• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Indian River County...
 General nature of this survey...
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Indian River County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025721/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Indian River County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 217 p., 2, 42 folded leaves of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Indian River County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Indian River County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 123.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 87-86-P.
General Note: "Issued January 1987"--P. iii.
General Note: "Index to map units"--P. IV.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025721
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003481954
oclc - 15204925
notis - AGH6380

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ia
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Indian River County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of this survey area
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    How this survey was made
        Page 7
        Map unit composition
            Page 8
    General soil map units
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
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        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 65
        Crops and pasture
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
        Rangeland
            Page 68
            Page 69
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Recreation
            Page 72
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 73
        Engineering
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
    Soil properties
        Page 79
        Engineering index properties
            Page 79
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 80
        Soil and water features
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 84
            Page 85
        Engineering index test data
            Page 86
    Classification of the soils
        Page 87
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
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        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Formation of the soils
        Page 117
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 117
            Page 118
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 119
        Geology
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
    Reference
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Glossary
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Tables
        Page 133
        Page 134
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        Page 136
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        Page 138
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        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
    General soil map
        Page 218
    Index to map sheets
        Page 219
        Page 220
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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        Page 42
Full Text

United States In cooperation with S i
Department of University of Florida,
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, i "ve
Soil Agricultural Experiment Stations, Indian R iver
Conservation and Soil Science Department,
Service and Florida Department of
Agriculture and C o unty,
Consumer Services *
Florida





HOW TO U!


Locate your area of interest on
1 the "Index to Map Sheets" --'


Knkomo





as 2.* sheet and turn to that sheet.





Locate your area of interest

151C
134A











4 List the map unit symbols
.* that are in your area. S m o
Symbols

S151C'' / 27C

134A M6B 56B
Smi27C 131 B
s6B 134A

134A/ 151
... :i.'."ii~ ii!i:'i::i i14i..iii
,t"(3" J` t c-/ !C _ ..... :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::






HIS SOIL SURVEY



Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5. which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. .





-*


-..............














See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6 Contents) for location of additional data *.. --
on a specific soil use.





!- :- k=2-*













Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1984. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1984. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1984. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Indian River Soil and Water Conservation District. The Indian
River County Board of Commissioners contributed financially to accelerate the
completion of the fieldwork for this survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
This survey supersedes the Indian River Area soil survey published in 1913.

Cover: The Indian River is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a barrier island that is
broken only by inlets. The river serves as a transportation artery and has many recreational
uses.


















ii
















Contents


Index to map units..................................................... iv Soil properties ............................ ...................... 79
Summary of tables......................... ................. v Engineering index properties...................................... 79
Foreword...................................................................... vii Physical and chemical properties........................ ..... 80
General nature of the survey area................................ 1 Soil and water features............................................. 81
How this survey was made.......................................... 7 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
Map unit composition ...................................... .. 8 selected soils........................................................ 84
General soil map units..................................... 9 Engineering index test data........................................ 86
neal soil map units ...... 9 Classification of the soils............................................ 87
Detailed soil map units ............... ........................... 21 Soil series and their morphology................................... 87
Use and management of the soils............................ 65 Formation of the soils...................................... .. 117
Crops and pasture.......................................... ... 65 Factors of soil formation........................................... 117
Rangeland ................................................................. 68 Processes of soil formation........................................ 119
Woodland management and productivity ............... 70 Geology .................................................................. 120
R creation ....................................... .. ..................... 72 R references ..................................................................... 123
Wildlife habitat .................................................. ..... 73 Glossary ....................................... .............. 125
E engineering ..................................................... ...... 74 T ab les ................. ....... ......... ............................ 133


Soil Series

Archbold series.......................................................... 87 McKee series .................................................... ......103
Astatula series ................................ ................................. 88 M yakka series........................ ........................ 104
Boca series ............................. ................................ ...... 88 O ldsm ar series.............................. ..... ................... 104
Canaveral series............................ ... .... ..... 89 Orsino series.......................... ....... ....................... 105
Canova series ........................ ............................... 90 Palm Beach series ............................................ ........ 106
C aptiva series ................................... ............................. 91 Paola series ............................... ........................ ...... 107
C hobee series.............. ............................................. 91 Pepper series........................... ...... ............. ........ .. 107
Delray series .................................................................... 92 Perrine Variant............................ ....................... 108
EauGallie series................................ ...... .. 93 Pineda series ................................................................. 109
Electra series.................................................................. 94 Pom ello series .......................................... .................... 109
Floridana series ......................................................... 95 Pompano series.................................. 110
G ator series ............................................... ................ 96 R iom ar series......................... ................ ....................... 111
Holopaw series ............................................................. 97 R iviera series ........................................ .................. 111
Immokalee series ........................................................... 98 Samsula series .................................... ...................... 112
Jonathan series ........................................................... 99 Satellite series ......................................................... 113
Jupiter series.................................. 99 St. Augustine series ....................................................... 113
Kesson series ................................................................. 100 S t. Lucie series ............................. ............................. 114
Lokosee series ......................................................... 100 Terra Ceia series.................................................... 114
Malabar series .............................. ............................ 101 Wabasso series ............................................ ............. 115
Manatee series .............................. ................................ 102 Winder series..................................................... 116
Issued January 1987







iii
















Index to Map Units


1-Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 21 32-Jonathan sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 41
2-Chobee loamy fine sand.................................... 22 33-Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.................... 42
3-EauGallie fine sand ............................................... 22 34-Satellite fine sand.................................................. 43
4-- mmokalee fine sand............................................. 23 35-McKee mucky clay loam........................................ 43
5-Myakka fine sand ............................ ............... 24 36-Boca fine sand ..................................................... 45
6-Oldsmar fine sand ................................................. 25 39-Malabar fine sand ................................................. 45
7-Palm Beach sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 25 40-Gator muck ......................... ............ ........... .. 46
8-Paola sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...................... 27 41-Canova muck..................................... ............ .. 47
9-Pepper sand............................................................ 28 42-Terra Ceia muck...................................................... 48
10-Riviera fine sand................................................. 28 44-Perrine Variant fine sandy loam ............................ 49
11-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes................... 30 45-Myakka fine sand, depressional..................... 50
12-Archbold sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 30 46-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 50
13-Wabasso fine sand ............................................ 31 47-Holopaw fine sand ............................................... 51
14-Winder fine sand ................................................. 32 48-Electra sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...................... 52
15-Manatee loamy fine sand....................................... 32 49-Pompano fine sand....................................... 53
16- Pineda fine sand...................................................... 33 50- Pits ...................................................................... 53
17-Quartzipsamments, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 34 51-Riviera fine sand, depressional ......... ..... 53
18-Captiva fine sand ............................................... 34 52-Oldsmar fine sand, depressional................... 54
20-Beaches .............................................................. 35 53-Manatee mucky loamy fine sand, depressional.. 55
21-Pomello sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.................. 35 54-Riomar clay loam ................................... ......... 56
22-Urban land.............................................................. 36 55-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional........... 56
23-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes................................ 36 56-Pineda fine sand, depressional ..................... 57
24-Floridana sand.................................................... 37 57-Holopaw fine sand, depressional ...................... 58
25-St. Augustine sand............................................. 37 58-Samsula muck .......................................... ..- 59
26-St. Augustine fine sand, organic substratum....... 38 59-Lokosee fine sand............................................- 59
27-Boca-Urban land complex...................................... 38 60-Pompano fine sand, depressional ...................... 60
28-EauGallie-Urban land complex.............................. 40 61-Delray muck......................... ........ ...... 61
29-Immokalee-Urban land complex........................... 40 62-Chobee mucky loamy fine sand, depressional.... 62
31-Jupiter fine sand ................................................. 41 63-Kesson muck ................. ........................... 62




















iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)......................................................... 134
Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2).............................. ....................... 135
Soil ratings and limitations for selected uses, by general soil map unit
(table 3) ......................................................................................I.. ......... 136
Percent of survey area. Percent of map unit. Soil suitability
for-Cropland, Pasture. Potential productivity for-Pine
trees. Degree and kind of limitations for-Sanitary
facilities, Building sites, Recreation areas.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) .............................. 143
Acres. Percent.
Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5)............ 144
Land capability. Oranges. Grapefruit. Corn. Tomatoes.
Bahiagrass. Grass-clover. Pangolagrass.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 6)............................................... 147
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Rangeland productivity (table 7) ...................................... ......................... 148
Range site. Potential annual production.
Woodland management and productivity (table 8)....................................... 150
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 9)............................................................... 156
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 10) .................................................................................. 161
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 11) ............................................. ................. 165
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 12)................................................................................ 170
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 13) ................................................. ............... 175
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel Topsoil




v



















Water management (table 14).......................................................................... 179
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Grassed waterways.
Engineering index properties (table 15) ......................................................... 184
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Percentage passing sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit.
Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 16) ............................. 191
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity Reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter
Water features (table 17) ............................................................... ......... 196
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table.
Soil features (table 18) ..................................................................................... 200
Bedrock. Cemented pan. Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 19)............................................... 204
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution-Sand. Silt. Clay.
Hydraulic conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 20)............................................... 208
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 21).................................................. 212
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 22) ........................................................... 214
FDOT report number. Classification. Mechanical analysis.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture density.
Classification of the soils (table 23)................................................................ 217
Family or higher taxonomic class.










vi















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Indian River County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior
for selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards
inherent in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service









vii

























































L tion of Indian River County in Florida.



















Location of Indian River County in Florida.












Soil Survey of

Indian River County, Florida


By Carol A. Wettstein, Chris V. Noble, and James D. Slabaugh,
Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




INDIAN RIVER COUNTY is in the southeastern part of moderating influence of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf
peninsular Florida. It is bordered on the north by Brevard stream on maximum temperatures in summer and
County, on the west by Osceola and Okeechobee minimum temperatures in winter is strong along the
Counties, on the south by Okeechobee and St. Lucie immediate coast, but it diminishes slightly a few miles
Counties, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. inland. Because of the moderation of winter and summer
The land area in the county covers 318,119 acres or temperatures, the climate of Indian River County is
about 497 square miles. The survey area includes considered to be humid and subtropical. The average
345,383 acres or about 540 square miles. This includes year round temperature is 73.4 degrees F.
11,237 acres of freshwater areas throughout the county Although the mean annual air temperature seldom
and 16,027 acres of saltwater in the Indian River. varies more than a degree or two from year to year, the
The county is about 23 miles long and about 28 miles annual rainfall may vary 100 percent (6). Yearly rainfall
wide at the widest part. Vero Beach, the county seat, is generally is from 50 to 55 inches. September generally
in the eastern part of the county on the west shore of has the most rainfall with June, October, and August
the Indian River.
The ono of Indian River County is fairly well following next in order. The period of least rain usually
The economy of Indian River County is fairly well
diversified. It mainly consists of tourism, agriculture (the occurs from November to April
center of the Indian River citrus belt), and light industry. The moist, unstable air in the county results in
The mild winter temperatures, miles of unspoiled frequent showers that are generally of short duration.
beaches, and numerous recreational activity areas Thunderstorms are frequent during the summer,
attract many tourists and retirees from all over the world. occurring on an average of every other day. Sometimes
these storms are heavy, and 2 or 3 inches of rain falls in
1 to 2 hours. More than 60 percent of the annual rainfall
General Nature of the Survey Area occurs during these summer thunderstorms. Winter and
spring rains generally are not so intense as summer
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that thunderstorms. Summarized climatic data (7, 17, 18)
affect the use and management of soils in Indian River based on records collected at Vero Beach are shown in
County are described. These factors are climate; history table 1.
and development; physiography, relief, and drainage; Daylong rains are rare and almost always are
water resources; farming; recreation; and transportation. Dayog rains ar rr altor t always are
associated with a tropical storm. Tropical storms can
Cli e affect the area any time from late in May through mid-
Climate November. Storms of hurricane force with winds of 74
The climate of Indian River County is characterized by miles per hour or more may be expected in this area
long, warm, humid summers and mild winters. The about once every 30 years (11).





2 Soil Survey



Extended periods of dry weather can occur in any In 1820, the area was ceded to the United States. In
season, but such periods are most common in spring March of 1821, General Andrew Jackson became
and fall. Dry periods in April and May generally are of provisional Governor of Florida. During the first
shorter duration than those in fall, but they tend to be legislative council held in 1824, four new counties,
more serious because temperatures are higher and the including one named Mosquito County, were formed. In
need for moisture is greater in April and May. 1844, one year before Florida became a state, Santa
Hail falls occasionally during thunderstorms, but the Lucia County was formed from an area of Mosquito
hail is generally small and seldom causes much damage. County. In 1845, Mosquito County was renamed Orange
Snowfall is almost unknown in Indian River County; County, and at the same time, Santa Lucia County was
although, snow flurries occurred throughout south Florida renamed Brevard County (11).
in the winter of 1976-77. In 1845, the county of Brevard was bounded by St
The geographic position of Vero Beach and Indian Johns County, the Indian River boundary line, and
River County benefits from the prevailing southeasterly Alachua County. In 1905, the legislature separated an
breezes. Cold continental air is modified as it travels area from Brevard County, which became known as St
over water or flows down the Florida Peninsula before Lucie County. Finally, an area was removed from St
reaching the Indian River County area. The coldest Lucie County and created the county that officially
temperatures and infrequent frosts occur on the second became Indian River County on June 29, 1925.
or third night after the arrival of the cold air because During the Seminole Wars, a military post, which was
heat is lost through radiation. Frosts and freezing known as Fort No. 2 and was later called Fort Vinton,
temperatures are rare in the coastal areas but occur was established in 1839 to protect the settlers in the
occasionally in inland areas. The most recent and most territory. This territory later became part of Indian River
severe freeze that has occurred in the county was in County (f1).
January 1982 with a low of 14.6 degrees F. This was The area of Johns Island was first settled in 1880.
recorded in the southwest section of the county. An Since the island was practically frostproof, it became one
important citrus growing industry has been established of the most productive areas on the river for the growing
because of the nearly frost-free winters. Freeze data of beans.
The community of Gifford was first settled between
shown in table 2 were taken at Vero Beach (7) and are
1893 and 1894 when the Florida East Coast Railroad
representative for the area. was extending its system along the coast. Fellsmere, in
Summer temperatures are tempered by the ocean the north central part of the county, was founded in
breeze and by the frequent formation of cumulus clouds, 1912. Because of its extensive marshlands, this was
which somewhat shade the land without completely once one of the best areas in the state for frogging until
obscuring the sun. Temperatures of 88 degrees F. or drainage systems were created and caused the marshes
higher have occurred in all months. A temperature as to disappear. Other communities, such as Viking,
high as 100 degrees F. has occurred in the past. August Crawford's Point, Oslo, Indian River Shores, Indrio, Ixora
is the warmest month and has an average maximum Park, Orchid, Roseland, Rockridge, Sebastian,
temperature of about 90 degrees F. This temperature is Tropicolony, Wabasso, and Winter Beach, were
common from June through September. established along the Indian River, and agricultural
Flying weather generally is very good in Indian River interests flourished within the area.
County, and "instrument" weather occurs only rarely. Prior to the actual creation of Indian River County in
Since the air has no taint of industrial smoke, the air is 1925, the first permanent settlers traveled from the New
clean and very little smog occurs. York area by boat and railroad and came to Vero Beach
Prevailing winds generally are southeasterly except in in 1887. Vero Beach later became the county seat The
March when southerly winds prevail. Windspeed city of Vero Beach, which was only a small community of
generally is between 10 and 15 miles per hour in the three houses and a general store in the 1880's, has
afternoon and from 5 to 10 miles per hour at night. grown to a population of over 16,000. Because of its
location along the Indian River and resulting climate,
History and Development Vero Beach is referred to as the city "Where the Tropics
Begin."
The original inhabitants of the Indian River area about
400 years ago were the Ais Indians. These inhabitants Physiography, Relief, and Drainage
were later named the Seminole Indians. The Ais Indians,
who occupied this territory long before Ponce de Leon Indian River County is in the coastal lowlands of the
discovered Florida in 1513, were nonagricultural people Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province (10). The
who lived by hunting, fishing, and eating berries (8). coastal lowlands consist of an area of low relief that
Because of disease and raids by white settlers, they represents several ancient marine terraces. These
disappeared from this area between 1700 and 1760. ancient terraces mark where the sea coast was in past





Indian River County, Florida 3



geologic times (6). The county can be divided into four with areas of maidencane and scattered cabbage palm.
physiographic subdivisions-the Eastern Valley, the The St. Johns Marsh also is on the Pamlico Terrace. It
Osceola Plain, the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, and Ten Mile consists of freshwater swamps and marshes. Native
Ridge (21), (fig. 1). vegetation includes red maple, redbay, cypress, willows,
The Eastern Valley is between the Atlantic Coastal sawgrass, maidencane, and ferns. The soils are
Ridge to the east and the Osceola Plain to the west. It is predominantly nearly level and very wet. These soils are
the largest physiographic region in the county and organic throughout or have a moderately thick, organic
extends the entire length of the county. The Pamlico layer that is underlain by a loamy subsoil. Most of the
Terrace, one of two terraces in Indian River County, Eastern Valley has been planted to citrus, crops, or
encompasses the Eastern Valley. Most of the terrace is improved pasture grasses, or it is used for native range.
less than 25 feet above sea level but ranges from about The Osceola Plain is in the western part of the
15 to 30 feet above sea level. The areas of flatlands county. It begins at the western edge of St. Johns Marsh
occurring on this terrace consist mostly of flatwoods that at an altitude of about 25 feet and begins a gradual rise
have numerous, small depressions, low hammocks, and that flattens out to become the Talbot Terrace. Elevation
grassy sloughs. The soils are predominantly nearly level mostly ranges from about 30 feet to about 60 feet above
and wet and have a sandy surface layer and loamy sea level. This area consists of flatwoods, low knolls,
material at various depths. Native vegetation is mostly and ridges. In these areas are scattered depressions and
pines, sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn interspersed poorly defined drainageways. The soils are






N





OSCEOLA
COUNTY
COUNT BREVARD
COUNTY



& EINDIAN RIVER
o COUNTY





ST. LUCIE
/ COUNTY



PART OF
OKEECHOBEE
COUNTY

Figure I.-Physiography of Indian River County and the surrounding area.





4 Soil Survey



predominantly nearly level, wet, and sandy and have a Originally the area between the Atlantic Coastal Ridge
dark sandy subsoil. In a few areas, the soils that are and the Ten Mile Ridge was swampy. This area had no
adjacent to the St. Johns Marsh have a sandy surface prominent stream channels other than the South Prong
layer and a deep loamy subsoil. Native vegetation of Sebastian Creek that is to the north. Manmade
consists of pines, sawpalmetto, sand live oak, pineland drainage systems, such as the Main Canal and the North
threeawn, and maidencane. Most of this region is used and South Relief Canals, extensively altered the natural
for native range or has been planted to improved pasture flow pattern.
grasses.
The Atlantic Coastal Ridge is in the eastern part of Water Resources
the county. It is bordered on the east by the Atlantic
Ocean. The Atlantic Coastal Ridge consists of relic Water resources are of vital importance to the
beach ridges that formed by wind and wave action along economy and future development of Indian River County.
the shore. It rises to a maximum height of about 25 feet The importance of suitable water resources will
above sea level. The Indian River separates the present continually need to be recognized as the development of
day barrier island from the mainland. The part of the new citrus groves increases. Citrus is a high value
Atlantic Coastal Ridge on the mainland is an elongated economic crop in the county, but also it is the largest
broken ridge that reaches altitudes of more than 50 feet. user of agricultural water. The population in Indian River
This ridge is a remnant of an offshore bar that was County increased from 36,000 in 1970 to approximately
formed in the Pamlico Sea (6). The soils on the mainland 60,000 in 1980. By 1982, an additional increase in
ridge are predominantly nearly level to gently sloping, population was estimated at 11.7 percent This
very dry, and sandy. Native vegetation consists of sand population increase has created the growing competition
pine, sand live oak, slash pine, rosemary, sawpalmetto, for the water resources in the county, especially since
scrub oak, and pineland threeawn. The ridge on the the availability of potable water is limited (4, 6).
barrier island consists of beach, primary dune, trough, Indian River County has three main sources of water.
inland dune, and back dune. The soils on the ridge of These sources are surface and ground water bodies, a
the barrier island are nearly level to gently sloping, wet shallow aquifer, and the Floridan Aquifer (fig. 2).
to extremely dry, and sandy. These soils have varying The first major source of water supply is surface and
amounts of shell fragments. Natural vegetation is ground water bodies. The surface water of the county is
sawpalmetto, sand live oak, cabbage palm, seagrape, being used for irrigation in increasing quantities (6). The
and sea-oats. Many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge trends indicate that such usage of water will probably
on the mainland are used for urban development, and on exceed that of ground water. Ground water is the
the barrier island they are used for urban development subsurface water in the zone of saturation; that is, the
and recreation. zone in which all soil pore spaces are filled with water
The Ten Mile Ridge is in the Eastern Valley about 7 under pressure no greater than atmospheric pressure.
miles west of the Coastal Ridge. This intermittently With the drainage of wetlands, especially in the area of
occurring, less pronounced ridge ranges from about 25 the St. Johns Marsh, the amount of available surface
to 35 feet above sea level. This ridge is made up of water storage areas has been reduced. This situation will
flatwoods, low knolls, and ridges. The soils on Ten Mile improve if the St. Johns Water Management District is
Ridge are nearly level to level, wet to somewhat dry, and successful in their attempt to acquire lands as water
sandy. Some of these soils have a dark, sandy subsoil storage areas.
that is underlain by loamy material. The native vegetation The yearly rainfall in Indian River County is 50 to 55
on the knolls and ridges consists of slash pine, longleaf inches. Almost two-thirds of it occurs during the summer
pine, sand live oak, and sawpalmetto; on the flatwoods, and early in the fall. Large streams do not exist in the
it consists of slash pine, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, county. Runoff is to the north through the St Johns
pineland threeawn, and bluestems. Most of Ten Mile Marsh, into the St. Johns River basin, and eastward to
Ridge is used for native ranges. the Indian River through several improved channels and
Ridge is used for native range.
canals. Blue Cypress Lake is the only large body of
The low ridges that occur within the county have a freshwater in the county. The Indian River, technically a
great effect on surface water drainage, although this has lagoon between the ounty. The Indan offshore bar, is a
been altered by manmade drainage systems. A few lagoon between the mainland and an offshore bar, is at
small streams enter the eastern part of the county from sea level and is highly saline (6).
small streams enter the eastern part of the county from A second major source of water supply is a shallow
areas of higher elevation from the west. The St. Johns aquifer consisting of variable of water supply is sand, shell
Marsh is also in the eastern part of the county and is the aquifer consisting of variable compositions of sand, shell
headwaters of the St. Johns River. It has no well defined fragments, and some silt and clay. This shallow aquifer
headwaters of the St. Johns River. It has no well defined underlies all of the county. Its base reaches to a depth
channels or prominent streams except Blue Cypress of 150 feet. This aquifer is underlain by the Hawthorn
Lake. Natural drainage is to the north through the entire Formation, which acts as a confining bed or aquiclude
width of the marsh. and impedes upward movement of water from the






Indian River County, Florida 5






Osceola Plain


Talbot Terrace a i'VaEaste lle






LaCkepress
------ Ten Mile Ridge Atlantic
-Fellesmere 50' Coastal Ridge


























Figure 2.-Physiographic subdivisions of Indian River County (Eastern Valley, Pamlico terrace; Osceola Plain, Talbot terrace; Atlantic
Coastal Ridge, mainland, barrier island; and Ten Mile Ridge) and water resources showing principal aquifers and movement of the
ground water.ero













underlying Floridan Aquifer. Water from the shallow withdrawal for water. These areas are in the eastern
aquifer is of good quality and has a chloride third and the extreme western part of the county. The
concentration that is usually less than 60 milligrams per shallow aquifer near the Indian River consists of
liter. This aquifer is the principal source for both discontinuous layers, or lenses, or cemented or
municipal and domestic use. Recharge is primarily from impermeable materials that appear to act as a barrier to
the rainfall which occurs in the county. This shallow saltwater intrusion from the river. Extensive development
aquifer receives some recharge of water which is of this shallow aquifer for municipal water supply should
withdrawn for irrigation from the Floridan Aquifer County (Eastern Valley, Pamlio terrace; Osceola Plain, Ter qualbot terrace; Atland quantity.
Coastal Ridge, mainland, barrier island; and Ten Mile Ridge) and water resources showing principal aquifers and movement of the
ground water.







the drainage districts. Two areas withiner from the shallwcounty have The third major sou water. These areas areupply i the easteFloridan
aquifer is of good quality and has a chlorine dethird and the extreme which underliestern part o the county at a death of 300 to
concentration that is usually less than 60 milligrams per shallow aquifer near the Indian River consists of
liter. This aquifer is the principal source for both discontinuous layers, or lenses, or cemented or
municipal and domestic use. Recharge is primarily from impermeable materials that appear to act as a barrier to
the rainfall which occurs in the county. This shallow saltwater intrusion from the river. Extensive development
aquifer receives some recharge of water which is of this shallow aquifer for municipal water supply should
withdrawn for irrigation from the Floridan Aquifer within be monitored to maintain water quality and quantity.
the drainage districts. Two areas within the county have The third major source of water supply is the Floridan
the best potential for meeting the future demands of Aquifer, which underlies the county at a depth of 300 to






6 Soil Survey



600 feet. This aquifer consists of Eocene and Oligocene to raising tropical fish. The raising of tropical fish has
carbonate rocks. This is a confined or artesian aquifer, been severely affected by the recent freezing
Recharge to this aquifer is almost entirely from the area temperatures. In 1923, a muck plant was built in
that is west and outside of the county. Discharge from Fellsmere to experiment in the making of fertilizer from
the aquifer is from wells that are scattered throughout muck. This operation was discontinued 2 years later
the surface area. These wells are primarily used for because of the costly process involved.
irrigation, and the artesian wells that are left open The main farming enterprise in Indian River County
naturally discharge to the ocean. The quality of water today is citrus production. In 1982, approximately 62,700
from this aquifer varies greatly throughout the county. acres was planted to citrus. Additional citrus acreage
The water from this aquifer has a high chloride comes into production each year (7). Most of this
concentration that generally increases as the depth acreage is in oranges and grapefruit, and some small
increases. Because of the chloride concentration, this acreages are in tangelos and tangerines. At present, the
water is used for irrigation of citrus and improved pasture western part of Indian River County is open for the
but is not used for public supply. Rainfall and ground development of new groves, but limitations of water for
water help to dilute the chloride concentration and help irrigation is a restricting factor for the future.
make the water suitable for irrigation. The second most important agricultural interest in
Two additional sources of water that are available for Indian River County is cattle raising. About 125,000
future development are the surface water (nonsaline) acres is used for livestock. This includes approximately
and water (saline) from the Indian River. The nonsaline 62,200 acres that is used for improved pasture for beef
surface water is discharged into the Indian River from and dairy production (7, 19). Most of this pasture
the canal network of three drainage districts in the consists of improved bahiagrass and white clover. In
county. Most of this water occurs as storm runoff and 1983, only one dairy farm was in the survey area. Hogs
has a wide variation in chloride concentration. The are still raised in the county.
floodwater from drainage districts can be stored in areas Various crops, such as field corn, sorghum, soybean
that are similar to the St. Johns Marsh and pumped back and rice, are grown on approximately 7,200 acres in the
to the district when needed. The saline water is almost western one-third of the county. The soils on tis
unlimited in supply and can be used for thermoelectric w o c.se s
cooling acreage are mainly organic. In some small areas, sweet
cooling. corn, cabbage, tomatoes, melons, and strawberries are
also grown.
Farming Each year, urban development has encroached on
Farming has always been an important factor in the many acres of land that if left undeveloped would have
economy of Indian River County. Before 1900, Johns good potential for agricultural use. Because of wetness,



means, strawberries, tomatoes, and other garden provide waterduring dryperiods, these soils are well
crops and citrus were grown from Roselandto the suited to most agricultural uses.
Winter Beach area. When the network of canals and
ditches that were dug in the early 1900's began draining Recreation
the lowlands, the hammocks and highlands became dry.
Irrigation became necessary and expensive, which A wide variety of recreational activity areas are
resulted in truck farming gradually giving way to citrus available in Indian River County. These areas include 23
production in these areas. At one time, large amounts of miles of coastline, Indian River, Sebastian Inlet,
tomatoes and other crops were grown in the area south Sebastian River, and Blue Cypress Lake. These areas
of Fellsmere and north of Florida State Road 60. offer many recreational activities for those who enjoy
Because tomatoes were susceptible to nematodes and freshwater or saltwater fishing, boating, birding, surfing,
disease, the freezing weather and the requirement that shellfishing, or sunbathing.
land be newly cleared for use each year made the The Sebastian Inlet is a state recreation area that is
growing of these crops too costly, well known for its excellent fishing. There are two jetties
In the early 1920's, experimental sugar cane plantings in the inlet, as well as areas for camping and other
were conducted in Fellsmere. A mill was constructed in recreational facilities. Near the inlet is the McLarty
1932 and a refinery was added in 1935. This was the Museum. This museum houses the treasures that were
only factory in Florida that produced refined sugar from salvaged from Spanish shipwrecks off the Florida coast
domestically grown sugar cane. This sugar mill closed in Also in the Sebastian Inlet area is the Pelican Island
1966 and gave way to citrus production, to ranching, and Wildlife Refuge, which has been designated as the first






Indian River County, Florida 7



national wildlife refuge in the nation. This refuge was living organisms and has not been changed by other
established in 1903. biological activity.
At Vero Beach are other recreation attractions, such The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
as Dodgertown, which serves as the spring training that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief,
camp for the Los Angeles Dodgers and, during the climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
summer, is home for their farm team, the Vero Beach kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
Dodgers. This facility is also used as a summer camp for landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
the New Orleans Saints during July and August. In the observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
Vero Beach area are many golf courses, tennis courts, position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
and shuffleboard facilities. There are also many scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
playgrounds and parks throughout the county. were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
Transportation the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
ian ivr County is srv b r or Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
Indian River County is served by several major into one another as their characteristics gradually
highways. U.S. Highway 1 and Florida State Road AlA into one another as their characteristics gradually
h ghways. U. Highway 1 and Flora State Road AA change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil
are in the eastern part of the county, parallel to the scientists must determine the boundaries between the
coast. U.S. Highway 1 is on the mainland, and Florida soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
State Road A1A serves as the major road that extends profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
the entire length of the county on the barrier island. U.S. by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
Interstate 95 crosses through the eastern one-third of are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
the county in a north to south direction. Florida State an area and to determine the boundaries.
Road 60 extends westward from Vero Beach to Yeehaw an area and to determine the boundaries.
Road 60 extends westward from Vero Beach to Yeehaw Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
Junction in Osceola County. The Sunshine State profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
Parkway, which is also called the Florida Turnpike, size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
crosses the far southwestern edge of the county in two rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
places. Restricted access to this road is at Yeehaw other features that enable them to identify soils. After
Junction and Ft. Pierce in St. Lucie County. Several describing the soils in the survey area and determining
county roads connect the outlying towns or the outlying their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
areas, such as Fellsmere, with the major roads in the taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
county. concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
The Florida East Coast Railway runs north to south, characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
basically parallel to U.S. Highway 1. The Sebastian Inlet
at the north end of the county provides access from the are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
ndan er and tacoasta ateray ot to the systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
Indian River and Intracoasta Waterway out to the used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
Atlantic Ocean.
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
The two commercial airports in the county are in Vero and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
Beach and Sebastian. There are several private landing
Beach and Sebastian. There are several private landing classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
fields in the county. Bus service is available throughout compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
the area. A few large trucking firms that have facilities for same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
handling interstate trade also serve the area same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
handling interstate trade also serve the area. confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
How This Survey Was Made While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory
This survey was made to provide information about the analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
soils in the survey area. The information includes a interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
description of the soils and their location and a well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general were field tested through observation of the soils in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants different uses under different levels of management.
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
profile extends from the surface down into the sources, such as research information, production
unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other data on crop yields under defined levels of management






8



were assembled from farm records and from field or plot other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
experiments on the same kinds of soil. is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units,
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from they are called soils of minor extent.
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
a high water table within certain depths in most years, the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
but they cannot assure that a high water table will management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
date. map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
After soil scientists located and identified the properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they or require different management. These are contrasting
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
accurately. descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
Map Unit Composition descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an complex that it was impractical to make enough
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is landscape.
identified and named according to the taxonomic The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural landscape into segments that have similar use and
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their management requirements. The delineation of such
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic information for the development of resource plans, but
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of in small areas.






9








General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication along U.S. Highway 1 and extends from Brevard County
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of to St. Lucie County.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map 1. Astatula-Archbold-St. Lucie
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up Nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained and
one unit can occur in other units but in a different moderately well drained soils that are sandy to a depth
pattern. of 80 inches or more
The general soil map can be used to compare the This map unit consists of deep, nearly level to gently
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of sloping, sandy soils on high, discontinuous dunelike
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, ridges (fig. 3). These soils are on the Atlantic Coastal
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. Ridge, which extends in a north-south direction from
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for Brevard County to St. Lucie County parallel to the Indian
planning the management of a farm or field or for River
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure. The natural vegetation is sand pine, sand live oak,
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place slash pine, rosemary, Chapman oak,
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that slash pine, rosemary, Chapman oak, sawpalmetto,
affect management. pricklypear cacti, pineland threeawn, lichens, and
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their reindeer moss.
potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent This map unit makes up about 5,728 acres, or about
of the map units shown on the general soil map. It lists 1.8 percent of the survey area. It is about 27 percent
the suitability and potential of each of the map units for Astatula soils, 14 percent Archbold soils, 14 percent St.
major land uses and shows soil properties that limit use. Lucie soils, and 45 percent soils of minor extent.
Soil ratings are based on the practices commonly used Astatula soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
in the survey area to overcome soil limitations. These surface layer is grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick.
ratings reflect the ease of overcoming the limitations. The subsurface layer is brown sand about 1 inch thick.
They also reflect the problems that will persist even if The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is
such practices are used. brownish yellow sand.
Each map unit is rated for cropland, pasture, Archbold soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
woodland, sanitary facilities, building sites, and recreation the surface layer is gray sand about 2 inches thick.
areas. Cultivated crops are those grown extensively in Underlying that is sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
the survey area. Pasture is improved pasture grasses The upper 36 inches of the underlying sand is white, the
grown extensively in the survey area. Woodland refers to next 13 inches is light gray, and the lower 29 inches or
areas of native trees. Sanitary facilities include septic more is gray.
tank absorption fields and trench sanitary landfills. St. Lucie soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
Building sites include residential, commercial, and surface layer is gray sand about 3 inches thick. Below
industrial developments. Recreation areas are campsites, that is white sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
picnic areas, ballfields, and other areas that are subject The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Orsino,
to heavy foot traffic. Paola, and Jonathan soils.
Some areas of this map unit are used for urban
Soils of the Sand Ridges development. Part of the cities of Vero Beach,
Sebastian, and Roseland has been developed on these
The one map unit in this group consists of nearly level soils. Also, some commercial buildings and many houses
to gently sloping, excessively drained and moderately have been built in the areas of this map unit. Some small
well drained soils in high dunelike areas. These soils are areas are used for citrus or as sources of fill material.
sandy throughout. This map unit is in the eastern part of
Indian River County. It is on the mainland coastal ridge






10 Soil Survey





Archbold
Archbold C M k <


Satellite

-Immoke Immokalee
















Figure 3.-Typical pattern of soils and parent material in the Astatula-Archbold-St. Lucie map unit and the Immokalee-yakka-Satelte map
unit.



