• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Levy County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025720/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Levy County, Florida
Physical Description: ix, 297 p., 70 p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Slabaugh, James D
United States -- Natural Resources Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: [1996]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Levy County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Levy County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 169-171) and index to map units.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "By J. Douglas Slabaugh ... et al."--P. 1.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 97-0010-P.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025720
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002191745
notis - ALD1546
oclc - 35765446
lccn - 96223614

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Index to map units
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    How this survey was made
        Page 9
        Map unit composition
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
    General soil map units
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
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        Page 95
        Page 96
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 97
        Crops and pasture
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
        Rangeland
            Page 100
        Grazeable woodland
            Page 101
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 102
            Page 103
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 104
        Recreation
            Page 104
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 105
            Page 106
        Engineering
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
    Soil properties
        Page 113
        Engineering index properties
            Page 113
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 114
        Soil and water features
            Page 115
            Page 116
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 117
            Page 118
        Engineering index test data
            Page 119
            Page 120
    Classification of the soils
        Page 121
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 121
        Albany series
            Page 122
        Apopka series
            Page 123
        Aripeka series
            Page 123
        Astatula series
            Page 124
        Bivans series
            Page 124
        Boca series
            Page 125
        Bonneau series
            Page 126
        Bradenton series
            Page 127
        Broward series
            Page 128
        Bushnell series
            Page 128
        Candler series
            Page 129
        Cassia series
            Page 130
        Chobee series
            Page 130
        Cracker series
            Page 131
        Demory series
            Page 132
        EauGallie series
            Page 132
        Ft. Green series
            Page 133
        Gator series
            Page 134
        Hague series
            Page 135
        Hallandale series
            Page 135
        Hicoria series
            Page 136
        Holopaw series
            Page 137
        Immokalee series
            Page 137
        Janney series
            Page 138
        Jonesville series
            Page 139
        Levyville series
            Page 140
        Lochloosa series
            Page 141
        Lutterloh series
            Page 142
        Mabel series
            Page 142
        Matmon series
            Page 143
        Micanopy series
            Page 144
        Millhopper series
            Page 145
        Moriah series
            Page 146
        Myakka series
            Page 147
        Orlando series
            Page 148
        Orsino series
            Page 148
        Otela series
            Page 149
        Ousley series
            Page 150
        Paola series
            Page 151
        Pedro series
            Page 151
        Pender series
            Page 152
        Pineda series
            Page 153
        Placid series
            Page 154
        Pomello series
            Page 154
        Pomona series
            Page 155
        Pompano series
            Page 156
        Popash series
            Page 156
        Samsula series
            Page 157
        Seaboard series
            Page 158
        Shadeville series
            Page 158
        Smyrna series
            Page 159
        Sparr series
            Page 160
        Tavares series
            Page 160
        Terra Ceia series
            Page 161
        Tidewater series
            Page 161
        Waccasassa series
            Page 162
        Wauchula series
            Page 163
        Wekiva series
            Page 163
        Wulfert series
            Page 164
        Zolfo series
            Page 165
            Page 166
    Formation of the soils
        Page 167
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 167
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 168
    Reference
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
    Glossary
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
    Tables
        Page 181
        Page 182
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    General soil map
        Page 298
    Index to map sheets
        Page 299
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    Map
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Full Text

United States In cooperation with S l Sv
e. Department of University of Florida, Sl Sy
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Levy
Natural Agricultural Experiment e y
Resources Stations, and Soil and F lo
Conservation Water Science Fid
Service Department; and Florida
Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services
























N. --,






A~~0~~















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can -
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -


To find information about .
your area of interest, 1 J 4 j t
locate that area on the
Index to Map Sheets, -MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil 13
maps. Note the number of I 17.......17. -.. .-- -
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS


WaF
Locate your area of Fa
interest on the map BaC AB
sheet. Note the map unit I BacJ
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con- AREA OF INTEREST
tents), which lists the map NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
nits), w l t m survey may consist only of numbers or
units by symbol and letters, or they may be a combination
name and shows the o_ f numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal
agencies, State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil
Conservation Service) has leadership for the Federal part of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this survey was completed in 1989. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1991. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1990. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service; the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil and Water Science Department; the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services; and the Florida Department
of Transportation. It is part of the technical assistance furnished by the Levy
County Soil and Water Conservation District. The Levy County Board of
Commissioners contributed office space for the soil scientists.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Natural Resources Conservation Service are
offered on a nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national
origin, religion, sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Cattle and live oak in an area of Pedro-Jonesville-Shadeville complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes.

















i i

















Contents


Index to map units ........................ ...... v Demory series................ ............ 132
Summary of tables .............................. vii EauGallie series ........................... 132
Foreword ................. ..... ............ ix Ft. Green series ............................ 133
General nature of the county ........................ 1 Gator series .................................. 134
How this survey was made ......................... 9 Hague series ................................ 135
Map unit composition .............. ........... 10 Hallandale series ............................. 135
General soil map units .......................... 13 Hicoria series................................. 136
Detailed soil map units .......................... 25 Holopaw series ............................... 137
Use and management of the soils ............... 97 Immokalee series .......... ............. 137
Crops and pasture ............................. 97 Janney series ................................ 138
Rangeland ................. .......... 100 Jonesville series ............................. 139
Grazeable woodland .... ...................... 101 Levyville series .......... ... ............... 140
Woodland management and productivity ........ 102 Lochloosa series............................ 141
Windbreaks and environmental plantings........ 104 Lutterloh series .............................. 142
Recreation .............. .............. 104 Mabel series ................................. 142
Wildlife habitat............ ............ 105 Matmon series............................... 143
Engineering .................................. 107 Micanopy series ............. .............. 144
Soil properties ............... ................ 113 Millhopper series .............................. 145
Engineering index properties ................... 113 Moriah series ..................... ....... 146
Physical and chemical properties ............... 114 Myakka series ............ ..... ............ 147
Soil and water features ........................ 115 Orlando series ................ ............. 148
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses Orsino series ........... ...... ... ........... 148
of selected soils ................... ......... 117 Otela series ......... ........... .... ........ 149
Engineering index test data ................... 119 Ousley series................................. 150
Classification of the soils ....................... 121 Paola series.................................. 151
Soil series and their morphology .................. 121 Pedro series.................................. 151
Adamsville series ............... ........... 121 Pender series ................................ 152
Albany series................................. 122 Pineda series ......................... ..... 153
Apopka series ............................... 123 Placid series .................. ............. 154
Aripeka series .............. .... ..... ...... 123 Pomello series.............. ................. 154
Astatula series................................ 124 Pomona series .......... ............. 155
Bivans series ............................. 124 Pompano series ............................ 156
Boca series ................................. 125 Popash series .............................. 156
Bonneau series............................... 126 Samsula series .............. ................ 157
Bradenton series. ............. ............ 127 Seaboard series .............................. 158
Broward series .............................. 128 Shadeville series ............................ 158
Bushnell series ............................... 128 Smyrna series ....................... ....... 159
Candler series ............................... 129 Sparr series .................... ........... 160
Cassia series ................................. 130 Tavares series ............................... 160
Chobee series ............................... 130 Terra Ceia series ........................... 161
Cracker series ................................ 131 Tidewater series .............................. 161


iii





















Waccasassa series ......................... 162 Factors of soil formation ...................... 167
Wauchula series ................ .............. 163 Processes of soil formation .................... 168
Wekiva series ................. ............ 163 References ..................... ............ 169
Wulfert series ............................... 164 Glossary ...................... .......... 173
Zolfo series ........... ... ................ 165 Tables ........................... ............ 181
Formation of the soils ..................... 167

Issued September 1996






































iv

















Index to Map Units


2-Tavares fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes ...... 25 39-Waccasassa-Demory complex, flooded ....... 60
3-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ....... 26 40-Pineda fine sand............................ 61
4-Millhopper fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes...... 27 41-Demory sandy clay loam, occasionally
5-Immokalee fine sand ......................... 28 flooded ..................................... 62
6-Candler fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes ....... 29 42-Ousley-Albany complex, occasionally
7-Candler-Apopka complex, 1 to 5 percent flooded................................... 63
slopes............... .. ................. 30 43-Tidewater mucky clay, frequently flooded....... 64
8-Smyrna fine sand .......................... 31 45-Cracker mucky clay, frequently flooded ....... 65
9-Pomona fine sand ............................ 33 46-Chobee fine sandy loam, limestone
10-Placid fine sand ............................. 34 substratum, frequently flooded ............... 65
11-Placid and Samsula soils, depressional ........ 35 48-Lutterloh-Moriah complex, 0 to 5 percent
12-Otela-Candler complex, 1 to 5 percent slopes ................................. 66
slopes..................................... 35 49- Hicoria fine sand ........................... 67
13-Wekiva fine sand ........................... 37 50-Hicoria loamy fine sand, depressional ......... 68
14-Shadeville-Otela complex, 1 to 5 percent 51-Ft. Green-Bivans complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes...................................... 38 slopes...................................... 69
15-Holopaw-Pineda complex, frequently 55-Pedro-Jonesville-Shadeville complex, 0 to
flooded ............. .................. 39 5 percent slopes ........................... 70
16-Chobee-Gator complex, frequently flooded ..... 40 56-Moriah-Bushnell-Mabel, limestone
17-Adamsville fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .... 41 substratum, complex, 0 to 5 percent
18-Wauchula fine sand .......................... 42 slopes .................. .... .............. 72
19-Sparr fine sand .............. ........... 43 57-Paola fine sand, gently rolling ................ 73
21-Pompano fine sand ......................... 44 58-Boca-Holopaw, limestone substratum,
22- Holopaw fine sand ........................... 45 complex ............ ... ................. 74
23-Zolfo sand ................................ 46 59-Aripeka-Matmon complex ...................... 75
24-Terra Ceia muck, depressional ............... 48 60-EauGallie-Holopaw complex, limestone
25-Pits and Dumps ............................. 48 substratum ................................. 77
26-Gator and Terra Ceia soils, frequently 62-Millhopper-Bonneau complex, 1 to 5 percent
flooded.................................. 48 slopes......................... ............ 79
27-Placid and Popash soils, depressional ......... 49 65-Sparr-Lochloosa complex, 1 to 5 percent
29-Chobee-Bradenton complex, frequently slopes ......... ........... ................ .. 80
flooded................. ................... 51 66- Levyville-Shadeville complex, 2 to 5 percent
31-Jonesville-Otela-Seaboard complex, 1 to 5 slopes ................................... 81
percent slopes ............................. 52 67-Immokalee, limestone substratum-Janney
32-Otela-Tavares complex, 1 to 5 percent complex .................................... 82
slopes......................... ........... 53 68- Myakka, limestone substratum-lmmokalee
33- Wulfert muck, frequently flooded .............. 55 complex .................................... 84
34-Cassia-Pomello complex .................... 55 69-Broward-Lutterloh, limestone substratum,
35- Pineda fine sand, limestone substratum........ 56 complex.................................... 85
37-Myakka mucky sand, occasionally flooded...... 58 70-Hallandale-Boca-Holopaw complex ........... 86
38-Myakka sand ................................ 59 71-Pender loamy fine sand ......................... 88


v




















72-Levyville-Hague complex .................... 89 76-Astatula fine sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes....... 92
73-Orlando fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes ....... 90 77-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ....... 93
74-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............... 91 78-Micanopy loamy fine sand, 1 to 5 percent
75-Orlando fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ....... 91 slopes ............... ................. 94








































vi
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ................................... 182

Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2) .............. ............... 183

Growing season (table 3) ......................... ....... ......... 183

Suitability and limitations of general soil map units for major land uses
(table 4) ..................... ........................ .......... .... 184

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 5) ................... 189

Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 6) .......... 191

Woodland management and productivity (table 7) ....................... 196

Recreational development (table 8) ...................................... 211

W wildlife habitat (table 9) .......................... ............ ......... 218

Building site development (table 10) .............. ..... ....... ...... 224

Sanitary facilities (table 11) ........................ ............. ........ 231

Construction materials (table 12) ........................................ 240

Water management (table 13)........................ ................ 247

Engineering index properties (table 14) ................. .............. 257

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15)................... 270

Soil and water features (table 16) ....................................... 278

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 17)........................... 283

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 18)................ .......... 288

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 19) ............................ 293

Engineering index test data (table 20) ................ ................ 295

Classification of the soils (table 21) ..................... ................ 297
vii



















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Levy County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and
pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey
or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high
water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the
Natural Resources Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service











ix













Soil Survey of

Levy County, Florida


By J. Douglas Slabaugh, Alfred O. Jones, William E. Puckett, and Joseph N. Schuster,
Natural Resources Conservation Service

Participating in the fieldwork were Bill Anzolone, Rick Bandy, Dan Brady, Craig Ditzler,
Gordon Green, Pete Hartman, Byron Koepke, Lisa Krall, Jerry McCormack, Jim Moen,
Richard Neilson, Paul Pilney, Neal Svendsen, Dave Trochlell, and Steve Wangeman,
Natural Resources Conservation Service, and David Tufvesson, University of Minnesota

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil and Water Science Department; the Florida Department of
Transportation; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services



LEVY COUNTY is in the northwestern part of the
Florida Peninsula (fig. 1). It is bordered on the
northwest by Dixie County, on the north by Gilchrist
County, on the northeast by Alachua County, on the o
east by Marion County, on the south by Citrus County, Talla
and on the west by the Gulf of Mexico. The
northwestern boundary of Levy County is the Suwannee
River, and the southern boundary is the Withlacoochee
River. Bronson is the county seat. It is in the
northeastern part of Levy County.
The total area of Levy County is 749,478 acres, or
approximately 1,171 square miles. Of this total,
approximately 703,718 acres is land and small areas of
water. Large shallow lakes and waterways make up the
remaining acreage.
The main economic enterprises in the county are
related to agriculture. They include the production of
timber, hay, livestock, and truck and row crops.

General Nature of the County
This section provides general information about
environmental and cultural factors that affect the use
and management of soils in Levy County. It describes Figure 1.-Location of Levy County in Florida.







2 Soil Survey


climate, history and development, physiography and 65 percent of the time possible in summer and 60
geomorphology, geology and stratigraphy, water percent in winter. The prevailing wind is from the
resources, mineral resources, farming, and southwest. Average windspeed is highest, 8 miles per
transportation facilities, hour, in March and April (26, 27).

Climate History and Development
The climate of Levy County is characterized by long, Noreen Andrews, librarian, Bronson Public Library, prepared this
warm, humid summers. Winters are generally warm, but section.
have occasional invasions of cool air from the north. In the early 1600's Timucuan Indians had villages
Rainfall occurs throughout the year, and precipitation is throughout the area that is now Levy County. In the
adequate for all crops. On rare occasions hurricanes early 1800's when European settlers arrived in the area,
occur in the area. the Tallohasotte Indians had settled at Clay Landing.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation The Armed Occupation Act of 1842 offered land to
for the survey area as recorded at Cross City in the people who would settle in the area. Many of the oldest
period 1951 to 1980. Table 2 shows probable dates of families from the southeastern states received land at
the first freeze in fall and the last freeze in spring. Table this time. The area that is now Levy County was part of
3 provides data on length of the growing season. Alachua County when Florida became a territory of the
In winter, the average temperature is 54 degrees F United States in March of 1822. Levy County was
and the average daily minimum temperature is 41 formed when Florida gained statehood in March of
degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which 1845. It was named for David Yulee Levy, a resident of
occurred at Usher Tower on January 22, 1985, is 9 Levy County who was Florida's first U.S. Senator. David
degrees. In summer, the average temperature is 80 Levy was responsible for bringing the first railroad to
degrees and the average daily maximum temperature is Florida. The railroad was completed in 1861. It
91 degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which connected Fernandina in northeastern Florida and
occurred at Usher Tower on June 4, 1985, is 103 Cedar Key in Levy County. Levyville was the original
degrees, county seat, but Bronson became the county seat in
Growing degree days are shown in table 1. They are 1869.
equivalent to "heat units." During the month, growing Atsenie Otie, a small island in the Gulf of Mexico off
degree days accumulate by the amount that the the coast of Cedar Key, had a depot and a hospital that
average temperature each day exceeds a base were built by Union troops during the Civil War. The
temperature (50 degrees F). The normal monthly Union troops patrolled the waters of the Suwannee
accumulation is used to schedule single or successive River and the Gulf of Mexico to prevent cotton
plantings of a crop between the last freeze in spring shipments from reaching Confederate ports. The
and the first freeze in fall. population of Atsenie Otie later grew to nearly 5,000.
The total annual precipitation is about 57 inches. Of Most of these people were employed by the pencil
this, 37 inches, or 65 percent, usually falls in April factory that was established in 1880 to make use of the
through September. The growing season for most crops abundant cedar trees in the area.
is included in this period. In 2 years out of 10, the Many of the small communities that were established
rainfall in April through September is less than 30 along the early railroad line no longer exist. Present-day
inches. The heaviest 24-hour rainfall was 38.7 inches at towns are growing. Cedar Key has commercial fishing
Yankeetown on September 5-6, 1950, which is a record and tourism. Gulf Hammock also provides excellent
for the nation. Thunderstorms occur on about 83 days opportunities for recreational and sporting activities. It
each year, and most occur in June and July. has approximately 132,000 acres, most of which is
Snowfall is rare. In 99 percent of the winters, there is timberland. Yankeetown and Inglis are on the
no measurable snowfall. In 1 percent, the snowfall, Withlacoochee River. The town of Crystal River has a
usually of short duration, is less than 1 inch. nuclear power plant that is important to the economy of
Temperatures of 32 degrees F or less occur on an the area.
average of 29 days per year. Levy County is primarily rural. Agriculture, fishing,
The average relative humidity in midafternoon is and timber production form the economic basis for the
about 55 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the area.
average at dawn is about 90 percent. The sun shines








Levy County, Florida 3

GILCHRIST COUNTY
N *EXPLANATION
I ALACHUA COUNTY
--- -, I TOWN
S-. U.S. HIGHWAY
S-- --' STATE/COUNTY ROAD
-1 i WELL LOCATION
SW-1581' 1 CROSS SECTION LOCATION
GEOMORPHIC ZONES
-j 7- MODIFIED AFTER VERNON(1951) AND WHITE(1970).
CENTRAL HIGHLANDS
^ Y W-1850 W-871 WESTERN VALLEY-
'-WILLISTON LIMESTONE PLAIN
/s, W-1245 W7421I
'. ..BROOKSVILLE RIDGE
: w-3 : GULF COASTAL LOWLANDS

... WACCASASSA FLATS
S- LIMESTONE SHELF
: i. AND HAMMOCKS

'' i.i::'' i: .: i CHIEFLAND LIMESTONE PLAIN
O -- W2 SCALE SUWANNEE RIVER VALLEY
..-12. LOWLANDS

O A .. r. -COASTAL MARSHES
CITRUS COUNTY

Figure 2.-Geologic cross sections in Levy County, Florida. The numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers.



Physiography and Geomorphology the central Florida Peninsula. Two geomorphic
subdivisions of the Central Highlands subzone are in
Frank R. Rupert, geologist, Florida Geological Survey, prepared Levy County. They are the Western Valley and the
this section and the sections on geology and stratigraphy, water Brooksville Ridge geomorphic subdivisions.
resources, and mineral resources. The Western Valley geomorphic subdivision borders
Levy County is near the northern edge of the Mid- the eastern edge of Levy County (30). It includes the
peninsular Zone (30). This zone spans the Florida local area of the Williston Limestone Plain (29). The
Peninsula from the lower edge of the topographically terrain is characteristically a gently rolling karst
higher Northern Highlands southward to approximately limestone plain overlain by a thin blanket of Pleistocene
the Caloosahatchee River. The Mid-peninsular Zone is sands and containing pockets of phosphatic Alachua
divided into a series of geomorphic subzones that are Formation sediments. Outcrops of the underlying
differentiated by elevation. Two of these subzones are Eocene limestones are common. Elevations on the
in Levy County. They are the Central Highlands and the Williston Limestone Plain in Levy County generally
Gulf Coastal Lowlands subzones (30). Figure 2 shows range from 60 to 90 feet above mean sea level.
geologic cross sections in Levy County, and figures 3 The Brooksville Ridge geomorphic subdivision
and 4 illustrate the underlying stratigraphy of these extends from northeastern Gilchrist County southward
cross sections. through eastern Levy County and terminates 110 miles
The Central Highlands subzone includes a series of to the south in Pasco County. In Levy County the ridge
highlands and ridges that are separated by valleys, all sediments overlie highly karstic Eocene limestone. The
of which generally parallel the coastline down through core of the ridge is largely comprised of Pleistocene








4 Soil Survey


A A'
03
00 0> 00
I--LU 0C0 .,- 00)

20 I3 .
50 CHIEFLAND LIMESTONE
PLAIN
= NDIFFERENTIATED LIMESTONE PLAIN
SANDS AND HAMMOCKS
MEAN
0 0 SEA
LEVEL OCALA GROUP
OCALA GROUP ',
-50
-20





--150
MILES

-60 SCALE | I l 1 '
-200 0 2 4 6 8
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION IS 440 FEET 600 FEET KILOMETERS
350 TIMES TRUE SCALE. TD440 FEET T
WELL NUMBERS ARE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL
SURVEY ACCESSION NUMBERS.

Figure 3.-Geologic cross section A-A' in Levy County. The numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers. "T.D." means total depth.



siliciclastics and is capped by a depression-pocked Suwannee River Valley Lowlands, and the Coastal
rolling plain of Pleistocene marine sands. Surface Marsh Belt geomorphic subdivisions (29).
elevations range from 60 feet above mean sea level at The Waccasassa Flats is a low, swampy area that is
the western edge of the ridge to approximately 135 feet generally about 5 miles wide and 25 miles long. It
above mean sea level in areas of the crest. extends from the Santa Fe River in Gilchrist County
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands subzone parallels the southeastward into central Levy County (29). Elevations
Gulf Coast of Florida from Fort Myers northward and average about 55 feet above mean sea level throughout
then westward around the Big Bend to the Alabama most of the flats. However, isolated sandhills that are
State line. In the vicinity of Levy County, the Gulf possibly associated with Wicomico marine terrace
Coastal Lowlands extend inland from the Gulf of Mexico deposits and the Brooksville Ridge reach elevations of
distances of between 15 and 30 miles, terminating at nearly 70 feet above mean sea level. At the southern
the western edge of the Brooksville Ridge. The Gulf terminus of the flats, the zone broadens to about 14
Coastal Lowlands in Levy County are characterized by miles in width and elevations decrease to 30 feet above
broad, flat marine erosional plains that are underlain by mean sea level as the flats merge into the hammocks of
Eocene limestones and blanketed by thin Pleistocene southwestern Levy County. The Waccasassa River,
sands deposited by the regressing Gulf of Mexico. which originates as a poorly defined channel in the
Elevations within this province range from mean sea swamps, lakes, and titi ponds in northern Levy County,
level at the Gulf shoreline to about 60 feet above mean drains the lower reaches of the Waccasassa Flats. It
sea level near the Brooksville Ridge. Levy County flows southwestward and empties into the Gulf of
includes several geomorphic subdivisions of the Gulf Mexico. The upper portion of the Waccasassa River
Coastal Lowlands subzone. These include the flows in a poorly defined channel in sandy alluvium.
Waccasassa Flats, the Limestone Shelf and West of U.S. Highway 19 the river is incised into a
Hammocks, the Chiefland Limestone Plain, the limestone channel. A narrow Holocene flood plain of








Levy County, Florida 5


mud and sand occurs near the coast where the river Inland, the limestone rises gently to an elevation of
merges with the coastal swamps. about 20 feet above mean sea level. The area is
The origin of the Waccasassa Flats is uncertain. The heavily forested. Numerous artesian springs flow from
flats could be a remnant stream valley, possibly of the the near-surface limestone, and during periods of heavy
ancestral Suwannee River, or they could be of erosional rainfall, much of the area floods to form a shallow
marine origin (29). The predominance of relict marine swamp. Drainage from the coastal hammocks occurs
features throughout the flats supports the theory of through numerous small creeks and sloughs, which
marine origin (14). empty into the coastal marshes.
The Limestone Shelf and Hammocks geomorphic The Chiefland Limestone Plain is the flat, karstic
subdivision includes the Pamlico Terrace (29). It is limestone shelf in northwestern Levy County that is
characterized by a highly karstic, erosional limestone associated with the Wicomico Terrace of the
plain overlain by sand dunes, ridges, and sand belts Pleistocene age (29). It extends from Gilchrist County
along ancient shorelines that parallel the coastline and southward into Levy County and terminates at the
are associated with the Pleistocene-age Pamlico marine Limestone Shelf and Hammocks subdivision. It is
terrace (approximately 10 to 25 feet above mean sea bounded by the Waccasassa Flats on the east. The
level). The irregular, highly solutioned limestone of terrain is generally flat to rolling. It is characterized by a
Eocenetage that underlies this area is covered by a veneer of well drained Pleistocene sands, generally less
layer of Pleistocene sands. Near the coast the than 30 feet thick, that overlie the solutioned Eocene
limestone shelf is covered by the coastal marshes, limestones. Elevations range from 25 feet above mean




U B B'
LU I- -
J z

40- c
o BROOKSVILLE Z T"
-100 RIDGE

20- C0 g "
-so50
o UNDIFFERENTIATED

MEAN GROUP
0-0 SEA
LEVEL

OCALA
--50
-20

_v100 FORMATION
--100

-40 ANVON
--150
MILES
012345
SCALE I -1-- I I -
-60-- 200 0 2 4 6 8
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION IS 350 TIMES TRUE SCALE. T.D.=600 FEET T.D.=569 FEET KILOMETERS
WELL NUMBERS ARE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
ACCESSION NUMBERS.

Figure 4.--Geologic cross section B-B' in Levy County. The numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers. "T.D." means total depth.







6 Soil Survey


sea level at the southern edge of the plain to nearly 50 occur in two large areas. The first area is around and
feet above mean sea level at the Levy-Gilchrist County west of the town of Gulf Hammock, and the second
line. extends from directly south of Lebanon Station
The Suwannee River forms the northwestern southeastward into Citrus County. According to Florida
boundary of Levy County and empties into the Gulf of Geological Survey in-house well files, oil test wells,
Mexico. This river flows in a solution valley, formed in which have penetrated the entire Avon Park Formation
the near-surface Eocene limestones. The Suwannee section under Levy County, reveal a total thickness for
River Valley Lowlands geomorphic subzone is this formation of approximately 800 to 1,100 feet.
immediately adjacent to the river. A thin veneer of The Ocala Group consists of marine limestones that
Holocene alluvium and exposed limestone forms the unconformably overlie the Avon Park Formation in all of
base of this subzone (29). The broadly meandering Levy County except along the crest of the Ocala
valley is less than 1 mile wide over most of its course, Platform, where the younger limestones erosionally
broadening to about 2.5 miles wide just northwest of pinch out against the Avon Park Formation (12, 29). In
Chiefland. Valley floor elevations average about 5 feet ascending order, the Ocala Group consists of the Inglis
above mean sea level. Along its lower stretch, the river Formation, the Williston Formation, and the Crystal
valley is covered by marshes of the Coastal Marsh Belt River Formation. These formations are differentiated on
zone. the basis of lithology and fossil content. Typically, the
The Coastal Marsh Belt is situated on the drowned, lithology of the Ocala Group grades from the alternating
seaward edge of the Eocene limestone shelf that hard and soft, white, tan, and gray, fossiliferous and
underlies Levy County. Elevations are less than 5 feet dolomitic limestones of the Inglis Formation and the
above mean sea level. The gentle slope of the lower Williston Formation to the white and cream,
limestone plain results in a very broad, shallow abundantly fossiliferous, chalky limestones of the upper
continental shelf off the Florida Big Bend. Sediments Williston Formation and the Crystal River Formation.
are predominantly muds and alluvial sands. Partially Foraminifera, mollusks, bryozoans, and echinoids are
because of an inadequate amount of sand, this area the most abundant fossils in sediments of the Ocala
has virtually no beaches (19). Marshes of juncus and Group.
spartina grasses fringe the coastline. A series of small The thickness of the Ocala Group sediments in Levy
islets or keys, comprised of limestone pinnacles or County averages about 100 feet. In the vicinity of Gulf
alluvial sand, are common offshore from the coast. Hammock and south of Lebanon Station, the Ocala
Group thins and pinches out against the structurally
Geology and Stratigraphy high Avon Park Formation. Depth to the irregular and
highly solutioned top of the Ocala Group is generally
The oldest rock commonly penetrated by wells in less than 50 feet. In western Levy County and offshore
Levy County is marine limestone of the Avon Park along the coast, a thin layer of sand covers the
Formation of Eocene age. Undifferentiated surficial limestone and exposures in the form of limestone
sands, clayey sands, and alluvium of Pleistocene to boulders and pinnacles are common. Surface
Holocene age are the youngest sediments. The Avon exposures also are common east of the Brooksville
Park Formation and the younger limestone overlying it Ridge on the Williston Limestone Plain.
are important freshwater aquifers. The paragraphs that Because of their permeable and cavernous nature,
follow describe the sediments of Eocene age and the Ocala Group limestones are important freshwater-
younger. bearing units of the Floridian aquifer system. Many
The Avon Park Formation is a lithologically variable wells in Levy County draw drinking water from the
carbonate unit of middle Eocene age that underlies all upper units of this group.
of Levy County (11). It is typically tan, buff, and brown The Alachua Formation is a complex unit. It was
dolomite that is commonly interbedded with white, light originally defined as only the sand and clay infillings in
cream, and yellowish gray limestones and dolomitic the older karst depressions or stream channels (6). The
limestones and contains varying amounts of peat, formation was later considered to be a mixture of
lignite, and plant remains according to Florida discontinuous, interbedded clay, sand, and sandy clay,
Geological Survey bulletins and in-house lithologic files including commercially important phosphatic sand and
(29). Mollusks, echinoids, and foraminifera, where gravel sediments (29, 13). In Levy County the Alachua
preserved, are the principal fossils. The top of this Formation underlies areas of the Brooksville Ridge.
formation varies in depth from surface outcrop along the Scattered remnants of the formation occupy
crest of the Ocala Platform to nearly 150 feet in depressions in the Williston Limestone Plain and along
northern and eastern Levy County. Surface exposures the northeast edge of the Chiefland Limestone Plain








Levy County, Florida 7


(29). The lithology is highly diverse. On a regional are relict dunes, bars, and barrier islands associated
basis, the base of the formation contains minable ore with various Pleistocene stands at sea level. The higher
and is a rubble of phosphatic rock, silicified limestone crests on the Brooksville Ridge, more than 100 feet
float, silicified wood, and occasional vertebrate fossils in above mean sea level, are associated with the
a matrix of cream, gray, and greenish gray clays and Sunderland and Okefenokee Terraces (9). With the
phosphatic clays (29). Quartz sandy phosphatic clay of exception of the Suwannee River Valley Lowlands,
varying thickness overlies this bed. which is part of the Pamlico and Silver Bluff Terraces,
The phosphate rock is a minor constituent of the and the Limestone Shelf and Plain, which contains
Alachua Formation. Mining this rock was economically Penholoway, Talbot, and Pamlico Terrace deposits, the
feasible for many years. The rock occurs in various surficial siliciclastic sediments that occur throughout the
modes, including clay- to boulder-sized clasts and rest of Levy County are Wicomico terrace deposits
replacements of limestone and laminated phosphate (29, 9).
(plate rock). Because the Alachua Formation was A white to gray, fossiliferous, freshwater marl
deposited on the eroded, highly karstic, and possibly commonly occurs along the banks and in the valleys of
faulted surface of the Ocala Group limestones, its the Withlacoochee and Suwannee Rivers. This marl
thickness varies considerably over short distances. generally contains an abundant freshwater mollusk
Most of the minable deposits are on the eastern edge of fauna of Holocene age and can range to 4 feet in
the Brooksville Ridge. thickness (29, 14). Quartz sand and mud alluvium of
The origin and age of the Alachua Formation are Holocene age form bars and form the base of the
uncertain. According to one theory, the formation is an valleys of most major streams in Levy County.
in situ accumulation of weathered Hawthorn Group
sediments of Miocene age (5). According to another Water Resources
theory, the formation originated as a largely terrestrial
deposit consisting of lacustrine and fluviatile Three major rivers pass through Levy County and
components (13). One suggestion is that it was empty into the Gulf of Mexico. These are the Suwannee
deposited in an estuarine environment (4). According to River in the northwestern part of the county, the
a more recent theory, the Alachua Formation is Waccasassa River in the central part, and the
weathered and possibly reworked Hawthorn Group Withlacoochee River in the southern part. The
sediments but is not part of the Hawthorn Group (16). Suwannee and Withlacoochee Rivers are navigable by
An age range of Miocene to Pleistocene, based motorboat throughout Levy County. The Waccasassa
primarily on vertebrate fossils, has been postulated for River is navigable for a distance of only about 5 miles
the Alachua Formation. This wide range tends to upstream from its mouth. Numerous small streams and
support the concept that the Alachua Formation creeks transect the coastal limestone shelf and feed
consists of time-transgressive, reworked sediments in into these three rivers or directly into the Gulf of
which younger vertebrate fauna were incorporated Mexico. Rivers and creeks are conspicuously absent in
during each successive deposition, areas of the Chiefland and Williston Limestone Plains
Much of the core of the Brooksville Ridge in Levy and the Brooksville Ridge. However, these areas are
County consists of reddish, clayey coarse sands. The adequately drained by networks of underground caverns
sands are lithologically similar to those of the Citronelle that are fed by numerous sinkholes and solution pipes
Formation of the Panhandle and the Cypresshead that extend to the surface. Freshwater springs are
Formation of peninsular Florida, which are both another common phenomena in the area. Four large
considered to be of late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene springs and numerous smaller ones are scattered
age. For the purposes of this survey, these variably throughout the county. Manatee Spring, near Chiefland,
colored red, orange, and pink siliciclastics, some of and Fanning Spring, near the town of Fanning Springs,
which contain fossil burrows, are considered feed into the Suwannee River. Blue Spring, near
undifferentiated Plio-Pleistocene sediments. Bronson, and Wekiva Spring, near the town of Gulf
Undifferentiated Pleistocene marine quartz sands and Hammock, feed into the Waccasassa River. Manatee
clayey sands form a thin veneer over all of Levy Spring, the largest of the four springs, pours out 116.9
County. In the western part of the county and on the million gallons of crystal clear water each day.
Williston Limestone Plain, these sands are generally Numerous shallow lakes and marshes are throughout
less than 20 feet thick and directly overlie the Ocala the county.
Group limestone. In east-central Levy County, they cap Two main aquifer systems underlie Levy County.
reddish coarse clastics and the Alachua Formation. These are the surficial aquifer system and the
Many of the larger and higher sand bodies in the county underlying Floridian aquifer system. Water in these







