subsoil is very dark gray fine sand to a
depth of 61 inches. The underlying material is light gray
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Lynn Haven soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 13 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand
to a depth of 19 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
fine sand to a depth of 34 inches. The upper 8 inches is
black, and the next 7 inches is dark yellowish brown.
Below this is a layer of yellowish brown fine sand to a
depth of 52 inches. The lower part of the subsoil, at a
depth of 52 to 80 inches, is dark reddish brown fine
sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Harbeson,
Meadowbrook, and Pamlico soils. These minor soils
generally are in small depressional areas that are
intermixed with areas of major soils.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited for crops,
well suited for pasture, and moderately suited for pine
trees. Wetness is the main limitation. The depressional
areas are unsuited or are poorly suited for these uses.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited for urban
development. The depressional areas are unsuited for
urban uses.








Lafayette County, Florida


8. Chaires-Rawhide-Meadowbrook

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils;
some are sandy and have an organic coated subsoil and a
loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches, some are loamy
within a depth of 20 inches, some are sandy to a depth of
40 inches or more and have a loamy subsoil, and some
have limestone below a depth of 40 inches
This map unit makes up about 69,786 acres, or about
20 percent of the county. It is about 59 percent Chaires
soils, 20 percent Rawhide soils, 13 percent Meadowbrook
soils, and 8 percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit is on the flatwoods in the southwestern
part of the county. The landscape consists of flatwoods
interspersed with a few slight knolls and many
depressions. Some of the depressional areas are
connected by narrow drainageways. In the flatwoods, the
natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly pine, and
longleaf pine. The understory consists mostly of saw
palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, dwarf huckleberry,
blackberry, bluestems, and pineland threeawn. In the
depressions, cypress, blackgum, sweetbay, red maple,
and pond pine are the predominant trees. In the
understory, cordgrass, bullrush, button bush, elderberry,
water hyacinth, arrowhead, and dollarwort are common.
Chaires soils are poorly drained and very poorly
drained. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to
a depth of 24 inches. The upper 6 inches is grayish brown,
and the lower 9 inches is light brownish gray. The upper
part of the subsoil is loamy fine sand to fine sand, and it
extends to a depth of 32 inches. The upper 4 inches is
black, and the next 4 inches is dark brown. Below this is
14 inches of brown fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil
is grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 72 inches
or more.
Rawhide soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 12 inches is black, the next 8
inches is very dark gray, and below this, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is gray.
Meadowbrook soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 8 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 64
inches. The upper 6 inches is light gray, the next 17 inches
is very pale brown, the next 19 inches is light gray, and the
lower 14 inches is brown. The subsoil is gray fine sandy
loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Harbeson,
Leon, and Wesconnett soils. These minor soils generally
are in small areas that are intermixed with areas of major
soils.


Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited for crops,
well suited for pasture, and moderately well suited for pine
trees. Wetness is the main limitation. The depressional
areas are poorly suited or are unsuited for these uses.
This map unit is poorly suited for urban development.
The depressional areas are unsuited.
Soils on the Flood Plains
The map units in this group consist of somewhat poorly
drained, poorly drained, and very poorly drained, nearly
level and gently sloping soils. Some of the soils are sandy
throughout the profile, some are sandy to a depth of 20 to
80 inches and have a loamy subsoil, and some have
stratified layers of sandy, loamy, and clayey material. The
soils are mainly on flood plains along the Suwannee and
Steinhatchee Rivers.
9. Clara-Fluvaquents-Tooles
Nearly level, very poorly and poorly drained soils on flood
plains; some are sandy throughout, some are stratified
with sandy, loamy, and clayey layers, and some are sandy
to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy below that
depth
This map unit makes up about 17,446 acres, or about 5
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent Clara soils, 33
percent Fluvaquents soils, 15 percent Tooles soils, and 12
percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain along
the Suwannee River in the eastern part of the county and
also along the Steinhatchee River in the southern part of
the county. The landscape is interspersed with
depressions. Some of the depressional areas are
connected by narrow drainageways. The natural
vegetation consists of baldcypress, blackgum, sweetbay,
and red maple. The understory consists mostly of
cordgrass, bullrush, button bush, elderberry, water
hyacinth, arrowhead, and dollarwort.
Clara soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface is light brownish gray fine sand, and
it extends to a depth of 18 inches. The subsoil is fine sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 5 inches is
dark brown, the next 25 inches is brown, and the lower 32
inches is light brownish gray.
Fluvaquents are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is mucky fine sand to a depth of about 3
inches. The underlying layers are stratified to a depth of
80 inches or more. Very dark gray sandy clay loam
commonly extends to a depth of 21 inches; the next layer,
to a depth of 29 inches, is dark gray fine sandy loam; and
the next layer, to a depth about 40 inches, is gray loamy
fine sand. Below this depth is gray fine sandy loam that
has white shell fragments.








Soil Survey


Tooles soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark brown fine sand about 6 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of 14 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is fine
sand to a depth of 35 inches. The upper 11 inches is
yellowish brown, and the lower 10 inches is light yellowish
brown. The lower part of the subsoil is light brownish gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of 50 inches, and below this
depth is limestone bedrock.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Chaires,
Harbeson, Leon, Lynn Haven, and Wesconnett soils.
These minor soils generally are in small areas that are
intermixed with areas of major soils.
Most areas of this map unit are unsuited for crops,
pasture, and pine trees. The wetness and flooding are the
main limitations. Some areas that are not flooded for long
periods can support pine trees.
Most areas of this map unit are unsuited for urban
development because of the wetness and flooding.
10. Albany-Meadowbrook-Ousley
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained to
very poorly drained soils on flood plains; some are sandy
to a depth of 40 inches or more and are loamy below that
depth and some are sandy throughout
This map unit makes up about 10,468 acres, or about 3
percent of the county. It is about 30 percent Albany soils,
25 percent Meadowbrook soils, 17 percent Ousley soils,
and 28 percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit is on the long, narrow ridges of the
flood plain along the Suwannee River in the eastern part
of the county. The landscape is interspersed with
depressions. Some of the depressional areas are
connected by narrow drainageways. The natural
vegetation consists of loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
laurel oak, and water oak. The understory consists mostly
of lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum, chalky bluestem,
creepy bluestem, pineland threeawn, grassleaf goldaster,
and switchgrass.
Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 53
inches. The upper 10 inches is yellowish brown, the next 9
inches is brown, the next 4 inches is light brownish gray,
and the lower 24 inches is light gray. The subsoil is sandy
clay loam, and it extends to a depth of 80 inches. The
upper 2 inches is light gray, and the lower 25 inches is
mottled yellowish brown, pale brown, and light gray.
Meadowbrook soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of
45 inches. The subsoil is gray and light gray sandy clay
loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Ousley soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,


the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches
thick. The underlying material is fine sand, and it extends
to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 15 inches is
pale brown, the next 21 inches is brown, the next 17
inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 23 inches is
light gray.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Blanton,
Leon, Ortega, Penney, and Surrency soils. These minor
soils generally are in small areas that are intermixed with
areas of major soils.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited for crops,
moderately suited for pasture, and moderately suited to
highly suited for pine trees. The flooding and wetness are
the main limitations.
This map unit is poorly suited for urban development.
11. Garcon-Meadowbrook-Albany
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained to
very poorly drained soils on flood plains; some are sandy
to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy below that
depth and some are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or
more and are loamy below that depth
This map unit makes up about 6,978 acres, or about 2
percent of the county. It is about 43 percent Garcon soils,
28 percent Meadowbrook soils, 23 percent Albany soils,
and 6 percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit is on the long, narrow ridges of the flood
plain along the Suwannee River in the northeastern part of
the county. The landscape is interspersed with
depressions. Some of the depressional areas are
connected by narrow drainageways. The natural
vegetation consists of loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
laurel oak, and water oak. The understory consists mostly
of lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum, chalky bluestem,
creepy bluestem, pineland threeawn, grassleaf goldaster,
and switchgrass.
Garcon soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 7 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand, and it extends to
a depth of 26 inches. The upper 12 inches is brown, and
the lower 7 inches is very pale brown. The subsoil is
sandy clay loam and sandy loam to a depth of 51 inches.
The upper 14 inches is brownish yellow sandy clay loam
that has light brownish gray and strong brown mottles, and
the lower 11 inches is light brownish gray sandy loam.
Below this to a depth to 60 inches is white loamy fine sand
that has brownish yellow mottles. The next 20 inches
consists of white fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Meadowbrook soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of
45 inches. The subsoil is gray and light gray sandy clay
loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.







Lafayette County, Florida


Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 53
inches. The upper 10 inches is yellowish brown, the next 9
inches is brown, the next 4 inches is light brownish gray,
and the lower 24 inches is light gray. The subsoil is sandy
clay loam, and it extends to a depth of 80 inches. The
upper 2 inches is light gray, and the lower 25 inches is
mottled yellowish brown, pale brown, and light gray.


The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Blanton,
Leon, Ortega, Penney, and Surrency soils. These minor
soils generally are in small areas that are intermixed with
areas of major soils.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited for crops,
moderately suited for pasture, and moderately high to
highly suited for pine trees. The flooding and wetness are
the main limitations.
This map unit is poorly suited for urban development.





















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be used
to plan the management needed for those uses. More
information on each map unit, or soil, is given under the
heading "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils
for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up a
soil series. Except for differences in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of a series
have major horizons that are similar in composition,
thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, and
other characteristics that affect their use. On the basis of
such differences, a soil series is divided into soil phases.
Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil maps are
phases of soil series. The name of a soil phase commonly
indicates a feature that affects use or management. For
example, Penney sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is a phase
of the Penney series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or
undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such an
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot be
shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas.
Oaky-Rawhide, depressional, complex is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be


made up of all of them. Pamlico and Dorovan soils,
depressional, is an undifferentiated group in this survey
area.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and management
of the soils in the map unit. The included soils are
identified in each map unit description. Some small areas
of strongly contrasting soils are identified by a special
symbol on the soil maps.
Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
give properties of the soils and the limitations, capabilities,
and potentials for many uses. The Glossary defines many
of the terms used in describing the soils.

2-Penney sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes

This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is on
uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from about 50 to more than 150 acres in size. The
slope is nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Penney soil is very
dark grayish brown sand about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is yellowish brown and very pale brown
sand to a depth of about 55 inches. Below this is about 25
inches of very pale brown fine sand and thin lamellae of
strong brown loamy fine sand.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Penney sand,
Penney and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the
map unit. The similar soils are coated in the control
section.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent. The dissimilar soils included with these soils in
mapping are small areas of Blanton and Ortega soils and
soils that have sand over rock. Individual areas of
inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size. Blanton and
Ortega soils are moderately well drained and are on the
lower parts of the landscape.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of more
than 72 inches during wet periods in most years. The


















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be used
to plan the management needed for those uses. More
information on each map unit, or soil, is given under the
heading "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils
for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up a
soil series. Except for differences in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of a series
have major horizons that are similar in composition,
thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, and
other characteristics that affect their use. On the basis of
such differences, a soil series is divided into soil phases.
Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil maps are
phases of soil series. The name of a soil phase commonly
indicates a feature that affects use or management. For
example, Penney sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is a phase
of the Penney series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or
undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such an
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot be
shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas.
Oaky-Rawhide, depressional, complex is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be


made up of all of them. Pamlico and Dorovan soils,
depressional, is an undifferentiated group in this survey
area.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and management
of the soils in the map unit. The included soils are
identified in each map unit description. Some small areas
of strongly contrasting soils are identified by a special
symbol on the soil maps.
Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
give properties of the soils and the limitations, capabilities,
and potentials for many uses. The Glossary defines many
of the terms used in describing the soils.

2-Penney sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes

This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is on
uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from about 50 to more than 150 acres in size. The
slope is nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Penney soil is very
dark grayish brown sand about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is yellowish brown and very pale brown
sand to a depth of about 55 inches. Below this is about 25
inches of very pale brown fine sand and thin lamellae of
strong brown loamy fine sand.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Penney sand,
Penney and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the
map unit. The similar soils are coated in the control
section.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent. The dissimilar soils included with these soils in
mapping are small areas of Blanton and Ortega soils and
soils that have sand over rock. Individual areas of
inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size. Blanton and
Ortega soils are moderately well drained and are on the
lower parts of the landscape.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of more
than 72 inches during wet periods in most years. The







Soil Survey


available water capacity is very low. Permeability is rapid
throughout the soil.
These soils are in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological plant community. In most areas, the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine,
sand pine, live oak, post oak, turkey oak, and bluejack
oak. The understory consists of lopsided indiangrass,
hairy panicum, greenbriar, hawthorn, persimmon,
fringeleaf paspalum, hairy tick clover, dwarf huckleberry,
chalky bluestem, creepy bluestem, and pineland
threeawn. Most areas of this soil are used for the
production of planted pine, crops, or pasture.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of droughtiness during dry periods. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, tobacco,
and watermelons are crops that can be grown with
intensive management and the use of good conservation
practices. Using a crop rotation system that includes cover
crops, returning crop residue to the soil, and properly
applying fertilizer and lime are practices that are
necessary for good yields. Irrigation is desirable during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the
topsoil is left unprotected.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture. Deep-
rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. This soil is not suited to shallow-rooting pasture
plants because it cannot retain sufficient moisture in the
rooting zone for good growth.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderate. Sand pine, longleaf pine, and slash pine are
suitable for planting. The thick, sandy texture restricts the
use of wheeled equipment. This limitation can be
overcome by harvesting when the soil is moist. Seedling
mortality, which is caused by droughtiness, can be partially
reduced by increasing the tree planting rate and the
planting depth. Plant competition can be controlled by site
preparation practices, such as chopping or controlled
burning. A harvesting system that leaves most of the
biomass on the surface is recommended.
This soil has slight limitations for dwellings without
basements, local roads and streets, and septic tank
absorption fields (fig. 7). In areas that have a
concentration of homes and septic tank absorption fields,
ground-water contamination can be a hazard because of
poor filtration.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses.
The loose, sandy surface layer is a severe limitation for


trafficability. Suitable topsoil fill material or some other type
of surface stabilization is necessary to overcome this
limitation. Soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or planting
windbreaks can control soil blowing.
This Penney soil is in capability subclass IVs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

4-Blanton-Ortega complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes

These soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are
moderately well drained. They are on uplands. The
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 20 to more than 150 acres in size. The slope is
nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Blanton soil is dark
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is fine sand to a depth of 44 inches. The upper 23 inches
is light yellowish brown, and the lower 15 inches is very
pale brown. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of
80 inches or more. The upper 16 inches is brownish
yellow, and the lower 20 inches is gray.
Typically, the surface layer of the Ortega soil is very
dark grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
underlying material is fine sand, and it extends to a depth
of 80 inches. It is brown and pale brown in the upper part
and light gray below a depth of 52 inches.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Blanton-Ortega
complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Blanton, Ortega, and
similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 55 percent
Blanton and similar soils and about 26 percent Ortega and
similar soils. The components of this map unit are so
intricately intermingled that it was not practical to map
them separately. The proportions and patterns of Blanton,
Ortega, and similar soils are relatively consistent in most
delineations of the map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent. The dissimilar soils included in mapping are small
areas of Albany, Ridgewood, and Penney soils. Individual
areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size. Albany
and Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained and
are on the lower parts of the landscape. Penney soils are
excessively drained and are on the higher parts of the
landscape.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to 72
inches in the Blanton soil. A seasonal high water table is at
a depth of 48 to 60 inches in the Ortega soil for 1 to 3
months during wet periods in most years. It recedes to a
depth of more than 60 inches during the dry periods. The
available water capacity is low. Permeability is moderately








Lafayette County, Florida


7~- tk:


.7. ti-


Figure 7.-An area of Penney sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is well suited to most urban uses.


slow to moderate in the Blanton soil and rapid throughout
the Ortega soil.
These soils are in the mixed Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak
Hills ecological plant community. In most areas, the
natural vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly pine,
longleaf pine, live oak, bluejack oak, laurel oak, post oak,
southern red oak, and turkey oak. The understory consists
of lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum, greenbriar,
hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum, hairy tick
clover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky bluestem, creepy
bluestem, and pineland threeawn. Most areas of this map
unit are used for the production of crops, pasture, or
planted pine.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of droughtiness during dry periods. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, tobacco,
and watermelons are crops that can be grown with
intensive management and the use of good conservation


practices. Using a crop rotation system that includes cover
crops, returning crop residue to the soil, and properly
applying fertilizer and lime are practices that are
necessary for good yields. Irrigation is desirable during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the
topsoil is left unprotected.
This map unit is moderately suited to tame pasture.
Deep-rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooting
pasture plants because the soils cannot retain sufficient
moisture in the rooting zone for good growth.


* ., ..








Soil Survey


The potential productivity for pine trees is high for the
Blanton soil and moderately high for the Ortega soil. Slash
pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable for
planting. The thick, sandy texture restricts the use of
wheeled equipment. This limitation can be overcome by
harvesting when the soils are moist. Seedling mortality,
which is caused by droughtiness, can be partially reduced
by increasing the tree planting rate and the planting depth.
Plant competition can be controlled by site preparation
practices, such as chopping or controlled burning. A
harvesting system that leaves most of the biomass on the
surface is recommended.
This map unit has slight limitations for dwellings without
basements and local roads and streets. It has moderate
limitations for septic tank absorption fields. During wet
periods, the water table may slow the downward
movement of effluent and can become contaminated.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The loose, sandy surface layer limits trafficability.
Suitable topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome this limitation. Soil
blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good
vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control soil
blowing.
The Blanton soil is in capability subclass Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11S. The Ortega soil is in
capability subclass Ills, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 10S.

5-Otela-Penney complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes

These soils are nearly level to gently sloping. The Otela
soil is moderately well drained, and the Penney soil is
excessively drained. These soils are on uplands. The
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 50 to more than 150 acres in size. The slope is
nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Otela soil is dark
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 60 inches. The
upper 15 inches is brown, the next 10 inches is pale
brown, the next 9 inches is very pale brown, and the lower
20 inches is yellowish brown. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 15 inches is
yellowish brown sandy loam, and the lower 5 inches is
light gray sandy clay loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Penney soil is dark
grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of
60 inches. The upper 10 inches is yellowish brown, and
the lower 43 inches is very pale brown. Below this to a
depth of 80 inches is very pale brown fine sand and thin
lamellae of strong brown loamy fine sand.


In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Otela-Penney
complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Otela, Penney, and similar
soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 55 percent Otela
and similar soils and about 43 percent Penney and similar
soils. The components of this map unit are so intricately
intermingled that it was not practical to map them
separately. The proportions and patterns of Otela, Penney,
and similar soils are relatively consistent in most
delineations of the map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent. The dissimilar soils included in mapping are small
areas of Blanton and Ortega soils and areas of soils that
have sand over rock. Individual areas of inclusions are
smaller than 5 acres in size. Blanton and Ortega soils are
moderately well drained and are in the lower parts of the
landscape.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to 72
inches for 1 to 3 months for the Otela soil during wet
periods in most years. The Penney soil has a seasonal
high water table at a depth of more than 72 inches. The
available water capacity is low in the Otela soil and very
low in the Penney soil. Permeability is moderate in the
Otela soil and rapid throughout the Penney soil.
These soils are in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological plant community. In most areas, the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine,
live oak, laurel oak, post oak, turkey oak, water oak, black
cherry, southern redcedar, bluejack oak, and sand pine.
The understory consists of lopsided indiangrass, hairy
panicum, greenbriar, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf
paspalum, hairy tick clover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky
bluestem, creepy bluestem, and pineland threeawn. Most
areas of this map unit are used for the production of
planted pine, crops, or pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of droughtiness during dry periods. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, tobacco,
and watermelons are crops that can be grown with
intensive management and the use of good conservation
practices. Using a crop rotation system that includes cover
crops, returning crop residue to the soil, and properly
applying fertilizer and lime are practices that are
necessary for good yields. Irrigation is desirable during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the
topsoil is left unprotected.
This map unit is moderately suited to tame pasture
(fig. 8). Deep-rooting grasses, such as improved
bahiagrass and bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are
generally reduced by periodic droughts. Careful
management is required to maintain good grazing. This
includes the establishment of a proper plant population,






Lafayette County, Florida


Figure 8.-An area of Otela-Penney complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Areas of this map unit are used for pasture, pecan groves, or pine
plantations.


applications of fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing.
Irrigation improves the quality of grazing and of hay crops.
If available during long dry periods, the use of irrigation
water may be economically justifiable. These soils are not
suited to shallow-rooting pasture plants because the soils
cannot retain sufficient moisture in the rooting zone for
good growth.
The potential productivity for pine trees is
moderately high for the Otela soil and moderate for the
Penney soil. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine
are suitable for planting. The thick, sandy texture restricts
the use of wheeled equipment. This limitation can be
overcome by harvesting when the soils are moist.
Seedling mortality, which is caused by droughtiness, can
be partially reduced by increasing the tree planting rate
and the planting depth. Plant competition can be
controlled by site preparation practices, such as
chopping or controlled burning. A harvesting system that
leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
recommended.


This map unit has slight limitations for dwellings without
basements and local roads and streets. It has moderate
limitations for septic tank absorption fields in areas of the
Otela soil because of the wetness and slow permeability. It
has slight limitations for septic tank absorption fields in
areas of the Penney soil. In areas that have a
concentration of homes and septic tank absorption fields,
ground-water contamination can be a hazard because of
poor filtration.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The loose, sandy surface layer limits trafficability.
Suitable topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome this limitation. Soil
blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good
vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control soil
blowing.
The Otela soil is in capability subclass Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10S. The Penney soil is in
capability subclass IVs, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 8S.








Soil Survey


6-Oaky-Rawhide, depressional, complex

The poorly drained Oaky soil is on flatwoods. The very
poorly drained Rawhide soil is in small depressions that
are about 2 to 4 acres in size and are interspersed in the
flatwoods. These soils occur in a regular, repeating pattern
on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly concave
and ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and are more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Oaky soil is very dark
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is light gray fine sand to a depth of 13 inches. The subsoil
is gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches.
Typically, the surface layer of the Rawhide,
depressional, soil is black mucky fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 12 inches is black, the next 47
inches is very dark gray, and below this is gray to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Oaky-Rawhide,
depressional, complex, Oaky, Rawhide, depressional, and
similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit.
The similar soils include soils like Oaky and Rawhide soils
that are underlain by soft limestone. Generally, the
mapped areas are about 65 percent Oaky soil and similar
soils in broad areas in the flatwoods and about 25 percent
Rawhide soil and similar soils. The components of this
map unit occur as areas so intricately intermingled that it
was not practical to map them separately at the scale
used in mapping. The proportions and patterns of Oaky,
Rawhide, and similar soils are relatively consistent in most
mapped areas.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Chaires and Tooles soils and other soils that are underlain
by limestone bedrock. Individual areas of inclusions are
smaller than 5 acres in size and are in similar landscape
positions.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches in areas of the Oaky soil on flatwoods for 1 to 3
months during wet periods in most years. The Rawhide,
depressional, soil has a seasonal high water table that is
above the surface for 6 to 9 months during wet periods
and for short periods after heavy rainfall during dry
periods. The seasonal high water table recedes to a depth
of 24 to 40 inches or more in both soils during drought
periods. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is slow in the Oaky soil and very slow or slow
in the Rawhide soil.
These soils are in the North Florida Flatwoods
ecological plant community. In most areas in the
flatwoods, the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, red maple,


magnolia, scattered sweetgum, and water oak.
Pondcypress, baldcypress, laurel oak, pond pine,
sweetbay, and water oak grow in the lower areas. The
understory consists of gallberry, grape, greenbrier,
lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, scattered saw
palmettos, hairy panicum, pineland threeawn, and little
bluestem in the flatwoods. It consists of maidencane, St.
Johnswort, and various other water-tolerant grasses in the
lower areas. Most areas of this map unit are used for the
production of planted pine.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness and the ponding in depressions.
They have low natural fertility. However, they are suited to
most vegetable crops if they are intensively managed,
including the use of a water-control system that removes
excess water rapidly and provides for subsurface
irrigation. Soil-improving crops and crop residue can
protect the soils from erosion and maintain the content of
organic matter. Seedbed preparation should include
planting on beds. Fertilizer should be applied according to
the needs of the crop. Most of the depressional areas are
unsuited for cultivated crops.
This map unit is well suited to tame pasture if water is
properly controlled. If properly managed, a good pasture
of grass or a grass-legume mixture can be established.
Water-control measures are needed to remove the excess
surface water during long, rainy periods. Irrigation is
needed for the best yields of white clover or other
adapted, shallow-rooted pasture plants during dry periods.
Establishing an optimum plant population, applying
fertilizer and lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain
a good plant cover and increase the production of forage.
Most of the depressional areas are unsuited for tame
pasture. Careful management is required to maintain good
grazing. This includes the establishment of a proper plant
population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and
controlled grazing.
The potential productivity for pine trees is very high for
the Oaky soil on the flatwoods. In the depressions, the
productivity is very low. Loblolly pine and slash pine are
suitable for planting in the flatwoods. The equipment
limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
management concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main
limitation. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Preparing the site and planting and harvesting
the trees during drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation practices,
such as harrowing and bedding, help to establish
seedlings, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
planting. Leaving all of the plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soils. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.








Lafayette County, Florida


This map unit has severe limitations for dwellings
without basements, local roads and streets, and septic
tank absorption fields. The seasonal high water table, poor
filtration, and slow percolation are the main limitations.
Deep drainage reduces the wetness. Suitable fill material
can be used to elevate building sites. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the system
above the seasonal high water table and improve the
percolation. Drainage and the use of suitable fill to elevate
road beds minimizes wetness in areas of road
construction.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths and trails. The seasonal high water table, ponding in
the depressions, and the sandy surface texture are the
main limitations. Drainage is needed before using areas of
this map unit for these purposes. Suitable topsoil fill
material or resurfacing is needed to improve the
trafficability.
The Oaky soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 13W. The Rawhide,
depressional, soil is in capability subclass VIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 2W.