Soils of the Coastal Islands and Tidal shell fragments
Marshes This map unit consists of nearly level to gently sloping
soils. These soils are on low, gently undulating dunelike
The two map units in this group consist of nearly level ries in eloa lo ai dunelike
to gently sloping, poorly drained to excessively drained
soils that are sandy throughout and contain shell ridges of the barrier island (fig. 4). There is only one area
fragments. The map units also consist of some level, of this map unit, and it makes up the barrier island,
very poorly drained soils that formed in loamy or clayey which extends the length of the survey area and is
tidal deposits that have very low soil strength. These adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean.
soils are on low, gently undulating dunelike ridges, on The natural vegetation in most areas of this map unit
elongated sloughs, on the higher dunelike ridges of the is sawpalmetto, sand live oak, cabbage palm, wild-
barrier island, and on islands and mangrove tidal coffee, waxmyrtle, and seagrape. The natural vegetation
swamps. Some soils are in nearly level areas that were on the outer edge of the higher dunelike ridges that are
former sloughs and tidal marshes. These areas have adjacent to the ocean is Spanish-bayonet and sea-oats.
been drained and filled with sand or with mixed sand and Introduced vegetation consists of thick stands of
shell fragments. These materials were derived from river Australian pine and Brazilian pepper.
dredging or from hauling and filling operations. The soils This map unit makes up about 6,308 acres, or about 2
of the coastal islands and tidal marshes are in the percent of the survey area. It is about 40 percent
eastern part of Indian River County. Canaveral soils, 27 percent Captiva soils, 25 percent
Palm Beach soils, and 8 percent soils of minor extent
2. Canaveral-Captiva-Palm Beach Canaveral soils are on low, gently undulating dunelike
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained ridges. These soils are somewhat poorly drained to
to moderately well drained, poorly drained, and well moderately well drained. Typically, the surface layer is 5
drained to excessively drained sandy soils that contain inches thick. It is dark gray and gray fine sand that is






Indian River County, Florida 11



about 10 percent sand-size shell fragments. The for citrus. Increasing acreages are being developed for
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is residential and recreation uses.
light gray, light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and
light brownish gray fine sand that is about 10 to 40 3. McKee-Quartzipsamments-St. Augustine
percent sand-size multicolored shell fragments.
Captiva soils are poorly drained. These soils are on Level, very poorly drained, loamy soils that have very low
narrow, elongated sloughs between the low, dunelike soil strength; some nearly level, somewhat poorly
ridges and the mangrove swamps. Typically, the surface drained to moderately well drained soils that are sand or
ges an the mangrove swamps. Typical ly, e ce mixed sand and shell fragments; and some level,
layer is about 8 inches thick. It is very dark gray fine somewhat poorly drained soils that are mixed sand and
sand that is about 2 percent shell fragments. The shell fragments
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more ishis map unit consists of level soils on mangrove
This map unit consists of level soils on mangrove
grayish brown, olive gray, and greenish gray fine sand islands and in swamps that are inundated daily by high
that is about 2 to 15 percent shell fragments. tides. It also consists of nearly level soils in areas that
Palm Beach soils are well drained to excessively were former sloughs and tidal marshes. These areas
drained. These soils are on the higher dunelike ridges have been drained and filled with sand or with mixed
parallel to the coastline. Typically, the surface layer is sand and shell fragments, or they have been drained
very dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying and filled with mixed sand, shell fragments, and loamy
material, to a depth of about 65 inches, is grayish brown and silty sediment. These materials resulted from river
and pale brown sand that has stratified layers of shell dredging or from hauling and filling operations. Most of
fragments throughout. Below that to a depth of 80 these areas include the islands in the Indian River and
inches or more is very pale brown sand. those areas that are adjacent to the river on the eastern
Areas of minor extent in this map unit are Beaches. edge of the mainland and on the western edge of the
The soils in most areas of this map unit are in natural barrier island. The soils in this map unit extend from
vegetation. A large area near the town of Orchid is used Brevard County to St. Lucie County.












Palm Beath




Indian River d;dT '











Figure 4.-Typical pattern of soils and parent material in the Canaveral-Captiva-Palm Beach association. These soils make up a cross
section of soils on the barrier island.






12 Soil Survey



The natural vegetation in the tidal swamps consists of Soils of the Flatwoods, Low Knolls, and
red, black, and white mangrove, sea rocket, seashore Ridges
paspalum, seashore saltgrass, and scattered cabbage
palm. In many of the areas, the soils that were formed The four map units in this group consist of nearly level,
by fill material and earthmoving operations have poorly drained and somewhat poorly drained soils. These
introduced vegetation that consists of thick stands of soils are in broad areas of flatwoods; in slightly higher
Australian pine, Brazilian pepper, and various weeds and areas of flatwoods that are surrounded and intersected
grasses, by broad, low sloughs, poorly defined drainageways,
This map unit makes up about 7,232 acres, or about hammocks, and depressional areas; and on low knolls
2.3 percent of the survey area. It is about 50 percent and ridges on the flatwoods. Some soils are sandy
McKee soils, 21 percent Quartzipsamments soils, 15 throughout, some have a loamy subsoil at a depth of
percent St. Augustine soils, and 14 percent soils of more than 40 inches, and some have a dark sandy
minor extent. subsoil. In some places, these soils are underlain by
McKee soils are on the existing mangrove islands and loamy material at a depth of less than 40 inches. In
swamps (fig. 5). Tidal water inundates most of the areas other areas, they are underlain by loamy material at a
at high tide. These soils are very poorly drained. They depth of more than 40 inches. These soils are mostly in
have very low soil strength and are generally very fluid the eastern and extreme western parts of Indian River
when squeezed in the hand; the soils in some areas County.
range from very fluid to slightly fluid. Typically, the
surface layer is covered by a layer of very dark grayish 4. Immokalee-Myakka-Satellite
brown mucky clay loam about 1 inch thick. The
undrln mu atal i a lay of 1y n ar k gay cay lam Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
underlying material is a layer of very dark gray clay loam drained soils; some are sandy throughout, and some
to a depth of about 15 inches, grayish green to dark have a dark sandy subsoil
greenish gray clay loam to a depth of about 60 inches,
and dark gray sandy loam to a depth of 8o0 inches or This map unit consists of soils on long, narrow ridges,
Sr r r low knolls on the flatwoods, in broad areas of flatwoods,
more. stand in scattered depressions (see fig. 3). These soils are
Quartzipsamments soils are on islands and in tidal in the eastern one-third of Indian River County and are
in the eastern one-third of Indian River County and are
marshes and sloughs. These areas have been drained
marshes and sloughs. These areas have been drained adjacent to the Atlantic Coastal Ridge on the Ten Mile
and filled with material that resulted from river dredging Ridge along U.S. Interstate 95, north of Florida State
or from hauling and filling operations. These soils are Road 60. Small areas of these soils are in the extreme
somewhat poorly drained, but in areas where the fill western part of the survey area and are adjacent to
western part of the survey area and are adjacent to the
material is deeper, they can range from somewhat poorly Osceola County line. Part of the cities of Sebastian and
drained to moderately well drained. Typically, the surface Vero Beach is in this map unit.
layer is mottled light yellowish brown fine sand about 17 The natural vegetation in most areas of knolls and
inches thick. Below that, to a depth of about 60 inches, ridges is south Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, sand live
is fine sand in various shades of gray, brown, and yellow oak, sawpalmetto, fetterbush, and pineland threeawn.
that is mixed with about 10 percent shell fragments, and Vegetation on the flatwoods is south Florida slash pine,
underlying that is gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or sawpalmetto, running oak, inkberry, fetterbush,
more. waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, bluestems, and panicums.
St. Augustine soils were formed by dredge and fill This map unit makes up about 15,711 acres, or about
materials and then spread over the surface of former 4.9 percent of the survey area. It is about 33 percent
tidal areas. They are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, Immokalee soils, 31 percent Myakka soils, 14 percent
the surface layer consists of fill material that is about 30 Satellite soils, and 22 percent soils of minor extent
inches thick. It is light brownish gray sand that contains Immokalee soils are poorly drained. These soils are on
shell fragments. The underlying material, to a depth of broad flatwoods. Typically, the surface layer is very dark
45 inches, is a mixture of grayish brown sand, fragments gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
of dark gray silty clay loam, and olive gray loamy sand. layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of 35 inches. The
Below that to a depth of 80 inches or more is a mixture subsoil is very dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 55
of greenish gray sand and fragments of gray loamy sand. inches. Below that to a depth of 80 inches or more is
Some areas have a thin organic layer at a depth of 40 brown fine sand.
inches or more. Myakka soils are poorly drained. These soils are on
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Kesson broad flatwoods. Typically, the surface layer is black fine
and Riomar soils and Arents. sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
The areas of McKee soils remain in natural vegetation, sand to a depth of 28 inches. The upper 15 inches of
whereas most areas of Quartzipsamments and St. the subsurface layer is grayish brown, and the lower 8
Augustine soils have been developed for residential use. inches is light brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a






Indian River County, Florida 13









SPerrlne >,
Mclent
Sa- Indian River


i ': Riom ar
















the tidal marsh.














depth of 68 inches. The upper 3 inches of the subsoil is light brownish gray, grayish brown, and dark grayish
black fine sand, the next 8 inches is dark reddish brown brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
fine sand, the next 11 inches is black fine sand, the next The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Pomello,
8 inches is partially weakly cemented, black fine sand, Pompano, and Archbold soils.
and the lower 10 inches is very dark grayish brown fine The soils in most areas of this map unit are in natural
sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is vegetation. Some large areas are used for residential
dark brown fine sand. and urban development. Some small areas are used for
Satellite soils are somewhat poorly drained. These citrus.
soils are on long, narrow ridges and low knolls on the
5. EauGallie-Oldsmar-Wabasso











flatwoods. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine a Wabass-iierama ieadae imarad eesilsarei
sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying material is Neary level, poorly drained soils that have a dark sandy
sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying material is Nearly level, Poorly drained soils that have a dark sandy






14 Soil Survey



subsoil; some have a subsoil that is underlain by loamy 6. Myakka-lmmokalee
material at a depth of less than 40 inches, and some
have a subsoil that is underlain by loamy material at a Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a dark sandy
depth of more than 40 inches subsoil
This map unit consists of soils in broad areas of This map unit consists of soils in broad areas of
flatwoods and in scattered small wet depressions. These flatwoods, scattered small wet depressions, and long,
soils are mostly in the eastern one-third of Indian River narrow, poorly defined drainageways. These soils are
County, primarily west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The mostly in the western one-third of Indian River County.
soils in this map unit extend from Brevard County to St. The soils in this map unit extend from Brevard County to
Lucie County. Other areas of soils in this map unit are Okeechobee County and to adjoining Osceola County.
scattered throughout the eastern one-half of the survey The natural vegetation is south Florida slash pine,
area, which includes the areas around Fellsmere and scattered live oak, sawpalmetto, running oak, inkberry,
also those areas east of Ten Mile Ridge. Part of the fetterbush, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, bluestems,
cities of Sebastian, Vero Beach, Vero Lake Estates, Vero and panicums.
Beach Highlands, and Fellsmere is in this map unit. This map unit makes up about 30,205 acres, or about
The natural vegetation is south Florida slash pine, 9.5 percent of the survey area. It is about 51 percent
scattered live oak and laurel oak, sawpaletto, inkberry, Myakka soils, 31 percent Immokalee soils, and 18
fetterbush, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, bluestems, percent soils of minor extent.
and panicums. Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
This map unit makes up about 45,165 acres, or about layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
14.2 percent of the survey area. It is about 44 percent subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 28 inches.
EauGallie soils, 18 percent Oldsmar soils, 9 percent The upper 15 inches of the subsurface layer is grayish
Wabasso soils, and 29 percent soils of minor extent. brown, and the lower 8 inches is light brownish gray. The
EauGallie soils are poorly drained. Typically, the subsoil extends to a depth of 68 inches. It is black fine
surface layer is black grading to dark gray fine sand sand in the upper 3 inches, dark reddish brown fine sand
about 15 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine in the next 8 inches, black fine sand in the next 11
sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The subsoil extends inches, black fine sand that is partially weakly cemented
to a depth of about 62 inches. The upper part of the in the next 8 inches, and very dark grayish brown fine
subsoil is black grading to brown fine sand coated with sand in the lower 10 inches. The substratum to a depth
organic matter about 21 inches thick. The lower 15 of 80 inches or more is dark brown fine sand.
inches is grayish brown or gray sandy loam. The Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
substratum is light brownish gray loamy fine sand to a surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches
depth of 80 inches or more. thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a
Oldsmar soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface depth of 35 inches. The subsoil is very dark gray fine
layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The sand to a depth of about 55 inches. The substratum to a
subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more is brown fine sand.
depth of about 32 inches. The subsoil extends to a The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
depth of about 62 inches. The upper 18 inches of the Floridana, Holopaw, Pompano, Pomello, and Samsula
subsoil is black, dark reddish brown, and dark brown fine soils.
sand. The lower 12 inches is grayish brown sandy loam. The soils in most areas of this map unit are in natural
The substratum is light brownish gray loamy fine sand to vegetation. Several large areas are used for improved
a depth of 80 inches or more. pasture. Other areas are used for native range and
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the woodland.
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth 7. EauGallie-Myakka-Riviera
of about 24 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 48
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black and very Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some have a loamy
dark gray fine sand that is coated with organic matter, subsoil at a depth of less than 40 inches, some have a
and the lower part is dark brown and brown sandy loam. dark sandy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 30 inches, and
The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is some are sandy throughout and have a dark sandy
brown loamy fine sand. subsoil at a depth of 20 to 30 inches
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Chobee, This map unit consists of soils in slightly higher areas
Holopaw, Lokosee, Malabar, Manatee, Pepper, Riviera, of flatwoods. These areas are surrounded and
and Electra soils, intersected by broad, low sloughs, poorly defined
The soils in most areas of this map unit are in natural drainageways, hammocks, and depressional areas. The
vegetation. Some areas are used for urban development, areas of this map unit are along the Indian River County
citrus, improved pasture, and native range, and Okeechobee County line, south of Padgett Branch





Indian River County, Florida 15



and southward to Fort Drum Creek. Also, another area of The soils in most areas of this map unit are in natural
these soils is south of Gum Slough to the Okeechobee vegetation. These areas are used as native rangeland.
County line. Some areas are in improved pasture. One small area
The natural vegetation in the areas of flatwoods south of Florida State Road 60 is used for citrus.
consists of slash pine, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry,
scattered cabbage palm, pineland threeawn, bluestems, Soils of the Sloughs, Poorly Defined
and panicums. In the lower surrounding areas on broad, Drainageways, and Hammocks
low flats and in poorly defined drainageways, the
vegetation consists of scattered slash pine, cabbage The four map units in this group consist of nearly level,
palm, laurel oak, sawpalmetto, blue maidencane, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils. These soils
pineland threeawn, panicums, and sedges. In the are on broad, low flats and in sloughs, depressions, and
depressional areas, the vegetation consists of St.- poorly defined drainageways. These areas are
Johnswort, maidencane, waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass, and interspersed with low hammocks and small scattered
various other water-tolerant weeds and grasses. areas of flatwoods. Some of these soils have a loamy
This map unit makes up about 3,389 acres, or about subsoil within a depth of 20 inches of the surface, or at a
1.1 percent of the survey area. It is about 24 percent depth of 20 to 40 inches, or at a depth of more than 40
EauGallie soils, 23 percent Myakka soils, 14 percent inches. Some soils are loamy throughout and have a
Riviera soils, and 39 percent soils of minor extent. dark colored surface layer, some have a dark sandy
EauGallie soils are on the flatwoods. Typically, the subsoil underlain by loamy material at a depth of less
surface layer is black grading to dark gray fine sand than 40 inches, or they have a loamy subsoil underlain
about 15 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine by hard limestone at a depth of 40 inches. In some
sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The subsoil extends areas, the soils are sandy throughout and have a dark
to a depth of about 62 inches. The upper 21 inches of sandy subsoil within a depth of 20 to 30 inches of the
the subsoil is black grading to brown fine sand that is surface. In other areas, these sandy soils do not have a
coated with organic matter. The lower 15 inches is dark sandy subsoil within a depth of 20 to 30 inches of
grayish brown or gray sandy loam. The substratum is the surface. These map units are mostly in the central
light brownish gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 part and eastern one-third part of Indian River County.
inches or more. They extend from Brevard County to St. Lucie County
Myakka soils are on the flatwoods. Typically, the and also extend east of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and
Myakka soils are on the flatwoods Typically, the are adjacent to the tidal marshes on the mainland part of
surface layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The the survey area. Another area of these soils is
subsurface layer extends to a depth of 28 inches. The immediately west of the St. Johns Marsh and extends
upper 15 inches of the subsurface layer is grayish brown from Brevard County to Okeechobee County.
fine sand, and the lower 8 inches is light brownish gray
fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 68 inches. It 8. Riviera-Pineda-Wabasso
is black fine sand in the upper 3 inches, dark reddish
brown fine sand in the next 8 inches, black fine sand in Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some have a loamy
the next 11 inches, black fine sand that is partially subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and some have a
weakly cemented in the next 8 inches, and very dark dark sandy subsoil underlain by loamy material at a
grayish brown fine sand in the lower 10 inches. The depth of less than 40 inches
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark This map unit consists of soils in broad sloughs,
brown fine sand. depressions, and poorly defined drainageways. These
Riviera soils are in low hammocks, poorly defined areas are interspersed with low hammocks and small
drainageways, and broad, low sloughs. Typically, the scattered areas of flatwoods. The largest area of this
surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand about map unit is in the central part of Indian River County,
3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 26 west of U.S. Interstate 95. These areas extend from
inches, is light gray and light brownish gray fine sand. Brevard County to St. Lucie County. Other areas of the
The subsoil extends to a depth of 40 inches. The upper soils in this map unit are scattered throughout the
5 inches of the subsoil is gray sandy loam that has eastern one-third of the survey area, which includes a
intrusions and pockets of grayish brown and dark grayish long, narrow area between the Atlantic Coastal Ridge
brown fine sand. The lower 9 inches is gray sandy loam. and Ten Mile Ridge. Part of the cities of Fellsmere, Vero
The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray Lake Estates, and Fleming Grant is in this map unit.
and greenish gray loamy fine sand that has a few In the areas of sloughs and poorly defined
pockets of light brownish gray fine sand. drainageways and in areas that are interspersed with
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Boca, depressions and low hammocks, the natural vegetation
Delray, Floridana, Holopaw, Malabar, Manatee, Pineda, is south Florida slash pine, cabbage palm, waxmyrtle,
and Pompano soils, scattered sawpalmetto, laurel oak, pineland threeawn,





16 Soil Survey



blue maidencane, and various sedges and grasses. In depth of 20 to 40 inches; some are loamy throughout
the depressional areas, the native vegetation includes and have a dark surface layer
blue maidencane, St.-Johnswort, pipewort, starrush, This map unit consists of soils in broad sloughs,
scattered cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, sedges, and other depressions, and poorly defined drainageways. These
water-tolerant grasses. On the flatwoods, the native areas are interspersed with low hammocks. Areas of
vegetation consists of slash pine, scattered cabbage these soils are scattered throughout the central part of
palm, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, pineland Indian River County. One large area is just south of
threeawn, bluestems, and panicums. Florida State Road 60 and west of U.S. Interstate 95,
This map unit makes up about 78,276 acres, or about adjacent to the St. Lucie County line. Other areas of the
24.6 percent of the survey area. It is about 33 percent soils in this map unit are located between Ten Mile
Riviera soils, 29 percent Pineda soils, 24 percent Ridge and the Atlantic Coastal Ridge in the eastern one-
Wabasso soils, and 14 percent soils of minor extent. third of the survey area and also west of Fellsmere,
Riviera soils are in broad sloughs, poorly defined adjoining St. Johns Marsh and Brevard County.
drainageways, low hammocks, and depressions. The natural vegetation in most areas of this map unit
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown consists of south Florida slash pine, cabbage palm,
consists of south Florida slash pine, cabbage palm,
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer waxmyrtle, laurel oak, scattered sawpalmetto, pineland
extends to a depth of 26 inches. The upper 11 inches of threeawn, little blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, sand
the subsurface layer is light gray fine sand, and the lower crd gras, a a and aiu edes
12 inches is light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil In t derss, sawgrass, tand varios sege s and grasses.
extends to a depth of 40 inches. The upper 5 inches of in the depressional areas, the native vegetation consists
extends to a depth of 40 inches. The upper 5 inches of of red maple, cypress, water oak, waxmyrtle, scattered
the subsoil is gray sandy loam that has intrusions and of red maple, acypre, waer oaky wayrtle, scndatere
pockets of grayish brown and dark grayish brown fine cabbage palm, and an understory of ferns and water-
sand. The lower 9 inches is gray sandy loam. The tolerant grasses. Other vegetation in more open
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray and depressional areas includes maidencane, pickerelweed,
substratum to a eth smartweed, St.-Johnswort, and Carolina willow.
greenish gray loamy fine sand.
Pineda soils are in broad sloughs, low hammocks, and This map unit makes up about 36,412 acres, or about
depressions. Typically, the surface layer is black fine 11.5 percent of the survey area. It is about 54 percent
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a Winder soils, 22 percent Riviera soils, 8 percent Manatee
depth of 9 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The soils, and 16 percent soils of minor extent.
subsoil extends to a depth of 40 inches. The upper 4 Winder soils are poorly drained and are in low
inches of the subsoil is yellow fine sand that has hammocks, depressions, and poorly defined
intrusions of yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The next drainageways. Typically, the surface layer is very dark
10 inches is yellow fine sand. The lower 17 inches is gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
gray and greenish gray sandy loam. The substratum to a layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 17
depth of 80 inches or more is greenish gray loamy sand. inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 65 inches. The
Shell fragments are in the lower 28 inches of the upper 6 inches of the subsoil is grayish brown sandy
substratum. loam that has grayish brown loamy sand intrusions. The
Wabasso soils are on flatwoods. Typically, the surface lower part is gray sandy loam. The substratum to a depth
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. of 80 inches or more is greenish gray loamy sand and
The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of shell fragments.
about 24 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 48 Riviera soils are poorly drained to very poorly drained
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black and very and are in broad sloughs, poorly defined drainageways,
dark gray fine sand that is coated with organic matter, low hammocks, and depressions. Typically, the surface
and the lower part is dark brown and brown sandy loam. layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches
The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of 26
brown loamy fine sand. inches. The upper 11 inches of the subsurface layer is
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Boca, light gray fine sand, and the lower 12 inches is light
Chobee, Floridana, Manatee, Oldsmar, Holopaw, brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth
Malabar, and Winder soils. of 40 inches. The upper 5 inches of the subsoil is gray
The soils in most areas of this map unit are in natural sandy loam that has intrusions and pockets of grayish
vegetation. Many areas are used for citrus and native brown and dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower 9
range (fig. 6). A few areas have been developed for inches is gray sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of
residential use, or are in improved pasture. 80 inches or more is gray and greenish gray loamy fine
sand.
9. Winder-Riviera-Manatee Manatee soils are very poorly drained and are in
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils sloughs, depressions, poorly defined drainageways, and
that have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 inches or at a on broad, low flats. Typically, the surface layer is black






Indian River County, Florida 17



























Figure 6.-Young citrus trees planted on beds help provide good surface drainage on poorly drained soils In the Rivlera-Pineda-Wabasso
map unit. Insulators are used for freeze protection and for disease and Insect control.



loamy fine sand about 12 inches thick. The subsoil is part of Indian River County, which is east of the Atlantic
fine sandy loam, sandy loam, and loamy fine sand to a Coastal Ridge and adjacent to the tidal marshes on the
depth of 39 inches. The upper 10 inches of the subsoil is mainland (see fig. 5).
very dark gray, the next 9 inches is dark gray, and the If present, the natural vegetation in most areas is
lower 8 inches is dark grayish brown. The substratum south Florida slash pine, cabbage palm, waxmyrtle,
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 12 scattered sawpalmetto, laurel oak, pineland threeawn,
inches of the substratum is light brownish gray loamy blue maidencane, and various sedges and grasses. In
fine sand. The lower 29 inches or more is light gray the flatwoods, the native vegetation consists of slash
loamy fine sand and shell fragments. pine, scattered cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle,
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Chobee, inkberry, pineland threeawn, bluestems, and panicums.
EauGallie, Floridana, Pineda, Oldsmar, Jupiter, and This map unit makes up about 4,223 acres, or about
Wabasso soils. 1.3 percent of the survey area. It is about 34 percent
Most areas of this map unit are used for citrus. The Boca soils, 13 percent Wabasso soils, 10 percent Riviera
soils in a few areas remain in natural vegetation or have soils, and 43 percent soils of minor extent.
been developed for residential use. Boca soils are on the flatwoods. Typically, the surface
10. Boca-Wabasso-Riviera layer is dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 20
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some have a loamy inches. The upper 7 inches of the subsurface layer is
subsoil underlain by hard limestone at a depth of 40 grayish brown, and the lower 6 inches is brown. The
inches, some have a dark sandy subsoil underlain by subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of
loamy material at a depth of less than 40 inches, and 24 inches. Below that is a layer of fractured limestone.
some have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches Wabasso soils are on the flatwoods. Typically, the
This map unit consists of soils in sloughs and poorly surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches
defined drainageways. These areas are interspersed with thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth
low hammocks and scattered areas of flatwoods. The of about 24 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of
only area of this map unit is in the extreme east-central about 48 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black





18 Soil Survey



and very dark gray fine sand that is coated with organic Myakka soils are poorly drained and are in the slightly
matter, and the lower part is dark brown and brown higher areas of flatwoods, which are interspersed
sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of about 80 throughout this map unit. Typically, the surface layer is
inches or more is brown loamy fine sand. black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
Riviera soils are in sloughs and poorly defined layer is fine sand to a depth of 28 inches. The upper 15
drainageways. These areas are interspersed with low inches of the subsurface layer is grayish brown, and the
hammocks. Typically, the surface layer is very dark lower 8 inches is light brownish gray. The subsoil
grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The extends to a depth of 68 inches. It is black fine sand in
subsurface layer, to a depth of 26 inches, is light gray the upper 3 inches, dark reddish brown fine sand in the
fine sand in the upper 11 inches, and light brownish gray next 8 inches, black fine sand in the next 11 inches,
fine sand in the lower 12 inches. The subsoil extends to black fine sand that is partially weakly cemented in the
a depth of 40 inches. The upper 5 inches of the subsoil next 8 inches, and very dark grayish brown fine sand in
is gray sandy loam that has intrusions and pockets of the lower 10 inches. The substratum to a depth of 80
grayish brown and dark grayish brown fine sand. The inches or more is dark brown fine sand.
lower 9 inches is gray sandy loam. The substratum to a Holopaw soils are poorly drained to very poorly
depth of 80 inches or more is gray and greenish gray drained and are on broad, low flats and in poorly defined
loamy fine sand. drainageways and depressional areas. Typically, the
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Chobee, surface layer is very dark gray and dark grayish brown
EauGallie, Jupiter, Oldsmar, Perrine Variant, Pompano, fine sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer
Floridana, St. Augustine, Quartzipsamments, and Arents extends to a depth of 45 inches. The upper 18 inches of
soils. the subsurface layer is pale brown fine sand, and the
Most areas of this map unit are used for citrus, lower 15 inches is grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil
although some large areas have been developed for is grayish brown sandy loam with pockets of brown fine
residential use. A few areas remain in natural vegetation, sand that extends to a depth of about 62 inches. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is olive gray
11. Myakka-Holopaw-Pompano loamy fine sand.
Pompano soils are poorly drained to very poorly
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a drained and are, in sloughs, poorly defined drainageways,
depth of more than 40 inches; some have a dark sandy and depressional areas. Typically, the surface layer is 16
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 30 inches, and some have a inches thick. The upper 3 inches of the surface layer is
loamy subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches very dark gray fine sand, and the lower 13 inches is dark
This map unit consists of soils on broad, low flats and grayish brown fine sand. The underlying layers are light
in sloughs, poorly defined drainageways, and brownish gray and grayish brown fine sand to a depth of
depressional areas. These areas are interspersed with 80 inches or more.
slightly higher areas of flatwoods. The four areas that The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Boca,
make up this map unit are west of St. Johns Marsh. Chobee, Delray, EauGallie, Floridana, Gator, Jupiter,
They extend from Brevard County southward to the Immokalee, Manatee, Oldsmar, Pineda, Riviera, and
Okeechobee County line. These four areas are Wabasso soils.
separated by major drainageways, which are Blue Most areas of this map unit are in improved pasture or
Cypress Creek, Padgett Branch, Fort Drum Creek, and native rangeland. Some areas that have been drained
Gum Slough. These drainageways empty into St. Johns and cleared for cropland or pasture have since been left
Marsh. idle and have reverted back to various types of wetlands.
The natural vegetation on the broad, low flats and in
sloughs and poorly defined drainageways consists of Soils of the Freshwater Swamps and
scattered slash pine, cabbage palm, and laurel oak, Marshes
waxmyrtle, maidencane, and a variety of other water-
tolerant grasses and sedges. In the depressional areas, The two map units in this group consist of nearly level,
the native vegetation consists of baldcypress, red maple, poorly drained to very poorly drained soils. These soils
waxmyrtle, Carolina willow, St.-Johnswort, maidencane, are in freshwater swamps and marshes, on broad, low
and other water-tolerant weeds and grasses. The slightly flats, and in poorly defined drainageways and
higher areas of flatwoods consists mainly of slash pine, depressions that are adjacent to or that drain into the
sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle, cabbage western edge of the St. Johns Marsh. Some of these
palm, and various weeds and grasses. soils are organic throughout, some have a moderately
This map unit makes up about 15,948 acres, or about thick organic layer underlain by a sandy clay loam
5 percent of the survey area. It is about 19 percent subsoil, and some have a thin organic surface layer
Myakka soils, 19 percent Holopaw soils, 19 percent underlain by a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 to 40
Pompano soils, and 43 percent soils of minor extent, inches of the surface. Also, some of these soils have a





Indian River County, Florida 19


dark surface layer that is 10 inches or more thick and throughout, some have a moderately thick organic layer
have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches or at underlain by a sandy clay loam subsoil, and some have
a depth of more than 40 inches. Some of these soils do a thin organic surface layer underlain by a loamy subsoil
not have a dark surface layer that is 10 inches or more at a depth of 20 to 40 inches
thick but have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 This map unit consists of nearly level, very poorly
inches or at a depth of more than 40 inches. These soils drained soils in freshwater swamps and marshes (fig. 7).
are associated with St. Johns Marsh and the major The one area of this map unit is the St. Johns Marsh in
drainageways that empty into the marsh. These map the western part of Indian River County. The soils in this
units are in the western part of Indian River County and map unit extend from Brevard County to St. Lucie
extend from Brevard County to St. Lucie County. County.
The natural vegetation consists of a dense swamp
12. Terra Ceia-Gator-Canova growth of red maple, redbay, cypress, Carolina willow,
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some are organic primrose willow, waxmyrtle, pickerelweed, sawgrass,











X /

Sy/./ / /X tor/ /







Blue Cypress Lakern/ o / / / t/' nt.















Figure 7.-Typical pattern of soils and parent material in the Terra Ceia-Gator-Canova map unit.






20



cattail, buttonbush, arrowhead, ferns, cutgrass, and water-tolerant grasses. In the depressional areas, the
maidencane. native vegetation consists of red maple, cypress, water
This map unit makes up about 60,513 acres, or about oak, redbay, waxmyrtle, Carolina willow, and an
19 percent of the survey area. It is about 58 percent understory of ferns and water-tolerant grasses. Other
Terra Ceia soils, 21 percent Gator soils, 18 percent vegetation in more open depressional areas includes
Canova soils, and 3 percent soils of minor extent. maidencane, pickerelweed, arrowhead, sand cordgrass,
Typically, Terra Ceia soils have a surface layer that is St.-Johnswort, primrose willow, ferns, and cattail.
black muck about 38 inches thick. Below that is very This map unit makes up about 9,009 acres, or about
dark grayish brown muck to a depth of 60 inches or 2.8 percent of the survey area. It is about 25 percent
more. Floridana soils, 25 percent Delray soils, 15 percent
Typically, Gator soils have a surface layer that is very Holopaw soils, and 35 percent soils of minor extent.
dark brown muck about 26 inches thick. The next layer is Floridana soils are very poorly drained and are in
very dark gray sandy loam to a depth of 30 inches. depressional areas. These soils are predominantly
Underlying that to a depth of 40 inches is dark gray throughout the major watercourses or drainageways that
sandy clay loam. The next layer is greenish gray sandy empty into St. Johns Marsh. Typically, the surface layer
clay loam and sandy loam with calcium carbonate is about 14 inches thick. The upper 8 inches of the
accumulations to a depth of about 62 inches. Below that surface layer is black sand. The lower 6 inches is light
to a depth of 80 inches or more is greenish gray loamy brownish gray sand. The subsoil is gray sandy cay loam
sand. to a depth of 37 inches. The substratum is gray sandy
Canova soils typically have a surface layer of black loam to a depth of 53 inches, dark gray sandy loam to a
and very dark brown muck about 12 inches thick. The depth of 68 inches, and light gray sandy clay loam to a
next layer is black sand to a depth of 13 inches. Below depth of 80 inches or more.
that, to a depth of 24 inches, is gray to grayish brown Delray soils are very poorly drained. These soils are in
sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 40 inches. depressional areas along the extreme western edge of
The upper 10 inches of the subsoil is grayish brown St. Johns Marsh. They intermittently are throughout the
sandy clay loam that has common coarse tongues of major watercourses or drainageways that empty into the
grayish brown sand. The lower 6 inches is gray sandy marsh. Typically, the surface layer is about 21 inches
clay loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or thick. The upper 3 inches of the surface layer is black
more is greenish gray sandy clay loam and sandy loam muck, the next 14 inches is black fine sand, and the
with calcium carbonate concretions and accumulations. lower 4 inches is very dark grayish brown sand. The
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Chobee, subsurface layer, to a depth of 45 inches, is very dark
Delray, Floridana, Riviera, and Winder soils. grayish brown and grayish brown sand. The subsoil is
Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation. dark grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of about
Some areas have been drained and cleared and are 52 inches. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or
used for improved pasture or for corn, sorghum, and more is gray sandy loam.
other crops. Also, a small area that has a thin surface Holopaw soils are poorly drained to very poorly
layer of muck is used for citrus production. drained and are on broad, low flats and in poorly defined
drainageways adjacent to the western edge of St Johns
13. Floridana-Delray-Holopaw Marsh. These soils are also in depressional areas
throughout the major watercourses or drainageways that
Nearly level, poorly drained to very poorly drained soils; empty into the marsh. Typically, the surface layer is very
some have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 dark gray and dark grayish brown fine sand about 12
inches, some have a loamy subsoil at a depth of more inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of
than 40 inches, and some have a dark surface layer that about 45 inches. The upper 18 inches of the subsurface
is 10 inches or more thick layer is pale brown fine sand, and the lower 15 inches is
This map unit consists of soils on broad, low flats and grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil is grayish brown
in poorly defined drainageways and depressions that are sandy loam that has pockets of brown fine sand that
adjacent to or that drain into the western edge of St. extends to a depth of about 62 inches. The substratum
Johns Marsh. Three areas make up this map unit and to a depth of 80 inches or more is olive gray loamy fine
extend from Brevard County southward to the sand.
Okeechobee County line. Branches extend westward The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Chobee,
from these areas by following the watercourses of Blue Gator, Manatee, Oldsmar, Pompano, and Samsula soils.
Cypress Creek, Padgett Branch, and Fort Drum Creek. Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation.
The natural vegetation on the broad, low flats and in Some areas that were drained and cleared for cropland
the poorly defined drainageways consists of scattered or pasture have since been left idle, and these areas
slash pine, laurel oak, cabbage palm, scattered have reverted back to various types of wetlands. Some
sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, maidencane, sedges, and other areas remain as improved pasture.