8 Soil Survey


aquifers is derived mainly from precipitation in Levy and seeps in areas along the river valley lowlands and
County and the adjoining counties, on hammocks and in the coastal marsh belt.
The surficial aquifer system is the uppermost
freshwater aquifer in Levy County. It is nonartesian and Mineral Resources
is contained within the interbedded sands and clays of
the Alachua Formation and the overlying Plio- This section provides information on the extent of
Pleistocene siliciclastics and marine terrace sands and the mining potential for mineral commodities in
directly overlying the Ocala Group limestone. Generally, Levy County. The principal mineral commodities are
the surficial aquifer system ranges from 10 to 50 feet in sand, phosphate, limestone, dolomite, and clay.
thickness. The thicker portions are located under the A number of shallow, private pits in Levy County are
higher geomorphic sand ridges of central and eastern mined for fill sand and aggregate. Sand deposits of
Levy County. The surficial aquifer system is unconfined, Pleistocene age occur as thin veneers over the
and its upper surface is the water table. Generally, the limestone plains and in thicker concentrations in the
elevation of the water table fluctuates with the rate of marine terrace deposits on and adjacent to the
precipitation and conforms to the topography of the land Brooksville Ridge. Since the local demand for sand
surface. The surficial aquifer system is largely products is insufficient, the potential for commercial
recharged through rainfall that percolates downward mining is low at this time.
through the loose surficial siliciclastic sediments and, to Phosphatic sands, clays, and limestones of the
a lesser extent, through upward seepage from the Alachua Formation deposits along the Brooksville Ridge
underlying Floridian aquifer system. The surficial aquifer have been mined since the early 1900's. Hard rock
system may yield quantities of water suitable for phosphate, a calcium fluorapatite mixture, occurs as a
consumption, but in some areas concentrations of iron replacement of limestone float contained in basal
and tannic acid can impart a poor taste and color to the Alachua Formation sediments and on top of the Ocala
water. Group. The clays within the Alachua Formation contain
The Floridian aquifer system is comprised of colloidal phosphate and make up what is termed soft
thousands of feet of Eocene marine limestone, including rock phosphate.
the Avon Park Formation and the Ocala Group. It is the Historically, hard rock phosphate mining in Levy
principal source of drinking water in Levy County. It County has been concentrated along the Brooksville
occurs as an unconfined, nonartesian aquifer in portions Ridge and in areas of the Williston Limestone Plain
of western, northern, and eastern Levy County, where (29). Presently, no active phosphate mines are in the
porous Pleistocene quartz sand directly overlies the county. Although deposits probably still exist under the
limestone. In areas of east-central and eastern Levy Brooksville Ridge, future mining activity will depend
County, where clay beds in the Alachua Formation and largely on the market prices of phosphate and the
undifferentiated Pleistocene siliciclastics form confining economic stability of the phosphate industry.
units that are slowly permeable, the Floridian may Avon Park Formation dolomite is near the surface in
function as an artesian aquifer. Depth to the top of the the vicinity of the town of Gulf Hammock and southward
Floridian aquifer generally corresponds to the depth to almost to the Citrus County line. Two companies
limestone. It ranges from less than 5 feet in the coastal currently operate pits near Gulf Hammock. The
marshes and in the valleys of the Suwannee and extracted dolomite is used as concrete aggregate and
Waccasassa Rivers to nearly 50 feet under the soil conditioner and as filler in bituminous mixes (10).
Brooksville Ridge. The potentiometric gradient is Ocala Group limestones are near the surface under
generally west-southwestward. The Floridian aquifer most of Levy County. High-purity rock of road base
system in Levy County is recharged by the percolation quality is concentrated in the Chiefland and Williston
of rainfall through the permeable surficial sands in the Limestone Plains. Aggregate and secondary road base
northwestern and eastern parts of the county. The grades form the base of the Limestone Shelf and
slowly permeable siliciclastics under the Waccasassa Hammocks and the Coastal Marshes of western Levy
Flats retard downward percolation and result in only low County. Three companies currently operate quarries in
or moderate recharge in this area (17). Discharge the Williston area. The Levy County Road Department
occurs in areas on the coastal limestone shelf, on extracts road base material from small, local pits.
coastal hammocks, and on coastal marshes because Because of the extensive deposits of limestone in the
the potentiometric surface of the Floridian aquifer county, the potential for mining is high.
system is at or near land surface. Water leaves the Deposits of clay and sandy clay are associated with
Floridian aquifer system through natural gradient and Wicomico and Pamlico Terrace deposits in Levy County
subsequent discharge through the numerous springs (29). Most of these deposits are contained in and







Levy County, Florida 9


interbedded with other sediments, usually on a very 19, U.S. Highway 27, and U.S. Highway 41, pass
irregular limestone surface. Therefore, the clay deposits through the county. Numerous State and county roads
can vary considerably in lithology and thickness. Clays serve most parts of the county. Freight rail service is
tested from two locations in Levy County showed poor available in the eastern and northern parts of the
strength characteristics, precluding their use in county. No passenger rail service is available. Williston
structural products (29). However, by mixing the Municipal Airport, near Williston, has runway facilities
products and adding fluxes, a pottery-grade clay was capable of handling large passenger and cargo planes
produced. Reserve estimates have not been made, and but does not receive scheduled flights. A small public
the future exploitation of Levy County clay deposits will landing strip is in Cedar Key. The county also has
depend largely on more extensive exploration and several private landing strips that are capable of
testing, as well as market demand. handling small- to medium-sized planes. No scheduled
An extensive deposit of limonite, an iron-oxide airline service is available in the county. Passenger bus
mineral, occupies solution depressions in the Ocala service is available. A terminal is operated near
Group limestones in an area northeast of Chiefland. A Chiefland.
section of limonite nodules that is 20 feet in thickness is
in a pit east of Chiefland. An estimated reserve of
50,000 tons is available in the area (29). The most How This Survey Was Made
feasible use would be as ochre pigment in paint. Local This survey was made to provide information about
This survey was made to provide information about
residents claim that the Confederates operated a
residents claim that the Confederates operated a the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
smelting furnace in the area during the Civil War and description of the soils and their location and a
produced iron from the deposit (29). description of the soils and their location and a
produced iron from the deposit (29). .
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
F i management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
Farming scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
About 108,000 acres, or 15.3 percent of the total slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of
area of Levy County, is used for pasture or crops. The crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the
principal crops are watermelons, peanuts, sorghum, kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil
corn, soybeans, and small grain. Some tobacco also is profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or
grown. Cattle, hogs, and horses are the main livestock, horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface
Pensacola bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass are down into the unconsolidated material from which the
the most common pasture grasses used for grazing or soil formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of
hay. roots and other living organisms and has not been
Much of the cropland in Levy County is drought. changed by other biological activity.
Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used to The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly
produce many crops. Wind erosion generally is a pattern that is related to the geology, landforms, relief,
problem if cropland is unprotected. Protective climate, and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind of
measures, such as installing windstrips or field soil is associated with a particular kind of landscape or
windbreaks, are generally recommended. with a segment of the landscape. By observing the soils
Historically, farming in Levy County has been in the survey area and relating their position to specific
dominated by pasture and row crop rotations and by the segments of the landscape, a soil scientist develops a
production of pine trees. Future farming trends will concept, or model, of how the soils were formed. Thus,
probably include a gradual decrease in pasture and row during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to
crop production as urban development and woodland predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind
production increase to meet demands. of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
The Levy County Soil and Water Conservation Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
District was organized in 1947 to provide an organized into one another as their characteristics gradually
system for assisting farmers, land users, and public change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
agencies with problems related to soil and water soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
conservation, the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
Tra station Facilities supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
Transportation landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
Levy County is served by good transportation predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
facilities. Three major Federal highways, U.S. Highway determine the boundaries.







10 Soil Survey


A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system and hand soil will have a high water table within certain depths in
transects were used to document the type and most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
variability of the soils occurring in map units (7). The table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
GPR system was used successfully on selected soils to specific date.
measure the depth to and determine the variability of After soil scientists located and identified the
major soil horizons or other soil features. Random significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
transects were made with the GPR and by hand in Levy drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
County. The data collected were used to classify the photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
soils and to determine the composition on map units. Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
The map units, as described in the section entitled and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
"Detailed Soil Map Units," are based on this data. accurately.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, Map Unit Composition
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
other features that enable them to identify soils. After area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
describing the soils in the survey area and determining dominated by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to identified and named according to the taxonomic
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils the soils are natural objects. In common with other
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
confirm data and assemble additional data based on soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
experience and research, other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
of the soils in the area are generally collected for In the general soil map units, they are called soils of
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil minor extent.
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
the soils are field tested through observation of the soils inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
in different uses under different levels of management. map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
and some new interpretations are developed to meet or require different management. These are contrasting
local needs. Data are assembled from other sources, (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
such as research information, production records, and areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
field experience of specialists. For example, data on because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
crop yields under defined levels of management are of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
assembled from farm records and from field or plot descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
experiments on the same kinds of soil. observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
soil properties but also on such variables as climate complex that it was impractical to make enough
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable landscape.
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.







Levy County, Florida 11


The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the information for the development of resource plans, but
landscape into segments that have similar use and onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
management requirements. The delineation of such in small areas.









13








General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication 1. Candler-Astatula-Apopka
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general Nearly level to gently rolling, well drained and
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it excessively drained, sandy soils; some are loamy or
consists of one or more major soils and some minor have lamellae between depths of 40 and 80 inches
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making This map unit is on sandy uplands in the eastern part
up one unit can occur in another but in a different of the county. The landscape is characterized by
pattern, dunelike hills and swales. The natural vegetation
The general soil map can be used to compare the consists mainly of turkey oak, live oak, bluejack oak,
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of post oak, and longleaf pine in the overstory and
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, wiregrass, bluestems, blackberry, Spanish bayonet,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. Florida rosemary, and scattered saw palmetto in the
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for understory.
planning the management of a farm or field or for This map unit makes up 91,800 acres, or about 13
selecting a site for a road or a building or other percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 79
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from percent Candler soils, 14 percent Astatula soils, 4
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other percent Apopka soils, and 3 percent soils of minor
characteristics that affect management. extent.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
potential for major land uses. Table 4 shows the extent surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand to a
of the map units shown on the general soil map. It depth of about 8 inches. The subsurface layer is fine
shows the suitability for crops and pasture and the sand. It is light yellowish brown to a depth of about 19
potential productivity for woodland in relation to that of inches, brownish yellow to a depth of 37 inches, and
the other map units. It lists limitation ratings for some of very pale brown to a depth of 52 inches. The subsoil
the major urban uses and shows soil properties that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is very pale
limit these uses. Ratings are given for individual soils, brown fine sand and has many thin horizontal lenses of
and an average rating is given for each association. brownish yellow loamy fine sand.
Each map unit is rated for cultivated crops, pasture, Astatula soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
and woodland. Cultivated crops are those grown surface layer is dark gray fine sand to a depth of about
extensively in the survey area. Pasture refers to 5 inches. The underlying material to a depth of 80
introduced pasture plants commonly utilized in the inches or more is yellow fine sand.
survey area. Woodland refers to areas managed for Apopka soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
pine trees. layer is grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown fine sand to a
Nearly Level to Gently Rolling, Well Drained and depth of about 10 inches, light yellowish brown fine
Excessively Drained Soils on Sandy Uplands sand to a depth of 45 inches, very pale brown fine sand
These soils are dominantly nearly level to gently to a depth of 60 inches, and reddish yellow loamy fine
rolling, well drained to excessively drained, and sandy. sand to a depth of 71 inches. The subsoil extends to a
They make up 99,760 acres, or about 14 percent of the depth of 80 inches or more. It is strong brown sandy
county. They are in the east-central part of the county, clay loam.
in areas extending from Marion County in the south to Of minor extent in this map unit are Adamsville,
Alachua County in the north. Millhopper, Orlando, Placid, Popash, Sparr, and
Tavares soils.







14 Soil Survey


Most areas of this map unit are idle and support vegetation consists mainly of live oak, bluejack oak,
natural vegetation. Some areas are used for pasture, laurel oak, magnolia, loblolly pine, slash pine, and
cropland, or the production of pine trees. Other areas longleaf pine in the overstory and blackberry, pineland
have been subdivided for residential development, threeawn, greenbrier, American beautyberry,
brackenfern, bluestems, and scattered saw palmetto
2. Orlando and cabbage-palm in the understory.
This map unit makes up 98,350 acres, or about 13
Nearly level to gently rolling, well drained, sandy soils percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 47
This map unit is on sandy uplands in the eastern part percent Otela soils, 16 percent Candler soils, 13
of the county. The landscape is characterized by percent Tavares soils, and 24 percent soils of minor
dunelike hills and swales. The natural vegetation is extent.
dominantly live oak, laurel oak, bluejack oak, slash Typically, the surface layer of the Otela soils is dark
pine, longleaf pine, and scattered turkey oak in the grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
overstory and blackberry, pineland threeawn, Spanish subsurface layer is fine sand. It is brown to a depth of
bayonet, brackenfern, bluestems, and scattered saw about 21 inches, very pale brown to a depth of 32
palmetto in the understory. inches, and white to a depth of 50 inches. The subsoil
This map unit makes up 7,960 acres, or about 1 is brownish yellow fine sandy loam to a depth of about
percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 91 61 inches, brownish yellow sandy clay loam to a depth
percent Orlando soils and 9 percent soils of minor of 68 inches, and light gray sandy clay loam to a depth
extent, of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Orlando soils is Typically, the surface layer of the Candler soils is
very dark gray fine sand about 11 inches thick. The grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
underlying material is fine sand. It is dark brown to a subsurface layer is fine sand. It is grayish brown to a
depth of about 28 inches, dark yellowish brown to a depth of about 14 inches, pale brown to a depth of 30
depth of 34 inches, strong brown to a depth of 72 inches, and very pale brown to a depth of 75 inches.
inches, and light yellowish brown to a depth of 80 The subsoil is white fine sand and has common thin
inches or more. horizontal lenses of yellowish brown loamy fine sand. It
Of minor extent in this map unit are Adamsville, extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Apopka, Candler, Bonneau, Millhopper, Placid, Popash, Typically, the surface layer of the Tavares soils is
Sparr, and Tavares soils. dark grayish brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or underlying material is fine sand. It is grayish brown to a
cropland. Other areas have been subdivided for depth of about 18 inches, pale brown to a depth of 38
residential development or are used for the production inches, very pale brown to a depth of 48 inches, and
of pine trees. white to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Bonneau,
Nearly Level to Gently Sloping, Poorly Drained to Hicoria, Jonesville, Lochloosa, Lutterloh, Millhopper,
Excessively Drained Soils on Sandy and Loamy Moriah, Pedro, Placid, Popash, Shadeville, Seaboard,
Uplands and Sparr soils.
These soils are dominantly poorly drained to well Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or
drained. They have a clayey or loamy subsoil or have cropland. Other areas are used for the production of
bedrock at a depth of 4 to more than 80 inches. They pine trees or have been subdivided for residential
make up 151,085 acres, or about 14 percent of the development.
county. They are mostly in the northern, northwestern,
and eastern parts of the county. 4. Jonesville-Pedro-Shadeville

3. Otela-Candler-Tavares Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
and well drained, sandy soils that are very shallow to
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained very deep over bedrock; some are loamy within a depth
and excessively drained, sandy soils; some are loamy or of 20 to 40 inches
have lamellae between depths of 40 and 80 inches This map unit is on karst uplands in the eastern part
This map unit is on karst uplands in the eastern and of the county. The landscape is characterized by low
northern parts of the county and on two small ridges in hills and swales and some sinkholes. The natural
the southern part. The landscape is characterized by vegetation consists mainly of laurel oak, live oak, slash
low hills and swales and some sinkholes. The natural pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, magnolia, sweetgum,







Levy County, Florida 15


hickory, and eastern redcedar in the overstory and blackberry, pineland threeawn, greenbrier, American
cabbage-palm, blackberry, American beautyberry, beautyberry, brackenfern, bluestems, and scattered saw
greenbrier, Florida holly, bluestems, pineland threeawn, palmetto and cabbage-palm in the understory.
and panicums in the understory. This map unit makes up 20,480 acres, or about 3
This map unit makes up 27,840 acres, or about 4 percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 35
percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 29 percent Otela soils, 26 percent Jonesville soils, 26
percent Jonesville soils, 26 percent Pedro soils, 26 percent Seaboard soils, and 13 percent soils of minor
percent Shadeville soils, and 19 percent soils of minor extent.
extent. Otela soils are moderately well drained and are very
Jonesville soils are well drained and are moderately deep over limestone. Typically, the surface layer is
deep over limestone. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface subsurface layer is fine sand. It is light gray to a depth
layer, to a depth of about 31 inches, is a mixture of very of about 22 inches, brownish yellow to a depth of 40
pale brown and light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a inches, very pale brown to a depth of 50 inches, and
depth of 35 inches, is dark yellowish brown fine sandy brownish yellow to a depth of 58 inches. The subsoil is
loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 35 dark yellowish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 66
inches. inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 66
Pedro soils are well drained and are shallow or very inches.
shallow over limestone. Typically, the surface layer is Jonesville soils are well drained and are moderately
dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The deep over limestone. Typically, the surface layer is gray
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 11 inches, is fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
brownish yellow fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of fine sand. It is pale brown to a depth of about 14 inches
about 15 inches, is dark yellowish brown fine sandy and very pale brown to a depth of 27 inches. The
loam. Soft limestone is at a depth of about 15 inches. subsoil is brownish yellow sandy clay loam to a depth of
The limestone bedrock becomes more consolidated at a about 35 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of
depth of about 21 inches. about 35 inches.
Shadeville soils are moderately well drained and are Seaboard soils are moderately well drained and are
deep or very deep over limestone. Typically, the surface shallow or very shallow over limestone. Typically, the
layer is dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 8
about 10 inches. The subsurface layer, to a depth of inches thick. The underlying material is pale brown fine
about 23 inches, is a mixture of pale brown and sand to a depth of about 17 inches. Limestone bedrock
yellowish brown fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of is at a depth of about 17 inches.
about 45 inches, is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. Of minor extent in this map unit are Bushnell,
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 45 inches. Candler, Lutterloh, Moriah, Pompano, Shadeville, and
Of minor extent in this map unit are Adamsville, Tavares soils.
Bushnell, Hicoria, Lutterloh, Mabel, Moriah, Otela, Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or
Seaboard, and Tavares soils. cropland. Other areas are used for the production of
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or pine trees or have been subdivided for residential
cropland. Other areas are used for the production of development.
pine trees or have been subdivided for residential
development. 6. Millhopper-Bonneau

5. Otela-Jonesville-Seaboard Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained,
sandy soils that are very deep; some are loamy at a
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained depth of 40 to 80 inches or 20 to 40 inches
and well drained, sandy soils that are very shallow to This map unit is on uplands in the northern part of
very deep over bedrock; some are loamy between the county. The landscape is characterized by low
depths of 20 and 40 inches or 40 and 80 inches ridges and swales. The natural vegetation consists
This map unit is on karst uplands in the eastern and mainly of laurel oak, live oak, slash pine, longleaf pine,
northern parts of the county. The landscape is loblolly pine, and scattered turkey oak in the overstory
characterized by low ridges and swales and some and blackberry, pineland threeawn, greenbrier,
sinkholes. The natural vegetation consists mainly of live brackenfern, bluestems, and scattered saw palmetto
oak, laurel oak, magnolia, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, and cabbage-palm in the understory.
slash pine, and eastern redcedar in the overstory and This map unit makes up 1,885 acres, or less than 1







16 Soil Survey


percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 53 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine
percent Millhopper soils, 44 percent Bonneau soils, and sand to a depth of 28 inches and brown loamy fine
3 percent soils of minor extent. sand that has many pockets of very dark grayish brown
Millhopper soils are moderately well drained, fine sandy loam to a depth of 33 inches. The subsoil is
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine light brownish gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine 46 inches, dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 60
sand. It is pale brown to a depth of about 30 inches, inches, a mixture of light greenish gray and gray sandy
very pale brown to a depth of 42 inches, and light gray clay loam to a depth of 67 inches, and a mixture of light
to a depth of 74 inches. The subsoil is pale brown fine gray and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches
sandy loam. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. or more.
Bonneau soils are moderately well drained. Typically, Bivans soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 7 inches the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand
thick. The subsurface layer is pale brown fine sand to a about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
depth of about 29 inches. The subsoil is light yellowish brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 17 inches.
brown sandy clay loam to a depth of about 37 inches The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay to a depth of about
and light yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 39 inches, gray sandy clay to a depth of 50 inches, and
60 inches. The underlying material to a depth of 80 gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 70 inches. The
inches or more is light gray fine sandy loam. underlying material is gray sandy clay to a depth of 80
Of minor extent in this map unit are Adamsville, inches or more.
Astatula, Candler, Levyville, Lochloosa, Orlando, Sparr, Of minor extent in this map unit are Bushnell,
and Tavares soils. Hicoria, Holopaw, Bonneau, Lochloosa, Lutterloh,
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or Mabel, Millhopper, Moriah, and Pomona soils.
cropland. Other areas are used for the production of Most areas of this map are used for pasture. Other
pine trees or have been subdivided for residential areas are used for the production of pine trees or
development. support natural vegetation.

7. Sparr-Ft. Green-Bivans Nearly Level to Gently Rolling, Very Poorly Drained
to Moderately Well Drained Soils on Flatwoods and
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained Sandy Uplands
and poorly drained, sandy soils; some are loamy at a These soils are dominantly nearly level to gently
depth of 40 to 80 inches or 20 to 40 inches and others rolling, very poorly drained to moderately well drained,
are clayey within a depth of 20 inches
are clayey within a depth of 20 inches and sandy. Some have an organic surface layer, some
This map unit is on karst uplands in the northeastern have a loamy subsoil, and some have a dark,
part of the county. The landscape is characterized by organically stained, sandy subsoil. The map units make
low ridges and swales and some sinkholes. The natural up 269,108 acres, or about 39 percent of the county.
vegetation consists mainly of laurel oak, live oak, slash They are on most of the flatwoods, which extend from
pine, loblolly pine, magnolia, sweetgum, hickory, and Lake Rousseau in the south to Gilchrist County in the
eastern redcedar in the overstory and blackberry, north and from County Road 337 in the east to Cedar
American beautyberry, greenbrier, holly, bluestems, Key and the Suwannee River in the west.
panicums, saw palmetto, and scattered cabbage-palm
in the understory. 8. Smyrna-Placid-Samsula
This map unit makes up 2,530 acres, or less than 1
percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 25 Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
percent Sparr soils, 20 percent Ft. Green soils, 13 sandy and mucky soils; some are sandy throughout,
percent Bivans soils, and 42 percent soils of minor some are sandy and have a thin layer of muck at the
extent. surface, and some have muck that is 16 to 51 inches
Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, deep over sand
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 8 inches This map unit is mainly on flatwoods in the central
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. It is light gray and western parts of the county. The landscape is
to a depth of about 45 inches and pale brown to a characterized by broad, low flats that are interspersed
depth of 50 inches. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches with shallow depressions. In most areas the natural
or more is light gray fine sandy loam. vegetation consists mainly of slash pine, longleaf pine,
Ft. Green soils are poorly drained. Typically, the and loblolly pine in the overstory and saw palmetto,
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 7 pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle, fetterbush, gallberry, and







Levy County, Florida 17


percent Samsula soils, and 24 percent soils of minor
extent.
Smyrna soils are poorly drained and generally are on
broad, low flats. Typically, the surface layer is dark
brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand. It is gray to a depth of about 9 inches
and light brownish gray to a depth of 19 inches. The
SS subsoil is black, organically coated fine sand to a depth
of about 23 inches and a mixture of dark yellowish
brown and very dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth
Sof 28 inches. The underlying material is fine sand. It is
I very pale brown to a depth of about 57 inches and
white to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Placid soils are very poorly drained and generally are
in depressions. Typically, the surface layer is black
muck to a depth of about 3 inches and very dark gray
fine sand to a depth of 14 inches. The underlying
material is fine sand. It is light gray to a depth of about
24 inches, brown to a depth of 45 inches, and very pale
brown to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Samsula soils are very poorly drained and are in
depressions. Typically, the surface layer is muck. It is
dark brown to a depth of 6 inches and black to a depth
of 47 inches. The underlying material is fine sand. It is
4. grayish brown to a depth of 62 inches and light
..6 brownish gray to a depth of 80 inches or more.
,.., ,"* Of minor extent in this map unit are Adamsville,
Bradenton, Holopaw, Myakka, Pineda, Pomona,
Pompano, Sparr, Tavares, Terra Ceia, Wauchula, and
Zolfo soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used for the
S production of pine trees. Other areas are used as
pasture or support natural vegetation and are used only
as wildlife habitat.

9. Holopaw-EauGallie-Popash
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
sandy soils that are deep or very deep over bedrock and
.... are loamy at a depth of 40 to 80 inches

Figure 5.-Typical understory vegetation on flatwoods in an area This map unit is mainly on flatwoods in the western
of Smyrna fine sand. part of the county. The landscape is characterized by
broad, low flats that are interspersed with shallow
depressions and drainageways. In most areas the
natural vegetation consists mainly of slash pine in the
bluestems in the understory (fig. 5). In depressions the overstory and saw palmetto, cabbage-palm, pineland
natural vegetation consists mainly of cypress, red threeawn, bluestems, waxmyrtle, fetterbush, and
maple, sweetbay, sweetgum, and Florida willow in the gallberry in the understory. In depressions the natural
overstory and pickerelweed, lizard tail, water iris, and vegetation consists mainly of cypress, red maple,
scattered cabbage-palm in the understory. sweetbay, sweetgum, and Florida willow in the
This map unit makes up 195,878 acres. or about 28 overstory and pickerelweed, lizard tail, water iris, and
percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 44 scattered cabbage-palm in the understory.
percent Smyrna soils, 18 percent Placid soils, 14 This map unit makes up 55,210 acres, or about 8







18 Soil Survey


percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 22 depressions the natural vegetation generally consists of
percent Holopaw soils, 18 percent EauGallie soils, 11 thick stands of sawgrass or maidencane.
percent Popash soils, and 49 percent soils of minor This map unit makes up 12,380 acres, or about 2
extent. percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 22
Holopaw soils are poorly drained and are on broad, percent Orsino soils, 19 percent Myakka soils, 12
low flats. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray percent Placid soils, and 47 percent soils of minor
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is extent.
fine sand. It is gray to a depth of about 9 inches, Orsino soils are moderately well drained and are on
grayish brown to a depth of 19 inches, and pale brown the nearly level to gently rolling dunelike ridges.
to a depth of 42 inches. The subsoil, to a depth of Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
about 52 inches, is olive gray sandy clay loam. Soft inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. It is
limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 52 inches. very pale brown to a depth of about 8 inches and white
EauGallie soils are poorly drained and are on broad, to a depth of 13 inches. The subsoil is brownish yellow
low flats. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches, light yellowish
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper subsurface brown fine sand to a depth of 58 inches, and brownish
layer, to a depth of about 16 inches, is gray fine sand. yellow fine sand to a depth of 70 inches. The underlying
The upper subsoil is black, organically coated fine sand material is white fine sand.
to a depth of about 19 inches, brown fine sand to a Myakka soils are poorly drained and are in the nearly
depth of 25 inches, and yellowish brown fine sand to a level swales. Typically, the surface layer is very dark
depth of 35 inches. The lower subsurface layer, to a gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
depth of about 55 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. grayish brown sand to a depth of about 18 inches and
The lower subsoil, to a depth of about 61 inches, is light gray sand to a depth of 26 inches. The subsoil is
gray fine sandy loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth organically coated sand. It is black to a depth of about
of about 61 inches. 40 inches and very dark gray to a depth of 58 inches.
Popash soils are very poorly drained and generally The underlying material is pale brown sand. It extends
are in depressions. Typically, the surface layer is very to a depth of more than 80 inches.
dark gray fine sand about 12 inches thick. The Placid soils are very poorly drained and are in the
subsurface layer is a mixture of dark grayish brown and nearly level depressions. Typically, the surface layer is
grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 20 inches, black fine sand about 22 inches thick. The underlying
grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 30 inches, and material is dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 38
light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 45 inches. inches and light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of
The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark more than 80 inches.
gray sandy clay loam. Of minor extent in this map unit are Adamsville,
Of minor extent in this map unit are Boca, Boca, Cassia, EauGallie, Gator, Holopaw, Immokalee,
Hallandale, Hicoria, Immokalee, Janney, Myakka, Paola, Pomello, Pompano, Popash, Samsula, Smyrna,
Placid, and Pineda soils. Terra Ceia, Tidewater, and Zolfo soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used for the Most areas of this map unit are used for the
production of pine trees. Some areas are used for production of pine trees or support natural vegetation
pasture. Other areas support natural vegetation and are and are used only as wildlife habitat.
used only as wildlife habitat.
11. Cassia-Pomello-Orsino
10. Orsino-Myakka-Placid
10. Orsino-Myakka-Placid Nearly level to gently rolling, somewhat poorly drained
Nearly level to gently rolling, very poorly drained to and moderately well drained, sandy soils
moderately well drained, sandy soils This map unit is on sandy uplands and flatwoods in
This map unit is mostly in areas of flatwoods and the western part of the county and on small islands in
sandy uplands in the western part of the county. The the Cedar Key area. The landscape is characterized by
landscape is characterized by dunelike ridges and dunelike and low ridges and low knolls. The natural
swales that are interspersed with depressions. In most vegetation consists mainly of live oak, longleaf pine,
areas the natural vegetation is dominantly a mixture of and slash pine in the overstory and saw palmetto,
sand live oak and slash pine in the overstory and saw pineland threeawn, bluestems, and reindeer moss in the
palmetto, wiregrass, waxmyrtle, gallberry, Spanish understory.
bayonet, and bluestems in the understory. In This map unit makes up 5,640 acres, or less than 1







Levy County, Florida 19


percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 35 They also are in a smaller area that is directly east of
percent Cassia soils, 35 percent Pomello soils, 15 County Road 347, between Fowler Bluff and Sumner.
percent Orsino soils, and 15 percent soils of minor
extent. 12. Wekiva-Demory-Waccasassa
Cassia soils are somewhat poorly drained and are on
nearly level, low knolls and ridges. Typically, the Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy and loamy soils that
surface layer is gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The are very shallow to moderately deep over bedrock
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 24 inches, is light This map unit is on low ridges of the coastal
gray fine sand. The subsoil is very dark brown, limestone shelf in the western part of the county. The
organically coated fine sand to a depth of about 30 landscape is characterized by broad, low ridges that are
inches; dark brown fine sand to a depth of 55 inches; transected by numerous small creeks and
brown fine sand to a depth of 70 inches; and very dark drainageways. The natural vegetation consists mainly of
grayish brown, organically coated fine sand to a depth laurel oak, water oak, sweetgum, blackgum, red maple,
of 80 inches or more. basswood, eastern redcedar, loblolly pine, and slash
Pomello soils are somewhat poorly drained and are pine in the overstory and cabbage-palm, longleaf uniola,
on nearly level, low knolls and ridges. Typically, the cutgrass, panicums, bluestems, greenbrier, yaupon,
surface layer is gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The poison ivy, false indigo, and desmodium in the
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of understory.
about 35 inches and gray fine sand that has many very This map unit makes up 104,020 acres, or about 15
dark grayish brown and dark grayish brown, organically percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 41
coated pockets to a depth of 40 inches. The subsoil is percent Wekiva soils, 31 percent Demory soils, 20
very dark brown, organically coated fine sand to a depth percent Waccasassa soils, and 8 percent soils of minor
of about 46 inches and dark brown fine sand to a depth extent.
of 80 inches or more. Wekiva soils are shallow to moderately deep over
Orsino soils are moderately well drained and bedrock and are not flooded. Typically, the surface
generally are on the nearly level to gently rolling layer is very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick.
dunelike ridges. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 9 inches, is
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of
depth of about 13 inches, is white fine sand. The about 18 inches, is yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
subsoil is fine sand. It is brownish yellow to a depth of Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 18 inches.
about 48 inches, light yellowish brown to a depth of 58 Demory soils are shallow or very shallow over
inches, and brownish yellow to a depth of 80 inches or bedrock and are occasionally flooded. Typically, the
more. surface layer is black muck about 3 inches thick. The
Of minor extent in this map unit are Adamsville, subsurface layer, to a depth of about 7 inches, is very
Immokalee, Myakka, Paola, Placid, Pompano, and dark grayish brown sandy clay loam. The underlying
Samsula soils. material, to a depth of about 9 inches, is dark grayish
Most areas of this map unit are used for the brown sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at a
production of pine trees. Some areas have been depth of about 9 inches.
subdivided for residential development. Other areas Waccasassa soils are shallow or very shallow over
support natural vegetation and are used only as wildlife bedrock and are subject to rare flooding. Typically, the
habitat. surface is covered by several inches of undecomposed
leaf litter. The surface layer is very dark grayish brown
Nearly Level, Very Poorly Drained to Somewhat sandy clay loam about 2 inches thick. The subsoil, to a
Poorly Drained Soils on the Coastal Limestone Shelf depth of about 12 inches, is dark yellowish brown sandy
These soils are dominantly nearly level, very poorly clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 12
drained to somewhat poorly drained, and sandy and inches.
loamy. They have bedrock at a depth of 4 to more than Of minor extent in this map unit are Aripeka, Boca,
80 inches. They make up 112,845 acres, or about 16 Bradenton, Chobee, Hallandale, Hicoria, Holopaw,
percent of the county. They are on most parts of the Matmon, and Pineda soils.
coastal limestone shelf that is in an area bordered by Most areas of this map unit are used for the
the tidal marsh on the south and west, by U.S. Highway production of pine trees or support natural vegetation
19 on the east, and by State Road 24 on the north, and are used only as wildlife habitat.