7-Chaires-Chaires, depressional, complex

These poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly
level soils are in broad areas on the flatwoods. The
Chaires, depressional, soil is in small depressions that are
about 2 to 4 acres in size and are interspersed in the
flatwoods. The soils occur in a regular, repeating pattern
on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly concave
and ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and are more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chaires soil that is in
a broad area on the flatwoods is black fine sand about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth
of 24 inches. The upper 6 inches is grayish brown, and
the lower 9 inches is light brownish gray. The upper part
of the subsoil is loamy fine sand to fine sand, and it
extends to a depth of 32 inches. The upper 4 inches is
black, and the next 4 inches is dark brown. The next 14
inches is brown fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil is
grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 72 inches or
more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chaires, depressional,
soil is black mucky fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 24 inches. It
is fine sand. The upper 10 inches is grayish brown, and
the lower 11 inches is light brownish gray. The upper part
of the subsoil is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 50
inches. The upper 8 inches is black, the next 8 inches is
dark brown, and the lower 10 inches is brown. The lower
part of the subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80


inches or more. The upper 15 inches is grayish brown,
and the lower 15 inches is light brownish gray.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Chaires-Chaires,
depressional, complex, Chaires and similar soils make up
80 to 100 percent of the map unit. The similar soils include
soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 inches
and soils that have the upper part of the subsoil at a depth
of more than 30 inches. Generally, the mapped areas are
about 55 percent Chaires soil and similar soils in broad
areas in the flatwoods and about 35 percent Chaires,
depressional, soil and similar soils. The components of
this map unit occur as areas so intricately intermingled
that it was not practical to map them separately at the
scale used in mapping. The proportions and patterns of
Chaires and similar soils are relatively consistent in most
mapped areas.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Leon, Oaky, and Tooles soils and other soils that are
underlain by soft limestone. Individual areas of inclusions
are smaller than 5 acres in size. These soils are mostly on
flatwoods. In some areas, Leon soils are in depressions.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches in areas of the Chaires soil on flatwoods for 1 to 3
months during wet periods in most years. The Chaires,
depressional, soil has a seasonal high water table above
the surface for 6 to 9 months during wet periods and for
short periods after heavy rainfall. The seasonal high water
table recedes to a depth of 24 to 40 inches or more in
both soils during drought periods. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderately slow.
These soils are in the North Florida Flatwoods
ecological plant community. In most areas in the
flatwoods, the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
longleaf pine, loblolly pine, live oak, laurel oak, and water
oak. Pondcypress, pond pine, scattered sweetgum, red
maple, sweetbay, baldcypress, and blackgum grow in the
lower areas. The understory consists of gallberry, grape,
greenbrier, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
scattered saw palmettos, hairy panicum, pineland
threeawn, and little bluestem in the flatwoods. It consists
of maidencane, St. Johnswort, and various other water-
tolerant grasses in the lower areas. Most areas of this
map unit are used for the production of planted pine or
pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness, ponding in the depressions, and
low natural fertility. However, they are suited to most
vegetable crops if they are intensively managed, including
the use of a water-control system that removes excess
water rapidly and provides for subsurface irrigation. Soil-
improving crops and crop residue can protect the soils
from erosion and maintain the content of organic matter.







Soil Survey


Figure 9.-An area of Chaires-Chaires, depressional, complex. The depressional area is poorly suited to planted pine because of the ponding.
It supports the natural vegetation, mostly pondcypress. The Chaires soil on flatwoods has been cleared and prepared for the next
planting.


Seedbed preparation should include planting on beds.
Fertilizer should be applied according to the needs of the
crop. Most of the depressional areas are unsuited for
cultivated crops.
This map unit is well suited to tame pasture if water is
properly controlled. If properly managed, a good pasture
of grass or a grass-legume mixture can be established.
Water-control measures are needed to remove the excess
surface water during long, rainy periods. Irrigation is
needed for the best yields of white clover or other
adapted, shallow-rooted pasture plants during dry periods.
Establishing an optimum plant population, applying
fertilizer and lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain
a good plant cover and increase the production of forage.
Most of the depressional areas are unsuited for tame
pasture. Careful management is required to maintain good


grazing. This includes the establishment of a proper plant
population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and
controlled grazing.
The potential productivity for pine trees is high for the
Chaires soil on the flatwoods and very low for the Chaires,
depressional, soil (fig. 9). Slash pine is suitable for
planting on the flatwoods. The equipment limitation,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during drier periods also help to overcome equipment
limitation. Good site preparation practices, such as
harrowing and bedding, help to establish seedlings,






Lafayette County, Florida


control competing vegetation, and facilitate planting.
Leaving all of the plant debris on the site helps to maintain
the content of organic matter in the soils. The trees
respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This map unit has severe limitations for dwellings
without basements, local roads and streets, and septic
tank absorption fields. The seasonal high water table, poor
filtration, and slow percolation are the main limitations.
Deep drainage reduces the wetness. Suitable fill material
can be used to elevate building sites. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the system
above the seasonal high water table and improve the
percolation. Drainage and the use of suitable fill to elevate
road beds minimizes wetness in areas of road
construction.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths and trails. The seasonal high water table that is near
the surface during wet periods, the ponding in
depressions, and the sandy surface texture are severe
limitations. Drainage is needed before using areas of this
map unit for these purposes. Suitable topsoil fill material
or resurfacing is needed to improve the trafficability.
The Chaires soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. The Chaires,
depressional, soil is in capability subclass VIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 2W.

9-Sapelo-Chaires, depressional, complex

These poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly
level soils are in broad areas on the flatwoods. The
Chaires, depressional, soil is in small depressions that are
about 3 to 5 acres in size and are interspersed in the
flatwoods. The soils occur in a regular, repeating pattern
on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly concave
and ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
irregular in shape and are more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Sapelo soil is very
dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 28 inches. The upper 7
inches is gray, and the lower 15 inches is light gray. The
upper part of the subsoil is fine sand, and it extends to a
depth of 45 inches. The first 6 inches is black, and the
next 11 inches is dark reddish brown. Below this is about
15 inches of light gray fine sand. The lower part of the
subsoil is sandy clay loam and fine sandy loam to a depth
of 80 inches or more. The upper 13 inches is light
brownish gray, and the lower 7 inches is light olive.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chaires, depressional,
soil is black mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of
about 25 inches. The upper 10 inches is grayish brown,
and the lower 9 inches is light brownish gray. The upper


part of the subsoil is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of
65 inches. The upper 9 inches is black, the next 9 inches
is dark brown, and the lower 22 inches is brown. The
lower part of the subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay loam
to a depth of 75 inches and is light brownish gray sandy
loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Sapelo-Chaires,
depressional, complex, Sapelo soil and similar soils make
up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit. These similar soils
include soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of
40 inches of the surface and soils that have the upper part
of the subsoil at a depth of more than 30 inches.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 65 percent Sapelo
soil and similar soils in broad areas in the flatwoods and
about 25 percent Chaires, depressional, soil and similar
soils. The components of this map unit occur as areas so
intricately intermingled that it was not practical to map
them separately at the scale used in mapping. The
proportions and patterns of Sapelo and Chaires soils and
similar soils are relatively consistent in most mapped
areas.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Hurricane, and Leon soils and other soils that are
similar to the Sapelo soil but are somewhat poorly drained
and are at slightly higher elevations. Individual areas of
inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches in areas of the Sapelo soil on flatwoods for 1 to 3
months during wet periods in most years. A seasonal high
water table is above the surface of the Chaires,
depressional, soil for 6 to 9 months during wet periods and
for short periods after heavy rainfall in dry periods during
most years. It recedes to a depth of 24 to 40 inches or
more in both soils during drought periods. The available
water capacity is low. Permeability is moderately slow to
moderate.
These soils are in the North Florida Flatwoods
ecological plant community. In most areas in the
flatwoods, the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
longleaf pine, loblolly pine, live oak, laurel oak, and water
oak. Pondcypress, baldcypress, pond pine, red maple,
blackgum, and sweetbay grow in the lower areas. The
understory consists of gallberry, grape, greenbrier,
lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, scattered saw
palmettos, hairy panicum, pineland threeawn, and little
bluestem in the flatwoods. It consists of maidencane, St.
Johnswort, and various other water-tolerant grasses in the
lower areas. Most areas of this map unit are used for the
production of planted pine or pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness, ponding in the depressions, and
low natural fertility. However, they are suited to most









Soil Survey


vegetable crops if they are intensively managed, including
the use of a water-control system that removes excess
water rapidly and provides for subsurface irrigation. Soil-
improving crops and crop residue can protect the soils
from erosion and maintain the content of organic matter.
Seedbed preparation should include planting on beds.
Fertilizer should be applied according to the needs of the
crop. Most of the depressional areas are unsuited for
cultivated crops.
This map unit is well suited to tame pasture if water is
properly controlled. If properly managed, a good pasture
of grass or a grass-legume mixture can be established.
Water-control measures are needed to remove the excess
surface water during long, rainy periods. Irrigation is
needed for the best yields of white clover or other
adapted, shallow-rooted pasture plants during dry periods.
Establishing an optimum plant population, applying
fertilizer and lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain
a good plant cover and increase the production of forage.
Most of the depressional areas are unsuited for tame
pasture. Careful management is required to maintain good
grazing. This includes the establishment of a proper plant
population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and
controlled grazing.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high for the Sapelo soil on the flatwoods and very low for
the Chaires, depressional, soil. Slash pine is suitable for
planting on the flatwoods. The equipment limitation,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during drier periods also help to overcome the equipment
limitation. Good site preparation practices, such as
harrowing and bedding, help to establish seedlings,
control competing vegetation, and facilitate planting.
Leaving all of the plant debris on the site helps to maintain
the content of organic matter in the soils. The trees
respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This map unit has severe limitations for dwellings
without basements, local roads and streets, and septic
tank absorption fields. The seasonal high water table, poor
filtration, and slow percolation in areas of the Chaires,
depressional, soil are the main limitations. Deep drainage
reduces the wetness. Suitable fill material can be used to
elevate building sites. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal high
water table and improve the percolation. Drainage and the
use of suitable fill to elevate road beds minimizes wetness
in areas of road construction.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and


paths or trails. The seasonal high water table that is near
the surface during wet periods, the ponding in
depressions, and the sandy surface texture are severe
limitations. Drainage is needed before using areas of this
map unit for these purposes. Suitable topsoil fill material
or resurfacing is needed to improve the trafficability.
The Sapelo soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. The Chaires,
depressional, soil is in capability subclass VIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 2W.

10-Pamlico and Dorovan soils, frequently
flooded

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are on
flood plains. Some are isolated by meandering stream
channels. These soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and are more than 100 acres in
size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is black
muck to a depth of about 31 inches. The underlying
material is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Typically, the Dorovan soil is black muck to a depth of
about 41 inches and dark reddish brown muck to a depth
of 62 inches. The underlying material is gray fine sand to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Pamlico-Dorovan
soils, frequently flooded, Pamlico and Dorovan soils and
similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit.
The similar soils include soils that are similar to the
Pamlico soil but are underlain with loamy material.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 55 percent
Pamlico soil and similar soils and about 43 percent
Dorovan and similar soils. The components of this map
unit occur as areas so intricately intermingled that it was
not practical to map them separately at the scale used in
mapping. The proportions and patterns of Pamlico and
Dorovan soils and similar soils are relatively consistent in
most mapped areas.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Lynn Haven and Surrency soils that are also in
depressions. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller
than 5 acres in size.
A seasonal high water table is near or above the
surface of these soils for 6 to 9 months during most wet
periods. It recedes to a depth of more than 20 inches
during dry seasons. The available water capacity is very
high. Permeability is moderately rapid or moderate in the
Pamlico soil and moderate in the Dorovan soil.







Lafayette County, Florida


These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation is
pondcypress, baldcypress, pond pine, blackgum,
sweetbay, Carolina ash, and red maple. The understory is
mainly cordgrass, bullrush, button bush, elderberry, water
hyacinth, arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
flooding and the prolonged periods of wetness unless a
major water-control system is used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and for recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths and trails. The flooding, ponding,
and excess humus are the main limitations. They are very
difficult to overcome. Careful consideration should be
given before using areas of this map unit for these
purposes.
The Pamlico and Dorovan soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.


11-Pamlico and Dorovan soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is black
muck to a depth of about 22 inches. The underlying
material is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 80
inches.
Typically, the Dorovan soil is black muck to a depth of
about 45 inches and dark reddish brown muck to a depth
of 57 inches. The underlying material is gray fine sand to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Pamlico and
Dorovan soils, depressional, Pamlico and Dorovan soils
and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map
unit. The similar soils include soils that are similar to the
Pamlico soil but are underlain with loamy material.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 55 percent
Pamlico soil and similar soils and about 43 percent
Dorovan and similar soils. Each of the soils does not
necessarily occur in every mapped area. The proportions
and patterns of Pamlico and Dorovan soils and similar
soils varies from area to area. Areas of individual soils are
large enough to be mapped separately. Because of the
present and predicted land uses, however, they were
mapped as one unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The


dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Lynn Haven and Surrency soils that are also in
depressions. These soils are mineral and have a loamy
surface layer with a high content of organic matter.
Individual areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in
size.
A seasonal high water table is above the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during most wet periods. It
recedes to a depth of 12 inches during dry periods. The
available water capacity is high in the Pamlico soil and
very high in the Dorovan soil. Permeability is moderately
rapid or moderate in the Pamlico soil and moderate in the
Dorovan soil.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation is
pondcypress, baldcypress, pond pine, red maple,
blackgum, Carolina ash, and water oak. The understory is
mainly greenbriar, fetterbush lyonia, lizards tail, cordgrass,
bullrush, button bush, elderberry, water hyacinth,
arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
ponding and the prolonged wetness unless a major water-
control system is used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths or trails. The ponding and excess
humus are the main limitations. They are very difficult to
overcome. Careful consideration should be given before
using areas of this map unit for these purposes.
The Pamlico and Dorovan soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.


13-Meadowbrook-Chaires complex

These poorly drained, nearly level soils are in broad
areas on flatwoods. These soils occur in a regular,
repeating pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth
or slightly concave and ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from 20
to more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil is
very dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 64 inches. The
upper 6 inches is light gray, the next 17 inches is very pale
brown, the next 19 inches is light gray, and the lower 14
inches is brown. The subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chaires soil is very
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer extends to a depth of about 24 inches. It is fine sand.
The upper 10 inches is grayish brown, and the lower 9
inches is light brownish gray. The upper part of the subsoil







Lafayette County, Florida


These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation is
pondcypress, baldcypress, pond pine, blackgum,
sweetbay, Carolina ash, and red maple. The understory is
mainly cordgrass, bullrush, button bush, elderberry, water
hyacinth, arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
flooding and the prolonged periods of wetness unless a
major water-control system is used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and for recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths and trails. The flooding, ponding,
and excess humus are the main limitations. They are very
difficult to overcome. Careful consideration should be
given before using areas of this map unit for these
purposes.
The Pamlico and Dorovan soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.


11-Pamlico and Dorovan soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is black
muck to a depth of about 22 inches. The underlying
material is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 80
inches.
Typically, the Dorovan soil is black muck to a depth of
about 45 inches and dark reddish brown muck to a depth
of 57 inches. The underlying material is gray fine sand to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Pamlico and
Dorovan soils, depressional, Pamlico and Dorovan soils
and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map
unit. The similar soils include soils that are similar to the
Pamlico soil but are underlain with loamy material.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 55 percent
Pamlico soil and similar soils and about 43 percent
Dorovan and similar soils. Each of the soils does not
necessarily occur in every mapped area. The proportions
and patterns of Pamlico and Dorovan soils and similar
soils varies from area to area. Areas of individual soils are
large enough to be mapped separately. Because of the
present and predicted land uses, however, they were
mapped as one unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The


dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Lynn Haven and Surrency soils that are also in
depressions. These soils are mineral and have a loamy
surface layer with a high content of organic matter.
Individual areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in
size.
A seasonal high water table is above the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during most wet periods. It
recedes to a depth of 12 inches during dry periods. The
available water capacity is high in the Pamlico soil and
very high in the Dorovan soil. Permeability is moderately
rapid or moderate in the Pamlico soil and moderate in the
Dorovan soil.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation is
pondcypress, baldcypress, pond pine, red maple,
blackgum, Carolina ash, and water oak. The understory is
mainly greenbriar, fetterbush lyonia, lizards tail, cordgrass,
bullrush, button bush, elderberry, water hyacinth,
arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
ponding and the prolonged wetness unless a major water-
control system is used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths or trails. The ponding and excess
humus are the main limitations. They are very difficult to
overcome. Careful consideration should be given before
using areas of this map unit for these purposes.
The Pamlico and Dorovan soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.


13-Meadowbrook-Chaires complex

These poorly drained, nearly level soils are in broad
areas on flatwoods. These soils occur in a regular,
repeating pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth
or slightly concave and ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from 20
to more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil is
very dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 64 inches. The
upper 6 inches is light gray, the next 17 inches is very pale
brown, the next 19 inches is light gray, and the lower 14
inches is brown. The subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chaires soil is very
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer extends to a depth of about 24 inches. It is fine sand.
The upper 10 inches is grayish brown, and the lower 9
inches is light brownish gray. The upper part of the subsoil






Soil Survey


is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 60 inches. The
upper 9 inches is black, the next 9 inches is dark brown,
and the lower 18 inches is brown. The lower part of the
subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 75
inches and light brownish gray sandy loam to a depth of
80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Meadowbrook-
Chaires complex, Meadowbrook and Chaires soils and
similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit.
The similar soils include soils that have a loamy subsoil
within a depth of 40 inches and soils that have limestone
rock within a depth of 80 inches. Generally, the mapped
areas are about 65 percent Meadowbrook soil and similar
soils and about 25 percent Chaires soil and similar soils.
The components of this map unit occur as areas so
intricately intermingled that it was not practical to map
them separately at the scale used in mapping. The
proportions and patterns of Meadowbrook and Chaires
soils and similar soils are relatively consistent in most
mapped areas.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the
dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent of the
unit. The dissimilar soils included in mapping are small
areas of Leon and Oaky soils at slightly higher elevations
and Tooles soils and other soils that are underlain by
soft limestone and are at similar elevations. Individual
areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 12
inches in the Meadowbrook soil for 2 to 6 months. A
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches in
the Chaires soil for 1 to 3 months during wet periods in
most years. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderately slow to moderate in the
Meadowbrook soil and slow in the Chaires soil.
These soils are in the North Florida Flatwoods
ecological plant community. In most areas, the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine,
live oak, laurel oak, scattered sweetgum, blackgum, and
water oak. The understory consists of gallberry, grape,
greenbrier, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
scattered saw palmetto, hairy panicum, pineland
threeawn, and little bluestem. Most areas of this map unit
are used for the production of planted pine or pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness and low natural fertility. However,
they are suited to most vegetable crops if they are
intensively managed, including the use of a water-control
system that removes excess water rapidly and provides
for subsurface irrigation. Soil-improving crops and crop
residue can protect the soils from erosion and maintain
the content of organic matter. Seedbed preparation should
include planting on beds. Fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.


This map unit is well suited to tame pasture if water is
properly controlled. If properly managed, a good pasture
of grass or a grass-legume mixture can be established.
Water-control measures are needed to remove the excess
surface water during long, rainy periods. Irrigation is
needed for the best yields of white clover or other
adapted, shallow-rooted pasture plants during dry periods.
Establishing an optimum plant population, applying
fertilizer and lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain
a good plant cover and increase the production of forage.
Careful management is required to maintain good grazing.
This includes the establishment of a proper plant
population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and
controlled grazing.
The potential productivity for pine trees is high for the
Meadowbrook soil and moderately high for the Chaires
soil. Slash pine and loblolly pine are suitable for planting.
The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are management concerns. Seasonal wetness
is the main limitation. The use of equipment that has large
tires or tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation
and minimizes compaction and root damage during
thinning activities. Preparing the site and planting and
harvesting the trees during drier periods also help to
overcome equipment limitation. Good site preparation
practices, such as harrowing and bedding, help to
establish seedlings, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting. Leaving all of the plant debris on the site
helps to maintain the content of organic matter in the soils.
The trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This map unit has severe limitations for dwellings
without basements, local roads and streets, and septic
tank absorption fields. The seasonal high water table, poor
filtration, and slow percolation are the main limitations.
Deep drainage reduces the wetness. Suitable fill material
can be used to elevate building sites. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the system
above the seasonal high water table and improve the
percolation. Drainage and the use of suitable fill to elevate
road beds minimizes wetness in areas of road
construction.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths and trails. The seasonal high water table that is near
the surface during wet periods and the sandy surface
texture are severe limitations. Drainage is needed before
using areas of this map unit for these purposes. Suitable
topsoil fill material or resurfacing is needed to improve the
trafficability.
The Meadowbrook soil is in capability subclass IVw,
and the woodland ordination symbol is 11W. The Chaires
soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.








Lafayette County, Florida


14-Leon fine sand

This soil is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on
broad areas in the flatwoods. The mapped areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 25 to more than
3,000 acres in size. The slope is nearly smooth to concave
and ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Leon soil is black fine
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 10 inches. The
upper 7 inches of the subsoil is dark reddish brown fine
sand, and the lower 7 inches is yellowish brown fine sand.
Below this is 20 inches of light gray fine sand, and the
next 19 inches is light brownish gray fine sand. Another
subsoil is between a depth of 63 and 80 inches. It is very
dark brown fine sand.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Leon fine sand, Leon
and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map
unit. The similar soils include Lynn Haven and Wesconnett
fine sand. Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make
up about 0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20
percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up
more than 20 percent. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Sapelo soils and soils that
have an organic surface layer. Other soils included in
mapping are similar to the Leon soil but they have a
deeper subsoil. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller
than 5 acres in size. Sapelo and soils that are similar to
the Leon soil are in landscape positions similar to those of
the Leon soil.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches in the Leon soil for 1 to 3 months during wet
periods in most years. It recedes to a depth of more than
18 inches during dry periods. The available water capacity
is low. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, post oak,
and water oak. The understory consists of saw palmetto,
running oak, galloper, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland
threeawn, bluestem, briar, and brackenfern. Most areas of
this soil are used for the production of planted pine or
pasture.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness and low natural fertility. If a good
water-control system and soil-improving measures are
used, this soil is suited to many crops. A water-control
system is needed to remove the excess surface water
during wet periods and to provide water for subsurface
irrigation during drought periods. Row crops should be
rotated with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops.
Soil-improving cover crops and crop residue should be
used to maintain the content of organic matter and to


control erosion. Seedbed preparation should include
planting on beds. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
according to the needs of the crops.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Improved
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover are well
adapted to areas of this soil, and they grow well if properly
managed. A water-control system is needed to remove the
excess surface water during heavy rains. To obtain high
yields, regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
Grazing should be controlled to maintain the vigor of
plants.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The timely use of site preparation practices,
such as harrowing and bedding, help to establish
seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase
early growth. Chopping and bedding also reduce the
debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
planting operations. Using field machinery that is equipped
with large tires or tracks helps to overcome the equipment
limitation, reduces soil compaction, and reduces the
damage to roots during thinning operations. A logging
system that leaves residual biomass distributed over the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter and
the soil fertility. Applications of fertilizer can provide an
excellent growth response.
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
basements, local roads and streets, and septic tank
absorption fields. The seasonal high water table and poor
filtration are the main limitations. Deep drainage reduces
the wetness. If areas of this soil are used as a septic tank
absorption field, mounding of the field is needed. If the
density of housing is moderate to high, community
sewage systems may be needed to prevent the
contamination of ground water from seepage.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses.
The seasonal high water table that is near the surface
during wet periods and the loose, sandy surface layer limit
the trafficability. A suitable topsoil fill material or some
other type of surface stabilization is necessary to
overcome the sandy texture. Soil blowing is a hazard.
Establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover or
planting windbreaks can control soil blowing.
This Leon soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W.

15-Wesconnett and Lynn Haven soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas








Lafayette County, Florida


14-Leon fine sand

This soil is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on
broad areas in the flatwoods. The mapped areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 25 to more than
3,000 acres in size. The slope is nearly smooth to concave
and ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Leon soil is black fine
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 10 inches. The
upper 7 inches of the subsoil is dark reddish brown fine
sand, and the lower 7 inches is yellowish brown fine sand.
Below this is 20 inches of light gray fine sand, and the
next 19 inches is light brownish gray fine sand. Another
subsoil is between a depth of 63 and 80 inches. It is very
dark brown fine sand.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Leon fine sand, Leon
and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map
unit. The similar soils include Lynn Haven and Wesconnett
fine sand. Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make
up about 0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20
percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up
more than 20 percent. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Sapelo soils and soils that
have an organic surface layer. Other soils included in
mapping are similar to the Leon soil but they have a
deeper subsoil. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller
than 5 acres in size. Sapelo and soils that are similar to
the Leon soil are in landscape positions similar to those of
the Leon soil.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches in the Leon soil for 1 to 3 months during wet
periods in most years. It recedes to a depth of more than
18 inches during dry periods. The available water capacity
is low. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, post oak,
and water oak. The understory consists of saw palmetto,
running oak, galloper, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland
threeawn, bluestem, briar, and brackenfern. Most areas of
this soil are used for the production of planted pine or
pasture.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness and low natural fertility. If a good
water-control system and soil-improving measures are
used, this soil is suited to many crops. A water-control
system is needed to remove the excess surface water
during wet periods and to provide water for subsurface
irrigation during drought periods. Row crops should be
rotated with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops.
Soil-improving cover crops and crop residue should be
used to maintain the content of organic matter and to


control erosion. Seedbed preparation should include
planting on beds. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
according to the needs of the crops.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Improved
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover are well
adapted to areas of this soil, and they grow well if properly
managed. A water-control system is needed to remove the
excess surface water during heavy rains. To obtain high
yields, regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
Grazing should be controlled to maintain the vigor of
plants.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The timely use of site preparation practices,
such as harrowing and bedding, help to establish
seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase
early growth. Chopping and bedding also reduce the
debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
planting operations. Using field machinery that is equipped
with large tires or tracks helps to overcome the equipment
limitation, reduces soil compaction, and reduces the
damage to roots during thinning operations. A logging
system that leaves residual biomass distributed over the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter and
the soil fertility. Applications of fertilizer can provide an
excellent growth response.
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
basements, local roads and streets, and septic tank
absorption fields. The seasonal high water table and poor
filtration are the main limitations. Deep drainage reduces
the wetness. If areas of this soil are used as a septic tank
absorption field, mounding of the field is needed. If the
density of housing is moderate to high, community
sewage systems may be needed to prevent the
contamination of ground water from seepage.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses.
The seasonal high water table that is near the surface
during wet periods and the loose, sandy surface layer limit
the trafficability. A suitable topsoil fill material or some
other type of surface stabilization is necessary to
overcome the sandy texture. Soil blowing is a hazard.
Establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover or
planting windbreaks can control soil blowing.
This Leon soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W.