21








Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The a special symbol on the soil maps.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and have little or no soil material and support little or no
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
used to plan the management needed for those uses. areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
under "Use and Management of the Soils." the soil maps.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
for which the unit is named. give properties of the soils and the limitations,
A number identifying the soil precedes the map unit capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for 1-Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
specific uses. soil is nearly level to gently sloping and somewhat poorly
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up drained to moderately well drained. It is on low, dunelike
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the ridges and side slopes bordering sloughs and mangrove
swamps. The mapped areas range from 20 to about 300
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of as. Slopes are smo to convex
a series have major horizons that are similar in .
a series have major horizons that are similar in Typically, the surface layer is about 5 inches thick. It is
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
composition, thickness, and arrangement. dark gray grading to gray fine sand mixed with about 10
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface percent sand-size shell fragments. The underlying layers
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in are light gray, light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, light brownish gray fine sand mixed with about 10 to 40
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the percent sand-size, multicolored shell fragments to a
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil depth of 80 inches or more.
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil Quartzipsamments, St. Augustine, Palm Beach, and
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or Captiva soils. Also included are soils that are similar to
management. For example, Pineda fine sand, Canaveral soil but have a thicker, dark colored surface
depressional, is one of several phases in the Pineda layer or have steeper slopes, and also some soils that
series. are similar but have a thin discontinuous ledge of
Some map units are made up of two or more major limestone at various depths. The included soils make up
soils. These map units are called soil complexes. about 15 percent of the map unit.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such In most years, under natural conditions, the water
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches of the surface for 2
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The to 6 months and within a depth of 60 inches for most of
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar the remainder of the year. Permeability is very rapid, and
in all areas. Boca-Urban land complex is an example. the available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils and the organic matter content are very low.
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some Native vegetation consists of sand live oak, cabbage
of these included soils have properties that differ palm, scattered sawpalmetto, southern magnolia, and
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such scattered slash pine. The understory consists of inkberry,
differences could significantly affect use and pineland threeawn, and various weeds and grasses. In
management of the soils in the map unit. The included many areas are Australian pine, cabbage palm, and a
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some sparse ground cover of various grasses and sedges.






22 Soil Survey



Under natural conditions, this Canaveral soil is not medium throughout. Permeability is moderate in the
suited to cultivated crops or improved pasture grasses, surface layer, moderately slow to slow in the subsoil, and
Low available water capacity and low natural fertility moderate in the substratum.
severely reduce the variety of grasses that can be grown A large part of this soil is used for citrus, but some
on this soil. areas are being used for improved pasture. The natural
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to vegetation in the depressional areas consists of red
citrus. However, if intensive management practices are maple, cypress, water oak, waxmyrtle, scattered
used, including irrigation and regular applications of cabbage palm, and an understory of ferns and water-
fertilizer, this soil has fair suitability for citrus. A close- tolerant grasses. On other open marsh areas are
growing cover crop between trees protects the soil from maidencane, pickerelweed, smartweed, Carolina willow,
blowing, and patches of sawgrass.
This soil generally is not used for rangeland or forest Under natural conditions, this Chobee soil is too wet
land. Canaveral soil is in the South Florida Coastal for cultivated crops, citrus, and improved pasture.
Strand ecological plant community. Management practices needed are bedding, crop
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, rotation, and regular applications of fertilizer. Soil
building site development, and recreational uses. Water improving crops and crop residue should be used to
control measures are needed to help overcome protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic
excessive wetness. The sandy surface layer should be matter.
stabilized for recreational uses. Water control measures The suitability of this soil for citrus is good if a water
and sealing and lining of trench sanitary landfills and control system that maintains good soil aeration to a
sewage lagoons with impervious soil material can reduce depth of about 4 feet is provided. Planting trees in beds
excessive seepage. Sidewalls of shallow excavations lowers the effective depth of the water table. A close-
should be shored. Native plants are best suited to growing cover crop should be maintained between the
landscaping because of the droughtiness of the soil. tree rows to help control erosion. Regular applications of
This Canaveral soil is in capability subclass VIs. fertilizer are needed.
The suitability of this soil for improved pasture grasses
2-Chobee loamy fine sand. This soil is nearly level is good. A water control system is needed for rapid
and very poorly drained. It is in depressions and poorly removal of excess surface water. If adequately fertilized,
defined drainageways and on broad, low flats. The high yields of pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover
mapped areas range from 5 to 10 acres in isolated can be obtained. Grazing should be controlled to
depressions and from 5 to 100 acres or more in other maintain plant vigor.
areas. Slopes are smooth to concave. They are The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
dominantly less than 1 percent but range to 2 percent, high, but a water control system is needed to remove
Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand excessive surface water if the production potential is to
about 5 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of be realized. South Florida slash pine is better adapted to
about 46 inches. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil is this soil than other trees. Equipment limitations and
black sandy loam, the next 11 inches is very dark gray seedling mortality are the main concerns in
sandy clay loam, the next 7 inches is dark grayish brown management.
sandy loam, and the lower 11 inches is gray sandy loam. This soil is well suited to desirable range plant
The substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches or production. The dominant forage consists of blue
more. The upper 8 inches of the substratum is gray maidencane, chalky bluestem, and blue joint panicum.
loamy fine sand, and the lower 26 inches or more is Management practices should include deferred grazing.
greenish gray loamy fine sand. Chobee soil is in the Slough range site.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil has severe limitations for sewage lagoons,
Floridana, Manatee, and Winder soils. Also included are sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations. Water control
small areas of soils that are similar to Chobee soil but measures are needed to overcome excessive wetness.
have up to 4 inches of organic material on the surface. This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without
Also there are a few areas of soils that have a limestone basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
ledge below the subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches or streets, and playgrounds. Limitations are also severe for
more and have a thin, soft marl layer in the upper part of septic tank absorption fields. Installing water control
the subsoil. The included soils make up less than 20 measures, adding fill material, and mounding the septic
percent of the map unit. tank absorption field can help overcome excessive
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches of the wetness.
surface for more than 6 months during most years. It is This Chobee soil is in capability subclass llw.
above the surface for short periods after heavy rainfall
and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for short periods 3-EauGallie fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly level,
during dry seasons. The available water capacity is and poorly drained. It is on broad flatwoods. The






Indian River County, Florida 23



mapped areas range from 20 to 700 acres. Slopes are mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. management. South Florida slash pine is the preferred
Typically, the surface layer is black grading to dark tree to plant.
gray fine sand about 15 inches thick. The subsurface This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
layer is gray fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem,
The subsoil extends to a depth of about 62 inches. The lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky
upper 21 inches of the subsoil is black, very dark gray, bluestem. Management practices should include deferred
dark reddish brown, dark brown, brown fine sand. The grazing and brush control. EauGallie soil is in the South
lower 15 inches is grayish brown or gray sandy loam. Florida Flatwoods range site.
The substratum is light brownish gray loamy fine sand to This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
a depth of about 80 inches. building site development, and recreational uses. Water
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of control measures are needed to overcome excessive
Myakka, Pepper, Wabasso, and Oldsmar soils. Also wetness. Septic tank absorption fields may need to be
included are soils in scattered small wet depressions. enlarged because of slow permeability. Sealing or lining
The included soils make up less than 15 percent of the of sewage lagoons with impervious soil material can
map unit. reduce excessive seepage. The sandy surface layer
In most years, the water table is at a depth of less should be stabilized for recreational uses. Sealing or
than 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during lining of trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil
the wet season and within a depth of 40 inches for more material can reduce excessive seepage. Sidewalls of
than 6 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface and shallow excavations should be shored.
subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid in This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw.
the subsoil and substratum. The available water capacity
is very low in the surface and subsurface layers, low to 4-Immokalee fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. drained soil is on broad flatwoods. The mapped areas
Natural fertility is low. range from 5 to 300 acres. Slopes are smooth and range
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation, from 0 to 2 percent.
However, in areas that have been cleared, the dominant Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
use is for citrus. The natural vegetation is south Florida about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
slash pine, sawpalmetto, wiregrass, cabbage palm, fine sand to a depth of 35 inches. The subsoil is very
waxmyrtle, bluestems, panicums, and various other dark gray fine dand to a depth of about 55 inches. Below
grasses. that to a depth of 80 inches or more is brown fine sand.
Citrus trees are well suited to this soil if a water Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
control system is installed to maintain the water table at Myakka, Oldsmar, Pomello, Pompano, and Myakka
a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds lowers depressional soils. Also included are areas of soils that
the effective depth of the water table. A suitable cover are similar to Immokalee soil but have a subsoil that is
crop should be maintained between tree rows. Regular more than 28 inches thick. The included soils make up
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. 15 percent of the map unit.
This EauGallie soil has very severe limitations for In most years, under natural conditions, the water
cultivated crops because of wetness and the sandy table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6
texture in the root zone. However, if a water control months and at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 3
system is installed and soil improving measures used, months during the wet season. Permeability is rapid in
this soil has fair suitability for many vegetable crops. A the surface and subsurface layers and underlying
water control system is needed to remove excess water material, and it is moderate in the subsoil. The available
in wet seasons and to provide for subsurface irrigation in water capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface
dry seasons. Soil improving crops and crop residue layers and underlying material, and it is moderate in the
should be used to protect the soil from erosion and subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter content
maintain organic matter. Seedbed preparation should are low.
include bedding of rows. Fertilizer and lime should be Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation
applied according to the need of the crop. consisting of south Florida slash pine and scattered live
This soil has good suitability for improved pasture, oak. The understory consists of sawpalmetto, running
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover oak, inkberry, fetterbush, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn,
grow well if properly managed. Water control measures bluestems, panicums, and various other grasses.
are needed to remove the excess surface water after Suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a water
heavy rains. Regular applications of lime and fertilizers control system is installed to maintain the water table at
are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented, a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds lowers
The potential productivity of the soil for pine trees is the effective depth of the water table. Regular
moderately high. Equipment limitations, seedling applications of lime and fertilizer are needed.






24 Soil Survey



Under natural conditions, this Immokalee soil is poorly sand in the lower 10 inches. The substratum to a depth
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and the of 80 inches or more is dark brown fine sand.
sandy texture in the root zone. However, if a water Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
control system is installed and soil improving measures EauGallie, Immokalee, Pompano, Riviera, and Myakka
are used, this soil has fair suitability for many vegetable depressional soils. Also included are areas of soils that
crops. A water control system is needed to remove are similar to Myakka soil but have a thicker, dark
excess water in wet seasons and to provide for colored surface layer, some soils in scattered small wet
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Soil improving crops depressions, and also soils that are similar to Myakka
and crop residue should be used to protect the soil from soil but have a layer of shell fragments or limestone at a
erosion and maintain organic matter. Other good depth of more than 60 inches. The included soils make
management practices are seedbed preparation, up about 15 percent of the map unit.
including bedding of rows, and regular application of In most years, under natural conditions, the water
fertilizer and lime. table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6
This soil has good suitability for improved pasture. months and at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 3
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover months during the wet season. Permeability is rapid in
grow well if properly managed. Water control measures the surface and subsurface layers and substratum, and it
are needed to remove the excess surface water after is moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. The
heavy rains. Regular applications of lime and fertilizers available water capacity is very low in the surface and
are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented, subsurface layers and substratum, and it is moderate in
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is the subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content
moderate. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and are low.
plant competition are the main concerns in management. Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation
South Florida slash pine is the preferred tree to plant. consisting of south Florida slash pine. The understory
This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant consists of sawpalmetto, running oak, inkberry,
production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem, fetterbush, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, bluestems,
lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, south Florida
bluestem, and chalky bluestem. Management practices panicums, and other grasses.
should include deferred grazing and brush control. Suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a water
Immokalee soil is in the South Florida Flatwoods range control system is installed to maintain the water table at
Immokalee soil is in the South Florida Flatwoods range ad t tre on b l
site. a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds lowers
site. the effective depth of the water table. A suitable cover
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, the effective det of the water table A suitable cover
building site development, and recreational uses. Water crop should be maintained between tree rows to control
control measures are needed to overcome excessive erosion and protect the soil from blowing Regular
wetness. Septic tank absorption fields may need to be applications of lime and fertilizer are needed.
enlarged because of wetness. Sealing or lining of This Myakka soil has very severe limitations to
sewage lagoons with impervious soil material can reduce cultivated crops because of wetness and the sandy
excessive seepage. The sandy surface layer should be texture in the root zone. However, if a water control
stabilized for recreational uses. Sealing or lining of system is installed and soil improving measures are
trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material can used, it has a fair suitability for many vegetable crops. A
reduce excessive seepage. Sidewalls of shallow water control system generally is needed to remove
excavations should be shored. excess water in wet seasons and to provide for
This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw. subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Soil improving crops
and crop residue should be used to protect the soil from
5-Myakka fine sand. This nearly level, poorly erosion and maintain organic matter. Seedbed
drained soil is on broad flatwoods. The mapped areas preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer
range from 20 to 350 acres. Slopes are smooth and and lime should be applied according to the need of the
range from 0 to 2 percent, crop.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 This soil has a good suitability for improved pasture.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
depth of about 28 inches. The upper 15 inches of the grow well if properly managed. Water control measures
subsurface layer is grayish brown, and the lower 8 are normally needed to remove the excess surface water
inches is light brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a after heavy rains. Regular applications of lime and
depth of about 68 inches. It is black fine sand in the fertilizers are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented.
upper 3 inches of the subsoil, dark reddish brown fine The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
sand in the next 8 inches, black fine sand in the next 11 moderate. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
inches, black fine sand that is partially weakly cemented plant competition are the main concerns in management
in the next 8 inches, and very dark grayish brown fine South Florida slash pine is the preferred tree to plant






Indian River County, Florida 25



This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant Suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a water
production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem, control system is installed to maintain the water table at
lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds lowers
bluestem. Management practices should include deferred the effective depth of the water table. A suitable cover
grazing and brush control. Myakka soil is in the South crop should be maintained between tree rows to control
Florida Flatwoods range site. erosion and protect the soil from blowing. Regular
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and This Oldsmar soil has very severe limitations for
streets, and sewage lagoons. Water control measures cultivated crops because of wetness and the sandy
are needed to overcome excessive wetness. Sealing or texture in the root zone. However, if a water control
lining of sewage lagoons can reduce excessive seepage. system is installed and soil improving measures are
This soil has severe limitations for septic tank absorption used, this soil has fair suitability for many vegetable
fields, recreational uses, trench sanitary landfills, and crops. A water control system is needed to remove
shallow excavations. Septic tank absorption fields may excess water in wet seasons and provide for subsurface
need to be enlarged because the permeability of this soil irrigation in dry seasons. Soil improving crops and crop
is lower than is acceptable. Water control measures help residue should be used to protect the soil from erosion
overcome excessive wetness. The sandy surface layer and maintain organic matter. Seedbed preparation
should be stabilized for recreational uses. Sealing or should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer and lime
lining of trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil should be applied according to the need of the crop.
material can reduce excessive seepage. Side walls of This soil has good suitability for improved pasture.
shallow excavations should be shored. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw. grow well if properly managed. Water control measures
are needed to remove the excess surface water after
6-Oldsmar fine sand. This soil is deep, nearly level, heavy rains. Regular applications of lime and fertilizers
and poorly drained. It is on broad flatwoods. The are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented.
mapped areas range from 20 to 300 acres. Slopes are The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. moderately high. Equipment limitations, seedling
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray management. South Florida slash pine is the preferred
fine sand to a depth of about 32 inches. The subsoil tree to plant.
extends to a depth of about 62 inches. The upper 18 This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
inches of the subsoil is black, dark reddish brown, and production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem,
dark brown fine sand, and the lower 12 inches is grayish lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky
brown sandy loam. The substratum is light brownish gray bluestem. Management practices should include deferred
loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. grazing and brush control. Oldsmar soil is in the South
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Florida Flatwoods range site.
EauGallie, Holopaw, Malabar, and Wabasso soils. Also This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
included are soils in scattered small wet depressions, building site development, and recreational uses. Water
The included soils make up less than 15 percent of the control measures are needed to overcome excessive
map unit. wetness. Septic tank absorption fields may need to be
In most years, the water table is at a depth of less enlarged because of slow permeability. Sealing or lining
than 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during of sewage lagoons can reduce excessive seepage. The
the wet season and within a depth of 40 inches for more sandy surface layer should be stabilized for recreational
than 6 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface and uses. Sealing or lining of trench sanitary landfills with
subsurface layers, moderate to moderately rapid in the impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
upper part of the subsoil, and slow in the lower part. The Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
available water capacity is very low in the surface and This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw.
subsurface layers and low to medium in the subsoil.
Natural fertility is low. 7-Palm Beach sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation, soil is nearly level to gently sloping and well drained to
However, in areas that have been cleared, the dominant excessively drained. It is on dunelike ridges that are
use is for citrus. The natural vegetation consists of south parallel to the coastline. The acreage mapped is in one
Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto, inkberry, rusty lyonia, linear unit that varies from 100 feet in width to more than
blackroot, pennyroyal, pineland threeawn, chalky 1,600 feet. This map unit is adjacent to the beach.
bluestem, panicum, and various other weeds and Slopes are mainly 0 to 5 percent but can range from 0 to
grasses. 8 percent (fig. 8).






26 Soil Survey
































N* ,t,. .


Figure 8.-A dune crossover on Palm Beach sand provides beach access but primarily serves as a form of erosion control to insure dune
stabilization.


Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand oak, sawpalmetto, seagrape, and pricklypear cacti (fig.
about 4 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth 9).
of 65 inches is sand that has stratified layers of shell This Palm Beach soil is not suited to cropland, citrus,
fragments throughout. The upper 16 inches of the or improved pasture because of droughtiness and low
underlying material is grayish brown sand, and the lower fertility. Some areas of this soil are used for sites for
45 inches is pale brown sand. Below that to a depth of buildings or recreation use.
80 inches or more is very pale brown sand. This soil generally is not used for woodland or
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of rangeland. Palm Beach soil is in the South Florida
Canaveral soils. Also included are areas of soils that Coastal Strand ecological plant community.
have a thick, dark surface layer. The included soils make This soil has slight limitations for septic tank
up less than 10 percent of the map unit. absorption fields, dwellings with or without basements,
This soil is low in natural fertility and organic matter and local roads and streets. No corrective measures are
content. It is moderately alkaline throughout. Permeability needed. Land shaping may be needed on the more
is very rapid, and the available water capacity is very sloping areas. Limitations are severe for recreational
low. This soil is drought. It has no water table within a uses, sanitary landfills, sewage lagoons, and shallow
depth of 80 inches. excavations. The sandy surface layer must be stabilized
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation, for recreational uses, and land shaping may be needed
The natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, scrub on the more sloping areas. Sealing or lining of sanitary






Indian River County, Florida 27



landfills and sewage lagoons with impervious soil Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation
material generally reduces excessive seepage. Shoring consisting of sand pine, scrub live oak, rosemary,
of sidewalls for shallow excavations is needed. sawpalmetto, Chapman oak, goldleaf goldaster,
This Palm Beach soil is in capability subclass Vlls. pricklypear cacti, mosses, and lichens. Scrub hickory
trees are in some areas.
8-Paola sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is This Paola soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus,
nearly level to gently sloping and excessively drained. It or improved pasture. Droughtiness and low natural
is on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The mapped areas fertility are the main limitations. Suitability for citrus is
range from about 10 to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth to poor. Citrus production is only fair if intensive
convex. management practices are used. Management practices
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 2 should include irrigation and regular applications of
inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown sand fertilizer and lime. A close-growing cover crop must be
to a depth of about 9 inches. Below that is yellowish maintained between tree rows to protect the soil from
brown and strong brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or blowing.
more. The potential productivity for pine trees is low.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
Archbold, Astatula, Pomello, Satellite, and St. Lucie soils. concerns in management. Sand pine is the best tree to
Also included are areas of soils that are similar to Paola plant.
soil but have a thicker subsurface layer. The included This soil is poorly suited to desirable range plant
soils make up less than 20 percent of the map unit. production. The vegetative community consists of a
The water table is a depth of more than 6 feet dense, woody understory of sawpalmetto, Florida
throughout the year. Permeability is very rapid, and the rosemary, scrub oak, indiangrass, creeping bluestem,
available water capacity is very low throughout. Natural beaked panicums, and perennial legumes. Although this
fertility and the organic matter content are very low. site is seldom grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter





























Figure 9.-An area of native vegetation on Palm Beach sand on high dunelike ridges on the barrier Island along the Atlantic coast.






28 Soil Survey


protection. Paola soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a
site. water control system is installed to maintain the water
This soil has slight limitations for septic tank table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds
absorption fields, dwellings without basements, and local lowers the effective depth of the water table. A suitable
roads and streets. No corrective measures are needed, cover crop should be maintained between rows to
but the proximity to a stream or canal should be control erosion and protect the soil from blowing.
considered when installing a septic tank absorption field Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
to prevent lateral seepage and pollution. This soil has This Pepper soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops
slight limitations for small commercial buildings. Land because of wetness and the sandy texture in the root
shaping may be needed on the more sloping soils. This zone. However, if a water control system is installed and
soil has severe limitations for recreational uses, trench soil improving measures are used, this soil is moderately
sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations. The sandy well suited to many vegetable crops. A water control
surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses, system is needed to remove excess water in wet
and land shaping may be needed on the more sloping seasons and to provide for subsurface irrigation in dry
soils. Sealing or lining of trench sanitary landfills with seasons. Soil improving crops and crop residue should
impervious soil material generally reduces excessive be used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain
seepage. Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be organic matter. Seedbed preparation should include
shored. This soil has severe limitations for sewage bedding of rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
lagoons. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons with according to the need of the crop.
impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage. This soil has good suitability for improved pasture.
This Paola soil is in capability subclass Vis. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
grow well if properly managed. Water control measures
9-Pepper sand. This soil is deep, nearly level, and are needed to remove the excess surface water after
poorly drained. It is on broad flatwoods. The mapped heavy rains. Regular applications of lime and fertilizers
areas range from 20 to 400 acres. Slopes are smooth are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented.
and range from 0 to 2 percent. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Typically, the surface layer is 8 inches thick. The upper moderately high. Equipment limitations, seedling
2 inches of the surface layer is very dark gray sand, and mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in
2 inches of the surface layer is very dark gray sand, and
he r inches i dark gra and e uurf management. South Florida slash pine is the preferred
the lower 6 inches is dark gray sand. The subsurface
layer is gray sand to a depth of about 22 inches. The tree to plant.
ndth inches or more. This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
subsoil extends to a depth of 60 inches or more. It is
black nonemtented soan in the upperin s or m.f the production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem,
black noncemented sand in the upper 5 inches of the m
black cemented and i t ue ins of xthe lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, south Florida
subsoil, black strongly cemented sand in the next 5 bluestem, and chalky bluestem. Management practices
inches, dark brown sand in the next 7 inches, dark should include deferred grazing and brush control.
grayish brown sand in the next 8 inches, and grayish Pepper soil is in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
brown sandy loam in the lower 13 inches or more. This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of building site development, and recreational uses. Water
EauGallie, Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso control measures are needed to overcome excessive
soils. Also included are a few areas of soils that are not wetness. Septic tank absorption fields may need to be
weakly cemented and also a few areas of soils that have enlarged because of slow permeability. Sealing or lining
only fragments of weakly cemented spodic bodies. The of sewage lagoons can reduce excessive seepage. The
included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map sandy surface layer should be stabilized for recreational
unit. uses. Sealing or lining of trench sanitary landfills with
In most years, the water table is at a depth of less impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
than 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
the wet season and within a depth of 40 inches for more This Pepper soil is in capability subclass IVw.
than 6 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and slow to very slow in the subsoil. 10-Riviera fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
The available water capacity is very low in the surface poorly drained. It is on low hammocks and in poorly
and subsurface layers and low to medium in the subsoil. defined drainageways and broad, low sloughs. The
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low. mapped areas range from 20 to 50 acres. Slopes are
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
natural vegetation consists of south Florida slash pine, Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
sawpalmetto, running oak, inkberry, waxmyrtle, fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fetterbush, pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem, 23 inches thick. The upper 11 inches of the subsurface
panicums, and various other weeds and grasses. layer is light gray fine sand, and the lower 12 inches is






Indian River County, Florida 29



light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a the substratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
depth of 40 inches. The upper 5 inches of the subsoil is subsurface layers, slow to very slow in the subsoil, and
gray sandy loam that has intrusions and pockets of moderately rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and
grayish brown and dark grayish brown fine sand. The the organic matter content are low.
lower 9 inches is gray sandy loam. The substratum to a A large part of the acreage of this soil has been
depth of 80 inches or more is gray and greenish gray cleared and is planted to citrus (fig. 10). Natural
loamy fine sand that has a few pockets of light brownish vegetation consists of scattered slash pine, cabbage
gray fine sand. palm, waxmyrtle, scattered palmetto, laurel oak, blue
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of maidencane, pineland threeawn, creeping bluestem,
Holopaw, Floridana, Manatee, Oldsmar, Pineda, south Florida bluestem, sand cordgrass, low panicums,
Wabasso, and Winder soils. Also included are areas of ad various weeds and grasses.
soils that have a weakly stained layer of organic material
above the subsoil and extending into it and also other Under natural conditions, this Riviera soil is poorly
above the subsoil and extending into it and also other t
areas of soils that have small fragments or nodules of suited to cultivated crops. However, it is fairly suited to
areas of soils that have small fragments or nodules of v c
iron cemented sandstone or calcareous material at a vegetable crops if a water control system is installed to
depth of 10 to 30 inches. The included soils make up remove excess water rapidly and provide for subsurface
less than 15 percent of the map unit. irrigation. Soil improving crops and crop residue should
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches of the be used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain
surface for 1 to 6 months and between a depth of 10 to organic matter. Seedbed preparation should include
40 inches for more than 6 months. It recedes to a depth bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be applied according
of more than 40 inches during extended dry periods. The to the need of the crop.
water table is above the surface for short periods after Suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a water
heavy rainfall. The available water capacity is very low in control system is installed to maintain the water table at
the surface and subsurface layers, low in the upper part a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds
of the subsoil and moderate in the lower part, and low in provides good surface drainage. A close-growing cover





























Figure 10.-These citrus trees planted on beds have a close-growing cover crop to protect the soil from blowing.






30 Soil Survey


crop between tree rows protects the soil from blowing, and bluestems are the most common native grasses, but
Regular applications of fertilizers should be applied, these grasses can be quite sparse because of the
This soil has good suitability for pasture and hay drought nature of the soil.
crops. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
grow well if properly managed. Management practices cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture because it is
should include a water control system to remove excess very drought and has low natural fertility. Response to
surface water after heavy rains, regular applications of fertilizers is low. Irrigation water moves through the soil
fertilizer, and controlled grazing. rapidly, and little moisture is retained for plant use.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is The potential productivity for pine trees is low.
moderately high. South Florida slash pine is the best Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
adapted specie to plant. Water control measures are concerns in management. Sand pine is the preferred
necessary to remove excess surface water. Equipment tree to plant.
limitations and seedling mortality are the main concerns This soil is poorly suited to desirable range plant
in management. production. The vegetative community consists of a
This soil is highly suited to desirable range plant dense, woody understory of sawpalmetto, Florida
production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem, rosemary, scrub oak, indiangrass, creeping bluestem,
chalky bluestem, and blue maidencane. Management beaked panicums, and perennial legumes. Although this
practices should include deferred grazing and brush site is seldom grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter
control. Riviera soil is in the Cabbage Palm Flatwoods protection. St. Lucie soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range
range site. site.
This soil has severe limitations for building site This soil has slight limitations to septic tank absorption
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads and
Water control measures are needed to overcome streets. No corrective measures are needed, although
excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons the proximity to a stream or canal should be considered
and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material in the placement of a septic tank absorption field to
generally reduces excessive seepage. Mounding of the prevent lateral seepage and pollution. This soil has slight
septic tank absorption field can help overcome limitations for small commercial buildings. Land shaping
excessive wetness. The sandy surface layer should be may be needed on the more sloping areas. This soil has
stabilized for recreational uses. Sidewalls of shallow severe limitations for recreational uses, trench sanitary
excavations should be shored. landfills, and shallow excavations. The sandy surface
This Riviera soil is in capability subclass Illw. layer should be stabilized for recreational uses, and land
shaping may be needed on the more sloping areas.
11-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This soil Sealing or lining of trench sanitary landfills with
is deep, nearly level to sloping, and excessively drained, impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
It is on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and other elevated Sidewalls for shallow excavations should be shored. This
knolls on the flatwoods. The mapped areas range from soil has severe limitations for sewage lagoons. Sealing
about 20 to 200 acres. Slopes generally are uniform. or lining of sewage lagoons with impervious soil material
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 3 inches can reduce excessive seepage.
thick. The underlying material is white sand to a depth of This St. Lucie soil is in capability subclass Vils.
80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 12-Archbold sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
Archbold, Astatula, Paola, Pomello, and Satellite soils. is nearly level to sloping and moderately well drained. It
Also included are small areas of soils that are similar to is on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and other elevated
St. Lucie soil but have a brownish yellow fine sand layer knolls on the flatwoods. The mapped areas range from
at a depth of 70 inches or more. Because of the 20 to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex.
excavation of St. Lucie soil for fill material, the soils in Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 2 inches
these areas have short, steep slopes that range from 20 thick. The underlying material extends to a depth of
to 40 percent. The included soils make up less than 15 more than 80 inches. The upper 36 inches of the
percent of the map unit. underlying material is white sand, the next 13 inches is
The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. light gray sand, and the lower 29 inches or more is gray
The available water capacity is very low, and sand.
permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and the organic Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
matter content are very low. Astatula, Jonathan, Orsino, Pomello, and Satellite soils.
Most areas of this soil are in native vegetation The included soils make up less than 15 percent of the
consisting of sand pine, scrub and sand live oak, map unit.
sawpalmetto, Florida rosemary, pricklypear cacti, goldleaf The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for
goldaster, lichens, and deer moss. Pineland threeawn more than 6 months during most years, between a depth






Indian River County, Florida 31



of 24 to 40 inches for about 1 to 4 months during the to a depth of about 48 inches. The upper 8 inches of the
wet season, and at a depth of more than 80 inches subsoil is black fine sand that is coated with colloidal
during drought periods. Permeability is very rapid organic matter. The next 3 inches is very dark gray fine
throughout. The available water capacity is very low. sand. The next 6 inches is dark brown sandy loam. The
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are very lower 7 inches is brown fine sandy loam. The substratum
low. to a depth of about 80 inches or more is brown loamy
Most areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation, fine sand.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, sand pine, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
sawpalmetto, scrub oak, fetterbush, running oak, turkey Boca, EauGallie, Oldsmar, Riviera, and Winder soils.
oak, longleaf pine, indiangrass, broomsedge bluestem Also included are areas of soils that are similar to
and other bluestem species, and pineland threeawn. Wabasso soil but have a thicker, dark colored surface
In its natural state, this Archbold soil is poorly suited to layer and also some areas of soils in scattered small wet
cultivated crops. Citrus is fairly well suited if good depressions. The included soils make up less than 15
management practices are used. Management practices percent of the map unit.
include irrigation and regular applications of fertilizer and The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for
lime. A close-growing cover crop between trees protects more than 6 months in most years and at a depth of less
the soil from blowing, than 10 inches for 1 to 2 months. The available water
This soil has poor suitability for improved pasture capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers,
grasses. Intensive management practices are needed to medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum.
overcome soil limitations, which include droughtiness Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
and low fertility. Bahiagrass is better adapted to this soil layers, moderate in the sandy part of the subsoil, and
than most other grasses. Clover is not suited to this soil. slow or very slow in the loamy part. Natural fertility is
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is low.
moderately high. Seedling mortality and equipment Most areas of this soil are in citrus, although some
limitations are the main concerns in management. South areas remain in natural vegetation. The natural
Florida slash pine and sand pine are the preferred trees vegetation consists of slash pine, scattered cabbage
to plant. palm, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, fetterbush, inkberry,
This soil is poorly suited to desirable range plant pineland threeawn, bluestems, panicums, and other
production. The vegetative community consists of a grasses.
dense, woody understory of sawpalmetto, Florida The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a
rosemary, scrub oak, indiangrass, creeping bluestem, water control system is installed to maintain the water
beaked panicums, perennial legumes, and various other table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds
grasses. Although this site is seldom grazed by livestock, lowers the effective depth of the water table. A suitable
it does furnish winter protection. Archbold soil is in the cover crop should be maintained between tree rows to
Sand Pine Scrub range site. control erosion and protect the soil from blowing.
This soil is well suited to dwellings without basements, Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed.
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. This Wabasso soil has very severe limitations for
No corrective measures are needed. These soils have cultivated crops because of wetness and the sandy
severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields and texture in the root zone. However, if a water control
recreational uses. Water control measures are needed system is installed and soil improving measures are
for septic tank absorption fields. The sandy surface layer used, this soil has fair suitability for many vegetable
should be stabilized for recreational uses. Sidewalls of crops. A water control system is needed to remove
shallow excavations should be shored. These soils have excess water in wet seasons and to provide for
severe limitations for trench sanitary landfills and sewage subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Soil improving crops
lagoons. Sealing or lining of trench sanitary landfills and and crop residue should be used to protect the soil from
sewage lagoons with impervious soil material can reduce erosion and maintain organic matter. Seedbed
excessive seepage. Water control measures are needed preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer
for trench sanitary landfills. and lime should be applied according to the need of the
This Archbold soil is in capability subclass VIs. crop.
This soil has good suitability for pasture. Pangolagrass,
13-Wabasso fine sand. This soil is nearly level and improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if
poorly drained. It is on broad flatwoods. Individual properly managed. Water control measures are needed
mapped areas are 20 to 300 acres. Slopes are 0 to 2 to remove the excess surface water after heavy rains.
percent. Regular applications of lime and fertilizers are needed.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand Overgrazing should be prevented.
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
sand to a depth of about 24 inches. The subsoil extends moderately high. Equipment limitations, seedling






32 Soil Survey



mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in of 40 inches. The available water capacity is very low in
management. South Florida slash pine is the preferred the surface and subsurface layers. It is moderate in the
tree to plant. subsoil and low in the substratum. Permeability is slow in
This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant the subsoil and rapid in the surface and subsurface
production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem, layers. Natural fertility is low.
lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky Most of the acreage of this soil has been cleared and
bluestem. Management practices should include deferred planted to citrus. The natural vegetation consists of
grazing and brush control. Wabasso soil is in the South cabbage palm, laurel oak, and slash pine and an
Florida Flatwoods range site. understory of waxmyrtle, blue maidencane, chalky
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without bluestem, sand cordgrass, sawgrass, sedges, and other
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and water-tolerant grasses and weeds.
streets, and sewage lagoons. Water control measures This Winder soil has severe limitations for cultivated
are needed to overcome excessive wetness. Septic tank crops. It has fair suitability for vegetable crops if a water
absorption fields may need to be enlarged because of control system is installed to remove excess water
slow permeability. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons rapidly and provide for subsurface irrigation. Soil
can reduce excessive seepage. This soil has severe improving crops and crop residue should be used to
limitations for septic tank absorption fields, recreational protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic
uses, trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations, matter. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of
Water control measures generally are needed to rows. Fertilizer should be applied according to the need
overcome excessive wetness. The sandy surface layer of the crop.
should be stabilized for recreational uses. Sealing or Citrus trees are well suited to this soil if a water
lining of trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil control system is installed to help maintain the water
material can reduce excessive seepage. Sidewalls of table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on
shallow excavations should be shored. beds provides good surface drainage. A close-growing
This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass IIIw. cover crop should be maintained between tree rows to
protect the soil from blowing. Regular applications of
14-Winder fine sand. This soil is nearly level and fertilizers are needed.
poorly drained. It is on low hammocks and in poorly The suitability of this soil is good for pasture and hay
defined drainageways. The mapped areas range from 10 crops. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover
to 35 acres. Slopes are concave and range from 0 to 2 grow well if properly managed. Management practices
percent. should include a water control system to remove excess
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand surface water after heavy rains, regular applications of
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish fertilizers, and controlled grazing.
brown fine sand to a depth of about 17 inches. The The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
subsoil extends to a depth of 65 inches. The upper 6 high. Slash pine is the best adapted specie to plant
inches of the subsoil is grayish brown sandy loam that Water control measures are necessary to remove excess
has yellowish brown mottles and grayish brown loamy surface water. Equipment limitations and seedling
sand intrusions. The next 11 inches is gray sandy loam mortality are additional concerns in management.
that has yellowish brown and yellow mottles, the next 14 This soil is poorly suited to desirable range plant
inches is gray sandy loam that has yellowish brown and production. The vegetative community consists of
light olive brown mottles, and the lower 17 inches is gray cabbage palm, live oak, scattered sawpalmetto,
sandy loam that has light olive brown mottles. The grapevine, and wild coffee. Because of the dense
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is greenish canopy of palm trees, this site is a preferred shading and
gray loamy sand and shell fragments, resting area for cattle. As a result, this range site
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of generally is severely grazed. Management practices
Chobee, Jupiter, Manatee, Pineda, and Riviera soils, should include deferred grazing, brush control, and
Also included are soils that are similar to Winder soil that proper stocking. Winder soil is in the Cabbage Palm
have a dark surface layer more than 7 inches thick and Hammocks range site.
also soils that have accumulations of calcium carbonate This soil has severe limitations for building site
concretions in the subsurface layer and in the upper part development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
of the subsoil. The included soils make up about 15 Water control measures are needed to help overcome
percent of the map unit. excessive wetness.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water This Winder soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
table is within a depth of 0 to 10 inches of the surface
for 2 to 4 months and between a depth of 10 to 40 15-Manatee loamy fine sand. This soil is nearly
inches for about 4 to 6 months or more. Only for short level and very poorly drained. It is in depressions and
periods in dry seasons is the water table below a depth poorly defined drainageways and on broad, low flats.