20 Soil Survey


13. Aripeka-Matmon-Chobee Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or
the production of pine trees. Other areas are used for
Nearly level, very poorly drained and somewhat poorly cropland or have been subdivided for residential
drained, loamy soils that are shallow to very deep over development.
bedrock; some are sandy to a depth of less than 20
inches 14. Broward-Lutterloh-Zolfo
This map unit is on low ridges of the coastal
limestone shelf in the central part of the county. The Nearly level, somewhat poorly drained, sandy soils that
landscape is characterized by low knolls and ridges that are moderately deep to very deep over bedrock; some
are transected by numerous creeks and drainageways, are loamy at a depth of 40 to 80 inches
The natural vegetation on the knolls and ridges consists This map unit is on low ridges of the coastal
mainly of live oak, water oak, laurel oak, eastern limestone shelf that are adjacent to the Withlacoochee
redcedar, sweetgum, magnolia, slash pine, and loblolly River in the southern part of the county. The landscape
pine in the overstory and cabbage-palm, greenbrier, is characterized by low ridges and some depressions
yaupon, brackenfern, poison ivy, bluestems, and and drainageways. The natural vegetation consists
panicums in the understory. In drainageways and on mainly of live oak, slash pine, and loblolly pine in the
narrow flood plains the natural vegetation consists overstory and pineland threeawn, saw palmetto,
mainly of cypress, red maple, sweetbay, sweetgum, and gallberry, blackberry, bluestems, running oak, cabbage-
Florida willow in the overstory and pickerelweed, lizard palm, and reindeer moss in the understory.
tail, water iris, and scattered cabbage-palm in the This map unit makes up 3,100 acres, or less than 1
understory. percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 26
This map unit makes up 5,725 acres, or less than 1 percent Broward soils, 26 percent Lutterloh soils, 12
percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 31 percent Zolfo soils, and 36 percent soils of minor
percent Aripeka soils, 30 percent Matmon soils, 15 extent.
percent Chobee soils, and 24 percent soils of minor Typically, the surface layer of the Broward soils is
extent, dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying
Aripeka soils are somewhat poorly drained and are material is a mixture of light yellowish brown and
on knolls and ridges. Typically, the surface layer is dark brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of about 10 inches
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The and yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 25 inches.
subsoil is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of about Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 25 inches.
12 inches and strong brown fine sandy loam to a depth Typically, the surface layer of the Lutterloh soils is
of 24 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about dark gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
24 inches. subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of
Matmon soils are somewhat poorly drained and are about 35 inches and brown fine sand to a depth of 52
on knolls and ridges. Typically, the surface layer is very inches. The subsoil, to a depth of 61 inches, is light
dark grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The brownish gray fine sandy loam. Soft, crumbly limestone
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 6 inches, is brown that can be dug with a spade is at a depth of about 61
fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 15 inches, is inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 78
strong brown sandy clay loam. Limestone bedrock is at inches.
a depth of about 15 inches. Typically, the surface layer of the Zolfo soils is very
Chobee soils are very poorly drained and frequently dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
flooded. They are in drainageways and on narrow flood layer is pale brown sand to a depth of about 8 inches,
plains. Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown gray sand to a depth of 32 inches, light gray sand to a
muck to a depth of about 3 inches and very dark brown depth of 50 inches, pale brown sand to a depth of 65
fine sandy loam to a depth of 11 inches. The subsoil is inches, and light brownish gray sand to a depth of 71
sandy clay loam. It is very dark grayish brown to a inches. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is
depth of about 21 inches, light brownish gray to a depth very dark grayish brown, organically coated sand.
of 28 inches, dark greenish gray to a depth of 54 Of minor extent in this map unit are Adamsville,
inches, and a mixture of greenish gray and light Aripeka, Bushnell, Hicoria, Jonesville, Matmon, Moriah,
greenish gray to a depth of 68 inches. Limestone Pedro, Placid, Samsula, Seaboard, and Shadeville
bedrock is at a depth of about 68 inches. soils.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Boca, Demory, Most areas of this map unit have been subdivided for
Bradenton, Gator, Hicoria, Holopaw, Pineda, Terra residential development. Other areas support natural
Ceia, Waccasassa, and Wekiva soils, vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat.








Levy County, Florida 21







tt






I







Or--










Figure 6.-A tidal creek in an area of the Tidewater-Cracker general soil map unit.




Nearly Level, Very Poorly Drained Soils in Tidal natural vegetation consists mainly of black needlerush,
Marshes marshhay cordgrass, saltwort, and glasswort.
These soils are dominantly nearly level, very poorly This map unit makes up 30,820 acres, or about 4
drained, and clayey and mucky. They have bedrock at a percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 55
depth of 6 to more than 80 inches. They make up percent Tidewater soils, 35 percent Cracker soils, and
44,020 acres, or about 6 percent of the county. They 10 percent soils of minor extent.
are in all areas of the tidal marsh, which extends along Tidewater soils are deep or very deep over
the coastline from the Withlacoochee River in the south limestone. Typically, the surface layer is very dark
to the e Suwannee River in the north and is about 1 to 3 brown mucky clay to a depth of about 10 inches black
miles wide. silty clay to a depth of 24 inches, and black sandy clay
loam to a depth of 40 inches. The underlying material,
15. Tidewater-Cracker to a depth of 76 inches, is a mixture of black and very
dark grayish brown loamy fine sand. Hard limestone
Nearly level, very poorly drained, clayey and loamy soils bedrock is at a depth of about 76 inches.
that are shallow or very shallow or deep or very deep Cracker soils are shallow or very shallow over
over bedrock limestone. Typically, the surface layer is black mucky
This map unit is in areas of tidal marsh in the clay to a depth of about 4 inches and very dark gray
southern part of the county. The landscape is sandy clay loam to a depth of 12 inches. Hard
characterized by broad, low tidal flats that are limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 12 inches.
transected by numerous small tidal creeks (fig. 6). The Of minor extent in this map unit are Demory soils.







22 Soil Survey


Most areas of this map unit support natural 17. Gator-Chobee-Terra Ceia
vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat.
Nearly level, very poorly drained, mucky and loamy soils;
16. Tidewater-Wulfert some are mucky to a depth of 16 to 51 inches over
loamy material, some are loamy throughout, and some
Nearly level, very poorly drained, clayey and loamy or are mucky throughout
mucky soils; some are deep or very deep over bedrock This map unit is on the flood plain along the
This map unit is in areas of tidal marsh in the Suwannee River in the western part of the county and
This map unit is in areas of tidal marsh in the
on the flood plains along the Waccasassa River and
northern part of the county. The landscape is ntheflood p along theaccasassa Rver and
northern part of the county. Te landscae is Otter Creek in the central part. The landscape is
characterized by broad, low tidal flats that are
transected by onerous sall tidal cks. The n l characterized by low flats and oxbows that are adjacent
transected by numerous small tidal creeks. The natural T cn
vegetation consists mainly of black needlerush, to rivers and creeks. The natural vegetation consists
vegetation consists mainly of black needlerush,
marha corass and s rass mainly of cypress, red maple, sweetbay, sweetgum, and
marshhay cordgrass and sa ass. Florida willow in the overstory and pickerelweed, lizard
This map unit makes up 13,200 acres, or about 2
tail, water iris, and scattered cabbage-palm in the
percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 70 ta, water and scattered cabbage-palm in the
percent Tidewater soils, 12 percent Wulfert soils, and understory.
18 percent soils of minor extent. This map unit makes up 21,685 acres, or about 3
percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 34
Typically, the surface layer of the Tidewater soils is ercen of the acreage ln the county t is about34
percent Gator soils, 26 percent Chobee soils, 16
very dark brown mucky clay to a depth of about 10 pr r i, r i
percent Terra Ceia soils, and 24 percent soils of minor
inches, black silty clay to a depth of 24 inches, and eent
extent.
black sandy clay loam to a depth of 40 inches. The .
black s andy clay loam to a depth of 76 inches,. T Typically, the surface layer of the Gator soils is black
underlying material, to a depth of 76 inches, is a
mixture of black and very dark grayish brown loamy fine muck to a depth about 26 inches. The underlying
material is very dark gray fine sandy loam to a depth of
sand. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 76 about 40 inhe gray sa y loam to a depth of
inches. about 40 inches, gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 52
inches.
inches, and light gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches
Typically, the surface layer of the Wulfert soils is very a o
or more.
dark brown muck about 30 inches thick. The underlying T t s is fi
Sk y y l f s t a Typically, the surface layer of the Chobee soils is fine
material is very dark gray mucky loamy fine sand to a
depth of about 56 inches and very dark gray fine sand sandy loam. It is black to a depth of 7 inches and very
depth of about 56 inches and very dark gray fine sand
dark gray to a depth of 11 inches. The subsoil is sandy
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Gator, clay loam. It is dark gray and has common pockets of
Of minor extent in this map unit are Gator,
mmokalee, Myakka, Terra Ceia, and Zolfo soilssoft calcium carbonate accumulations to a depth of 37
inches and gray to a depth of 48 inches. The underlying
Immokalee, Myakka, and Zolfo soils are in the higher
Immoklandscape positionsGa and ZolfoTea soils are in material is greenish gray fine sandy loam to a depth of
anontda positions. about 72 inches and dark gray fine sand below this
nontidal positions.
Most areas of this map unit support natural depth.
st areas of this map uit s t atal Typically, the surface layer of the Terra Ceia soils is
vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. a mixture of black and dark brown muck to a depth of
a mixture of black and dark brown muck to a depth of
About 37 inches and black muck to a depth of 80 inches
Nearly Level, Very Poorly Drained and Poorly or more.
Drained Soils on Flood Plains and Low Flats m
Of minor extent in this map unit are Albany,
These soils are dominantly nearly level and are very Bradenton, Hicoria, Holopaw, Ousley, Pineda, Placid,
poorly drained or poorly drained. Some are sandy Popash, and Samsula soils.
throughout, some are loamy throughout, and some have Most areas of this map unit support natural
an organic surface layer that is 16 to more than 80 vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat.
inches thick. These map units make up 26,900 acres, or
about 4 percent of the county. They are on the flood 18. Hicoria-Placid-Holopaw
plain along the Suwannee River in the northwestern
part of the county, on most of the flood plains along the Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
Waccasassa River and Otter Creek in the central part, sandy soils; some are loamy at a depth of 20 to 40
and in four small areas mostly in the northeastern part. inches or 40 to 80 inches
This map unit is on broad, low flats in the eastern,








Levy County, Florida 23


north-central, and northwestern parts of the county. The Placid soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
landscape is characterized by broad, low flats that are surface layer is fine sand. It is black to a depth of about
interspersed with shallow depressions and surrounded 4 inches and very dark gray to a depth of 19 inches.
by higher uplands. The natural vegetation consists The underlying material is fine sand. It is very pale
mainly of maidencane, chalky bluestem, bushybeard brown to a depth of about 26 inches and light gray to a
bluestem, sand cordgrass, and waxmyrtle. depth of 80 inches or more.
This map unit makes up 5,215 acres, or less than 1 Holopaw soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
percent of the acreage in the county. It is about 42 surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches
percent Hicoria soils, 29 percent Placid soils, 11 thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. It is dark gray
percent Holopaw soils, and 18 percent soils of minor to a depth of about 17 inches, grayish brown to a depth
extent. of 35 inches, and brown to a depth of 54 inches. The
Hicoria soils are poorly drained and very poorly subsoil is grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of
drained. Typically, the surface layer is fine sand. It is 62 inches and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
very dark gray to a depth of about 11 inches and very inches or more.
dark grayish brown to a depth of 17 inches. The Of minor extent in this map unit are Adamsville,
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 23 inches, is Bushnell, Ft. Green, Lochloosa, Lutterloh, Mabel,
brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil is sandy clay loam. Moriah, Popash, Sparr, and Tavares soils.
It is grayish brown to a depth of 30 inches and gray to a Most areas of this map unit are used for livestock
depth of 80 inches or more. grazing, wildlife habitat, or woodland.










25









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area. be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the made up of all of them. Gator and Terra Ceia soils,
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and frequently flooded, is an undifferentiated group in this
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be survey area.
used to plan the management needed for those uses. Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given other than those for which the map unit is named.
under the heading "Use and Management of the Soils." Some of these included soils have properties that differ
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more differences could significantly affect use and
soils for which the unit is named. management of the soils in the map unit. The included
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
general facts about the soil and gives the principal a special symbol on the soil maps.
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
specific uses. areas have little or no soil material and support little or
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up no vegetation. Pits and Dumps is an example.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the Miscellaneous areas are shown on the soil maps. Some
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils that are too small to be shown are identified by a
of a series have major horizons that are similar in special symbol on the soil maps.
composition, thickness, and arrangement. Table 5 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed 2-Tavares fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes. This
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil moderately well drained, very deep, nearly level to
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or gently sloping soil is on uplands and on low knolls and
management. For example, Myakka mucky sand, ridges on flatwoods. Individual areas are generally
occasionally flooded, is a phase of the Myakka series, irregular in shape and range from 2 to nearly 1,600
Some map units are made up of two or more major acres in size.
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
undifferentiated groups, brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such material is fine sand. It is brown to a depth of about 41
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they inches, pale brown to a depth of 58 inches, and white to
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The a depth of 80 inches or more.
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Tavares
in all areas. Levyville-Hague complex is an example. fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes, Tavares and similar
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more soils make up about 85 to 99 percent of the mapped
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 1 to 15 percent.
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made On 5 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of up more than 15 percent of the mapped areas.








26 Soil Survey


Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the seedling mortality caused by the seasonal droughtiness
Tavares soil but have more than 5 percent silt and clay and the low fertility; the equipment limitation caused by
in the 10- to 40-inch control section, have a seasonal the loose, sandy surface layer; and, in some areas,
high water table at a depth of 20 to 42 inches, do not plant competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash
have a seasonal high water table within a depth of 72 pine, and planting during the wetter months reduce the
inches, have limestone bedrock at a depth of 60 to 80 seedling mortality rate. Using harvesting and planting
inches, or have a dark surface layer that is more than machinery equipped with large rubber tires helps to
10 inches thick. overcome the equipment limitation. Prescribed burning
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Tavares and controlled grazing in established stands generally
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Apopka, are adequate to control competing vegetation and to
Millhopper, Placid, and Sparr soils. Apopka and maintain accessibility.
Millhopper soils are in positions on the landscape This soil has only slight limitations affecting sites for
similar to those of the Tavares soil. Sparr soils are in residential and commercial buildings and local roads
the slightly lower landscape positions. Placid soils are in and streets. Wetness is a moderate limitation on sites
depressions. Apopka and Millhopper soils have a loamy for septic tank absorption fields. Installing an oversized
subsoil at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. septic tank absorption field and taking care not to
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a cluster homes and septic systems can help to overcome
depth of 42 to 72 inches in the Tavares soil for 1 to 3 this limitation and minimize the hazard of ground-water
months. Permeability is rapid or very rapid. Available pollution. Limitations affecting recreational facilities are
water capacity is very low. severe because of the loose, sandy surface layer.
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or Establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
the production of pine trees. Natural vegetation consists traffic and restricting access to stabilized areas can help
mainly of sand live oak, bluejack oak, turkey oak, to overcome these limitations. Applications of mulch,
longleaf pine, and slash pine in the overstory and applications of fertilizer, and irrigation generally are
wiregrass, bluestems, and scattered saw palmetto in needed to establish turf grasses.
the understory. This map unit generally is in the Upland The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
Hardwood Hammocks ecological community (24). ordination symbol is 10S.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and soil blowing are 3-O f
3the main management concerns A well designed 3-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This
the main management concerns. A well designed
sprinkler irrigation system is necessary to maintain moderately well drained, very deep nearly level to
adequate soil moisture during the growing season for gently rol soi is on dunes and ridges. Individual
most cultivated crops. Returning crop residue to the soil areas are generally circular or elongated and range
and mulching can increase the content of organic from 2 to nearly 750 acres in size.
matter and the water-holding capacity of the topsoil. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
Green manure crops, including grasses and legumes, inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. It is
should be used in the crop rotation. Frequent very pale brown to a depth of about 8 inches and white
applications of lime and fertilizer generally are needed to a depth of 13 inches. The subsoil is fine sand. It is
to improve and maintain fertility. Establishing brownish yellow to a depth of about 48 inches, light
windbreaks around fields and utilizing field windstrips yellowish brown to a depth of 58 inches, and brownish
with row crops can minimize loss of topsoil and damage yellow to a depth of 70 inches. The underlying material
to emergent plants caused by soil blowing. to a depth of 80 inches or more is white fine sand.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Seasonal On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Orsino fine
droughtiness and the low natural fertility are the main sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, Orsino and similar soils
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant make up about 88 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants, Dissimilar soils make up less than about 12 percent. On
such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow 5 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up
well if properly managed. Restricting grazing during more than 12 percent of the mapped areas.
extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to plant Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and Orsino soil but do not have a leached subsurface layer;
applications of fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good have a surface layer that is made up dominantly of shell
condition. fragments; have limestone bedrock below a depth of 60
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is inches; have a dark, organically stained subsoil; have a
moderate. The main management concerns are seasonal high water table at a depth of 20 to 42 inches;







Levy County, Florida 27


or do not have a seasonal high water table within a seedling mortality caused by the prolonged
depth of 60 inches. droughtiness and the low fertility and the equipment
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Orsino soil limitation caused by the loose, sandy surface layer.
in mapping occur as small areas of Immokalee, Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine, and planting
Myakka, Otela, Placid, Pompano, Popash, Samsula, during the wetter months reduce the seedling mortality
Smyrna, and Sparr soils and soils that have limestone rate. Establishing a close-growing cover crop before
bedrock within a depth of 60 inches. Placid, Popash, planting can help to stabilize the sandy surface layer,
and Samsula soils are in depressions. Immokalee, improve trafficability, and increase the available water
Myakka, Pompano, Smyrna, and Sparr soils are in the capacity of the topsoil. Using harvesting and planting
slightly lower landscape positions. Otela soils are in machinery equipped with large rubber tires helps to
positions on the landscape similar to those of the overcome the equipment limitation.
Orsino soil. They have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 This soil has only slight limitations affecting sites for
to 80 inches. residential buildings and local roads and streets. In
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a areas that have slopes of 5 percent or more, the
depth of 48 to 60 inches in the Orsino soil for 1 to 6 limitations affecting commercial buildings are moderate.
months. Permeability is very rapid. Available water Wetness is a moderate limitation on sites for septic tank
capacity is very low. absorption fields. Installing an oversized septic tank
Most areas of this map unit are used for wildlife absorption field and taking care not to cluster homes
habitat or the production of pine trees. Natural and septic systems can help to overcome this limitation
vegetation consists mainly of sand live oak, turkey oak, and minimize the hazard of ground-water pollution.
longleaf pine, sand pine, and slash pine in the overstory Limitations affecting recreational facilities are severe
and saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, bluestems, and because of the loose, sandy surface layer. Establishing
reindeer moss in the understory. This map unit species of turf grass that are tolerant of traffic and
generally is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks restricting access to stabilized areas can help to
ecological community (24). overcome these limitations. Applications of mulch,
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops. applications of fertilizer, and irrigation generally are
Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and soil blowing are needed to establish turf grasses.
the main management concerns. A well designed The capability subclass is Vis. The woodland
sprinkler irrigation system is necessary to maintain ordination symbol is 8S.
adequate soil moisture during the growing season for
most cultivated crops. In some areas, however, 4-Millhopper fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes.
irrigation may be difficult to install because of the slope. This moderately well drained, very deep, nearly level to
Returning crop residue to the soil and mulching can gently sloping soil is on uplands. Individual areas are
increase the content of organic matter and the water- generally irregular in shape and range from 3 to nearly
holding capacity of the topsoil. Green manure crops, 500 acres in size.
including grasses and legumes, should be used in the Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand to
crop rotation. Frequent applications of lime and fertilizer a depth of about 4 inches and very dark gray fine sand
generally are needed to improve and maintain fertility, to a depth of 8 inches. The subsurface layer is fine
Establishing windbreaks around fields and utilizing field sand. It is pale brown to a depth of about 18 inches,
windstrips with row crops can minimize loss of topsoil very pale brown to a depth of 55 inches, and brownish
and damage to emergent plants caused by soil blowing, yellow to a depth of about 63 inches. The subsoil to a
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. Prolonged depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish brown sandy
droughtiness and the low natural fertility are the main clay loam.
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant On most of the acreage mapped as Millhopper fine
species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants, sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes, Millhopper and similar soils
such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow make up more than 85 percent of the mapped areas.
well if properly managed. Pastures should be Dissimilar soils make up less than 15 percent.
established or renovated during the wetter months. Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
Restricting grazing during extended dry periods helps to Millhopper soil but do not have a seasonal high water
prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, table within a depth of 72 inches, have a seasonal high
pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to water table at a depth of 20 to 42 inches, or have a
keep the pasture in good condition. loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is Dissimilar soils that are included with the Millhopper
moderate. The main management concerns are soil in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville,







28 Soil Survey


Astatula, Candler, Lochloosa, Orlando, Placid, Popash, plant competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash
and Tavares soils. Astatula, Candler, Orlando, and pine, and planting during the wetter months reduce the
Tavares soils are in positions on the landscape similar seedling mortality rate. Using harvesting and planting
to those of the Millhopper soil. Adamsville and machinery equipped with large rubber tires helps to
Lochloosa soils are in the slightly lower landscape overcome the equipment limitation. Prescribed burning
positions. Placid and Popash soils are in depressions. and controlled grazing in established stands generally
Candler, Orlando, and Tavares soils are sandy to a are adequate to control competing vegetation and to
depth of 80 inches or more. maintain accessibility.
In most years the seasonal high water table is This soil has only slight limitations affecting sites for
perched at a depth of 48 to 72 inches in the Millhopper residential and commercial buildings and local roads
soil for 1 to 3 months. Permeability is slow to moderate, and streets. Wetness is a moderate limitation on sites
Available water capacity is low. for septic tank absorption fields. Installing an oversized
Most areas of this map unit are used for wildlife septic tank absorption field can help to overcome this
habitat, pasture, or the production of pine trees. Natural limitation. Limitations affecting most recreational
vegetation consists mainly of live oak, turkey oak, facilities are severe because of the loose, sandy
longleaf pine, and slash pine in the overstory and surface layer. Establishing species of turf grass that are
blackberry, pineland threeawn, bluestems, Florida tolerant of traffic and restricting access to stabilized
rosemary, brackenfern, and scattered saw palmetto in areas can help to overcome these limitations.
the understory. This map unit generally is in the Upland Applications of mulch, applications of fertilizer, and
Hardwood Hammocks or Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak irrigation generally are needed to establish turf grasses.
Hills ecological community (24). The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. ordination symbol is 10S.
Prolonged droughtiness, low natural fertility, and soil
blowing are the main management concerns. A well 5-Immokalee fine sand. This poorly drained, very
designed sprinkler irrigation system is necessary to deep, nearly level soil is on flatwoods. Individual areas
maintain adequate soil moisture during the growing are generally irregular in shape and range from 2 to
season for most cultivated crops. In many areas, nearly 1,700 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2
however, irrigation may be impractical because of a percent.
lack of water. Returning crop residue to the soil and Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
mulching can increase the content of organic matter sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
and the water-holding capacity of the topsoil. Green sand. It is gray to a depth of about 16 inches and light
manure crops, including grasses and legumes, should gray to a depth of 38 inches. The subsoil is very dark
be used in the crop rotation. Frequent applications of grayish brown, organically coated fine sand to a depth
lime and fertilizer generally are needed to improve and of about 43 inches and dark brown fine sand to a depth
maintain fertility. Establishing windbreaks around fields of 80 inches or more.
and utilizing field windstrips with row crops can On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Immokalee
minimize loss of topsoil and damage to emergent plants fine sand, Immokalee and similar soils make up about
caused by soil blowing. 91 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils
This soil is well suited to pasture. The prolonged make up less than 9 percent. On 5 percent of the
droughtiness and the low natural fertility are the main acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 9
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant percent of the mapped areas.
species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants, Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow Immokalee soil but have an organically stained subsoil
well if properly managed. Pastures should be that is within a depth of 30 inches or below a depth of
established or renovated during the wetter months. 50 inches, do not have an organically stained subsoil,
Restricting grazing during extended dry periods helps to have limestone bedrock below a depth of 60 inches,
prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches, or
pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to have a sandy texture in the surface layer.
keep the pasture in good condition. Dissimilar soils that are included with the Immokalee
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is soil in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville,
moderate. The main management concerns are Cassia, Hicoria, Janney, Pineda, Placid, Pomello,
seedling mortality caused by the seasonal droughtiness Popash, and Zolfo soils and soils that have limestone
and the low fertility; the equipment limitation caused by bedrock within a depth of 60 inches. Adamsville,
the loose, sandy surface layer; and, in some areas, Cassia, Pomello, and Zolfo soils are in the slightly







Levy County, Florida 29


higher landscape positions. Pineda and Janney soils bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Limiting
are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the
Immokalee soil. Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils are in equipment limitation and usually results in less soil
depressions. Pineda soils do not have an organically compaction and damage to roots during thinning
stained subsoil. They have a loamy subsoil within a operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
depth of 40 inches. Janney soils have limestone reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
bedrock within a depth of 40 inches. and controlled grazing in established stands help to
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a control competing vegetation and to maintain
depth of 6 to 18 inches in the Immokalee soil for 1 to 4 accessibility.
months. The water table may recede to a depth of Wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic tank
about 60 inches during drought periods. Permeability absorption fields, residential and commercial buildings,
is moderate. Available water capacity is low. local roads and streets, and recreational facilities.
Most areas of this map unit are used for the Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil material can
production of pine trees. Other areas are used as help to overcome the limitations affecting septic tank
pasture or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation consists absorption fields. Filling, which raises building
mainly of slash pine and longleaf pine in the overstory foundations above the level of the seasonal wetness,
and saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle, can help to overcome the limitations affecting residential
gallberry, fetterbush, and bluestems in the understory. and commercial buildings. Raising road bases above
This map unit generally is in the North Florida the level of the seasonal wetness and installing a
Flatwoods ecological community (24). system of roadside ditches and culverts can help to
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness overcome the limitations affecting local roads and
during the growing season, occasional droughtiness, streets. Restricting access during wet periods and
and low natural fertility are the main management establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
concerns. Shallow surface ditches can be installed to wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations
remove excess water more rapidly during the growing affecting recreational uses.
season. Bedding is necessary for most row crops. A The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
well designed sprinkler irrigation system can help to ordination symbol is 8W.
maintain optimum soil moisture during drought periods.
Proper seedbed preparation and weed control are 6-Candler fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes. This
needed to control competing vegetation. Frequent excessively drained, very deep, nearly level to gently
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed undulating soil is on uplands. Individual areas are
to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop residue generally irregular in shape and range from 3 to more
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes than 10,000 acres in size.
grasses and legumes can help to maintain the content Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
of organic matter and improve tilth, sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The depth of about 60 inches, is very pale brown fine sand.
wetness and the low natural fertility are the main Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is a mixed
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant subsurface layer and subsoil of very pale brown fine
species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface sand that has common thin, horizontal yellowish brown
ditches can be installed to remove excess water more lamellae.
rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Candler
Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes, Candler and similar
properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet soils make up about 78 to 97 percent of the mapped
periods or extended dry periods helps to prevent areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 3 to 22 percent.
damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture On 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make
rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the up more than 22 percent of the mapped areas.
pasture in good condition. Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is Candler soil but have more than 5 percent silt and clay
moderate. The main management concerns are in the 10- to 40-inch control section, do not have
seedling mortality, plant competition, and the equipment lamellae within a depth of 80 inches, have a seasonal
limitation caused by the wetness. Site preparation high water table at a depth of 40 to 72 inches, or have
should include removing the larger debris to facilitate a dark surface layer that is more than 7 inches thick.
mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory Also included are small areas that have slopes of more
vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and than 5 percent.