15-Wesconnett and Lynn Haven soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas








Soil Survey


are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Wesconnett soil is
black mucky fine sand about 14 inches thick. The upper
part of the subsoil is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of
28 inches. The first 7 inches is very dark gray, and the
lower 7 inches is dark brown. Below this depth is pale
brown fine sand to a depth of 45 inches. The lower part of
the subsoil is very dark gray fine sand to a depth of 61
inches. The underlying material is light gray fine sand to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Lynn Haven soil is
black mucky fine sand about 13 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of 19 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black
fine sand to a depth of 27 inches and dark yellowish
brown to a depth of 34 inches. Below this to a depth of 52
inches is a layer of yellowish brown fine sand. The lower
part of the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark
reddish brown fine sand.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Wesconnett and
Lynn Haven soils, depressional, Wesconnett and Lynn
Haven soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of
the map unit. The similar soils include soils that are similar
to the Wesconnett soil but are underlain with loamy
material. Generally, the mapped areas are about 55
percent Wesconnett soil and similar soils and about 43
percent Lynn Haven and similar soils. Each of the soils
does not necessarily occur in every mapped area. The
proportions and patterns of Wesconnett and Lynn Haven
soils and similar soils varies from area to area. Areas of
individual soils are large enough to be mapped separately.
Because of the present and predicted land uses, however,
they were mapped as one unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Pamlico and Dorovan soils. Individual areas of inclusions
are smaller than 5 acres in size. Pamlico and Dorovan
soils are in similar landscape positions.
A seasonal high water table is above the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 12 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is moderate in
the Wesconnett soil and high in the Lynn Haven soil.
Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of pondcypress, baldcypress, sweetbay,
blackgum, Carolina ash, pond pine, red maple, and water
oak. The understory is mainly cordgrass, bullrush, button
bush, elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and
dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,


tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
prolonged wetness unless a major water-control system is
used.
This map unit has severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths and trails. The ponding and the
sandy texture are the main limitations. They are very
difficult to overcome. Careful consideration should be
given before using areas of this map unit for these
purposes.
The Wesconnett and Lynn Haven soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.

16-Tooles fine sand

This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on low
flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from about 10 to more than 150 acres in size.
The slope is nearly smooth and ranges from 0 to 1
percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Tooles soil is very
dark brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 14
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand to a
depth of 35 inches. The first 11 inches is yellowish brown,
and the next 10 inches is light yellowish brown. The lower
part of the subsoil is light brownish gray sandy clay loam
to a depth of 50 inches, and below this depth is limestone
bedrock.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Tooles fine sand,
Tooles and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the
map unit. The similar soils include Oaky and
Meadowbrook soils.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small
areas of Chaires and Clara soils. Individual areas of
inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches for 1 to 3 months during wet periods in most years.
It recedes to a depth of more than 24 inches during dry
periods. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is slow.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, loblolly pine, cabbage palm, laurel
oak, sweetgum, sweetbay, American elm, and live oak.
The understory is mainly waxmyrtle, gallberry, scattered
saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, various species of
blustems, panicums, and paspalum.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness and low fertility. With a water-
control system and soil-improving measures, this soil is







Lafayette County, Florida


suited to many crops. A water-control system is needed to
remove the excess surface water during wet periods and
to provide water for subsurface irrigation during drought
periods. Row crops should be rotated with close-growing,
soil-improving cover crops. Soil-improving cover crops and
crop residue should be used to maintain the content of
organic matter and to control erosion. Seedbed
preparation should include planting on beds. Fertilizer and
lime should be applied according to the needs of the
crops.
This soil is well suited for tame pasture. Improved
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover are well
adapted to this soil. They grow well if properly managed. A
water-control system is needed to remove the excess
surface water during heavy rains. To obtain high yields,
regular applications of fertilizer are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain the vigor of plants.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine are
suitable for planting. The timely use of site preparation
practices, such as harrowing and bedding, help to
establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate,
and increase early growth. Chopping and bedding also
reduce the debris, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting operations. Using field machinery that is
equipped with large tires or tracks helps to overcome the
equipment limitation, reduces soil compaction, and
reduces the damage to roots during thinning operations. A
logging system that leaves residual biomass distributed
over the site helps to maintain the content of organic
matter and the soil fertility. Applications of fertilizer can
provide an excellent growth response.
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
basements, local roads and streets, and septic tank
absorption fields. The seasonal high water table, poor
filtration, slow percolation, and the sandy texture are the
main limitations. Deep drainage reduces the wetness. If
areas of this soil are used as a septic tank absorption
field, mounding of the field is needed. If the density of
housing is moderate to high, community sewage systems
may be needed to prevent the contamination of ground
water from seepage.
This soil has severe limitations tor recreational uses.
The seasonal high water table that is near the surface
during wet periods and the loose, sandy surface layer are
severe limitations for recreational uses. The wetness and
the loose, sandy surface layer limit the trafficability. A
suitable topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome the sandy texture.
Soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a
good vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control
soil blowing.
This Tooles soil is in capability subclass 111w, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W.


18-Surrency, Plummer, and Clara soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions in the flatwoods. These soils do not occur in a
regular, repeating pattern on the landscape. The slope is
smooth or slightly concave and ranges from 0 to 1
percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape and range
from about 10 to more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is black
mucky fine sand about 10 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 28 inches. The upper 6
inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 12 inches is
light gray. The subsoil is light grayish brown sandy loam to
a depth of 45 inches and grayish brown sandy clay loam
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Plummer soil is black
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand to a depth of 50 inches. The upper 10 inches is
light brownish gray, and the lower 32 inches is light gray.
The subsoil is light grayish brown sandy loam to a depth
of 55 inches and grayish brown sandy clay loam to a
depth of 80 inches.
Typically, the surface layer of the Clara soil is black
mucky fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 29 inches.
The subsoil is brown and yellowish brown fine sand to a
depth of 45 inches. The underlying material is light gray
fine sand.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Surrency, Plummer,
and Clara soils, depressional, Surrency, Plummer, and
Clara soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of
the map unit. The similar soils include soils that are similar
to Meadowbrook soils but have a high base saturation.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 34 percent
Surrency soil and similar soils, about 24 percent Plummer
and similar soils, and about 23 percent Clara and similar
soils. Each of the soils does not necessarily occur in every
mapped area. The proportions and patterns of Surrency,
Plummer, and Clara soils and similar soils varies from
area to area. Areas of individual soils are large enough to
be mapped separately. Because of the present and
predicted land uses, however, they were mapped as one
unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Dorovan, Pamlico, and soils that are similar to the
Clara soil but have a black surface layer 10 to 20 inches
thick. These soils are in similar landscape positions.
Individual areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in
size.
A seasonal high water table is above the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during wet periods in most








Soil Survey


Figure 10.-An area of Surrency, Plummer, and Clara soils, depressional. Areas of this map unit are not suited to most agricultural and urban
uses because of the ponding and the wetness.


years. It recedes to a depth of more than 20 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in the
Surrency soil, moderately slow to moderate in the
Plummer soil, and rapid in the Clara soil.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of pondcypress, baldcypress, blackgum,
sweetbay, red maple, water oak, and pond pine. The
understory is mainly cordgrass, bullrush, button bush,


elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
prolonged wetness (fig. 10) unless a major water-control
system is used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths and trails. The ponding, the sandy
texture, and the poor filtration in some areas are the main
limitations. They are very difficult to overcome. Careful







Lafayette County, Florida


consideration should be given before using areas of this
map unit for these purposes.
The Surrency and Plummer soils are in capability
subclass VIw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.
The Clara soil is in capability subclass VIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 2W.


20-Plummer fine sand

This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on low flatwoods
and in depressions. The slope is nearly smooth to
concave and ranges from 0 to 2 percent. The mapped
areas are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to
more than 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Plummer soil is black
fine sand to a depth of 7 inches. The subsurface layer is
fine sand to a depth of 55 inches. The upper 7 inches is
grayish brown, the next 8 inches is gray, and the lower 33
inches is light gray. The subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to
a depth of 80 inches.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Plummer fine sand,
Plummer soil and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent
of the map unit. The similar soils include Osier and
Pelham fine sand. Osier soils do not have a loamy subsoil.
Pelham soils have a sandy epipedon about 20 to 40
inches thick.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent. The dissimilar soils included in mapping are small
areas of Ridgewood and Surrency soils. Ridgewood soils
are in slightly higher positions in the landscape than the
Plummer soil. They do not have a loamy subsoil. Surrency
soils have an umbric epipedon and are on the lower parts
of the landscape. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller
than 5 acres in size.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches during wet periods of most years. The available
water capacity is low. Permeability is moderate or
moderately slow.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
laurel oak, and water oak. The understory consists of saw
palmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry,
pineland threeawn, bluestem, briars, and bracken fern.
Most areas of this soil are used for the production of
planted pine or pasture.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness and low natural fertility. With a
good water-control system and soil-improving measures,
this soil is suited to many crops. A water-control system is
needed to remove the excess surface water during wet
periods and to provide water for subsurface irrigation


during drought periods. Row crops should be rotated with
close-growing, soil-improving cover crops. Soil-improving
cover crops and crop residue should be used to maintain
the content of organic matter and to control erosion.
Seedbed preparation should include planting on beds.
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
needs of the crops.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Improved
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover are well
adapted to this soil. They grow well if properly managed. A
water-control system is needed to remove the excess
surface water during heavy rains. To obtain high yields,
regular applications of fertilizer are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain the vigor of plants.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. The timely use of site preparation
practices, such as harrowing and bedding, help to
establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate,
and increase early growth. Chopping and bedding also
reduce the debris, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting operations. Using field machinery that is
equipped with large tires or tracks helps to overcome the
equipment limitation, reduces soil compaction, and
reduces the damage to roots during thinning operations. A
logging system that leaves residual biomass distributed
over the site helps to maintain the content of organic
matter and the soil fertility. Applications of fertilizer can
provide an excellent growth response.
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
basements, local roads and streets, and septic tank
absorption fields. The seasonal high water table, poor
filtration, and the sandy texture are the main limitations.
Deep drainage reduces the wetness. If areas of this soil
are used as a septic tank absorption field, mounding of the
field is needed. If the density of housing is moderate to
high, community sewage systems may be needed to
prevent the contamination of ground water from seepage.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses.
The water table that is near the surface during wet periods
and the loose, sandy surface layer are severe limitations
for trafficability. Suitable topsoil fill material or some other
type of surface stabilization is necessary to overcome the
sandy texture. Soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or planting
windbreaks can control soil blowing.
This Plummer soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W.


24-Rawhide and Harbeson soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions in the flatwoods. The soils do not occur in a







Lafayette County, Florida


consideration should be given before using areas of this
map unit for these purposes.
The Surrency and Plummer soils are in capability
subclass VIw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.
The Clara soil is in capability subclass VIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 2W.


20-Plummer fine sand

This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on low flatwoods
and in depressions. The slope is nearly smooth to
concave and ranges from 0 to 2 percent. The mapped
areas are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to
more than 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Plummer soil is black
fine sand to a depth of 7 inches. The subsurface layer is
fine sand to a depth of 55 inches. The upper 7 inches is
grayish brown, the next 8 inches is gray, and the lower 33
inches is light gray. The subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to
a depth of 80 inches.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Plummer fine sand,
Plummer soil and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent
of the map unit. The similar soils include Osier and
Pelham fine sand. Osier soils do not have a loamy subsoil.
Pelham soils have a sandy epipedon about 20 to 40
inches thick.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent. The dissimilar soils included in mapping are small
areas of Ridgewood and Surrency soils. Ridgewood soils
are in slightly higher positions in the landscape than the
Plummer soil. They do not have a loamy subsoil. Surrency
soils have an umbric epipedon and are on the lower parts
of the landscape. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller
than 5 acres in size.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches during wet periods of most years. The available
water capacity is low. Permeability is moderate or
moderately slow.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
laurel oak, and water oak. The understory consists of saw
palmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry,
pineland threeawn, bluestem, briars, and bracken fern.
Most areas of this soil are used for the production of
planted pine or pasture.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness and low natural fertility. With a
good water-control system and soil-improving measures,
this soil is suited to many crops. A water-control system is
needed to remove the excess surface water during wet
periods and to provide water for subsurface irrigation


during drought periods. Row crops should be rotated with
close-growing, soil-improving cover crops. Soil-improving
cover crops and crop residue should be used to maintain
the content of organic matter and to control erosion.
Seedbed preparation should include planting on beds.
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
needs of the crops.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Improved
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover are well
adapted to this soil. They grow well if properly managed. A
water-control system is needed to remove the excess
surface water during heavy rains. To obtain high yields,
regular applications of fertilizer are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain the vigor of plants.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. The timely use of site preparation
practices, such as harrowing and bedding, help to
establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate,
and increase early growth. Chopping and bedding also
reduce the debris, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting operations. Using field machinery that is
equipped with large tires or tracks helps to overcome the
equipment limitation, reduces soil compaction, and
reduces the damage to roots during thinning operations. A
logging system that leaves residual biomass distributed
over the site helps to maintain the content of organic
matter and the soil fertility. Applications of fertilizer can
provide an excellent growth response.
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
basements, local roads and streets, and septic tank
absorption fields. The seasonal high water table, poor
filtration, and the sandy texture are the main limitations.
Deep drainage reduces the wetness. If areas of this soil
are used as a septic tank absorption field, mounding of the
field is needed. If the density of housing is moderate to
high, community sewage systems may be needed to
prevent the contamination of ground water from seepage.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses.
The water table that is near the surface during wet periods
and the loose, sandy surface layer are severe limitations
for trafficability. Suitable topsoil fill material or some other
type of surface stabilization is necessary to overcome the
sandy texture. Soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or planting
windbreaks can control soil blowing.
This Plummer soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W.


24-Rawhide and Harbeson soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions in the flatwoods. The soils do not occur in a







Soil Survey


regular, repeating pattern on the landscape. The slope is
smooth or slightly concave and ranges from 0 to 1
percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape and range
from about 10 to more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Rawhide soil is black
mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy
clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 12
inches is black, the next 8 inches is very dark gray, and
below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is gray.
Typically, the surface layer of the Harbeson soil is black
mucky fine sand about 18 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 55 inches. The upper 18
inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 19 inches is
light gray. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Rawhide and
Harbeson soils, depressional, Rawhide and Harbeson
soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the
map unit. The similar soils include soils that are similar to
the Rawhide soil but are underlain by clayey material.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 55 percent
Rawhide soil and similar soils and about 43 percent
Harbeson and similar soils. Each of the soils does not
occur necessarily in every mapped area. The proportions
and patterns of Rawhide and Harbeson soils and similar
soils varies from area to area. Areas of individual soils are
large enough to be mapped separately. Because of the
present and predicted land uses, however, they were
mapped as one unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Pamlico and Dorovan soils. Individual areas of inclusions
are smaller than 5 acres in size and are in similar
landscape positions.
A seasonal high water table is above the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 12 inches during
dry seasons. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is slow or very slow in the Rawhide soil and
moderately slow or moderate in the Harbeson soil.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of pondcypress, baldcypress, pond pine, laurel
oak, water oak, sweetgum, Atlantic whitecedar, blackgum,
sweetbay, and red maple. The understory is mainly
cordgrass, bullrush, button bush, elderberry, water
hyacinth, arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
prolonged wetness unless a major water-control system is
used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,


picnic areas, and paths and trails. The ponding is the main
limitation, and it is very difficult to overcome. Careful
consideration should be given before using areas of this
map unit for these purposes.
The Rawhide and Harbeson soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.

26-Ridgewood-Hurricane complex, 0 to 5
percent slopes

These soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are
somewhat poorly drained. They are on low uplands. The
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 20 to more than 150 acres in size. The slope is
nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Ridgewood soil is very
dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying
material is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 12 inches is brown, the next 21
inches is very pale brown, and the lower 41 inches is light
gray.
Typically, the surface layer of the Hurricane soil is very
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 51 inches.
The upper 11 inches is grayish brown, the next 9 inches is
brown, and the next 26 inches is pale brown. The subsoil
is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The upper 4 inches is dark brown, the next 11
inches is dark reddish brown, and the lower 14 inches is
black.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Ridgewood-
Hurricane complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ridgewood and
Hurricane soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit. Generally, the mapped areas are
about 65 percent Ridgewood and similar soils and about
26 percent Hurricane and similar soils. The components of
this map unit are so intricately intermingled that it was not
practical to map them separately. The proportions and
patterns of Ridgewood and Hurricane soils and similar
soils are relatively consistent in most delineations of the
map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Albany, Blanton, Leon,
Mandarin, and Ortega soils. Individual areas of inclusions
are smaller than 5 acres in size. Albany and Blanton soils
have a loamy subsoil, and Blanton soils are moderately
well drained. Mandarin and Leon soils have a subsoil
between a depth of 20 to 30 inches, and Leon soils are
poorly drained. Ortega soils are moderately well drained
and are on the higher parts of the landscape.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 24 to 42






Lafayette County, Florida


inches for 1 to 3 months during wet periods in most years.
It recedes to a depth of more than 42 inches during dry
periods. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is rapid throughout the Ridgewood soil and moderately
rapid in the Hurricane soil.
These soils are in the mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak,
turkey oak, water oak, blackjack oak, and post oak. The
understory vegetation consists of lopsided indiangrass,
hairy panicum, chalky bluestem, creepy bluestem,
pineland threeawn, grassleaf goldaster, and saw palmetto.
Most areas of this map unit are used for the production of
planted pine, crops, or pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness during wet periods. The high
water table during wet seasons can limit the growth of
roots. Plant nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts,
soybeans, tobacco, and watermelons are crops that can
be grown with intensive management and the use of good
conservation practices. Using a crop rotation system that
includes cover crops, returning crop residue to the soil,
and properly applying fertilizer and lime are practices that
are necessary for good yields. Irrigation is desirable during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the
topsoil is left unprotected.
This map unit is moderately suited to tame pasture.
Deep-rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooting
pasture plants because the soils cannot retain sufficient
moisture in the rooting zone for good growth.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high for the Ridgewood soil and high for the Hurricane soil.
Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable for planting. The
thick, sandy texture restricts the use of wheeled
equipment. This limitation can be overcome by harvesting
when the soils are moist. Seedling mortality, which is
caused by droughtiness, can be partially reduced by
increasing the tree planting rate and the planting depth.
Plant competition can be controlled by site preparation
practices, such as chopping or controlled burning. A
harvesting system that leaves most of the biomass on the
surface is recommended.
This map unit has moderate limitations for dwellings
without basements and local roads and streets. It has
severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields.
Wetness, poor filtration, and the sandy texture are the


main limitations. Deep drainage reduces the wetness. If
areas of this map unit are used as a septic tank
absorption field, mounding of the field is needed. If the
density of housing is moderate to high, community
sewage systems are needed to prevent the contamination
of ground water from seepage.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The loose, sandy surface layer limits trafficability.
Suitable topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome this limitation. Soil
blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good
vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control soil
blowing.
The Ridgewood soil is in capability subclass IIIw, and
the woodland ordination symbol is 10W. The Hurricane soil
is in capability subclass IIIw, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 11W.

27-Albany-Ridgewood complex, 0 to 5
percent slopes

These soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are
somewhat poorly drained. They are on low ridges on
flatwoods and on low uplands. The mapped areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 20 to more than
150 acres in size. The slope is nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Albany soil is dark
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is fine sand to a depth of 64 inches. The upper 6 inches is
yellowish brown, the next 9 inches is brown, the next 4
inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 39 inches is
light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is light gray fine
sandy loam, and it extends to a depth of 72 inches. The
lower part of the subsoil is light gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Ridgewood soil is dark
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying
material is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 19 inches is light yellowish
brown, the next 15 inches is very pale brown, and the
lower 40 inches is white.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Albany-Ridgewood
complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Albany and Ridgewood
soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the
map unit. Generally, the mapped areas are about 67
percent Albany and similar soils and about 30 percent
Ridgewood and similar soils. The components of this map
unit are so intricately intermingled that it was not practical
to map them separately. The proportions and patterns of
Albany and Ridgewood soils and similar soils are relatively
consistent in most delineations of the map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20







Soil Survey


percent. The dissimilar soils included in mapping are small
areas of Blanton, Leon, Mandarin, and Ortega soils.
Individual areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in
size. Mandarin and Leon soils have an organic-coated
subsoil between a depth of 20 to 30 inches. Leon soils are
poorly drained, and they are on the lower parts of the
landscape. Blanton, Mandarin, and Ortega soils are
moderately well drained. They are on the higher parts of
the landscape.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to 30
inches in the Albany soil and at a depth of 24 to 42 inches
in the Ridgewood soil for 1 to 3 months during wet periods
in most years. It recedes to a depth of more than 30
inches during dry periods. The available water capacity is
low. Permeability is moderately slow to moderate in the
Albany soil and rapid throughout the Ridgewood soil.
These soils are in the mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
laurel oak, post oak, turkey oak, and water oak. The
understory consists of lopsided indiangrass, hairy
panicum, chalky bluestem, creepy bluestem, pineland
threeawn, grassleaf goldaster, switchgrass, gallberry,
lespedeza, and southern bayberry. Most areas of this map
unit are used for the production of planted pine or pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness during wet periods. The high
water table during wet seasons can limit the growth of
roots. Plant nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts,
soybeans, and watermelons are crops that can be grown
with intensive management and the use of good
conservation practices. Using a crop rotation system that
includes cover crops, returning crop residue to the soil,
and properly applying fertilizer and lime are practices that
are necessary for good yields. Irrigation is desirable during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the
topsoil is left unprotected.
This map unit is moderately suited to tame pasture.
Deep-rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooting
pasture plants because the soils cannot retain sufficient
moisture in the rooting zone for good growth.
The potential productivity for pine trees is very high for
the Albany soil and moderately high for the Ridgewood
soil. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. The thick, sandy texture restricts the
use of wheeled equipment. This limitation can be


overcome by harvesting when the soils are moist.
Seedling mortality, which is caused by droughtiness, can
be partially reduced by increasing the tree planting rate
and the planting depth. Plant competition can be
controlled by site preparation practices, such as
chopping or controlled burning. A harvesting system that
leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
recommended.
This map unit has moderate limitations for local roads
and streets. It has severe limitations for septic tank
absorption fields, dwellings without basements, and small
commercial buildings. Wetness, poor filtration, and the
sandy texture are the main limitations. Deep drainage
reduces the wetness. If areas of this map unit are used as
a septic tank absorption field, mounding of the field may
be needed. If the density of housing is moderate to high,
community sewage systems are needed to prevent the
contamination of ground water from seepage.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The loose, sandy surface layer limits trafficability.
Suitable topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome this limitation. Soil
blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good
vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control soil
blowing.
The Albany soil is in capability subclass Ille, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W. The Ridgewood soil is
in capability subclass IIIw, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 10W.

28-Clara and Meadowbrook soils,
frequently flooded

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are on
flood plains. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from about 20 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Clara soil is black
mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is light brownish gray fine sand, and it extends to a
depth of 18 inches. The subsoil is fine sand to a depth of
48 inches. The upper 5 inches is dark brown, and the
lower 25 inches is brown. The underlying material is light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil is
black mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of 45 inches.
The subsoil is gray and light gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Clara and
Meadowbrook soils, frequently flooded, Clara and
Meadowbrook soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100







Lafayette County, Florida


percent of the map unit. The similar soils include soils that
are similar to the Clara and Meadowbrook soils but have
an organic-coated subsoil. Generally, the mapped areas
are about 65 percent Clara soil and similar soils and about
25 percent Meadowbrook and similar soils. Each of the
soils does not necessarily occur in every mapped area.
The proportions and patterns of Clara and Meadowbrook
soils and similar soils varies from area to area. Areas of
individual soils are large enough to be mapped separately.
Because of the present and predicted land uses, however,
they were mapped as one unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Pamlico and Dorovan soils. These soils are in the lowest
areas of the map unit. Individual areas of inclusions are
smaller than 5 acres in size.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6
inches in the Clara soil during wet periods in most years. A
seasonal high water table is at or above the surface of the
Meadowbrook soil during wet periods for 3 months or
more during most years. The water table recedes to a
depth of more than 12 inches in both soils during dry
periods. The duration of flooding is generally brief in
areas of the Clara soil and very long in areas of the
Meadowbrook soil. The available water capacity is low
for both soils. Permeability is rapid in the Clara soil and
moderately slow to moderate in the Meadowbrook soil.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes baldcypress, pondcypress, pond pine, red maple,
blackgum, cabbage palm, water oak, and a few scattered
slash pine. The understory is mainly maidencane, St.
Johnswort, hairy bluestem, cordgrass, bullrush, button
bush, elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and
dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
flooding and prolonged wetness unless a major water-
control system is used. The potential productivity for pine
trees is high in some bedded areas of the Clara soil.
Careful consideration should be given before planting pine
trees.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths or trails. The flooding, ponding in
some areas, and sandy texture are the main limitations.
They are very difficult to overcome. Careful consideration
should be given before using this map unit for these uses.
The Clara soil is in capability subclass VIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W. The Meadowbrook
soil is in capability subclass Vllw, and the woodland
ordination symbol is 7w.


29-Fluvaquents, frequently flooded

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are on.
flood plains. The slope is smooth or slightly concave and
ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas are irregular
in shape and range from about 20 to more than 100 acres
in size.
Typically, the surface layer of Fluvaquents is black
mucky fine sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying
layers are stratified to a depth of 80 inches. To a depth of
21 inches is commonly very dark gray sandy clay loam.
The next layer, to a depth of about 29 inches, is dark gray
fine sandy loam that has yellowish brown mottles. The
next layer, to a depth of about 40 inches, is gray loamy
fine sand. Below this depth is gray fine sandy loam that
has white shell fragments.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Fluvaquents,
frequently flooded, Fluvaquents and similar soils make up
80 to 100 percent of the map unit. The similar soils include
soils that are similar to Fluvaquents but have an organic-
coated subsoil.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Pamlico and Dorovan soils. Individual areas of inclusions
are smaller than 5 acres in size and are in the lowest
landscape positions.
A seasonal high water table is within a depth of 6
inches for several months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 12 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is variable.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of baldcypress, loblolly bay, laurel oak, water oak,
cabbage palm, blackgum, sweetbay, sweetgum, and red
maple. The understory is mainly maidencane, St.
Johnswort, hairy bluestem, cordgrass, bullrush, button
bush, elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and
dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
flooding and the prolonged wetness unless a major water-
control system is used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths and trails. The flooding, wetness,
and slow percolation are the major limitations. They are
very difficult to overcome. Careful consideration should be
given before using areas of this map unit for these
purposes.
Fluvaquents are in capability subclass Vllw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 7W.