Indian River County, Florida 33



The mapped areas range from 5 to 10 acres in isolated The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
depressions and from 5 to 100 acres or more in other high, but a water control system is needed to remove
areas. Slopes are smooth to concave. They dominantly excess surface water if the production potential is to be
are less than 1 percent but range from 1 to 2 percent. realized. South Florida slash pine is the preferred tree to
Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand plant. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
about 12 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of the main concerns in management.
about 31 inches. The upper 10 inches of the subsoil is This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
very dark gray fine sandy loam, the next 9 inches is dark production. The dominant forage is maidencane and
gray sandy loam, and the lower 8 inches is dark grayish cutgrass. Because the depth of the water table
brown loamy fine sand. The substratum extends to a fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 12 inches of the grazing occurs. This rest period increases forage
substratum is light brownish gray loamy fine sand. The production, but these periods during high water levels
lower 29 inches or more is light gray loamy fine sand reduce the grazing value of the site. Manatee soil is in
and shell fragments. the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
Chobee, Floridana, and Winder soils. Also included are building site development, and recreational uses. Water
small areas of soils that are similar to Manatee soil but control measures are needed to overcome excessive
have a surface layer that is lighter in color. The included wetness. Adding fill material and mounding of the septic
soils make up less than 20 percent of the map unit. tank absorption field help overcome excessive wetness.
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches of the Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons and trench sanitary
landfills can reduce excessive seepage. Sidewalls of
surface for more than 6 months during most years or shallow excavations should be shored.
above the surface for short periods after heavy rainfall. Itte s in calt subc
is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for short periods during Manatee so is n capability subclass w.
dry seasons. The available water capacity is medium. 16-Pineda fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
Permeability is moderate. Natural fertility is medium. poorly drained. It is on low hammocks and in broad,
A large part of this soil is used for citrus. Some areas poorly defined sloughs. The mapped areas range from
are used for improved pasture. The natural vegetation in 10 to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and
depressional areas consists of red maple, cypress, water range from 0 to 2 percent.
oak, waxmyrtle, scattered cabbage palm, and an Typically, the,surface layer is black fine sand about 4
understory of ferns and water-tolerant grasses. In other inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray
open marsh areas are maidencane, cutgrass, fine sand to a depth of about 9 inches. The subsoil
pickerelweed, smartweed, St.-Johnswort, Carolina willow, extends to a depth of about 40 inches. The upper 14
and patches of sawgrass. inches of the subsoil is yellow fine sand with brownish
Under natural conditions, this Manatee soil is too wet yellow mottles, and the lower 17 inches is gray and
for cultivated crops, citrus, and improved pasture. If greenish gray sandy loam that has yellowish brown, dark
water control is adequate, the suitability is good for brown and light olive brown and olive yellow mottles.
these uses. A properly designed and maintained water The upper 4 inches of the loamy subsoil material has
control system should rapidly remove the excess surface intrusions of yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The
water. Other management practices needed are good substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
seedbed preparation, including bedding of rows, crop The upper 12 inches of the substratum is greenish gray
rotation, and regular applications of fertilizer. Soil loamy sand, and the lower 28 inches is greenish gray
improving crops and crop residue should be used to loamy sand mixed with shell fragments.
protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
matter. EauGallie, Riviera, Wabasso, and Winder soils. Also
This soil is well suited to citrus if a water control included are a few areas of soils that have a thin layer of
system is installed to help maintain good soil aeration to very friable, calcareous material at a depth of 10 to 30
a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees in beds lowers the inches. The included soils make up less than 20 percent
effective depth of the water table. A close-growing cover of the map unit.
crop should be maintained between the rows to control The water table is above the surface for a short period
erosion. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed. after heavy rainfall. It is within a depth of 10 inches of
This soil has good suitability for most improved the surface for 1 to 6 months and at a depth of 10 to 40
pasture grasses. A water control system is needed to inches for more than 6 months. The available water
rapidly remove the excess surface water. High yields of capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover can be and the substratum. It is very low in the upper part of the
obtained if they are adequately fertilized. Grazing should subsoil and moderate in the lower part. Permeability is
be controlled to maintain plant vigor, rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, rapid in the






34 Soil Survey



upper part of the subsoil and slow or very slow in the deposits of sand and of mixed sand and shell fragments.
lower part, and moderately rapid in the substratum. This fill material is the result of earthmoving operations.
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low. The soil in this map unit is used to fill such areas as
A large part of the acreage of this soil has been sloughs, marshes, shallow depressions, swamps, and
cleared and is planted to citrus. Natural vegetation other low-lying areas above their natural ground levels.
consists of scattered slash pine, cabbage palm, The mapped areas range from about 10 to 300 acres.
waxmyrtle, scattered sawpalmetto, blue maidencane, No one pedon represents this map unit, but one of the
pineland threeawn, low panicums, other bluestem most common profiles has a surface layer of light
species, and various weeds and grasses. yellowish brown fine sand that has brownish yellow
This Pineda soil has severe limitations for cultivated mottles about 17 inches thick. The next layer, to a depth
crops. It has fair suitability for vegetable crops if a water of about 30 inches, is brownish yellow fine sand mixed
control system is installed to remove excess water with 5 percent shell fragments. The next layer, to a
rapidly and provide for subsurface irrigation. Soil depth of 35 inches, is yellowish brown fine sand that has
improving crops and crop residue should be used to very dark grayish brown mottles. Below that, to a depth
protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic of about 60 inches, is dark grayish brown fine sand that
matter. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of has very dark gray streaks and yellowish brown
rows. Fertilizer should be applied according to the need splotches and is mixed with 10 percent shell fragments.
of the crop. The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more
Suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a water is gray sand.
control system is installed to maintain the water table at Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds provides soils that have slopes that are more than 5 percent,
good surface drainage. A close-growing cover crop which is the result of stockpiling. Also included are some
should be maintained between tree rows to protect the areas of pits and areas of former St Lucie, Astatula, or
soil from blowing. Regular applications of fertilizers are Paola soils that were excavated to a depth of about 10
needed, to 20 feet and also some areas of soils on Johns Island
This soil has good suitability for pasture and hay that are moderately well drained because of the amount
crops. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and clover of fill material that has been added. The included soils
grow well if properly managed. A water control system is make up about 15 percent of the map unit
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy The water table varies with the amount of fill material
rains. Management practices should include regular and artificial drainage within the map unit In most years,
applications of fertilizers and controlled grazing. it is at a depth of 24 to 36 inches below the surface of
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is the fill for 2 to 4 months. It is below a depth of 40 inches
moderately high. Slash pine is the best adapted specie during extended dry periods. Permeability is very rapid,
to plant. Water control measures are necessary to and the available water capacity is very low. Reaction is
remove excess surface water. Equipment limitations and slightly acid to alkaline. The content of shell fragments
seedling mortality are concerns in management. ranges from about 5 to 50 percent.
This soil is highly suited to desirable range plant Most areas of this soil are used for urban
production. The dominant forage is blue maidencane, development. The existing vegetation consists of south
chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum. Management Florida slash pine, scattered sawpalmetto, and various
practices should include deferred grazing. Pineda soil is weeds.
in the Slough range site. Quartzipsamments have not been assigned to a
This soil has severe limitations for building site capability subclass.
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
Water control measures are needed to overcome 18-Captiva fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons poorly drained. It is in narrow, elongated sloughs that are
with impervious soil material can reduce excessive between low, dunelike ridges and mangrove swamps.
seepage. Mounding may be needed for septic tank The mapped areas range from 10 to 200 acres. Slopes
absorption fields. The sandy surface layer should be are smooth and range from 0 to 1 percent
stabilized for recreational uses. Sealing or lining of Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
trench sanitary landfills with impervious material can mixed with about 2 percent shell fragments. It is about 8
reduce excessive seepage. Sidewalls of shallow inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80
excavations should be shored. inches or more is grayish brown, olive gray, and greenish
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass IIIw. gray fine sand mixed with about 2 to 15 percent shell
fragments.
17-Quartzipsamments, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well Canaveral, Kesson, and Quartzipsamments soils. Also
drained to somewhat poorly drained. It consists of thick included are soils that are similar to Captiva soil but






Indian River County, Florida 35



have a thin light colored surface horizon and have a thin This Captiva soil is in capability subclass IVw.
discontinuous ledge of limestone at various depths. The
included soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit. 20-Beaches. This map unit consists of nearly level to
In most years, under natural conditions, the water sloping, narrow strips of tide and surf washed sands and
table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 to 9 months shell fragments. Beaches are along the Atlantic Ocean
or more and within a depth of 10 inches of the surface shoreline. They commonly are a mixture of moderately
for 1 to 3 months during the wet season. In some years, alkaline sand and fine shell fragments.
the soil is covered by standing water for about 1 month. Beaches range from less than 100 feet to about 300
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and very rapid feet in width. About half of the beach area may be
in the underlying layers. The available water capacity is flooded daily during high tides, and all of the beaches
medium in the surface layer and low to very low in the can be flooded by storm tides. Most beaches have a
subsurface layer. Natural fertility and the organic matter uniform gentle slope to the water's edge, although the
content are low. shape and slope can change with every storm.
A large part of the acreage has been cleared and Beaches are generally devoid of vegetation, although
planted to citrus. If present, natural vegetation consists some sparse growth of sea-oats, or railroad vine, or
of cabbage palm, tamarind, Australian pine, waxmyrtle, other salt-tolerant plants is, near the inland edges.
strangler fig, wild coffee, and leatherleaf fern. Depth to the water table is highly variable depending
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is fair if a on distance from the shore, elevation of the beach, and
water control system is installed to maintain the water the tidal condition. Commonly, the water table ranges
table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds from a depth of 0 to 6 feet.
lowers the effective depth of the water table. Water These areas generally are not used for rangeland or
control measures are needed to remove excess surface woodland. They are included in the South Florida
water after heavy rains and prohibit saltwater intrusion. A Coastal Strand ecological plant community.
suitable cover crop should be maintained between tree Beaches are not suited to any use except for
rows. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are recreation and as habitat for wildlife. Severe erosion is
needed, often a problem during severe storms. Because the
Under natural conditions, this Captiva soil is poorly beaches have great esthetic value, they are an important
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness. However, part of the coastline.
if water control measures are used, this soil has fair Beaches have not been assigned to a capability
suitability for many vegetable crops. A water control subclass.
system is needed to remove excess water in wet
seasons and to provide for subsurface irrigation in dry 21-Pomello sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
seasons. Soil improving crops and crop residue should is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well
be used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain drained. It is on low ridges and knolls on the flatwoods.
organic matter. Seedbed preparation should include The mapped areas range from 20 to 150 acres. Slopes
bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be applied according are smooth to convex.
to the need of the crop. Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 2 inches
This soil has fair suitability for improved pasture. thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of about
Improved bahiagrass grows well if properly managed. 61 inches. The upper 18 inches of the subsurface layer
Water control measures are needed to remove the is white sand, and the lower 41 inches is light gray sand.
excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular The subsoil extends to a depth of about 80 inches or
applications of fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should more. The upper 4 inches of the subsoil is dark reddish
be prevented, brown sand, the next 12 inches is black sand, and the
This soil generally is not used for pine trees. lower 8 inches is very dark gray sand.
This soil generally is not used for rangeland. Captiva Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soil is in the South Florida Coastal Strand ecological Immokalee, Myakka, Satellite, and Archbold soils. Also
plant community, included are areas of soils that are similar to Pomello
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, soil but have a thin brownish yellow layer just below the
building site development, and recreational uses. Water surface layer, also areas of soils that have a subsoil
control measures are needed to overcome excessive below a depth of 50 inches, and areas of soils that have
wetness. Septic tank absorption fields may need to be a weakly cemented subsoil. The included soils make up
enlarged because of wetness. Sealing or lining of less than 15 percent of the map unit.
sewage lagoons can reduce excessive seepage. The In most years, under natural conditions, the water
sandy surface should be stabilized for recreational uses. table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for about 1 to 4
Sealing or lining of trench sanitary landfills with months during the wet season and at a depth of 40 to
impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage. 60 inches during the drier seasons. Permeability is very
Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and






36 Soil Suvey



moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water needed, and sidewalls of shallow excavations should be
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers shored.
and medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the This Pomello soil is in capability subclass Vis.
organic matter content are very low.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The 22-Urban land. More than 70 percent of this
natural vegetation consists of south Florida slash pine, miscellaneous area is covered by urban facilities, such
scrub live oak, sawpalmetto, fetterbush, rusty lyonia, as shopping centers, parking lots, industrial buildings,
running oak, indiangrass, pineland threeawn, grassleaf houses, streets, sidewalks, airports, and related facilities.
goldaster, flag pawpaw, mosses and lichens, panicums, The natural soil cannot be observed. Soils in the
bluestems, and various other grasses. Sand pine is in unoccupied areas in this map unit, such as on lawns,
some areas, vacant lots, playgrounds, and parks, mostly consist of
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. Only fair yields Astatula, Boca, EauGallie, Paola, and St Lucie soils.
can be obtained if the level of management is high. A These soils generally have been altered by grading and
water control system is necessary to maintain the water shaping or have been covered to a depth of about 12
table at a depth of about 4 feet during the wet season inches by fill material. This fill material consists of sandy
and to provide water for irrigation during periods of low and loamy materials that in places contain limestone and
rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are shell fragments. These areas of soils are so small that it
needed for maximum yields. A suitable cover crop was not practical to map them separately.
should be maintained between tree rows to protect the Urban land has not been assigned to a capability
soil from blowing. subclass.
This Pomello soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, 23-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil consists
23-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil consists
but if intensive management practices are used, a few of material dug from several areas that have different
special crops can be grown. The adapted crops are kinds of soil. This fill material is the result of earthmoving
limited unless innsive ma nagement practio ces are operations. This soil is used to fill such areas as sloughs,
followed. For maximum yields, irrigation should be marshes, shallow depressions, swamps, and other low-
provided and fertilizer and lime should be applied lying areas above their natural ground levels.
according to the need of the crop. The surface layer is about 30 to 50 inches thick. It is
The suitability for growing improved pasture grasses is very dark gray, dark gray, dark grayish brown, and
fair. Bahiagrass is better suited to this soil than other yellowish brown fine sand or sand mixed with
grasses. Droughtiness is the major limitation except discontinuous grayish brown and light brownish gray
during the wet season. Regular applications of lime and loamy textured fragments. Fragments and thin
fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented, discontinuous lenses of a dark colored sandy subsoil are
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is also scattered through the matrix. Below that is
moderate. Seedling mortality, plant competition, and undisturbed soil to a depth of 80 inches. The upper 2
equipment mobility are the main concerns in inches of the undisturbed soil is commonly black, the
management. South Florida slash pine and sand pine next 20 inches is light gray or gray, and the lower 8
are the preferred trees to plant. inches is black or very dark brown. The fill material that
This soil is poorly suited to desirable range plant formed this soil was from excavated areas of EauGallie,
production. The vegetative community consists of a Riviera, and Wabasso soils. Texture ranges from fine
dense, woody understory of sawpalmetto, Florida sand to sandy clay loam.
rosemary, and scrub oak. Although this site is seldom Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter protection. soils that are similar to Arents soil but have slopes of
Pomello soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site. more than 5 percent, which is a result of stockpiling.
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, Also included are areas that are used as sanitary
building site development, and recreational uses. It has landfills and contain up to 50 percent or more of solid
moderate limitations for dwellings without basements waste materials. These areas are delineated as
and small commercial buildings. Water control measures "Sanitary landfill" on the soil map. Fragments of shells,
are needed to overcome excessive wetness. Septic tank whole shells, and a few rock fragments are also present
absorption fields may need to be enlarged because of in some areas of fill material. Inclusions make up less
wetness. The very rapid permeability of this soil causes than 10 percent of the map unit.
pollution of ground water in areas of septic tank Most soil properties are variable. However,
absorption fields. Water control measures and sealing or permeability is moderately rapid to rapid. The water table
lining of sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills varies with the amount of fill material and artificial
with impervious soil material can reduce excessive drainage in any mapped area. In most years, the water
seepage. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized table is at a depth of 24 to 36 inches for 2 to 4 months.
for recreational uses. Water control measures are During extended dry periods, no water table is within 5






Indian River County, Florida 37



feet of the surface. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to seedbed preparation, including bedding of rows, and
alkaline. crop rotation. Soil improving crops and crop residue
These soils mainly are used for urban development, should be used to protect the soil from erosion and
The existing vegetation consists of south Florida slash maintain organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should be
pine and various scattered weeds. Some small areas applied according to the need of the crop.
that have natural vegetation of cabbage palm, In the natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus
sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, Brazilian pepper, greenbriar, trees. However, the suitability for citrus trees is fair if
and various weeds and grasses are scattered throughout intensive management practices and soil improving
the map unit. measures are used and a water control system is
Arents have not been assigned to a capability installed to remove excess water rapidly. A water control
subclass. system is needed to maintain good drainage to a depth
of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers the
24-Floridana sand. This soil is nearly level and very effective depth of the water table. A close-growing cover
poorly drained. It is in poorly defined drainageways on crop should be maintained between tree rows to protect
broad, low flats. The mapped areas range from 10 to the soil from blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer
150 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and range are needed.
from 0 to 2 percent. In its natural state, this soil is poorly suited to
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 14 improved pasture. However, if an adequate water control
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray system is installed to remove excess surface water after
sand to a depth of 20 inches. The subsoil extends to a heavy rains, suitability is fair. Pangolagrass and improved
depth of about 37 inches. The upper 14 inches of the bahiagrass grow well if properly managed. Regular
subsoil is gray sandy clay loam. The next 3 inches is applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled
gray sandy clay loam that has pockets of soft calcium apican is ofe eeeeeear
carbonate. The substratum extends to a depth of 80 grazing is necessary.
inches or more. The upper 31 inches of the substratum The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
is gray or dark gray sandy loam that has pockets of soft moderately high. South Florida slash pine is the best
calcium carbonate masses. The lower 12 inches is light adapted specie to plant. Water control measures are
gray sandy clay loam that has yellowish brown and necessary before trees can be planted. Equipment
greenish gray mottles. limitations and seedling mortality are the main concerns
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of in management.
Chobee, Manatee, Riviera, and Winder soils. Also This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
included are small areas of soils that are similar to production. The dominant forage is maidencane and
Floridana soil but have a thin layer of muck on the cutgrass. Because the water table fluctuates throughout
surface. The included soils make up 15 percent of the the year, a natural deferment from grazing occurs. This
map unit. rest period increases forage production, but these
The water table is above the surface for short periods periods during high water levels reduce the grazing value
after heavy rainfall or within a depth of 10 inches of the of the site. This Floridana soil is in the Freshwater
surface for more than 6 months during most years. It is Marshes and Ponds range site.
at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for short periods during dry This soil has severe limitations for building site
seasons. Permeability is rapid in the surface and development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
subsurface layers and slow to very slow in the subsoil Water control measures are needed to overcome
and substratum. The available water capacity is medium excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons
to high in the surface layer and subsoil and low in the and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material
subsurface layer. Natural fertility is medium, and the can reduce excessive seepage. Fill material is needed
organic matter content is high. for septic tank absorption fields, local roads and streets,
Many areas of this soil are drained and used for citrus small commercial buildings, and playgrounds. Sidewalls
or cultivated crops. Natural vegetation consists of sand of shallow excavations should be shored. Mounding may
cordgrass, maidencane, St.-Johnswort, scattered be needed for septic tank absorption fields.
waxmyrtle, Carolina willow, pickerelweed, cutgrass, This Floridana soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
primrose willow, sawgrass, and other water-tolerant
grasses. 25-St. Augustine sand. This soil is nearly level and
Under natural conditions this Floridana soil is not somewhat poorly drained. It formed from dredge and fill
suited to cultivated crops. However, if intensive materials from small manmade harbors that were spread
management practices and soil improving measures are over the surface of former tidal areas. The mineral soils
used and a water control system is installed to remove in these areas are very poorly drained. The fill material
excess water rapidly, this soil has fair suitability for many consists of a mixture of sand, shell fragments, and loamy
vegetable crops. Good management practices are good and silty sediment. The mapped areas are adjacent to






38 Soil Survey



the Indian River and are about 10 to 100 acres. Slopes is dark brown muck. Below that to a depth of 80 inches
are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. or more is gray sand mixed with about 50 percent shell
Typically, the fill material in the surface layer is about fragments.
30 inches thick. It is light brownish gray sand that Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of fill
contains shell fragments and a few medium distinct material that do not have loamy pockets or layers, areas
yellowish brown streaks. Next is a mixture of grayish of fill material that are less than 40 inches thick. Also
brown sand, fragments of dark gray silty clay loam, and included are some areas of soils that have a thin or
olive gray loamy sand to a depth of about 45 inches. weakly pronounced organic layer and some areas of
Below that is a mixture of greenish gray sand and soils that are poorly drained. The included soils make up
fragments of gray loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches or less than 25 percent of the map unit
more. The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of fill to 6 months in most years. It is above a depth of 20
material that do not have loamy pockets or layers. Also inches during periods of high rainfall. In some areas,
included are some areas of soils that have a thin or daily tides influence the water table. These soils are
weakly pronounced organic layer at a depth of more subject to flooding for very brief periods during the
than 60 inches and some areas of soils that are poorly hurricane season. Permeability is very rapid in the sandy
drained. The included soils make up less than 15 fill material and slow to very slow in the loamy and silty
percent of the map unit. clay layers. Permeability is rapid in the underlying organic
The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 and sandy layers. The available water capacity is very
to 6 months in most years. It is above a depth of 20 low in the sandy part of the fill material and underlying
inches during periods of high rainfall. In some areas, natural layers and moderate to high in the loamy, silty
daily tides influence the water table. These soils are clay, and organic layers.
subject to flooding for very brief periods during the Some small areas have been developed for urban use,
hurricane season. Permeability is rapid in the sand and but most of the acreage consists of stands of Australian
muck fill material and slow to very slow in the loamy and pine, Brazilian pepper, and weedy grasses.
silty clay loam. The available water capacity is very low This soil is not used for cropland, improved pasture,
in the sandy part of the fill material and moderate to high citrus, woodland, wildlife, or rangeland. It consists of
in the loam, silty clay loam, and organic layers. mixed soil material that is used to fill low tidal areas. The
Some areas have been developed for urban use, but suitability for urban use is low because of low strength of
most of the acreage consists of stands of Australian the organic layers and subsidence. Onsite investigation
pine, Brazilian pepper, sea daisy, and weedy grasses. is recommended for all uses.
This soil is not used for cropland, improved pasture, This St. Augustine soil is in capability subclass VIs.
citrus, woodland, wildlife, or rangeland. It consists of
mixed soil material used to fill low tidal areas to make 27-Boca-Urban land complex. This complex
them more suitable for building sites or other urban use. consists of Boca fine sand and Urban land. The soils in
The suitability for urban use is fair, but wetness and this map unit are so intermingled that it was not practical
flooding for very brief periods are limiting factors. Onsite to map them separately at the scale used in mapping.
investigation is recommended for all uses. The mapped areas of this complex are rectangular or
This St. Augustine soil is in capability subclass Vlls. short and broad. They range from 25 to 200 acres.
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
26-St. Augustine fine sand, organic substratum. About 50 to 70 percent of the complex consists of
This soil is nearly level and somewhat poorly drained. It nearly level Boca soil or of Boca soil that has been
formed from dredge and fill materials from river channels reworked or reshaped but is still recognizable as Boca
and small manmade harbors that were spread over the soil. The open areas in this complex consist of Boca soil.
surface of former tidal areas. The organic soils in these The areas are mostly lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds
areas are very poorly drained. The overlying fill material (fig. 11). About 20 to 30 percent of the mapped area is
consists of a mixture of sand, shell fragments, and loamy Urban land. This land is used for houses, streets,
and silty sediment. The thickness of this fill material driveways, buildings, parking lots, and other related uses.
ranges from 40 to 60 inches. Slopes are smooth and Typically, the surface layer of Boca soil is 14 inches
range from 0 to 2 percent, thick. It is pale brown and dark grayish brown fine sand
Typically, the fill material in the surface layer is about fill material. The underlying material, to a depth of 30
40 inches thick. This fill material is very dark gray fine inches, is 3 inches of very dark gray fine sand, 7 inches
sand and shell fragments. Below that is 19 inches of of grayish brown fine sand, and 6 inches of light olive
gray sand and shell fragments and pockets of sandy clay gray sandy loam. Below that is a layer of hard limestone
loam. The next 14 inches is greenish gray fine sand. The containing fractures and solution holes.
next 3 inches is grayish green clay loam. Underlying is Included in mapping are some areas of Chobee,
the natural undisturbed soil in which the upper 20 inches EauGallie, Floridana, and Jupiter soils. Also included are






Indian River County, Florida 39






































Figure 11.-The soils in this Boca-Urban land complex have severe limitations for sanitary facilities, building site development, and
recreational uses.



a few areas that are about 80 percent Urban land or a most areas. Depth to the water table is dependent upon
few areas that are only 10 percent Urban land. The the functioning of the drainage system.
included soils make up about 15 percent of this map Present land use precludes the use of this soil for
unit. cultivated crops, citrus, improved pasture, rangeland, or
Areas of the soils that have been modified by grading woodland.
and shaping are not as extensive in the older This complex has severe limitations for sanitary
communities as in the newer ones. Sandy and loamy facilities, building site development, and recreational
materials, fragments of hard limestone and shell material uses. Water control measures are needed to overcome
from drainage ditches, or material that is hauled in are excessive wetness. Mounding may be needed for septic
often used to fill low areas. In undrained areas, the water tank absorption fields because of wetness and the
table is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months shallow depth to bedrock. Sealing or lining of sewage
and within a depth of 10 inches of the surface during the lagoons can reduce excessive seepage. Many of these
wet season. Drainage systems have been established in areas have been previously drained or modified by
grading or shaping. Some water control measures,






40 Soil Survey


including adding of fill material and installing a drainage Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons with impervious soil
system to remove excess surface water after heavy material can reduce excessive seepage. The limitations
rains, may be necessary for building site development, to use for building sites and recreational uses are
Because of the moderate depth to bedrock, excavation moderate. Many of the soils in these areas have been
is difficult. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized previously drained or modified by grading and shaping.
for recreational uses. Some water control measures, including the addition of
This complex has not been assigned to a capability fill material and installing of a drainage system to remove
subclass. excess surface water after a heavy rain, may be
necessary. The sidewalls of shallow excavations should
28-EauGallie-Urban land complex. This complex be shored. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized
consists of EauGallie fine sand and Urban land. The for recreational uses.
soils in this map unit are so intermingled that it was not This complex has not been assigned to a capability
practical to map them separately at the scale used in subclass.
mapping. The mapped areas of this complex are
rectangular or elongated. They range from 25 to 350 29-Immokalee-Urban land complex. This complex
acres. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. consists of Immokalee fine sand and Urban land. The
About 55 to 65 percent of the complex consists of soils in this map unit are so intermingled that it was not
nearly level EauGallie soil or of EauGallie soil that has practical to map them separately at the scale used in
been reworked or reshaped but is still recognizable as mapping. The mapped areas of this complex are
EauGallie soil. The open areas in this complex consist of rectangular or elongated. They range from 20 to 250
EauGallie soil. These areas are mostly lawns, vacant acres. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
lots, or playgrounds. About 25 to 30 percent of the About 60 to 70 percent of the complex consists of
mapped area is Urban land. This land is used for nearly level Immokalee soil or of Immokalee soil that has
houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and been reworked or reshaped but is still recognizable as
other related uses. Immokalee soil. The open areas in this complex consist
Typically, EauGallie soil has a black fine sand surface of Immokalee soil. These areas are mostly lawns, vacant
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light lots, or playgrounds. About 20 to 30 percent of the
gray fine sand to a depth of about 23 inches. The mapped area is Urban land. This land is used for
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and
upper 13 inches of the subsoil is black fine sand. The other related uses.
next 19 inches is dark reddish brown and dark brown Typically, Immokalee soil has a black fine sand
fine sand. The next 13 inches is light brownish gray fine surface layer about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
sand. The lower 12 inches or more is grayish brown is light brownish gray and light gray fine sand to a depth
sandy loam. of about 42 inches. The subsoil is black and very dark
Included in mapping are some areas of Immokalee, gray fine sand to a depth of about 58 inches. The
Myakka, and Oldsmar soils. Also included are a few substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark
areas that are about 80 percent Urban land, or a few brown and dark grayish brown fine sand.
areas that are only 10 percent Urban land. The included Included in mapping are some areas of EauGallie and
soils make up about 15 percent of this map unit. Oldsmar soils. Also included are a few areas that are
Areas of the soils that have been modified by grading about 80 percent Urban land or a few areas that are only
and shaping are not as extensive in the older 10 percent Urban land. The included soils make up
communities as in the newer ones. Sandy and loamy about 15 percent of this map unit.
material from drainage ditches or material that is hauled Areas of the soils that have been modified by grading
in are often used to fill low areas. In undrained areas, and shaping are not as extensive in the older
the water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for communities as in the newer ones. Sandy material from
periods of 2 to 6 months and is within 10 inches of the drainage ditches or material that is hauled in are often
surface during the wet season. Drainage systems have used to fill low areas. In undrained areas, the water table
been established in most areas. The depth to the water is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months and
table is dependent upon the functioning of the drainage within a depth of 10 inches of the surface during the wet
system. season. Drainage systems have been established in
Present land use precludes using this soil for most areas. Depth to the water table is dependent upon
cultivated crops, citrus, improved pasture, rangeland, or the functioning of the drainage system.
woodland. Present land use precludes the use of this soil for
The soils in this complex have severe limitations for cultivated crops, citrus, improved pasture, rangeland, or
sanitary facilities. Water control measures are needed to woodland.
overcome excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption This complex has severe limitations for sanitary
fields may need to be enlarged because of wetness. facilities. Water control measures are needed to