30 Soil Survey


Dissimilar soils that are included with the Candler soil seedling mortality caused by the prolonged
in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, Apopka, droughtiness and the low fertility and the equipment
Millhopper, Placid, Popash, and Sparr soils and soils in limitation caused by the loose, sandy surface layer.
pits and dumps. Apopka and Millhopper soils are in Planting adapted trees, such as sand pine, and planting
positions on the landscape similar to those of the during the wetter months reduce the seedling mortality
Candler soil. Adamsville and Sparr soils are in the rate. Establishing a close-growing cover crop before
slightly lower landscape positions. Placid and Popash planting can help to stabilize the sandy surface layer,
soils are in depressions. Apopka and Millhopper soils improve trafficability, and increase the available water
have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 to 80 inches, capacity of the topsoil. Using harvesting and planting
Throughout the year the seasonal high water table is machinery equipped with large rubber tires helps to
below a depth of 72 inches in the Candler soil. overcome the equipment limitation.
Permeability is rapid. Available water capacity is very This soil has only slight limitations affecting sites for
low. septic tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
Most areas of this map unit are idle and are used buildings, and local roads and streets. Taking care not
only as wildlife habitat. Other areas are used for to cluster homes and septic systems minimizes the
pasture, cropland, or the production of pine trees or hazard of ground-water pollution. Limitations affecting
have been subdivided for residential development, recreational facilities are severe because of the loose,
Natural vegetation consists mainly of turkey oak, live sandy surface layer. Establishing species of turf grass
oak, bluejack oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine in the that are tolerant of droughtiness and traffic can help to
overstory and wiregrass, bluestems, blackberry, stabilize the surface layer. Applications of mulch,
Spanish bayonet, Florida rosemary, and scattered saw applications of fertilizer, frequent irrigation, and
palmetto in the understory. This map unit generally is in restricted access are generally required.
the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
community (24). ordination symbol is 8S.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Prolonged droughtiness, low natural fertility, and soil 7-Candler-Apopka complex, 1 to 5 percent
blowing are the main management concerns. A well slopes. This map unit consists of an excessively
designed sprinkler irrigation system is necessary to drained Candler soil and a well drained Apopka soil.
maintain adequate soil moisture during the growing These very deep, nearly level and gently undulating
season for most cultivated crops. In many areas, soils are on uplands. Individual areas are generally
however, irrigation may be impractical because of a irregular in shape and range from 3 to nearly 2,000
lack of water. Returning crop residue to the soil and acres in size.
mulching can increase the content of organic matter Typically, the surface layer of the Candler soil is very
and the water-holding capacity of the topsoil. Green dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
manure crops, including grasses and legumes, should subsurface layer is fine sand. It is light yellowish brown
be used in the crop rotation. Frequent applications of to a depth of about 19 inches, brownish yellow to a
lime and fertilizer generally are needed to improve and depth of 37 inches, and very pale brown to a depth of
maintain fertility. Establishing windbreaks around fields 52 inches. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is
and utilizing field windstrips with row crops can a mixed subsurface layer and subsoil of very pale
minimize loss of topsoil and damage to emergent plants brown fine sand that has many thin, horizontal lenses of
caused by soil blowing, brownish yellow loamy fine sand.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The prolonged Typically, the surface layer of the Apopka soil is
droughtiness and the low natural fertility are the main grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant subsurface layer is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth
species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants, of about 10 inches, light yellowish brown fine sand to a
such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow depth of 45 inches, very pale brown fine sand to a
well if properly managed. Pastures should be depth of 60 inches, and reddish yellow loamy fine sand
established or renovated during the wetter months, to a depth of 71 inches. The subsoil to a depth of 80
Restricting grazing during extended dry periods helps to inches or more is strong brown sandy clay loam.
prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Candler-
pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to Apopka complex, 1 to 5 percent slopes, Candler,
keep the pasture in good condition. Apopka, and similar soils make up about 93 to 100
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
moderate. The main management concerns are less than 7 percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the







Levy County, Florida 31


dissimilar soils make up more than 7 percent of the however, irrigation may be impractical because of a
mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas average lack of water. Returning crop residue to the soil and
about 70 percent Candler and similar soils and 27 mulching can increase the content of organic matter
percent Apopka and similar soils. and the water-holding capacity of the topsoil. Green
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the manure crops, including grasses and legumes, should
Candler soil but do not have sandy or loamy lenses be used in the crop rotation. Frequent applications of
within a depth of 80 inches, have more than 5 percent lime and fertilizer generally are needed to improve and
silt and clay between depths of 10 and 40 inches, have maintain fertility. Establishing windbreaks around fields
a dark surface layer that is more than 10 inches thick, and utilizing field windstrips with row crops can
or have a seasonal high water table at a depth of 40 to minimize loss of topsoil and damage to emergent plants
72 inches. Also included are soils that are similar to the caused by soil blowing.
Apopka soil but have a seasonal high water table at a These soils are moderately suited to pasture. The
depth of 40 to 72 inches, have a dark surface layer that prolonged droughtiness and the low natural fertility are
is more than 8 inches thick, or have chert stones or the main management concerns. They limit the
boulders below a depth of 60 inches. Also included are selection of plant species and the periods of grazing.
small areas of soils that are similar to the Candler and Adapted plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass and
Apopka soils but have slopes of more than 5 percent. hairy indigo, grow well if properly managed. Pastures
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Candler should be established or renovated during the wetter
and Apopka soils in mapping occur as small areas of months. Restricting grazing during extended dry periods
Adamsville, Bonneau, Lochloosa, Placid, Popash, and helps to prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking
Sparr soils and soils that have stones or boulders within rates, pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help
a depth of 60 inches. Bonneau soils are in positions on to keep the pasture in good condition.
the landscape similar to those of the Candler and The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
Apopka soils. Adamsville, Lochloosa, and Sparr soils is moderate. The main management concerns are
are in the lower landscape positions. Placid and Popash seedling mortality caused by the seasonal droughtiness
soils are in depressions. Bonneau soils are moderately and the low fertility; the equipment limitation caused by
well drained and have a loamy subsoil within a depth of the loose, sandy surface layer; and, in some areas,
40 inches. plant competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash
The components of this map unit are so intermingled pine, and planting during the wetter months reduce the
that it is not practical to map them separately at the seedling mortality rate. Using harvesting and planting
scale used in mapping. However, the proportions of the machinery equipped with large rubber tires helps to
Candler and Apopka soils and of the similar soils are overcome the equipment limitation. Prescribed burning
fairly consistent in most mapped areas. and controlled grazing in established stands generally
Throughout the year the seasonal high water table is are adequate to control competing vegetation and to
below a depth of 72 inches in the Candler and Apopka maintain accessibility.
soils. Permeability is rapid in the Candler soil and These soils have only slight limitations affecting sites
moderate in the Apopka soil. Available water capacity is for septic tank absorption fields, residential and
very low in both soils. commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or Taking care not to cluster homes and septic systems
the production of pine trees. Other areas are used for minimizes the hazard of ground-water pollution.
cropland or have been subdivided for residential Limitations affecting recreational facilities are severe
development. Natural vegetation consists mainly of because of the loose, sandy surface layer. Establishing
longleaf pine, slash pine, turkey oak, live oak, post oak, turf grasses that are tolerant of droughtiness and traffic
and bluejack oak in the overstory and wiregrass, can help to stabilize the surface layer. Applications of
bluestems, blackberry, cabbage-palm, Spanish bayonet, mulch, applications of fertilizer, frequent irrigation, and
Florida rosemary, and scattered saw palmetto in the restricted access are generally required.
understory. This map unit generally is in the Longleaf The capability subclass is IVs for the Candler soil
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community (24). and Ills for the Apopka soil. The woodland ordination
These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. symbol is 8S for the Candler soil and 10S for the
Prolonged droughtiness, low natural fertility, and soil Apopka soil.
blowing are the main management concerns. A well
designed sprinkler irrigation system is necessary to 8-Smyrna fine sand. This poorly drained, very
maintain adequate soil moisture during the growing deep, nearly level soil is on flatwoods. Individual areas
season for most cultivated crops. In many areas, are generally irregular in shape and range from 2 to








32 Soil Survey


more than 10,000 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to and the low natural fertility are the main management
2 percent. concerns. Shallow surface ditches can be installed to
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand remove excess water more rapidly during the growing
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. season. Bedding is necessary for most row crops. A
It is gray to a depth of about 9 inches and light well designed sprinkler irrigation system can help to
brownish gray to a depth of 19 inches. The subsoil is maintain optimum soil moisture during drought periods.
black, organically coated fine sand to a depth of about Proper seedbed preparation and weed control are
23 inches and a mixture of dark yellowish brown and needed to control competing vegetation. Frequent
very dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 28 applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed
inches. The underlying material is very pale brown fine to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop residue
sand to a depth of about 57 inches and white fine sand to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
to a depth of 80 inches or more. grasses and legumes can help to maintain the content
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Smyrna of organic matter and improve tilth.
fine sand, Smyrna and similar soils make up about 87 This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The
to 100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils wetness and the low natural fertility are the main
make up less than about 13 percent. On 5 percent of management concerns. They limit the selection of plant
the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 13 species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface
percent of the mapped areas. ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as
Smyrna soil but have an organically coated subsoil Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if
below a depth of 20 inches, do not have an organically properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet
coated subsoil, do not have a subsurface layer, have a periods or extended dry periods helps to avoid damage
loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches, or have to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation,
limestone bedrock below a depth of 60 inches, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the pasture in
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Smyrna soil good condition.
in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, Boca, The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Cassia, Pineda, Placid, Pomello, Popash, Samsula, moderate. The main management concerns are the
Wauchula, and Zolfo soils and soils that have limestone equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
bedrock within a depth of 60 inches. Boca, Pineda, and competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
Wauchula soils are in positions on the landscape similar should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
to those of the Smyrna soil. Adamsville, Cassia, mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
Pomello, and Zolfo soils are in the slightly higher vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
landscape positions. Placid, Popash, and Samsula soils bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Limiting
are in depressions. Boca, Pineda, and Wauchula soils mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 inches. Boca equipment limitation and usually results in less soil
and Pineda soils do not have an organically stained compaction and damage to roots during thinning
subsoil, and Boca soils have limestone bedrock within a operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
depth of 40 inches. reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a and controlled grazing in established stands help to
depth of 6 to 18 inches in the Smyrna soil for 1 to 4 control competing vegetation and to maintain
months. The water table may recede to a depth of accessibility.
about 60 inches during drought periods. Permeability The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic
is moderate or moderately rapid. Available water tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
capacity is low. buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational
Most areas of this map unit are used for the facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
production of pine trees. Other areas are used as material can help to overcome the limitations affecting
pasture, cropland, or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises
consists mainly of slash pine and longleaf pine in the building foundations above the level of the seasonal
overstory and saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting
waxmyrtle, fetterbush, gallberry, and bluestems in the residential and commercial buildings. Raising road
understory. This map unit generally is in the North bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and
Florida Flatwoods ecological community (24). installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads
during the growing season, occasional droughtiness, and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and







Levy County, Florida 33


establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of production of pine trees. Other areas are used as
wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations pasture, cropland, or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation
affecting recreational uses. consists mainly of slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland pine in the overstory and saw palmetto, pineland
ordination symbol is 10W. threeawn, bluestems, waxmyrtle, fetterbush, and
gallberry in the understory. This map unit generally is in
9-Pomona fine sand. This poorly drained, very the North Florida Flatwoods ecological community (24).
deep, nearly level soil is on flatwoods. Individual areas This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness
are generally irregular in shape and range from 2 to during the growing season, occasional droughtiness,
nearly 1,000 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 and low natural fertility are the main management
percent. concerns. Shallow surface ditches can be installed to
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine remove excess water more rapidly during the growing
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a season. Bedding is necessary for most row crops. A
depth of about 23 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper well designed sprinkler irrigation system can help to
subsoil is dark brown, organically coated fine sand to a maintain optimum soil moisture during drought periods.
depth of about 27 inches and dark yellowish brown fine Proper seedbed preparation and weed control are
sand to a depth of 30 inches. Below this, to a depth of needed to control competing vegetation. Frequent
about 61 inches, are intervening layers of very pale applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed
brown fine sand and grayish brown loamy fine sand. to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop residue
The lower subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
gray sandy clay loam. grasses and legumes can help to maintain the content
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pomona of organic matter and improve tilth.
fine sand, Pomona and similar soils make up about 89 This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The
to 100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils wetness and the low natural fertility are the main
make up less than 11 percent. On 5 percent of the management concerns. They limit the selection of plant
acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 11 species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface
percent of the mapped areas, ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as
Pomona soil but have an organically coated subsoil that Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if
is below a depth of 30 inches, do not have an properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet
organically coated subsoil, do not have a subsurface periods or extended dry periods helps to prevent
layer, do not have a loamy subsoil, or have limestone damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture
bedrock below a depth of 60 inches. rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Pomona pasture in good condition.
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Bivans, Boca, Bradenton, Ft. Green, Hicoria, Pineda, moderate. The main management concerns are the
Placid, Popash, Sparr, Wauchula, and Zolfo soils and equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
soils that have limestone bedrock within a depth of 60 competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
inches. Adamsville, Bivans, Ft. Green, Sparr, and Zolfo should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
soils are in the slightly higher landscape positions. mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
Boca, Bradenton, Pineda, and Wauchula soils are in vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
positions on the landscape similar to those of the bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Limiting
Pomona soil. Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils are in mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the
depressions. Boca, Bradenton, and Pineda soils do not equipment limitation and usually results in less soil
have an organically stained subsoil and have a loamy compaction and damage to roots during thinning
subsoil within a depth of 40 inches. Wauchula soils also operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 inches. reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a and controlled grazing in established stands help to
depth of 6 to 18 inches in the Pomona soil for 1 to 4 control competing vegetation and to maintain
months. The water table may recede to a depth of accessibility.
about 60 inches during drought periods. Permeability The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic
is moderately slow or moderate. Available water tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
capacity is low. buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational
Most areas of this map unit are used for the facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil







34 Soil Survey


material can help to overcome the limitations affecting Most areas of this map unit are used for the
septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises production of pine trees. Other areas are used as
building foundations above the level of the seasonal pasture, cropland, or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation
wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting consists mainly of slash pine, loblolly pine, and
residential and commercial buildings. Raising road sweetgum in the overstory and saw palmetto, gallberry,
bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and fetterbush, waxmyrtle, wiregrass, bluestems, and
installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can sedges in the understory. Some areas do not have a
help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads woody overstory, and the native vegetation consists
and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and mainly of grasses and shrubs, including bluestems,
establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of waxmyrtle, maidencane, and sand cordgrass. This map
wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations unit generally is in the North Florida Flatwoods or
affecting recreational uses. Slough ecological community (24).
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness
ordination symbol is 10W. during the growing season is the main management
concern. Shallow surface ditches can be installed to
10-Placid fine sand. This very poorly drained, very remove excess water more rapidly during wet periods.
deep, nearly level soil is on marsh prairies and low Bedding is necessary for most row crops. Proper
flatwoods. Individual areas are generally irregular in seedbed preparation and weed control are needed to
shape and range from 2 to nearly 700 acres in size. control competing vegetation.
Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand to a wetness is the main management concern. It limits the
depth of about 4 inches and very dark gray fine sand to selection of plant species and the periods of grazing.
a depth of 19 inches. The underlying material is very Shallow surface ditches can be installed to remove
pale brown fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches and excess water more rapidly during wet periods. Adapted
light gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo,
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Placid fine grow well if properly managed. Restricting grazing
sand, Placid and similar soils make up about 76 to 100 during very wet periods helps to prevent damage to
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up plant roots. Proper stocking rates and pasture rotation
less than 24 percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the help to keep the pasture in good condition.
dissimilar soils make up more than 14 percent of the The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
mapped areas. high. The main management concerns are the
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
Placid soil but have an organically coated subsoil, have competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches, do not should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
have a dark surface layer that is more than 10 inches mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
thick, have a surface layer of loamy fine sand or mucky vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
fine sand that is more than 3 inches thick, or have bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Shallow
limestone bedrock below a depth of 60 inches, surface ditches can be installed to remove excess water
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Placid soil more rapidly during wet periods. Limiting mechanical
in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, Pineda, operations to the drier periods reduces the equipment
Popash, Samsula, and Zolfo soils and soils that are in limitation and usually results in less soil compaction and
depressions or that have limestone bedrock within a damage to roots during thinning operations. Planting
depth of 60 inches. Adamsville and Zolfo soils are in the adapted trees, such as slash pine, reduces the seedling
slightly higher landscape positions. Pineda soils are in mortality rate. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing
positions on the landscape similar to those of the Placid in established stands help to control competing
soil. Popash and Samsula soils are in depressions. vegetation and to maintain accessibility. During harvest,
Pineda soils have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 site preparation, and road-building activities, the flow of
inches, the creeks and drainageways that remove excess water
In most years the seasonal high water table is within from the area should not be impeded.
a depth of 12 inches in the Placid soil for more than 6 The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic
months, but it can be above the surface for 1 to 2 tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
weeks following heavy rains or can recede to a depth of buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational
about 60 inches during drought periods. Permeability facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
is rapid. Available water capacity is low. material can help to overcome the limitations affecting







Levy County, Florida 35


septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises surface layer; have an organic surface layer that is
building foundations above the level of the seasonal more than 51 inches thick or less than 16 inches thick;
wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting have loamy material underlying the organic surface
residential and commercial buildings. Raising road layer; are more alkaline in the surface layer; or have
bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and bedrock between depths of 40 and 80 inches.
installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can Dissimilar soils that are included with the Placid and
help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads Samsula soils in mapping occur as small areas of
and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and Chobee, Holopaw, Myakka, Pineda, Pomona, Pompano,
establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of and Smyrna soils and soils that have bedrock at a
wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations depth of 20 to 40 inches. Chobee soils are in positions
affecting recreational uses. on the landscape similar to those of the Placid and
The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland Samsula soils. Holopaw, Myakka, Pineda, Pomona,
ordination symbol is 11W. Pompano, and Smyrna soils are in the slightly higher
landscape positions. Chobee soils are loamy
11-Placid and Samsula soils, depressional. These throughout.
very poorly drained, very deep, nearly level soils are in During most years the seasonal high water table is
depressions on flatwoods. They are ponded. Individual above the surface in the Placid and Samsula soils for
areas are generally oval or irregular in shape and range more than 6 months and is within a depth of 12 inches
from 2 to nearly 2,000 acres in size. Slopes are 0 to 1 during the rest of the year. Permeability is rapid in both
percent. soils. Available water capacity is low in the Placid soil
Typically, the surface layer of the Placid soil is black and high in the Samsula soil.
muck to a depth of about 3 inches and very dark gray Most areas of this map unit support natural
fine sand to a depth of 14 inches. The underlying vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural
material is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 24 vegetation consists mainly of cypress, red maple,
inches, brown fine sand to a depth of 45 inches, and sweetbay, sweetgum, and Florida willow in the
very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches, overstory and pickerelweed, lizard's-tail, water iris, and
Typically, the surface layer of the Samsula soil is scattered cabbage-palm in the understory. Some areas
dark brown muck to a depth of about 6 inches and do not have a woody overstory and support thick stands
black muck to a depth of 47 inches. The underlying of sawgrass or maidencane. This map unit generally is
material is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about in the Swamp Hardwood, Cypress Swamp, or Sawgrass
62 inches and light brownish gray fine sand to a depth Marsh ecological community (24).
of 80 inches or more. These soils are not suited to and generally are not
Some areas of the map unit are made up of Placid used for cropland, pasture, or the production of pine
and similar soils, some are made up of Samsula and trees. Limitations, including ponding, are impractical to
similar soils, and some are made up of both soils. The overcome under normal circumstances.
relative proportion of the combinations of the soils The ponding is a severe limitation on sites for septic
varies. Areas of the individual soils are large enough to tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
map separately, but because of present and predicted buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational
use they were mapped as one unit. facilities. Extensive renovation measures, including
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Placid and drainage systems and the addition of large amounts of
Samsula soils, depressional, Placid, Samsula, and fill, are necessary to overcome this limitation.
similar soils make up about 88 to 100 percent of the The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
map unit. Dissimilar soils make up less than 12 percent. ordination symbol is 2W.
On 5 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make
up more than 12 percent of the mapped areas. 12-Otela-Candler complex, 1 to 5 percent slopes.
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the This map unit consists of a moderately well drained
Placid soil but have an organic surface layer that is less Otela soil and an excessively drained Candler soil.
than 3 inches thick; have a dark, organically coated These very deep, nearly level to gently sloping soils are
subsoil or a loamy subsoil below a depth of 20 inches; on karst uplands. Individual areas are generally
do not have a dark surface layer as much as 10 inches irregular in shape and range from 5 to more than
in thickness; or have bedrock between depths of 40 and 10,000 acres in size.
80 inches. Also included are soils that are similar to the Typically, the surface layer of the Otela soil is dark
Samsula soil but have a loamy layer or a dark, grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
organically coated, sandy layer below the organic subsurface layer is fine sand. It is brown to a depth of








36 Soil Survey


about 21 inches, very pale brown to a depth of 32 In most years the seasonal high water table is
inches, and white to a depth of 50 inches. Below this is perched at a depth of 48 to 72 inches in the Otela soil
a mixed subsurface layer and subsoil that is brownish for 1 to 4 months. It is below a depth of 72 inches in the
yellow fine sandy loam to a depth of about 61 inches, Candler soil throughout the year. Permeability is slow or
brownish yellow sandy clay loam to a depth of 68 moderately slow in the Otela soil and rapid in the
inches, and light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 Candler soil. Available water capacity is low in the Otela
inches or more. soil and very low in the Candler soil.
Typically, the surface layer of the Candler soil is Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or
grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The cropland. Other areas are used for the production of
subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth pine trees or have been subdivided for residential
of about 14 inches, pale brown fine sand to a depth of development. Natural vegetation consists mainly of live
30 inches, and very pale brown fine sand to a depth of oak, laurel oak, magnolia, slash pine, longleaf pine, and
75 inches. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is scattered turkey oak in the overstory and blackberry,
a mixed subsurface layer and subsoil of white fine sand pineland threeawn, greenbrier, brackenfern, bluestems,
that has common thin, horizontal lenses of yellowish and scattered saw palmetto and cabbage-palm in the
brown loamy fine sand. understory. This map unit generally is in the Upland
Generally, the mapped areas average about 56 Hardwood Hammocks ecological community (24).
percent Otela and similar soils and 33 percent Candler These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops.
and similar soils. The components of this map unit are Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and soil blowing are
so intermingled that it is not practical to map them the main management concerns. A well designed
separately at the scale used in mapping. However, the sprinkler irrigation system is necessary to maintain
proportions of the Otela and Candler soils and of the adequate soil moisture during the growing season for
similar soils are fairly consistent in most mapped areas, most cultivated crops. Returning crop residue to the soil
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Otela- and mulching can increase the content of organic
Candler complex, 1 to 5 percent slopes, Otela, Candler, matter and the water-holding capacity of the topsoil.
and similar soils make up about 82 to 95 percent of the Green manure crops, including grasses and legumes,
mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 5 to 18 should be used in the crop rotation. Frequent
percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar applications of lime and fertilizer generally are needed
soils make up more than 18 percent of the mapped to improve and maintain fertility. Establishing
areas, windbreaks around fields and utilizing field windstrips
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the with row crops can minimize loss of topsoil and damage
Otela soil but have a dark surface layer that is more to emergent plants caused by soil blowing.
than 10 inches thick, have bedrock at a depth of 50 to These soils are well suited to pasture. Seasonal
60 inches, have a seasonal high water table at a depth droughtiness and the low natural fertility are the main
of 20 to 42 inches, or do not have a seasonal high management concerns. They limit the selection of plant
water table within a depth of 72 inches. Also included species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants,
are soils that are similar to the Candler soil but have such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow
more than 5 percent silt and clay between depths of 10 well if properly managed. Pastures should be
and 40 inches, have a dark surface layer that is more established or renovated during the wetter months.
than 8 inches thick, do not have sandy or loamy lenses Restricting grazing during extended dry periods helps to
within a depth of 80 inches, or have a seasonal high prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates,
water table at a depth of 40 to 72 inches, pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Otela and keep the pasture in good condition.
Candler soils in mapping occur as small areas of The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
Adamsville, Bonneau, Bushnell, Hague, Jonesville, is moderate. The main management concerns are
Moriah, Placid, Popash, and Shadeville soils. Bonneau, seedling mortality caused by the seasonal droughtiness
Hague, Jonesville, and Shadeville soils are in positions and the low fertility; the equipment limitation caused by
on the landscape similar to those of the Otela and the loose, sandy surface layer; and, in some areas,
Candler soils. Adamsville, Bushnell, and Moriah soils plant competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash
are in the lower landscape positions. Placid and Popash pine, and planting during the wetter months reduce the
soils are in depressions. Bonneau, Hague, Jonesville, seedling mortality rate. Using harvesting and planting
and Shadeville soils have a loamy subsoil within a machinery equipped with large rubber tires helps to
depth of 40 inches. Jonesville soils have limestone overcome the equipment limitation. Prescribed burning
bedrock within a depth of 40 inches. and controlled grazing in established stands generally







Levy County, Florida 37


are adequate to control competing vegetation and to positions. Bradenton, Holopaw, and Pineda soils are in
maintain accessibility, positions on the landscape similar to those of the
These soils have only slight limitations affecting sites Wekiva soil. Chobee soils are in the lower landscape
for residential and commercial buildings and local roads positions, and Hicoria soils are in depressions.
and streets. The Otela soil is moderately limited as a Bradenton, Holopaw, and Pineda soils do not have
site for septic tank absorption fields because of wetness limestone bedrock within a depth of 40 inches and do
and the slow or moderately slow permeability in the not have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches.
subsoil. The Candler soil is slightly limited as a site for In most years the seasonal high water table is within
septic tank absorption fields. Careful site investigation is a depth of 12 inches in the Wekiva soil for 2 to 6
needed. Installing an oversized septic tank absorption months. It is above the surface for 1 to 2 weeks
field and avoiding the clustering of homes and septic following heavy rains. The water table recedes into
systems can help to overcome the limitations and crevices and solution holes in the bedrock during
minimize the hazard of ground-water pollution. drought periods. Permeability is moderately slow.
Limitations affecting most recreational facilities are Available water capacity is very low.
severe because of the loose, sandy surface layer. Most areas of this map unit are used for the
Establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of production of pine trees. Other areas are used as
traffic and restricting access to stabilized areas can help pasture or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation consists
to overcome these limitations. Applications of mulch, mainly of slash pine, loblolly pine, laurel oak,
applications of fertilizer, and irrigation generally are sweetgum, cedar, and magnolia in the overstory and
needed to establish turf grasses, cabbage-palm, saw palmetto, greenbrier, waxmyrtle,
The capability subclass is Ills for the Otela soil and pineland threeawn, and bluestems in the understory.
IVs for the Candler soil. The woodland ordination This map unit generally is in the Wetland Hardwood
symbol is 10S for the Otela soil and 8S for the Candler Hammocks ecological community (24).
soil. This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main management concerns are a restricted root zone,
13-Wekiva fine sand. This poorly drained, shallow the depth to bedrock, and wetness, which may delay
to moderately deep, nearly level soil is on low ridges, planting. Bedding and installing surface ditches
Individual areas are generally irregular in shape and generally are needed if row crops are grown, but
range from 2 to more than 10,000 acres in size. Slopes special equipment may be needed because of the
range from 0 to 2 percent. limited depth to bedrock. During drought periods, the
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine water table is below the bedrock, and thus sufficient
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a moisture is not available to plant roots. Special
depth of about 9 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. cultivation equipment may be needed because of the
The subsoil, to a depth of about 18 inches, is yellowish limited depth to bedrock. Proper seedbed preparation
brown sandy clay loam. Below this is limestone and weed control are needed to control competing
bedrock. vegetation.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Wekiva This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main
fine sand, Wekiva and similar soils make up about 75 to management concerns are the wetness and the
100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make restricted root zone. They limit the selection of plant
up less than 25 percent. On 10 percent of the acreage, species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface
the dissimilar soils make up more than 25 percent of ditches can help to remove excess water more rapidly
the mapped areas. during wet periods, but special equipment may be
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the needed because of the limited depth to bedrock. During
Wekiva soil but do not have a sandy surface layer that drought periods, the water table is below the bedrock,
is 7 or more inches thick, have limestone bedrock below and thus sufficient moisture is not available to plant
a depth of 30 inches or at a depth of 4 to 9 inches, do roots. Adapted plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass
not have a loamy subsoil, or have a loamy subsoil at a and hairy indigo, grow well if properly managed.
depth of 20 to 40 inches. Restricting grazing during very wet periods or extended
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Wekiva soil dry periods helps to prevent damage to plant roots.
in mapping occur as small areas of Aripeka, Bradenton, Proper stocking rates and pasture rotation help to keep
Chobee, Hicoria, Holopaw, Matmon, Moriah, and the pasture in good condition.
Pineda soils and soils that have limestone bedrock The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
within a depth of 4 inches. Aripeka, Matmon, and low. The main management concerns are the
Moriah soils are in the slightly higher landscape equipment limitation, seedling mortality, plant








38 Soil Survey


competition, and windthrow, which is caused by the Typically, the surface layer of the Shadeville soil is
wetness and the depth to bedrock. Site preparation very dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick.
should include removing the larger debris to facilitate The subsurface layer is dark yellowish brown fine sand
mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory to a depth of about 27 inches and yellow fine sand to a
vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and depth of 35 inches. The subsoil is strong brown fine
bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Shallow sandy loam to a depth of about 60 inches and light gray
surface ditches can be installed to remove excess water fine sandy loam to a depth of 64 inches. White
more rapidly during wet periods. Because of the limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 64 inches.
shallowness to bedrock, specialized equipment may be Typically, the surface layer of the Otela soil is dark
needed for proper site preparation and tree planting grayish brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
activities. Limiting mechanical operations to the drier subsurface layer is brown fine sand to a depth of about
periods reduces the equipment limitation and usually 16 inches, pale brown fine sand to a depth of 21
results in less soil compaction and damage to roots inches, very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 50
during thinning operations. Planting adapted trees, such inches, and white fine sand to a depth of 60 inches.
as slash pine or loblolly pine, reduces the seedling The subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a
mortality rate. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing depth of about 66 inches, yellowish brown sandy clay
in established stands help to control competing loam to a depth of 72 inches, and brownish yellow
vegetation and to maintain accessibility. Thinning the sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
hardwood overstory instead of clearcutting or leaving Generally, the mapped areas average about 50
some rows of unharvested trees as windbreaks reduces percent Shadeville and similar soils and 31 percent
the hazard of windthrow. During harvest, site Otela and similar soils. The components of this map
preparation, and road-building activities, the flow of the unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map
creeks and drainageways that remove excess water them separately at the scale used in mapping.
from the area should not be impeded. However, the proportions of the Shadeville and Otela
The wetness and the depth to bedrock are severe soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
limitations on sites for septic tank absorption fields, mapped areas.
residential and commercial buildings, local roads and On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Shadeville-
streets, and most recreational facilities. Careful site Otela complex, 1 to 5 percent slopes, Shadeville, Otela,
investigation is needed to locate suitably large areas and similar soils make up about 75 to 86 percent of the
that are deep enough over bedrock. Installing a filtering mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 14 to 25
mound of suitable soil material can help to overcome percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar
the limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields. soils make up more than 25 percent of the mapped
Filling, which raises building foundations above the level areas.
of the seasonal wetness, can help to overcome the Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
limitations affecting residential and commercial Shadeville soil but do not have bedrock within a depth
buildings. Raising road bases above the level of the of 72 inches, have bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40
seasonal wetness and installing a system of roadside inches, have a dark surface layer that is more than 10
ditches and culverts can help to overcome the inches thick, contain more than 35 percent clay in the
limitations affecting local roads and streets, but special upper 20 inches of the subsoil, or have a seasonal high
equipment may be needed because of the limited depth water table at a depth of 20 to 48 inches. Also included
to bedrock. Restricting access during wet periods and are soils that are similar to the Shadeville and Otela
establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of soils but have sandy materials underlying the subsoil,
wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations have a dark surface layer that is more than 10 inches
affecting recreational uses. thick, have a seasonal high water table at a depth of 20
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland to 40 inches, do not have a seasonal high water table
ordination symbol is 8W. within a depth of 72 inches, or have base saturation of
less than 35 percent in the lower part of the subsoil.
14-Shadeville-Otela complex, 1 to 5 percent Also included are soils that are similar to the Otela soil
slopes. This map unit consists of a deep or very deep but have strong brown or reddish yellow colors in the
Shadeville soil and a very deep Otela soil. These subsoil, are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more, or
moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping have a seasonal high water table at a depth of 20 to 42
soils are on karst uplands. Individual areas are inches.
generally irregular in shape and range from 4 to nearly Dissimilar soils that are included with the Shadeville
2,600 acres in size. and Otela soils in mapping occur as small areas of







Levy County, Florida 39


Adamsville, Bushnell, Levyville, Mabel, Micanopy, is high. The main management concerns are seedling
Pedro, and Seaboard soils. Bushnell, Levyville, Mabel, mortality caused by the seasonal droughtiness and the
Micanopy, Pedro, and Seaboard soils are in positions low fertility; the equipment limitation caused by the
on the landscape similar to those of the Shadeville and loose, sandy surface layer; and, in some areas, plant
Otela soils. Adamsville soils are in the slightly lower competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
landscape positions. Bushnell, Levyville, Mabel, and planting during the wetter months reduce the
Micanopy, and Pedro soils have a loamy or clayey seedling mortality rate. Using harvesting and planting
subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. Pedro and machinery equipped with large rubber tires helps to
Seaboard soils have limestone bedrock within a depth overcome the equipment limitation. Prescribed burning
of 20 inches. Bushnell soils have limestone bedrock and controlled grazing in established stands generally
within a depth of 40 inches. are adequate to control competing vegetation and to
The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth maintain accessibility.
of 48 to 72 inches in the Shadeville soil for 1 to 3 These soils have only slight limitations affecting sites
months during most years. It is perched at a depth of for residential and commercial buildings and local roads
42 to 72 inches in the Otela soil for 1 to 3 months and streets. Wetness, the restricted permeability in the
during most years. Permeability is slow in the subsoil, and the bedrock are moderate limitations on
Shadeville soil and slow or moderately slow in the Otela sites for septic tank absorption fields. Installing an
soil. Available water capacity is low in both soils, oversized septic tank absorption field and taking care
Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or not to cluster homes and septic systems can help to
cropland. Other areas are used for residential overcome these limitations and minimize the hazard of
development or the production of pine trees. Natural ground-water pollution. Limitations affecting most
vegetation consists mainly of live oak, laurel oak, recreational facilities are severe because of the loose,
magnolia, slash pine, and longleaf pine in the overstory sandy surface layer. Establishing species of turf grass
and blackberry, pineland threeawn, greenbrier, that are tolerant of traffic and restricting access to
American beautyberry, brackenfern, bluestems, and stabilized areas can help to overcome these limitations.
scattered saw palmetto and cabbage-palm in the Applications of mulch, applications of fertilizer, and
understory. This map unit generally is in the Upland irrigation generally are needed to establish turf grasses.
Hardwood Hammocks ecological community (24). The capability subclass is IIs for the Shadeville soil
These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops, and Ills for the Otela soil. The woodland ordination
Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and soil blowing are symbol is 11S for the Shadeville soil and 10S for the
the main management concerns. A well designed Otela soil.
sprinkler irrigation system is necessary to maintain
adequate soil moisture during the growing season for 15-Holopaw-Pineda complex, frequently flooded.
most cultivated crops. Returning crop residue to the soil These poorly drained, very deep, nearly level soils are
and mulching can increase the content of organic on flood plains along rivers and creeks. They are
matter and the water-holding capacity of the topsoil. frequently flooded. Individual areas are generally
Green manure crops, including grasses and legumes, elongated and range from 3 to nearly 300 acres in size.
should be used in the crop rotation. Frequent Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
applications of lime and fertilizer generally are needed Typically, the surface layer of the Holopaw soil is
to improve and maintain fertility. Establishing very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
windbreaks around fields and utilizing field windstrips subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
with row crops can minimize loss of topsoil and damage depth of about 50 inches and pale brown fine sand to a
to emergent plants caused by soil blowing, depth of 60 inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam
These soils are well suited to pasture. Seasonal to a depth of 80 inches or more.
droughtiness and the low natural fertility are the main Typically, the surface layer of the Pineda soil is black
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the
species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants, subsoil is brown fine sand to a depth of about 14
such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow inches. The underlying material is light gray fine sand to
well if properly managed. Restricting grazing during a depth of about 28 inches and white fine sand to a
extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to plant depth of 35 inches. The lower part of the subsoil is light
roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 52 inches. The
applications of fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good underlying material is gray fine sand to a depth of 80
condition. inches or more.
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees Generally, the mapped areas average about 55








40 Soil Survey


percent Holopaw and similar soils and 29 percent basswood, and scattered baldcypress in the overstory
Pineda and similar soils. The components of this map and cabbage-palm, longleaf uniola, low panicums, and
unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map scattered saw palmetto in the understory. This map unit
them separately at the scale used in mapping. generally is in the Bottomland Hardwoods ecological
However, the proportions of the Holopaw and Pineda community (24).
soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most These soils are not suited to and generally are not
mapped areas. used for cropland. Limitations, including flooding and
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Holopaw- wetness, are impractical to overcome under normal
Pineda complex, frequently flooded, Holopaw, Pineda, circumstances.
and similar soils make up about 76 to 93 percent of the These soils are poorly suited to pasture. The
mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 7 to 24 flooding, the wetness, and the low natural fertility are
percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar the main management concerns. They limit the
soils make up more than 24 percent of the mapped selection of plant species and the periods of grazing.
areas. Shallow surface ditches can be installed to remove
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the excess water more rapidly during wet periods. Native
Holopaw soil but do not have a loamy subsoil within a forage species grow well if properly managed.
depth of 80 inches, have a dark surface layer that is Restricting grazing during very wet periods helps to
more than 7 inches thick, or have a subsurface layer prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates,
that has colors in shades of yellowish brown. Also pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to
included are soils that are similar to the Pineda soil but keep the pasture in good condition.
do not have a sandy subsoil that is more than 4 inches The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
thick, do not have sandy pockets and intrusions in the is moderate. The main management concerns are the
upper 2 to 10 inches of the loamy subsoil, or have a equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
dark surface layer that is more than 10 inches thick. competition caused by the wetness and the flooding.
Also included are soils that are similar to the Pineda Site preparation should include removing the larger
and Holopaw soils but have bedrock or layers of shell debris to facilitate mechanical operations, chopping the
fragments below a depth of 60 to 80 inches or have a woody understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant
surface layer of muck, loamy sand, or sandy loam that competition, and bedding to reduce the seedling
is more than 3 inches thick. mortality rate. Shallow surface ditches can be installed
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Holopaw to remove excess water more rapidly during wet
and Pineda soils in mapping occur as small areas of periods. Limiting mechanical operations to the drier
Albany, Bradenton, Chobee, Gator, Ousley, and Terra periods reduces the equipment limitation and usually
Ceia soils and soils that have limestone bedrock within results in less soil compaction and damage to roots
a depth of 60 inches. Bradenton and Chobee soils are during thinning operations. Planting adapted trees, such
in positions on the landscape similar to those of the as slash pine, reduces the seedling mortality rate.
Holopaw and Pineda soils. Albany and Ousley soils are Prescribed burning and controlled grazing in established
in the slightly higher landscape positions. Gator and stands help to control competing vegetation and to
Terra Ceia soils are in the lower landscape positions. maintain accessibility. During harvest, site preparation,
Bradenton soils have a loamy subsoil within a depth of and road-building activities, the flow of the creeks and
20 inches. Chobee soils are loamy throughout. drainageways that remove excess water from the area
In most years the seasonal high water table is within should not be impeded.
a depth of 12 inches in the Holopaw and Pineda soils The flooding and the wetness are severe limitations
for 2 to 6 months, but it can recede to a depth of about on sites for septic tank absorption fields, residential and
60 inches during drought periods. Areas of this map commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and
unit are flooded by adjacent rivers or creeks for periods recreational facilities. Extensive renovation measures,
of 1 to 4 months during most years. Permeability is including the installation of levees and drainage
moderate in the Holopaw soil and slow or very slow in systems, are necessary to overcome these limitations.
the Pineda soil. Available water capacity is low in both The capability subclass is VIw for the Holopaw soil
soils, and Vw for the Pineda soil. The woodland ordination
Most areas of this map unit support natural symbol is 10W for both soils.
vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Some
small areas are used for the production of pine trees. 16-Chobee-Gator complex, frequently flooded.
Natural vegetation consists mainly of laurel oak, water These very poorly drained, very deep, nearly level soils
oak, sweetgum, red maple, slash pine, longleaf pine, are on flood plains. They are frequently flooded.