Soil Survey


31-Chaires, low-Meadowbrook complex

These poorly drained, nearly level soils are in low,
broad areas on the flatwoods. The Meadowbrook soil is in
the lower areas. The soils occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and are more than 100 acres in
size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chaires soil is black
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 23 inches. The
upper part of the subsoil is organic-coated fine sand, and
it extends to a depth of 32 inches. The upper 4 inches is
black, and the lower 5 inches is dark brown. Below this
depth is a layer of brown fine sand to a depth of 46
inches. The lower part of the subsoil is grayish brown
sandy clay loam to a depth of 65 inches and gray sandy
clay loam to a depth of 80 inches.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil is
black fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 45 inches. The
upper 10 inches is gray, and the lower 28 inches is light
gray. The subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 70
inches, and the lower part of the subsoil is light gray sandy
clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Chaires, low-
Meadowbrook complex, Chaires and Meadowbrook soils
and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map
unit. The similar soils include soils that have limestone
bedrock within a depth of 60 inches and soils that have
the upper part of the subsoil at a depth of more than 30
inches. Generally, the mapped areas are about 55 percent
Chaires soil and similar soils and about 35 percent
Meadowbrook soil and similar soils. The components of
this map unit occur as areas so intricately intermingled
that it was not practical to map them separately at the
scale used in mapping. The proportions and patterns of
the Chaires soil and similar soils are relatively consistent
in most mapped areas.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Leon and Oaky soils at the slightly higher elevations and
Tooles and other soils that are underlain by soft limestone
at similar elevations. Individual areas of inclusions are
smaller than 5 acres in size.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6
inches for 2 to 6 months during wet periods in most years.
It recedes to a depth of more than 24 inches or more in
both soils during dry periods. The available water capacity
is low. Permeability is moderately slow in the Chaires soil
and moderate or moderately slow in the Meadowbrook
soil.


These soils are in the North Florida Flatwoods
ecological plant community. In most areas in the
flatwoods, the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, scattered
sweetgum, red maple, and water oak. The understory
consists of gallberry, grape, greenbrier, lopsided
indiangrass, broomsedge, bluestem, scattered saw
palmetto, hairy panicum, pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle,
gallberry, panicum, fetterbush lyonia, brackenfem, and
little bluestem. Most areas of this map unit are used for
planted pine production or pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness and low natural fertility. However,
they are suited to most vegetable crops if they are
intensively managed, including the use of a water-control
system that removes excess water rapidly and provides
for subsurface irrigation. Soil-improving crops and crop
residue can protect the soils from erosion and maintain
the content of organic matter. Seedbed preparation should
include planting on beds. Fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
This map unit is well suited to tame pasture if water is
properly controlled. If properly managed, a good pasture
of grass or a grass-legume mixture can be established.
Water-control measures are needed to remove the excess
surface water during long, rainy periods. Irrigation is
needed for the best yields of white clover or other
adapted, shallow-rooted pasture plants during dry periods.
Establishing an optimum plant population, applying
fertilizer and lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain
a good plant cover and increase the production of forage.
Careful management is required to maintain good grazing.
This includes the establishment of a proper plant
population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and
controlled grazing.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high for the Chaires soil and high for the Meadowbrook
soil. Slash pine and loblolly pine are suitable for planting.
The equipment limitation, the seedling mortality, and plant
competition are management concerns. Seasonal wetness
is the main limitation. The use of equipment that has large
tires or tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation
and minimizes compaction and root damage during
thinning activities. Preparing the site and planting and
harvesting the trees during the drier periods also help to
overcome the equipment limitation. Good site preparation
practices, such as harrowing and bedding, help to
establish seedlings, control competing vegetation, and
facilitate planting. Leaving all of the plant debris on the site
helps to maintain the content of organic matter in the soils.
The trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This map unit has severe limitations for dwellings
without basements, local roads and streets, and septic
tank absorption fields. The seasonal high water table, poor







Lafayette County, Florida


filtration, and slow percolation in parts of the map unit are
the main limitations. Deep drainage reduces the wetness.
Suitable fill material can be used to elevate building sites.
Septic tank absorption fields can be mounded to maintain
the system above the seasonal high water table and
improve the percolation. Drainage and the use of suitable
fill to elevate road beds minimizes wetness in areas of
road construction.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths and trails. The seasonal high water table that is near
the surface during wet periods and the sandy surface
layer limit trafficability. Soil blowing is a hazard. Drainage
is needed before using areas of this map unit for these
purposes. Suitable topsoil fill material or resurfacing is
needed to improve the trafficability.
The Chaires soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. The Meadowbrook
soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


32-Chaires and Meadowbrook soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chaires soil is black
mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 24 inches. The upper 6
inches is grayish brown, and the lower 12 inches is light
brownish gray. The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand,
and it extends to a depth of 52 inches. The upper 8 inches
is very dark brown, the next 8 inches is dark brown, and
the lower 12 inches is dark yellowish brown. The lower
part of the subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 13 inches is grayish brown,
and the lower 15 inches is light brownish gray.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil is
black mucky fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 42 inches. The
upper 6 inches is grayish brown, the next 12 inches is light
brownish gray, and the lower 20 inches is light gray. The
subsoil is light grayish brown sandy loam to a depth of 65
inches and light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
inches.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Chaires and
Meadowbrook soils, depressional, Chaires and similar
soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit. The
similar soils include soils that are similar to the Chaires
soil but are underlain by sandy material and have a low


base saturation. Generally, the mapped areas are about
65 percent Chaires soil and similar soils and about 33
percent Meadowbrook and similar soils. Each of the soils
does not necessarily occur in every mapped area. The
proportions and patterns of Chaires and Meadowbrook
soils and similar soils varies from area to area. Areas of
individual soils are large enough to be mapped separately.
Because of the present and predicted land uses, however,
they were mapped as one unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Clara, Harbeson, and Rawhide soils that are in similar
landscape positions. Individual areas of inclusions are
smaller than 5 acres in size.
A seasonal high water table is above the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 20 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate or moderately slow.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of pondcypress, baldcypress, blackgum, pond
pine, sweetbay and red maple. The understory is mainly
maidencane, blue maidencane, sand cordgrass, St.
Johnswort, hairy bluestem, bullrush, button bush,
elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
prolonged wetness unless a major water-control system is
used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths and trails. The ponding and the
sandy texture are the main limitations. They are very
difficult to overcome. Careful consideration should be
given before using areas of this map unit for these
purposes.
The Chaires and Meadowbrook soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.


33-Tooles-Meadowbrook, limestone
substratum-Rawhide complex, frequently
flooded
These poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly
level soils are on flood plains. The Rawhide soil is in small
depressions that are about 2 to 4 acres in size and are
interspersed on the flood plain. The soils occur in a
regular, repeating pattern on the landscape. The slope is
smooth or slightly concave and ranges from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape and are
more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Tooles soil is very







Lafayette County, Florida


filtration, and slow percolation in parts of the map unit are
the main limitations. Deep drainage reduces the wetness.
Suitable fill material can be used to elevate building sites.
Septic tank absorption fields can be mounded to maintain
the system above the seasonal high water table and
improve the percolation. Drainage and the use of suitable
fill to elevate road beds minimizes wetness in areas of
road construction.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths and trails. The seasonal high water table that is near
the surface during wet periods and the sandy surface
layer limit trafficability. Soil blowing is a hazard. Drainage
is needed before using areas of this map unit for these
purposes. Suitable topsoil fill material or resurfacing is
needed to improve the trafficability.
The Chaires soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. The Meadowbrook
soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


32-Chaires and Meadowbrook soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chaires soil is black
mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 24 inches. The upper 6
inches is grayish brown, and the lower 12 inches is light
brownish gray. The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand,
and it extends to a depth of 52 inches. The upper 8 inches
is very dark brown, the next 8 inches is dark brown, and
the lower 12 inches is dark yellowish brown. The lower
part of the subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 13 inches is grayish brown,
and the lower 15 inches is light brownish gray.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil is
black mucky fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 42 inches. The
upper 6 inches is grayish brown, the next 12 inches is light
brownish gray, and the lower 20 inches is light gray. The
subsoil is light grayish brown sandy loam to a depth of 65
inches and light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
inches.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Chaires and
Meadowbrook soils, depressional, Chaires and similar
soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit. The
similar soils include soils that are similar to the Chaires
soil but are underlain by sandy material and have a low


base saturation. Generally, the mapped areas are about
65 percent Chaires soil and similar soils and about 33
percent Meadowbrook and similar soils. Each of the soils
does not necessarily occur in every mapped area. The
proportions and patterns of Chaires and Meadowbrook
soils and similar soils varies from area to area. Areas of
individual soils are large enough to be mapped separately.
Because of the present and predicted land uses, however,
they were mapped as one unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Clara, Harbeson, and Rawhide soils that are in similar
landscape positions. Individual areas of inclusions are
smaller than 5 acres in size.
A seasonal high water table is above the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 20 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate or moderately slow.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of pondcypress, baldcypress, blackgum, pond
pine, sweetbay and red maple. The understory is mainly
maidencane, blue maidencane, sand cordgrass, St.
Johnswort, hairy bluestem, bullrush, button bush,
elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
prolonged wetness unless a major water-control system is
used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths and trails. The ponding and the
sandy texture are the main limitations. They are very
difficult to overcome. Careful consideration should be
given before using areas of this map unit for these
purposes.
The Chaires and Meadowbrook soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.


33-Tooles-Meadowbrook, limestone
substratum-Rawhide complex, frequently
flooded
These poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly
level soils are on flood plains. The Rawhide soil is in small
depressions that are about 2 to 4 acres in size and are
interspersed on the flood plain. The soils occur in a
regular, repeating pattern on the landscape. The slope is
smooth or slightly concave and ranges from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape and are
more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Tooles soil is very








Soil Survey


dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 25 inches. The upper 5
inches is dark brown, the next 10 inches is pale brown,
and the lower 5 inches is very pale brown. The subsoil is
light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 42 inches. Below
this depth is limestone bedrock.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook,
limestone substratum, soil is very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand,
and it extends to a depth of 42 inches. The upper 15
inches is dark grayish brown, and the lower 21 inches is
pale brown. The subsoil is light grayish brown sandy clay
loam to a depth of 55 inches. Below this depth is
limestone bedrock.
Typically, the surface layer of the Rawhide soil is black
mucky fine sand about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is
sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
upper 15 inches is black, the next 10 inches is very dark
gray, the next 10 inches is gray, and the lower 35 inches is
light gray.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Tooles-
Meadowbrook, limestone substratum-Rawhide complex,
frequently flooded, Tooles, Meadowbrook, limestone
substratum, and Rawhide soils and similar soils make up
80 to 100 percent of the map unit. The similar soils
include soils that are similar to the Tooles soil but have
an organic subsoil within a depth of 30 inches and soils
that do not have rock. Generally, the mapped areas are
about 61 percent Tooles soil and similar soils, about 21
percent Meadowbrook, limestone substratum, soil and
similar soils, and about 13 percent Rawhide soil and
similar soils. The components of this map unit occur
as areas so intricately intermingled that it was not
practical to map them separately at the scale used in
mapping. The proportions and patterns of these soils and
similar soils are relatively consistent in most mapped
areas.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Leon, Oaky, and other soils that have a muck surface
layer more than 16 inches thick. Individual areas of
inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size. These soils are
in similar landscape positions.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6
inches in the Tooles and Meadowbrook soils for 2 to 6
months during wet periods in most years. The Rawhide
soil has a seasonal high water table above the surface for
6 to 9 months during wet periods and for short periods
after heavy rainfalls during dry periods. The water table
recedes to a depth of more than 24 inches during dry
periods. The available water capacity is low in the Tooles
and Meadowbrook soils and moderate in the Rawhide soil.
Permeability is slow or very slow in the Rawhide soil, slow


in the Tooles soil, and moderate or moderately slow in the
Meadowbrook soil.
These soils are in the North Florida Flatwoods
ecological plant community. In most areas on the flood
plains, the natural vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly
pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, scattered
sweetgum, blackgum, and water oak. Pondcypress,
baldcypress, pond pine, scattered sweetgum, red maple,
laurel oak, and water oak grow in the lower areas. The
understory consists of gallberry, grape, greenbrier,
lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, scattered saw
palmetto, hairy panicum, pineland threeawn, and little
bluestem in flood-prone areas on the flatwoods. It consists
of maidencane, St Johnswort, and various other water-
tolerant grasses in the lower areas. Most areas of this
map unit are used for the production of planted pine.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of flooding, wetness, ponding in the lower areas,
and low natural fertility. A major water-control system is
needed before using areas of the map unit for crops.
This map unit is unsuited to tame pasture under natural
conditions. If properly managed, a good pasture of grass
or a grass-legume mixture can be established. Water-
control measures are needed to remove the excess
surface water during long, rainy periods. Irrigation is
needed for the best yields of white clover or other
adapted, shallow-rooted pasture plants during dry periods.
Establishing an optimum plant population, applying
fertilizer and lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain
a good plant cover and increase the production of forage.
Most of the lower areas are unsuited for tame pasture
because of the difficulty in providing drainage. Careful
management is required to maintain good grazing. This
includes the establishment of a proper plant population,
applications of fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing.
The potential productivity for pine trees is high for the
Tooles and Meadowbrook, limestone substratum, soils on
the flood plain in the flatwoods. Slash pine is suitable for
planting. In low areas, the potential productivity is very
low. The equipment limitation, the seedling mortality, and
plant competition are management concerns. Seasonal
wetness is the main limitation. A water-control system is
needed to remove the excess surface water. The use of
equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to overcome
the equipment limitation and minimizes compaction and
root damage during thinning activities. Preparing the site
and planting and harvesting the trees during drier periods
also help to overcome equipment limitation. Good site
preparation practices, such as harrowing and bedding,
help to establish seedlings, control competing vegetation,
and facilitate planting. Leaving all of the plant debris on
the site helps to maintain the content of organic matter in
the soils. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.








Lafayette County, Florida


This map unit has severe limitations for dwellings
without basements, local roads and streets, and septic
tank absorption fields. Flooding, wetness, poor filtration in
areas, and slow percolation are the main limitations.
Intensive flood-control measures and deep drainage
reduce the wetness. Suitable fill material can be used to
elevate building sites. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal high
water table and improve the percolation. Drainage and the
use of suitable fill to elevate road beds minimizes wetness
in areas of road construction.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails. The flooding, wetness, the seasonal high
water table that is near the surface during wet periods and
is above the surface in the lower areas, and the sandy
surface texture are severe limitations. Intensive flood-
control measures and drainage are needed before using
areas of this map unit for these purposes. Suitable topsoil
fill material or resurfacing is needed to improve the
trafficability.
The Tooles soil is in capability subclass Vw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W. The Meadowbrook,
limestone substratum, soil is in capability subclass VIw,
and the woodland ordination symbol is 11W. The Rawhide
soil is in capability subclass VIIw, and the woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.

34-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes

This nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well
drained soil is on uplands. The mapped areas are irregular
in shape and range from about 50 to more than 150 acres
in size. The slope is nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of this soil is very dark
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
underlying material is fine sand, and it extends to a depth
of 80 inches. The upper 25 inches of the underlying
material is brown. The next 21 inches is pale brown. The
lower 28 inches is light gray.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Ortega fine sand,
Ortega soil and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of
the map unit. The similar soils include Penney and
Ridgewood soils.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Albany and Blanton soils and
soils that have sand over rock. Individual areas of
inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size. Albany soils
are somewhat poorly drained and are in lower positions on
the landscape than the Ortega soil. Albany and Blanton


soils have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches.
Blanton soils are in landscape positions similar to those of
the Ortega soil.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to 60
inches in the Ortega soil for 1 to 3 months during wet
periods in most years. It recedes to a depth of more than
60 inches during the dry periods. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid throughout the soil.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological plant community. In most areas, the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine,
live oak, bluejack oak, post oak, and turkey oak. The
understory consists mostly of lopsided indiangrass, hairy
panicum, greenbriar, hawthorn, persimmon, fringe leaf
paspalum, hairy tick clover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky
bluestem, creepy bluestem, and pineland threeawn. Most
areas of this soil are used for the production of pasture,
crops, or planted pine.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of droughtiness during dry periods. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, tobacco,
and watermelons are crops that can be grown with
intensive management and the use of good conservation
practices. Using a crop rotation system that includes cover
crops, returning crop residue to the soil, and properly
applying fertilizer and lime are practices that are
necessary for good yields. Irrigation is desirable during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the
topsoil is left unprotected (fig. 11).
This soil is moderately well suited to tame pasture.
Deep-rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. This soil is not suited to shallow-rooting pasture
plants because it cannot retain sufficient moisture in the
rooting zone for good growth.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly
pine are suitable for planting. The thick, sandy texture
restricts the use of wheeled equipment. This limitation can
be overcome by harvesting when the soil is moist.
Seedling mortality, which is caused by droughtiness, can
be partially reduced by increasing the tree planting rate
and the planting depth. Plant competition can be
controlled by site preparation practices, such as chopping
or controlled burning. A harvesting system that leaves
most of the biomass on the surface is recommended.
This soil has slight limitations for dwellings without








Soil Survey


Figure 11.-An area of Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Strips of rye were planted to reduce the damage to crops caused by blowing
sand.


basements and for local roads and streets. It has
moderate limitations for septic tank absorption fields. In
areas that have a concentration of homes and septic tank
absorption fields, ground-water contamination can be a
hazard because of poor filtration and the water table
during wet periods. Some slight filling may be necessary in
areas.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The loose, sandy surface layer limits trafficability.
Suitable topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome this limitation. Soil
blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good
vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control soil
blowing.
This Ortega soil is in capability subclass Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10S.


36-Wampee fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes

This nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly
drained soil is on low uplands. The mapped areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more than
50 acres in size. The slope is nearly smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface layer of the Wampee soil is fine
sand to a depth of 12 inches. The upper 6 inches is very
dark gray, and the lower 6 inches is dark grayish brown.
The upper part of the subsurface layer is brown fine sand
to a depth of 21 inches, and the lower part is light
brownish gray sand to a depth of 32 inches. The subsoil is
sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
upper 23 inches is gray, and the lower 25 inches is light
gray.








Lafayette County, Florida


In 80 percent of areas mapped as Wampee fine sand, 0
to 5 percent slopes, Wampee soil and similar soils make
up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit. The similar soils
include soils are poorly drained and soils that have a low
base saturation.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Albany and Plummer soils.
Albany soils are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches
and have a low base saturation. Plummer soils are poorly
drained, have a sandy epipedon more than 40 inches
thick, and have a low base saturation. Individual areas of
inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size. Albany and
Plummer soils are on the lower parts of the landscape.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to 36
inches in the Wampee soil for 1 to 3 months during wet
periods in most years. It recedes to a depth of more than
36 inches during dry periods. The available water capacity
is low. Permeability is moderate.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, sweetgum, red maple, American holly,
and laurel oak. The understory consists of dwarf palmetto,
Virginia creeper, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
pineland threeawn, bluestem, common greenbriers, and
panicum. Most areas of this soil are used for the
production of planted pine or pasture.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness and low natural fertility. With a
good water-control system and soil-improving measures,
this soil is suited to many crops. A water-control system is
needed to remove the excess surface water during wet
periods and to provide water for subsurface irrigation
during drought periods. Row crops should be rotated with
close-growing, soil-improving cover crops. Soil-improving
cover crops and crop residue should be used to maintain
the content of organic matter and to control erosion.
Seedbed preparation should include planting on beds.
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
needs of the crops.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Improved
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover are well
adapted to this soil and grow well if properly managed. A
water-control system is needed to remove the excess
surface water during heavy rains. To obtain high yields,
regular applications of fertilizer are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain the vigor of plants.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Slash pine and loblolly pine are suitable for planting.
The timely use of site preparation practices, such as
harrowing and bedding, help to establish seedlings and
increase early growth. Chopping and bedding also reduce


the debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
planting operations. Using field machinery that is equipped
with large rubber tires or tracks helps to overcome the
equipment limitation, reduces soil compaction, and
reduces the damage to roots during thinning operations. A
logging system that leaves residual biomass distributed
over the site helps to maintain the content of organic
matter and the soil fertility. Applications of fertilizer can
provide an excellent growth response.
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
basements, local roads and streets, and septic tank
absorption fields. The seasonal high water table, slow
percolation, poor filtration, and the sandy texture are the
main limitations. Deep drainage reduces the wetness. If
areas of this soil are used as a septic tank absorption
field, mounding of the field is needed. If the density of
housing is moderate to high, community sewage systems
may be needed to prevent the contamination of ground
water from seepage.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses.
The seasonal high water table during wet periods and the
loose, sandy surface layer limit trafficability. Suitable
topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome the sandy texture.
Soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a
good vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control
soil blowing.
This Wampee soil is in capability subclass Ill1w, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W.

37-Pantego and Surrency soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pantego soil is black
mucky loamy sand about 10 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is light brownish gray sandy loam to a depth of 14
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is sandy clay loam to
a depth of 45 inches. The upper 4 inches is light gray, and
the lower 27 inches is light brownish gray. Below this is
grayish brown sandy clay to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is black
mucky fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 32 inches. The upper 18
inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 6 inches is
light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is light grayish
brown sandy loam to a depth of 60 inches, and the lower
part of the subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.








Soil Survey


In 80 percent of areas mapped as Pantego and
Surrency soils, depressional, Pantego and Surrency soils
and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map
unit. The similar soils include soils that are similar to the
Pantego soil but are underlain by soft limestone material.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 65 percent
Pantego soil and similar soils and about 33 percent
Surrency and similar soils. Each of the soils does not
necessarily occur in every mapped area. The proportions
and patterns of Pantego and Surrency soils and similar
soils varies from area to area. Areas of individual soils are
large enough to be mapped separately. Because of the
present and predicted land uses, however, they were
mapped as one unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Harbeson and Rawhide soils that have a low base
saturation. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller than
5 acres in size. Harbeson and Rawhide soils are in similar
landscape positions.
A seasonal high water table is above the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 12 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is high in the
Pantego soil and moderate in the Surrency soil.
Permeability is moderate.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of pondcypress, baldcypress, pond pine,
blackgum, sweetbay, water oak, and red maple. The
understory is mainly cordgrass, bullrush, button bush,
elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
ponding unless a major water-control system is used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths and trails. The ponding and the
sandy texture are the main limitations. They are very
difficult to overcome. Careful consideration should be
given before using areas of this map unit for these
purposes.
The Pantego and Surrency soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.

38-Pantego and Surrency soils, frequently
flooded

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are on
flood plains. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas


are irregular in shape and range from about 20 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pantego soil is black
mucky loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is sandy loam to a depth of 19 inches. The upper 6
inches is grayish brown, and the lower 5 inches is light
brownish gray. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of 43 inches. Below this depth is light gray sandy
clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is black
mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 32 inches. The upper 12
inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 14 inches is
light gray. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Pantego and
Surrency soils, frequently flooded, Pantego and Surrency
soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the
map unit. The similar soils include soils that are similar to
the Pantego and Surrency soils but are underlain by soft
limestone material. Generally, the mapped areas are
about 55 percent Pantego soil and similar soils and about
43 percent Surrency and similar soils. Each of the soils
does not necessarily occur in every mapped area. The
proportions and patterns of Pantego and Surrency soils
and similar soils varies from area to area. Areas of
individual soils are large enough to be mapped separately.
Because of the present and predicted land uses, however,
they were mapped as one unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Harbeson and Rawhide soils. Harbeson and Rawhide soil
have a high base saturation. Individual areas of inclusions
are smaller than 5 acres in size, and they are in similar
landscape positions.
A seasonal high water table is at or near the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 12 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is high in the
Pantego soil and moderate in the Surrency soil.
Permeability is moderate in the Pantego and Surrency
soils.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of baldcypress, pondcypress, water oak, loblolly
bay, blackgum, sweetgum, sweetbay, red maple, and pond
pine. The understory is mainly maidencane, St.
Johnswort, hairy bluestem, cordgrass, bullrush, button
bush, elderberry, water hyacinth, arrowhead, and
dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the








Lafayette County, Florida


flooding and the prolonged wetness unless a major water-
control system is used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths or trails. The flooding and wetness
are the main limitations. They are very difficult to
overcome. Careful consideration should be given before
using areas of this map unit for these purposes.
The Pantego and Surrency soils are in capability
subclass VIw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 7W.

39-Eunola fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes

This nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well
drained soil is on terraces. The mapped areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more
than 100 acres in size. The slope is nearly smooth to
concave.
Typically, the surface layer of the Eunola soil is very
dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 7 inches. The
subsurface layer is pale brown loamy fine sand to a depth
of 18 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish
brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 24 inches. The next 3
inches is light yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower
part of the subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay to a depth
of 35 inches. The next 15 inches is light brownish gray
sandy clay. The next 8 inches is grayish brown sandy clay
loam. The next 10 inches is brown loamy sand, and the
lower 12 inches is pale brown sand.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Eunola fine sand,
Eunola soil and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of
the map unit. The similar soils are similar to the Eunola
soil except the subsoil is loamy or clayey to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent. The dissimilar soils included with these soils in
mapping are small areas of Blanton and Ortega soils.
Blanton soils are sandy to a depth of 40 to 79 inches.
Ortega soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches.
Individual areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in
size. Blanton and Ortega soils are on the higher parts of
the landscape.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to 30
inches in the Eunola soil for 1 to 3 months during wet
periods in most years. It recedes to a depth of more than
30 inches during dry periods. The available water capacity
is low. Permeability is moderately slow to moderate.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, water oak,
sweetgum, southern red oak, and hickory. The understory
consists of little bluestem, pancium, and uniola. Most


areas of this soil are used for the production of planted
pine or pasture.
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness. With a good water-control system
and soil-improving measures, this soil is suited to many
crops. A water-control system is needed to remove the
excess surface water during wet periods and to provide
water for subsurface irrigation during drought periods.
Row crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
improving cover crops. Soil-improving cover crops and
crop residue should be used to maintain the content of
organic matter and to control erosion. Seedbed
preparation should include planting on beds. Fertilizer and
lime should be applied according to the needs of the
crops.
This soil is well suited to tame pasture. Improved
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover are well
adapted to this soil. They grow well if properly managed. A
water-control system is needed to remove the excess
surface water during heavy rains. To obtain high yields,
regular applications of fertilizer are needed. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain the vigor of plants.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Loblolly pine and slash pine are suitable for planting.
The timely use of site preparation practices, such as
harrowing and bedding, help to establish seedlings,
reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase early
growth. Chopping and bedding also reduce the debris,
control competing vegetation, and facilitate planting
operations. Using field machinery that is equipped with
large tires or tracks helps to overcome the equipment
limitation, reduces soil compaction, and reduces the
damage to roots during thinning operations. A logging
system that leaves residual biomass distributed over the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter and
the soil fertility. Applications of fertilizer can provide an
excellent growth response.
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
basements and local roads and streets. It has severe
limitations for septic tank absorption fields. The seasonal
high water table is the main limitation. Deep drainage
reduces the wetness. If areas of this soil are used as a
septic tank absorption field, mounding of the field is
needed. If the density of housing is moderate to high,
community sewage systems may be needed to prevent
the contamination of ground water from seepage.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability. Suitable topsoil
fill material or some other type of surface stabilization is
necessary to overcome this limitation. Soil blowing is a
hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good vegetative
cover or planting windbreaks can control soil blowing.
This Eunola soil is in capability subclass IIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W.