Indian River County, Florida 41



overcome excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption system very difficult. Row crops should be placed on
fields may need to be enlarged because of wetness. beds. Soil improving crops and crop residue should be
Sealing or lining of sewage lagoon areas can reduce used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain
excessive seepage. The limitations for building site organic matter. Fertilizers should be applied according to
development and recreational uses are moderate. Many the need of the crop.
of these areas have been previously drained or modified This soil has fair suitability for citrus only after a
by grading and shaping. Some water control measures, properly designed water control system has been
including adding of fill material and installing a drainage installed and intensive management practices are used.
system to remove excess surface water after heavy A water control system is needed to maintain a good
rains, may be necessary. Sidewalls of shallow drainage system to a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the
excavations should be shored. The sandy surface layer trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water
should be stabilized for recreational uses. table. A close-growing cover crop should be maintained
This complex has not been assigned to a capability between tree rows to protect the soil from blowing.
subclass. Regular applications of fertilizers are needed.
pitr fine d. This soil is sow, n y This soil has fair suitability for improved pasture
31-Jupiter fine sand. This soil is shallow, nearly raises Panolarass improved ahiarasses and
level, and poorly drained. It is on low flats and white clover grow well if properly managed. Water
level, and poorlyraianed.white clover growi well if properlyr managed. Water
hammocks. The mapped areas range from 5 to 50 acres. control measures are needed to remove excess surface
Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. control measures are needed to remove excess surface
Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typical, the surface layer is foine and about 12 water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizers
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 12
inches thick. The upper 5 inches of the surface layer is are needed. Grazing should be controlled to prevent
black, and the lower 7 inches is very dark brown. Below overgrazing and to maintain plant vigor.
that is hard, fractured limestone. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of moderate. South Florida slash pine is the best adapted
Boca, Pineda, Riviera, and Winder soils. Also included specie to plant. Water control measures are necessary
are small areas of soils that are similar to Jupiter soil but to remove excess surface water. Equipment limitations
are small ares of m hsoil that ret similar tomJupitr o s and windthrow hazard are the main concerns in
have a thin layer of loamy material or marl underlain by and windthrow hazard are the main concerns in
limestone, some areas of soils that are similar but have management.
less than 10 inches of sandy material underlain by This soil is poorly suited to desirable range plant
limestone, small areas of soils that are similar but have a production. The vegetative community consists of
lighter colored sandy surface, and some soils in cabbage palm, live oak, scattered sawpalmetto,
scattered spots of exposed limestone. The included soils grapevine, and wild coffee. Because of the dense
make up less than 20 percent of the map unit. canopy of palm trees, this site is a preferred shading and
In most years, under natural conditions, the water resting area for cattle. As a result, this range site
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches of the surface generally is severely grazed. Management practices
for 2 to 4 months in the wet season. Some areas of this should include deferred grazing, brush control, and
soil are covered with shallow water for brief periods. In proper stocking. Jupiter soil is in the Cabbage Palm
drained areas, the water table fluctuates with the water Hammocks range site.
level of the canals and ditches. It recedes to a depth This soil has severe limitations for building site
below the limestone in the dry season. Permeability is development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
rapid in the sandy layer above the bedrock. The hard Water control measures are needed to overcome
limestone is impermeable but has sufficient fractures and excessive wetness. Fill material is needed to overcome
solution holes to permit water movement. The available the shallow depth to bedrock. Sealing or lining of
water capacity is low to medium in the sandy layer. sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills with impervious
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are soil material can reduce excessive seepage. Mounding
medium. may be needed for septic tank absorption fields. The
Many areas of this soil are used for citrus. Natural sandy surface layer should be stabilized for recreational
vegetation consists of water oak, cabbage palm, uses. Because of the shallow depth to bedrock,
strangler fig, Florida holly, scattered slash pine, wild excavation is difficult. The use of special equipment may
coffee, wild grape, greenbriar, ferns, and a few various be required.
weeds and sprigs of grasses. This Jupiter soil is in capability subclass IVw.
Under natural conditions, this Jupiter soil is very poorly
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and 32-Jonathan sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
shallow depth to bedrock. However, if a water control is nearly level to gently sloping and somewhat
system is installed to remove excess water rapidly, this excessively drained. It is on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge
soil is suitable for adapted vegetable crops. The shallow and on slightly elevated knolls on the flatwoods. These
depth to bedrock makes the installation of an adequate soils mainly are in the eastern part of the county. The






42 Soil Suvey



mapped areas range from 30 to 200 acres. Slopes are stabilized for playground use. This soil has severe
smooth to convex, limitations for trench sanitary landfills, sewage lagoons,
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 3 and shallow excavations. Sealing or lining of landfills and
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white sand to a lagoons with impervious soil material can reduce
depth of about 75 inches. The subsoil to a depth of 80 excessive seepage. Water control practices are needed
inches or more is dark reddish brown sand that is 60 to for trench sanitary landfills. Sidewalls should be shored
75 percent strongly cemented. for shallow excavations.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This Jonathan soil is in capability subclass Vis.
Immokalee, Pomello, and St. Lucie soils. Also included
are areas of soils that are similar to Jonathan soil but 33-Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
are better drained. The included soils make up about 15 is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively drained.
percent of the map unit. It is on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The mapped areas
In most years, under natural conditions, the water range from about 20 to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth to
table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 months convex.
during the wet season. It is below 60 inches for the Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
remainder of the year. Permeability is moderately rapid about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown sand
to very rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and about 1 inch thick. The underlying material to a depth of
slow or very slow in the subsoil. The available water 80 inches or more is brownish yellow or strong brown
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers sand.
and medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
organic matter content are very low. Paola, Pomello, and St. Lucie soils. Because of
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The excavation of the Astatula soils for fill material, some
natural vegetation consists of south Florida slash pine, included soils have short, steep slopes that range from 5
sand pine, scattered scrub hickory, scrub live oak, to 40 percent. The included soils make up less than 15
Chapman oak, rosemary, pricklypear cacti, grassleaf percent of the map unit.
goldaster, flag pawpaw, mosses and lichens, pineland This soil has no water table within a depth of 6 feet
threeawn, and various other grasses, throughout the year. Permeability is very rapid, and the
This Jonathan soil is not suited to cultivated crops available water capacity is very low throughout Natural
because of droughtiness and sandy texture. A ground fertility and the organic matter content are very low.
cover of close-growing plants is needed between the Most areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation
tree rows to protect the soil from blowing. A properly consisting of cabbage palm, scrub hickory, longleaf and
designed irrigation system is needed to maintain sand pine, sawpalmetto, sand live oak, and scrub oak.
optimum moisture and obtain high yields. Pineland threeawn and bluestems are the most common
This soil has poor suitability for improved pasture native grasses, but these grasses can be quite sparse in
grasses. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal occurrence because of the drought nature of the soil.
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted species Under natural conditions, this Astatula soil is not suited
to plant, but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. to cultivated crops. It has poor suitability for vegetable
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. crops and citrus. A ground cover of close-growing plants
Controlled grazing is needed to help maintain plant vigor, between the tree rows should be maintained to protect
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is the soil from blowing. A properly designed irrigation
low. South Florida slash pine and sand pine are the system is needed to maintain optimum moisture and
recommended trees to plant. Equipment limitations and obtain high yields. Regular applications of fertilizer and
seedling mortality are the main concerns in lime are also needed.
management. This soil has poor suitability for improved pasture
This soil is poorly suited to desirable range plant grasses. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
production. The vegetative community consists of a bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted to this
dense, woody understory of sawpalmetto, Florida soil, but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
rosemary, and scrub oak. Although this site is seldom applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled
grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter protection, grazing is needed to help maintain plant vigor.
Jonathan soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
This soil has slight limitations for dwellings without low. Slash pine and sand pine are the preferred trees to
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads plant. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. This the main concerns in management
soil is well suited to septic tank absorption fields and This soil is poorly suited to desirable range plant
playgrounds. Some water control measures are needed production. The vegetative community consists of a
for septic tank absorption fields to lower the water table dense, woody understory of sawpalmetto, Florida
during wet seasons. The sandy surface layer should be rosemary, scrub oak, indiangrass, creeping bluestem,






Indian River County, Florida 43



beaked panicums, and perennial legumes. Although this seasons and to provide for subsurface irrigation in dry
site is seldom grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter seasons. Soil improving crops and crop residue should
protection. Astatula soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range be used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain
site. organic matter. Applications of fertilizer and lime should
This soil has slight limitations for septic tank be applied according to the need of the crop.
absorption fields, dwellings without basements, and local The suitability for growing improved pasture grasses is
roads and streets. No corrective measures are needed, fair. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass will grow when
although the proximity to a stream or canal should be properly managed. Regular applications of lime and
considered in the placement of a septic tank absorption fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented.
field to prevent lateral seepage and pollution. This soil is The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
also well suited to small commercial buildings. Land moderate. Seedling mortality is the main concern in
shaping may be needed on the more sloping areas. This management. South Florida slash pine is preferred for
soil has severe limitations for playgrounds, trench planting.
sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations. The sandy This soil is poorly suited to desirable range plant
surface should be stabilized for playground use, and land production. The vegetative community consists of a
shaping may be needed on the more sloping areas. dense, woody understory of sawpalmetto, Florida
Sealing or lining of trench sanitary landfills with rosemary, and scrub oak. Although this site is seldom
impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage. grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter protection.
Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. Satellite soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site.
This Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities
and building site development. It has moderate
34-Satellite fine sand. This soil is nearly level and limitations for local roads and streets and recreation use.
somewhat poorly drained. It is on low knolls and ridges Water control measures are needed to overcome
on the flatwoods. The mapped areas range from 10 to excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption fields may
250 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex and range from need to be enlarged because of wetness. The very rapid
0 to 2 percent, permeability of this soil can cause pollution of ground
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand water in areas of septic tank absorption fields. Water
about 4 inches thick. The underlying material is light control measures and sealing or lining of sewage
brownish gray, grayish brown, and dark grayish brown lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. material can reduce excessive seepage. The sandy
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses.
Archbold, Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello, and Pompano Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
soils. The included soils make up less than 15 percent of Water control measures are needed.
the map unit. This Satellite soil is in capability subclass Vis.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is at a depth of 18 to 24 inches for 2 to 6 months 35-McKee mucky clay loam. This soil is level and
and at a depth of 40 to 72 inches for 6 months or more. very poorly drained. It is in mangrove islands and
Permeability is very rapid, and the available water swamps. This soil formed in unconsolidated loamy or
capacity is very low. Natural fertility and the organic clayey tidal deposits and is inundated by fluctuating tides
matter content are low. twice a day. These areas are at or near sea level and
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The are in and adjacent to the Indian River (fig. 12).
natural vegetation consists of south Florida slash pine, Individual mapped areas range from 10 to 450 acres.
longleaf pine, sand live oak, sawpalmetto, pineland Slopes are less than 1 percent.
threeawn, indiangrass, bluestems, fetterbush, and Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
various other sedges and grasses, mucky clay loam about 1 inch thick. The underlying
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is fair if good material is very dark gray clay loam to a depth of 15
management practices are used. A water control system inches, grayish green to dark greenish gray sandy clay to
is necessary to maintain the water table at a depth of a depth of about 60 inches, and dark gray sandy loam to
about 4 feet during the wet season and to provide for a depth of 80 inches or more. Most layers are very fluid
subsurface irrigation during periods of low rainfall, when squeezed in the hand, and some layers range from
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime help to obtain very fluid to slightly fluid.
good yields. A suitable cover crop should be maintained Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
between tree rows to prevent soil blowing, soils that are similar to McKee soil but have limestone
This Satellite soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, boulders at a depth of more than 40 inches, also some
but if intensive management practices are used, a few small areas of soils that are similar but have limestone
special crops can be grown. A water control system boulders at a depth of less than 40 inches, and some
should be installed to remove excess water in wet areas of soils that are similar but have a thin organic






4 Soil Survey

































Figure 12.-This red and black mangrove is in an area of McKee mucky clay loam.


surface. Also included are soils in areas that have a high where tidal water is deeper. The black and white
content of sand or soil in some areas that have been mangroves, which propagate by sending up
affected by drainage. These soils do not behave as fluid pneumatophores or erect extensions of their root
when subjected to pressure. In addition, included are systems above the soil surface, are mainly on slightly
some small areas of soils that contain a high amount of higher elevations.
sulfites that become extremely acid when drained and Because of tidal flooding and low soil strength, this
exposed to air. The included soils make up less than 20 McKee soil is not suited to cropland, citrus, improved
percent of the map unit. pasture, or woodland. Drainage of these soils would
Under natural conditions, McKee soil remains probably cause them to become so acid that they could
saturated. Soil strength is low. The water content may be not support much plant growth. However, if accessible
as high as 80 percent at field condition. Fluctuating tides by an elevated road or levee, these soils are well suited
overwash the surface layer twice daily. Natural fertility is to beekeeping for mangrove honey production.
high for saltwater-tolerant plants. The organic matter This soil generally is not used for rangeland. McKee
content is very high. soil is in the Mangrove Swamps ecological plant
The native vegetation consists of red, black, and white community.
mangroves, and in some areas it consists of sea rocket, This soil is not suited to urban use because of tidal
saltwort, perennial glasswort, seashore saltgrass, and flooding and low soil strength.
seashore paspalum. The red mangroves, which have an McKee soil is in mangrove swamps, which are unique
extensive prop root system and shed floating seed pods, and biologically productive areas that are very important
are mainly along the river's edge and along ditches to many species of fish and wildlife. Many sport and






Indian River County, Florida 45



commercial finfish, shellfish, and other crustaceans use Boca soil has fair suitability for improved pasture
these areas as spawning grounds. Mangrove swamps grasses. Bahiagrass, pangolagrass, and white clover
also serve as protective barriers in estuaries against grow well if properly managed. Water control measures
excessive wave action during tropical storms. are needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
This McKee soil is in capability subclass VIIIw. rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed. Grazing should be controlled to prevent
36-Boca fine sand. This soil is nearly level and overgrazing and to maintain plant vigor.
poorly drained. It is on the flatwoods, but most of the The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
acreage is in citrus groves. The mapped areas range high. Water control is needed before the potential can
from 10 to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth and range be attained. Seedling mortality, equipment limitations,
from 0 to 2 percent. and plant competition are the main concerns in
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand management. South Florida slash pine is the preferred
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand tree to plant.
to a depth of about 20 inches. The upper 7 inches of the This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
subsurface layer is grayish brown, and the lower 6 production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem,
inches is brown. The subsoil is yellowish brown fine lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, south Florida
sandy loam to a depth of 24 inches. Below that is a layer bluestem, and chalky bluestem. Boca soil is in the South
of fractured limestone. Florida Flatwoods range site.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil has severe limitations for building site
Jupiter, Pineda, and Riviera soils. Also included are soils development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
that are similar to Boca soil but have limestone at a Water control measures are needed to overcome
depth of less than 20 inches. The included soils make up excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons
about 15 percent of the map unit. and trench landfills with impervious soil material can
In most years, under natural conditions, the water reduce excessive seepage. Mounding may be needed
table is within a depth of 10 inches of the surface for 2 for septic tank absorption fields. The sandy surface layer
to 4 months. It recedes to a depth below the limestone should be stabilized for recreational uses. Because of
for about 6 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface the moderate depth to bedrock, excavation is difficult.
and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The The use of special equipment may be required.
available water capacity is low in the surface layer, very This Boca soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
low in the subsurface layer, and medium in the subsoil.
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low. 39-Malabar fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, pineland poorly drained. It is in low, narrow to broad sloughs and
threeawn, indiangrass, bluestems, panicums, south poorly defined drainageways and on flats. The mapped
Florida slash pine, and waxmyrtle. Many areas of this areas range from 20 to 250 acres. Slopes are smooth to
soil are in citrus groves, concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Under natural conditions, this Boca soil is not suitable Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
for cultivated crops because of wetness and shallow fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer
depth to bedrock. However, if intensive management extends to a depth of 17 inches. The upper 7 inches of
practices and soil improving measures are used and a the subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand, and
good water control system is installed to remove excess the lower 7 inches is light yellowish brown fine sand. The
water rapidly, this soil is fairly suited to many vegetable subsoil extends to a depth of 65 inches. The upper 24
crops. A good water control system is needed to remove inches of the subsoil is brownish yellow and reddish
excess water in wet seasons and provide for subsurface yellow fine sand. The next 5 inches is dark grayish
irrigation. Soil improving crops and crop residue should brown sandy clay loam. The lower 19 inches is gray
be used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or
organic matter. Other good management practices are more is gray loamy sand.
seedbed preparation, including bedding of rows, and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
applying fertilizer according to the need of the crop. Holopaw, Lokosee, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Riviera soils.
This soil has fair suitability for citrus only if a properly Also included are soils in small depressional areas that
designed water control system is installed. A water are ponded. The included soils make up less than 15
control system to maintain good drainage to a depth of percent of the map unit.
about 4 feet is needed. Planting the trees on beds The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches of
lowers the effective depth of the water table. A cover the surface for 2 to 6 months and between a depth of 10
crop should be maintained between the tree rows to and 40 inches for most of each year. Permeability is
protect the soil from blowing in dry weather and washing rapid in the surface and subsurface layers. It is rapid in
away during heavy rain. Regular applications of fertilizer the upper part of the subsoil and slow to very slow in the
and lime are needed. lower part and moderately rapid in the substratum. The





46 Soil Survey



available water capacity is low to very low in the surface 40-Gator muck. This soil is nearly level and very
and subsurface layers. It is low to very low in the upper poorly drained. It is in freshwater swamps and marshes.
part of the subsoil and moderate in the lower part and The mapped areas range from 20 to 1,500 acres. Slopes
low in the substratum. Natural fertility and the organic are smooth and are less than 1 percent
matter content are low. Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown muck
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The about 26 inches thick. The underlying material extends
natural vegetation consists of slash pine, cabbage palm, to a depth of about 80 inches. The upper 4 inches of the
scattered sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, maidencane, underlying material is very dark gray sandy clay loam,
creeping bluestem, pineland threeawn, laurel oak, the next 19 inches is dark gray sandy clay loam, and the
bulrush, greenbrier, panicums, and various other sedges next 13 inches is greenish gray sandy clay loam that has
and grasses, few to common light gray calcium carbonate
This Malabar soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, accumulations. Below that is greenish gray sandy clay
However, it is moderately well suited to vegetable crops loam that has yellowish brown sandy loam stains and
if a water control system is installed to remove excess splotches.
surface water rapidly and provide for subsurface Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
irrigation. Soil improving crops and crop residue should Chobee, Floridana, and Terra Ceia soils. Also included
be used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain are small areas of soils that are similar to Gator soil but
organic matter. Seedbed preparation should include have a thin layer of fibers from woody plants in the
bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be applied according organic layer. The included soils make up less than 20
to the need of the crop. percent of the map unit.
The suitability for citrus trees is good if a water control Under natural conditions, the water table is above the
system is installed to maintain the water table at a depth surface for most of the year. In drained areas, the water
of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds provides table is controlled at a depth of 10 to 36 inches or
good surface drainage. A close-growing cover crop according to the need of the crop. The water table is at
should be maintained between tree rows to protect the or above the surface for short periods after heavy rainfall
soil from blowing. Regular applications of fertilizers are and during the normal periods of high seasonal rainfall.
needed. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderately
The suitability of this soil for pasture and hay crops is slow to slow in the underlying material. The available
good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and clover water capacity is very high in the organic surface layer
grow well if properly managed. Management practices and medium in the underlying material. Natural fertility
should include a water control system to remove excess and the organic matter content are high.
surface water after heavy rains, regular applications of Some areas of this soil are drained and used for
fertilizer, and controlled grazing. improved pasture and crops. Natural vegetation consists
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is of a dense swamp growth of red maple, red bay,
moderately high. South Florida slash pine is the best cypress, Carolina willow, primrose willow, waxmyrtle,
adapted specie to plant. Water control measures are pickerelweed, sawgrass, cattail, buttonbush, arrowhead,
necessary to remove excess surface water. Equipment ferns, maidencane, and other water-tolerant grasses.
limitations and seedling mortality are the main concerns Areas of this soil provide cover for deer and are
in management. excellent habitat for wading birds and other wetland
wildlife.
This soil is well suited to desirable range plant wildlife.
This Gator soil is not suitable for cultivated crops
production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem, under natural conditions. However, if intensive
chalky bluestem, and blue maidencane. Management management practices and soil improving measures are
practices should include deferred grazing and brush used and a water control systemoil is mprovinstalled to remove
control. Malabar soil is in the Cabbage Palm Flatwoods used and a water control system is installed to remove
range site. excess surface water rapidly, this soil has good suitability
ran sit. for many vegetable crops. A properly designed water
This soil has severe limitations for building site control system is needed to remove the excess water
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. when crops are on the soil and to maintain the water
Water control measures and fill material are needed to table near the surface to help prevent subsidence of
overcome excessive wetness (fig. 13). Sealing or lining organic material needed for crop and pasture production.
of sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with Good management practices include seedbed
impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage. preparation and crop rotation. Soil improving crops and
Mounding may be needed for septic tank absorption crop residue should be used to protect the soil from
fields. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for erosion and maintain organic matter. Fertilizer and lime
recreational uses. Sidewalls of shallow excavations need should be applied according to the need of the crop.
to be shored. In its natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus trees.
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw. It is poorly suited even if intensive management






Indian River County, Florida 47



































Figure 13.-This area of Malabar fine sand is in sloughs and poorly defined drainageways.


practices, such as bedding of rows, are used and the measures are needed to overcome excessive wetness.
water control system is adequate. Organic materials, which have low soil strength, should
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved be removed and backfilled with a suitable soil material
pasture grasses. However, if an adequate water control for urban use. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons and
system is installed to remove excess surface water after trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material can
heavy rains, suitability is good. Pangolagrass, improved reduce excessive seepage. Sidewalls of shallow
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly excavations should be shored, and water control
managed. The water control system should maintain the measures should be used. Mounding may be needed for
water table near the surface to prevent excess septic tank absorption fields.
subsidence of the organic material. Regular applications This Gator soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
of fertilizer and lime are needed. Overgrazing should be
prevented. 41-Canova muck. This soil is nearly level and very
This soil is not suited to pine trees, poorly drained. It is in freshwater swamps and marshes.
This soil generally is not used for rangeland. Gator soil The mapped areas range from 100 to 1,800 acres.
is in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological plant community. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 1
This soil has severe limitations for building site percent.
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses Typically, the organic surface layer is black and very
because of ponding and excess humus. Water control dark brown muck about 12 inches thick underlain by 1






48 Soil Survey



inch of black sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of crop should be maintained between tree rows to protect
24 inches, is gray to grayish brown sand. The subsoil the soil from blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer
extends to a depth of about 40 inches. The upper 10 are needed.
inches of the subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay loam In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved
that has common coarse tongues of grayish brown sand, pasture. However, if an adequate water control system is
and the lower 6 inches is gray sandy clay loam that has installed to remove excess surface water after heavy
few light gray and yellowish brown calcium carbonate rains, suitability is good. Improved pangolagrass,
concretions. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly
more is greenish gray sandy clay loam and sandy loam managed. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
that have common to many light gray calcium carbonate needed. Overgrazing should be prevented.
concretions and soft calcium carbonate accumulations. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of high. South Florida slash pine is the best adapted specie
Gator, Delray, Floridana, Chobee, Winder, and Riviera to plant. Water control measures are necessary before
soils. Also included are small areas of soils that are trees can be planted. Equipment limitations and seedling
similar to Canova soil but have a subsoil that is at a mortality are the main concerns in management.
depth of more than 30 inches. The included soils make This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
up less than 20 percent of the map unit. production. The dominant forage is maidencane and
Under natural conditions, the water table is above the cutgrass. Because the depth of the water table
surface for most of the year. In drained areas, the water fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
table is controlled at a depth of 10 to 36 inches or grazing occurs. This rest period increases forage
according to the need of the crop. The water table is at production, but these periods during high water levels
or above the surface for short periods after heavy rainfall reduce the grazing value of the site. Canova soil is in the
and during the normal periods of high seasonal rainfall. Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers This soil has severe limitations for building site
and moderately slow to slow in the subsoil and development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses
substratum. The available water capacity is very high in because of ponding and excess humus. Water control
the organic surface layer, low in the mineral subsurface measures are needed to overcome wetness. Organic
layer, and medium to high in the subsoil and underlying materials need to be removed and backfilled with
material. Natural fertility is medium, and the organic suitable soil material for urban use. Sealing or lining of
matter content is high. sewage lagoorls and trench sanitary landfills with
Many areas of this soil are drained and are used for impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
improved pasture. Natural vegetation consists of Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shaped, and
maidencane, cutgrass, Carolina willow, primrose willow, water control measures are needed. Mounding may be
pickerelweed, sawgrass, cattail, buttonbush, arrowhead, needed for septic tank absorption fields.
and other water-tolerant grasses. This Canova soil is in capability subclass llw.
Under natural conditions, this Canova soil is not suited
to cultivated crops. However, if intensive management 42-Terra Ceia muck. This soil is nearly level and
practices and soil improving measures are used and a very poorly drained. It is in freshwater marshes. The
water control system is installed to remove excess mapped areas range from 1,800 to 15,000 acres. Slopes
surface water rapidly, this soil has a fair suitability for are smooth and are less than 1 percent.
many vegetable crops. Good management practices are Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 38
seedbed preparation, including bedding of rows, and inches thick. Below that is very dark grayish brown muck
crop rotation. Soil improving crops and crop residue to a depth of 60 inches or more.
should be used to protect the soil from erosion and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
maintain organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should be Gator soils. Also included are small areas of soils that
applied according to the need of the crop. are similar to the Terra Ceia soil but have thin layers that
In the natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus contain fibers from woody plants at a depth of 30 to 51
trees. However, citrus trees have a fair suitability if inches. The included soils make up less than 20 percent
intensive management practices are used. These of the map unit.
practices and measures include the mixing of the organic Under natural conditions, the water table is above the
material and the sandy mineral material or by removing surface for most of the year. In drained areas, the water
the material and backfilling with a suitable soil material, table is controlled at a depth of 10 to 36 inches or
Also, a water control system should be installed to controlled according to the need of the crop. The water
remove excess surface water rapidly. A water control table is at or above the surface for short periods after
system that maintains good drainage to a depth of about heavy rainfall and during the normal periods of high
4 feet is needed. Planting the trees on beds lowers the seasonal rainfall. Permeability is rapid throughout, but
effective depth of the water table. A close-growing cover internal drainage is impeded by the shallow water table.






Indian River County, Florida 49



The available water capacity is very high throughout. The Mounding may be needed for septic tank absorption
natural fertility is high, and the organic matter content is fields.
very high. This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
In some areas, this soil is drained and used for
improved pasture and crops. Natural vegetation consists 44-Perrine Variant fine sandy loam. This soil is
of a dense swamp growth of red maple, redbay, cypress, nearly level and poorly drained. It is on narrow to broad,
Carolina willow, waterprimrose willow, waxmyrtle, elongated, low flats. This soil is primarily adjacent to tidal
pickerelweed, sawgrass, cattail, buttonbush, arrowhead, areas along the Indian River. The mapped areas range
ferns, maidencane, and other water-tolerant grasses. from 5 to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and
Areas of this soil provide cover for deer and are are dominantly less than 1 percent.
excellent habitat for wading birds and other wetland Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy
wildlife, loam about 6 inches thick. The underlying material is
Under natural conditions, this Terra Ceia soil is not gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 24 inches. The
suited to cultivated crops. However, if intensive lower 4 inches of the underlying material has fragments
management practices and soil improving measures are and small white to light brownish gray carbonate
used and a water control system is installed to remove nodules. Below that to a depth of 36 inches is a ledge of
excess water rapidly, this soil has good suitability for hard, continuous limestone.
many vegetable crops. A properly designed water control Included with this soil in mapping are Chobee and
system should be installed and maintained to remove the Boca soils. The included soils make up about 15 percent
excess water when crops are on the land and to keep of the map unit.
the soil saturated at all other times. Good management For more than 6 months in most years, under natural
practices include seedbed preparation and crop rotation. conditions, the water table is within 10 inches of the
Soil improving crops and crop residue should be used to surface about 30 to 50 percent of the time. Permeability
protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic is moderately slow or moderate. The available water
matter. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to capacity is medium in the surface layer and medium to
the need of the crop. high in the subsurface layer. The natural fertility is high,
In its natural state, this Terra Ceia soil is not suited to and the organic matter content is moderate.
citrus trees. It is poorly suited to this use even if Most areas have been cleared for citrus. If present,
intensive management practices, such as bedding of the natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, water
rows, are used and the water control system is oak, Brazilian pepper, waxmyrtle, sedges, reeds, and
adequate. various grasses. Areas that are nearer to the coast
In its natural condition, this soil is not suited to include American and white mangrove trees, sea rocket,
improved pasture grasses; however, if an adequate saltwort, and perennial glasswort.
water control system is installed to remove excess Under natural conditions, this Perrine Variant soil has
surface water after heavy rains, suitability is good. severe limitations for cultivated crops because of
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover wetness and shallow depth to bedrock. If a water control
grow well if properly managed. The water control system system is installed and maintained, this soil has fair
should maintain the water table near the surface to suitability for fruit and vegetable crops. A water control
prevent excess subsidence of the organic material, system is needed to remove excess water during wet
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. periods, provide for subsurface irrigation, and prohibit
Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor, saltwater intrusion because of the soil's proximity to the
This soil is not suited to pine trees, coast. Soil improving crops and crop residue should be
This soil generally is not used for rangeland. Terra used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain
Ceia soil is in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological plant organic matter. Other good management practices are
community. seedbed preparation, including bedding of rows, and
This soil has severe limitations for building site applying fertilizer according to the need of the crop.
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses This Perrine Variant soil is poorly suited to citrus even
because of ponding and excess humus. Water control if a properly designed water control system is installed. A
measures are needed to overcome excessive wetness. water-control system that maintains good drainage to a
Because of low strength, the organic surface layer must depth of about 4 feet is needed. Planting trees on beds
be removed and backfilled with a soil material that is lowers the effective depth of the water table and depth
suitable for urban use. Sealing or lining of sewage to the shallow limestone. Removal of the limestone
lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil ledges allows for saltwater intrusion. Therefore, it is
material can reduce excessive seepage. Sidewalls of further necessary to plant trees on beds. A cover crop
shallow excavations should be shored, and water control should be maintained between the trees, and regular
measures are needed to overcome excessive wetness. applications of fertilizer are needed.






50 Soil Survey



This soil has fair suitability for improved pasture drainage outlet, which makes an adequate drainage
grasses. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass grow well if system difficult to establish. However, if intensive
properly managed. Water-control measures are needed management practices and soil improving measures are
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains and to used and a water control system is installed to remove
prohibit saltwater intrusion. Regular applications of excess water rapidly, this soil is moderately suited to
fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be controlled to vegetable crops. Good management practices are crop
maintain plant vigor, rotation and seedbed preparation, including bedding of
This soil is not suited to pine trees. The shallow depth rows. Soil improving crops and crop residue should be
to limestone and wetness are the main limitations, used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain
This soil generally is not used for rangeland. In its organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
natural condition, Perrine Variant soil is in the Salt Marsh according to the need of the crop.
ecological plant community. Under natural conditions, this Myakka soil is not suited
This soil has severe limitations for building site to citrus trees. It is poorly suited to this use even if
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. intensive management practices are used and the water
The shallow depth to bedrock and wetness are the main control system is adequate.
limiting factors. Mounding is needed for septic tank This soil has fair suitability for improved pasture if very
absorption fields. Because of the shallow depth to intensive management practices and soil improving
bedrock and hardness of limestone, excavation is measures are used and a water control system is
difficult. The use of special equipment may be required. installed. Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow
This Perrine Variant soil is in capability subclass IIIw. well if properly managed. Water control measures are
needed to remove the excess surface water after heavy
45-Myakka fine sand, depressional. This soil is rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
areas. The mapped areas range from 5 to 100 acres.
Slopes are concave and are less than 1 percent. vigor.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4 The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a moderate. South Florida slash pine is the best adapted
depth of about 17 inches. The subsoil extends to a tree to plant. Water control measures are necessary
depth of about 65 inches. The upper 3 inches of the before trees can be planted. Equipment limitations and
subsoil is weakly cemented black fine sand. The next 18 seedling mortality are the main concerns in
inches is dark brown fine sand. The next 12 inches is management.
black fine sand. The lower 15 inches is dark grayish This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
brown sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or production. The dominant forage is maidencane and
more is light gray sand. cutgrass. Because the depth of the water table
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
Immokalee, Pompano, and Samsula soils. Also included grazing occurs. This rest period increases forage
are soils that are similar to the Myakka soil but have a production, but these periods during high water levels
muck or mucky fine sand surface layer less than 15 reduce the grazing value of the site. This Myakka soil is
inches thick. The included soils make up less than 20 in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
percent of the map unit. This soil has severe limitations for building site
This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more each development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
year. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches of Water control measures are needed to overcome
the surface for 2 to 4 months, and it is at a depth of 10 excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons
to 40 inches for most of the remainder of the year. and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers can reduce excessive seepage. Fill material to raise the
and in the substratum. It is moderate or moderately rapid level of the land surface is needed for septic tank
in the subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the absorption fields, local roads and streets, and small
surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer and commercial buildings and for playground use. Sidewalls
substratum, and moderate in the subsoil. The natural of shallow excavations should be shored. Mounding may
fertility is low, and the organic matter content is low. be needed for septic tank absorption fields.
Natural vegetation consists of blue maidencane, This Myakka soil is in capability subclass VIIw.
broomsedge, St.-Johnswort, waxmyrtle, red maple, sand
cordgrass, milkwort, chalky bluestem, white bracted 46-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
sedge, pipewort, arrowhead, water hyacinth, and various soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well
other water-tolerant weeds and grasses. drained. It is on slightly higher ridges and knolls adjacent
This soil has poor suitability for cultivated crops to Sebastian Creek. The mapped areas range from 40 to
because of ponding. Most areas do not have a suitable 100 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex.