Levy County, Florida 41


Individual areas are generally elongated and range from within a depth of 6 inches in the Chobee and Gator
4 to nearly 2,900 acres in size. Slopes are 0 to 1 soils. Areas of this map unit are flooded by adjacent
percent. rivers or creeks for periods of 1 to 6 months during
Typically, the surface layer of the Chobee soil is dark most years. Permeability is slow or very slow in the
brown muck to a depth of about 3 inches and very dark Chobee soil and moderate in the Gator soil. Available
gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 19 inches. The water capacity is moderate in the Chobee soil and very
subsoil, to a depth of about 42 inches, is dark gray high in the Gator soil.
sandy clay loam. The underlying material to a depth of Most areas of this map unit support natural
80 inches or more is gray loamy fine sand. vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural
Typically, the surface layer of the Gator soil is black vegetation consists mainly of cypress, red maple,
muck about 26 inches thick. The underlying material is sweetbay, sweetgum, and Florida willow in the
very dark gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 40 overstory and pickerelweed, lizard's-tail, water iris, and
inches, gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 52 inches, scattered cabbage-palm in the understory. This map
and light gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or unit generally is in the Swamp Hardwoods or Cypress
more. Swamp ecological community (24).
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Chobee- These soils are not suited to and generally are not
Gator complex, frequently flooded, Chobee, Gator, and used for cropland, pasture, or the production of pine
similar soils make up about 77 to 100 percent of the trees. Limitations, including flooding and wetness, are
mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up less than about impractical to overcome under normal circumstances.
23 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar The flooding and the wetness are severe limitations
soils make up more than 23 percent of the mapped affecting sites for septic tank absorption fields,
areas. Generally, the mapped areas average about 45 residential and commercial buildings, local roads and
percent Chobee and similar soils and 43 percent Gator streets, and recreational facilities. Extensive renovation
and similar soils. measures, including the installation of levees and
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the drainage systems and the addition of large amounts of
Chobee soil but have a sandy substratum at a depth of fill, are necessary to overcome these limitations.
20 to 40 inches, have a dark surface layer that is less The capability subclass is Vw for the Chobee soil and
than 10 inches thick, have an organic surface layer that Vllw for the Gator soil. The woodland ordination symbol
is 4 to 16 inches thick, have a surface layer of loamy is 6W for both soils.
fine sand or sandy clay loam that is 4 to 20 inches
thick, or have bedrock between depths of 40 and 80 17-Adamsville fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
inches. Also included are soils that are similar to the This somewhat poorly drained, very deep, nearly level
Gator soil but have a sandy layer that is more than 12 to gently sloping soil is on low ridges and knolls on or
inches thick and underlies the organic surface layer, adjacent to flatwoods. Individual areas are generally
have an organic surface layer that is more than 51 irregular in shape, and range from 2 to nearly 1,000
inches thick, or have bedrock between depths of 40 and acres in size.
80 inches. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Chobee sand to a depth of about 6 inches and dark gray fine
and Gator soils in mapping occur as small areas of sand to a depth of 14 inches. The underlying material is
Bradenton, Hicoria, Holopaw, Myakka, Pineda, Placid, fine sand. It is grayish brown to a depth of about 32
Pompano, and Popash soils and soils that have inches, pale brown to a depth of 43 inches, light gray to
bedrock between depths of 20 and 40 inches. Hicoria, a depth of 70 inches, and white to a depth of 80 inches
Placid, and Popash soils are in positions on the or more.
landscape similar to those of the Chobee and Gator On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Adamsville
soils. Bradenton, Holopaw, Myakka, Pineda, and fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Adamsville and similar
Pompano soils are in the slightly higher landscape soils make up about 79 to 88 percent of the mapped
positions. Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils are sandy areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 12 to 21 percent.
to a depth of 20 inches or more. On 5 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make
The components of this map unit are so intermingled up more than 21 percent of the mapped areas.
that it is not practical to map them separately at the Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
scale used in mapping. However, the proportions of the Adamsville soil but have a light-colored subsurface
Chobee and Gator soils and of the similar soils are layer that overlies a brown or yellow subsoil; have a
fairly consistent in most mapped areas, dark, organically coated subsoil; have a loamy subsoil
Throughout the year the seasonal high water table is or limestone bedrock below a depth of 40 inches; or







42 Soil Survey


have a dark surface layer that is more than 10 inches moderate. The main management concerns are the
thick. equipment limitation and plant competition caused by
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Adamsville the seasonal wetness and the seedling mortality caused
soil in mapping are small areas of Hicoria, Immokalee, by the low available water capacity in the root zone and
Millhopper, Myakka, Orsino, Placid, Pomona, Pompano, the low fertility. Limiting mechanical operations to the
Popash, Smyrna, Tavares, and Wauchula soils and drier periods reduces the equipment limitation and
soils that have limestone bedrock within a depth of 60 usually results in less soil compaction and damage to
inches. Millhopper, Orsino, and Tavares soils are in the roots during thinning operations. Site preparation should
higher landscape positions. Immokalee, Myakka, include removing the larger debris to facilitate
Pomona, Pompano, Smyrna, and Wauchula soils are in mechanical operations and chopping the woody
the slightly lower landscape positions. Hicoria, Placid, understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant
and Popash soils are in depressions, competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
depth of 24 to 42 inches in the Adamsville soil for 2 to 6 and controlled grazing in established stands generally
months. It is at a depth of 12 to 24 inches for 1 to 2 are adequate to control competing vegetation and to
weeks following heavy rains. Permeability is rapid. maintain accessibility.
Available water capacity is low. The wetness is a moderate limitation affecting sites
Most areas of this map unit are used for the for residential and commercial buildings and local roads
production of pine trees. Other areas are used as and streets. Installing a subsurface drainage system
pasture, cropland, or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation around the foundations of buildings and installing
consists mainly of live oak, laurel oak, slash pine, and shallow ditches along roadsides can help to overcome
longleaf pine in the overstory and pineland threeawn, this limitation. The wetness is a severe limitation on
saw palmetto, gallberry, blackberry, bluestems, running sites for septic tank absorption fields. Installing a
oak, and reindeer moss in the understory. This map unit filtering mound of suitable soil material can help to
generally is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological overcome this limitation. Limitations affecting most
community (24). recreational facilities are severe because of the loose,
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The sandy surface layer. Establishing species of turf grass
main management concerns are seasonal wetness, that are tolerant of traffic can help to overcome these
which can delay planting; seasonal droughtiness limitations.
caused by the low available water capacity; and low The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
natural fertility. Shallow surface ditches and grassed ordination symbol is 10W.
waterways can help to remove excess water during wet
periods. A well designed sprinkler irrigation system can 18-Wauchula fine sand. This poorly drained, very
help to maintain optimum soil moisture in the root zone deep, nearly level soil is on flatwoods. Individual areas
during drought periods. Frequent applications of are generally irregular in shape and range from 13 to
fertilizer and lime generally are needed to improve and nearly 800 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2
maintain fertility. Returning crop residue to the soil and percent.
using a cropping system that includes grasses and Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
legumes can help to maintain the content of organic about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
matter and improve tilth. Green manure crops, including of about 18 inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil
grasses and legumes, should be used in the crop is very dark brown, organically coated fine sand to a
rotation. depth of about 27 inches; light yellowish brown fine
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main sand to a depth of 32 inches; light brownish gray sandy
management concerns are low natural fertility and clay loam to a depth of 47 inches; light gray sandy clay
seasonal droughtiness caused by the low available loam to a depth of 61 inches; and gray loamy fine sand
water capacity in the root zone. They limit the selection to a depth of 80 inches or more.
of plant species and the periods of grazing. Adapted On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Wauchula
plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, fine sand, Wauchula and similar soils make up about 79
grow well if properly managed. Restricting grazing to 100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils
during extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to make up less than 21 percent. On 5 percent of the
plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 21
applications of fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good percent of the mapped areas.
condition. Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is Wauchula soil but do not have an organically coated







Levy County, Florida 43


subsoil within a depth of 30 inches, have a loamy rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as
subsoil at a depth of 40 to 80 inches, do not have a Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if
subsurface layer, have a dark surface horizon that is properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet
more than 8 inches thick, or have bedrock or layers of periods or extended dry periods helps to prevent
shell fragments below a depth of 60 inches, damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Wauchula rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, pasture in good condition.
Boca, Bradenton, Cassia, Hicoria, Immokalee, Janney, The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Myakka, Placid, Pomello, Pompano, Popash, Smyrna, moderate. The main management concerns are the
Sparr, and Zolfo soils and soils that have bedrock within equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
a depth of 60 inches. Boca, Bradenton, Immokalee, competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
Janney, Myakka, Pompano, and Smyrna soils are in should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
positions on the landscape similar to those of the mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
Wauchula soil. Adamsville, Cassia, Pomello, Sparr, and vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
Zolfo soils are in the slightly higher landscape positions. bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Limiting
Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils are in depressions. mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the
Boca, Bradenton, and Pompano soils do not have an equipment limitation and usually results in less soil
organically stained subsoil. Janney and Boca soils have compaction and damage to roots during thinning
limestone bedrock within a depth of 40 inches, operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
Immokalee, Myakka, and Smyrna soils are sandy to a reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
depth of 80 inches or more. and controlled grazing in established stands help to
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a control competing vegetation and to maintain
depth of 6 to 18 inches in the Wauchula soil for 1 to 4 accessibility.
months, but it can recede to a depth of about 60 inches The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic
during drought periods. Permeability is slow. Available tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
water capacity is moderate, buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational
Most areas of this map unit are used for the facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
production of pine trees. Other areas are used as material can help to overcome the limitations affecting
pasture, cropland, or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises
consists mainly of slash pine and longleaf pine in the building foundations above the level of the seasonal
overstory and saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting
waxmyrtle, fetterbush, gallberry, and bluestems in the residential and commercial buildings. Raising road
understory. This map unit generally is in the North bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and
Florida Flatwoods ecological community (24). installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads
during the growing season, occasional droughtiness, and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and
and low natural fertility are the main management establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
concerns. Shallow surface ditches can be installed to wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations
remove excess water more rapidly during the growing affecting recreational uses.
season. Bedding is necessary for most row crops. A The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
well designed sprinkler irrigation system can help to ordination symbol is 10W.
maintain optimum soil moisture during drought periods.
Proper seedbed preparation and weed control are 19-Sparr fine sand. This somewhat poorly drained,
needed to control competing vegetation. Frequent very deep, nearly level soil is on low knolls and ridges
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed on flatwoods. Individual areas are generally irregular in
to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop residue shape and range from 3 to nearly 1,000 acres in size.
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
grasses and legumes can help to maintain the content Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
of organic matter and improve tilth, sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 18 inches,
wetness and the low natural fertility are the main light gray fine sand to a depth of 30 inches, and white
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant fine sand to a depth of 54 inches. The subsoil is light
species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
ditches can be installed to remove excess water more On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Sparr fine







44 Soil Survey


sand, Sparr and similar soils make up about 75 to 94 management concerns are the low natural fertility and
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up the seasonal droughtiness caused by the low available
about 6 to 25 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, water capacity in the root zone. They limit the selection
the dissimilar soils make up more than 25 percent of of plant species and the periods of grazing. Adapted
the mapped areas. plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo,
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the grow well if properly managed. Restricting grazing
Sparr soil but do not have a loamy subsoil within a during extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to
depth of 80 inches; have a dark, organically stained plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
layer that overlies the subsoil; have sandy materials applications of fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good
underlying the subsoil; or have a dark surface layer that condition.
is more than 10 inches thick. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Sparr soil moderate. The main management concerns are the
occur as small areas of Hicoria, Holopaw, Immokalee, equipment limitation and plant competition caused by
Lochloosa, Millhopper, Myakka, Orsino, Placid, the seasonal wetness and the seedling mortality caused
Pompano, Popash, and Tavares soils. Holopaw, by the low available water capacity in the root zone and
Immokalee, Myakka, and Pompano soils are in the the low fertility. Limiting mechanical operations to the
slightly lower landscape positions. Lochloosa soils are drier periods reduces the equipment limitation and
in positions on the landscape similar to those of the usually results in less soil compaction and damage to
Sparr soil. Millhopper, Orsino, and Tavares soils are in roots during thinning operations. Site preparation should
the slightly higher landscape positions. Hicoria, Placid, include removing the larger debris to facilitate
and Popash soils are in depressions. Lochloosa soils mechanical operations and chopping the woody
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 inches. understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
depth of 18 to 42 inches in the Sparr soil for 1 to 4 reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
months, but it is between depths of 12 and 18 inches and controlled grazing in established stands generally
for 1 to 2 weeks following heavy rains. Permeability is are adequate to control competing vegetation and to
slow or moderately slow. Available water capacity is maintain accessibility.
low. This soil has moderate limitations affecting sites for
Most areas of this map unit are used for the residential and commercial buildings and local roads
production of pine trees. Other areas are used as and streets mainly because of wetness. Installing a
pasture, cropland, or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation subsurface drainage system around the foundations of
consists mainly of live oak, laurel oak, slash pine, and buildings and installing shallow ditches along roadsides
longleaf pine in the overstory and pineland threeawn, can help to overcome these limitations. The wetness is
saw palmetto, gallberry, blackberry, bluestems, running a severe limitation on sites for septic tank absorption
oak, and reindeer moss in the understory. This map unit fields. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
generally is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological material generally can overcome this limitation.
community (24). Limitations affecting most recreational facilities are
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The severe because of the loose, sandy surface layer.
main management concerns are seasonal wetness, Establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
which can delay planting; seasonal droughtiness, which traffic can help to overcome these limitations.
is caused by the low available water capacity; and low The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
natural fertility. Shallow surface ditches and grassed ordination symbol is 10W.
waterways can help to remove excess water during wet
periods. A well designed sprinkler irrigation system can 21-Pompano fine sand. This poorly drained, very
help to maintain optimum soil moisture in the root zone deep, nearly level soil is on sloughs and slightly
during drought periods. Frequent applications of elevated knolls on flatwoods. Individual areas are
fertilizer and lime generally are needed to improve and generally irregular in shape and range from 2 to nearly
maintain fertility. Returning crop residue to the soil and 500 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
using a cropping system that includes grasses and Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
legumes can help to maintain the content of organic sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying material is
matter and improve tilth. Green manure crops, including fine sand. It is brown to a depth of about 13 inches,
grasses and legumes, should be used in the crop pale brown to a depth of 38 inches, light gray to a depth
rotation. of 66 inches, and very pale brown to a depth of 80
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main inches or more.







Levy County, Florida 45


On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Pompano fertility. They limit the selection of plant species and the
fine sand, Pompano and similar soils make up about 76 periods of grazing. Shallow surface ditches can be
to 95 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils installed to remove excess water more rapidly during
make up about 5 to 24 percent. On 20 percent of the wet periods. Adapted plants, such as Pensacola
acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 24 bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if properly
percent of the mapped areas. managed. Restricting grazing during very wet periods
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the helps to prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking
Pompano soil but have a seasonal high water table at a rates, pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help
depth of 12 to 20 inches; have a loamy subsoil at a to keep the pasture in good condition.
depth of 40 to 80 inches; have a dark, organically The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
coated subsoil or a subsoil that has colors in shades of moderate. The main management concerns are the
yellowish brown or brownish yellow; have bedrock at a equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
depth of 60 to 80 inches; or have a dark surface layer competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
that is more than 6 inches thick. should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Pompano mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
Boca, Pineda, Placid, Popash, Sparr, Wauchula, and bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Limiting
Zolfo soils and soils that have bedrock at a depth of 40 mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the
to 60 inches. Adamsville, Sparr, and Zolfo soils are in equipment limitation and usually results in less soil
the slightly higher landscape positions. Boca, Pineda, compaction and damage to roots during thinning
and Wauchula soils are in positions on the landscape operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
similar to those of the Pompano soil. Placid and Popash reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
soils are in depressions. Boca, Pineda, and Wauchula and controlled grazing in established stands help to
soils have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 inches. control competing vegetation and to maintain
Boca soils have limestone bedrock within a depth of 40 accessibility.
inches. The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic
In most years the seasonal high water table is within tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
a depth of 6 inches in the Pompano soil for 2 to 6 buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational
months, but it can be above the surface for 1 to 2 facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
weeks following heavy rains or can recede to a depth of material can help to overcome the limitations affecting
about 60 inches during drought periods. Permeability septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises
is rapid. Available water capacity is very low. building foundations above the level of the seasonal
Most areas of this map unit are used for the wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting
production of pine trees. Other areas are used as residential and commercial buildings. Raising road
pasture or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation consists bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and
mainly of slash pine in the overstory and pineland installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can
threeawn, waxmyrtle, gallberry, fetterbush, bluestems, help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads
and scattered saw palmetto and cabbage-palm in the and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and
understory. This map unit generally is in the North establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
Florida Flatwoods or Slough ecological community (24). wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness affecting recreational uses.
during the growing season and low natural fertility are The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
the main management concerns. Shallow surface ordination symbol is 8W.
ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
rapidly during wet periods. Bedding is necessary for 22-Holopaw fine sand. This poorly drained, very
most row crops. Proper seedbed preparation and weed deep, nearly level soil is on sloughs on flatwoods and
control are needed to control competing vegetation, on broad, low flats. Individual areas are generally
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime generally are irregular in shape and range from 3 to nearly 600 acres
needed to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
includes grasses and legumes can help to maintain the sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark
content of organic matter and improve tilth. gray fine sand to a depth of about 17 inches, grayish
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main brown fine sand to a depth of 35 inches, and brown fine
management concerns are the wetness and the low sand to a depth of 54 inches. The subsoil is grayish








46 Soil Survey


brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about 62 inches content of organic matter and improve tilth.
and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The
more. wetness and the low natural fertility are the main
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Holopaw management concerns. They limit the selection of plant
fine sand, Holopaw and similar soils make up about 76 species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface
to 100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
make up less than 24 percent. On 20 percent of the rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as
acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 24 Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if
percent of the mapped areas. properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the periods helps to prevent damage to plant roots. Proper
Holopaw soil but have a dark, organically coated layer stocking rates, pasture rotation, and applications of
that overlies the subsoil; have a yellowish brown or fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good condition.
brownish yellow subsurface layer; have a dark surface The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
layer that is more than 7 inches thick; or do not have a moderate. The main management concerns are the
loamy subsoil. equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Holopaw competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
Bivans, Ft. Green, Hicoria, Lochloosa, Lutterloh, mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
Pineda, Placid, Popash, Sparr, and Wauchula soils, vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
Hicoria, Pineda, and Wauchula soils are in positions on bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Shallow
the landscape similar to those of the Holopaw soil. surface ditches can be installed to remove excess water
Adamsville, Bivans, Ft. Green, Lochloosa, Lutterloh, more rapidly during wet periods. Limiting mechanical
and Sparr soils are in the slightly higher landscape operations to the drier periods reduces the equipment
positions. Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils are in limitation and usually results in less soil compaction and
depressions. Hicoria, Pineda, and Wauchula soils have damage to roots during thinning operations. Planting
a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 inches. Wauchula adapted trees, such as slash pine, reduces the seedling
soils have an organically stained subsoil. mortality rate. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing
In most years the seasonal high water table is within in established stands help to control competing
a depth of 12 inches in the Holopaw soil for 2 to 6 vegetation and to maintain accessibility. During harvest,
months, but it can be above the surface for 1 to 2 site preparation, and road-building activities, the flow of
weeks following heavy rains or can recede to a depth of the creeks and drainageways that remove excess water
about 60 inches during drought periods. Permeability from the area should not be impeded.
is moderately slow or moderate. Available water The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic
capacity is low. tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational
the production of pine trees. Natural vegetation consists facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
mainly of scattered slash pine and longleaf pine in the material can help to overcome the limitations affecting
overstory and waxmyrtle, bluestems, maidencane, sand septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises
cordgrass, hatpin, pineland threeawn, low panicums, building foundations above the level of the seasonal
and scattered saw palmetto and cabbage-palm in the wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting
understory. This map unit generally is in the Slough residential and commercial buildings. Raising road
ecological community (24). bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can
during the growing season and low natural fertility are help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads
the main management concerns. Shallow surface and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and
ditches can be installed to remove excess water more establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
rapidly during wet periods. Bedding is necessary for wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations
most row crops. Proper seedbed preparation and weed affecting recreational uses.
control are needed to control competing vegetation. The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime generally are ordination symbol is 10W.
needed to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that 23-Zolfo sand. This somewhat poorly drained, very
includes grasses and legumes can help to maintain the deep, nearly level soil is on low ridges and knolls on







Levy County, Florida 47


flatwoods. Individual areas are generally irregular in periods. A well designed sprinkler irrigation system can
shape and range from 3 to nearly 300 acres in size. help to maintain optimum soil moisture in the root zone
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. during drought periods. Frequent applications of
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand fertilizer and lime generally are needed to improve and
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is pale maintain fertility. Returning crop residue to the soil and
brown sand to a depth of about 8 inches, gray sand to using a cropping system that includes grasses and
a depth of 32 inches, light gray sand to a depth of 50 legumes can help to maintain the content of organic
inches, pale brown sand to a depth of 65 inches, and matter and improve tilth. Green manure crops, including
light brownish gray sand to a depth of 71 inches. The grasses and legumes, should be used in the crop
subsoil is very dark grayish brown, organically coated rotation.
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Zolfo sand, management concerns are the seasonal droughtiness
Zolfo and similar soils make up about 78 to 96 percent caused by the low available water capacity in the root
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 4 zone and the low natural fertility. They limit the
to 22 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, the selection of plant species and the periods of grazing.
dissimilar soils make up more than 22 percent of the Adapted plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass and
mapped areas. hairy indigo, grow well if properly managed. Restricting
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the grazing during extended dry periods helps to prevent
Zolfo soil but do not have an organically coated subsoil damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture
within a depth of 80 inches, have an organically coated rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the
subsoil within a depth of 50 inches, have a surface pasture in good condition.
layer of fine sand, have a loamy subsoil at a depth of The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
40 to 80 inches, or have bedrock at a depth of 60 to 80 moderate. The main management concerns are the
inches.
inches .equipment limitation and plant competition caused by
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Zolfo soil in e ent ltat and plant competition caused by
the seasonal wetness and seedling mortality caused by
mapping occur as small areas of Holopaw, Immokalee,
making occur as small areas of olopawn, Pmokae, the low available water capacity in the root zone and
a n d Smyrna soils and soils that hav bdrock ihin a the low fertility. Limiting mechanical operations to the
and Smyrna soils and soils that have bedrock within a drier periods reduces the equipment limitation and
drier periods reduces the equipment limitation and
depth of 60 inches. Holopaw, Immokalee, Myakka,
depth of 60 inches. Holopaw, Immokalee, Myakka, usually results in less soil compaction and damage to
Pomona, Pompano, and Smyrna soils are in the slightly usually results in less soil compaction and damage to
lower landscape positions. Orsino soils are in the roots during thinning operations. Site preparation should
slightly higher landscape positions. Placid and Popash include removing the larger debris to facilitate
soils are in depressions. mechanical operations and chopping the woody
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant
depth of 24 to 42 inches in the Zolfo soil for 2 to 6 competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
months. It is at a depth of 12 to 24 inches for 1 to 2 reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
weeks following heavy rains. Permeability is moderate. and controlled grazing in established stands generally
Available water capacity is low. are adequate to control competing vegetation and to
Most areas of this map unit are used for the maintain accessibility.
production of pine trees. Other areas are used as This soil has moderate limitations affecting sites for
pasture, cropland, or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation residential and commercial buildings and local roads
consists mainly of slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak, and streets mainly because of the wetness. Installing a
laurel oak, and scattered small turkey oak in the subsurface drainage system around the foundations of
overstory and pineland threeawn, saw palmetto, buildings and installing shallow ditches along roadsides
gallberry, blackberry, bluestems, running oak, and can help to overcome these limitations. The wetness is
reindeer moss in the understory. This map unit a severe limitation on sites for septic tank absorption
generally is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological fields. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
community (24). material generally can overcome this limitation.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The Limitations affecting most recreational facilities are
main management concerns are seasonal wetness, severe because of the loose, sandy surface layer.
which can delay planting; seasonal droughtiness, which Establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
is caused by the low available water capacity; and low traffic can help to overcome these limitations.
natural fertility. Shallow surface ditches and grassed The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
waterways can help to remove excess water during wet ordination symbol is 10W.