Soil Survey


41-Meadowbrook and Harbeson soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from about 20 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil is
black mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of 45 inches.
The subsoil is gray and light gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Harbeson soil is black
mucky fine sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 63 inches. The upper 19
inches is dark grayish brown, the next 11 inches is grayish
brown, and the lower 21 inches is light brownish gray. The
subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The upper 8 inches is gray, and the lower 9 inches
is light gray.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Meadowbrook and
Harbeson soils, depressional, Meadowbrook and
Harbeson soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit. The similar soils include soils that
are similar to the Meadowbrook and Harbeson soils but
have an organic-coated subsoil. Generally, the mapped
areas are about 65 percent Meadowbrook and similar soils
and about 25 percent Harbeson and similar soils. Each of
the soils does not necessarily occur in every mapped
area. The proportions and the patterns of Meadowbrook
and Harbeson soils and similar soils varies from area to
area. Areas of individual soils are large enough to be
mapped separately. Because of the present and
predicted land uses, however, they were mapped as one
unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Pamlico and Dorovan soils. Individual areas of inclusions
are smaller than 5 acres in size. Pamlico and Dorvan soils
are in similar landscape positions.
A seasonal high water table is above the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 12 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is low in the
Meadowbrook soil and moderate in the Harbeson soil.
Permeability is moderate slow to moderate.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of pondcypress, water oak, blackgum, sweetbay,
red maple, and pond pine. The understory is mainly
maidencane, St. Johnswort, hairy bluestem, cordgrass,


bullrush, button bush, elderberry, water hyacinth,
arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
prolonged wetness unless a major water-control system is
used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths and trails. The ponding, slow
percolation, poor filtration, and sandy texture are the
major limitations. They are very difficult to overcome.
Careful consideration should be given before using areas
of this map unit for these purposes.
The Meadowbrook and Harbeson soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.

42-Sapelo, low-Clara-Surrency,
depressional, complex

The poorly drained soils are on low flatwoods, and the
very poorly drained soils are in small depressions in the
flatwoods. The soils occur in a regular, repeating pattern
on the landscape. The slope is smooth or concave and
ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular
in shape and are more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Sapelo soil is black
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand to a depth of 18 inches. The upper 6 inches is
grayish brown, and the lower 4 inches is light brownish
gray. The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand, and it
extends to a depth of 40 inches. The upper 8 inches is
very dark brown, the next 8 inches is dark brown, and the
lower 4 inches is dark yellowish brown. Below this to a
depth of 56 inches is gray fine sand. The lower part of the
subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Clara soil is black fine
sand about 4 inches. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 15
inches. The subsoil is fine sand, and it extends to a depth
of about 60 inches. The upper 33 inches is dark yellowish
brown, and the next 12 inches is brown. Below this depth
is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is black
mucky fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of about 32
inches. The upper 7 inches is dark grayish brown, and the
lower 18 inches is light brownish gray. The upper 18
inches of the subsoil is gray sandy clay loam, and the
lower part of the subsoil is light gray sandy loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Sapelo, low-Clara-
Surrency, depressional, complex, Sapelo, Clara, and








Soil Survey


41-Meadowbrook and Harbeson soils,
depressional

These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
depressions. The soils do not occur in a regular, repeating
pattern on the landscape. The slope is smooth or slightly
concave and ranges from 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from about 20 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil is
black mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of 45 inches.
The subsoil is gray and light gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Harbeson soil is black
mucky fine sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 63 inches. The upper 19
inches is dark grayish brown, the next 11 inches is grayish
brown, and the lower 21 inches is light brownish gray. The
subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or
more. The upper 8 inches is gray, and the lower 9 inches
is light gray.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Meadowbrook and
Harbeson soils, depressional, Meadowbrook and
Harbeson soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit. The similar soils include soils that
are similar to the Meadowbrook and Harbeson soils but
have an organic-coated subsoil. Generally, the mapped
areas are about 65 percent Meadowbrook and similar soils
and about 25 percent Harbeson and similar soils. Each of
the soils does not necessarily occur in every mapped
area. The proportions and the patterns of Meadowbrook
and Harbeson soils and similar soils varies from area to
area. Areas of individual soils are large enough to be
mapped separately. Because of the present and
predicted land uses, however, they were mapped as one
unit.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Pamlico and Dorovan soils. Individual areas of inclusions
are smaller than 5 acres in size. Pamlico and Dorvan soils
are in similar landscape positions.
A seasonal high water table is above the surface of
these soils for 6 to 9 months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 12 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is low in the
Meadowbrook soil and moderate in the Harbeson soil.
Permeability is moderate slow to moderate.
These soils are in the Swamps Hardwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
consists of pondcypress, water oak, blackgum, sweetbay,
red maple, and pond pine. The understory is mainly
maidencane, St. Johnswort, hairy bluestem, cordgrass,


bullrush, button bush, elderberry, water hyacinth,
arrowhead, and dollarwort.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
prolonged wetness unless a major water-control system is
used.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban uses
and recreational development, such as playgrounds,
picnic areas, and paths and trails. The ponding, slow
percolation, poor filtration, and sandy texture are the
major limitations. They are very difficult to overcome.
Careful consideration should be given before using areas
of this map unit for these purposes.
The Meadowbrook and Harbeson soils are in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.

42-Sapelo, low-Clara-Surrency,
depressional, complex

The poorly drained soils are on low flatwoods, and the
very poorly drained soils are in small depressions in the
flatwoods. The soils occur in a regular, repeating pattern
on the landscape. The slope is smooth or concave and
ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular
in shape and are more than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Sapelo soil is black
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand to a depth of 18 inches. The upper 6 inches is
grayish brown, and the lower 4 inches is light brownish
gray. The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand, and it
extends to a depth of 40 inches. The upper 8 inches is
very dark brown, the next 8 inches is dark brown, and the
lower 4 inches is dark yellowish brown. Below this to a
depth of 56 inches is gray fine sand. The lower part of the
subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Clara soil is black fine
sand about 4 inches. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 15
inches. The subsoil is fine sand, and it extends to a depth
of about 60 inches. The upper 33 inches is dark yellowish
brown, and the next 12 inches is brown. Below this depth
is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is black
mucky fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of about 32
inches. The upper 7 inches is dark grayish brown, and the
lower 18 inches is light brownish gray. The upper 18
inches of the subsoil is gray sandy clay loam, and the
lower part of the subsoil is light gray sandy loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Sapelo, low-Clara-
Surrency, depressional, complex, Sapelo, Clara, and








Lafayette County, Florida


Surrency soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent
of the map unit. The similar soils include Chaires and
Meadowbrook soils and soils that are similar to the Sapelo
soil but that have an upper organic-coated subsoil at a
depth of more than 30 inches. Generally, the mapped
areas are about 45 percent Sapelo, low, soil and similar
soils, about 25 percent Clara soil and similar soils, and
about 15 percent Surrency, depressional, soil and similar
soils. The components of this map unit occur as areas so
intricately intermingled that it was not practical to map
them separately at the scale used in mapping. The
proportions and patterns of the Sapelo, low, soil; the Clara
soil; and the Surrency, depressional, soil and similar soils
are relatively consistent in most mapped areas.
In 0 to 20 percent of the mapped areas, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 20 percent of the unit. The
dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
Chaires, Leon, and Pamlico, and other soils that have a
sandy epipedon at a depth of 10 to 20 inches. Individual
areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size.
Chaires and Leon soils are on low flatwoods, and Pamlico
soils are in depressions.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6
inches in the Sapelo, low, soil and the Clara soil for 1 to 3
months during wet periods in most years. It recedes to a
depth of more than 18 inches during dry periods. A
seasonal high water table is above the surface of the
Surrency, depressional, soil for 6 to 9 months during wet
periods in most years. It recedes to a depth of more than
24 inches during dry periods. The available water capacity
is low. Permeability is moderately slow to moderate in the
Sapelo soil, rapid in the Clara soil, and moderate to
moderately rapid in the Surrency soil.
Most areas of these soils are in the North Florida
Flatwoods ecological plant community. In most areas in
the flatwoods, the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
loblolly pine, and water oak. Pondcypress, baldcypress,
pond pine, red maple, and water oak are in the low areas
and depressions. The understory consists of creeping
bluestem, pineywoods dropseed, scattered saw palmetto,
hairy panicum, pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle, gallberry,
panicum, fetterbush lyonia, brackenfern, and little
bluestem in the flatwoods. It consists of fetterbush lyonia,
red maple, southern bayberry, gallberry, plumgrass,
longleaf uniola, and sedges in the lower areas and
depressions. Most areas of this map unit are used for the
production of planted pine.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness, ponding, and low natural fertility.
However, they are suited to most vegetable crops if they
are intensively managed, including the use of a water-
control system that removes excess water rapidly and
provides for subsurface irrigation. Soil-improving crops
and crop residue can protect the soils from erosion and


maintain the content of organic matter. Seedbed
preparation should include planting on beds. Fertilizer
should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
Most of the depressional areas are unsuited for cultivated
crops.
Except for the depressional areas, this map unit is well
suited to tame pasture if water is properly controlled. If
properly managed, a good pasture of grass or a grass-
legume mixture can be established. Water-control
measures are needed to remove the excess surface water
during long, rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for the best
yields of white clover or other adapted, shallow-rooted
pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing an
optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and lime, and
controlling grazing help to maintain a good plant cover and
increase the production of forage. Careful management is
required to maintain good grazing. This includes the
establishment of a proper plant population, applications of
fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing. Most of the
depressional areas are unsuited for tame pasture.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high for the Sapelo and Clara soils. In areas of the
Surrency soil in depressions, the productivity is very low.
Slash pine is suitable for planting. The equipment
limitation, the seedling mortality, and plant competition are
management concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main
limitation. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Preparing the site and planting and harvesting
the trees during drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation practices,
such as harrowing and bedding, help to establish
seedlings, control competing vegetation, and facilitate
planting. Leaving all of the plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soils. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This map unit has severe limitations for dwellings
without basements, local roads and streets, and septic
tank absorption fields. The seasonal high water table,
ponding, and poor filtration are the main limitations. Deep
drainage reduces the wetness. Suitable fill material can be
used to elevate building sites. Septic tank absorption fields
can be mounded to maintain the system above the
seasonal high water table and improve the percolation.
Drainage and the use of suitable fill to elevate road beds
minimizes wetness in areas of road construction.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths and trails. The seasonal high water table, ponding in
the depressions, and the sandy surface texture are severe
limitations. Drainage is needed before using areas of this
map unit for these purposes. Suitable topsoil fill material
or resurfacing is needed to improve the trafficability.








Soil Survey


The Sapelo soil is in capability subclass IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. The Clara soil is in
capability subclass VIw, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 11W. The Surrency soil is in capability subclass
VIw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 2W.

43-Garcon-Albany-Meadowbrook complex,
0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally
flooded
The nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly
drained soils are on terraces, and the very poorly drained
soils are in depressional areas on flood plains along the
Suwannee River. Some areas are isolated by meandering
stream channels. The mapped areas are irregular in
shape and range from about 20 to more than 150 acres in
size. The slope is nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Garcon soil is dark
gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 26 inches. The
upper 12 inches is brown, and the lower 7 inches is very
pale brown. The subsoil is sandy clay loam and sandy
loam to a depth of 51 inches. The upper 14 inches is
brownish yellow sandy clay loam, and the lower 11 inches
is light brownish gray sandy loam. Below this to a depth of
60 inches is white loamy fine sand. The next 20 inches is
white fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Albany soil is very
dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 63 inches. The upper 10
inches is yellowish brown, the next 9 inches is brown, the
next 4 inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 36
inches is light gray. The subsoil is sandy clay loam, and it
extends to a depth of 80 inches. It is light gray to a depth
of 65 inches and is mottled yellowish brown, pale brown,
and light gray to a depth of 80 inches.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil is
black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 45 inches. The
upper 8 inches is dark gray, and the lower 31 inches is
light gray. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay loam to
a depth of 63 inches and grayish brown sandy loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Garcon-Albany-
Meadowbrook complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
occasionally flooded, Garcon, Albany, Meadowbrook, and
similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 65 percent Garcon
and similar soils, 20 percent Albany and similar soils, and
15 percent Meadowbrook and similar soils. Garcon and
Albany soils are in the higher areas, and Meadowbrook
soils are in the depressions. The Meadowbrook soil is on
slopes that are less than 2 percent. The components of
this map unit are so intricately intermingled that it was not


practical to map them separately. The proportions and
patterns of Garcon, Albany, and Meadowbrook soils and
similar soils are relatively consistent in most delineations
of the map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Blanton, Leon, Mandarin, and
Ortega soils. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller
than 5 acres in size. Mandarin and Leon soils have an
organic-coated subsoil at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. Leon
soils are also poorly drained and are on low parts of the
landform. Blanton, Mandarin, and Ortega soils are
moderately well drained and are on the higher parts of the
landform.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36
inches in the Garcon soil and at a depth of 12 to 30 inches
in the Albany soil for 1 to 3 months during wet periods in
most years. It recedes to a depth of more than 30 inches
during dry periods. A seasonal high water table is above
the surface of the Meadowbrook soil for 6 to 9 months
during wet periods in most years. It recedes to a depth of
more than 12 inches during dry periods. Flooding occurs
in areas of the Garcon and Albany soils several times
during a 10-year span. The duration and extent of flooding
are variable, and they are directly related to the intensity
and frequency of rainfall. The flooding occurs for less than
7 days in areas of the Garcon and Albany soils and for a
few weeks to several months in areas of the
Meadowbrook, depressional, soil. The excess water ponds
in the lowest areas of the Meadowbrook soil. The available
water capacity is low in the Garcon, Albany, and
Meadowbrook soils. Permeability is moderate in the
Garcon soil and moderately slow to moderate in the
Albany and Meadowbrook soils.
Most areas of these soils are in the mixed Hardwood-
Pine ecological plant community. In areas of Garcon and
Albany soils, the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, and water
oak. The understory consists of lopsided indiangrass,
hairy panicum, chalky bluestem, creepy bluestem,
pineland threeawn, grassleaf goldaster, switchgrass,
gallberry, lespedeza, and southern bayberry. Baldcypress,
pondcypress, scattered sweetgums, and pond pine are
common in areas of the Meadowbrook soil. Most areas of
this map unit are used for the production of planted pine
or pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the flooding, wetness, and ponding in
depressions during wet periods. The high water table
during wet seasons can limit the growth of roots. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, and
watermelons are crops that can be grown with intensive







Lafayette County, Florida


management and the use of good conservation practices.
Using a crop rotation system that includes cover crops,
returning crop residue to the soil, and properly applying
fertilizer and lime are practices that are necessary for
good yields. Irrigation is desirable during drought periods.
Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the topsoil is left
unprotected. Most of the depressional areas are unsuited
for cultivated crops.
This map unit is moderately suited to tame pasture.
Deep-rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooting
pasture plants because the soils cannot retain sufficient
moisture in the rooting zone for good growth. Most of the
depressional areas are unsuited for tame pasture.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high for the Garcon soil and high for the Albany soil. In
depressions and low areas, the productivity is very low.
Slash pine and loblolly pine are suitable for planting
except in depressions. The thick, sandy texture restricts
the use of wheeled equipment. This limitation can be
overcome by harvesting when the soils are moist.
Seedling mortality, which is caused by droughtiness, can
be partially reduced by increasing the tree planting rate
and the planting depth. Plant competition can be
controlled by site preparation practices, such as chopping
or controlled burning. A harvesting system that leaves
most of the biomass on the surface is recommended.
This map unit has severe limitations for local roads and
streets, septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
basements, and small commercial buildings. Flooding,
wetness, ponding, poor filtration, and the sandy texture
are the main limitations. Deep drainage reduces the
wetness. If areas of this map unit are used as a septic
tank absorption field, mounding of the field may be
needed. If the density of housing is moderate to high,
community sewage systems are needed to prevent the
contamination of ground water from seepage.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The flooding, ponding, and the loose, sandy surface
layer limit trafficability. Suitable topsoil fill material or some
other type of surface stabilization is necessary to
overcome the sandy texture. Soil blowing is a hazard.
Establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover or
planting windbreaks can control soil blowing.
The Garcon soil is in capability subclass l1w, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. The Albany soil is in
capability subclass Illw, and the woodland ordination


symbol is 11W. The Meadowbrook soil is in capability
subclass Vllw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 7W.

44-Albany-Ousley-Meadowbrook complex,
0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally
flooded
The nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly
drained soils are on terraces, and the very poorly drained
soils are in depressional areas on flood plains along the
Suwannee River. Some areas are isolated by meandering
stream channels. The mapped areas are irregular in
shape and range from about 20 to more than 150 acres in
size. The slope is nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Albany soil is very
dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand to a depth of 53 inches. The upper 10
inches is yellowish brown, the next 9 inches is brown, the
next 4 inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 24
inches is light gray. The subsoil is sandy clay loam, and it
extends to a depth of 80 inches. The upper 2 inches is
light gray and the lower 25 inches is mottled yellowish
brown, pale brown, and light gray.
Typically, the surface layer of the Ousley soil is dark
gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying
material is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 15 inches is pale brown, the
next 21 inches is brown, the next 17 inches is light
brownish gray, and the lower 23 inches is light gray.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil is
black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 45 inches. The
upper 8 inches is dark gray, and the lower 31 inches is
light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is grayish brown
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 63 inches, and the
lower part of the subsoil is grayish brown sandy loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Albany-Ousley-
Meadowbrook complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
occasionally flooded, Albany, Ousley, and Meadowbrook
soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the
map unit. Generally, the mapped areas are about 55
percent Albany and similar soils, 30 percent Ousley and
similar soils, and 15 percent Meadowbrook and similar
soils. The Meadowbrook soil is on slopes that are less
than 2 percent. The components of this map unit are so
intricately intermingled that it was not practical to map
them separately. The proportions and patterns of Albany,
Ousley, and Meadowbrook soils and similar soils are
relatively consistent in most delineations of the map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent. The dissimilar soils included in mapping are small









Soil Survey


areas of Blanton, Leon, Mandarin, and Ortega soils.
Individual areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in
size. Mandarin and Leon soils have an organic-coated
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. Leon soils are also
poorly drained and are on the lower parts of the landform.
Blanton and Ortega soils are moderately well drained and
are on the higher parts of the landform.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to 30
inches in the Albany soil and at a depth of 18 to 36 inches
in the Ousley soil for 1 to 3 months during wet periods in
most years. It recedes to a depth of more than 30 inches
during dry periods. A seasonal high water table is at or
above the surface of the Meadowbrook soil for 6 to 9
months during wet periods in most years. It recedes to a
depth of more than 12 inches during dry periods. Flooding
occurs in areas of the Albany and Ousley soils several
times during a 10-year span. The duration and extent of
flooding are variable, and they are directly related to the
intensity and frequency of rainfall. The flooding occurs for
less than 7 days in areas of the Albany and Ousley soils
and from a few weeks to several months in areas of the
Meadowbrook soil. Excess water ponds in the lowest
areas of the Meadowbrook soil. The available water
capacity is low in the Albany and Ousley soils and
moderate in the Meadowbrook soil. Permeability is
moderate to moderately slow in the Albany and
Meadowbrook soils and rapid throughout the Ousley soil.
Most areas of these soils are in the Mixed Hardwood-
Pine ecological plant community. In areas of Albany and
Ousley soils, the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, and water
oak. The understory consists of lopsided indiangrass,
hairy panicum, chalky bluestem, creepy bluestem,
pineland threeawn, grassleaf goldaster, switchgrass,
gallberry, lespedeza, and southern bayberry. Baldcypress,
pondcypress, scattered sweetgums, and pond pine are
common in areas of the Meadowbrook soil. Most areas of
this map unit are used for the production of planted pine
or pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the flooding, wetness, and ponding in
depressions during wet periods. The high water table
during wet seasons can limit the growth of roots. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, and
watermelons are crops that can be grown with intensive
management and the use of good conservation practices.
Using a crop rotation system that includes cover crops,
returning crop residue to the soil, and properly applying
fertilizer and lime are practices that are necessary for
good yields. Irrigation is desirable during drought periods.
Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the topsoil is left
unprotected. Most of the depressional areas are unsuited
for cultivated crops.
This map unit is moderately suited to tame pasture.


Deep-rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooting
pasture plants because the soils cannot retain sufficient
moisture in the rooting zone for good growth. Most of the
depressional areas are unsuited for tame pasture.
The potential productivity for pine trees is high for the
Albany soil and moderately high for the Ousley soil. In
areas of the Meadowbrook soil in depressions and low
areas, the productivity is very low. Slash pine, loblolly pine,
and longleaf pine are suitable for planting except in areas
of the Meadowbrook soil. The thick, sandy texture restricts
the use of wheeled equipment. This limitation can be

overcome by harvesting when the soils are moist.
Seedling mortality, which is caused by droughtiness, can
be partially reduced by increasing the tree planting rate
and the planting depth. Plant competition can be
controlled by site preparation practices, such as chopping
or controlled burning. A harvesting system that leaves
most of the biomass on the surface is recommended.
This map unit has severe limitations for local roads and
streets, septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
basements, and small commercial buildings. Flooding,
wetness, ponding, poor filtration, and the sandy texture
are the main limitations. Deep drainage reduces the
wetness. If areas of this map unit are used as a septic
tank absorption field, mounding of the field may be
needed. If the density of housing is moderate to high,
community sewage systems are needed to prevent the
contamination of ground water from seepage.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The flooding, ponding, wetness, and the loose,
sandy surface layer limit trafficability. Suitable topsoil fill
material or some other type of surface stabilization is
necessary to overcome the sandy texture. Soil blowing is
a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good vegetative
cover or planting windbreaks can control soil blowing.
The Albany soil is in capability subclass IIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W. The Ousley soil is in
capability subclass Illw, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 10W. The Meadowbrook soil is in capability
subclass VIIw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 7W.

45-Wekiva-Rawhide-Tooles complex,
occasionally flooded
These nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly
drained soils are on low ridges, in low areas, and in







Lafayette County, Florida


depressions on the flood plain along the Steinhatchee
River. Some areas are isolated by meandering stream
channels. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from about 20 to more than 150 acres in size. The
slope is nearly smooth to convex. The slope ranges from 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Wekiva soil is very
dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 14 inches.
The subsoil is brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 26
inches. Below this depth is limestone bedrock. Most areas
of the Wekiva soil are on low ridges.
Typically, the surface layer of the Rawhide soil is black
mucky fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy
clay loam, and it extends to a depth of 80 inches. The
upper 22 inches is dark gray, the next 11 inches is grayish
brown, the next 27 inches is light grayish brown, and the
lower 12 inches is gray sandy loam. Most areas of the
Rawhide soil are in depressions.
Typically, the surface layer of the Tooles soil is black
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 32 inches. The
upper 8 inches is light gray, and the lower 18 inches is
brown. The subsoil is light greenish gray sandy clay loam,
and it extends to a depth of about 45 inches. Below this
depth is fractured limestone. Most areas of the Tooles soil
are in the low areas.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Wekiva-Rawhide-
Tooles complex, occasionally flooded, Wekiva, Rawhide,
and Tooles soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit. Generally, the mapped areas are
about 55 percent Wekiva and similar soils, 20 percent
Rawhide and similar soils, and 10 percent Tooles and
similar soils. The components of this map unit are so
intricately intermingled that it was not practical to map
them separately. The proportions and patterns of Wekiva,
Rawhide, and Tooles soils and similar soils are relatively
consistent in most delineations of the map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Chaires, Leon, and Surrency
soils. They are in similar landscape positions. Individual
areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size.
Chaires and Leon soils have an organic-coated subsoil at
a depth of 20 to 30 inches. Leon soils have a sandy
texture to a depth of 80 inches or more. Surrency soils
have a low base saturation.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 12
inches in the Wekiva soil and at a depth of 0 to 6 inches in
the Tooles soil for 2 to 6 months during wet periods in
most years. It recedes to a depth of more than 20 inches
during dry periods. A seasonal high water table is above


the surface of the Rawhide soil for 6 to 9 months during
wet periods in most years. It recedes to a depth of more
than 12 inches during dry periods. Flooding occurs in
areas of the Wekiva and Tooles soils several times during
a 10-year span. The duration and extent of flooding are
variable, and they are directly related to the intensity and
frequency of rainfall. The flooding occurs for less than 7
days in areas of the Wekiva and Tooles soils and from a
few weeks to several months in areas of the Rawhide soil.
Excess water ponds in the lowest areas of the Rawhide
soil. The available water capacity is low in the Wekiva and
Tooles soils and moderate in the Rawhide soil.
Permeability is moderately slow in the Wekiva soil, slow or
very slow in the Rawhide soil, and slow in the Tooles soil.
These soils are in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
ecological plant community. In most broad areas on the
flood plain, the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
loblolly pine, laurel oak, southern red cedar, sweetgum,
and magnolia. Pondcypress, pond pine, baldcypress,
water oak, laurel oak, red maple, and sweetbay are in the
lower areas of the flood plain. The understory consists of
hairy panicum, chalky bluestem, pineland threeawn,
greenbrier, paspalum, waxmyrtle, cabbage palm, longleaf
uniola, eastern gamagrass, maidencane, and blue
maidencane. Most areas of these soils support the natural
vegetation.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the flooding, wetness, and ponding in
depressions during wet periods. The high water table
during wet seasons can limit the growth of roots. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, soybeans, and tomatoes are
crops that can be grown with intensive management and
the use of good conservation practices. Using a crop
rotation system that includes cover crops, returning crop
residue to the soil, and properly applying fertilizer and lime
are practices that are necessary for good yields. Irrigation
is desirable during drought periods. Soil blowing is a
severe hazard if the topsoil is left unprotected. Most of the
depressional areas are unsuited for cultivated crops.
This map unit is moderately suited to tame pasture.
Deep-rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooting
pasture plants because the soils cannot retain sufficient
moisture in the rooting zone for good growth. Most of the
depressional areas are unsuited for tame pasture.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate on
the higher parts of the flood plain. In depressions and low








Soil Survey


Figure 12.-Young slash pine in an area of Wekiva-Rawhide-Tooles complex, occasionally flooded. Plant competition is severe. Site
preparation practices, such as chopping, controlled burning, and planting on beds, help to control plant competition. They also improve
the seedling survival rate by elevating the trees above the seasonal high water table.


areas, the productivity is very low. Slash pine and loblolly
pine are suitable for planting except in depressions. The
sandy texture restricts the use of wheeled equipment. This
limitation can be overcome by harvesting when the soils
are moist. Seedling mortality, which is caused by wetness,
can be partially reduced by increasing the tree planting
rate and by planting on beds. Plant competition (fig. 12)
can be controlled by site preparation practices, such as
chopping or controlled burning. A harvesting system that
leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
recommended.
This map unit has severe limitations for local roads and
streets, septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
basements, and small commercial buildings. Flooding,


wetness, ponding, depth to rock, poor filtration, and the
sandy texture are the main limitations. Shallow and deep
drainage can reduce the wetness. If areas of this map unit
are used as a septic tank absorption field, mounding of the
field may be needed.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The flooding, ponding, depth to rock, slow
percolation, and the loose, sandy surface layer limit
trafficability. Suitable topsoil fill material or some other type
of surface stabilization is necessary to overcome the
sandy texture. Soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or planting
windbreaks can control soil blowing.
The Wekiva soil is in capability subclass Vw, and the








Lafayette County, Florida


woodland ordination symbol is 8W. The Rawhide soil is in
capability subclass VlIIw, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 2W. The Tooles soil is in capability subclass Vw,
and the woodland ordination symbol is 10W.