Indian River County, Florida 51



Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 2 rosemary, and scrub oak. Although this site is seldom
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand to a grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter protection.
depth of about 23 inches. The subsoil is dark reddish Orsino soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site.
brown and brown fine sand that has discontinuous This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank
lenses of brown and reddish brown fine sand to a depth absorption fields. Septic tank absorption fields may need
of 43 inches. The next layer is very pale brown fine sand to be enlarged because of wetness. The proximity to a
to a depth of 62 inches. Below that to a depth of 80 stream or canal should be considered in the placement
inches or more is light gray fine sand. of a septic tank absorption field to prevent lateral
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of seepage and pollution. The limitations are slight for
Satellite, St. Lucie, Electra, Oldsmar, Pomello, and dwellings without basements, small commercial
Immokalee soils. The included soils make up less than buildings, and local roads and streets. Land shaping may
15 percent of the map unit. be needed on the more sloping areas. This soil has
In most years, under natural conditions, the water severe limitations for sewage lagoons, trench sanitary
table is between a depth of 40 and 60 inches for 6 landfills, shallow excavations, and recreational uses.
months or more but recedes to a depth of more than 60 Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons and trench sanitary
inches during drought periods. Permeability is very landfills with impervious soil material can reduce
rapid. The available water capacity is very low. Natural excessive seepage. Water control measures are needed
fertility and the organic matter content are very low. to lower the water table. Sidewalls of shallow
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation excavations need to be shored. The sandy surface layer
consisting of slash pine, sand pine, sand live oak, should be stabilized for recreational uses, and land
scattered blackjack oak, turkey oak, and scrub oak. The shaping may be needed on the more sloping areas.
understory consists of pineland threeawn, indiangrass, This Orsino soil is in capability subclass IVs.
bluestems, grassleaf goldaster, and various other
grasses and forbs. 47-Holopaw fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
This soil has fair suitability for citrus trees. A close- poorly drained. It is on broad, low flats and in poorly
growing cover crop should be maintained between the defined drainageways. The mapped areas range from 10
tree rows to protect the soil from blowing and washing to 50 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
away during heavy rains. High yields of fruit can be from 0 to 2 percent.
obtained in some years without irrigation, but a properly
designed irrigation system to maintain optimum moisture Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray and dark
is generally necessary. grayish brown fine sand about 12 inches thick. The
This Orsino soil has poor suitability for cultivated subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 45 inches.
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients The upper 18 inches of the subsurface layer is pale
reduce the variety of adapted crops that can be grown brown fne sand, and thelower15 inches s grayish
and reduce crop yields. Row crops should be planted on brown fine sand. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy
contourlike strips that alternate with strips of close- loam that has pockets of brown fine sand to a depth of
growing crops. Close-growing crops are needed in the about 62 inches. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches
crop rotation at least three-fourths of the time. Soil or more is olive gray loamy fine sand.
improving crops and crop residue should be used to Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic Riviera, EauGallie, Oldsmar, and Malabar soils. Also
matter. An intensively managed irrigation system is included are areas of soils that have a weakly stained
needed, and fertilizer and lime should be applied layer of organic matter above the subsoil and that are in
according to the need of the crop. small depressional areas that are ponded. The included
This soil has fair suitability for pasture and hay crops. soils make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
Deep-rooting plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and The water table is within a depth of 10 inches of the
bahiagrass, are well adapted to this soil, but yields are surface for 2 to 6 months each year. It is above the
reduced by droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer surface for short periods after heavy rainfall. Permeability
and lime should be applied. Overgrazing should be is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and is
prevented, moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is capacity is low to very low in the surface and subsurface
moderate. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and layers, medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum.
plant competition are the main concerns in management. Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low.
South Florida slash pine and sand pine are the preferred Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The
trees to plant. natural vegetation consists of scattered slash pine,
This soil is poorly suited to desirable range plant cabbage palm, scattered sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, blue
production. The vegetative community consists of a maidencane, pineland threeawn, panicums, sedges, and
dense, woody understory of sawpalmetto, Florida other water-tolerant grasses.






52 Soil Survey



Under natural conditions, this Holopaw soil is poorly Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
suited to cultivated crops. However, it has a fair Immokalee and Oldsmar soils. Also included are soils
suitability for vegetable crops if a water control system is that are similar to Electra soil but are moderately well
installed to remove excess water rapidly and provide for drained. The included soils make up about 15 percent of
subsurface irrigation. Soil improving crops and crop the map unit.
residue should be used to protect the soil from erosion In most years, under natural conditions, the water
and maintain organic matter. Seedbed preparation" table is at a depth of 25 to 40 inches for cumulative
should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be periods of 4 months during the drier periods.
applied according to the need of the crop. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
This soil has good suitability for citrus trees if a and moderate to slow in the sandy part of the subsoil
properly designed water control system is installed to and slow in the loamy part. The available water capacity
maintain the water table at a depth of about 4 feet. is low to very low in the surface and subsurface layers
Planting the trees on beds provides good surface and medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the
drainage. A close-growing cover crop should be organic matter content are very low.
maintained between tree rows to protect the soil from Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The
blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed. natural vegetation consists of south Florida slash pine,
The suitability of this soil for pasture and hay crops is scattered long leaf pine, scrub oak, sawpalmetto,
good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover fetterbush, rusty lyonia, running oak, flag pawpaw,
grow well if properly managed. Management practices pineland threeawn, and various other grasses, vines, and
should include a water control system to remove excess forbs.
surface water after heavy rains, regular applications of Under natural conditions this Electra soil is not suited
fertilizer, and controlled grazing, to cultivated crops because of droughtiness and the
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is sandy texture in the root zone. Citrus and vegetable
moderately high. South Florida slash pine is the best crops have fair suitability if good management practices
adapted specie to plant. Water control measures are are used. A properly designed irrigation system is
necessary to remove excess surface water. Equipment necessary to maintain optimum moisture and obtain high
limitations and seedling mortality are the main concerns yields. Soil improving crops and crop residue should be
in management. used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain
This soil is well suited to desirable range plant organic matter. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
production. The dominant forage consists of blue are needed. A ground cover of close-growing plants
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and blue joint panicum. should be maintained between tree rows to protect the
Management practices should include deferred grazing. soil from blowing.
Holopaw soil is in the Slough range site. This soil has fair suitability for improved pasture
This soil has severe limitations for building site grasses. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted to
Water control measures are needed to overcome drought conditions. Regular applications of fertilizer and
excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons lime are needed. Controlled grazing is needed to
and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material maintain plant vigor.
can reduce excessive seepage. Mounding may be The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
needed for septic tank absorption fields. The sandy moderate. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses. are the main concerns in management. South Florida
Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. slash pine and sand pine are the preferred trees to plant
This Holopaw soil is in capability subclass IVw. This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem,
48-Electra sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, south Florida
nearly level to gently sloping and somewhat poorly bluestem, and chalky bluestem. Management practices
drained. It is on knolls on the flatwoods and is adjacent should include deferred grazing and brush control.
to natural drainageways. The mapped areas range from Electra soil is in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
20 to 300 acres. The areas that are along streams are This soil is very well suited to dwellings without
generally elongated. Slopes are smooth to convex, basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5 and streets. No corrective measures are needed. This
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray sand to a soil has severe limitations for septic tank absorption
depth of about 30 inches. The subsoil extends to a fields and recreational uses. Water control measures are
depth of about 80 inches. The upper 17 inches of the needed for septic tank absorption fields, and the
subsoil is dark reddish brown sand and brown loamy proximity to a stream should be considered in its
sand. The lower 33 inches or more is light brownish gray placement to prevent lateral seepage and pollution. The
sandy loam that has strong brown mottles. sandy surface layer should be stabilized for playground





Indian River County, Florida 53



use. This soil has severe limitations for trench sanitary and crop residue should be used to protect the soil from
landfills, shallow excavations, and sewage lagoons, erosion and maintain organic matter. Seedbed
Water control measures are needed. Sealing or lining of preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer
trench sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons with and lime should be applied according to the need of the
impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage. crop.
Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. This soil has good suitability for pasture and hay
This Electra soil is in capability subclass VIs. crops. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
clover grow well if properly managed. Management
49-Pompano fine sand. This soil is nearly level and practices should include a water control system to
poorly drained. It is in sloughs and poorly defined remove excess surface water after heavy rains, regular
drainageways. The mapped areas range from 10 to 100 applications of fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing.
acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
to 2 percent. moderate. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
Typically, the surface layer is 16 inches thick. The are the main concerns in management. Water control
upper 3 inches of the surface layer is very dark gray fine measures are necessary to remove excess surface
sand. The lower 13 inches is dark grayish brown fine water. South Florida slash pine is the best adapted
sand. The underlying material is fine sand to a depth of specie to plant.
80 inches or more. The upper 44 inches of the This soil is well suited to desirable range plant
underlying material is light brownish gray, and the lower production. The dominant forage consists of blue
20 inches or more is grayish brown. maidencane, chalky bluestem, and blue joint panicum.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Management practices should include deferred grazing.
Immokalee, Holopaw, and Myakka soils. Also included Pompano soil is in the Slough range site.
are areas of soils that are similar to Pompano soil but This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
have a weakly stained layer of organic matter at a depth building site development, and recreational uses. Water
of more than 20 inches and also some areas of control measures are needed to overcome excessive
Pompano soils that are occasionally flooded. The wetness. Septic tank absorption fields may need to be
included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map enlarged because of wetness. Sealing or lining of
unit. sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with
In most years, under natural conditions, the water impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
table is within a depth of 10 inches of the surface for 2 The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for
to 6 months. During the drier months, it is within a depth recreational uses. Sidewalls of shallow excavations
of 30 inches for more than 9 months each year. Some should be shored. Water control measures are needed.
areas are subject to sheet flow during periods of high This Pompano soil is in capability subclass IVw.
rainfall. Permeability is rapid, and the available water
capacity is very low. Natural fertility and the organic 50-Pits. This map unit consists of open excavations
matter content are low. from which soil and shell fragments have been removed
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The for use as fill material when constructing roads and
natural vegetation consists of south Florida slash pine, streets and for building site development. Most areas of
laurel oak, sawpalmetto, cabbage palm, blue this map unit include mounds of waste material piled
maidencane, pineland threeawn, sand cordgrass, low between the excavated overburden, unusable material,
panicums, and various weeds and grasses, or fill material. This fill material will be used as needed.
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is fair, if a Some small areas that contain water are included. Pits
properly designed water control system is installed to are locally called borrow pits. They range in size from
maintain the water table at a depth of about 4 feet. small to large.
Planting the trees on beds provides good surface Pits have not been assigned to a capability subclass.
drainage. A close-growing cover crop should be
maintained between tree rows to protect the soil from 51-Riviera fine sand, depressional. This soil is
blowing. Regular applications of lime and fertilizers are nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional
needed, areas. The mapped areas range from 5 to 200 acres.
Under natural conditions, this Pompano soil is poorly Slopes are mostly concave, but a few slopes along slight
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and sandy ridges are smooth to convex. They range from 0 to 2
texture. The number of adapted crops that can be grown percent.
is limited if very intensive management practices are not Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
followed. If good management practices are used, this about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
soil has fair suitability for cropland. A water control depth of about 28 inches. The upper 23 inches of the
system to remove excess water rapidly and provide for subsurface layer is light gray fine sand, and the lower 3
subsurface irrigation is necessary. Soil improving crops inches is gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth






54 Soil Survey



of about 45 inches. The upper 3 inches of the subsoil is seedling mortality are the main concerns in
dark gray sandy clay loam that has intrusions and management.
pockets of gray and dark gray fine sand. The lower 14 This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
inches is olive gray sandy clay loam. The substratum to production. The dominant forage is maidencane and
a depth of 80 inches or more is light olive gray sandy cutgrass. Because the depth of the water table
loam and loamy sand mixed with shell fragments. fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of grazing occurs. This rest period increases forage
Wabasso, Chobee, Floridana, Holopaw, Manatee, production, but these periods during high water levels
Oldsmar, Pineda, and Winder soils. Also included are reduce the grazing value of the site. Riviera soil is in the
areas of soils that have a thin organic surface layer and Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
also some Riviera soils that are flooded for about 1 to 3 This soil has severe limitations for building site
months. These soils are in the south prong of Sebastian development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
Creek. The included soils make up less than 15 percent Water control measures are needed to overcome
of the map unit. excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons
This Riviera soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material
each year. The water table is within 10 inches of the can reduce seepage. Fill material is needed for septic
surface for 2 to 4 months and between a depth of 10 tank absorption fields, local roads and streets, and small
and 40 inches for most of the remainder of the year. The commercial buildings and for playground use. Sidewalls
available water capacity is very low in the surface and of shallow excavations should be shored. Mounding may
subsurface layers, moderate in the subsoil, and low to be needed for septic tank absorption fields.
moderate in the substratum. Permeability is rapid in the This Riviera soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
surface and subsurface layers, slow to very slow in the
subsoil, and slow to moderately rapid in the substratum. nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low. ma d re range fores
Natural vegetation consists of blue maidencane, St.- areas. The mapped aas rae f rom 4 to 30 acres.
Slopes are concave and are less than 1 percent.
Johnswort, scattered cypress trees, red maple, Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass, milkwort, white bracted inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and light gray
sedge, pipewort, arrowhead, water hyacinth, and various fine sand to a depth of 35 inches. The subsoil extends to
other water-tolerant weeds and grasses. a depth of 65 inches or more. The upper 17 inches of
This Riviera soil has poor suitability for cultivated the subsoil is black, dark reddish brown, and dark brown
crops. However, it has fair suitability for vegetable crops fine sand. The lower 13 inches is grayish brown sandy
if a good water system is installed to protect the soil loam. Below that is light brownish gray loamy fine sand
from ponding and to remove excess surface water to a depth of 80 inches or more.
rapidly. Good management practices include crop Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
rotation. Soil improving crops and crop residue should be EauGallie, Malabar, Pineda, Riviera, and Floridana soils.
used to protect the soil from erosion and maintain Also included are soils that are similar to Oldsmar soil
organic matter. Seedbed preparation should include but have a muck or mucky fine sand surface layer less
bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be applied according than 15 inches thick and also a few small areas of soils
to the need of the crops. that have a sandy subsoil that is not as well developed
This soil has poor suitability for citrus trees. A water as that in Oldsmar soil. These soils also are lighter
control system that maintains good drainage to a depth colored rather than the typical black color. The included
of about 4 feet is needed. Planting the trees on beds soils make up less than 20 percent of the map unit
lowers the effective depth of the water table. A close- This Oldsmar soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more
growing cover crop should be maintained between tree each year. The water table is within 10 inches of the
rows to protect the soil from blowing. Regular surface for 2 to 4 months and between a depth of 10
applications of fertilizers are needed, and 40 inches for most of the remainder of the year.
This soil has fair suitability for pasture and hay crops. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow well if layers. It is moderate to moderately rapid in the sandy
proper water control measures are provided to remove upper part of the subsoil and slow in the loamy lower
excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular part. The available water capacity is very low in the
applications of fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
be prevented, subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter content
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is are low.
moderate. South Florida slash pine is the best adapted Natural vegetation consists of blue maidencane,
specie to plant. Water control measures are necessary broomsedge, St.-Johnswort, bulrush, pipewort, ferns,
before trees can be planted. Equipment limitations and pickerelweed, white bracted sedge, and various other






Indian River County, Florida 55



water-tolerant weeds and grasses. Areas of this soil 50 acres. Slopes are concave and are less than 1
provide excellent habitat for wading birds and other percent.
wetland wildlife. Typically, the surface layer is black mucky loamy fine
This Oldsmar soil is not suited to cultivated crops sand about 8 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a
because of ponding. However, if intensive management depth of about 42 inches. The upper 16 inches of the
practices and soil improving measures are used and a subsoil is black sandy loam that has few dark grayish
water control system is installed to remove excess water brown fine sand splotches. The lower 18 inches is very
rapidly, this soil has fair suitability for vegetable crops. dark gray sandy loam. Below that is dark grayish brown
Good management practices include crop rotation. Soil loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
improving crops and crop residue should be used to Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic Chobee, Floridana, Holopaw, Malabar, Pineda, Riviera,
matter. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of Samsula, and Winder soils. Also included are soils that
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to are similar to this Manatee soil but have a muck surface
the need of the crop. layer more than 15 inches thick. The included soils make
In the natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus up less than 20 percent of the map unit.
trees. It has poor suitability even if intensive practices This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more during
are used and the water control system is adequate. most years. The water table is within 10 inches of the
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to surface for most of the remainder of the year.
pasture. However, this soil has fair suitability for Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and
improved pasture if very intensive management practices moderate in the subsoil and underlying material. The
and soil improving measures are used and a water available water capacity is low to medium throughout.
control system is installed. Pangolagrass and improved Natural fertility is medium, and the organic matter
bahiagrass grow well if properly managed. Water control content is high.
measures are needed to remove the excess surface Natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, blue
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer a ide ncane, pickerelweed, red aple, cypress,
and lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to maidencane, pickerelweed, red maple, cypress,
maintain plant vior scattered waxmyrtle, sedges, ferns, and other water-
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is tolerant grasses. Areas of this soil provide excellent
moderate. South Florida slash pine is the best adapted habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
specie to plant. Water control measures are necessary This Manatee soil is not suited to cultivated crops
before trees can be planted. Equipment limitations, because of ponding. Most areas do not have a suitable
seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main drainage outlet, which makes an adequate drainage
concerns in management, system difficult to establish. However, if intensive
This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant management practices and soil improving measures are
production. The dominant forage is maidencane and used and a water control system is installed to remove
cutgrass. Because the depth of the water table excess water rapidly, this soil has fair suitability for many
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from vegetable crops. Important management practices are
grazing occurs. This rest period increases forage seedbed preparation, including bedding of rows, and
production, but these periods during high water levels crop rotation. Soil improving crops and crop residue
reduce the grazing value of the site. This soil is in the should be used to protect the soil from erosion and
Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. maintain organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should be
This soil has severe limitations for building site applied according to the need of the crop.
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. In the natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus
Water control measures are needed to overcome trees. It has poor suitability even if intensive
excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons management practices, such as bedding of rows, are
and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material used and the water control system is adequate.
can reduce excessive seepage. Fill material is needed This soil has poor suitability for improved pasture.
for septic tank absorption fields, local roads and streets, Intensive management practices and soil improving
and small commercial buildings and for playground use. measures should be used and a water control system
Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. should be installed to remove excess surface water
Mounding may be needed for septic tank absorption rapidly. Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow well
fields. if properly managed. Water control measures are needed
This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass Vllw. to remove the excess surface water after heavy rains.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
53-Manatee mucky loamy fine sand, depressional. Overgrazing should be prevented.
This soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in This soil generally is not used for woodland because
depressional areas. The mapped areas range from 5 to of wetness.






56 Soil Survey



This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant inches. Natural fertility is high for saltwater-tolerant
production. The dominant forage is maidencane and plants. The organic matter content is very high.
cutgrass. Because the depth of the water table The native vegetation consists of red, black, and white
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from mangrove trees, and in some areas, it consists of sea
grazing occurs. This rest period increases forage rocket, saltwort, perennial glasswort, seashore saltgrass,
production, but these periods during high water levels and seashore paspalum. The red mangroves, which
reduce the grazing value of the site. Manatee soil is in have an extensive prop root system and shed floating
the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. seed pods, are mainly along the river's edge and along
Ponding is a severe limitation for building site ditches where tidal water is deeper. The black and white
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. mangroves, which propagate by sending up
Water control measures are needed to overcome pneumatophores or erect extensions of their root
excessive wetness. Fill material is needed for urban use. systems above the soil surface, are mainly on slightly
Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons and trench sanitary higher elevations.
landfills with impervious soil material can reduce Because of tidal flooding and low soil strength, this
excessive seepage. Sidewalls of shallow excavations Riomar soil is not suited to cropland, citrus, improved
should be shored, and water control measures are pasture, or woodland. Drainage of these soils would
needed. Mounding may be needed for septic tank probably cause them to become so acid that they could
absorption fields. not support much plant growth. However, if accessible
This Manateee soil is in capability subclass VIIw. by an elevated road or levee, this soil is well suited to
beekeeping for mangrove honey production.
54-Riomar clay loam. This soil is nearly level and This soil generally is not used for rangeland. Riomar
very poorly drained and is frequently flooded. It is in soil is in the Mangrove Swamps ecological plant
mangrove swamps adjacent to the Indian River. This soil community.
formed in loamy or clayey tidal deposits that are This soil is not suited to urban use because of tidal
underlain by limestone. Tidal water inundates most of flooding and low soil strength.
these areas at high tide. Some areas in the counties This soil is in mangrove swamps, which are unique
have been leveled off and are used as mosquito control and biologically productive areas that are very important
structures. Individual mapped areas range from 10 to to many species of fish and wildlife. Many sport and
260 acres. Slopes are less than 1 percent. commercial finfish, shellfish, and other crustaceans use
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray clay loam these areas as spawning grounds and nurseries.
that has few to common pockets of very dark grayish Offshore birds use these areas as rookeries and feeding
brown muck about 8 inches thick. The substratum grounds. Mangrove swamps also serve as protective
extends to a depth of about 25 inches but can range barriers in estuaries against excessve wave acton
from 20 to 40 inches. The upper 7 inches of the during tropical storms.
substratum is very dark gray clay loam. The lower 10 Ths Romar sos n capaty subclass
inches is dark greenish gray sandy clay. Below that is 55-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional. This
hard limestone bedrock that has few to common solution soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in
holes. The upper 15 inches of the soil in the bedrock is depressional areas. The mapped areas range from 5 to
very fluid when squeezed in the hand, and the lower 10 100 acres. Slopes are concave and are less than 1
inches is slightly fluid. percent.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Typically, the surface layer is about 19 inches thick.
McKee soils. Also included are a few areas of soils that The upper 14 inches of the surface layer is black mucky
have limestone bedrock between a depth of 40 and 80 fine sand, and the lower 5 inches is very dark gray fine
inches and a few areas of soils that have limestone at a sand. The subsurface layer is grayish brown sand to a
depth of less than 20 inches. Also included are soils that depth of 35 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of
have a high content of sand and some small areas of about 50 inches. The upper 9 inches of the subsoil is
soils that have been affected by drainage. These soils dark grayish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower 6
do not behave as fluid when subjected to pressure. The inches is dark grayish brown sandy loam. The
included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish
unit. brown loamy fine sand.
Riomar soil remains saturated. Soil strength is low. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The water content can be as high as 80 percent at field Chobee, Manatee, Riviera, Holopaw, Winder, and
condition. Fluctuating tides overwash the surface layer Samsula soils. Also included are soils that are similar to
twice daily. Permeability is very slow to slow, and the Floridana soil but have a muck surface layer that is more
available water capacity is very high in the upper 15 than 15 inches thick. The included soils make up less
inches of the substratum and high in the lower 10 than 20 percent of the map unit.






Indian River County, Florida 57



This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months during most Water control measures are needed to overcome
years. The water table is within 10 inches of the surface excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons
for most of the remainder of the year. Permeability is and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and slow to can reduce excessive seepage. Fill material to raise the
very slow in the subsoil. The available water capacity is level of the land surface is needed for septic tank
medium in the surface layer, subsoil, and substratum and absorption fields, local roads and streets, and small
low in the subsurface layer. Natural fertility is medium, commercial buildings and for playground use. Sidewalls
and the organic matter content is high. of shallow excavations should be shored. Mounding may
Natural vegetation consists of sand cordgrass, be needed for septic tank absorption fields.
maidencane, St.-Johnswort, scattered waxmyrtle, and This Floridana soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
other water-tolerant weeds and grasses. Areas of this
soil provide excellent habitat for wading birds and other 56-Pineda fine sand, depressional. This soil is
wetland wildlife. nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional
This Floridana soil is not suited to cultivated crops areas. The mapped areas range from 4 to 50 acres.
because of ponding. Most areas do not have a suitable Slopes are concave and are less than 1 percent.
drainage outlet, which makes an adequate drainage Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
system difficult to establish. However, even if intensive about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
management practices and soil improving measures are 11 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil
used and a water control system is installed to remove extends to a depth of about 52 inches. The upper part of
excess water rapidly, this soil still has poor suitability for the subsoil, to a depth of 32 inches, is brownish yellow
many vegetable crops. Important management practices and light yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part is
are good seedbed preparation, including bedding of gray and greenish gray sandy loam that has light olive
rows, and crop rotation. Soil improving crops and crop brown and olive brown mottles. Intrusions of light
residue should be used to protect the soil from erosion yellowish brown fine sand extend from the upper part of
and maintain organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should the subsoil into the sandy loam lower part. The
be applied according to the need of the crop. substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is greenish
In the natural state, this soil is not suitable for citrus gray loamy fine sand.
trees. However, citrus trees grow fairly well if intensive Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
management practices and soil improving measures are Floridana, Riviera, Malabar, Holopaw, Oldsmar,
used and a water control system is installed to remove Wabasso, and Winder soils. The included soils make up
excess water rapidly. A water control system that less than 15 percent of the map unit.
maintains good drainage to a depth of about 4 feet is This Pineda soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more
needed. Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective each year. The water table is within 10 inches of the
depth of the water table. A close-growing cover crop surface for 2 to 4 months and at a depth of 10 to 40
should be maintained between tree rows to protect the inches for most of the remainder of the year.
soil from blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer are Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
needed, layers. It is rapid in the upper part of the subsoil and
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved slow or very slow in the lower part and moderately rapid
pasture grasses. However, if an adequate water control in the substratum. The available water capacity is very
systemjisjnstalled to remove excess surface water after low in the surface and subsurface layers. It is very low in
heavy rains, suitability is fair. Pangolagrass and improved the upper part of the subsoil and moderate in the lower
bahiagrass grow well if properly managed. Regular part and very low in the substratum. Natural fertility and
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. the organic matter content are low.
Overgrazing should be prevented. Natural vegetation consists of blue maidencane,
This Floridana soil generally is not used for woodland broomsedge, St.-Johnswort, pipewort, white bracted
because of ponding and because a suitable drainage sedge, milkwort, scattered waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass,
outlet is not available, cabbage palm, bluestems, and various other water-
This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant tolerant weeds and grasses. Areas of this soil provide
production. The dominant forage is maidencane and excellent habitat for wading birds and other wetland
cutgrass. Because the depth of the water table wildlife.
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from This Pineda soil is very poorly suited to cultivated
grazing occurs. This rest period increases forage crops. However, it is moderately well suited to vegetable
production, but these periods during high water levels crops if a water control system is installed to protect the
reduce the grazing value of the site. Floridana soil is in soil from ponding and to remove excess surface water
the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. rapidly. Good management includes bedding of rows and
This soil has severe limitations for building site crop rotation. Soil improving crops and crop residue
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. should be used to protect the soil from erosion and






58 Soi Survey



maintain organic matter. Fertilizer should be applied but have a muck or mucky fine sand surface layer less
according to the need of the crop. than 15 inches thick. The included soils make up less
Under natural conditions, citrus trees are poorly suited than 20 percent of the map unit.
to this soil. A water control system that maintains good This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more each
drainage to a depth of about 4 feet is needed. Planting year. The water table is within 10 inches of the surface
trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water for 2 to 4 months and between a depth of 10 and 40
table. A close-growing cover crop should be maintained inches for most of the remainder of the year.
between tree rows to protect the soil from blowing. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed. and is moderately slow to moderate in the subsoil. The
This soil has fair suitability to pasture and hay crops, available water capacity is low to very low in the surface
Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow well if and subsurface layers, medium in the subsoil, and low in
properly managed. A water control system should be the substratum. Natural fertility and the organic matter
installed to remove excess surface water after heavy content are low.
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed. Natural vegetation consists of blue maidencane,
Overgrazing should be prevented, broomsedge, St.-Johnswort, waxmyrtle, panicums, sand
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is cordgrass, white bracted sedge, pipewort, stiff paspalum,
moderate. South Florida slash pine is the best adapted and various other water-tolerant weeds and grasses.
specie to plant. Water control measures are necessary Areas of this soil provide excellent habitat for wading
before trees can be planted. Equipment limitations and birds and other wetland wildlife.
seedling mortality are the main concerns in Under natural conditions, this Holopaw soil is not
management. suited to cultivated crops. However, even if a complete
This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant water control system is installed to protect the soil from
production. The dominant forage is maidencane and ponding and to remove excess water rapidly, this soil still
cutgrass. Because the depth to the water table has poor suitability for vegetable crops. Good
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from management practices include crop rotation and use of
management practices include crop rotation and use of
grazing occurs. This rest period increases forage soil improving crops and crop residue to protect the soil
production, but these periods of high water levels reduce from erosion and maintain organic matter. Seedbed
the grazing value of the site. Pineda soil is in the preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer
Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. should be applied according to the need of the crop.
This soil has severe limitations for building site
This soil has severe limitations for building site This soil has poor suitability for citrus trees. A water
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. control system that maintains good drainage to a depth
Water control measures are needed to overcome control sstem that maintain s good drainage to depth
excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons of about 4 feet is needed. Planting the trees on beds
and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material lowers the effective depth of the water table. A close-
can reduce excessive seepage. Fill material to raise the growing cover crop should be planted between tree rows
level of the land surface is needed for septic tank to protect the soil from blowing. Regular applications of
absorption fields, local roads and streets, and small fertilizer are needed.
commercial buildings and for playground use. Sidewalls This soil has fair suitability for pasture and hay crops.
of shallow excavations should be shored. Mounding may Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow well if
be needed for septic tank absorption fields. properly managed. A water control system should be
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass VIIw. installed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
57-Holopaw fine sand, depressional. This soil is Overgrazing should be prevented.
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
areas. The mapped areas range from 4 to 50 acres. moderately high. South Florida slash pine is the best
Slopes are concave and are less than 1 percent, adapted specie to plant. Water control measures are
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand necessary before trees can be planted. Seedling
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish mortality, plant competition, and equipment limitations
brown fine sand to a depth of about 47 inches. The are concerns in management.
subsoil, to a depth of 65 inches, is dark gray and grayish This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
brown sandy loam that has pockets of grayish brown fine production. The dominant forage is maidencane and
sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is cutgrass. Because the depth of the water table
olive gray loamy fine sand that has pockets of grayish fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
brown fine sand. grazing occurs. This rest period increases forage
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of production, but these periods during high water levels
Floridana, Manatee, Malabar, Pineda, and Riviera soils. reduce the grazing value of the site. Holopaw soil is in
Also included are soils that are similar to Holopaw soil the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.






Indian River County, Florida 59



This soil has severe limitations for building site preparation and crop rotation. Soil improving crops and
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. crop residue should be used to protect the soil from
Water control measures are needed to overcome erosion and maintain organic matter. Fertilizer and lime
excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons should be applied according to the need of the crop.
and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material In the natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus
can reduce excessive seepage. Fill material to raise the trees. It has poor suitability even if intensive
level of the land surface is needed for septic tank management practices, such as bedding of rows, are
absorption fields, local roads and streets, and small used and the water control system is adequate.
commercial buildings and for playground use. Sidewalls In its natural state, this soil has poor suitability for
of shallow excavations should be shored. Mounding may improved pasture grasses. However, if a water control
be needed for septic tank absorption fields. system is installed to remove excess surface water after
This Holopaw soil is in capability subclass Vllw. heavy rains, suitability is fair. Pangolagrass, improved
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly
58-Samsula muck. This soil is nearly level and very managed. The water control system should maintain the
poorly drained. It is in depressions, poorly defined water table near the surface to prevent excess
drainageways, and freshwater marshes and swamps. subsidence of the organic material. Regular applications
The mapped areas range from 3 to 150 acres. Slopes of fertilizer and lime are needed. Overgrazing should be
are concave and are less than 2 percent. prevented.
Typically, the surface layer is about 38 inches thick. This soil is not suited to pine trees.
The upper 20 inches of the surface layer is black, well This soil generally is not used for rangeland. Samsula
decomposed muck, the next 6 inches is very dark gray soil is in the Cypress Swamp ecological plant community.
muck, and the lower 12 inches is very dark gray sand. This soil has severe limitations for building site
The underlying material is gray sand to a depth of 80 development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses
inches or more. because of ponding and excess humus. Water control
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of measures are needed to overcome excessive wetness.
Delray, Floridana, Myakka, and Pompano depressional Organic materials need to be removed and backfilled
soils. Also included are soils that are similar to Samsula with suitable soil material for urban use. Sealing or lining
soil but have a muck surface layer that is less than 15 of sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with
inches thick or have pockets of muck in the upper part impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
of the mineral layer. The included soils make up less Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
than 20 percent of the map unit. Water control measures are needed. Mounding may be
This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months during most needed for septic tank absorption fields.
years. The water table is within 10 inches of the surface This Samsula soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
for most of the remainder of the year. Permeability is
rapid throughout. Internal drainage is slow and is 59-Lokosee fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
inhibited by the water table. The available water capacity poorly drained. It is in poorly defined drainageways and
is very high in the organic material and very low in the on low hammocks and low, broad flats adjacent to the
underlying sand. Natural fertility is medium, and the flatwoods. The mapped areas range from 20 to 300
organic matter content is very high. acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation to 2 percent.
consisting of cypress, red maple, St.-Johnswort, Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3
sawgrass, pickerelweed, sedges, maidencane, ferns, and inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine
other water-tolerant grasses. Areas of this soil provide sand to a depth of about 10 inches. The subsoil extends
cover for deer and excellent habitat for wading birds and to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 19 inches of
other wetland wildlife. the subsoil is mottled very pale brown and brownish
Under natural conditions, this Samsula soil is not yellow sand, the next 16 inches is strong brown and very
suited to cultivated crops because of ponding. Most pale brown sand. The next 10 inches is dark brown
areas do not have a suitable drainage outlet, which sand, and the next 25 inches is light brownish gray and
makes an adequate drainage system difficult to pale brown sand. Below that is greenish gray sandy clay
establish. However, if intensive management practices loam.
and soil improving measures are used and a water Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
control system is installed to remove excess water Malabar, Holopaw, Pineda, Riviera, Oldsmar, and
rapidly, this soil has fair suitability to some vegetable EauGallie soils. Also included are areas of soils that do
crops. A properly designed and maintained water control not have a light colored subsurface layer or a light
system removes the excess water when crops are on colored subsoil between the weakly stained layer and
the soil and keeps the soil saturated at all other times, the argillic horizon, areas of soils that have pockets or
Good management practices include seedbed intrusions of overlying sandy material that extend into the






60 Soil Survey



argillic horizon, and some areas of soils that have a This soil has severe limitations for building site
calcareous layer below the subsurface layer. The development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
included soils make up less than 15 percent of the map Water control measures and fill material are needed to
unit. overcome excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches of the sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with
surface for 2 to 4 months and between a depth of 10 to impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
40 inches for more than 6 months. During extended dry Mounding may be needed for septic tank absorption
seasons, it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches. fields. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for
The available water capacity is low in the surface and recreational uses. Sidewalls of shallow excavations
subsurface layers. It is low in the upper part of the should be shored.
subsoil and moderate in the lower part. Permeability is This Lokosee soil is in capability subclass IVw.
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers. It is rapid in
the upper part of the subsoil and slow or very slow in the 60-Pompano fine sand, depressional. This soil is
lower part. Natural fertility and the organic matter nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional
content are low. areas. The mapped areas range from 5 to 100 acres.
A large part of the acreage has been cleared and is in Slopes are concave and range from 0 to 1 percent
improved pasture or citrus. Natural vegetation consists of Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
scattered slash pine, cabbage palm, inkberry, waxmyrtle, inches thick. The underlying material extends to a depth
scattered sawpalmetto, blue maidencane, pineland of 80 inches or more. The upper 4 inches of the
threeawn, sand cordgrass, chalky bluestem, creeping underlying material is gray fine sand that has few to
bluestem, low panicums, and various weeds and common dark gray splotches and streaks, and the lower
grasses. 70 inches or more is gray fine sand.
This Lokosee soil has poor suitability for cultivated Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
crops. However, it has fair suitability for vegetable crops Myakka and Manatee soils. Also included are small
if a water control system is installed to remove excess areas of soils that are similar to Pompano soil but have
water rapidly and to provide for subsurface irrigation. Soil an organic surface layer up to 10 inches thick and also
improving crops and crop residue should be used to small areas of soils that have a weakly stained layer of
protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic organic material at a depth of more than 20 inches. The
matter. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
rows. Fertilizer should be applied according to the need unit.
of the crop. This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months during most
This soil has fair suitability for citrus trees if a properly years. The water table is within 10 inches of the surface
designed water control system is installed to maintain for most of the remainder of the year. Permeability is
the water table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the rapid throughout. The available water capacity is very
trees on beds provides good surface drainage. A close- low. Natural fertility and the organic matter content are
growing cover crop should be maintained between tree low.
rows to protect the soil from blowing. Regular Natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, scattered
applications of fertilizer are needed. cabbage palm, red maple, waxmyrtle, Carolina willow,
This soil has good suitability for pasture and hay St.-Johnswort, maidencane, stiff paspalum, sedges, and
crops. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and clover other water-tolerant weeds and grasses. Areas of this
grow well if properly managed. Management practices soil provide excellent habitat for wading birds and other
should include a water control system to remove excess wetland wildlife.
surface water after heavy rains, regular applications of Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
fertilizer, and controlled grazing. cultivated crops because of ponding. Most areas do not
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is have a suitable drainage outlet, which makes an
moderately high. South Florida slash pine is the best adequate drainage system difficult to establish. Even if
adapted specie to plant. Water control measures are intensive management practices and soil improving
needed to remove excess surface water. Equipment measures are used and a water control system is
limitations and seedling mortality are the main concerns installed to remove excess water rapidly, this soil still
in management. has poor suitability for vegetable crops. Good
This soil is well suited to desirable range plant management practices are seedbed preparation,
production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem, including bedding of rows, and crop rotation. Soil
chalky bluestem, and blue maidencane. Management improving crops and crop residue should be used to
practices should include deferred grazing and brush protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic
control. Lokosee soil is in the Cabbage Palm Flatwoods matter. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
range site. the need of the crop.