48 Soil Survey


24-Terra Ceia muck, depressional. This very organic surface layer, the addition of large amounts of
poorly drained, very deep, nearly level soil is in fill, and the installation of drainage systems, are
depressions on flatwoods. It is ponded. Individual areas necessary to overcome the limitations.
are generally irregular in shape and range from 15 to The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
nearly 200 acres in size. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent, ordination symbol is 6W.
Typically, the surface layer is muck. It is black to a
depth of about 6 inches and very dark brown to a depth 25-Pits and Dumps. This map unit consists of pits
of 59 inches. The underlying material is white fine sand from which sandy or loamy soil material or limestone
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
t o a dept of 80 nche r e m e err e has been excavated and dumps in which the excavated
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Terra Ceia materials have been piled. Also included in this map
muck, depressional, Terra Ceia and similar soils make mati h beenpd As id i p
unit are sanitary landfill areas that have been excavated
up about 81 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. and backfilled with refuse materials and covered with
Dissimilar soils make up less than 19 percent. On 20 soil material. Most of these areas are on the Chiefland
percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up and Williston Limestone Plains and the Brooksville
more than 19 percent of the mapped areas.
more than 19 percent of the mapped areas. Ridge. Individual areas are generally angular and range
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the Ridge. Indivual area are n y ang range
from 3 to nearly 300 acres in size.
Terra Ceia soil but have an organic surface layer that is from 2 to more than 40
Excavated pits vary in depth from 2 to more than 40
16 to 51 inches thick or have bedrock at a depth of 40
16 to 51 inches thick or have bedrock at a depth of 40 feet. Bedrock or loamy soil materials generally form the
to 60 inches.
Sin T e base of the pits. The pits commonly contain small areas
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Terra Ceia
of water. Piles of dumped materials are generally within
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Chobee,
soil in mapping occur as small areas of Chobee, or adjacent to the pits and range from 2 to more than
icoria oloa Ioal aa lai 30 feet in height. They normally consist of sandy and
Pompano, and Popash soils and soils that have loamy soil materials, limestone, or some heterogeneous
bedrock within a depth of 40 inches. Chobee, Hicoria, mixture of these materials.
,mixture of these materials.
Placid, and Popash soils are in positions on the
lae the The components of this map unit are so intermingled
landscape similar to those of the Terra Ceia soil.
that it is not practical to map them separately at the
Holopaw, Immokalee, Myakka, and Pompano soils are
scale used in mapping. Also, some areas are actively
in the slightly higher landscape positions. Chobee,s are
mined and the individual components are subject to
Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils do not have a thick redistribution.
organic surface layer. Most excavated areas are on flatwoods or the coastal
In most years the seasonal high water table is above limestone shelf and are thickly vegetated with
limestone shelf and are thickly vegetated with
the surface in the Terra Ceia soil for more than 6
Shydrophytic plants, such as cattail, sawgrass,
months and is within 12 inches of the surface during the maiden e and ose ilw. r aras are
maidencane, and primrose willow. Other areas are
rest of the year. Permeability is rapid. Available wateregeed. Most areas
almost bare or are very sparsely vegetated. Most areas
capacity is very high.
ity s vy hig have not been reshaped or reclaimed. Pits and dumps
Most areas of this map unit support natural
Mosta areas of this map unit support natural have little or no value or potential for farming, the
vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural production of pine trees, or urban uses. They do,
vegetation consists mainly of cypress, red maple,
vegetation consists mainly of cypress, red maple, however, have some potential for wildlife habitat and for
sweetbay, sweetgum, and Florida willow in the esthetic value if they are reshaped and revegetated to
overstory and pickerelweed, lizard's-tail, water iris, and c ith the na landscape. Many areas contain
conform with the natural landscape. Many areas contain
scattered cabbage-palm in the understory. Some areas
do not have a woody overstory and support thick stands smal ponds that hae toc ed and properly manage
production if they are stocked and properly managed.
of sawgrass. This map unit generally is in the Swamp No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol
Hardwood, Cypress Swamp, or Sawgrass Marsh is assigned.
ecological community (24).
This soil is not suited to and generally is not used for
cropland, pasture, or the production of pine trees. 26-Gator and Terra Ceia soils, frequently flooded.
Limitations, including ponding, are impractical to These very poorly drained, very deep, nearly level soils
overcome under normal circumstances. are on flood plains along rivers and creeks. They are
The ponding and subsidence of the organic layers frequently flooded. Individual areas are generally
are severe limitations on sites for septic tank absorption elongated and range from 2 to nearly 4,000 acres in
fields, residential and commercial buildings, local roads size. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
and streets, and recreational facilities. Extensive Typically, the surface layer of the Gator soil is very
renovation measures, including the removal of the dark brown muck about 38 inches thick. The underlying







Levy County, Florida 49


material is gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches Hardwoods, Cypress Swamp, or Sawgrass Marsh
or more. ecological community (24).
Typically, the surface layer of the Terra Ceia soil is a These soils are not suited to and generally are not
mixture of black and very dark grayish brown muck to a used for cropland, pasture, or the production of pine
depth of about 37 inches and black muck to a depth of trees. Limitations, including flooding and wetness, are
80 inches or more. impractical to overcome under normal circumstances.
Some areas of the map unit are made up of Gator The flooding, the wetness, and subsidence of the
and similar soils, some are made up of Terra Ceia and organic layers are severe limitations on sites for septic
similar soils, and some are made up of both soils. The tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
relative proportion of the combinations of the soils buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational
varies. Areas of the individual soils are large enough to facilities. Extensive renovation measures, including the
map separately, but because of present and predicted removal of the organic surface layer, the addition of
use they were mapped as one unit. large amounts of fill, and the installation of levees and
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Gator and drainage systems, are necessary to overcome these
Terra Ceia soils, frequently flooded, Gator, Terra Ceia, limitations.
and similar soils make up about 76 to 100 percent of The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up less than ordination symbol is 6W.
24 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar
soils make up more than 24 percent of the mapped 27-Placid and Popash soils, depressional. These
areas. very poorly drained, very deep, nearly level soils are in
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the depressions on flatwoods or on low flats. They are
Gator soil but have a sandy layer that is more than 12 ponded. Individual areas are generally oval or irregular
inches thick underlying the organic surface layer or in shape and range from 2 to nearly 800 acres in size.
have an organic surface layer that is less than 16 Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
inches thick. Also included are soils that are similar to Typically, the surface layer of the Placid soil is black
the Gator and Terra Ceia soils but have bedrock below fine sand about 22 inches thick. The underlying material
a depth of 40 inches or are extremely acid in the is dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 38 inches and
surface layer. light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Gator and more.
Terra Ceia soils in mapping occur as small areas of Typically, the surface layer of the Popash soil is very
Bradenton, Chobee, Hicoria, Holopaw, Pineda, Placid, dark gray fine sand about 12 inches thick. The
and Popash soils and soils that have bedrock within a subsurface layer is a mixture of dark grayish brown and
depth of 40 inches. Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 20 inches,
are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 30 inches, and
Gator and Terra Ceia soils. Bradenton, Chobee, light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 45 inches.
Holopaw, and Pineda soils are in the slightly higher The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of
landscape positions. Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils 80 inches or more.
are sandy to a depth of 20 inches or more and do not Some areas of the map unit are made up of Placid
have a thick, organic surface layer, and similar soils, some are made up of Popash and
Throughout the year the seasonal high water table is similar soils, and some are made up of both soils. The
within a depth of 6 inches in the Gator and Terra Ceia relative proportion of the combinations of the soils
soils. Areas of this map unit are flooded by adjacent varies. In many places areas of the individual soils are
rivers or creeks for periods of 1 to 6 months during large enough to map separately, but because of present
most years. Permeability is moderate in the Gator soil and predicted use they were mapped as one unit.
and rapid in the Terra Ceia soil. Available water On most of the acreage mapped as Placid and
capacity is very high in both soils. Popash soils, depressional, Placid, Popash, and similar
Most areas of this map unit support natural soils make up more than 90 percent of the mapped
vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural areas. Dissimilar soils make up less than 10 percent.
vegetation consists mainly of cypress, red maple, Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
sweetbay, sweetgum, and Florida willow in the Popash soil but have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20
overstory and pickerelweed, lizard's-tail, water iris, and to 40 inches or have a clayey subsoil. Also included are
scattered cabbage-palm in the understory. Some areas soils that are similar to the Placid and Popash soils but
do not have a woody overstory and support thick stands have a surface layer that is less than 10 inches thick;
of sawgrass. This map unit generally is in the Swamp have a dark surface layer that is more than 24 inches







50 Soil Survey
















































landscape similar to those of the Placid and Popash community (24).
A iko











J. 1: 4 ,, I ,,r ;,,i -l



Figure 7 Ponding In an area of Placid and Popash soils, depressional. Such areas may remain dry for several years but can fill with water
during very wet periods.



thick; have a surface layer of loamy fine sand, mucky inches during the rest of the year. Permeability is rapid
fine sand, or mucky loamy fine sand that is more than 3 in the Placid soil and slow or very slow in the Popash
inches thick; have a layer of muck at the surface that is soil. Available water capacity is moderate in both soils.
4 to 16 inches thick; or have bedrock at a depth of 40 Most areas of this map unit support natural
to 80 inches. vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Some
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Placid and areas are grazed by cattle. Natural vegetation consists
Popash soils in mapping occur as small areas of Gator, mainly of sand cordgrass, maidencane, pickerelweed,
Holopaw, Immokalee, Myakka, Pomona, Pompano, arrowhead, and water lily. Many areas have an
Samsula, and Terra Ceia soils and soils that have overstory of cypress, red maple, sweetbay, and Florida
limestone at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Gator, willow. This map unit generally is in the Freshwater
Samsula, and Terra Ceia soils are in positions on the Marsh and Ponds or Cypress Swamp ecological
landscape similar to those of the Placid and Popash community (24).
soils. Holopaw, Immokalee, Myakka, Pomona, and These soils are not suited to and generally are not
Pompano soils are in the slightly higher landscape used for cropland, pasture, or the production of pine
positions. Gator, Samsula, and Terra Ceia soils have an trees. Limitations, including ponding, are impractical to
organic surface layer that is more than 16 inches thick. overcome under normal circumstances.
The seasonal high water table is above the surface The ponding is a severe limitation on sites for septic
(fig. 7) in the Placid and Popash soils for more than 6 tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
months during most years and is within a depth of 12 buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational







Levy County, Florida 51


facilities. Extensive renovation measures, including the percent clay between depths of 10 and 40 inches. Also
addition of large amounts of fill and the installation of included are soils that are similar to the Bradenton soil
drainage systems, are necessary to overcome this but contain more than 18 percent clay in the upper 20
limitation, inches of the subsoil; have a surface layer of loamy fine
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland sand, fine sandy loam, or muck that is more than 3
ordination symbol is 2W. inches thick; have a dark, organically stained layer that
overlies the subsoil; or have a loamy subsoil at a depth
29-Chobee-Bradenton complex, frequently of 20 to 40 inches or within a depth of 6 inches. Also
flooded. This map unit consists of a very poorly drained included are soils that are similar to the Chobee and
Chobee soil and a poorly drained Bradenton soil. These Bradenton soils but have bedrock at a depth of 60 to 80
very deep, nearly level soils are on flood plains. They inches.
are frequently flooded. Individual areas are generally Dissimilar soils that are included with the Chobee
elongated and range from 10 to nearly 1,300 acres in and Bradenton soils in mapping occur as small areas of
size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Albany, Aripeka, Boca, Gator, Hicoria, Holopaw,
Typically, the surface layer of the Chobee soil is Myakka, Pompano, Samsula, Waccasassa, and Wekiva
black fine sandy loam to a depth of about 7 inches and soils and soils that have bedrock at a depth of 40 to 60
very dark gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 11 inches, inches. Albany and Aripeka soils are in the slightly
The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam that has higher landscape positions. Boca, Holopaw, Myakka,
common pockets of soft calcium carbonate Pompano, Waccasassa, and Wekiva soils are in
accumulations to a depth of about 37 inches and gray positions on the landscape similar to those of the
sandy clay loam to a depth of 48 inches. The underlying Chobee and Bradenton soils. Gator, Hicoria, and
material is greenish gray fine sandy loam to a depth of Samsula soils are in the lower landscape positions.
about 72 inches and dark gray fine sand to a depth of Boca, Holopaw, Myakka, and Pompano soils are sandy
80 inches or more. to a depth of 20 inches or more. Myakka soils have an
Typically, the surface layer of the Bradenton soil is organically stained subsoil. Boca, Waccasassa, and
black fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface Wekiva soils have limestone bedrock within a depth of
layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 40 inches.
about 9 inches. The subsoil is dark grayish brown In most years the seasonal high water table is within
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 18 inches and a depth of 6 inches in the Chobee and Bradenton soils
grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 28 inches. for 2 to 6 months, but it can recede to a depth of about
The underlying material is white, calcareous fine sandy 60 inches during drought periods. Areas of this map
loam to a depth of about 32 inches, grayish brown unit are flooded by adjacent rivers or creeks for periods
loamy fine sand to a depth of 48 inches, and light gray of 1 to 4 months during most years. Permeability is slow
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. or very slow in the Chobee soil and moderate in the
Generally, the mapped areas average about 53 Bradenton soil. Available water capacity is moderate in
percent Chobee and similar soils and 38 percent the Chobee soil and low in the Bradenton soil.
Bradenton and similar soils. The components of this Most areas of this map unit support natural
map unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural
map them separately at the scale used in mapping. vegetation consists mainly of laurel oak, water oak,
However, the proportions of the Chobee and Bradenton sweetgum, red maple, slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf
soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most pine, basswood, and scattered baldcypress in the
mapped areas. overstory and cabbage-palm, longleaf uniola, low
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Chobee- panicums, and scattered saw palmetto in the
Bradenton complex, frequently flooded, Chobee, understory. This map unit generally is in the Bottomland
Bradenton, and similar soils make up about 80 to 100 Hardwoods ecological community (24).
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up These soils are not suited to and generally are not
less than 20 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, the used for cropland. Limitations, including flooding and
dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent of the wetness, are impractical to overcome under normal
mapped areas, circumstances.
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the These soils are poorly suited to pasture. The flooding
Chobee soil but have a surface layer of fine sand, and the wetness are the main management concerns.
loamy fine sand, or muck that is more than 3 inches They limit the selection of plant species and the periods
thick; have a dark surface layer that is less than 10 of grazing. Shallow surface ditches can be installed to
inches thick; or contain an average of less than 18 remove excess water more rapidly during wet periods.







52 Soil Survey


Native forage species grow well if properly managed. to a depth of about 35 inches. Limestone bedrock is at
Restricting grazing during very wet periods helps to a depth of about 35 inches.
prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates Typically, the surface layer of the Otela soil is grayish
and pasture rotation help to keep the pasture in good brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
condition, layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 22
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees inches, brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of 40
is high. The main management concerns are the inches, very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 50
equ pment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant inches, and brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of 58
cor petition caused by the wetness and the flooding, inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam
Site preparation should include removing the larger to a depth of 66 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a
deb is to facilitate mechanical operations, chopping the depth of about 66 inches.
woody understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant Typically, the surface layer of the Seaboard soil is
cor petition, and bedding to reduce the seedling dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
mortality rate. Shallow surface ditches can be installed underlying material is pale brown fine sand to a depth
to remove excess water more rapidly during wet of about 17 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of
peri ds. Limiting mechanical operations to the drier about 17 inches.
periods reduces the equipment limitation and usually Generally, the mapped areas average about 48
results in less soil compaction and damage to roots percent Jonesville and similar soils, 25 percent Otela
duri g thinning operations. Planting adapted trees, such and similar soils, and 16 percent Seaboard and similar
as slash pine or loblolly pine, reduces the seedling soils. The components of this map unit are so
mortality rate. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing intermingled that it is not practical to map them
in established stands help to control competing separately at the scale used in mapping. However, the
veg station and to maintain accessibility. During harvest, proportions of the Jonesville, Otela, and Seaboard soils
site preparation, and road-building activities, the flow of and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
the creeks and drainageways that remove excess water mapped areas.
from the area should not be impeded. On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Jonesville-
The individual components of this map unit may differ Otela-Seaboard complex, 1 to 5 percent slopes,
somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland Jonesville, Otela, Seaboard, and similar soils make up
management. See table 7 for more detailed information about 82 to 96 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
regarding each component, soils make up about 4 to 18 percent. On 5 percent of
The flooding and the wetness are severe limitations the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 18
on sites for septic tank absorption fields, residential and percent of the mapped areas.
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
recreational facilities. Extensive renovation measures, Jonesville soil but do not have a loamy subsoil or do
including the installation of levees and drainage not have bedrock within a depth of 40 inches. Also
systems, are necessary to overcome these limitations, included are soils that are similar to the Otela soil but
The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland do not have a seasonal high water table within a depth
ordination symbol is 6W for the Chobee soil and 11W of 72 inches, have a dark surface layer that is more
for the Bradenton soil. than 10 inches thick, or have bedrock at a depth of 45
to 60 inches. Also included are soils that are similar to
31-Jonesville-Otela-Seaboard complex, 1 to 5 the Seaboard soil but have a loamy subsoil that overlies
percent slopes. This map unit consists of a well the bedrock, have a dark surface layer that overlies the
drained, moderately deep Jonesville soil; a moderately bedrock or that is more than 10 inches thick, or have
well drained, very deep Otela soil; and a moderately less than 5 percent silt and clay in the subsurface layer.
well drained, shallow or very shallow Seaboard soil. Dissimilar soils that are included with the Jonesville,
These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on karst Otela, and Seaboard soils in mapping occur as small
uplands. Individual areas are generally irregular in areas of Bushnell, Candler, Levyville, Lutterloh, Mabel,
shape and range from 5 to more than 10,000 acres in Moriah, and Tavares soils; small areas of strongly
size. sloping soils; and areas of rock outcrop on the edges of
Typically, the surface layer of the Jonesville soil is sinkholes. Bushnell, Candler, Levyville, Lutterloh,
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface Mabel, Moriah, and Tavares soils are in positions on the
layer is pale brown fine sand to a depth of about 14 landscape similar to those of the Jonesville, Otela, and
inches and very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 27 Seaboard soils. Bushnell and Mabel soils have a clayey
inches. The subsoil is brownish yellow sandy clay loam subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. They are somewhat








Levy County, Florida 53


poorly drained. Candler and Tavares soils are sandy to bedrock; the equipment limitation, which is caused by
a depth of 80 inches or more. Levyville soils have a the shallowness to bedrock and the loose, sandy
loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. Moriah and surface layer; and plant competition. Planting adapted
Lutterloh soils are somewhat poorly drained, trees, such as slash pine, and planting during the wetter
Throughout the year the seasonal high water table is months reduce the seedling mortality rate. Leaving
below the bedrock in the Jonesville and Seaboard soils. some rows of unharvested, mature trees as windbreaks
It is perched at a depth of 42 to 72 inches for 1 to 4 reduces the hazard of windthrow. Because of the
months during most years in the Otela soil. Permeability shallowness to bedrock, specialized equipment may be
is moderately slow or moderate in the Jonesville soil, needed for proper site preparation and tree planting
moderate in the Otela soil, and rapid in the Seaboard activities. Using harvesting and planting machinery
soil. Available water capacity is very low in the equipped with large rubber tires helps to overcome the
Jonesville and Seaboard soils and low in the Otela soil. equipment limitation. Prescribed burning and controlled
Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or grazing in established stands generally are adequate to
cropland. Other areas are used for the production of control competing vegetation.
pine trees or have been subdivided for residential The individual components of this map unit may differ
development. Natural vegetation consists mainly of live somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland
oak, laurel oak, magnolia, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, management. See table 7 for more detailed information
slash pine, and eastern redcedar in the overstory and regarding each component.
blackberry, pineland threeawn, greenbrier, American Jonesville and Seaboard soils have severe limitations
beautyberry, brackenfern, bluestems, and scattered saw on sites for septic tank absorption fields mainly because
palmetto and cabbage-palm in the understory. This map of wetness and depth to bedrock. Otela soils have
unit generally is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks moderate limitations on sites for septic tank absorption
ecological community (24). fields mainly because of the depth to bedrock, the
These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops. wetness, and the moderate permeability in the subsoil.
Droughtiness, low natural fertility, soil blowing, and the Careful site investigation is needed to locate suitably
shallowness to bedrock are the main management large areas that are deep enough over bedrock.
concerns. A well designed sprinkler irrigation system is Installing an oversized septic tank absorption field and
necessary to maintain adequate soil moisture during the avoiding the clustering of homes and septic systems
growing season for most cultivated crops. Returning can help to overcome the limitations and minimize the
crop residue to the soil and mulching can increase the hazard of ground-water pollution. Jonesville and Otela
content of organic matter and the water-holding soils have slight limitations on sites for residential and
capacity of the topsoil. Green manure crops, including commercial buildings and local roads and streets, and
grasses and legumes, should be used in the crop Seaboard soils have moderate limitations. Areas of soils
rotation. Frequent applications of lime and fertilizer that are shallow or very shallow over bedrock are
generally are needed to improve and maintain fertility, common throughout this map unit, but careful site
Establishing windbreaks around fields and utilizing field investigation can usually locate suitably large areas that
windstrips with row crops can minimize loss of topsoil are deep enough over bedrock. Because of the
and damage to emergent plants caused by soil blowing, shallowness to bedrock, specialized equipment may be
Special cultivation equipment may be needed because needed for the installation of ditches or pipelines.
of the limited depth to bedrock. Limitations affecting most recreational facilities are
These soils are well suited to pasture. The main severe because of the loose, sandy surface layer and
management concerns are seasonal droughtiness, the the shallow or very shallow bedrock. Establishing
thin root zone, and the low natural fertility. They limit species of turf grass that are tolerant of traffic and
the selection of plant species and the periods of restricting access to stabilized areas can help to
grazing. Adapted plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass overcome these limitations. Applications of mulch,
and hairy indigo, grow well if properly managed, applications of fertilizer and irrigation generally are
Restricting grazing during extended dry periods helps to needed to establish turf grasses.
prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, The capability subclass is Ills for the Jonesville and
pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to Otela soils and VIs for the Seaboard soil. The woodland
keep the pasture in good condition. ordination symbol is 10S for all three soils.
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
is moderate. The main management concerns are 32-Otela-Tavares complex, 1 to 5 percent slopes.
seedling mortality and windthrow, which are caused by These moderately well drained, very deep, nearly level
the seasonal droughtiness and the shallowness to to gently sloping soils are on sandy karst uplands.
I







54 Soil Survey


Individual areas are generally irregular in shape and a depth of 40 inches. Bushnell, Lutterloh, Mabel, and
range from 3 to nearly 5,000 acres in size. Moriah soils are somewhat poorly drained. Pedro and
Typically, the surface layer of the Otela soil is dark Seaboard soils have limestone bedrock within a depth
gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface of 20 inches.
layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 18 The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to
inches, light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 30 72 inches in the Otela and Tavares soils for 1 to 4
inches, very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 35 months during most years. It is perched in the Otela
inches, white fine sand to a depth of 41 inches, and soil. Permeability is slow or moderately slow in the
very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 68 inches. The Otela soil and rapid or very rapid in the Tavares soil.
subsoil is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a Available water capacity is low in the Otela soil and
depth of about 78 inches and gray fine sandy loam to a very low in the Tavares soil.
depth of 80 inches or more. Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or
Typically, the surface layer of the Tavares soil is dark cropland. Other areas are used for the production of
grayish brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. The pine trees or have been subdivided for residential
underlying material is fine sand. It is grayish brown to a development. Natural vegetation consists mainly of live
depth of about 18 inches, pale brown to a depth of 38 oak, laurel oak, bluejack oak, magnolia, loblolly pine,
inches, very pale brown to a depth of 48 inches, and slash pine, and longleaf pine in the overstory and
white to a depth of 80 inches or more. blackberry, pineland threeawn, greenbrier, American
Generally, the mapped areas average about 50 beautyberry, brackenfern, bluestems, and scattered saw
percent Otela and similar soils and 41 percent Tavares palmetto and cabbage-palm in the understory. This map
and similar soils. The components of this map unit are unit generally is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks
so intermingled that it is not practical to map them ecological community (24).
separately at the scale used in mapping. However, the These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops.
proportions of the Otela and Tavares soils and of the Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and soil blowing are
similar soils are fairly consistent in most mapped areas. the main management concerns. A well designed
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Otela- sprinkler irrigation system is necessary to maintain
Tavares complex, 1 to 5 percent slopes, Otela, Tavares, adequate soil moisture during the growing season for
and similar soils make up about 78 to 100 percent of most cultivated crops. Returning crop residue to the soil
the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up less than and mulching can increase the content of organic
22 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar matter and the water-holding capacity of the topsoil.
soils make up more than 22 percent of the mapped Green manure crops, including grasses and legumes,
areas. should be used in the crop rotation. Frequent
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the applications of lime and fertilizer generally are needed
Otela soil but have base saturation of less than 35 to improve and maintain fertility. Establishing
percent in the lower part of the subsoil, have bedrock at windbreaks around fields and utilizing field windstrips
a depth of 45 to 60 inches, have a subsoil that is less with row crops can minimize loss of topsoil and damage
than 6 inches thick, or do not have a subsoil overlying to emergent plants caused by soil blowing.
the bedrock. Also included are soils that are similar to These soils are well suited to pasture. Seasonal
the Otela and Tavares soils but have a dark surface droughtiness and the low natural fertility are the main
layer that is more than 10 inches thick or do not have a management concerns. They limit the selection of plant
seasonal high water table within a depth of 72 inches. species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants,
Also included are soils that are similar to the Tavares such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow
soil but have more than 5 percent silt and clay between well if properly managed. Pastures should be
depths of 10 and 40 inches. established or renovated during the wetter months.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Otela and Restricting grazing during extended dry periods helps to
Tavares soils in mapping occur as small areas of prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates,
Bonneau, Bushnell, Hague, Jonesville, Levyville, pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to
Lutterloh, Mabel, Moriah, Pedro, Seaboard, and keep the pasture in good condition.
Shadeville soils. Bonneau, Bushnell, Hague, Jonesville, The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
Levyville, Lutterloh, Mabel, Moriah, Pedro, Seaboard, is moderate. The main management concerns are
and Shadeville soils are in positions on the landscape seedling mortality caused by the seasonal droughtiness
similar to those of the Otela and Tavares soils. and the low fertility; the equipment limitation caused by
Bonneau, Bushnell, Hague, Jonesville, Levyville, Mabel, the loose, sandy surface layer; and, in some areas,
and Moriah soils have a loamy or clayey subsoil within plant competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash







Levy County, Florida 55


pine, and planting during the wetter months reduce the in mapping occur as small areas of Myakka soils in the
seedling mortality rate. Using harvesting and planting slightly higher landscape positions.
machinery equipped with large rubber tires helps to The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 6
overcome the equipment limitation. Prescribed burning inches in the Wulfert soil throughout the year. Areas of
and controlled grazing in established stands generally this map unit are flooded by daily high tides.
are adequate to control competing vegetation and to Permeability is rapid. Available water capacity is
maintain accessibility, moderate.
The individual components of this map unit may differ Most areas of this map unit support natural
somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural
management. See table 7 for more detailed information vegetation consists mainly of dense stands of black
regarding each component, needlerush mixed with sawgrass. This map unit
These soils have only slight limitations affecting sites generally is in the Salt Marsh ecological community
for residential and commercial buildings and local roads (24).
and streets. The seasonal wetness and the restricted This soil is not suited to and generally is not used for
permeability in the subsoil of the Otela soil are cropland, pasture, or the production of pine trees.
moderate limitations affecting septic tank absorption Limitations, including flooding, salinity, and wetness, are
fields. Installing an oversized septic tank absorption impractical to overcome under normal circumstances.
field and taking care not to cluster homes and septic The flooding, the wetness, and low strength are
systems can help to overcome these limitations and severe limitations on sites for septic tank absorption
minimize the hazard of ground-water pollution. fields, residential and commercial buildings, local roads
Limitations affecting most recreational facilities are and streets, and recreational facilities. Extensive
severe because of the loose, sandy surface layer. renovation measures, including the installation of levees
Establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of and water-control systems and the addition of large
traffic and restricting access to stabilized areas can help amounts of fill, are necessary to overcome these
to overcome these limitations. Applications of mulch, limitations. If artificially drained or if used as fill material,
applications of fertilizer, and irrigation generally are this soil becomes extremely acid and thus can support
needed to establish turf grasses, only a limited variety of plants.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland The capability subclass is VIIIw. No woodland
ordination symbol is 10S. ordination symbol is assigned.

33-Wulfert muck, frequently flooded. This very 34-Cassia-Pomello complex. These somewhat
poorly drained, very deep, nearly level soil is in areas of poorly drained, very deep, nearly level soils are on low
tidal marsh. It is frequently flooded. Individual areas are knolls and ridges on flatwoods. Individual areas are
generally irregular in shape and range from 3 to nearly generally oval or elongated and range from 2 to nearly
1,800 acres in size. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. 1,200 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown muck Typically, the surface layer of the Cassia soil is gray
about 30 inches thick. The underlying material is very fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
dark gray mucky loamy fine sand to a depth of about 56 light gray fine sand to a depth of about 24 inches. The
inches and very dark gray fine sand to a depth of 80 subsoil is very dark brown, organically coated fine sand
inches or more. to a depth of about 30 inches; dark brown fine sand to
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Wulfert a depth of 55 inches; brown fine sand to a depth of 70
muck, frequently flooded, Wulfert and similar soils make inches; and very dark grayish brown, organically coated
up about 99 to 100 percent of the mapped areas, fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Dissimilar soils make up less than 1 percent. On 5 Typically, the surface layer of the Pomello soil is gray
percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
more than 1 percent of the mapped areas. light gray fine sand to a depth of about 35 inches and
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the gray fine sand that has many very dark grayish brown
Wulfert soil but do not have an organic surface layer as and dark grayish brown, organically coated pockets to a
much as 16 inches in thickness, have an organic depth of 40 inches. The subsoil is very dark brown,
surface layer that is more than 51 inches thick, have organically coated fine sand to a depth of about 46
loamy materials underlying the organic surface layer, or inches and dark brown fine sand to a depth of 80
have less than 0.75 percent total sulfur content in the inches or more.
upper 40 inches. Generally, the mapped areas average about 55
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Wulfert soil percent Cassia and similar soils and 35 percent







56 Soil Survey


Pomello and similar soils. The components of this map to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop residue
unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
them separately at the scale used in mapping. grasses and legumes can help to maintain the content
However, the proportions of the Cassia and Pomello of organic matter and improve tilth. Green manure
soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most crops, including grasses and legumes, should be used
mapped areas. in the crop rotation.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Cassia- These soils are moderately suited to pasture. The
Pomello complex, Cassia, Pomello, and similar soils main management concerns are seasonal droughtiness
make up about 79 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. caused by the low or moderate available water capacity
Dissimilar soils make up less than 21 percent. On 20 in the root zone and the low natural fertility. They limit
percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up the selection of plant species and the periods of
more than 21 percent of the mapped areas. grazing. Adapted plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the and hairy indigo, grow well if properly managed.
Cassia and Pomello soils but have bedrock between Restricting grazing during extended dry periods helps to
depths of 60 and 80 inches, do not have an organically prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates,
coated subsoil within a depth of 50 inches, or have a pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to
loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. keep the pasture in good condition.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Cassia and The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
Pomello soils in mapping occur as small areas of is moderate. The main management concerns are the
Immokalee, Myakka, Placid, Pompano, Popash, Orsino, equipment limitation and plant competition caused by
Smyrna, and Tavares soils and soils that have bedrock the seasonal wetness and seedling mortality caused by
at a depth of 20 to 60 inches. Orsino and Tavares soils the low or moderate available water capacity in the root
are in the slightly higher landscape positions. zone and the low fertility. Limiting mechanical
Immokalee, Myakka, Pompano, and Smyrna soils are in operations to the drier periods reduces the equipment
the slightly lower landscape positions. Placid and limitation and usually results in less soil compaction and
Popash soils are in depressions. damage to roots during thinning operations. Site
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to preparation should include removing the larger debris to
42 inches in the Cassia and Pomello soils for 2 to 6 facilitate mechanical operations and chopping the
months during most years. It can be at a depth of 12 to woody understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant
20 inches for 1 to 2 weeks following heavy rains, competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
Cassia soil and moderately rapid in the Pomello soil. and controlled grazing in established stands generally
Available water capacity is low in the Cassia soil and are adequate to control competing vegetation and to
moderate in the Pomello soil. maintain accessibility.
Most areas of this map unit are used for the Wetness is a moderate limitation affecting sites for
production of pine trees. Other areas have been residential and commercial buildings and local roads
subdivided for residential development or support and streets. Installing a subsurface drainage system
natural vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. around the foundations of buildings and installing
Natural vegetation consists mainly of live oak, slash shallow ditches along roadsides can help to overcome
pine, and longleaf pine in the overstory and pineland this limitation. The wetness is a severe limitation on
threeawn, saw palmetto, gallberry, blackberry, sites for septic tank absorption fields. Installing a
bluestems, running oak, and reindeer moss in the filtering mound of suitable soil material can generally
understory. This map unit generally is in the North overcome this limitation. Limitations affecting most
Florida Flatwoods ecological community (24). recreational facilities are severe because of the loose,
These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. The sandy surface layer. Establishing species of turf grass
main management concerns are seasonal wetness, that are tolerant of traffic can help to overcome these
which may delay planting; seasonal droughtiness limitations.
caused by the low or moderate available water capacity; The capability subclass is Vis. The woodland
and low natural fertility. Shallow surface ditches and ordination symbol is 8S.
grassed waterways can help to remove excess water
during wet periods. A well designed sprinkler irrigation 35-Pineda fine sand, limestone substratum. This
system can help to maintain optimum soil moisture in poorly drained, deep or very deep, nearly level soil is
the root zone during drought periods. Frequent on low ridges and flatwoods on the coastal limestone
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed shelf. Individual areas are generally irregular in shape







Levy County, Florida 57


and range from 7 to nearly 1,100 acres in size. Slopes palmetto and cabbage-palm in the understory. This map
are 0 to 1 percent. unit generally is in the North Florida Flatwoods
Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand ecological community (24).
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness
fine sand to a depth of about 17 inches. The subsoil is during the growing season and low natural fertility are
pale brown fine sand to a depth of about 25 inches, the main management concerns. Shallow surface
gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 30 inches, and light ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 42 inches. The rapidly during wet periods. Bedding is necessary for
underlying material is light gray fine sand that has many most row crops. Proper seedbed preparation and weed
light olive brown pockets of loamy fine sand. Limestone control are needed to control competing vegetation.
bedrock is at a depth of about 50 inches. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime generally are
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Pineda fine needed to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop
sand, limestone substratum, Pineda and similar soils residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
make up about 76 to 89 percent of the mapped areas. includes grasses and legumes can help to maintain the
Dissimilar soils make up about 11 to 24 percent. On 20 content of organic matter and improve tilth.
percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The
more than 24 percent of the mapped areas. wetness and the low natural fertility are the main
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the management concerns. They limit the selection of plant
Pineda soil but have a dark, organically stained layer species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface
more than 2 inches thick that overlies the loamy ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
subsoil; have bedrock or stone- to boulder-sized rock rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as
fragments at a depth of 20 to 40 inches; do not have Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if
bedrock within a depth of 80 inches; have a loamy properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet
subsoil at a depth of 40 to 80 inches; have sandy periods helps to prevent damage to plant roots. Proper
materials underlying the loamy subsoil within a depth of stocking rates, pasture rotation, and applications of
40 inches; do not have sandy intrusions in the upper 2 fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good condition.
to 10 inches of the subsoil; do not have a sandy The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
subsoil; have a dark surface layer more than 10 inches moderate. The main management concerns are the
thick; or have a surface layer of loamy fine sand that is equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
more than 3 inches thick. competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Pineda soil should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
in mapping occur as small areas of Bradenton, Chobee, mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
Gator, Hicoria, Pompano, Popash, and Wekiva soils. vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
Bradenton, Pompano, and Wekiva soils are in positions bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Shallow
on the landscape similar to those of the Pineda soil. surface ditches can be installed to remove excess water
Chobee, Gator, Hicoria, and Popash soils are in the more rapidly during wet periods. Limiting mechanical
lower landscape positions. Bradenton and Wekiva soils operations to the drier periods reduces the equipment
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. limitation and usually results in less soil compaction and
Wekiva soils have limestone bedrock within a depth of damage to roots during thinning operations. Planting
30 inches. Pompano soils are sandy to a depth of 80 adapted trees, such as slash pine, reduces the seedling
inches or more. mortality rate. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing
In most years the seasonal high water table is within in established stands help to control competing
a depth of 12 inches in the Pineda soil for 2 to 6 vegetation and to maintain accessibility. During harvest,
months, but it can be above the surface for 1 to 2 site preparation, and road-building activities, the flow of
weeks following heavy rains or can recede to a depth of the creeks and drainageways that remove excess water
about 60 inches during drought periods. Permeability from the area should not be impeded.
is slow. Available water capacity is low. The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic
Most areas of this map unit are used for the tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
production of pine trees. Other areas are used for buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational
pasture or support natural vegetation and are used only facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
as wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation consists mainly of material can help to overcome the limitations affecting
slash pine, loblolly pine, and sweetgum in the overstory septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises
and bluestems, blackberry, poison ivy, hatpin, gallberry, building foundations above the level of the seasonal
waxmyrtle, fetterbush, maidencane, and scattered saw wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting







58 Soil Survey


residential and commercial buildings. Raising road periods of 2 to 7 days during some years. Permeability
bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and is moderate or moderately rapid. Available water
installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can capacity is moderate.
help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads Most areas of this map unit support natural
and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Some
establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of areas have been planted to pine. Natural vegetation
wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations consists mainly of laurel oak, water oak, sweetgum,
affecting recreational uses. loblolly pine, slash pine, eastern redcedar, sweetbay,
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland and red maple in the overstory and saw palmetto,
ordination symbol is 10W. cabbage-palm, waxmyrtle, swamp dogwood, poison ivy,
and wild grape in the understory. This map unit
37-Myakka mucky sand, occasionally flooded, generally is in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
This poorly drained, very deep, nearly level soil is on ecological community (24).
flatwoods that are adjacent to the tidal marsh or the This soil is not suited to and generally is not used for
flood plain of the Suwannee River. It is occasionally cropland. Limitations, including flooding and wetness,
flooded. Individual areas are generally long and narrow are impractical to overcome under normal
and range from 3 to nearly 500 acres in size. Slopes circumstances.
range from 0 to 2 percent. This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The flooding and
Typically, the surface layer is black muck to a depth the wetness are the main management concerns. They
of about 2 inches and very dark gray mucky sand to a limit the selection of plant species and the periods of
depth of 10 inches. The subsurface layer is gray sand grazing. Shallow surface ditches can be installed to
to a depth of about 21 inches. The subsoil is very dark remove excess water more rapidly during wet periods.
gray sand to a depth of about 40 inches and very dark Native forage species grow well if properly managed.
grayish brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. Restricting grazing during very wet periods helps to
On most of the acreage mapped as Myakka mucky prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates
sand, occasionally flooded, Myakka and similar soils and pasture rotation help to keep the pasture in good
make up more than 85 percent of the mapped areas. condition.
Dissimilar soils make up less than 15 percent. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the moderate. The main management concerns are the
Myakka soil but have a surface layer of fine sand or equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
sand that is more than 3 inches thick; have an organic competition caused by the wetness and the flooding.
layer at the surface that is more than 3 inches thick; do Site preparation should include removing the larger
not have a dark, organically coated subsoil; have a debris to facilitate mechanical operations, chopping the
loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 to 80 inches; have woody understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant
bedrock at a depth of 60 to 80 inches; have a dark, competition, and bedding to reduce the seedling
organically coated subsoil that is within a depth of 20 mortality rate. Shallow surface ditches can be installed
inches or at a depth of 30 to 80 inches; or have a dark to remove excess water more rapidly during wet
surface layer that is more than 8 inches thick. periods. Limiting mechanical operations to the drier
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Myakka soil periods reduces the equipment limitation and usually
in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, results in less soil compaction and damage to roots
Bradenton, Pineda, Placid, Popash, Pomello, Samsula, during thinning operations. Planting adapted trees, such
and Zolfo soils and soils that have bedrock at a depth as slash pine, reduces the seedling mortality rate.
of 40 to 60 inches. Bradenton and Pineda soils are in Prescribed burning and controlled grazing in established
positions on the landscape similar to those of the stands help to control competing vegetation and to
Myakka soil. Adamsville, Pomello, and Zolfo soils are in maintain accessibility. During harvest, site preparation,
the slightly higher landscape positions. Placid, Popash, and road-building activities, the flow of the creeks and
and Samsula soils are in the lower landscape positions. drainageways that remove excess water from the area
Bradenton and Pineda soils do not have an organically should not be impeded.
stained subsoil and have a loamy subsoil within a depth The flooding and the wetness are severe limitations
of 40 inches. on sites for septic tank absorption fields, residential and
The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12 commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and
inches in the Myakka soil for more than 6 months recreational facilities. Extensive renovation measures,
during most years. Areas of this map unit are flooded including the installation of levees and drainage
by storm-driven tides or by the Suwannee River for systems, are necessary to overcome these limitations.