46-Tooles-Rawhide complex, frequently
flooded

These nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly
drained soils are on the flood plains. Rawhide soils are in
the lower areas on the flood plain. Some areas are
isolated by meandering stream channels. The mapped
areas are irregular in shape and range from about 100 to
more than 250 acres in size. The slope is nearly smooth to
convex and ranges from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Tooles soil is black
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
light gray fine sand to a depth of 18 inches. The upper part
of the subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of 28
inches. The lower part of the subsoil is gray sandy clay
loam to a depth of 43 inches. Below this depth is
limestone bedrock.
Typically, the surface layer of the Rawhide soil is black
mucky fine sand about 18 inches thick. The upper part of
the subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 40 inches. The
upper 9 inches is dark gray, and the next 13 inches is
grayish brown. The lower part of the subsoil is gray sandy
loam to a depth of 65 inches and light gray loamy fine
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Tooles-Rawhide
complex, frequently flooded, Tooles and Rawhide soils and
similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 55 percent Tooles
and similar soils and 35 percent Rawhide and similar soils.
The components of this map unit are so intricately
intermingled that it was not practical to map them
separately. The proportions and patterns of Tooles and
Rawhide soils and similar soils are relatively consistent in
most delineations of the map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included with these
soils in mapping are small areas of Chaires, Leon, and
Surrency soils. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller
than 5 acres in size. Chaires and Leon soils have an
organic-coated subsoil at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. Leon
soils have a sandy texture to a depth of 80 inches or
more. Surrency soils have a low base saturation.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6
inches in the Tooles soil for 2 to 6 months during wet
periods in most years. The Rawhide soils have a seasonal
high water table above the surface for 6 to 9 months
during wet periods in most years. The water table recedes


to a depth of more than 12 inches during dry periods.
Flooding occurs in areas of the Tooles and Rawhide soils
frequently during rainy periods. The duration and extent of
flooding are variable, and they are directly related to the
intensity and frequency of rainfall. The flooding occurs for
less than 7 days in areas of the Tooles soil and from a few
weeks to several months in areas of the Rawhide soil.
Excess water ponds in the lowest areas of the Rawhide
soil. The available water capacity is low in the Tooles soil
and moderate in the Rawhide soil. Permeability is slow in
the Tooles soil and slow or very slow in the Rawhide soil.
These soils are in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
ecological plant community. In most broad areas on the
flood plain, the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
loblolly pine, water oak, laurel oak, southern redcedar,
sweetgum, and magnolia. Pondcypress, baldcypress,
pond pine, red maple, cabbage palm, and sweetbay are in
the lower areas of the flood plain. The understory
vegetation consists of hairy panicum, chalky bluestem,
pineland threeawn, greenbrier, paspalum, waxmyrtle,
cabbage palm, longleaf uniola, and eastern gamagrass on
the higher parts of the landform. It consists of maidencane
and various water-tolerant grasses in the low areas. Most
areas of these soils support the natural vegetation.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
flooding and the prolonged wetness unless a major water-
control system is used.
This map unit has severe limitations for local roads and
streets, septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
basements, and small commercial buildings. Flooding,
wetness, ponding, and poor filtration are the main
limitations. Shallow and deep drainage can reduce the
wetness. If areas of this map unit are used as a septic
tank absorption field, mounding of the field may be
needed.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The flooding, ponding, and the loose, sandy surface
layer are the main limitations for trafficability. Suitable
topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome the sandy texture.
Soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a
good vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control
soil blowing.
The Tooles soil is in capability subclass Vw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. The Rawhide soil is in
capability subclass VIIlw, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 2W.


48-Otela, limestone substratum-Shadeville-
Penney complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes

These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on
uplands. The Otela and Shadeville soils are moderately








Lafayette County, Florida


woodland ordination symbol is 8W. The Rawhide soil is in
capability subclass VlIIw, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 2W. The Tooles soil is in capability subclass Vw,
and the woodland ordination symbol is 10W.


46-Tooles-Rawhide complex, frequently
flooded

These nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly
drained soils are on the flood plains. Rawhide soils are in
the lower areas on the flood plain. Some areas are
isolated by meandering stream channels. The mapped
areas are irregular in shape and range from about 100 to
more than 250 acres in size. The slope is nearly smooth to
convex and ranges from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Tooles soil is black
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
light gray fine sand to a depth of 18 inches. The upper part
of the subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of 28
inches. The lower part of the subsoil is gray sandy clay
loam to a depth of 43 inches. Below this depth is
limestone bedrock.
Typically, the surface layer of the Rawhide soil is black
mucky fine sand about 18 inches thick. The upper part of
the subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 40 inches. The
upper 9 inches is dark gray, and the next 13 inches is
grayish brown. The lower part of the subsoil is gray sandy
loam to a depth of 65 inches and light gray loamy fine
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Tooles-Rawhide
complex, frequently flooded, Tooles and Rawhide soils and
similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the map unit.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 55 percent Tooles
and similar soils and 35 percent Rawhide and similar soils.
The components of this map unit are so intricately
intermingled that it was not practical to map them
separately. The proportions and patterns of Tooles and
Rawhide soils and similar soils are relatively consistent in
most delineations of the map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included with these
soils in mapping are small areas of Chaires, Leon, and
Surrency soils. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller
than 5 acres in size. Chaires and Leon soils have an
organic-coated subsoil at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. Leon
soils have a sandy texture to a depth of 80 inches or
more. Surrency soils have a low base saturation.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 6
inches in the Tooles soil for 2 to 6 months during wet
periods in most years. The Rawhide soils have a seasonal
high water table above the surface for 6 to 9 months
during wet periods in most years. The water table recedes


to a depth of more than 12 inches during dry periods.
Flooding occurs in areas of the Tooles and Rawhide soils
frequently during rainy periods. The duration and extent of
flooding are variable, and they are directly related to the
intensity and frequency of rainfall. The flooding occurs for
less than 7 days in areas of the Tooles soil and from a few
weeks to several months in areas of the Rawhide soil.
Excess water ponds in the lowest areas of the Rawhide
soil. The available water capacity is low in the Tooles soil
and moderate in the Rawhide soil. Permeability is slow in
the Tooles soil and slow or very slow in the Rawhide soil.
These soils are in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
ecological plant community. In most broad areas on the
flood plain, the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
loblolly pine, water oak, laurel oak, southern redcedar,
sweetgum, and magnolia. Pondcypress, baldcypress,
pond pine, red maple, cabbage palm, and sweetbay are in
the lower areas of the flood plain. The understory
vegetation consists of hairy panicum, chalky bluestem,
pineland threeawn, greenbrier, paspalum, waxmyrtle,
cabbage palm, longleaf uniola, and eastern gamagrass on
the higher parts of the landform. It consists of maidencane
and various water-tolerant grasses in the low areas. Most
areas of these soils support the natural vegetation.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, and planted pine trees because of the
flooding and the prolonged wetness unless a major water-
control system is used.
This map unit has severe limitations for local roads and
streets, septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
basements, and small commercial buildings. Flooding,
wetness, ponding, and poor filtration are the main
limitations. Shallow and deep drainage can reduce the
wetness. If areas of this map unit are used as a septic
tank absorption field, mounding of the field may be
needed.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The flooding, ponding, and the loose, sandy surface
layer are the main limitations for trafficability. Suitable
topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome the sandy texture.
Soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a
good vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control
soil blowing.
The Tooles soil is in capability subclass Vw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. The Rawhide soil is in
capability subclass VIIlw, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 2W.


48-Otela, limestone substratum-Shadeville-
Penney complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes

These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on
uplands. The Otela and Shadeville soils are moderately







Soil Survey


well drained, and the Penney soil is excessively drained.
The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
about 50 to more than 150 acres in size. The slope is
nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Otela soil is very dark
grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of
58 inches. The upper 10 inches is light yellowish brown,
the next 20 inches is yellowish brown, the next 14 inches
is very pale brown, and the lower 6 inches is yellowish
brown and light gray. The subsoil is light gray sandy clay
loam, and it extends to a depth of 72 inches. Below this
depth is limestone bedrock.
Typically, the surface layer of the Shadeville soil is dark
brown fine sand to a depth of about 8 inches. The
subsurface layer is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of
about 28 inches. The upper 10 inches is pale brown, and
the lower 10 inches is light yellowish brown. The subsoil is
sandy clay loam, and it extends to a depth of about 55
inches. The upper 10 inches is reddish yellow, the next 8
inches is strong brown, and the lower 9 inches is yellowish
brown. Below this depth is limestone bedrock.
Typically, the surface layer of the Penney soil is very
dark grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of
54 inches. The upper 24 inches is yellowish brown, and
the lower 23 inches is very pale brown. Below this is 26
inches of very pale brown fine sand and thin lamallae of
yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Otela, limestone
substratum-Shadeville-Penney complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, Otela, limestone substratum, Shadeville, and
Penney soils and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent
of the map unit. Generally, the mapped areas are about 45
percent Otela, limestone substratum, and similar soils,
about 33 percent Shadeville and similar soils, and about
15 percent Penney and similar soils. The components of
this map unit are so intricately intermingled that it was not
practical to map them separately. The proportions and
patterns of Otela, limestone substratum, Shadeville, and
Penney soils and similar soils are relatively consistent in
most delineations of the map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Albany, Blanton, Ortega,
Ridgewood, and Tooles soils and soils that have sand over
rock. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller than 5
acres in size. Albany and Blanton soils have a low base
saturation. Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Ortega and Ridgewood soils are sandy throughout the
profile. Ridgewood soils are somewhat poorly drained.


Tooles soils are poorly drained and are on the lower parts
of the landscape.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to 72
inches in the Otela, limestone substratum, and Shadeville
soils during wet periods in most years. The Penney soil
has a water table at a depth of more than 72 inches during
wet periods. The available water capacity is low in the
Otela, limestone substratum, soil and in the Shadeville
soil. It is very low in the Penney soil. Permeability is
moderately slow in the Otela soil, moderate in the
Shadeville soil, and rapid throughout the Penney soil.
These soils are in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological plant community. In most areas, the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine,
live oak, laurel oak, post oak, turkey oak, bluejack oak,
southern redcedar, and black cherry. The understory
consists of lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum,
greenbriar, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf paspalum,
hairy tick clover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky bluestem,
creepy bluestem, and pineland threeawn. Most areas of
this map unit are used for the production of planted pine,
crops, or pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of droughtiness during dry periods. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, tobacco,
and watermelons are crops that can be grown with
intensive management and the use of good conservation
practices. Using a crop rotation system that includes cover
crops, returning crop residue to the soil, and properly
applying fertilizer and lime are practices that are
necessary for good yields. Irrigation is desirable during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the
topsoil is left unprotected.
This map unit is moderately suited to tame pasture.
Deep-rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooting
pasture plants because the soils cannot retain sufficient
moisture in the rooting zone for good growth.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable for planting. The
thick, sandy texture restricts the use of wheeled
equipment. This limitation can be overcome by harvesting
when the soils are moist. Seedling mortality, which is
caused by droughtiness, can be partially reduced by
increasing the tree planting rate and the planting depth.
Plant competition can be controlled by site preparation







Lafayette County, Florida


practices, such as chopping or controlled burning. A
harvesting system that leaves most of the biomass on the
surface is recommended.
This map unit has slight limitations for dwellings without
basements and local roads and streets. It has moderate
limitations for septic tank absorption fields. The depth to
bedrock, wetness, and slow percolation are the main
limitations. In areas that have a concentration of homes
and septic tank absorption fields, ground-water
contamination can be a hazard because of wetness, depth
of rock, and poor filtration.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The loose, sandy surface layer is a severe limitation
for trafficability. Suitable topsoil fill material or some other
type of surface stabilization is necessary to overcome this
limitation. Soil blowing is a hazard. Establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or planting
windbreaks can control soil blowing.
The Otela soil is in capability subclass Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10S. The Shadeville soil is
in capability Ills, and the woodland ordination symbol is
11S. The Penney soil is in capability subclass IVs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

52-Mandarin fine sand

This soil is nearly level and somewhat poorly drained. It
is on low ridges on the flatwoods. The mapped areas are
irregular in shape and range from about 10 to more than
50 acres in size. The slope is nearly smooth to convex.
The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Mandarin soil is dark
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is fine sand to a depth to a depth of 25 inches. The upper
4 inches is light brownish gray, and the lower 15 inches is
light gray. The subsoil is fine sand to a depth of 52 inches.
The upper 4 inches is very dark grayish brown, the next 8
inches is very dark brown, and the lower 15 inches is
brown. The underlying material is fine sand, and it extends
to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 18 inches is
light gray, and the lower 10 inches is light brownish gray.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Mandarin fine sand,
the Mandarin soil and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit. The similar soils include
Hurricane and Leon soils.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Albany and Ridgewood soils.
Individual areas of inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in
size. Albany soils have a loamy subsoil. Ridgewood soils
do not have an organic-coated subsoil. Albany and


Ridgewood soils are in higher positions on the landscape
than the Mandarin soil.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 42
inches in the Mandarin soil for 1 to 3 months during wet
periods in most years. It recedes to a depth of more than
40 inches during the dry periods. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
plant community. In most areas, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak, and laurel oak.
The understory consists of lopsided indiangrass, hairy
panicum, creepy bluestem, pineland threeawn,
broomsedge bluestem, grassleaf goldaster, and saw
palmetto. Most areas of this soil are used for the
production of pasture or planted pine.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. The
high water table during wet seasons can limit the growth
of roots. Plant nutrients are rapidly leached because of the
sandy texture. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, tobacco, and
watermelons are crops that can be grown with intensive
management and the use of good conservation practices.
Using a crop rotation system that includes cover crops,
returning crop residue to the soil, and properly applying
fertilizer and lime are practices that are necessary for

good yields. Irrigation is desirable during drought periods.
Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the topsoil is left
unprotected.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture.
Improved bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and clover are
suited. Yields are generally reduced by periodic wetness.
Careful management is required to maintain good grazing.
This includes the establishment of a proper plant
population, applications of fertilizer and lime, and
controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality of
grazing and of hay crops. A water-control system is
needed to remove the excess surface water during heavy
rains and to provide irrigation during drought periods.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderate. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable for
planting. The thick, sandy texture restricts the use of
wheeled equipment. This limitation can be overcome by
harvesting when the soil is moist. Plant competition can be
controlled by site preparation practices, such as chopping
or controlled burning. A harvesting system that leaves
most of the biomass on the surface is recommended.
This soil has moderate limitations for dwellings without
basements and local roads and streets. It has severe
limitations for septic tanks absorption fields. Wetness,
poor filtration, and the sandy texture are the main
limitations. Deep drainage reduces the wetness. If areas
of this soil are used as a septic tank absorption field,
mounding of the field may be needed. In areas that have a
concentration of homes, a community sewage system is









Soil Survey


needed to prevent the contamination of ground water from
poor filtration and the high water table during wet periods.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The loose, sandy surface layer limits trafficability.
Suitable topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome this limitation. Soil
blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good
vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control soil
blowing.
This Mandarin soil is in capability subclass Vis, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.


53-Penney sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes

This gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained soil
is on uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
and range from about 10 to more than 100 acres in size.
The slope is gently rolling.
Typically, the surface layer of the Penney soil is very
dark grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is yellowish brown and very pale brown
fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 55 inches. Below
this is 25 inches of very pale brown fine sand and thin
lamellae of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Penney sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes, Penney soil and similar soils make up 80
to 100 percent of the map unit. The similar soils are
coated in the control section.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Blanton and Ortega soils and
soils that have sand over rock. Individual areas of
inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size. Blanton and
Ortega soils are moderately well drained and are on the
lower parts of the landscape.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than
72 inches for 1 to 3 months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 72 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is rapid throughout the profile.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological plant community. In most areas, the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine, sand pine,
live oak, post oak, turkey oak, and bluejack oak. The
understory consists of lopsided indiangrass, hairy
panicum, greenbriar, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf
paspalum, hairy tick clover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky
bluestem, creepy bluestem, and pineland threeawn. Most
areas of this soil are used for the production of planted
pine or pasture.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of droughtiness during dry periods. Plant


nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, tobacco,
and watermelons are crops that can be grown with
intensive management and the use of good conservation
practices. Using a crop rotation system that includes cover
crops, returning crop residue to the soil, and properly
applying fertilizer and lime are practices that are
necessary for good yields. Irrigation is desirable during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the
topsoil is left unprotected.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture. Deep-
rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooting
pasture plants because the soils cannot retain sufficient
moisture in the rooting zone for good growth.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderate. Sand pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. The thick, sandy texture restricts the
use of wheeled equipment. This limitation can be
overcome by harvesting when the soil is moist. Seedling
mortality, which is caused by droughtiness, can be partially
reduced by increasing the tree planting rate and the
planting depth. Plant competition can be controlled by site
preparation practices, such as chopping or controlled
burning. A harvesting system that leaves most of the
biomass on the surface is recommended.
This soil has slight limitations for dwellings without
basements, local roads and streets, and septic tank
absorption fields. In areas that have a concentration of
homes and septic tank absorption fields, ground-water
contamination can be a hazard because of poor filtration.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses.
The loose, sandy surface layer limits trafficability. Suitable
topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome this limitation. Soil
blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good
vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control soil
blowing.
This Penney soil is in capability subclass Vis, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.


54-Garcon-Eunola complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, occasionally flooded

These nearly level, somewhat poorly drained and
moderately well drained soils are on terraces along the
Suwannee River. Some areas are isolated by meandering
stream channels. The mapped areas are irregular in









Soil Survey


needed to prevent the contamination of ground water from
poor filtration and the high water table during wet periods.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The loose, sandy surface layer limits trafficability.
Suitable topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome this limitation. Soil
blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good
vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control soil
blowing.
This Mandarin soil is in capability subclass Vis, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.


53-Penney sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes

This gently sloping to sloping, excessively drained soil
is on uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
and range from about 10 to more than 100 acres in size.
The slope is gently rolling.
Typically, the surface layer of the Penney soil is very
dark grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is yellowish brown and very pale brown
fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 55 inches. Below
this is 25 inches of very pale brown fine sand and thin
lamellae of yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Penney sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes, Penney soil and similar soils make up 80
to 100 percent of the map unit. The similar soils are
coated in the control section.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Blanton and Ortega soils and
soils that have sand over rock. Individual areas of
inclusions are smaller than 5 acres in size. Blanton and
Ortega soils are moderately well drained and are on the
lower parts of the landscape.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than
72 inches for 1 to 3 months during wet periods in most
years. It recedes to a depth of more than 72 inches during
dry periods. The available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is rapid throughout the profile.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological plant community. In most areas, the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine, sand pine,
live oak, post oak, turkey oak, and bluejack oak. The
understory consists of lopsided indiangrass, hairy
panicum, greenbriar, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf
paspalum, hairy tick clover, dwarf huckleberry, chalky
bluestem, creepy bluestem, and pineland threeawn. Most
areas of this soil are used for the production of planted
pine or pasture.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of droughtiness during dry periods. Plant


nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, soybeans, tobacco,
and watermelons are crops that can be grown with
intensive management and the use of good conservation
practices. Using a crop rotation system that includes cover
crops, returning crop residue to the soil, and properly
applying fertilizer and lime are practices that are
necessary for good yields. Irrigation is desirable during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard if the
topsoil is left unprotected.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture. Deep-
rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooting
pasture plants because the soils cannot retain sufficient
moisture in the rooting zone for good growth.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderate. Sand pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine are
suitable for planting. The thick, sandy texture restricts the
use of wheeled equipment. This limitation can be
overcome by harvesting when the soil is moist. Seedling
mortality, which is caused by droughtiness, can be partially
reduced by increasing the tree planting rate and the
planting depth. Plant competition can be controlled by site
preparation practices, such as chopping or controlled
burning. A harvesting system that leaves most of the
biomass on the surface is recommended.
This soil has slight limitations for dwellings without
basements, local roads and streets, and septic tank
absorption fields. In areas that have a concentration of
homes and septic tank absorption fields, ground-water
contamination can be a hazard because of poor filtration.
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses.
The loose, sandy surface layer limits trafficability. Suitable
topsoil fill material or some other type of surface
stabilization is necessary to overcome this limitation. Soil
blowing is a hazard. Establishing and maintaining a good
vegetative cover or planting windbreaks can control soil
blowing.
This Penney soil is in capability subclass Vis, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.


54-Garcon-Eunola complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, occasionally flooded

These nearly level, somewhat poorly drained and
moderately well drained soils are on terraces along the
Suwannee River. Some areas are isolated by meandering
stream channels. The mapped areas are irregular in








Lafayette County, Florida


shape and range from about 20 to more than 150 acres in
size. The slope is nearly smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer of the Garcon soil is dark
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is fine sand, and it extends to a depth of 23 inches. The
upper 10 inches is brown, and the lower 7 inches is very
pale brown. The subsoil is sandy clay loam and sandy
loam to a depth of 58 inches. The upper 15 inches is
brownish yellow sandy clay loam, and the lower 20 inches
is light brownish gray sandy loam. Below this depth is
white fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Eunola soil is very
dark grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is pale brown fine sand to a depth of
15 inches. The subsoil is sandy clay loam and sandy loam
to a depth of 55 inches. The upper part is yellowish red,
the next part is strong brown, and the lower part is
yellowish red sandy loam. The underlying material is
very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Garcon-Eunola
complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded,
Garcon and Eunola soils and similar soils make up 80 to
100 percent of the map unit. Generally, the mapped areas
are about 65 percent Garcon and similar soils and 30
percent Eunola and similar soils. The components of this
map unit are so intricately intermingled that it was not
practical to map them separately. The proportions and
patterns of Garcon and Eunola soils and similar soils are
relatively consistent in most delineations of the map unit.
Soils that have dissimilar characteristics make up about
0 to 20 percent of the map unit. In 0 to 20 percent of the
mapped areas, the dissimilar soils make up more than 20
percent of the unit. The dissimilar soils included in
mapping are small areas of Blanton, Mandarin, and
Ortega soils. Individual areas of inclusions are smaller
than 5 acres in size. Mandarin soils have an organic-
coated subsoil at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. Blanton and
Ortega soils are moderately well drained and are on the
higher parts of the landscape. Blanton soils have a sandy
epipedon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches, and Ortega soils
are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36
inches in the Garcon soil and at a depth of 18 to 30 inches
in the Eunola soil for 1 to 3 months during wet periods in
most years. It recedes to a depth of more than 30 inches
during dry periods. Flooding occurs in areas of the Garcon
and Eunola soils several times during a 10-year span. The
duration and extent of flooding are variable, and they are
directly related to the intensity and frequency of rainfall.
The flooding occurs for less than 7 days in areas of the
Garcon and Eunola soils. The available water capacity is
low in both of these soils. Permeability is moderate.


These soils are in the mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
plant community. In most broad upland areas on the flood
plain, the natural vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly
pine, longleaf pine, water oak, sweetgum, live oak, laurel
oak, and hickory. The understory consists of pineland
threeawn, grassleaf goldaster, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
blueberry, saw palmetto, American holly, huckleberry,
panicum, longleaf uniola, and little bluestem. Most areas
of these soils are used for the production of planted pine
or pasture.
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the flooding and wetness. The high water table
during wet seasons can limit the growth of roots. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, soybeans, and oats are
crops that can be grown with intensive management and
the use of good conservation practices. Using a crop
rotation system that includes cover crops, returning crop
residue to the soil, and properly applying fertilizer and lime
are practices that are necessary for good yields. Irrigation
is desirable during drought periods. Soil blowing is a
severe hazard if the topsoil is left unprotected.
This map unit is moderately suited to tame pasture.
Deep-rooting grasses, such as improved bahiagrass and
bermudagrass, are suited. Yields are generally reduced by
periodic droughts. Careful management is required to
maintain good grazing. This includes the establishment of
a proper plant population, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and controlled grazing. Irrigation improves the quality
of grazing and of hay crops. If available during long dry
periods, the use of irrigation water may be economically
justifiable. These soils are not suited to shallow-rooting
pasture plants because the soils cannot retain sufficient
moisture in the rooting zone for good growth.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high for the Garcon soil and high for the Eunola soil. Slash
pine and loblolly pine are suitable for planting. The thick,
sandy texture restricts the use of wheeled equipment. This
limitation can be overcome by harvesting when the soils
are moist. Seedling mortality, which is caused by
droughtiness, can be partially reduced by increasing the
tree planting rate and the planting depth. Plant competition
can be controlled by site preparation practices, such as
chopping or controlled burning. A harvesting system that
leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
recommended.
This map unit has severe limitations for local roads and
streets, septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
basements, and small commercial buildings. Flooding,
poor filtration, and wetness are the main limitations. Deep
drainage reduces the wetness. If areas of this map unit
are used as a septic tank absorption field, mounding of the
field may be needed. If the density of housing is moderate
to high, community sewage systems are needed to













prevent the contamination of ground water from seepage.
This map unit has severe limitations for recreational
uses. The flooding and the loose, sandy surface layer limit
trafficability. Suitable topsoil fill material or some other type
of surface stabilization is necessary to overcome the
sandy surface texture. Soil blowing is a hazard.


Establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover or
planting windbreaks can control soil blowing.
The Garcon soil is in capability subclass IIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. The Eunola soil is in
capability subclass llw, and the woodland ordination
symbol is 11W.


