Indian River County, Florida 61



In the natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus to moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water
trees. It has poor suitability even if intensive capacity is medium in the surface layer and subsoil and
management practices, such as bedding of rows, are low in the subsurface layer. Natural fertility is medium,
used and the water control system is adequate, and the organic matter content is high.
In its natural state, this soil has poor suitability for Natural vegetation consists of cypress, pickerelweed,
improved pasture grasses. However, if an adequate maidencane, arrowhead, sand cordgrass, sedges,
water control system is installed to remove excess rushes, ferns, and other water-tolerant weeds and
surface water after heavy rains, suitability is fair. grasses. Areas of this soil provide excellent habitat for
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
grow well if properly managed. Controlled grazing is Under natural conditions, this Delray soil is not suited
needed, to cultivated crops because of ponding. Most areas do
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is not have a suitable drainage outlet, which makes an
moderate. South Florida slash pine is the best adapted adequate drainage system difficult to establish. Even if
specie to plant. Water control measures are necessary intensive management practices and soil improving
before trees can be planted. Equipment limitations and measures are used and a water control system is
seedling mortality are the main concerns in installed to remove excess water rapidly, this soil still
management. has poor suitability for many vegetable crops. Good
This soil generally is not used for rangeland. Pompano management practices are seedbed preparation,
soil is in the Cypress Swamp ecological plant community. including bedding of rows, and crop rotation. Soil
This soil has severe limitations for building site improving crops and crop residue should be used to
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic
because of ponding. Water control measures are needed matter. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
to overcome excessive wetness. Fill material to raise the the need of the crop.
level of the land surface is needed for urban use. In the natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus
Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons and trench sanitary trees. However, the suitability for citrus trees is fair if
landfills with impervious soil material can reduce intensive management practices and soil improving
excessive seepage. Sidewalls of shallow excavations measures are used and a water control system is
should be shored. Water control measures are needed. installed to remove excess water rapidly. A water control
Mounding may be needed for septic tank absorption system that maintains good drainage to a depth of about
fields. 4 feet is needed. Planting the trees on beds lowers the
This Pompano soil is in capability subclass Vllw. effective depth of the water table. A close-growing cover
crop should be maintained between tree rows to protect
61-Delray muck. This soil is nearly level and very the soil from blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer
poorly drained. It is in depressional areas. The mapped are needed.
areas range from 5 to 200 acres. Slopes are concave In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved
and are less than 2 percent. pasture grasses. However, if an adequate water control
Typically, the surface layer is about 21 inches thick. system is installed to remove excess surface water after
The upper 3 inches of the surface layer is black muck, heavy rains, suitability is fair. Pangolagrass, improved
the next 14 inches is black fine sand, and the lower 4 bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly
inches is very dark grayish brown sand. The subsurface managed. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
layer, to a depth of 45 inches, is very dark grayish brown needed. Overgrazing should be prevented.
and grayish brown sand. The subsoil is dark grayish The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 52 inches. The moderately high. South Florida slash pine is the best
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray adapted specie to plant. Water control measures are
sandy loam. necessary before trees can be planted. Equipment
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of limitations, plant competition, and seedling mortality are
Floridana, Holopaw, and Oldsmar depressional soils. the main concerns in management.
Also included are soils that are similar to Delray soil but This soil is moderately suited to desirable range plant
do not have a muck surface layer or do not have production. The dominant forage is maidencane and
pockets of muck throughout the surface layer and also cutgrass. Because the depth of the water table
an area of soils that have a muck surface layer that is fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
more than 15 inches thick. The included soils make up grazing occurs. This rest period increases forage
less than 20 percent of the map unit. production, but these periods during high water levels
This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months during most reduce the grazing value of the site. Delray depressional
years. The water table is within 10 inches of the surface soil is in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
for most of the remainder of the year. Permeability is This soil has severe limitations for building site
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.






62 Soil Survey



Water control measures are needed to overcome installed to remove excess surface water rapidly, this soil
excessive wetness. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons has fair suitability for many vegetable crops. Good
and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material management practices are seedbed preparation,
can reduce excessive seepage. Fill material to raise the including bedding of rows, and crop rotation. Soil
level of the land surface is needed for septic tank improving crops and crop residue should be used to
absorption fields, local roads and streets, and small protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic
commercial buildings and for playground use. Sidewalls matter. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
of shallow excavations should be shored. Mounding may the need of the crop.
be needed for septic tank absorption fields. In the natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus
This Delray soil is in capability subclass Vllw. trees. It has poor suitability even if intensive
management practices, such as bedding of rows, are
62-Chobee mucky loamy fine sand, depressional. used and the water control system is adequate.
This soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in In its natural state, this soil has poor suitability for
depressional areas. The mapped areas range from 5 to improved pasture grasses. However, if an adequate
100 acres. Slopes are concave and range from 0 to 1 water control system is installed to remove excess
percent. surface water after heavy rains, suitability is fair.
Typically, the surface layer is 5 inches of black mucky Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
loamy fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about grow well if properly managed. Regular applications of
42 inches. The upper 5 inches of the subsoil is black fertilizer and lime are needed. Overgrazing should be
sandy clay loam, the next 18 inches is very dark gray prevented.
sandy clay loam that has few medium pockets of loamy This soil is not suited to pine trees. The potential
sand, and the lower 14 inches is dark gray sandy clay productivity is very low for this use.
loam that has few grayish brown and very dark gray Ts s ery ot use
streaks and splotches. The substratum extends to a This soil generally is not used for rangeland. hobee
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 8 inches of the soil is in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological plant
substratum is greenish gray sandy loam that has gray community.
and dark gray mottles and streaks along root channels. Ponding is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
The lower 30 inches or more is greenish gray loamy building site development, sanitary facilities, and
sand that has few dark gray streaks along root channels recreational uses. Water control measures are needed to
and few light gray shell fragments. overcome excessive wetness. Fill material to raise the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of level of the land surface is needed for many urban uses.
Floridana and Manatee depressional soils. Also included Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
are small areas of soils that are similar to Chobee soil Water control measures should be used. Mounding may
but have an organic surface lyer that generally is 2 to 4 be needed for septic tank absorption fields.
inches thick but in a few places it can be up to 10 inches This Chobee soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
thick. The included soils make up less than 20 percent
of the map unit. 63-Kesson muck. This soil is nearly level and very
This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months during most poorly drained and is frequently flooded. It is in tidal
years. The water table is within 10 inches of the surface swamps and marshes. This soil formed in thick marine
for most of the remainder of the year. Permeability is deposits of sand and shell fragments. These swamps
rapid in the surface layer, moderately slow to very slow and marshes are at or near sea level and are adjacent
in the subsoil, and moderately rapid in the substratum. to the Indian River. Tidal water inundates most of these
The available water capacity is high in the surface layer areas at high tide. Some areas of this soil have been
and moderate in the subsoil and substratum. Natural leveled off and are used as mosquito control structures.
fertility and the organic matter content are high. Individual mapped areas range from 20 to 100 acres.
Natural vegetation consists of red maple, cabbage Slopes are less than 1 percent.
palm, scattered cypress, sawgrass, waxmyrtle, Carolina Typically, the surface layer is about 6 inches thick. It is
willow, ferns, sedges, pickerelweed, greenbrier, and dark reddish brown muck that is about 30 percent
other water-tolerant weeds and grasses. Areas of this unrubbed fiber and less than 5 percent rubbed. The
soil provide excellent habitat for wading birds and other underlying material is grayish brown and dark greenish
wetland wildlife, gray fine sand mixed with-about 15 to 25 percent sand-
Under natural conditions, this Chobee soil is not suited size shell fragments to a depth of 80 inches or more.
to cultivated crops because of ponding. Most areas do Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
not have a suitable drainage outlet, which makes an Pompano, Captiva, and McKee soils. Also included are
adequate drainage system difficult to establish. However, soils that are similar to Kesson soil but have an organic
if intensive management practices and soil improving surface layer 8 to 15 inches thick. The included soils
measures are used and a water control system is make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.






Indian River County, Florida 63



Under natural conditions, this soil is flooded during This soil is in mangrove swamps, which are unique
normal high tides. Permeability is moderately rapid. The and biologically productive areas that are very important
available water capacity is high in the surface layer and to many species of fish and wildlife. Many sport and
low in the underlying materials. Natural fertility is high for commercial finfish, shellfish, and other crustaceans use
saltwater-tolerant plants. The organic matter content is these areas as spawning grounds and nurseries. Birds
high. use these areas as rookeries and feeding grounds.
The native vegetation consists of red, black, and white Mangrove swamps also serve as protective barriers in
mangroves. In some areas are searocket, saltwort, estuaries against excessive wave action during tropical
perennial glasswort, seashore saltgrass, and seashore storms.
paspalum. This soil is not suited to urban use because of tidal
Because of tidal flooding, Kesson soil is not suited to flooding.
cropland, citrus, improved pasture, rangeland, or i i i i ii u
woodland. Kesson soils are in the Mangrove Swamps Ths Kesson soil is n capability subclass Vllw.
ecological plant community.









65








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Planners of management systems for individual fields
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land or farms should consider the detailed information given
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
soil-related failures in land uses. local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Cooperative Extension Service.
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive Approximately 132,000 acres in Indian River County
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics was used for crops and pasture in 1983 (7). Of this total,
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, about 63,000 acres was planted to citrus, mainly oranges
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses and grapefruit. Small acreages of tangelos and
and management. Field experience and collected data tangerines also were grown. Of the total acreage in the
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis county, about 62,000 acres was used for improved
for predicting soil behavior. pasture. About 7,000 acres was used for various crops,
Information in this section can be used to plan the use such as field corn, sorghum, soybeans, and rice. Some
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as small areas were planted to sweet corn, cabbage,
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary tomatoes, melons, strawberries, and nursery plants.
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and The western and northern parts of the county are
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife generally well suited to increased citrus and vegetable
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and production. Approximately 150,000 acres of potentially
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help good cropland is presently used for pasture, native
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil range, and woodland. Conversion of this land to crops
properties. would require overcoming serious limitations or hazards,
Planners and others using soil survey information can such as wetness, rapid permeability, and low natural
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity fertility. A water control system to remove excess water
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. in wet seasons and also to provide water through
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a subsurface irrigation in dry seasons is needed if citrus
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. and vegetable crops are to be grown. In addition, by
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of implementing the latest crop production technology
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to along with the information provided by this soil survey,
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil food production would be increased on all cropland in
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, the survey area.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and Although the potential for increased food production
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can exists in Indian River County, several factors must also
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate be considered in selecting crops and growing sites.
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, Among these factors are the economic conditions, the
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. risk of possible adverse weather conditions, the
availability of suitable drainage outlets, the availability of
Crops and Pasture an adequate supply of freshwater for irrigation, and
environmental considerations. The environmental
General management needed for crops and pasture is considerations include possible pollution of nearby
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants waters and the desirability of planners and developers to
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly use the land for urban use.
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of While considering the possibilities of increasing food
land capability classification used by the Soil production in the county, knowledge of soils and soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated properties is necessary. Some of the major soil
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are properties that should be considered are water and wind
listed for each soil. erosion, wetness, soil fertility, and tilth.






65








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Planners of management systems for individual fields
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land or farms should consider the detailed information given
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
soil-related failures in land uses. local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Cooperative Extension Service.
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive Approximately 132,000 acres in Indian River County
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics was used for crops and pasture in 1983 (7). Of this total,
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, about 63,000 acres was planted to citrus, mainly oranges
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses and grapefruit. Small acreages of tangelos and
and management. Field experience and collected data tangerines also were grown. Of the total acreage in the
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis county, about 62,000 acres was used for improved
for predicting soil behavior. pasture. About 7,000 acres was used for various crops,
Information in this section can be used to plan the use such as field corn, sorghum, soybeans, and rice. Some
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as small areas were planted to sweet corn, cabbage,
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary tomatoes, melons, strawberries, and nursery plants.
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and The western and northern parts of the county are
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife generally well suited to increased citrus and vegetable
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and production. Approximately 150,000 acres of potentially
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help good cropland is presently used for pasture, native
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil range, and woodland. Conversion of this land to crops
properties. would require overcoming serious limitations or hazards,
Planners and others using soil survey information can such as wetness, rapid permeability, and low natural
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity fertility. A water control system to remove excess water
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. in wet seasons and also to provide water through
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a subsurface irrigation in dry seasons is needed if citrus
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. and vegetable crops are to be grown. In addition, by
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of implementing the latest crop production technology
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to along with the information provided by this soil survey,
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil food production would be increased on all cropland in
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, the survey area.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and Although the potential for increased food production
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can exists in Indian River County, several factors must also
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate be considered in selecting crops and growing sites.
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, Among these factors are the economic conditions, the
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. risk of possible adverse weather conditions, the
availability of suitable drainage outlets, the availability of
Crops and Pasture an adequate supply of freshwater for irrigation, and
environmental considerations. The environmental
General management needed for crops and pasture is considerations include possible pollution of nearby
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants waters and the desirability of planners and developers to
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly use the land for urban use.
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of While considering the possibilities of increasing food
land capability classification used by the Soil production in the county, knowledge of soils and soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated properties is necessary. Some of the major soil
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are properties that should be considered are water and wind
listed for each soil. erosion, wetness, soil fertility, and tilth.






66 Soil Survey



Soil erosion is mainly a hazard on disturbed soil in Some soils, such as Pepper soils, have a weakly
areas where development for urban use or farming cemented subsoil; and some, such as Winder soils, have
operations occur. Soil erosion by water during intense a shallow, loamy subsoil. These subsoils act as
storms lowers the productivity of the soil by washing restricting layers and impede the movement of water
away the more fertile topsoil. It also increases the through the soil. The wet soils that have a weakly
pollution of streams by sediment, which, as an end cemented subsoil or a shallow, loamy subsoil often
result, detracts from the quality of water for municipal remain wet long after the wet period. A cemented
use, for recreational uses, and for use as habitat for fish subsoil or other impervious layer can be a severe
and wildlife. Erosion control practices include the use of limitation to soil drainage, which is required for most
a protective surface cover to reduce runoff and increase uses, but it can be used to advantage to maintain a
infiltration by mulching and by temporarily seeding of shallow water table, which is required for specific crops.
vegetation. Organic soils, such as Terra Ceia and Gator soils,
Wind erosion is a major problem on the sandy soils need special drainage and irrigation systems to prevent
and on the muck soils in the survey area. Wind erosion the oxidation and subsidence of these soils. These
reduces soil fertility by removing fine soil particles and systems are needed to keep the water table at the
organic matter; damages crops and young citrus trees by highest practical level for the crop, for tilling during the
sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed growing season, and for raising the water table to the
seeds; creates health hazards and cleaning problems in surface the remainder of the time. Information about a
urban areas that have been cleared of vegetation; and water control system designed for each kind of soil is
lowers air quality. Maintaining a vegetative cover and available from the local office of the Soil Conservation
surface mulching minimize soil blowing. Service.
Clearing and disturbing only the minimum area needed Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the soils in the
for work and improvements, mulching, seeding, and county. The dark surface mineral soils, such as Chobee,
using cover crops reduce soil and wind erosion. Delray, Floridana, and Jupiter soils, have more organic
Information about erosion control practices for each kind matter and more plant nutrients. Organic soils, such as
of soil is available from the local office of the Soil Terra Ceia and Gator soils, require special fertilizers
Conservation Service. because they are low in copper, selenium, and other
Soil drainage is a major concern in management on trace elements.
most soils that are presently used for crops and pasture. Many of the soils in the county have a surface layer
Under natural conditions, approximately 75 percent of that is naturally strongly acid. Applications of lime are
the soils in the county is either poorly drained or very required to raise the pH level sufficiently if clover and
poorly drained. Some soils, such as Floridana, Chobee, other crops that need neutral pH are grown on these
and Manatee soils, are naturally so wet that the growing strongly acid soils. The level of nitrogen, available
of crops or pasture is generally not feasible without phosphorus, and potash are naturally low in most of the
extensive water control systems. However, if a good mineral soils. On all the soils, additions of lime and
water control system is installed to remove excess water fertilizer should be based on the results of soil tests, on
rapidly, these wet soils are moderately suited to many crop-growth requirements, and on the expected level of
vegetable crops and improved pasture. In addition, many yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in
of the poorly drained soils, such as Myakka, Riviera, and determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime
Immokalee soils, have a sandy surface layer and a low to apply.
available water capacity and are drought during dry Soil tilth refers to the condition of the soil in relation to
periods. In managing these soils, a water control system plant growth. It is an important factor in the germination
is needed to remove excess water in wet periods and of seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
provide water through subsurface irrigation in dry with good tilth are granular, porous, and easily cultivated.
periods. The design of the drainage and irrigation system Most of the mineral soils in the county have a sandy
varies according to the kind of soil and to the kinds of surface layer that is light in color and low in organic
crops and pasture that are to be grown on the soil. matter. Generally, the structure of the surface layer of
Successful citrus production, which is extensively such soils is weak, or the soils are structureless. If the
practiced on the poorly drained soils throughout the soil becomes very dry, a slight crust tends to form on the
county, requires intensive management. To maintain the surface, which impedes the rate of infiltration and
water table at a depth of about 4 feet, a water control increases runoff. Regular additions of crop residue and
system is needed. Also, planting trees on beds is an other organic material improve soil structure. Soil
effective way to lower the water table. Management improving crops and crop residue should be used to
practices, such as flood irrigation and low volume or drip protect the soil from erosion and maintain organic
irrigation, should be used on poorly drained soils during matter.
dry periods, and also these practices should be used to Pastures in the county are used to produce forage for
protect against frost damage, beef cattle, cow-calf operations, and dairy cattle. The






Indian River County, Florida 67



major perennial pasture grass grown in the county Land Capability Classification
consists primarily of improved bahiagrass. A mixture of L c c
white clover and improved bahiagrass is also grown in Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
the area. Some farmers overseed rye on bahiagrass the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that
pastures in the fall for winter and spring grazing, require special management are excluded. The soils are
Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the
are closely related to the kind of soil. Effective pasture risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way
management should include maintaining adequate they respond to management. The criteria used in
moisture levels in drought soils; water control measures grouping the soils do not include major, and generally
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains on expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth,
soils with a high water table; regular applications of lime or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include
and fertilizers; and pasture rotation to prevent possible but unlikely major reclamation projects.
overgrazing. Table 5 shows, for each kind of soil, the Capability classification is not a substitute for
estimated annual production of forage in animal-unit interpretations designed to show suitability and
months for the major forage plants presently grown in limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for woodland,
the survey area. ra and for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
Yields Per Acre three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
The average yields per acre that can be expected of are defined in the following paragraphs.
the principal crops under a high level of management Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be designated by Roman numerals III through VIII. The
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
The yields are based mainly on the experience and defined as follows:
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and choice of plants or that require special conservation
results of field trials and demonstrations are also practices, or both.
considered. Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
The management needed to obtain the indicated the choice of plants or that require very careful
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil management, or both.
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting generally unsuitable for cultivation.
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant them unsuitable for cultivation.
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and crop production.
hat insures the sales p e loss. Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
arvestig They are designated by adding a small letter, w or s to
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter w shows
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops tat wat ofe ita or
row ,ththat water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum, cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of corrected by artificial drainage), and s shows that the soil
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of .
is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony.
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely Te soils in clas V ae subct to littl or o sion
The soils in class V are subject to little or no erosion,
to increase as new production technology is developed.
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of but they have other limitations that restrict their use to
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of pasture, rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or
thospasture, rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or
other soils, however, is not likely to change. recreation. Class V contains only the subclasses
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in indicated by w or s.
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local The acreage of soils in each capability class and
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the subclass is shown in table 6. The capability classification
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed Soil
about the management and productivity of the soils for Map Units."
those crops.






68 Soil Survey



Rangeland temperatures make growing conditions substantially
better than average. In an average year, growing
Clifford W. Carter and Greg Hendricks, range conservationists, Soil conditions are about normal. In an unfavorable year,
Conservation Service, assisted in preparing this section. growing conditions are well below average, generally
Native grasses, forbs, and browse plants from because of low available soil moisture.
rangeland are an important resource to livestock Dry weight is the total annual yield per acre of air-dry
producers in Indian River County. This forage is readily vegetation. Yields are adjusted to a common percent of
available. It is economical and provides important air-dry moisture content. The relationship of green weight
roughage needed by cattle. There are approximately to air-dry weight varies according to such factors as
65,301 acres of rangeland in Indian River County, or exposure, amount of shade, recent rains, and
about 21 percent of the survey area. Most of this range unseasonable dry periods.
acreage is in the western one-half and northern one-third Range management requires a knowledge of the kinds
of the county. of soil and of the potential natural plant community. It
In areas that have similar climate and topography, also requires an evaluation of the present range
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation condition. Range condition is determined by comparing
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of the present plant community with the potential natural
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship plant community on a particular range site. The more
between the soils and vegetation and water. closely the existing community resembles the potential
Table 7 shows, for each soil, the range site and the community, the better the range condition. Range
total annual production of vegetation in favorable, coit ecological rang only. It does not have a
average, and unfavorable years. Only those soils that are condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a
average, and unfavorable years. Only those soils that are specific meaning that certain to the resent lant
used as rangeland or are suited to use as rangeland areecc tat pertains to the present plant
listed. Potential production refers to the amount of community in a given use.
herbage that can be expected to grow on a well The objective in range management is to control
managed range site. Yields are expressed in table 7 in grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about
terms of pounds of air-dry herbage per acre for range in the same in kind and amount as the potential natural
excellent condition in favorable, average, and plant community for that site. Such management
unfavorable years. Favorable years are those in which generally results in the optimum production of
climatic factors, such as rainfall and temperature, are vegetation, reduction of undesirable brush species,
favorable for plant growth. Moisture content in the plants conservation of water, and control of erosion.
varies as the growing season progresses and is not a Sometimes, however, a range condition somewhat below
measure of productivity. Herbage refers to total the potential meets grazing needs, provides wildlife
vegetation produced and does not reflect forage value or habitat, and protects soil and water resources.
grazing potentials. Explanation of the column headings in
table 7 follows. Range Sites
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
produces a characteristic natural plant community that A range site has the potential to support a native plant
differs from natural plant communities on other range community typified by an association of species different
sites in kind, amount, and proportion of range plants. from that of other range sites. The differentiation is
sites in kind, amount, and proportion of range plants. based upon significant differences in kind of species or
The relationship between soils and vegetation was based upon significant differences in kind of species or
established during this survey; thus, range sites generally total productivity. Each site has significant differences in
can be determined directly from the soil map. Soil the kinds and amounts of native plant vegetation it
properties that affect moisture supply and plant nutrients produces, and each requires different management.
have the greatest influence on the productivity of range The vegetation that originally grew on a range site is
plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a seasonal high called the native plant vegetation. It generally is the most
water table are also important. productive and most suitable vegetation for livestock on
Total production is the amount of vegetation that can that particular site, and it maintains itself as long as the
be expected to grow annually on well managed environment does not change.
rangeland that is supporting the potential natural plant The native plant vegetation consists mainly of three
community. Total production includes all vegetation, kinds of plants-decreasers, increases, and invaders.
whether or not it is palatable to grazing animals. It Decreasers generally are the most palatable native
includes the current year's growth of leaves, twigs, and plants, and they decrease in abundance if the range is
fruits of woody plants, but it does not include the under continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are plants
increase in stem diameter of trees and shrubs. It is less palatable to livestock; they increase for a while
expressed in pounds per acre of air-dry vegetation for under continued heavy grazing, but are finally eliminated.
favorable, average, and unfavorable years. In a favorable Invaders are plants native to the site in small amounts,
year, the amount and distribution of precipitation and the but they have little value for forage. These invaders tend






Indian River County, Florida 69



to increase as the range site deteriorates from excessive plants also are scattered throughout. This range site
grazing over a period of years. produces an abundant quantity of grasses. Creeping
Range condition is a measure of the current bluestem is the dominant grass with significant amounts
productivity of the range in relation to its potential. Four of indiangrass, chalky bluestem, panicum, and pineland
condition classes are used to measure range condition, threeawn. As these grasses deteriorate because of
These are- uncontrolled livestock grazing and annual burning,
Excellent condition-Producing 76 to 100 percent sawpalmetto and pineland threeawn increase
of the potential significantly. Because of their higher palatability,
Good condition-Producing 51 to 75 percent of bluestem, panicum, and indiangrass decrease. If the
the potential range site is in excellent condition, annual production is
Fair condition-Producing 26 to 50 percent of the approximately 6,000 pounds of air-dry herbage per acre
potential in favorable growth years to 3,000 pounds per acre in
Poor condition-Producing 0 to 25 percent of the unfavorable growth years. The relative percentages of
potential total annual production in excellent condition are
Only about 15 percent of the natural vegetative approximately 75 percent grasses and grasslike plants,
communities are in excellent condition for use as range 10 percent forbs, and 15 percent woody plants and
in Indian River County. The amount that is in fair and trees. Boca, EauGallie, Electra, Immokalee, Myakka,
poor condition is estimated at about 60 percent. Oldsmar, Pepper, and Wabasso soils are included in this
The productivity of the range sites is closely related to range site.
the natural drainage of the soil and to the soils' fertility. Slough-This range site consists of open grassland
The wettest soils, such as those in marshes and where nearly level areas act as broad natural drainage
sloughs, produce the most vegetation. The deep, courses in the flatwoods. The potential plant community
drought soils of the sand ridges normally produce the is dominated by blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and
least amount of herbage annually, toothache grass. These grasses are all readily grazed by
All sites tend to be slightly wetter in this county than livestock. If overgrazing continues for prolonged periods,
they are in more northern counties. The wetness has carpetgrass, pineland threeawn, and sedges replace the
some adverse effects on livestock health and mobility, better grasses. Average annual production of air-dry
However, these conditions are offset by the increased plant material from all sources varies from about 8,000
grass production, resulting from additional moisture, pounds per acre in areas that are in excellent condition
Management of the range sites should be planned in favorable growing years to approximately 4,000
with the potential productivity in mind. Sites with the pounds per acre in unfavorable years. If range conditions
highest production potential should be given highest are excellent, the annual vegetation production is
priority if economic considerations are important. Major approximately 85 percent grasses and grasslike plants,
management considerations revolve around livestock 15 percent forbs, and a few woody plants and trees.
grazing-the length of time that the sites are grazed, the Chobee, Holopaw, Pineda, and Pompano soils are
time of the year that they are grazed, and the length of included in this range site.
time and the season that the sites are rested. Other Freshwater Marshes and Ponds-This range site is
management considerations are the grazing pattern of an open grassland marsh or pond. It has potential for
livestock within a pasture that contains more than one producing significant amounts of maidencane and
range site and the palatability of the dominant plants cutgrass. The water level fluctuates throughout the year.
within the site. Manipulation of a range site often During periods of high water, there is a natural
involves mechanical brush control, controlled burning, deferment from livestock grazing. This site is a preferred
and especially controlled livestock grazing. Predicting the grazing area, but prolonged overgrazing causes
effects of these practices on range sites is important. deterioration of the vegetative community. Overgrazing
Proper management results in maximum sustained causes pickerelweed to increase, and, in some places,
production, conservation of the soil and water resources, causes sawgrass to increase. Prolonged overgrazing
and improvement of the habitat for many wildlife species. causes buttonbush, willows, and waxmyrtle to increase.
There are six range sites in Indian River County that If in excellent condition, the fresh marshes and ponds
are important to the livestock industry. Also in the county sites are capable of producing in excess of 10,000
are several other sites or ecological plant communities, pounds of air-dry material per acre in favorable growing
but they have little livestock use. The most important in years. Production in unfavorable growing years is
terms of acreage are the South Florida Flatwoods and approximately 5,000 pounds per acre. If the site is in
the Slough range sites. A brief description of these six excellent condition, the annual vegetative production is
range sites follows, approximately 80 percent grasses and grasslike plants,
South Florida Flatwoods-This range site consists of 15 percent forbs, and 5 percent woody plants and trees.
nearly level areas. Scattered to numerous pine trees are Canova, Delray, Floridana, Floridana depressional,
common, and sawpalmetto, inkberry and other woody Holopaw depressional, Manatee, Manatee depressional,






70 Soil Survey



Myakka depressional, Oldsmar depressional, Pineda all sources is approximately 9,000 pounds per acre in
depressional, and Riviera depressional soils are included favorable years and approximately 4,500 pounds per
in this range site. acre in unfavorable years. The total annual production is
Cabbage Palm Hammocks-This range site is on approximately 70 percent grasses and grasslike plants,
nearly level, slightly higher "islands" in broad nearly level 15 percent forbs, and 15 percent woody plants and
areas. The areas are generally 1 to 5 acres, and they trees. Lokosee, Malabar, and Riviera soils are included
are scattered throughout the landscape. The site has low in this range site.
potential for producing forage plants because of a dense Other ecological plant communities in Indian River
canopy of cabbage palm trees. These are preferred County and their respective soils that are not placed in a
shading and resting areas for cattle and, as such, are native range site are: South Florida Coastal Strand
usually severely denuded. Creeping bluestem and (Beaches and Canaveral, Captiva, and Palm Beach
beaked panicum are the dominant grasses when the site soils); Cypress Swamp (Samsula soils); Mangrove
is in excellent condition. In a deteriorated state, however, Swamp (McKee, Riomar, and Kesson soils); Salt Marsh
carpetgrass and several threeawn species dominate the (Perrine Variant soils); and Swamp Hardwoods (Chobee
understory. Because of reduced sunlight, the depressional, Gator, Pompano depressional, and Terra
photosynthectic process is not able to produce adequate Ceia soils). These sites generally provide little forage for
plant sugars; therefore, desirable forage plants that grow livestock and most are not accessible for cattle grazing
in shaded areas lose much of their palatability. This plant (5, 15).
community is preferred as a resting area and is rarely
used as a grazing area. If in excellent condition, the
Cabbage Palm Hammocks site is capable of producing Woodland Management and Productivity
3,500 pounds of air-dry material in favorable growing Paul Palmiotto, urban forester, Florida Division of Forestry, helped
years. Production in unfavorable years is only about prepare this section.
1,500 pounds per acre. If the site is in excellent
condition, the annual production is approximately 55 Forests in Indian River County (12) make up about
percent grasses and grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs, 44,071 acres, or 13.85 percent of the total land area. Of
and 25 percent woody plants and trees. Winder and this acreage, 36,925 acres is commercial forest land,
Jupiter soils are included in this range site. and 7,146 acres is unproductive forest land. In the
Sand Pine Scrub-This range site is on high dunelike commercial forest areas, there are five main forest types:
sand ridges. It has limited potential for producing native longleaf-slash, oak-pine, scrub oak-sand hickory, oak-
forage plants. This site supports a fairly dense stand of hickory, and oak-gum-cypress.
sand pine and a dense, woody understory. Livestock do The longleaf-slash pine forest type makes up 15,429
not use this site if other range sites are available, acres. This forest type is commonly on the EauGallie-
Principal forage plants are bluestems, indiangrass, and Oldsmar-WabasSo, Myakka-lmmokalee, and EauGallie-
panicum. Numerous legumes and forbs grow in these Myakka-Riviera soil map units. In Indian River County,
areas. Average annual production of air-dry plant the longleaf-slash type is in areas that are 2.5 to 3 miles
material from all sources varies from approximately wide. These areas are west of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge
3,500 pounds per acre in areas that are in excellent that extends the length of the county and in the western
condition in favorable growing years to approximately part of Indian River County, west of Blue Cypress Lake.
1,500 pounds per acre in unfavorable growing years. If This forest type is characterized by longleaf or slash
the range site is in excellent condition, the total annual pines, single or in combination, that makes up a plurality
production is approximately 40 percent grasses and of the stocking. Common associates are laurel oak, live
grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs, and 40 percent woody oak, myrtle oak, cabbage palm, redbay, and waxmyrtle.
plants and trees. Archbold, Astatula, Jonathan, Orsino, The oak-pine forest type makes up 8,991 acres. This
Paola, Pomello, Satellite, and St. Lucie soils are included forest type is commonly on EauGallie-Oldsmar-Wabasso
in this range site. and Riviera-Pineda-Wabasso soil map units. In Indian
Cabbage Palm Flatwoods-This range site consists River County the oak-pine forest type is in a broad band
of nearly level areas characterized by cabbage palm and around U.S. Interstate Highway 95. In the southern part
sawpalmetto trees scattered throughout the landscape. of the county, the band varies from 3 to 4 miles wide at
This site is a preferred livestock grazing area. It U.S. Interstate Highway 95, and in the northern part, it
produces a high quality and quantity of forage plants if it varies from 8 to 10 miles wide. The oak-pine forest type
is in excellent condition. Creeping, chalky, and south is characterized mostly by hardwoods, generally upland
Florida bluestems are the dominant forage grasses along oak, but pines make up 25 to 50 percent of the stocking.
with several desirable panicum species. Pineland Common associates include gum, laurel oak, myrtle oak,
threeawn and sawpalmetto increase as the area redbay, and widely scattered slash pine. This forest type
deteriorates. If the range is in excellent condition, the grows in conjunction with interspersed poorly defined
average annual production of air-dry plant material from drainageways or sloughs, which support red maple,






Indian River County, Florida 71



coastal plain willow, loblolly-bay, sweetbay, and called the callistris has been extensively planted and has
scattered cypress domes. now become naturalized.
The scrub oak-sand hickory forest type makes up The Canaveral-Captiva-Palm Beach soil map unit is on
5,994 acres. This forest type is commonly on the the barrier island. The dominant vegetation consists of
Astatula-Archbold-St. Lucie and Immokalee-Myakka- oak-bay-cabbage palm hammocks, including stoppers,
Satellite soil map units. In Indian River County, the scrub strangler fig, gumbo limbo, and other West Indies
oak-sand hickory forest type is on the Atlantic Coastal species. However, the exotic Australian pine and Brazil
Ridge, which runs north and south and extends the peppertree are invading species.
length of the county. This ridge is near the coast, and its The McKee-Quartzipsamments-St. Augustine soil map
western boundary is just west of U.S. Highway 1. Sand unit is along the Indian River and in various mosquito
pine, turkey oak, sand live oak, and sand hickory are the impoundment areas. The mangrove swamp plant
major species. In the Roseland area, a cedar called association is on these soils. Red, white, black, and
cal//istris has been extensively planted and has now buttonwood mangroves are the dominant vegetation on
become naturalized, these soils, but Australian pine and Brazil peppertree are
The oak-hickory forest type includes forests in which invading species. Mangrove swamps are of vital
upland oak or hickory, single or in combination, makes importance to the estuarine food chain, and they provide
up a plurality of the stocking. If pines make up 25 to 50 valuable habitat for wildlife.
percent of the stocking, this forest type would be Timber management in Indian River County consists of
classified as oak-pine. Common associates are sand natural regeneration on sites burned by wildfire or on
hickory, scrub oak, laurel oak, sand live oak, Chapman sites that have been control burned to increase forage
oak, and myrtle oak. and to reduce excessive "rough," which is a dangerous
The oak-gum-cypress forest type includes bottom land fire hazard.
forests in which tupelo, blackgum, sweetgum, oak, or There is no market for pulpwood in the county
southern cypress, single or in combination, make up a because most woodlands are cleared for urban
plurality of the stocking. If pines make up 25 to 50 expansion and the wood is burned or deposited in landfill
percent of the stand, it would be classified oak-pine. This areas.
forest type is commonly on the Floridana-Delray- Presently, the more productive areas for forest
Holopaw soil map unit. Common associates include management is in the western part of the county. Timber
baldcypress, red maple, tupelo, elm, willow, loblolly-bay, management is economical and should be encouraged.
sweetbay, pond apple, hackberry and water hickory. Improved slash pines and south Florida slash pines, are
There are 6,511 acres of this forest type in Indian River better suited to planting in this area. More detailed
County. This forest type is primarily around the creeks information on woodland management can be obtained
leading to Blue Cypress Lake. from the local offices of the Soil Conservation Service,
Seven major general soil map units in Indian River the State of Florida Division of Forestry, and the
County support the major forest types and other areas of Cooperative Extension Service.
ecological importance. Table 8 can be used by woodland owners or forest
The Myakka-lmmokalee soil map unit is in the western managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.
part of the county, west of Blue Cypress Lake. On these Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
soils are longleaf pine, south Florida slash pine, laurel table lists the ordination symbol (woodland suitability) for
oak, live oak, cabbage palm, and water oak. each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol
The EauGallie-Oldsmar-Wabasso and Riviera-Pineda- require the same general management and have about
Wabasso soil map units are in a broad band around U.S. the same potential productivity.
Interstate Highway 95 and also between the Atlantic The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
Coastal Ridge and Ten Mile Ridge. These bands vary indicates the potential productivity of the soils for
from 3 to 4 miles wide in the southern part of the county important trees. The number 2 indicates high
and from 8 to 10 miles wide in the northern part. On productivity; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low.
these soils are widely scattered south Florida slash pine The second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the
interspersed with poorly defined drainageways or major kind of soil limitation. The letter w indicates
sloughs that support red maple, coastal plain willow, excessive water in or on the soil and s indicates sandy
loblolly-bay, sweetbay, and scattered cypress domes, texture. If a soil has more than one limitation, the priority
The Astatula-Archbold-St. Lucie and Immokalee- is as follows: w and s.
Myakka-Satellite soil map units are primarily along the In table 8, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the
Atlantic Coastal Ridge, which runs north and south and degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
extends the length of the county. This ridge is near the management.
coast, and its western boundary is just west of U.S. Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss
Highway 1. Sand pine, turkey oak, sand live oak, and of soil in a well-managed woodland. The risk is slight if
sand hickory are the major trees. In Roseland, a cedar the expected soil loss is small.