Levy County, Florida 59


The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland excess water more rapidly during the growing season.
ordination symbol is 8W. Bedding is necessary for most row crops. A well
designed sprinkler irrigation system can help to
38-Myakka sand. This poorly drained, very deep, maintain optimum soil moisture during drought periods.
nearly level soil is on flatwoods. Individual areas are Proper seedbed preparation and weed control are
generally irregular in shape and range from 4 to nearly needed to control competing vegetation. Frequent
2,100 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent, applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop residue
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
brown sand to a depth of about 18 inches and light gray grasses and legumes can help to maintain the content
sand to a depth of 26 inches. The subsoil is organically of organic matter and improve tilth.
coated sand. It is black to a depth of about 40 inches This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The
and very dark gray to a depth of 58 inches. The wetness and the low natural fertility are the main
underlying material is pale brown sand to a depth of 80 management concerns. They limit the selection of plant
inches or more. species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Myakka ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
sand, Myakka and similar soils make up about 76 to rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as
100 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if
up less than 24 percent. On 10 percent of the acreage, properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet
the dissimilar soils make up more than 24 percent of periods or extended dry periods helps to prevent
the mapped areas. damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the
Myakka soil but have an organically coated subsoil p i g
within a depth of 20 inches or at a depth of 30 to 80
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
inches, do not have an organically coated subsoil, have moderate. The main management concerns are the
a loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 to 80 inches, have
bedrock at a depth of 60 to 80 inches, have a surface equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
layer of fine sand, or have a dark surface layer that is competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
more than 8 inches thick. should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Myakka soil mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, Cassia, vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
Orsino, Placid, Pomello, Popash, Samsula, and Zolfo bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Limiting
soils and soils that have bedrock at a depth of 40 to 60 mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the
inches. Adamsville, Cassia, Orsino, Pomello, and Zolfo equipment limitation and usually results in less soil
soils are in the slightly higher landscape positions. compaction and damage to roots during thinning
Placid, Popash, and Samsula soils are in depressions. operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
depth of 6 to 18 inches in the Myakka soil for 1 to 4 and controlled grazing in established stands help to
months, but it can recede to a depth of about 60 inches control competing vegetation and to maintain
during drought periods. Permeability is moderate or accessibility.
moderately rapid. Available water capacity is moderate. The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic
Most areas of this map unit are used for the tank absorption fields, residential and commercial
production of pine trees. Other areas are used as buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational
pasture or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation consists facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
mainly of slash pine and longleaf pine in the overstory material can help to overcome the limitations affecting
and saw palmetto, running oak, sand live oak, pineland septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises
threeawn, waxmyrtle, gallberry, fetterbush, and building foundations above the level of the seasonal
bluestems in the understory. This map unit generally is wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting
in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological community residential and commercial buildings. Raising road
(24). bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can
during the growing season, occasional droughtiness, help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads
and low fertility are the main management concerns, and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and
Shallow surface ditches can be installed to remove establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of






60 Soil Survey


wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations Bradenton soils do not have bedrock within a depth of
affecting recreational uses. 40 inches.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12
ordination symbol is 8W. inches in the Waccasassa and Demory soils for 2 to 6
months in most years. During dry periods it is within
39-Waccasassa-Demory complex, flooded. These crevices and solution holes in the bedrock. Areas of this
poorly drained, shallow or very shallow, nearly level, map unit are flooded by adjacent creeks for periods of 2
soils are on low ridges. They are rarely flooded and to 7 days during some years. Permeability is moderately
occasionally flooded. Individual areas are generally slow in both soils. Available water capacity is very low
irregular in shape and range from 2 to more than in both soils.
10,000 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Most areas of this map unit are used for the
Typically, the surface layer of the Waccasassa soil is production of pine trees or support natural vegetation
very dark grayish brown sandy clay loam about 2 and are used only as wildlife habitat. Other areas are
inches thick. The subsoil is dark yellowish brown sandy used as pasture. Natural vegetation consists mainly of
clay loam to a depth of about 12 inches. Limestone laurel oak, water oak, sweetgum, blackgum, red maple,
bedrock is at a depth of about 12 inches. basswood, eastern redcedar, loblolly pine, and slash
Typically, the surface layer of the Demory soil is very pine in the overstory and cabbage-palm, longleaf uniola,
dark brown sandy clay loam to a depth of about 6 cutgrass, panicums, bluestems, greenbrier, yaupon,
inches. The underlying material is dark yellowish brown poison ivy, false indigo, and desmodium in the
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 11 inches, understory. This map unit generally is in the Wetland
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 11 inches. Hardwood Hammocks ecological community (24).
Generally, the mapped areas average about 53 These soils are not suited to and generally are not
Generally, the mapped areas average about 53
percent Waccasassa and similar soils and 37 percent used for cropland. Limitations, including flooding,
wetness, and the shallowness to bedrock, are
Demory and similar soils. The components of this map wetness and t o bedrock, are
impractical to overcome under normal circumstances.
unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map i a r pr it to erme under nrma irumstanes.
These soils are poorly suited to pasture. The main
them separately at the scale used in mapping. management concerns are the wetness, the flooding,
DHowever, the proportions of the Waccasassa and and the thin root zone. They limit the selection of plant
Demory soils and of the similar soils are fairly
Demory soils and of the similar soils are fairly species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface
consistent in most mapped areas ditches can help to remove excess water more rapidly
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as during wet periods, but special equipment may be
Waccasassa-Demory complex, flooded, Waccasassa, needed because of the limited depth to bedrock. During
Demory, and similar soils make up about 81 to 99 drought periods, the water table is below the bedrock,
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up and thus sufficient moisture is not available to plant
about 1 to 19 percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the roots. Native forage species grow well if properly
dissimilar soils make up more than 19 percent of the managed. Restricting grazing during very wet periods or
mapped areas. extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to plant
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the roots. Proper stocking rates and pasture rotation help to
Waccasassa and Demory soils but have a surface layer keep the pasture in good condition.
of fine sand, loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, or muck The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
that is more than 3 inches thick; have more than 5 is low. The main management concerns are the
percent gravel in the surface layer; are sandy equipment limitation, seedling mortality, plant
throughout; or have bedrock within a depth of 4 inches. competition, and windthrow, which are caused by the
Dissimilar soils that are included with the wetness, the flooding, and the shallowness to bedrock.
Waccasassa and Demory soils in mapping occur as Site preparation should include removing the larger
small areas of Aripeka, Boca, Bradenton, Chobee, debris to facilitate mechanical operations, chopping the
Hicoria, Matmon, and Pineda soils and rock outcrop, woody understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant
Aripeka and Matmon soils are in the slightly higher competition, and bedding to reduce the seedling
landscape positions. Boca, Bradenton, and Pineda soils mortality rate. Shallow surface ditches can be installed
are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the to remove excess water more rapidly during wet
Waccasassa and Demory soils. Chobee and Hicoria periods. Because of the shallowness to bedrock,
soils are in the lower landscape positions. Boca and specialized equipment generally is needed for proper
Pineda soils are sandy to a depth of 20 inches or more site preparation and tree planting activities. Limiting
and do not have bedrock within a depth of 20 inches, mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the







Levy County, Florida 61


equipment limitation and usually results in less soil positions on the landscape similar to those of the
compaction and damage to roots during thinning Pineda soil. Chobee, Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils
operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine are in the lower landscape positions. Myakka,
or loblolly pine, reduces the seedling mortality rate. Pompano, and Smyrna soils are sandy to a depth of 80
Prescribed burning and controlled grazing in established inches or more. Myakka and Smyrna soils have an
stands help to control competing vegetation and to organically coated subsoil.
maintain accessibility. Thinning the hardwood overstory In most years the seasonal high water table is within
instead of clearcutting or leaving some rows of a depth of 12 inches in the Pineda soil for 2 to 6
unharvested trees as windbreaks reduces the hazard of months, but it can be above the surface for 1 to 2
windthrow. During harvest, site preparation, and road- weeks following heavy rains or can recede to a depth of
building activities, the flow of the creeks and about 60 inches during drought periods. Permeability
drainageways that remove excess water from the area is slow or very slow. Available water capacity is low.
should not be impeded. Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or
The flooding, the shallowness to bedrock, and the the production of pine trees. Natural vegetation consists
wetness are severe limitations on sites for septic tank mainly of scattered slash pine in the overstory and
absorption fields, residential and commercial buildings, waxmyrtle, bluestems, maidencane, sand cordgrass,
local roads and streets, and recreational facilities. hatpin, pineland threeawn, low panicums, and scattered
Extensive renovation measures, including the cabbage-palm and saw palmetto in the understory. This
installation of levees and the addition of large amounts map unit generally is in the North Florida Flatwoods or
of fill, are necessary to overcome these limitations. Slough ecological community (24).
The capability subclass is Vlls. The woodland This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness
ordination symbol is 6D. during the growing season and low natural fertility are
the main management concerns. Shallow surface
40-Pineda fine sand. This poorly drained, very ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
deep, nearly level soil is on sloughs on flatwoods. rapidly during wet periods. Bedding is necessary for
Individual areas are generally irregular in shape and most row crops. Proper seedbed preparation and weed
range from 3 to nearly 350 acres in size. Slopes range control are needed to control competing vegetation.
from 0 to 2 percent. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime generally are
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine needed to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
gray fine sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The includes grasses and legumes can help to maintain the
subsoil is brown fine sand to a depth of about 32 content of organic matter and improve tilth.
inches, dark grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The
of 55 inches, and greenish gray sandy clay loam to a wetness and the low natural fertility are the main
depth of 80 inches or more. management concerns. They limit the selection of plant
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Pineda fine species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface
sand, Pineda and similar soils make up about 76 to 86 ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as
about 14 to 24 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if
the dissimilar soils make up more than 24 percent of properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet
the mapped areas. periods helps to prevent damage to plant roots. Proper
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the stocking rates, pasture rotation, and applications of
Pineda soil but have an organically coated subsoil more fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good condition.
than 2 inches thick that overlies the loamy subsoil, do The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
not have a sandy subsoil, have bedrock at a depth of moderate. The main management concerns are the
60 to 80 inches, have a loamy subsoil that is at a depth equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
of 40 to 80 inches, do not have sandy intrusions in the competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
upper 2 to 10 inches of the loamy subsoil, or have a should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
dark surface layer that is more than 10 inches thick. mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Pineda soil vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
in mapping occur as small areas of Chobee, Hicoria, bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Shallow
Myakka, Placid, Pompano, Popash, and Smyrna soils surface ditches can be installed to remove excess water
and soils that have bedrock at a depth of 40 to 60 more rapidly during wet periods. Limiting mechanical
inches. Myakka, Pompano, and Smyrna soils are in operations to the drier periods reduces the equipment







62 Soil Survey


limitation and usually results in less soil compaction and bedrock within a depth of 4 inches; or are sandy
damage to roots during thinning operations. Planting throughout.
adapted trees, such as slash pine, reduces the seedling Dissimilar soils that are included with the Demory soil
mortality rate. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing in mapping occur as small areas of Aripeka, Boca,
in established stands help to control competing Bradenton, Chobee, Cracker, and Matmon soils and
vegetation and to maintain accessibility. During harvest, rock outcrop. Chobee and Cracker soils are in the
site preparation, and road-building activities, the flow of slightly lower landscape positions. Boca and Bradenton
the creeks and drainageways that remove excess water soils are in positions on the landscape similar to those
from the area should not be impeded. of the Demory soil. Aripeka and Matmon soils are in the
The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic slightly higher landscape positions. Boca and Bradenton
tank absorption fields, residential and commercial soils do not have bedrock within a depth of 20 inches.
buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational Boca soils are sandy to a depth of 20 inches or more.
facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12
material can help to overcome the limitations affecting inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. During dry
septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises periods it is within crevices and solution holes in the
building foundations above the level of the seasonal bedrock. Areas of this map unit are flooded by adjacent
wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting creeks or by storm-driven tides for periods of 2 to 7
residential and commercial buildings. Raising road days during some years. Permeability is moderately
bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and slow. Available water capacity is very low.
installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can Most areas of this map unit support natural
help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Other
and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and areas are used for the production of pine trees. Natural
establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of vegetation consists mainly of laurel oak, water oak,
wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations sweetgum, blackgum, red maple, basswood, eastern
affecting recreational uses. redcedar, loblolly pine, and slash pine in the overstory
The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland and cabbage-palm, longleaf uniola, cutgrass, panicums,
ordination symbol is 10W. bluestems, greenbrier, yaupon, poison ivy, false indigo,
and desmodium in the understory. This map unit
41-Demory sandy clay loam, occasionally generally is in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
flooded. This poorly drained, nearly level, shallow or ecological community (24).
very shallow soil is on low ridges adjacent to or This soil is not suited to and generally is not used for
surrounded by areas of tidal marsh. It is occasionally cropland. Limitations, including flooding, wetness, and
flooded. Individual areas are generally irregular in the shallowness to bedrock, are impractical to
shape and range from 2 to nearly 3,000 acres in size. overcome under normal circumstances.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The main
Typically, the surface is covered with several inches management concerns are the wetness, the flooding,
of undecomposed leaf litter. The surface layer is black and the thin root zone. They limit the selection of plant
muck about 3 inches thick. Below this is very dark species and the periods of grazing. Residual salinity is
grayish brown sandy clay loam about 4 inches thick. a problem in areas nearest to the coast. Shallow
The underlying material is dark grayish brown sandy surface ditches can help to remove excess water more
clay loam about 2 inches thick. Limestone bedrock is at rapidly during wet periods, but special equipment may
a depth of 9 inches. be needed because of the limited depth to bedrock.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Demory During drought periods, the water table is below the
sandy clay loam, occasionally flooded, Demory and bedrock, and thus sufficient moisture is not available to
similar soils make up about 78 to 96 percent of the plant roots. Native forage species grow well if properly
mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 4 to 22 managed. Restricting grazing during very wet periods or
Percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to plant
soils make up more than 22 percent of the mapped roots. Proper stocking rates and pasture rotation help to
areas. keep the pasture in good condition.
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Demory soil but do not have a dark surface layer; have low. The main management concerns are the
a surface layer of fine sand, loamy fine sand, fine sandy equipment limitation, seedling mortality, plant
loam, or muck that is more than 3 inches thick; have competition, and windthrow, which are caused by the
more than 5 percent gravel in the surface layer; have wetness, the flooding, and the shallowness to bedrock.







Levy County, Florida 63


Residual salinity may also be a problem in areas sandy clay loam to a depth of about 65 inches and light
nearest to the coast. Site preparation should include gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
removing the larger debris to facilitate mechanical Generally, the mapped areas average about 50
operations, chopping the woody understory vegetation percent Ousley and similar soils and about 40 percent
to reduce immediate plant competition, and bedding to Albany and similar soils. The components of this map
reduce the seedling mortality rate. Shallow surface unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map
ditches can be installed to remove excess water more them separately at the scale used in mapping.
rapidly during wet periods. Because of the shallowness However, the proportions of the Ousley and Albany
to bedrock, specialized equipment generally is needed soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
for proper site preparation and tree planting activities, mapped areas.
Limiting mechanical operations to the drier periods On most of the acreage mapped as Ousley-Albany
reduces the equipment limitation and usually results in complex, occasionally flooded, Ousley, Albany, and
less soil compaction and damage to roots during similar soils make up more than 85 percent of the
thinning operations. Planting adapted trees, such as mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up less than 15
slash pine or loblolly pine, reduces the seedling percent.
mortality rate. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
in established stands help to control competing Albany soil but have sandy materials underlying the
vegetation and to maintain accessibility. Thinning the subsoil, have a thinner surface layer, have a loamy
hardwood overstory instead of clearcutting or leaving subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, or have base
some rows of unharvested trees as windbreaks reduces saturation of more than 35 percent in the lower part of
the hazard of windthrow. During harvest, site the subsoil. Also included are soils that are similar to
preparation, and road-building activities, the flow of the the Ousley and Albany soils but have a sandy,
creeks and drainageways that remove excess water organically stained subsoil or have a surface layer of
from the area should not be impeded. sand.
The flooding, the shallowness to bedrock, and the Dissimilar soils that are included with the Ousley and
wetness are severe limitations on sites for septic tank Albany soils in mapping occur as small areas of
absorption fields, residential and commercial buildings, Bradenton, Chobee, Holopaw, Myakka, Orsino, Pineda,
local roads and streets, and recreational facilities, and Pompano soils. Orsino soils are in the slightly
Extensive renovation measures, including the higher landscape positions. Bradenton, Chobee,
installation of levees and the addition of large amounts Holopaw, Myakka, Pineda, and Pompano soils are in
of fill, are necessary to overcome these limitations, the lower landscape positions.
The capability subclass is Vlls. The woodland The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
ordination symbol is 6D. 36 inches in the Ousley soil and 12 to 30 inches in the
Albany soil for 1 to 4 months during most years. Areas
42-Ousley-Albany complex, occasionally flooded, of this map unit are flooded by the adjacent river for
These somewhat poorly drained, very deep, nearly level periods of 2 to 7 days during some years. Permeability
soils are on slightly elevated knolls and ridges on the is rapid in the Ousley soil and moderate in the Albany
flood plain of the Suwannee River. They are soil. Available water capacity is very low in both soils.
occasionally flooded. Individual areas are generally Most areas of this map unit support natural
elongated and range from 3 to 75 acres in size. Slopes vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural
range from 0 to 2 percent. vegetation consists mainly of laurel oak, water oak,
Typically, the surface layer of the Ousley soil is gray water hickory, sweetgum, slash pine, and loblolly pine
fine sand to a depth of about 4 inches and light gray in the overstory and bluestems, panicums, longleaf
fine sand to a depth of 12 inches. The underlying uniola, greenbrier, and scattered saw palmetto and
material is fine sand. It is dark brown to a depth of cabbage-palm in the understory. This map unit
about 18 inches, yellowish brown to a depth of 28 generally is in the Bottomland Hardwoods ecological
inches, light yellowish brown to a depth of 38 inches, community (24).
pale brown to a depth of 65 inches, and light gray to a These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
depth of 80 inches or more. main management concerns are seasonal wetness and
Typically, the surface layer of the Albany soil is light occasional flooding, which may delay planting; seasonal
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 6 inches, droughtiness caused by the very low available water
The subsurface layer is brown fine sand to a depth of capacity; and low natural fertility. Shallow surface
about 15 inches and light yellowish brown fine sand to a ditches and grassed waterways can help to remove
depth of 50 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown excess water during wet periods. A well designed







64 Soil Survey


sprinkler irrigation system can help to maintain optimum The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
soil moisture in the root zone during drought periods, ordination symbol is 10W for the Ousley soil and 11W
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime generally are for the Albany soil.
needed to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that 43-Tidewater mucky clay, frequently flooded. This
includes grasses and legumes can help to maintain the very poorly drained, deep and very deep, nearly level
content of organic matter and improve tilth. Green soil is in areas of tidal marsh. It is frequently flooded.
manure crops, including grasses and legumes, should Individual areas are generally irregular in shape and
be used in the crop rotation. range from 4 to nearly 6,700 acres in size. Slopes are 0
These soils are moderately suited to pasture. The to 1 percent.
main management concerns are the seasonal Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown mucky
droughtiness caused by the very low available water clay to a depth of about 10 inches, black silty clay to a
capacity in the root zone, the occasional flooding, and depth of 24 inches, and black sandy clay loam to a
the low natural fertility. They limit the selection of plant depth of 40 inches. The underlying material is a mixture
species and the periods of grazing. Native forage of black and very dark grayish brown loamy fine sand to
species grow well if properly managed. Restricting a depth of about 76 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a
grazing during extended dry periods helps to prevent depth of about 76 inches.
damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Tidewater
rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the mucky clay, frequently flooded, Tidewater and similar
pasture in good condition. soils make up about 91 to 100 percent of the mapped
pasture in good condition.
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees areas. Dissimilar soils make up less han 9 percent. On
is high. The main management concerns are the 5 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up
is high. The main management concerns are the
more than 9 percent of the mapped areas.
equipment limitation, plant competition, and seedling n capping are soils that are similar to the
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
mortality caused by the seasonal wetness and the
mortality caused by the seasonal wetness and the Tidewater soil but have a surface layer of muck that is 4
flooding. Limiting mechanical operations to the drier to ies have a surface layer of fie sa
periods reduces the equipment limitation and usually oa san ca oa sany clay at i ore han
loam, sandy clay loam, or sandy clay that is more than
results in less soil compaction and damage to roots 3 inches thick; do not have a dark surface layer as
during thinning operations. Site preparation should much as 10 inches in thickness; have sandy materials
include removing the larger debris to facilitate at a depth of 20 to 40 inches; have bedrock at a depth
mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory of 30 to 40 inches; or do not have sulfidic materials
vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and within a depth of 20 inches.
bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Planting Dissimilar soils that are included with the Tidewater
adapted trees, such as slash pine or loblolly pine, soil in mapping occur as small areas of Boca, Cracker,
reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning Demory, Immokalee, Myakka, Wekiva, Wulfert, and
and controlled grazing in established stands generally Zolfo soils and soils that have bedrock at a depth of 20
are adequate to control competing vegetation and to to 30 inches, have sandy materials within a depth of 20
maintain accessibility. inches, or have an organic surface layer that is more
The occasional flooding and the seasonal wetness than 51 inches thick. Cracker and Wulfert soils are in
are severe limitations on sites for septic tank absorption positions on the landscape similar to those of the
fields, residential and commercial buildings, and local Tidewater soil. Boca, Demory, Immokalee, Myakka,
roads and streets. Extensive renovation measures Wekiva, and Zolfo soils are in the slightly higher
generally are necessary on sites for building and roads. landscape positions. Cracker soils have limestone
These measures include installing levees and drainage bedrock within a depth of 20 inches. Wulfert soils have
systems for flood protection, elevating road bases and an organic surface layer that is more than 16 inches
the foundations of buildings above normal flood levels, thick.
and installing an offsite sewage disposal system in an The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12
area that is not prone to flooding. The occasional inches in the Tidewater soil throughout the year. Areas
flooding, the wetness, and the loose, sandy surface of this map unit are flooded daily by high tides.
layer are severe limitations affecting recreational Permeability is moderately slow. Available water
facilities. Restricting access during wet periods and capacity is low.
establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of Most areas of this map unit support natural
traffic and flooding can help to overcome the limitations vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural
affecting recreational facilities, vegetation consists mainly of dense stands of black








Levy County, Florida


needlerush. This map unit generally is in the Salt Marsh Permeability is moderate. Available water capacity is
ecological community (24). very low.
This soil is not suited to and generally is not used for Most areas of this map unit support natural
cropland, pasture, or the production of pine trees, vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural
Limitations, including flooding, wetness, and salinity, are vegetation consists mainly of black needlerush,
impractical to overcome under normal circumstances, marshhay cordgrass, saltwort, and glasswort. This map
The flooding and the wetness are severe limitations unit generally is in the Salt Marsh ecological community
on sites for septic tank absorption fields, residential and (24).
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and This soil is not suited to and generally is not used for
recreational facilities. Extensive renovation measures, cropland, pasture, or the production of pine trees.
including the installation of levees and drainage Limitations, including flooding, wetness, salinity, and the
systems and the addition of large amounts of fill, are shallowness to bedrock, are impractical to overcome
necessary to overcome these limitations. If drained or if under normal circumstances.
used as fill material, this soil becomes extremely acid The flooding, the shallowness to bedrock, and the
and thus can support only a limited variety of plants. wetness are severe limitations on sites for septic tank
The capability subclass is VIIIw. No woodland absorption fields, residential and commercial buildings,
ordination symbol is assigned. local roads and streets, and recreational facilities.
Extensive renovation measures, including the
45-Cracker mucky clay, frequently flooded. This installation of levees and drainage systems and the
very poorly drained, shallow or very shallow, nearly addition of large amounts of fill, are necessary to
level soil is in areas of tidal marsh. It is frequently overcome these limitations.
flooded. Individual areas are generally irregular in The capability subclass is Vlllw. No woodland
shape and range from 9 to nearly 5,900 acres in size. ordination symbol is assigned.
Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black mucky clay to a 46-Chobee fine sandy loam, limestone
depth of about 4 inches and very dark gray sandy clay substratum, frequently flooded. This very poorly
loam to a depth of 12 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a drained, deep or very deep, nearly level soil is on flood
depth of about 12 inches. plains. It is frequently flooded. Individual areas are
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Cracker generally irregular in shape and range from 3 to nearly
mucky clay, frequently flooded, Cracker and similar 3,500 acres in size. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
soils make up about 76 to 92 percent of the mapped Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown muck
areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 8 to 24 percent. to a depth of about 3 inches and very dark brown fine
On 10 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make sandy loam to a depth of 11 inches. The subsoil is very
up more than 24 percent of the mapped areas. dark grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of about
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the 21 inches, light brownish gray sandy clay loam to a
Cracker soil but have a surface layer of muck, fine depth of 28 inches, dark greenish gray sandy clay loam
sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or sandy clay that is to a depth of 54 inches, and a mixture of greenish gray
more than 3 inches thick; are sandy throughout; or have and light greenish gray sandy clay loam to a depth of
bedrock at a depth of 20 to 30 inches or within a depth 68 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 68
of 6 inches. inches.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Cracker soil On most of the acreage mapped as Chobee fine
in mapping occur as small areas of Boca, Demory, sandy loam, limestone substratum, frequently flooded,
Tidewater, Wekiva, and Wulfert soils and areas of soils Chobee and similar soils make up more than 85 percent
that have bedrock at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. Also of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up less than
included are small areas of rock outcrop. Tidewater and 15 percent.
Wulfert soils are in positions on the landscape similar to Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
those of the Cracker soil. Boca, Demory, and Wekiva Chobee soil but do not have bedrock within a depth of
soils are in the slightly higher landscape positions. 80 inches, have bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches,
Tidewater and Wulfert soils do not have bedrock within do not have a dark surface layer as much as 10 inches
a depth of 40 inches. Wulfert soils have an organic in thickness, have an organic surface layer that is 4 to
surface layer that is more than 16 inches thick. 16 inches thick, have an average content of clay in the
The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12 upper 20 inches of the subsoil that is more than 35
inches in the Cracker soil throughout the year. Areas of percent, or have a surface layer of fine sand, loamy fine
this map unit are flooded daily by high tides. sand, or sandy clay loam that is 4 to 20 inches thick.