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land uses
to the limitations and potentials of natural resources and
the environment. Also, it can help to prevent soil-related
failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive
field data about the nature and behavioral characteristics
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses and
management. Field experience and collected data on soil
properties and performance are used as a basis for
predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks and
other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It can
be used to identify the suitability, potentials, and limitations
of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information can
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a land
use pattern that is in harmony with nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm or
loose soil layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and others
may also find this survey useful. The survey can help
them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate sites for
buildings, homes, streets, roads, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and pond reservoir areas or sites for
other uses.

Crops and Pasture

General management needed for crops and pasture is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants best
suited to the soils, including some not commonly grown in
the survey area, are identified; the system of land
capability classification used by the Natural Resources


Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given in
the description of each soil under the heading "Detailed
Soil Map Units." Specific information can be obtained from
the local office of the Natural Resources Conservation
Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.
In 1990, approximately 95,847 acres in Lafayette
County were used for crops and pasture. The acreage
includes areas used for tame pasture; field crops, mainly
corn, peanuts, tobacco, sorghum, wheat, oats, peanuts,
soybeans, peas, and hay; and specialty crops, such as
sweet corn, watermelons, field peas, and a small acreage
of grapes and pecans.
The potential of the soils in Lafayette County for the
increased production of food is fair. About 300 acres of
potentially good cropland is now used as woodland, and
about 400 acres is used as pasture. The areas of
woodland and pasture could be used as cropland, but
intensive conservation measures would be required to
control the soil blowing on sandy soils and to control the
fluctuating water table. In addition to the reserve capacity
of cropland represented by these areas, the production of
food could be increased by extending the latest
technology to all of the cropland in the county.
Soil erosion is a concern on about three-fourths of the
cropland and pasture in Lafayette County. If the slope is
more than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard, especially in
areas of the moderately well drained Blanton, Eunola,
Shadeville, and Otela soils and the somewhat poorly
drained Albany and Ridgewood soils.
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the
surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is incorporated
into the plow layer. Second, soil erosion on farmland
results in sediment entering streams. Control of erosion
minimizes the pollution of streams by sediment and
improves the quality of water for municipal uses, for
recreational uses, and for fish and wildlife.
Erosion-control practices provide a protective surface
cover, reduce the runoff rate, and increase the rate of
infiltration. A cropping system that keeps a vegetative
cover on the soil for extended periods can hold erosion


















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land uses
to the limitations and potentials of natural resources and
the environment. Also, it can help to prevent soil-related
failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive
field data about the nature and behavioral characteristics
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses and
management. Field experience and collected data on soil
properties and performance are used as a basis for
predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks and
other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It can
be used to identify the suitability, potentials, and limitations
of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information can
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a land
use pattern that is in harmony with nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm or
loose soil layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and others
may also find this survey useful. The survey can help
them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate sites for
buildings, homes, streets, roads, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and pond reservoir areas or sites for
other uses.

Crops and Pasture

General management needed for crops and pasture is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants best
suited to the soils, including some not commonly grown in
the survey area, are identified; the system of land
capability classification used by the Natural Resources


Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given in
the description of each soil under the heading "Detailed
Soil Map Units." Specific information can be obtained from
the local office of the Natural Resources Conservation
Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.
In 1990, approximately 95,847 acres in Lafayette
County were used for crops and pasture. The acreage
includes areas used for tame pasture; field crops, mainly
corn, peanuts, tobacco, sorghum, wheat, oats, peanuts,
soybeans, peas, and hay; and specialty crops, such as
sweet corn, watermelons, field peas, and a small acreage
of grapes and pecans.
The potential of the soils in Lafayette County for the
increased production of food is fair. About 300 acres of
potentially good cropland is now used as woodland, and
about 400 acres is used as pasture. The areas of
woodland and pasture could be used as cropland, but
intensive conservation measures would be required to
control the soil blowing on sandy soils and to control the
fluctuating water table. In addition to the reserve capacity
of cropland represented by these areas, the production of
food could be increased by extending the latest
technology to all of the cropland in the county.
Soil erosion is a concern on about three-fourths of the
cropland and pasture in Lafayette County. If the slope is
more than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard, especially in
areas of the moderately well drained Blanton, Eunola,
Shadeville, and Otela soils and the somewhat poorly
drained Albany and Ridgewood soils.
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the
surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is incorporated
into the plow layer. Second, soil erosion on farmland
results in sediment entering streams. Control of erosion
minimizes the pollution of streams by sediment and
improves the quality of water for municipal uses, for
recreational uses, and for fish and wildlife.
Erosion-control practices provide a protective surface
cover, reduce the runoff rate, and increase the rate of
infiltration. A cropping system that keeps a vegetative
cover on the soil for extended periods can hold erosion








Soil Survey


losses to amounts that will not reduce the productive
capacity of the soils. On livestock farms, which require
pasture and hay, including legume and grass forage crops
in the cropping system reduces erosion on sloping land
and provides nitrogen and improves tilth for the following
crops.
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the
surface increase the infiltration rate and reduce the
hazards of runoff and erosion. Conservation tillage
practices for corn and soybeans are effective in reducing
erosion in sloping areas. These practices can be adapted
to most of the soils in the survey area.
Most of the soils in the survey area are so sandy or
their slopes are so short and irregular that contour tillage
or terracing is not practical. Stripcropping and diversions,
which reduce the length of the slope and also reduce the
runoff rate and the hazard of erosion, are most practical
on deep, well drained soils that have regular slopes.
Diversions and sod waterways also reduce runoff and
erosion and can be adapted to most of the soils in the
survey area.
Wind erosion is a major hazard on the sandy soils in
the survey area. Strong winds can damage soils and
tender crops in a few hours in open, unprotected areas
where the soil is dry and bare. Maintaining a vegetative
cover and providing surface mulch minimize wind
erosion.
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It
reduces soil fertility by removing finer soil particles and
organic matter; damages or destroys crops by
sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed seeds;
and creates health hazards and cleaning problems.
Controlling wind erosion minimizes dust storms and
improves the quality of air for more healthful living
conditions.
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as
Carolina laurelcherry, sand pine, slash pine, southern
redcedar, and Japanese privet, and strip crops of small
grains are effective in reducing wind erosion and crop
damage. Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow
plantings made at right angles to the prevailing wind,
depending on the erodibility of the soils and the
susceptibility of the crop to damage from sandblasting.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants,
mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. To
ensure plant survival, a healthy planting stock of suitable
species should be planted properly on a well-prepared site
and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planting windbreaks and
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs can
be obtained from local offices of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a nursery. Information about erosion-


control practices for each kind of soil is contained in the
"Erosion Control Handbook-Florida," which is available at
local offices of the Natural Resources Conservation
Service.
Soil drainage is a major management concern on about
10 percent of the acreage used for crops and pasture in
the county. Some soils are naturally so wet that the
production of crops common to the area is generally not
practical. These soils include the poorly drained Leon and
Sapelo soils, the poorly drained and very poorly drained
Chaires soils, and the very poorly drained Pamlico,
Dorovan, and Surrency soils. These soils make up about
128,637 acres of the survey area.
Unless they are artificially drained, some of the
somewhat poorly drained soils are wet enough in the root
zone to damage most crops during most years. Soils that
are somewhat poorly drained include Albany, Hurricane,
and Ridgewood soils, which make up about 18,748 acres
of the survey area.
Unless they are artificially drained, some of the poorly
drained Chaires, Leon, and Sapelo soils are wet enough
to cause some damage to pasture plants. These soils also
have a low water capacity and are drought during dry
periods. They require subsurface irrigation for an
adequate production of pasture.
The very poorly drained Chaires, Pamlico, Dorovan,
Wesconnett, and Surrency soils are very wet during rainy
periods. They have water standing on the surface in most
areas. The production of good quality pasture on these
soils is not possible without artificial drainage. A
combination of surface drainage and irrigation is needed in
areas of these soils for intensive pasture production.
Information about water control and irrigation for each
kind of soil in the county is available at the local offices of
the Natural Resources Conservation Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the soils in the
survey area. Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer
and are light colored. Many have a loamy subsoil.
Included are the Albany, Eunola, Otela, and Blanton soils.
Otela and Shadeville soils have an acid surface layer and
are underlain by calcareous limestone that is mildly to
moderately alkaline. Most of the soils have a surface layer
that is strongly acid to very strongly acid. Applications of
ground limestone are needed in areas of these soils to
raise the pH level sufficiently for good crop growth.
Nitrogen, potassium, and available phosphorus levels are
naturally low in most of these soils. All additions of lime
and fertilizer should be based on the results of soil tests,
the needs of the crop, and the expected level of yields.
The Cooperative Extension Service can help in
determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime to
apply.
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils that








Lafayette County, Florida


have good tilth are easily cultivated with common tillage
equipment. They provide a good seedbed.
Most of the soils in the survey area have a sandy
surface layer or a surface layer of loamy fine sand. The
layer is light in color and has a low to moderate content of
organic matter. Some exceptions include Dorovan,
Pamlico, and Wesconnett soils, which are organic soils or
soils that have an organic surface layer. Generally, the
structure of the surface layer of most soils in the survey
area is weak. When soils that are dry and have a low
content of organic matter receive intense rainfall, colloidal
matter cements and forms a slight crust, particularly if a
plowpan is present. The crust is slightly hard when it is
dry, and it is slightly impervious to water. Once the crust
forms, it reduces infiltration and increases runoff. Regular
additions of crop residue, manure, and other organic
material improve the soil structure and reduce the
formation of crusts.
Fall plowing is generally not advisable. If sloping soils,
which make up about one-fourth of the cropland in the
survey area, are plowed in the fall, they are subject to
damaging erosion. Gullies caused by erosion are common
on unprotected soils. Also, about three-fourths of the
county's cropland is sandy and is subject to soil blowing.
Tons of soil are lost each year in the survey area as result
of wind erosion during the spring plowing season.
The field crops grown in the survey area include corn,
soybeans, peanuts, and tobacco. The production of grain
sorghum can be increased if economic conditions are
favorable. Rye and wheat are the common close-growing
crops. Oats can also be grown in the survey area.
The main specialty crop grown commercially in the
survey area is watermelons. A small acreage is used for
squash, blueberries, grapes, pecans, and field peas. If
economic conditions are favorable, the acreage of
blueberries, nursery sod, cabbage, turnips, collards, and
mustard greens can be increased.
Deep soils that have good natural drainage are
especially well suited to many vegetables and small fruits.
If irrigated, about 11,938 acres of Eunola, Otela, Penney,
Shadeville, and Blanton soils that have slopes of less than
8 percent are very well suited to vegetables and small
fruits. If adequately drained, about 18,748 acres of
Ridgewood, Hurricane, and Albany soils are also very well
suited to vegetables and small fruits.
Information and suggestions for growing specialty crops
can be obtained from the local offices of the Cooperative
Extension Service and the Natural Resources
Conservation Service.
Pasture in the survey area is used to produce forage for
beef and dairy cattle. Bahiagrass and improved
bermudagrass are the major pasture plants grown in the
survey area. Seeds can be harvested from bahiagrass for
improved pasture plantings as well as for commercial


purposes. Many cattlemen seed small grains in areas of
cropland and overseed rye in pastures in the fall for winter
and spring grazing. In bermudagrass pastures, the excess
grass is harvested as hay during the summer for feeding
during the winter. Also, hay is made from harvested
peanuts during the fall for feeding during the winter.
The well drained and moderately well drained Penney,
Otela, Shadeville, Blanton, and Eunola soils are well
suited to bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. With
good management, hairy indigo and Alyce clover can be
grown during the summer and the fall.
The somewhat poorly drained Albany and Hurricane
soils are well suited to bahiagrass and to improved
bermudagrass if they are grown with legumes, such as
sweetclover, and if adequate amounts of lime and fertilizer
are applied.
If drainage is provided in areas where it is needed,
Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, and Sapelo soils are well
suited to bahiagrass pastures. Subsurface irrigation
increases the length of the growing season and total
production of forage. With adequate applications of lime
and fertilizer, the soils are well suited to legumes, such as
white clover.
Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly depleted
by continuous excessive grazing. Yields can be increased
by irrigation, by applications of fertilizer and lime, and by
growing legumes.
Differences in the amount and kinds of pasture yields
are related closely to the kind of soils. Management of
pasture is based on the interrelationship of soils, pasture,
plants, lime and fertilizer, and moisture. Planners of
management systems for individual fields or farms should
consider the detailed information given in the description
of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific
information can be obtained at local offices of the
Cooperative Extension Service and the Natural Resources
Conservation Service.
Yields per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management are
shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be higher
or lower than those indicated in the table because of
variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated yields
of the various crops depends on the kind of soil and the
crop. Management can include drainage, erosion control,
and protection from flooding; the proper planting and
seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;








Soil Survey


appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops;
and harvesting that ensures the smallest possible
loss.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely to
increase as new production technology is developed. The
productivity of a given soil compared with that of other
soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in the table are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service or of
the Cooperative Extension Service can provide
information about the management and productivity of the
soils for those crops.
Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that
require special management are excluded. The soils are
grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the
risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way
they respond to management. The criteria used in
grouping the soils do not include major and generally
expensive landforming that would change slope, depth, or
other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include
possible but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability
classification is not a substitute for interpretations
designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of
soils for rangeland, for woodland, or for engineering
purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels-capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designated
by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals indicate
progressively greater limitations and narrower choices for
practical use. The classes are defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.


Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c,
to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e shows
that the main hazard is the risk of erosion unless a close-
growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water in
or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in
some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial
drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly because
it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in only some
parts of the United States, shows that the chief limitation
is climate that is very cold or very dry.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils of
this class have few limitations. The soils in class V are
subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland,
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains
only the subclasses indicated by w or s.
The capability classification of each map unit is given in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Woodland Management and Productivity

Forestry has played an important role in the economic
development of Lafayette County. The forest industry
presently ranks fifth in providing jobs in the county.
About 286,790 acres in Lafayette County, or about 82
percent of the land area, is used as woodland. These
areas of commercial woodland are mainly owned by large
timber and wood products industries. The rest of the
woodland acreage consists of small, privately owned
tracts.
The main commercial trees are slash pine, longleaf
pine, and loblolly pine. The most common hardwoods
include laurel oak, water oak, sweetgum, black cherry, and
various types of hickory trees.
The soils and climate of Lafayette County are well
suited to the commercial production of timber. Currently,
most areas of woodland in the county are on Chaires,
Leon, Sapelo, and Meadowbrook soils. These soils are
typical of poorly drained soils in the flatwoods throughout
the county. In better drained areas, the soils that are
commonly used as woodland include Blanton, Albany,
Ridgewood, Hurricane, and Ortega soils. These soils are
in the southern and southwestern parts of the county, in
and around Cook Hammock and Buckville.
For many years, individuals and woodland industries
have planted and grown pines for profit. Recently,








Lafayette County, Florida


many farmers have been planting pines in idle fields
because of declining profits in agriculture. Slash pine is
the most common tree planted because it has a fast
growth rate on a wide variety of soils. It can be easily
transplanted. Longleaf pine is recommended on the dry,
sandy soils that are mostly in the northern and
northeastern parts of the county. Loblolly pine grow
exceptionally well.
On a properly managed pine plantation, the production
of 11/2 cords per acre per year is not unusual. Some
recommended woodland management practices include
plowing fire lines annually to protect the stand from
wildfires, periodic selective thinning to reduce excessive
competition, and regular prescribed burnings to control the
growth of undesirable hardwoods and to improve the
habitat for wildlife.
Soils vary in their ability to support trees. The depth of
the soil, fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
influence tree growth. The available water capacity and
depth of the root zone are the major influences on tree
growth.
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest land.
Some soils respond better to applications of fertilizer than
others, and some are more susceptible to landslides and
erosion after roads are built and timber is harvested.
Some soils require special reforestation efforts. In the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units," the description of each
map unit in the survey area suitable for timber includes
information about productivity, limitations in harvesting
timber, and management concerns in producing timber.
The common forest understory plants also are listed. Table
6 summarizes this forestry information and rates the soils
for a number of factors to be considered in management.
Slight, moderate, and severe are used to indicate the
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
forest management.
The table lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates the
potential productivity of a soil for the indicator species in
cubic meters per hectare. The larger the number, the
greater the potential productivity. Potential productivity is
based on the site index and the point where mean annual
increment is the greatest.
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation affecting use and
management. The letter R indicates a soil that has a
significant limitation because of steepness of slope. The
letter X indicates that a soil has restrictions because of
stones or rocks on the surface. The letter W indicates a
soil in which excessive water, either seasonal or year-
round, causes a significant limitation. The letter S
indicates a dry, sandy soil. The letter A indicates a soil
having no significant limitations that affect forest use and


management. If a soil has more than one limitation, the
priority is as follows: R, X, W, and S.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
that damage may occur if site preparation or harvesting
activities expose the soil. The risk is slight if no particular
preventive measures are needed under ordinary
conditions; moderate if erosion-control measures are
needed for particular silvicultural activities; and severe if
special precautions are needed to control erosion for most
silvicultural activities. Ratings of moderate or severe
indicate the need for construction of higher standard
roads, additional maintenance of roads, additional care in
planning harvesting and reforestation activities, and the
use of special equipment.
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
use of forest management equipment, year-round or
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
wetness, and susceptibility of the surface layer to
compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On the
steeper slopes, tracked equipment is needed. On the
steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot be
operated and more sophisticated systems are needed.
The rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by
wetness for less than 2 months and if special equipment is
not needed. The rating is moderate if slopes are so steep
that wheeled equipment cannot be operated safely across
the slope, if wetness restricts equipment use from 2 to 6
months per year, if stoniness restricts the use of ground-
based equipment, or if special equipment is needed to
prevent or minimize compaction. The rating is severe if
slopes are so steep that tracked equipment cannot be
operated safely across the slope, if wetness restricts
equipment for more than 6 months per year, if stoniness
restricts the use of ground-based equipment, or if special
equipment is needed to prevent or minimize compaction.
Ratings of moderate or severe indicate a need to choose
the best suited equipment and to carefully plan the timing
of harvesting and other management activities.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
the death of naturally occurring or properly planted
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall, as
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much water
or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil for
seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth to
a seasonal high water table and the length of the periods
when the water table is high, rock fragments in the surface
layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the slope. The
mortality rate generally is highest on soils that have a
sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if, after site
preparation, expected mortality is less than 25 percent;
moderate if expected mortality is between 25 and 50
percent; and severe if expected mortality exceeds 50








Soil Survey


percent. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it
may be necessary to use containerized or larger than
usual planting stock or to make special site preparations,
such bedding, furrowing, installing a surface drainage
system, and providing artificial shade for seedlings.
Reinforcement planting is often needed if the risk is
moderate or severe.
Ratings of windthrow hazard indicate the likelihood that
trees will be uprooted by the wind. A restricted rooting
depth is the main reason for windthrow. The rooting depth
can be restricted by a high water table or by such factors
as wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is slight
if strong winds cause trees to break but do not uproot
them; moderate if strong winds cause an occasional tree
to be blown over and many trees to break; and severe if
moderate or strong winds commonly blow trees over.
Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that care is
needed in thinning or that the stand should not be thinned
at all. Special equipment may be needed to prevent
damage to shallow root systems in partial cutting
operations. A plan for the periodic removal of windthrown
trees and the maintenance of a road and trail systems
may be needed.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition is more severe on the more productive soils,
on poorly drained soils, and on soils having a restricted
root zone that holds moisture. The risk is slight if
competition from undesirable plants hinders adequate
natural or artificial reforestation but does not necessitate
intensive site preparation and maintenance. The risk is
moderate if competition from undesirable plants hinders
natural or artificial reforestation to the extent that intensive
site preparation and maintenance are needed. The risk is
severe if competition from undesirable plants prevents
adequate natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
ensure the development of an adequately stocked stand.
Managers must plan site preparation measures to ensure
reforestation without delays.
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is
expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in the
order of their observed general occurrence. Generally,
only two or three tree species dominate.
For soils that are commonly used to produce timber, the
yield is predicted in cubic meters. It is predicted at the
point where mean annual increment culminates.
The site index is determined by taking height
measurements and determining the age of selected trees
within stands of a given species. This index is the average
height, in feet, that trees attain in a specified number of
years. This index applies to fully stocked, even-aged,
unmanaged stands.


The productivity class represents an expected volume
produced by the most important trees, expressed in cubic
meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per hectare
can be converted to cubic feet per acre by multiplying by
14.3. Cubic feet can be converted to board feet by
multiplying by a factor of about 5. For example, a
productivity class of 8 means that the soil can be expected
to produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 570
board feet per acre per year.
Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation
or, under suitable conditions, natural regeneration. They
are suited to the soils and can produce a commercial
wood crop. The desired product, topographic position
(such as a low, wet area), and personal preference are
three factors among many that can influence the choice of
trees for use in reforestation.


Grazing Land

Sid B. Brantly, State range conservationist, Natural Resources
Conservation Service, helped to prepare this section-

Grazing land in Lafayette County provides food and
cover for livestock and wildlife. White-tailed deer, wild
turkey, quail, dove, squirrel, and numerous nongame
wildlife species live on pasture, rangeland, and grazeable
woodland areas. About 22,000 head of cattle and calves
are also maintained on Lafayette County grazing lands.
Pasture
Pasture vegetation consists mainly of introduced forage
species that do not require annual tillage. Pasture areas in
Lafayette County are mainly used to produce forage for
beef and dairy cattle. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass are
the major pasture plants grown in Lafayette County. Some
producers overseed rye or other small grains on pasture in
the fall for winter and spring grazing. Excess grass may be
harvested as hay during the summer months for feeding
during the winter months. Pasture plants in some parts of
the county have been depleted by continued excessive
use. Some areas that were planted to pasture species
have experienced weed and brush invasions. In areas that
have similar climates and topography, the differences in
the kind and amount of forage produced are related
closely to the kind of soil. Effective management practices
take into account the relationship of soils to each other,
species of pasture plants, water control, and applications
of lime and fertilizer.
Sound management practices in areas of pasture
generally include weed control, applications of fertilizer
and lime as necessary, and a planned grazing system.
Bahiagrass is successfully managed with a stubble height
of about two inches. Short grazing periods should be









Lafayette County, Florida


followed by a three-week recovery period. The stubble
height on improved varieties of bermudagrass should be
at a height of about four inches, with a five-week recovery
period between grazing periods.
Rangeland
The dominant vegetation in rangeland areas is native
grasses, grasslike plants, forbs, and shrubs that are
suitable for grazing. Sound management plans for this
land include the practices described in the following
paragraphs.
Proper grazing use requires manipulating the length
and intensity of grazing so that no more than 50 percent of
the current year's growth of desirable plants is removed
each year. It is best accomplished by implementing a
planned grazing system, which allows for deferment
periods during the growing season.
Weed and brush management can be used to alter the
type and distribution of brush and weeds to approximate
natural conditions. Mechanical treatment, chemical
treatment, and prescribed burning can be used individually
or in conjunction to accomplish the range manager's
goals.
Deferred grazing improves the condition and vigor of
forage plants through a period of complete rest from any
type of use by livestock. Generally, a deferment of at least
30 days follows prescribed burning. A similar 90-day
deferment follows mechanical treatment.
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
produces a characteristic climax plant community that
differs from natural plant communities on other range sites
in kind, amount, or proportion of range plants. The
relationship between soils and vegetation was ascertained
during this survey; thus, range sites generally can be
determined directly from the soil map. Soil properties that
affect moisture supply and plant nutrients have the
greatest influence on the productivity of range plants.
Range condition is a measure of the present plant
community in relation to the potential climax native plant
community.
The productivity of the sites is closely related to the
natural drainage of the soil. The wettest soils, such as
those in marshes, generally produce the greater amounts
of vegetation. The deep, drought, sandy soils normally
produce the least amount of herbage annually.
Five range sites are important for wildlife and livestock
in the survey area. A brief description of each is provided
in the following paragraphs.
North Florida Flatwoods. This range site is
characterized by poorly drained soils that are in nearly
level areas and have a moderate to high potential for
producing native forage. This range site can be easily
recognized by the dominant chalky or creeping bluestem
(or indiangrass and creeping bluestem in drier areas)


when the site is in excellent condition. In poor or fair range
condition, this site is identified by its association with saw
palmetto, gallberry, and wiregrass. It generally has a fairly
dense stand of slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine.
The average production from sites in excellent condition is
about 4,500 pounds of forage per acre.
Slough. This range site, which is often wooded, is
characterized by nearly level areas that act as road
natural drainage courses. The potential plant community is
dominated by blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and
panicums. These grasses are all readily utilized by
livestock. If overgrazing occurs for prolonged periods,
wiregrass, bottlebrush threeawn, muhlys, and other less
desirable species replace the better plants. The average
production from sites in excellent condition is about 5,500
pounds of forage per acre. This total is reduced in areas
that have a heavy timber canopy.
Wetland Hardwood Hammock. This range site is
forested, nearly level, and somewhat poorly drained to
poorly drained. Oaks, red maple, sweetgum, and cypress
dominate the forest canopy. Due to the density of the
overstory, the potential production of forage is low.
Longleaf uniola, eastern gamagrass, switchgrass, chalky
bluestem, and maidencane are important forages when
this site is in excellent condition. In poor condition,
wiregrass and dogfennel are common as ground
vegetation. The average annual production from sites in
excellent production is 2,500 pounds of forage per acre.
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills. This range site is in
nearly level to rolling areas. Areas of this site are identified
by the stands of longleaf pine and turkey oak. In areas
that are in excellent condition, the average annual
production of air-dry plant material from all sources varies
from approximately 4,000 pounds per acre in favorable
years to about 2,000 pounds per acre in unfavorable
years. In excellent condition, the relative percentage of
total annual vegetation production is approximately 60
percent grasses and grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs,
and 20 percent woody plants and trees.
Freshwater Marsh and Ponds. This range site
consists of an open grassland marsh or pond. It has
potential for producing significant amounts of maidencane
and cutgrass. The water level fluctuates throughout the
year. During periods of high water, grazing by livestock is
naturally deferred. This range site is a preferred grazing
area for cattle, but it deteriorates with prolonged
overgrazing. Pickerelweed and, in some areas, sawgrass
are increases. Buttonbush, willows, and baccharis also
increase if the overuse continues. If in excellent condition,
the site is capable of producing more than 10,000 pounds
of air-dry material per acre in favorable years. The
production in unfavorable years is about 5,000 pounds per
acre. If the site is in excellent condition, the relative
percentage of total annual production is about 80 percent







Soil Survey


grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent forbs, and 5
percent woody plants and trees.
Grazable Woodland
Grazable woodland is forest land that produces, at least
periodically, sufficient understory vegetation suitable for
forage that grazing will not significantly impair the
production of wood. Sound management practices in
areas of grazable woodland include adjusting the intensity
and duration of livestock grazing so that half of the current
year's growth on grazing plants is left at the end of each
grazing season.
Another recommended practice is locating
supplemental feeding troughs, mineral feeders, and water
developments away from newly planted areas. New
plantings or stands that are naturally regenerating are
often excluded from grazing for one growing season or
until well established.
A planned grazing system that provides for periodic
deferments during the growing season optimizes the
production of forage plants. Prescribed burning, chemical
brush control, and mechanical brush control help keep the
understory plant community in balance.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings

Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards from
wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and gardens,
and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low-
and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and
shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility of
the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops from
wind, help to keep snow on the fields, and provide food
and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants,
mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. To
ensure plant survival, a healthy planting stock of suitable
species should be planted properly on a well prepared site
and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Natural
Resources Conservation Service or the Cooperative
Extension Service or from a commercial nursery.