72 Soil Survey



Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use Service, or from a nursery.
of the equipment generally needed in woodland
management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates Recreation
that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short The mild climate and wide variety of recreational
seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in facilities available throughout Indian River County
management or in equipment; and severe indicates a attracts many people of all interests and ages to the
seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or area. With the rapid increase in population, including
management, or a hazard in the use of equipment, permanent winter residents and retirees, the need for
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which more open space, outdoor recreation facilities, and
the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant cultural attractions will continue to grow. In 1984,
competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings approximately 1,400 acres was utilized for park and
apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly recreational facilities and for areas for beach access or
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of walkways. As urbanization increases, the knowledge of
slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than soil properties can assist in planning and in the selecting
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe, of sites for additional recreation areas.
more than 50 percent. In table 9, the soils of the survey area are rated
Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
characteristics that affect the development of tree roots recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
slight indicates that few trees may be blown down by surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
strong winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
strong winds; and severe, that many trees are blown size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and vegetation, access to water, potential water
moderate or strong winds, impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
moderate or srong ws capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
rating of slight indicates little or no competition from planning recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the
other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked essential.
stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
competition is expected to prevent the establishment of moderate or severe. Moderate means that limitations are
a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared, somewhat restrictive and can be overcome or alleviated
weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable by planning, design, or speciatnaintenance. Severe
plants. means that one or more soil properties unfavorable and
The potential productivity of merchantable or common that limitations can be offset by soil reclamation, special
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is design, intensive maintenance, limited use, br-by a
the average height, in feet, that dominant and combination of these measures.
codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified The information in table 9 can be supplemented by
number of years. Site index was determined at age 25 other information in this survey, for example,
years for south Florida slash pine and 50 years for all interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
other species. The site index applies to fully stocked, 12 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees and for local roads and streets in table 11.
are those that woodland managers generally favor in Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
marketability, facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
and to commercial wood production, soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
Additional information on planning windbreaks and flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes






Indian River County, Florida 73



and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of Other areas of minor extent, but that are just as
constructing campsites. valuable, are the ocean beaches. These beaches are
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most used for nesting by the endangered green and
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking leatherback turtle and by the classified threatened
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, loggerhead turtle. These beach areas also serve as
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding feeding grounds for gulls, sandpipers, and plovers. The
during the period of use, and do not have slopes, barrier island and estuarine habitat areas support such
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping wildlife as raccoons, various birds, and reptiles. The
sites or of building access roads and parking areas. mangrove islands in the Indian River serve as rookery
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive and roosting areas for all types of wading birds and for
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not the endangered brown pelican. These islands and their
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The aquatic proximity serve as nursery and feeding areas for
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains, many marine fish and crustaceans.
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the Although land development and human population
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be growth has continually increased during the last few
considered. decades, particularly, on the barrier island, there has
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should continually been significant appreciation and recognition
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are of the value of this natural resource by local, State and
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and Federal concerns, as witnessed by the establishment of
are not subject to flooding more than once a year during the First National Wildlife Refuge at Pelican Island in
the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few 1903 and by creating the Florida State Recreation Areas
or no stones or boulders on the surface, at Sebastian Inlet (5). Other indications of concern for
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and preserving habitat and ensuring water quality are shown
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be by the proceedings to adopt a wetlands protection
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm ordinance by the city of Vero Beach. Indian River County
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to does not have a specific wetlands protection ordinance,
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have although protection of about 110,000 acres of wetlands
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the in the county is included in a stormwater management
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is and flood protection ordinance. In addition, the State of
not considered in rating the soils. Florida and Indian River County are acting to preserve
environmentally sensitive coastal areas by participating
Wildlife Habitat in a "Save Our Coast" program. This program provides
funding to purchase beach property and other coastal
Wildlife has long been an important natural resource of tracts.
Indian River County. The importance of wildlife dates as Endangered or threatened species that habitat the
far back as 400 years ago when the original inhabitants county include the bald eagle, the American alligator,
of this area, the Ais Indians, lived mainly by hunting and and the West Indian manatee. The bald eagle has only
fishing. Since that time, habitat for wildlife has diminished one known active nesting site in this area. A detailed list
greatly with about 63,000 acres being used for citrus of endangered species and information on range and
production and with other large areas being used for habitat can be obtained from the local office of the Soil
improved pasture or for urban development. Wetlands, Conservation Service.
which are excellent areas for wildlife habitat, are also Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
being rapidly degraded and lost with the spread of available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
introduced plant species, such as Brazilian peppertree the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
and melaleuca trees. abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
The most extensive areas of good habitat are in the distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
undeveloped rangeland in the western part of the county be created or improved by planting appropriate
and in the natural areas of the St. Johns Marsh. Habitat vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
for wetland wildlife is prevalent in both of these areas promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
and is used by various species of wading birds and by In table 10, the soils in the survey area are rated
reptiles and amphibians. The main game species in according to their potential for providing habitat for
these wetlands are white-tailed deer, wild turkey, various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
bobwhite quail, mourning doves, and feral hogs. planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
Numerous nongame wildlife species, which include other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
songbirds, woodpeckers, owls, raptorial birds, and suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
armadillos, are also present in these areas. specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining






74 Soil Survey



the intensity of management needed for each element of the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
the habitat. Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cedar, and
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or cypress.
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair properties and features affecting wetland plants are
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
established, improved, or maintained in most places. slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
Moderately intensive management is required for plants are smartweed, wild millet, maidencane, cattail,
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
maintained in most places, but management is difficult created by dams, levees, or other water-control
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
impractical or impossible. ponds.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
following paragraphs. the following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- Habitat for open/and wildlife consists of cropland,
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil include bobwhite quail, mourning doves, meadowlark,
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and field sparrow, cottontail rabbits, and red fox.
seed crops are corn, cowpeas, sunflowers, and millet. Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard, raccoon, bobcats, and deer.
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover, attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons,
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally gallinules, limpkin, shore birds, alligators, and otters.
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these Engineering
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface This section provides information for planning land
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil uses related to urban development and to water
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, partridge most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
pea, and beggarweed. given in the following tables: Building site development,
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil management. The ratings are based on observed
properties and features that affect the growth of performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of Information in this section is intended for land use
these plants are oak, red maple, cabbage palm, planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
elderberry, blackberry, huckleberry, grape, sawpalmetto, planning site investigations prior to design and
and briars, construction. The information, however, has imitraiorns
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil For example, estimates and other data generally apply
properties and features that affect the growth of only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils






Indian River County, Florida 75



may be included within the mapped areas of a specific limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
soil. are so unfavorable or difficult to overcome that special
The information is not site specific and does not design, significant increases in construction costs, and
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or possibly increased maintenance are required. Special
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the feasibility studies may be required where the soil
design and construction of engineering works. limitations are severe.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
not considered in preparing the information in this utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design, observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
Soil properties, site features, and observed filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
performance were considered in determining the ratings bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer;
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, year that excavations can be made is affected by the
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to depth to a seasonal high water table and the
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table.
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink- dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
swell potential, available water capacity, and other for small commercial buildings without basements, for
behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses. dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
This information can be used to: evaluate the potential basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil; Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
terraces, and other structures for soil and water have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
conservation; and predict performance of proposed small gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
structures and pavements by comparing the performance flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils. limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
survey can be used to make additional interpretations, water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
Glossary. shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high water table
affect the traffic-supporting capacity.
Building Site Development Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
Table 11 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
without basements, small commercial buildings, local features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper
features are generally favorable for the indicated use 40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic
and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope,
if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic
indicated use and special planning, design, or matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the vegetation is established.






76 Soil Survey



Sanitary Facilities ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
Table 12 shows the degree and the kind of soil to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, and content of organic matter.
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
are considered slight if soil properties and site features soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the ievel
are generally favorable for the indicated use and of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
soil properties or site features are somewhat restrictive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
for the indicated use and special planning, design, or organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope,
limitations; and severe if one or more soil property or site bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction
feature is unfavorable for the intended use and should problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of
be corrected by special design, soil reclamation, or the lagoon floor.
planned maintenance before the site can be adapted to Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
the intended use. disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
Table 12 also shows the suitability of the soils for use landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of poor indicates that placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
one or more soil properties or site features are daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
costly alteration. and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which away from the site.
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 60 inches is water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site needs to be considered.
features, and observed performance of the soils. The ratings in table 12 are based on soil properties,
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a site features, and observed performance of the soils.
cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of
interfere with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic


permeable san nd gravel or fractured bedrock is less of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if slight or moderate may not be valid. Onste investigation
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the is needed.
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that s used
the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
thickness. to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is After soil material has been removed, the soil material
required to minimize seepage and contamination of remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
ground water. bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
Table 12 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The and the best potential for plants. Material from the
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the cover.






Indian River County, Florida 77



Construction Materials The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
Table 13 gives information about the soils as a source sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated by the engineering classification of the soil), the
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil. thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain
properties and site features that affect the removal of sizes is given in the table on engineering index
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal properties.
compaction, minor processing, and other standard A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
and used in road embankments in another place. In this stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
exacting in design than higher embankments. Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading. the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
their profile. The table showing engineering index properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
properties provides detailed information about each soil fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
layer. This information can help determine the suitability is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
in the ratings. rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
after it has been compacted and drained is determined not so wet that excavation is difficult.
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential, relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the not so wet that excavation is difficult.
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. near the surface.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10, The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers moisture and nutrients for plant growth.
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
thick. Water Management
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and Table 14 gives information on the soil properties and
gravel are used in many kinds of construction. site features that affect water management. The degree
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 13, only and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect soil properties and site features are generally favorable
excavation of the material, for the indicated use and limitations are minor and are





78



easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
features are somewhat restrictive for the indicated use impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
and special planning, design, or maintenance is needed Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
to overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if water table, permeability of the aquifer, and the salinity
one or more soil property or site feature is unfavorable of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content of large
for the intended use and should be corrected by special stones affect the ease of excavation.
design, soil reclamation, or planned maintenance before Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
the site can be adapted to the intended use. subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
This table also gives the restrictive features that affect effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
each soil for drainage, irrigation, and grassed waterways, bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding;
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil subsidence of organic layers; and potential frost action.
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
of the reservoir area. large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the
constructed to impound water or to protect land against root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed and management of an irrigation system are affected by
and compacted during construction. depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
depth greater than the height of the embankment can is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
affect performance and safety of the embankment. cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
determine these properties. sodium, and soil reaction.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium. cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
A high water table affects the amount of usable material, waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
It also affects trafficability. capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed construction.






79








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine particle-size distribution, saturated hydraulic as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
conductivity, bulk density, and water content. These soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
results are reported in table 19. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engineering Index Properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 15 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 22.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






79








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine particle-size distribution, saturated hydraulic as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
conductivity, bulk density, and water content. These soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
results are reported in table 19. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engineering Index Properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 15 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 22.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






80 Soil Survey



Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) rate of water movement under saturated conditions
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The affects behavior.
estimates are based on test data from the survey area, Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water
or from nearby areas, and on field examination, that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent. stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits varies, depending on soil properties that affect the
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points) retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The
across classification boundaries, the classification in the most important properties are the content of organic
marginal zone is omitted in the table. matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure.
Available water capacity is an important factor in the
choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design
Physical and Chemical Properties and management of irrigation systems. Available water
Table 16 shows estimates of some characteristics and capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are actually available to plants at any given time.
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
The estimates are based on field observations and on expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
test data for these and similar soils. The results of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
representative pedons in Indian River County are given analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
in tables 19, 20, and 21I and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
asso separate, or component, consists of fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of corrosion.
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter S i
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
in diameter. laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential, soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, and given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in a for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations. construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root measurements of similar soils.
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward often needed.
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems, change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of






Indian River County, Florida 81



less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high, 7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay
more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent, and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate.
is sometimes used. These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to be grown.
sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six 8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to wind erosion.
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre soil at various stages of decomposition.
per year. These estimates are based primarily on In table 16, the estimated content of organic matter is
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4 expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values of material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the The content of organic matter of a soil can be
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
water. soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that other nutrients for crops.
can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop
productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per Soil and Water Features
year. Soil and Water Features
year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have Table 17 gives estimates of various water features and
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind table 18 gives estimates of various soil features. The
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the estimates are used in land use planning that involves
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of engineering considerations.
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
distinctions: from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine groups. They are grouped according to the intake of
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to precipitation from long-duration storms.
establish. The four hydrologic soil groups are:
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
erosion are used. gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy transmission.
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
control wind erosion are used. or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can transmission.
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
are used. thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams layer that impedes the downward movement of water or

that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
control wind erosion are used. Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
5. Loamy soils that are less than 20 percent clay and runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and chiefly of clays that.have high shrink-swell potential, soils
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 that have a permanent high water table, soils that have a
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These
control wind erosion are used. soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
6. Loamy soils that are 20 to 35 percent clay and Dual hydrologic groups, B/D and C/D, are used for
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, certain wet soils that can be artificially drained and
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly where normal drainage practices do not drain the soils
erodible. Crops can easily be grown. well enough to attain Group A level.






82 Soil Survey



Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface by apparent; and the months of the year that the water
flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by table commonly is highest. A water table that is
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high tides. seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in
Shallow water standing or flowing for short periods after table 17.
rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding. Standing An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
water in swamps and marshes or in a closed in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
depreciation is considered ponding. stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
Table 17 gives the frequency and duration of flooding allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched
and the time of year when flooding is most likely to water table is water standing above an unsaturated
occur. zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
are estimated. Frequency generally is expressed as The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth"
none, rare, or frequent. None means that flooding is not column indicate the normal range in depth to a saturated
probable. Rare means that flooding is unlikely but zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot The first
possible under unusual weather conditions (there is a numeral in the range indicates the highest water level. A
near 0 to 5 percent chance of flooding in any year). plus sign preceding the range in depth indicates that the
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal water table is above the surface of the soil. "More than
weather conditions (there is more than a 50 percent 6.0" indicates that the water table is below a depth of 6
chance of flooding in any year). Duration is expressed as feet or that the water table exists for less than a month.
very long if more than 7 days. The time of year that Table 18 gives the depth and hardness of bedrock
floods are most likely to occur is expressed in months. and cemented pan, shows expected initial and total
November-May, for example, means that flooding can subsidence, and gives the risk of corrosion for uncoated
occur during the period November through May. About steel and concrete.
two-thirds to three-fourths of all flooding occurs during Depth to bedrock is given in the table if bedrock is
the stated period, within a depth of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil
The information on flooding is based on evidence in borings and on observations during soil mapping. The
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or rock is specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft
clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in or fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
organic matter content with increasing depth; and machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
of soils that are not subject to flooding, needed for excavation.
Also considered are local information about the extent Cementedpans are cemented or indurated subsurface
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on layers within a depth of 5 feet. Such pans cause difficulty
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the in excavation. A pan that is classified as thin is less than
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than 3 inches thick if continuously indurated, or less than 18
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that inches thick if discontinuous or fractured. Excavations
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency can be made by trenching machines, backhoes, or small
levels. rippers.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a of organic material, or both, following drainage.
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period
soil and the depth to free water observed in many of several years. Table 18 shows the expected initial
borings made during the course of the soil survey. The subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and
water table in 32 pedons, representing 20 soil series, annual subsidence, which usually is a result of oxidation.
was measured twice a month during the course of the Not shown in table 18 is subsidence caused by an
soil survey. The pedons were selected as typical of the imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
series as mapped in the county, and they were as far water throughout an extensive area as a result of
removed as possible from any source of artificial lowering the water table.
drainage. The measurements of the water tables for Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
three of the major series are shown in (fig. 14). electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
Additional water table data can be obtained from the weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
local office of the Soil Conservation Service. corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
Precipitation for 1982 and 1983 was above normal, soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
Indicated in table 17 are the depth to the seasonal high electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched or concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium







Indian River County, Florida 83





J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M
U U E C O E A E A P A U U U E C O E A E A P A
DEPTH L G P T V C N B R R Y N L G P T V C N B R R Y
(IN ) 0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
Pepper Series
5-

10-

15-

20-

25-

30. (Apparent Water Table)

35-

40-
1982 1983 I I I I 1 1984


A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F MA
P A U U U E C O E A E A P A U U U E C O E A E A P
R Y N L G P T V C N B R R Y N L G P T V C N B R
0 I I I I I I I I III I I I I I I
EauGallie Series
5-

10

15

20

25

30

35-

40-
L I 1982 1983 1984


A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A
P A U U U E C O E A E A P A U U U E C O E A E A P
R Y N L G P T V C N B R R Y N L G P T V C N B R R
0.
Pineda Series
5-

10-

15-

20

25-

30-

35-
1982 I 1983 1984



Figure 14.-Variation in depth of water table In the Pepper, EauGallie, and Pineda series.




content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil. the combination of factors creates a severely corrosive
Special site examination and design may be needed if environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil






84 Soil Survey



boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion extractable bases to cation exchange capacity
than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind expressed in percent. The pH measurements were made
of soil or within one soil layer. with a glass electrode using a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as 0.01 molar calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solution
low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class, ratio; and normal potassium chloride solution in a 1:1
total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and soil-solution ratio.
electrical conductivity of the saturation extract. Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture, and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation were determined by atmoic absorption
extract. spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar
Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
Analyses of Selected Soils iron was by atomic absorption and extracted carbon by
the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Dr. Victor W. Carlisle and Dr. Mary E. Collins, professor and assistant Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns
professor, respectively, University of Florida, Soil Science Department, was ascertained by X-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18
prepared this section. angstrom, 14 angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, and 4.31
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical angstrom positions represent montmorillonite,
properties of representative pedons sampled in Indian interstratified expandable vermiculite, 14-angstrom
River County are presented in tables 19, 20, and 21. The intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz, respectively. Peaks
analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil were measured, summed, and normalized to give the
Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida. percent of soil minerals identified in the X-ray
Detailed profile descriptions of soils analyzed are given diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate
in the section "Soil Series and Their Morphology." absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do
Laboratory data and profile information for additional imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular
soils in Indian River County, as well as for other counties mineral suite. Absolute percentages would require
in Florida, are on file at the Soil Science Department, additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit
University of Florida. structure substitution, and matrix problems.
Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully Sands are the dominant particle-size fractions in nearly
selected locations. Samples were air-dried, crushed, and all horizons of all pedons (table 19). More than 90
sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most analytical percent sand occurred throughout the entire pedon
methods used are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations depths of the Archbold, Astatula, Canaveral, Jonathan,
Report No. 1 (16). Orsino, Palm Beach, Paola and St. Lucie soils. Boca,
Particle-size distribution was determined using a Canova, Electra, Floridana, Pepper, and Immokalee soils
modified pipette method with sodium contained more than 90 percent sand to a depth of more
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity than 20 inches.
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil Archbold, Astatula, Canaveral, Jonathan, Jupiter,
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from Orsino, Palm Beach, Paola and St. Lucie soils contained
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe less than 5 percent clay throughout their profiles. Clay
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at content increased considerably within a depth of 40
100 centimeters water (1/10 bar) and 345 centimeters inches in the Boca, Canova, and Floridana soils, and it
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water also increased considerably below a depth of 40 inches
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were in the Electra and Pepper soils. Since there is a general
ovendried, ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and the tendency for clays to move downward with percolating
15-bar water retention was determined. Organic carbon water, the amount of translocated clay often reveals the
was determined by a modification of the Walkley-Black state and degree of soil development.
wet combustion method. Silt content usually ranged between 0 and 10 percent;
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with however, silt content in excess of 20 percent occurred in
normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium some horizons of the Floridana and Perrine Variant soils.
and potassium in the extract were determined by flame Conversely, pedons with less than 2 percent silt in all
emission. Calcium and magnesium were determined by horizons occurred in the Archbold, Palm Beach, Paola,
atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Extractable acidity and St. Lucie soils. In the Astatula, Canaveral, Jonathan,
was determined by the barium chloride-triethanolamine Orsino, and Pepper soils only one or two horizons had
method at pH 8.2. Cation exchange capacity was more than 2 percent silt.
calculated by summation of extractable bases and Fine sands dominated the sand fractions in the Boca,
extractable acidity. Base saturation is the ratio of Canaveral, Electra, Jupiter, and Orsino soils. All horizons






Indian River County, Florida 85



of Boca, Canaveral, Electra, Jupiter, and Orsino soils exceeding 1 milliequivalent per hundred grams in some
contained more than 50 percent very fine and fine horizons of the Boca, Canova, Electra, Floridana, Gator,
sands, and some horizons in the Immokalee soil Jupiter, Manatee, Palm Beach, Pepper, and Perrine
contained like amounts. Medium sand generally ranged Variant soils. Much lower but detectable amounts of
between 20 and 50 percent; however, all horizons of the magnesium occurred in all horizons except one horizon
Archbold, Astatula, Jonathan, Palm Beach, Paola, in the Jonathan soil. Sodium generally occurred in
Pepper, and St. Lucie soils contained more than 50 amounts of less than 1 milliequivalent per hundred
percent medium sand, and all horizons of the Boca and grams. Most Indian River County soils contained very
Orsino soils contained less than 10 percent. Very fine low amounts of potassium with only two horizons of
sands commonly ranged between 0 and 10 percent. Canova and Perrine Variant soils exceeding 1
Coarse sands generally occurred in amounts of less than milliequivalent per hundred grams. Potassium was
15 percent and very coarse sands seldom exceeded 0.5 nondetectable in one or more horizons of the Archbold,
percent. Astatula, Electra, Jonathan, Orsino, Pepper, and St.
Hydraulic conductivity values of 5 centimeters per hour Lucie soils.
or less were recorded in some horizons of Boca, Values for exchange capacity, an indication of plant
Canova, Electra, Manatee, and Pepper soils, and high nutrient capacity, exceeded 20 milliequivalents per
values of 100 centimeters per hour or more were hundred grams in the surface horizon of Canova, Gator,
recorded for some horizons of the Astatula, Jonathan, Manatee, Palm Beach, and Perrine Variant soils. Cation
Palm Beach, Paola, Pepper, and St. Lucie soils. Design exchange capacity exceeded 20 milliequivalents per
and function of septic tank absorption fields are affected hundred grams in at least one horizon below the surface
by such low and high hydraulic conductivity values. in the Canova, Electra, Floridana, Gator, Immokalee,
Some clay enhanced subsoil horizons occurring in the Manatee, Pepper, and Perrine Variant soils. Exceptional
Boca, Canova, Electra, and Manatee soils had hydraulic high exchange capacity of more than 100
conductivity values of less than 1 centimeter per hour. illieuialents er hun
milliequivalents per hundred grams was determined in
Plant available water capacity can be estimated from three horizons. Soils that have low cation exchange
bulk density and water content data. Generally, soils that capacities in the surface horizon, such as the Jonathan
are excessively drained or have sandy textures, such as
the Archbold, Astatula, Palm Beach, Paola and St. Lucie series, require only small amounts of lime to significantly
soils, contain low amounts of organic matter and retain alter both the base status and soil reaction in the upper
less plant available water. Also the upper part of the horizons. Generally, soils of low inherent soil fertility are
mmokless plant availabee, Eletra, and Jonalso than soils contain low associated with low values for extractable bases and low
Immokalee, Electra, and Jonathan soils contain lowcation exchange capacities, and fertile soils are
amounts of organic matter. Droughtiness is a common cation exchange capacities, and fertile soils are
characteristic of these sandy soils, particularly those associated with high values for extractable bases, high
soils that are moderately well drained, well drained, and base saturation values, and high cation exchange
excessively drained. A relatively large amount of plant capacities.
available water is retained in Canova, Manatee, and Organic carbon content exceeded 2 percent only in
Perrine Variant soils. the surface horizon of the Boca, Canova, Floridana,
Chemical soil properties (table 20) show that less than Gator, Jupiter, Manatee, and Perrine Variant soils. The
20 milliequivalent per hundred grams of extractable surface and subsurface horizons of the Canova and
bases are present in most Indian River County soils. All Gator soils were very high in organic carbon content
horizons of the Archbold, Astatula, Jonathan, Orsino, (more than 30 percent) because of the high amounts of
and St. Lucie soils contained less than 1 milliequivalent sapric (organic) material. In Spodosols, organic carbon
per hundred grams extractable bases. Electra, content exceeded 2 percent only in the spodic horizon of
Immokalee, Paola, and Pepper soils contained only three the Electra, Immokalee, and Pepper soils. Organic
or less horizons that have extractable bases in excess of carbon content was less than 1 percent in all horizons of
1 milliequivalent per hundred grams and values of less Archbold, Astatula, Orsino, Paola, and St. Lucie soils.
than 15 milliequivalents per hundred grams commonly Organic carbon content generally decreased rapidly with
occurred in most other soils. Canaveral, Canova, increased depth except in the Spodosols. These soils
Floridana, Gator, Manatee, Palm Beach, and Perrine have a Bh horizon that contains enhanced amounts of
Variant soils contained horizons that exceeded 15 organic carbon. Since organic carbon is directly related
milliequivalents per hundred grams extractable bases, to soil nutrient and water retention capacities of sandy
The mild, humid climate in Indian River County results in soils, management practices that conserve and maintain
depletion of basic soil cations (calcium, magnesium, organic carbon content are highly desirable.
sodium, and potassium) through leaching. Electrical conductivity values were generally very low,
Calcium was by far the dominant base in all soils with exceeding 0.2 millimhos per centimeter, in one horizon
amounts ranging from 0.01 to 77.25 milliequivalents per of the Canaveral soil and throughout the Perrine Variant
hundred grams. Magnesium occurred in amounts pedon. These data indicate that soluble salt content






86



except in the immediate coastal areas is insufficient to angstrom intergrade minerals occurred in all horizons in
detrimentally affect the growth of salt-sensitive plants. the Astatula, Boca, Jonathan, Orsino, Palm Beach, and
Soil reaction in water usually ranged between pH 4.0 Paola soils but were not present in all horizons of the
and 7.0; however, reactions in excess of 8.0 occurred in Electra, Immokalee, Pepper, and St Lucie pedons.
horizons of the Boca, Canova, Gator, Palm Beach, and Kaolinite occurred in all soils sampled. Quartz occurred
Perrine Variant series. With few exceptions, soil reaction in all soils except in one horizon of the Perrine Variant
was 0.1 to 1.2 pH units lower in calcium chloride and pedon.
potassium chloride than in water. Maximum plant nutrient Montmorillonite appears to have been inherited by
availability is usually attained when soil reaction is Indian River County soils and is probably the least stable
between pH 6.5 and 7.5; however, under Florida mineral component in the present environment. Subsoils
conditions, maintaining soil reaction above pH 6.5 is not in Canova, Floridana, and Manatee pedons contain
economically feasible for most agricultural production relatively large amounts of montmorillonitic clays that
purposes. can result in considerable volume change from shrinking
Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron did not exceed when dry and swelling when wet. Clay-sized quartz has
0.10 percent in the Bh horizon of Immokalee, Jonathan, primarily resulted from decrements of the silt fraction.
and Orsino soils. The ratio of pyrophosphate extractable Soils dominated by montmorillonite and 14-angstrom
carbon and aluminum to clay in Electra, Immokalee, intergrades have high cation exchange capacities and
Jonathan, and Orsino soils was sufficient to meet the retain more plant nutrients than soils dominated by
chemical criteria for spodic horizons, kaolinite or quartz.
Citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the argillic horizon
was generally less than 1 percent. These values in the
Bh horizon ranged from 1.22 percent in the Boca soil to Engineering Index Test Data
no detectable amount in the Jonathan soil.
Aluminum extracted by citrate-dithionite from the Bt Table 22 shows laboratory test data for several
horizon ranges from 0.02 percent in the Manatee soil to pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
0.13 percent in the Electra soil. Amounts of iron and area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
aluminum in Indian River County soils are not sufficient described in the section "Soil Series and Their
to detrimentally affect phosphorus availability. Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the Soils
Sand fractions of 2 to 0.05 millimeters were siliceous Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
with quartz overwhelmingly dominant in all pedons. Bureau of Materials and Research.
Calcite was determined only in the Ckg2 horizon of the The testing methods generally are those of the
Perrine Variant soil. Crystalline mineral components of American Association of State Highway and
the clay fraction of less than 0.002 millimeters are Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American
reported in table 21 for major horizons of the pedons Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
sampled. The clay mineralogical suite was composed of The tests and methods are: AASHTO classification-M
montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom intergrade, kaolinite, and 145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Unified classification-
quartz. D 2487 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis-T 88 (AASHTO),
Montmorillonite occurred in all pedons sampled except D 2217 (ASTM); Liquid limit-T 89 (AASHTO), D 423
in the Perrine Variant soil. In most pedons, the clay (ASTM); Plasticity index-T 90 (AASHTO), D 424
fraction was dominated by montmorillonite. The 14- (ASTM).






87








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (14). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
or on laboratory measurements. Table 23 shows the Typic Haplaquods.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An layer or of the substratum within a series.
example is Spodosol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the In this section, each soil series recognized in the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, meaning in alphabetic order.
water, plus od, from Spodosol). Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great formed are identified for each series. The soil is
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (13). Many
the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the defined in Soil Taxonomy (14). Unless otherwise stated,
Spodosols that have an aquic moisture regime), colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. pedon description is the range of important
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The characteristics of the soils in the series.
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not The map units of each soil series are described in the
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not Archbold Series
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each The soils of the Archbold series are hyperthermic,
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. They are moderately
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective well drained, very rapidly permeable soils that formed in
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great thick deposits of marine or eolian sand. These nearly
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. level to sloping soils are on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on and other elevated knolls on the flatwoods. In most
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other years, the water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the more than 6 months but recedes to a depth of more
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where than 80 inches during drought periods. The slope
there is much biological activity. Among the properties ranges from 0 to 5 percent.






87








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (14). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
or on laboratory measurements. Table 23 shows the Typic Haplaquods.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An layer or of the substratum within a series.
example is Spodosol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the In this section, each soil series recognized in the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, meaning in alphabetic order.
water, plus od, from Spodosol). Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great formed are identified for each series. The soil is
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (13). Many
the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the defined in Soil Taxonomy (14). Unless otherwise stated,
Spodosols that have an aquic moisture regime), colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. pedon description is the range of important
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The characteristics of the soils in the series.
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not The map units of each soil series are described in the
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not Archbold Series
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each The soils of the Archbold series are hyperthermic,
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. They are moderately
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective well drained, very rapidly permeable soils that formed in
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great thick deposits of marine or eolian sand. These nearly
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. level to sloping soils are on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on and other elevated knolls on the flatwoods. In most
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other years, the water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the more than 6 months but recedes to a depth of more
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where than 80 inches during drought periods. The slope
there is much biological activity. Among the properties ranges from 0 to 5 percent.




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