Recreation

Lafayette County provides a variety of recreational
activities. Hunting for deer, dove, quail, or turkey is a
popular activity in the area. Fishing opportunities in the


many lakes and ponds are enjoyed by year-round
residents and by visitors. The Suwannee River provides
opportunities for boating and canoeing, and Blue Springs
and Troy Springs provide opportunities for swimming and
scuba or skin diving. A golf course, baseball fields, tennis
courts, handball courts, and basketball courts are also
available in Lafayette County.
In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the size
and shape of the area and its scenic quality, vegetation,
access to water, potential water impoundment sites, and
access to public sewer lines. The capacity of the soil to
absorb septic tank effluent and the ability of the soil to
support vegetation are also important. Soils subject to
flooding are limited for recreational uses by the duration
and intensity of flooding and the season when flooding
occurs. In planning recreational facilities, onsite
assessment of the height, duration, intensity, and
frequency of flooding is essential.
In the table, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by soil reclamation, special design, intensive
maintenance, limited use, or a combination of these
measures.
The information in the table can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 10
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
for local roads and streets in table 9.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facilities
and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy foot
traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils have
gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to flooding during
the period of use. The surface has few or no stones or
boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but remains firm, and is
not dusty when dry. Strong slopes and stones or boulders
can greatly increase the cost of constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding during
the period of use, and do not have slopes, stones, or







Soil Survey


grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent forbs, and 5
percent woody plants and trees.
Grazable Woodland
Grazable woodland is forest land that produces, at least
periodically, sufficient understory vegetation suitable for
forage that grazing will not significantly impair the
production of wood. Sound management practices in
areas of grazable woodland include adjusting the intensity
and duration of livestock grazing so that half of the current
year's growth on grazing plants is left at the end of each
grazing season.
Another recommended practice is locating
supplemental feeding troughs, mineral feeders, and water
developments away from newly planted areas. New
plantings or stands that are naturally regenerating are
often excluded from grazing for one growing season or
until well established.
A planned grazing system that provides for periodic
deferments during the growing season optimizes the
production of forage plants. Prescribed burning, chemical
brush control, and mechanical brush control help keep the
understory plant community in balance.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings

Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards from
wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and gardens,
and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low-
and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and
shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility of
the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops from
wind, help to keep snow on the fields, and provide food
and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants,
mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. To
ensure plant survival, a healthy planting stock of suitable
species should be planted properly on a well prepared site
and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Natural
Resources Conservation Service or the Cooperative
Extension Service or from a commercial nursery.

Recreation

Lafayette County provides a variety of recreational
activities. Hunting for deer, dove, quail, or turkey is a
popular activity in the area. Fishing opportunities in the


many lakes and ponds are enjoyed by year-round
residents and by visitors. The Suwannee River provides
opportunities for boating and canoeing, and Blue Springs
and Troy Springs provide opportunities for swimming and
scuba or skin diving. A golf course, baseball fields, tennis
courts, handball courts, and basketball courts are also
available in Lafayette County.
In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the size
and shape of the area and its scenic quality, vegetation,
access to water, potential water impoundment sites, and
access to public sewer lines. The capacity of the soil to
absorb septic tank effluent and the ability of the soil to
support vegetation are also important. Soils subject to
flooding are limited for recreational uses by the duration
and intensity of flooding and the season when flooding
occurs. In planning recreational facilities, onsite
assessment of the height, duration, intensity, and
frequency of flooding is essential.
In the table, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by soil reclamation, special design, intensive
maintenance, limited use, or a combination of these
measures.
The information in the table can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 10
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
for local roads and streets in table 9.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facilities
and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy foot
traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils have
gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to flooding during
the period of use. The surface has few or no stones or
boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but remains firm, and is
not dusty when dry. Strong slopes and stones or boulders
can greatly increase the cost of constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding during
the period of use, and do not have slopes, stones, or







Lafayette County, Florida


boulders that increase the cost of shaping sites or of
building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not wet
or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the depth
of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are not
wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and are
not subject to flooding more than once a year during the
period of use. They have moderate slopes and few or no
stones or boulders on the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and some
light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be required.
The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to prolonged
flooding during the period of use. They have moderate
slopes and no stones or boulders on the surface. The
suitability of the soil for tees or greens is not considered in
rating the soils.


Wildlife Habitat

John F Vance, biologist, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
helped to prepare this section.

Wildlife is a valuable resource of Lafayette County.
Fishing and hunting are popular, year-round activities.
Large areas of wetlands and uplands provide habitat for a
wide variety of wildlife.
The main wildlife species include white-tailed deer,
squirrels, turkey, bobwhite quail, feral hogs, and water
fowl. Nongame species include raccoon, otter, and a
variety of songbirds, wading birds, woodpeckers,
predatory birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Some of the
more important habitat areas are the large wetland areas
of the Cook Hammock and Steinhatchee Wildlife
Management Area in the southern part of the county and
along the Suwannee River on the eastern boundary.
Lafayette County contains numerous small lakes. Five
lakes are more than 100 acres in size. The largest lake is
Alton Lake, which is 155 acres in size. Good opportunities
for fishing are found throughout the county. Game and
nongame species include largemouth bass, channel
catfish, bullhead catfish, bluegill, redear, and spotted
sunfish, warmouth, black crappie, chain pickerel, gar,
bowfin, and sucker.
A number of endangered and threatened wildlife
species are in Lafayette County, ranging from the seldom-
seen, red-cockaded woodpecker to the more commonly
seen southeastern kestrel. A detailed list of endangered


and threatened species, with information about range and
habitat needs, is available from the local office of the
Natural Resources Conservation Service.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect the
construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount
and distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
plants.
In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for various
kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in planning
parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and other
developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining specific
elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining the
intensity of management needed for each element of the
habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or very
poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or kind of
habitat is easily established, improved, or maintained. Few
or no limitations affect management, and satisfactory
results can be expected. A rating of fair indicates that the
element or kind of habitat can be established, improved,
or maintained in most places. Moderately intensive
management is required for satisfactory results. A rating of
poor indicates that limitations are severe for the
designated element or kind of habitat. Habitat can be
created, improved, or maintained in most places, but
management is difficult and must be intensive. A rating of
very poor indicates that restrictions for the element or kind
of habitat are very severe and that unsatisfactory results
can be expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining
habitat is impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grain and seed crops are depth of
the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available water
capacity, wetness, slope, surface stoniness, and flooding.
Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are
corn, soybeans, wheat, browntop millet, and grain
sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth of
the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available water
capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flooding, and slope.
Soil temperature and soil moisture are also








Soil Survey


considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and
sesbania.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed,
partridge pea, and bristlegrasses.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts or
other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of hardwood
trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, available
water capacity, and wetness. Examples of these plants
are oak, palmetto, cherry, sweetgum, wild grape,
hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and blueberry.
Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for
planting on soils rated good are firethorn, wild plum, and
American beautyberry.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
and juniper.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland plants
are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, saltgrass, cordgrass,
rushes, sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control structures.
Soil properties and features affecting shallow water areas
are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface stoniness, slope,
and permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas
include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and


associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous plants.
Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild turkey,
woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
raccoon, deer, and bear.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, egrets,
shore birds, otter, mink, and beaver.


Engineering

Elwyn 0. Cooper, area engineer, Natural Resources Conservation
Service, helped to prepare this section.

This section provides information for planning land uses
related to urban development and to water management.
Soils are rated for various uses, and the most limiting
features are identified. Ratings are given for building site
development, sanitary facilities, construction materials,
and water management. The ratings are based on
observed performance of the soils and on the estimated
data and test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this section.
Local ordinances and regulations should be considered in
planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings in
this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock,
hardness of bedrock within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil
wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope,
likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation,
and soil density. Data were collected about kinds of clay
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and the
kinds of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, and other behavioral
characteristics affecting engineering uses.








Lafayette County, Florida


This information can be used to evaluate the potential
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and
recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate
potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil;
plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed small
structures and pavements by comparing the performance
of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
survey, can be used to make additional interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.
Building Site Development
Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and without
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and lawns and landscaping. The limitations are
considered slight if soil properties and site features are
generally favorable for the indicated use and limitations, if
any, are minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil
properties or site features are somewhat restrictive for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features are
so unfavorable that special design, soil reclamation, and
possibly increased maintenance are required. Special
feasibility studies may be required where the soil
limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The ratings
are based on soil properties, site features, and observed
performance of the soils. The ease of digging, filling, and
compacting is affected by the depth to bedrock, a
cemented pan, or a very firm, dense layer; stone content;
soil texture; and slope. The time of the year that
excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a
seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the soil
to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls or
banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil texture and
depth to the water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed soil.
The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made


for small commercial buildings without basements, for
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
water table, flooding, shrinking and swelling, and organic
layers can cause the movement of footings. Depth to a
high water table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
large stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation
and construction. Landscaping and grading that require
cuts and fills of more than 5 or 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base of
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally limited
to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of the
soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, depth to a
high water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect
the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
shrink-swell potential, frost action potential, and depth to a
high water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
reaction, depth to a high water table, depth to bedrock or
to a cemented pan, the available water capacity in the
upper 40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and
sulfidic materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness,
slope, stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic
matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after
vegetation is established.
Sanitary Facilities
Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage
lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations are
considered slight if soil properties and site features are
generally favorable for the indicated use and limitations, if
any, are minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil
properties or site features are moderately favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if one or more soil properties or site
features are unfavorable for the use and overcoming the
unfavorable properties requires special design, extra
maintenance, or alteration.
The table also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfill. A rating of good indicates that
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
and that good performance and low maintenance can be
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site








Soil Survey


features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
more soil properties or site features make the soil less
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
that one or more soil properties or site features are
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which effluent
from a septic tank is distributed into the soil through
subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that part of the
soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is evaluated. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. Permeability, depth to
a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented
pan, and flooding affect absorption of the effluent. Large
stones and bedrock or a cemented pan interfere with
installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if slope
is excessive, or if the water table is near the surface.
There must be unsaturated soil material beneath the
absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many local
ordinances require that this material be of a certain
thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to hold
sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid and
liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level floor
surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of compacted
soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold the sewage
within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly impervious soil
material for the lagoon floor and sides is required to
minimize seepage and contamination of ground water.
The table gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 or
2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high water table,
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large
stones, and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage resulting from rapid permeability in
the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the
level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive or
if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope, bedrock,
and cemented pans can cause construction problems, and
large stones can hinder compaction of the lagoon floor.


Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground-water
pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation should be
considered.
The ratings in the table are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock, depth to a water table,
slope, and flooding affect both types of landfill. Texture,
highly organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts
and sodium affect trench landfills. Unless otherwise
stated, the ratings apply only to that part of the soil within
a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation
rated slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite
investigation is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used to
cover compacted solid waste in an area sanitary landfill.
The soil material is obtained offsite, transported to the
landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover for
a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are difficult
to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil material
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
revegetation. The soil material used as the final cover for
a landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
and the best potential for plants. Material from the surface
layer should be stockpiled for use as the final cover.
Construction Materials
Table 11 gives information about the soils as a source
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil. They
are rated as a probable or improbable source of sand and
gravel. The ratings are based on soil properties and site
features that affect the removal of the soil and its use as
construction material. Normal compaction, minor
processing, and other standard construction practices are
assumed. Each soil is evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill/is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this








Lafayette County, Florida


table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within their
profile. The table showing engineering index properties
provides detailed information about each soil layer. This
information can help to determine the suitability of each
layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil after it is
stabilized with lime or cement is not considered in the
ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water table,
and slope. How well the soil performs in place after it has
been compacted and drained is determined by its strength
(as inferred from the engineering classification of the soil)
and shrink-swell potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand or
gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. Soils
rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10, a high
shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of more
than 25 percent. They are wet and have a water table at
a depth of less than 1 foot. They may have layers of
suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. They are
used in many kinds of construction. Specifications for
each use vary widely. In the table, only the probability of
finding material in suitable quantity is evaluated. The
suitability of the material for specific purposes is not
evaluated, nor are factors that affect excavation of the
material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
by the engineering classification of the soil), the thickness
of suitable material, and the content of rock fragments.
Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are given in the soil
series descriptions. Gradation of grain sizes is given in the
table on engineering index properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to 12
percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 feet


thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large stones. All
other soils are rated as an improbable source. Coarse
fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale and siltstone, are
not considered to be sand and gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation can
be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches of a
soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is the
reclamation potential of the borrow area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading is
affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of
the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, rock
fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a depth
of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and cobbles,
have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less than 8
percent. They are low in content of soluble salts, are
naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are not so
wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to 40
inches of suitable material, soils that have an appreciable
amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or soils that
have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so wet
that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal high water table at or
near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred for
topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
moisture and releases a variety of plant nutrients as it
decomposes.
Water Management
Table 12 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
soil properties and site features are generally favorable for
the indicated use and limitations, if any, are minor and are
easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
features are somewhat restrictive for the indicated use
and special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are unfavorable for the use.
Special design, possibly increased maintenance, or
alteration are required.
This table also gives the restrictive features that affect












each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and diversions,
and grassed waterways.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil and
the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity
of the reservoir area.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 feet.
It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed and
compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural soil
to support an embankment. Soil properties to a depth
greater than the height of the embankment can affect
performance and safety of the embankment. Generally,
deeper onsite investigation is needed to determine these
properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content of
stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium. A
high water table affects the amount of usable material. It
also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
water table, permeability of the aquifer, and the salinity of
the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content of large stones
affect the ease of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and effectively
the soil is drained depends on the depth to bedrock, to


a cemented pan, or to other layers that affect the rate
of water movement; permeability; depth to a high water
table or depth of standing water if the soil is subject to
ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding; subsidence of
organic layers; and the potential for frost action.
Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks
are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving.
The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely
affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the
root zone, such as salts, sodium, and sulfur. Availability
of drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
and management of an irrigation system are affected by
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability, erosion
hazard, and slope. The construction of a system is
affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
sodium, and soil reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
combination of channels and ridges constructed across a
slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind erosion or water
erosion, an excessively coarse texture, and restricted
permeability adversely affect maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
construction.



















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in
table 19.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of similar
soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field observations, verify
properties that cannot be estimated accurately by field
observation, and help to characterize key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical and
chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties

Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for the
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 or
6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under the heading "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than sand
is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier is


added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are defined
in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to the
Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter content.
Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW, GP, GM,
GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils as ML,
CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic soils as PT.
Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two groups can
have a dual classification, for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those
properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one of
seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of grain-
size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index. Soils in
group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content of fines
(silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in group A-7 are
fine grained. Highly organic soils are classified in group A-
8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5,
A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional refinement,
the suitability of a soil as subgrade material can be
indicated by a group index number. Group index numbers
range from 0 for the best subgrade material to 20, or
higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification for
soils tested, with group index numbers in parentheses, is
given in table 19.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated sieves
is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 inches in
diameter based on an ovendry weight. The sieves,
numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard Series), have
openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 millimeters,
respectively. Estimates are based on laboratory tests of
soils sampled in the survey area and in nearby areas and
on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The



















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in
table 19.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of similar
soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field observations, verify
properties that cannot be estimated accurately by field
observation, and help to characterize key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical and
chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties

Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for the
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 or
6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under the heading "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than sand
is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier is


added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are defined
in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to the
Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter content.
Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW, GP, GM,
GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils as ML,
CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic soils as PT.
Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two groups can
have a dual classification, for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those
properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one of
seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of grain-
size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index. Soils in
group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content of fines
(silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in group A-7 are
fine grained. Highly organic soils are classified in group A-
8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-5,
A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional refinement,
the suitability of a soil as subgrade material can be
indicated by a group index number. Group index numbers
range from 0 for the best subgrade material to 20, or
higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification for
soils tested, with group index numbers in parentheses, is
given in table 19.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated sieves
is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 inches in
diameter based on an ovendry weight. The sieves,
numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard Series), have
openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 millimeters,
respectively. Estimates are based on laboratory tests of
soils sampled in the survey area and in nearby areas and
on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The








Soil Survey


estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
from nearby areas and on field examination.
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and
plasticity index are generally rounded to the nearest 5
percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg
limits extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points)
across classification boundaries, the classification in the
marginal zone is omitted in the table.

Physical and Chemical Properties

Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics and
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area.
The estimates are based on field observations and on test
data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in
diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of each
major soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the
soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain moisture.
They influence the shrink-swell potential, permeability,
plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, and other soil
properties. The amount and kind of clay in a soil also
affect tillage and earthmoving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3-bar
moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying the
soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated moist
bulk density of each major soil horizon is expressed in
grams per cubic centimeter of soil material that is less
than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density data are used
to compute shrink-swell potential, available water capacity,
total pore space, and other soil properties. The moist bulk
density of a soil indicates the pore space available for
water and roots. A bulk density of more than 1.6 can
restrict water storage and root penetration. Moist bulk
density is influenced by texture, kind of clay, content of
organic matter, and soil structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of movement
of water through the soil when the soil is saturated. They
are based on soil characteristics observed in the field,
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability is
considered in the design of soil drainage systems and
septic tank absorption fields.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The
capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is
stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity


varies, depending on soil properties that affect the
retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The
most important properties are the content of organic
matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure.
Available water capacity is an important factor in the
choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design
and management of irrigation systems. Available water
capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water actually
available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For many
soils, values have been verified by laboratory analyses.
Soil reaction is important in selecting crops and other
plants, in evaluating soil amendments for fertility and
stabilization, and in determining the risk of corrosion.
Shrink-swellpotential is the potential for volume change
in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume change
occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay minerals
with water and varies with the amount and type of clay
minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the soil and
the magnitude of the change in soil moisture content
influence the amount of swelling of soils in place.
Laboratory measurements of swelling of undisturbed clods
were made for many soils. For others, swelling was
estimated on the basis of the kind and amount of clay
minerals in the soil and on measurements of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
often needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the change
in length of an unconfined clod as moisture content is
increased from air-dry to field capacity. The classes are
low, a change of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6
percent; and high, more than 6 percent. Very high, more
than 9 percent, is sometimes used.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to
predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet and
rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre per
year. These estimates are based primarily on percentage
of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on
soil structure and permeability. Values of K range from
0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the more susceptible
the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop
productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per
year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind erosion








Lafayette County, Florida


in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the susceptibility
of soil to wind erosion. Soils are grouped according to the
following distinctions:
1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are extremely erodible, and vegetation
is difficult to establish.
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine
sands, and loamy very fine sands. These soils are very
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures
to control wind erosion are used.
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to
control wind erosion are used.
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loam, and silty
clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be grown
if intensive measures to control wind erosion are used.
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay. These
soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if
measures to control wind erosion are used.
5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less
than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy clays,
and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly erodible.
Crops can be grown if measures to control wind erosion
are used.
6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are more
than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay loams that
are less than 35 percent clay. These soils are very slightly
erodible. Crops can be grown if ordinary measures to
control wind erosion are used.
7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less
than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These soils
are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if ordinary
measures to control wind erosion are used.
8. Soils that are not subject to wind erosion because
of rock fragments on the surface or because of surface
wetness.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition. In the table, the
estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a
percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less than
2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter in a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features

Table 15 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning that
involves engineering considerations.


Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff from
precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
according to the infiltration of water when the soils are
thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils that
have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse texture.
These soils have a moderate rate of water transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These soils
have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
If a soil is assigned to two hydrological groups in the
table, the first letter is for drained areas and the second is
for undrained areas. Onsite investigation is needed to
determine the hydrological group in a particular area.
Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface by
flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by runoff
from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high tides. Shallow
water standing or flowing for short periods after rainfall or
snowmelt is not considered flooding. Standing water in
swamps and marshes or in a closed depression is
considered ponding.
The table gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
are estimated. Frequency generally is expressed as none,
rare, occasional, or frequent. None means that flooding is
not probable. Rare means that flooding is unlikely but
possible under unusual weather conditions (the chance of
flooding is nearly 0 percent to 5 percent in any year).
Occasional ,~,eans that flooding occurs infrequently under
normal weather conditions (the chance of flooding is 5 to
50 percent in any year). Frequent means that flooding
occurs often under normal weather conditions (the chance
of flooding is more than a 50 percent in any year).
Common is used when the occasional and frequent








Soil Survey


classes are grouped for certain purposes. Duration is
expressed as very brief (less than 2 days), brief (2 to 7
days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very long (more than
1 month).
The information is based on evidence in the soil profile,
namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay deposited
by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic matter content
with increasing depth; and little or no horizon
development.
Also considered is local information about the extent
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on the
landscape to historic floods. Information on the extent of
flooding based on soil data is less specific than that
provided by detailed engineering surveys that delineate
flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The estimates are
based mainly on the evidence of a saturated zone, namely
grayish colors or mottles in the soil. Indicated in the table
are the depth to the seasonal high water table; the kind of
water table, that is, perched or apparent; and the months
of the year that the water table commonly is highest. A
water table that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is
not indicated in the table.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water in
the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water stands in
an uncased borehole after adequate time is allowed for
adjustment in the surrounding soil. Aperchedwater table
is water standing above an unsaturated zone. In places an
upper, or perched, water table is separated from a lower
one by a dry zone.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet are
indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the
soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high the
water rises above the surface. The second numeral
indicates the depth below the surface.
Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth of
5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and on
observations during soil mapping. The rock is specified as
either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or fractured,
excavations can be made with trenching machines,
backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard or massive,
blasting or special equipment generally is needed for
excavation.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
generally results from either desiccation and shrinkage or
oxidation of organic material, or both, following drainage.
Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period of
several years. The table shows the expected initial
subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and
total subsidence, which results from a combination of
factors.


Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of corrosion
of uncoated steel is related to such factors as soil
moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and electrical
conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of concrete is
based mainly on the sulfate and sodium content, texture,
moisture content, and acidity of the soil. Special site
examination and design may be needed if the combination
of factors results in a severe hazard of corrosion. The
steel in installations that intersect soil boundaries or soil
layers is more susceptible to corrosion than steel in
installations that are entirely within one kind of soil or
within one soil layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed as
low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture, acidity,
and the amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
Analyses were performed by the University of Florida's Soil and
Water Science Department, supervised by Dr. Mary E. Collins.
professor.
The parameters for the physical, chemical, and
mineralogical properties of representative pedons sampled
in Lafayette County are presented in tables 16, 17, and
18. Detailed descriptions of the analyzed soils are given in
the section "Soil Series and Their Morphology." Laboratory
data and profile information for additional soils sampled in
Lafayette County, as well as for other counties in Florida,
are on file at the Soil Science Department, University of
Florida.
The typical pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
selected locations. The samples were air dried, crushed,
and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most of the
analytical methods used are outlined in a soil survey
investigations report (26).
Particle-size distribution was determined using a
modified pipette method with sodium hexametaphosphate
dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity and bulk density were
determined on undisturbed soil cores. Water-retention
parameters were obtained from duplicate undisturbed soil
cores placed in tempe pressure cells. Weight percentages
of water retained at 100-centimeters water (1/io bar) and
345-centimeters water (1/3 bar) were calculated from
volumetric water percentages divided by the bulk density.
Samples were oven dried and ground to pass a 2-
millimeter sieve, and the 15-bar water retention was
determined. The organic carbon content of the samples








Lafayette County, Florida


was determined by a modified Walkley-Black wet
combustion method.
Extractable bases were determined by leaching the
samples with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH
7.0. Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined
by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium chloride-
triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation-exchange
capacity was calculated by summation of extractable
bases and extractable acidity. Base saturation is
expressed as a percentage, using the ratio of extractable
bases to cation-exchange capacity. The pH
measurements were made with a glass electrode using a
soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal potassium
chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with a
conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil-water mixtures. Iron and
aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Aluminum, carbon, and iron were extracted from probable
spodic horizons with 0.1 molar sodium pyrophosphate.
Determination of iron and aluminum was by atomic
absorption, and the determination of extracted carbon was
by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns was
ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18-
angstrom, 14-angstrom, 7.2-angstrom, and 4.31-angstrom
positions represent montmorillonite, interstratified
expandable vermiculite or 14-angstrom intergrades,
kaolinite, and quartz, respectively. Peaks were measured,
added, and normalized to give the percent of soil minerals
identified in the x-ray diffractograms. These percentage
values do not indicate the absolute determined quantities
of soil minerals but do imply a relative distribution of
minerals in a particular mineral suite. Absolute
percentages would require additional knowledge of
particle size, crystallinity, unit structure substitution, and
matrix problems.

Engineering Index Test Data

Table 19 shows laboratory test data for several pedons
sampled at carefully selected sites in the county. The
pedons are typical of the series and are described in the


section "Soil Series and their Morphology." The soil
samples were tested by the Florida Department of
Transportation, Soils Laboratory, Bureau of Materials and
Research.
The testing methods generally are those of the
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (1) or the American
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2).
Table 19 contains engineering test data about some of
the major soils in Lafayette County. These tests help to
evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
classifications given are based on data obtained by
mechanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits
and plastic limits.
The mechanical analyses were made by a combined
sieve and hydrometer method. In this method, the various
grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis of all the
material in the soil sample, including that material coarser
than 2 millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses
used in this method should not be used in naming textural
classes of soils.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material.
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased,
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil
material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state, and
the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range in
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. The
data on liquid limit and plasticity index in table 19 are
based on laboratory tests of soil samples.
Compaction, or moisture-density, data are important in
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
effort remains constant, the density of the compacted
material increases until the optimum moisture content is
reached. After that, density decreases and the moisture
content increases. The highest dry density obtained in the
compactive test is called the maximum dry density. As a
rule, the maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.




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