66 Soil Survey


Dissimilar soils that are included with the Chobee soil depth of about 69 inches and light gray sandy clay to a
in mapping occur as small areas of Boca, Bradenton, depth of 80 inches or more.
Demory, Gator, Hicoria, Pineda, Popash, Waccasassa, Typically, the surface layer of the Moriah soil is very
and Wekiva soils. Also included are soils that are in dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
positions on the landscape similar to those of the subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth
Chobee soil but have bedrock within a depth of 20 of about 19 inches and light gray fine sand to a depth of
inches. Gator, Hicoria, and Popash soils are in positions 35 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay
on the landscape similar to those of the Chobee soil. loam to a depth of about 39 inches and light brownish
Boca, Bradenton, Demory, Pineda, Waccasassa, and gray sandy clay to a depth of 51 inches. Limestone
Wekiva soils are in the higher landscape positions. bedrock is at a depth of about 51 inches.
Gator soils have an organic surface layer that is more Generally, the mapped areas average about 53
than 16 inches thick. Hicoria and Popash soils are percent Lutterloh and similar soils and 37 percent
sandy to a depth of 20 inches or more. Moriah and similar soils. The components of this map
The seasonal high water table is at or above the unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map
surface in the Chobee soil for more than 6 months them separately at the scale used in mapping.
during most years. Areas of this map unit are flooded However, the proportions of the Lutterloh and Moriah
by adjacent rivers or creeks for periods of more than 6 soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
months during most years. Permeability is slow. mapped areas.
Available water capacity is moderate. On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Lutterloh-
Most areas of this map unit support natural Moriah complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Lutterloh,
vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural Moriah, and similar soils make up about 78 to 100
vegetation consists mainly of cypress, red maple, percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
sweetbay, sweetgum, and Florida willow in the less than 22 percent. On 10 percent of the acreage, the
overstory and pickerelweed, lizard's-tail, water iris, and dissimilar soils make up more than 22 percent of the
scattered cabbage-palm in the understory. This map mapped areas.
unit generally is in the Swamp Hardwoods or Cypress Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
Swamp ecological community (24). Moriah soil but do not have bedrock within a depth of
This soil is not suited to and generally is not used for 72 inches. Also included are soils that are similar to the
cropland, pasture, or the production of pine trees. Lutterloh and Moriah soils but have a dark surface layer
Limitations, including flooding and wetness, are that is more than 9 inches thick, contain more than 35
impractical to overcome under normal circumstances, percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the subsoil, are
The flooding and ponding are severe limitations on fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam throughout the
sites for septic tank absorption fields, residential and subsoil, do not have a subsoil, or have a seasonal high
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and water table at a depth of 42 to 72 inches.
recreational facilities. Extensive renovation measures, Dissimilar soils that are included with the Lutterloh
including the installation of levees and drainage and Moriah soils in mapping occur as small areas of
systems and the addition of large amounts of fill, are Bushnell, Hicoria, Holopaw, Jonesville, Levyville, Mabel,
necessary to overcome these limitations. Micanopy, Pedro, and Seaboard soils. Bushnell,
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland Jonesville, Levyville, Mabel, Micanopy, Pedro, and
ordination symbol is 2W. Seaboard soils are in positions on the landscape similar
to those of the Lutterloh and Moriah soils. Hicoria and
48-Lutterloh-Moriah complex, 0 to 5 percent Holopaw soils are in the lower landscape positions.
slopes. This map unit consists of a very deep Lutterloh Bushnell, Levyville, Mabel, Micanopy, and Pedro soils
soil and a deep or very deep Moriah soil. These have a loamy or clayey subsoil within a depth of 20
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping inches. Jonesville, Levyville, Pedro, and Seaboard soils
soils are on karst uplands. Individual areas are are better drained than the Lutterloh and Moriah soils.
generally irregular in shape and range from 3 to nearly Jonesville, Pedro, and Seaboard soils have limestone
400 acres in size. bedrock within a depth of 40 inches.
Typically, the surface layer of the Lutterloh soil is The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The of 18 to 42 inches in the Lutterloh and Moriah soils for 2
subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a to 5 months in most years. Permeability is slow.
depth of about 23 inches, light gray fine sand to a depth Available water capacity is very low in the Lutterloh soil
of 42 inches, and white fine sand to a depth of 57 and low in the Moriah soil.
inches. The subsoil is light gray sandy clay loam to a Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or







Levy County, Florida 67


cropland. Other areas are used for the production of buildings and installing shallow ditches along roadsides
pine trees. Natural vegetation consists mainly of laurel can help to overcome these limitations. The wetness is
oak, live oak, slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, a severe limitation on sites for septic tank absorption
magnolia, sweetgum, hickory, and eastern redcedar in fields. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
the overstory and cabbage-palm, blackberry, American material generally can overcome this limitation.
beautyberry, greenbrier, Florida holly, bluestems, and Limitations affecting most recreational facilities are
panicums in the understory. This map unit generally is severe because of the loose, sandy surface layer.
in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks ecological Establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
community (24). traffic can help to overcome these limitations.
These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops. The capability subclass is Ille. The woodland
The main management concerns are seasonal wetness, ordination symbol is 10W for the Lutterloh soil and 11S
which r~ay delay planting; seasonal droughtiness for the Moriah soil.
caused !by the very low or low available water capacity;
and low natural fertility. Shallow surface ditches and 49-Hicoria fine sand. This poorly drained, very
grassed waterways can help to remove excess water deep, nearly level soil is on broad, low flats. Individual
during wet periods. A well designed sprinkler irrigation areas are generally irregular in shape and range from 6
system can help to maintain optimum soil moisture in to nearly 400 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2
the root zone during drought periods. Frequent percent.
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop residue sand to a depth of about 11 inches and very dark
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 17 inches. The
grasses and legumes can help to maintain the content subsurface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand to a
of organic matter and improve tilth. Green manure depth of about 23 inches. The subsoil is grayish brown
crops, including grasses and legumes, should be used sandy clay loam to a depth of about 30 inches and gray
in the crop rotation. sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
These soils are well suited to pasture. The main On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Hicoria fine
management concerns are the seasonal droughtiness sand, Hicoria and similar soils make up about 81 to 100
and the low natural fertility. They limit the selection of percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
plant species and the periods of grazing. Adapted less than 19 percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the
plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, dissimilar soils make up more than 19 percent of the
grow well if properly managed. Restricting grazing mapped areas.
during extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and Hicoria soil but have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 to
applications of fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good 80 inches or 12 to 20 inches; have a dark surface layer
condition. that is less than 10 inches or more than 24 inches thick;
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees have a surface layer of loamy fine sand or mucky fine
is high. The main management concerns are the sand that is more than 3 inches thick; have an
equipment limitation and plant competition caused by organically stained, sandy subsoil underlying the
the seasonal wetness. Limiting mechanical operations surface or subsurface layer; or contain an average of
to the drier periods reduces the equipment limitation more than 35 percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the
and usually results in less soil compaction and damage subsoil.
to roots during thinning operations. Site preparation Dissimilar soils that are included with the Hicoria soil
should include removing the larger debris to facilitate in mapping occur as small areas of Boca, Bushnell, Ft.
mechanical operations and chopping the woody Green, Hicoria, Lochloosa, Mabel, Moriah, Placid,
understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant Pompano, and Popash soils. Hicoria, Placid, and
competition. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing Popash soils are in depressions. Boca, Placid, and
in established stands generally are adequate to control Pompano soils are in positions on the landscape similar
competing vegetation and to maintain accessibility. A to those of the Hicoria soil. Bushnell, Ft. Green,
wide variety of trees, including slash pine and loblolly Lochloosa, Mabel, and Moriah soils are in the slightly
pine, grow well if properly managed. higher landscape positions. Boca soils have limestone
These soils have moderate limitations affecting sites bedrock within a depth of 40 inches. Placid and
for residential and commercial buildings and local roads Pompano soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or
and streets mainly because of the wetness. Installing a more.
subsurface drainage system around the foundations of In most years the seasonal high water table is within







68 Soil Survey


a depth of 6 inches in the Hicoria soil for 2 to 6 months, septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises
but it is above the surface for 1 to 2 weeks following building foundations above the level of the seasonal
heavy rains or can recede to a depth of about 60 inches wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting
during drought periods. Permeability is slow or residential and commercial buildings. Raising road
moderately slow. Available water capacity is moderate. bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture. installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can
Natural vegetation consists mainly of maidencane, help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads
chalky bluestem, bushybeard bluestem, sand cordgrass, and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and
and waxmyrtle. Some areas have slash pine and establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
scattered cabbage-palm in the overstory. This map unit wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations
generally is in the Slough ecological community (24). affecting recreational uses.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Wetness The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
during the growing season is the main management ordination symbol is 10W.
concern. Shallow surface ditches can be installed to
remove excess water more rapidly during wet periods. 50-Hicoria loamy fine sand, depressional. This
Bedding is necessary for most row crops. Proper very poorly drained, very deep, nearly level soil is in
seedbed preparation and weed control are needed to depressions on flatwoods or on broad, low flats. It is
control competing vegetation. ponded. Individual areas are generally oval or irregular
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The in shape and range from 2 to nearly 200 acres in size.
wetness is the main management concern. It limits the Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
selection of plant species and the periods of grazing. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
Shallow surface ditches can be installed to remove sandy loam to a depth of about 3 inches, very dark gray
excess water more rapidly during wet periods. Native loamy fine sand to a depth of 15 inches, and very dark
forage species grow well if properly managed, grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 22 inches. The
Restricting grazing during very wet periods helps to subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth
prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates of about 38 inches. The subsoil is a mixture of gray and
and pasture rotation help to keep the pasture in good dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 43
condition. inches, a mixture of light gray and gray sandy clay loam
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is to a depth of 58 inches, and light gray sandy clay loam
moderate. The main management concerns are the to a depth of 80 inches or more.
equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant On most of the acreage mapped as Hicoria loamy
competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation fine sand, depressional, Hicoria and similar soils make
should include removing the larger debris to facilitate up more than 85 percent of the mapped areas.
mechanical operations, chopping and burning the Dissimilar soils make up less than 15 percent.
woody understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
competition, and bedding to reduce the seedling Hicoria soil but have a surface layer of fine sand or fine
mortality rate. Shallow surface ditches can be installed sandy loam that is more than 3 inches thick, have an
to remove excess water more rapidly during wet organic surface layer that is 3 to 8 inches thick, have a
periods. Limiting mechanical operations to the drier dark surface layer that is less than 10 inches or more
periods reduces the equipment limitation and usually than 24 inches thick, have a loamy subsoil at a depth of
results in less soil compaction and damage to roots 40 to 80 inches or 12 to 20 inches, contain an average
during thinning operations. Planting adapted trees, such of more than 35 percent clay in the upper 20 inches of
as slash pine, reduces the seedling mortality rate. the subsoil, or have bedrock at a depth of 40 to 80
Prescribed burning and controlled grazing in established inches.
stands help to control competing vegetation and to Dissimilar soils that are included with the Hicoria soil
maintain accessibility. During harvest, site preparation, in mapping occur as small areas of Chobee and Placid
and road-building activities, the flow of the creeks and soils. Also included are soils that are in positions on the
drainageways that remove excess water from the area landscape similar to those of the Hicoria soil but have
should not be impeded. bedrock within a depth of 40 inches. Chobee and Placid
The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic soils are in positions on the landscape similar to those
tank absorption fields, residential and commercial of the Hicoria soil. Chobee soils are loamy throughout.
buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational Placid soils are sandy throughout.
facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil The seasonal high water table is above the surface in
material can help to overcome the limitations affecting the Hicoria soil for more than 6 months during most








Levy County, Florida 69


years. It is within a depth of 12 inches during most of unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map
the rest of the time. Permeability is slow or moderately them separately at the scale used in mapping.
slow. Available water capacity is low or moderate. However, the proportions of the Ft. Green and Bivans
Most areas of this map unit support natural soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural mapped areas.
vegetation consists mainly of maidencane, On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Ft. Green-
pickerelweed, water lily, rushes, and sand cordgrass. Bivans complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Ft. Green,
Some areas have a woody overstory that consists Bivans, and similar soils make up about 77 to 100
mainly of cypress, blackgum, red maple, and sweetbay. percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
This map unit generally is in the Freshwater Marsh and less than 23 percent. On 10 percent of the acreage, the
Ponds ecological community (24). dissimilar soils make up more than 23 percent of the
This soil is not suited to and generally is not used for mapped areas.
cropland, pasture, or the production of pine trees. Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
Limitations, including ponding, are impractical to Ft. Green soil but have a clayey subsoil or have an
overcome under normal circumstances, organically stained layer that overlies the subsoil. Also
The ponding is a severe limitation on sites for septic included are soils that are similar to the Bivans soil but
tank absorption fields, residential and commercial have a surface layer of loamy sand or sandy loam or
buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational contain less than 35 percent clay in the upper 20 inches
facilities. Extensive renovation measures, including the of the subsoil. Also included are soils that are similar to
addition of large amounts of fill and the installation of the Ft. Green and Bivans soils but have bedrock below
drainage systems, are necessary to overcome this a depth of 60 inches, have a dark surface layer that is
limitation, more than 7 inches thick, have base saturation of less
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland than 35 percent in the lower part of the subsoil, have
ordination symbol is 2W. sandy material underlying the subsoil, have slopes of
less than 2 percent or more than 5 percent, or have a
51-Ft. Green-Bivans complex, 2 to 5 percent seasonal high water table at a depth of 18 to 40 inches.
slopes. This map unit consists of a poorly drained Ft. Dissimilar soils that are included with the Ft. Green
Green soil and a somewhat poorly drained Bivans soil. and Bivans soils in mapping occur as small areas of
These very deep, gently sloping soils are on uplands. Adamsville, Bushnell, Hicoria, Lutterloh, and Sparr soils
Individual areas are generally irregular in shape and and soils that have bedrock at a depth of 40 to 60
range from 3 to nearly 600 acres in size. inches. Adamsville, Bushnell, Lutterloh, and Sparr soils
Typically, the surface layer of the Ft. Green soil is are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the
dark grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The Ft. Green and Bivans soils. Hicoria soils are in
subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth depressions. Adamsville, Lutterloh, and Sparr soils are
of about 28 inches and brown loamy fine sand that has sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more. Bushnell soils
many pockets of very dark grayish brown fine sandy have limestone bedrock within a depth of 40 inches.
loam to a depth of 33 inches. The subsoil is light The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to
brownish gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 46 18 inches in the Ft. Green and Bivans soils for 1 to 4
inches, dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 60 months during most years. Permeability is slow or
inches, a mixture of light greenish gray and gray sandy moderately slow in the Ft. Green soil and slow or very
clay loam to a depth of 67 inches, and a mixture of light slow in the Bivans soil. Available water capacity is
gray and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches moderate in both soils.
or more. Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or
Typically, the surface layer of the Bivans soil is very cropland. Other areas are used for the production of
dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The pine trees. Natural vegetation consists mainly of laurel
subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a oak, live oak, slash pine, loblolly pine, magnolia,
depth of about 17 inches. The subsoil is dark gray sweetgum, hickory, and eastern redcedar in the
sandy clay to a depth of about 39 inches, gray sandy overstory and blackberry, American beautyberry,
clay to a depth of 50 inches, and gray sandy clay loam greenbrier, holly, bluestems, panicums, and scattered
to a depth of 70 inches. The underlying material is gray cabbage-palm and saw palmetto in the understory. This
sandy clay to a depth of 80 inches or more. map unit generally is in the Upland Hardwood
Generally, the mapped areas average about 56 Hammocks ecological community (24).
percent Ft. Green and similar soils and 34 percent These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
Bivans and similar soils. The components of this map main management concerns are seasonal wetness,







70 Soil Survey


which may delay planting, and the hazard of erosion, recreational facilities are severe because of the wetness
Shallow surface ditches and grassed waterways can and the loose, sandy surface layer. Restricting access
help to remove excess water during wet periods, during wet periods and establishing species of turf
Conservation practices, such as farming on the contour, grass that are tolerant of wetness and traffic can help to
applying a system of conservation tillage, and terracing, overcome these limitations.
can minimize loss of topsoil caused by erosion. Proper The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
seedbed preparation, weed control, and applications of ordination symbol is 10W for the Ft. Green soil and
lime and fertilizer generally can assure high yields. 11W for the Bivans soil.
These soils are moderately suited to pasture.
Wetness is the main management concern. It limits the 55-Pedro-Jonesville-Shadeville complex, 0 to 5
selection of plant species and the periods of grazing. percent slopes. This map unit consists of a well
Shallow surface ditches can be installed to remove drained, shallow or very shallow Pedro soil; a well
excess water more rapidly during wet periods. Adapted drained, moderately deep Jonesville soil; and a
plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, moderately well drained, deep or very deep Shadeville
grow well if properly managed. Restricting grazing soil. These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on
during very wet periods helps to prevent damage to karst uplands. Individual areas are generally irregular in
plant roots. Proper stocking rates and pasture rotation shape and range from 5 to more than 6,000 acres in
help to keep the pasture in good condition. size.
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees Typically, the surface layer of the Pedro soil is dark
is high. The main management concerns are the grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant subsurface layer is brownish yellow fine sand to a depth
competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation of about 11 inches. The subsoil is dark yellowish brown
should include removing the larger debris to facilitate fine sandy loam to a depth of about 15 inches. Soft,
mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory unconsolidated limestone that can be dug with a spade
vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and is at a depth of about 15 inches. Harder limestone
bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Limiting bedrock is at a depth of about 21 inches.
mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the Typically, the surface layer of the Jonesville soil is
equipment limitation and usually results in less soil dark gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
compaction and damage to roots during thinning subsurface layer is a mixture of very pale brown and
operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine light gray fine sand to a depth of about 31 inches. The
or loblolly pine, reduces the seedling mortality rate. subsoil is dark yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a
Prescribed burning and controlled grazing in established depth of about 35 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a
stands help to control competing vegetation and to depth of about 35 inches.
maintain accessibility. Typically, the surface layer of the Shadeville soil is
The individual components of this map unit may differ dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 10
somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland inches. The subsurface layer is a mixture of pale brown
management. See table 7 for more detailed information and yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of about 23
regarding each component. inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam
The wetness and the restricted permeability in the to a depth of about 45 inches. Limestone bedrock is at
subsoil are severe limitations on sites for septic tank a depth of about 45 inches.
absorption fields. Installing a filtering mound of suitable Generally, the mapped areas average about 61
soil material can help to overcome these limitations, percent Pedro and similar soils, 19 percent Jonesville
The wetness and the shrink-swell potential in the and similar soils, and 17 percent Shadeville and similar
subsoil are severe limitations on sites for residential and soils. The components of this map unit are so
commercial buildings and local roads and streets. intermingled that it is not practical to map them
Filling, which raises building foundations above the level separately at the scale used in mapping. However, the
of the seasonal wetness, and constructing buildings proportions of the Pedro, Jonesville, and Shadeville
with a reinforced foundation or a floating slab can help soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
to overcome the limitations affecting buildings and mapped areas.
minimize the hazard of foundation and wall cracking. On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pedro-
Raising road bases above the level of the seasonal Jonesville-Shadeville complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
wetness and installing a system of roadside ditches and Pedro, Jonesville, Shadeville, and similar soils make up
culverts can help to overcome the limitations affecting about 91 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
local roads and streets. Limitations affecting Dissimilar soils make up less than 9 percent. On 5








Levy County, Florida 71


percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up bedrock. A well designed sprinkler irrigation system can
more than 9 percent of the mapped areas. help to maintain optimum soil moisture during drought
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the periods. Returning crop residue to the soil can increase
Pedro soil but have bedrock within a depth of 6 inches, the content of organic matter and the water-holding
do not have limestone within a depth of 20 inches, have capacity of the topsoil. Special cultivation equipment
a surface layer of loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam, may be needed because of the limited depth to
or have a surface layer that contains more than 1 bedrock. Proper seedbed preparation, weed control,
percent gravel. Also included are soils that are similar and applications of lime and fertilizer generally can
to the Pedro and Jonesville soils but do not have a assure high yields.
subsoil, contain an average of more than 35 percent These soils are well suited to pasture. The main
clay throughout the subsoil, have a perched seasonal management concerns are the seasonal droughtiness
high water table, or do not have consolidated bedrock and the thin root zone. They limit the selection of plant
within a:depth of 40 inches. Also included are soils that species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants,
are similar to the Shadeville soil but do not have such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow
bedrock within a depth of 72 inches, contain more than well if properly managed. Restricting grazing during
35 percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the subsoil, extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to plant
have a dark surface layer that is more than 10 inches roots. Proper stocking rates and pasture rotation help to
thick, or have a seasonal high water table that is keep the pasture in good condition.
perched at a depth of 20 to 48 inches. The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Pedro, is high. The main management concerns are seedling
Jonesville, and Shadeville soils in mapping occur as mortality and windthrow, which are caused by the
small areas of Candler, Hicoria, Lutterloh, Otela, and seasonal droughtiness and the shallowness to bedrock;
Tavares soils. Also included are small areas of rock the equipment limitation, which is caused by the
outcrop and rock pits and areas of sloping soils on the shallowness to bedrock and the loose, sandy surface
edges of sinkholes. Candler, Lutterloh, Otela, and layer; and plant competition. Planting adapted trees,
Tavares soils are in positions on the landscape similar such as slash pine, and planting during the wetter
to those of the Pedro, Jonesville, and Shadeville soils, months reduce the seedling mortality rate. Leaving
Hicoria soils are in depressions. Candler and Tavares some rows of unharvested, mature trees as windbreaks
soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. reduces the hazard of windthrow. Because of the
Lutterloh and Otela soils are sandy to a depth of 40 to shallowness to bedrock, specialized equipment may be
80 inches. Lutterloh soils are somewhat poorly drained, needed for proper site preparation and tree planting
The seasonal high water table is below the bedrock activities. Using harvesting and planting machinery
in the Pedro and Jonesville soils throughout the year. It equipped with large rubber tires helps to overcome the
is perched at a depth of 48 to 72 inches in the equipment limitation. Prescribed burning and controlled
Shadeville soil for 1 to 3 months during most years. grazing in established stands generally are adequate to
Permeability is moderately rapid in the Pedro soil, control competing vegetation.
moderately slow or moderate in the Jonesville soil, and The individual components of this map unit may differ
moderate in the Shadeville soil. Available water somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland
capacity is very low in the Pedro and Jonesville soils management. See table 7 for more detailed information
and low in the Shadeville soil. regarding each component.
Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or Pedro and Jonesville soils have severe limitations
cropland. Other areas are used for the production of affecting sites for septic tank absorption fields mainly
pine trees or have been subdivided for residential because of the depth to bedrock. Shadeville soils have
development. Natural vegetation consists mainly of moderate limitations affecting sites for septic tank
laurel oak, live oak, slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf absorption fields because of the depth to bedrock,
pine, magnolia, sweetgum, hickory, and eastern wetness, and moderate permeability in the subsoil.
redcedar in the overstory and cabbage-palm, Careful site investigation is needed to locate suitably
blackberry, American beautyberry, greenbrier, Florida large areas that are deep enough over bedrock.
holly, bluestems, pineland threeawn, and panicums in Installing an oversized septic tank absorption field and
the understory. This map unit generally is in the Upland avoiding the clustering of homes and septic systems
Hardwood Hammocks ecological community (24). can help to overcome the limitations and minimize the
These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops. hazard of ground-water pollution. The Pedro soil has
The main management concerns are seasonal moderate limitations on sites for residential and
droughtiness, a thin root zone, and the shallowness to commercial buildings and local roads and streets, and








72 Soil Survey


the Jonesville and Shadeville soils have slight soils. The components of this map unit are so
limitations. Areas of soils that are shallow or very intermingled that it is not practical to map them
shallow over bedrock are common throughout this map separately at the scale used in mapping. However, the
unit, but careful site investigation usually can locate proportions of the Moriah, Bushnell, and Mabel soils
suitably large areas for building foundations that are and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
deep enough over bedrock. Because of the shallowness mapped areas.
to bedrock, special equipment may be needed for the On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Moriah-
installation of ditches or pipelines. Limitations affecting Bushnell-Mabel, limestone substratum, complex, 0 to 5
most recreational facilities are severe because of the percent slopes, Moriah, Bushnell, Mabel, and similar
loose, sandy surface layer and the shallowness to soils make up about 78 to 93 percent of the mapped
bedrock. Establishing species of turf grass that are areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 7 to 22 percent.
tolerant of traffic and restricting access to stabilized On 20 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make
areas can help to overcome these limitations, up more than 22 percent of the mapped areas.
The capability subclass is IVs for the Pedro soil, Ills Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
for the Jonesville soil, and Ils for the Shadeville soil. Moriah soil but contain an average of more than 35
The woodland ordination symbol is 10S for the Pedro percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the subsoil, have
and Jonesville soils and 11S for the Shadeville soil. bedrock at a depth of 24 to 40 inches, do not have
bedrock within a depth of 72 inches, have a dark
56-Moriah-Bushnell-Mabel, limestone substratum, surface layer that is more than 9 inches thick, or have a
complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This map unit consists perched high water table at a depth of 42 to 72 inches.
of somewhat poorly drained, deep or very deep Moriah Also included are soils that are similar to the Bushnell
and Mabel soils and a somewhat poorly drained, and Mabel soils but have a surface layer of loamy fine
moderately deep Bushnell soil. These nearly level to sand or fine sandy loam, have a surface layer that
gently sloping soils are on karst uplands. Individual contains more than 5 percent gravel, do not have a
areas are generally irregular in shape and range from 4 perched high water table within a depth of 36 inches, do
to nearly 400 acres in size. not have bedrock within a depth of 72 inches, have a
Typically, the surface layer of the Moriah soil is dark dark surface layer that is more than 6 inches thick that
gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface overlies the subsoil, have bedrock at a depth of 12 to
layer is very pale brown fine sand to a depth of about 20 inches, or contain an average of less than 35
16 inches and white fine sand to a depth of 28 inches. percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the subsoil.
The subsoil is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam to Dissimilar soils that are included with the Moriah,
a depth of about 32 inches, light gray sandy clay loam Bushnell, and Mabel soils in mapping occur as small
to a depth of 44 inches, light gray fine sandy loam to a areas of Adamsville, Bivans, Ft. Green, Hicoria,
depth of 52 inches, and light gray clay to a depth of 68 Lutterloh, Otela, and Tavares soils; soils that have
inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 68 bedrock within a depth of 12 inches; and sloping soils
inches. that are near the edges of sinkholes. Adamsville,
Typically, the surface layer of the Bushnell soil is Bivans, Ft. Green, Lutterloh, Otela, and Tavares soils
dark grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the
subsurface layer is brown fine sand to a depth of about Moriah, Bushnell, and Mabel soils. Hicoria soils are in
10 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay to depressions. Adamsville, Lutterloh, Otela, and Tavares
a depth of about 16 inches and yellowish brown clay to soils are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more. Bivans
a depth of 26 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth and Ft. Green soils do not have bedrock within a depth
of about 26 inches. of 80 inches.
Typically, the surface layer of the Mabel soil is dark The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth
grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The of 18 to 42 inches in the Moriah soil for 1 to 3 months
subsurface layer is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth during most years. It is perched at a depth of 18 to 36
of about 14 inches. The subsoil is brown sandy clay inches in the Bushnell and Mabel soils for 1 to 3
loam to a depth of about 18 inches, yellowish brown months during most years. In all three soils, it may be
clay to a depth of 31 inches, and light gray clay to a at a depth of 12 to 20 inches for several days following
depth of 53 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of heavy rains. Permeability is slow in all three soils.
about 53 inches. Available water capacity is low in the Moriah and
Generally, the mapped areas average about 34 Bushnell soils and moderate in the Mabel soil.
percent Moriah and similar soils, 29 percent Bushnell Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or
and similar soils, and 23 percent Mabel and similar cropland. Other areas are used for the production of







Levy County, Florida 73


pine trees. Natural vegetation consists mainly of laurel foundation and wall cracking. Limitations affecting most
oak, water oak, slash pine, loblolly pine, live oak, recreational facilities are severe because of the loose,
magnolia, sweetgum, hickory, and eastern redcedar in sandy surface layer. Establishing species of turf grass
the overstory and blackberry, American beautyberry, that are tolerant of traffic can help to overcome these
greenbrier, Florida holly, bluestems, panicums, and limitations.
scattered cabbage-palm and saw palmetto in the The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
understory. This map unit generally is in the Upland ordination symbol is 11S for the Moriah soil and 11W
Hardwood Hammocks ecological community (24). for the Bushnell and Mabel soils.
These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops.
The main management concerns are seasonal wetness, 57-Paola fine sand, gently rolling. This
which may delay planting, and the hazard of erosion. excessively drained, very deep, gently rolling soil is on
Shallow surface ditches and grassed waterways can the tops of dunelike ridges and on islands in the Gulf of
help to remove excess water during wet periods. Mexico. Individual areas are generally oval or elongated
Conservation practices, such as farming on the contour, and range from 2 to nearly 500 acres in size. Slopes
applying a system of conservation tillage, and terracing, are complex. They range from 2 to 8 percent but are
can minimize loss of topsoil caused by erosion. Proper mainly 5 to 8 percent.
seedbed preparation, weed control, and applications of Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 2
lime and fertilizer generally can assure high yields. inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine
These soils are well suited to pasture. A wide variety sand to a depth of about 11 inches. The subsoil is a
of plants, including Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy mixture of yellowish brown and very pale brown fine
indigo, grow well if properly managed. Proper stocking sand to a depth of about 16 inches, yellowish brown
rates, pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer fine sand to a depth of 26 inches, brownish yellow fine
generally are adequate to keep the pasture in good sand to a depth of 68 inches, and yellow fine sand to a
condition, depth of 80 inches or more.
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Paola fine
is high. The main management concerns are the sand, gently rolling, Paola and similar soils make up
equipment limitation and plant competition caused by about 90 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
the seasonal wetness. Limiting mechanical operations Dissimilar soils make up less than 10 percent. On 5
to the drier periods reduces the equipment limitation percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up
and usually results in less soil compaction and damage more than 10 percent of the mapped areas.
to roots during thinning operations. Site preparation Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
should include removing the larger debris to facilitate Paola soil but do not have a subsurface layer that is
mechanical operations and chopping and burning the more than 6 inches thick, have a seasonal high water
woody understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant table at a depth of 40 to 72 inches, or have a layer of
competition. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing coarse shell fragments at the surface that is 3 to 20
in established stands generally are adequate to control inches thick.
competing vegetation and to maintain accessibility. A Dissimilar soils that are included with the Paola soil
wide variety of trees, including slash pine and loblolly in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, Cassia,
pine, grow well if properly managed. Immokalee, Myakka, Placid, Pomello, Pompano,
Wetness, depth to bedrock, and slow permeability in Popash, Samsula, and Zolfo soils. Adamsville, Cassia,
the subsoil are severe limitations on sites for septic tank Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello, Pompano, and Zolfo soils
absorption fields. Careful site investigation is needed to are in the slightly lower landscape positions. Placid,
locate suitably large areas that are deep enough over Popash, and Samsula soils are in depressions.
bedrock. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil The seasonal high water table is below a depth of 72
material can help to overcome the limitations. The inches in the Paola soil throughout the year.
Bushnell and Mabel soils have severe limitations on Permeability is very rapid. Available water capacity is
sites for residential and commercial buildings and local very low.
roads and streets because of the shrink-swell potential Most areas of this map unit are used for the
in the subsoil. The Moriah soil has moderate limitations production of pine trees or as wildlife habitat. Small
on sites for residential and commercial buildings and areas are used as pasture or have been subdivided for
local roads and streets because of the wetness. residential development. Natural vegetation consists
Constructing buildings with a reinforced foundation or a mainly of live oak, turkey oak, longleaf pine, and sand
floating slab can help to overcome the limitations pine in the overstory and saw palmetto, Spanish
affecting buildings and minimizes the hazard of bayonet, pineland threeawn, bluestems, and reindeer







74 Soil Survey


moss in the understory. This map unit generally is in the mulch, applications of fertilizer, frequent irrigation, and
Upland Hardwood Hammocks or Longleaf Pine-Turkey restricted access are generally required.
Oak Hills ecological community (24). The capability subclass is Vis. The woodland
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops, ordination symbol is 2S.
Prolonged droughtiness, low natural fertility, and soil
blowing are the main management concerns. A well 58-Boca-Holopaw, limestone substratum,
designed sprinkler irrigation system is necessary to complex. This map unit consists of a moderately deep
maintain adequate soil moisture during the growing Boca soil and a deep or very deep Holopaw soil. These
season for most cultivated crops. In many areas, poorly drained, nearly level soils are on low ridges and
however, irrigation may be difficult to install because of flatwoods. Individual areas are generally irregular in
the slope. Returning crop residue to the soil and shape and range from 3 to nearly 1,000 acres in size.
mulching can increase the content of organic matter Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
and the water-holding capacity of the topsoil. Green Typically, the surface layer of the Boca soil is black
manure crops, including grasses and legumes, should fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
be used in the crop rotation. Frequent applications of light gray fine sand to a depth of about 15 inches, light
lime and fertilizer generally are needed to improve and brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 25 inches, and
maintain fertility. Establishing windbreaks around fields brown fine sand to a depth of 29 inches. The subsoil is
and utilizing field windstrips with row crops can olive brown sandy clay loam to a depth of about 37
minimize loss of topsoil and damage to emergent plants inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 37
caused by soil blowing, inches.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The prolonged Typically, the surface layer of the Holopaw soil is
droughtiness and the low natural fertility are the main black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant layer is a mixture of gray and dark grayish brown fine
species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants, sand to a depth of about 20 inches, light brownish gray
such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow fine sand to a depth of 35 inches, pale brown fine sand
well if properly managed. Pastures should be to a depth of 41 inches, and a mixture of grayish brown
established or renovated during the wetter months, and very dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 43
Restricting grazing during extended dry periods helps to inches. The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam to a
prevent damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, depth of about 48 inches and gray fine sandy loam to a
pasture rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to depth of 65 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of
keep the pasture in good condition, about 65 inches.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is Generally, the mapped areas average about 69
low. The main management concerns are seedling percent Boca and similar soils and 22 percent Holopaw
mortality caused by the prolonged droughtiness and the and similar soils. The components of this map unit are
low fertility and the equipment limitation caused by the so intermingled that it is not practical to map them
loose, sandy surface layer. Planting adapted trees, such separately at the scale used in mapping. However, the
as sand pine, and planting during the wetter months proportions of the Boca and Holopaw soils and of the
reduce the seedling mortality rate. Establishing a close- similar soils are fairly consistent in most mapped areas.
growing cover crop before planting can help to stabilize On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Boca-
the sandy surface layer, improve trafficability, and Holopaw, limestone substratum, complex, Boca,
increase the available water capacity of the topsoil. Holopaw, and similar soils make up about 83 to 98
Using harvesting and planting machinery equipped with percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
large rubber tires helps to overcome the equipment about 2 to 17 percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the
limitation. dissimilar soils make up more than 17 percent of the
This soil has only slight limitations affecting sites for mapped areas.
septic tank absorption fields, residential buildings, and Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
local roads and streets. Taking care not to cluster Boca soil but do not have bedrock within a depth of 40
homes and septic systems minimizes the hazard of inches, have an organically stained layer that overlies
ground-water pollution. Limitations affecting commercial the subsoil or the bedrock, have a loamy subsoil within
buildings are moderate because of the slope, a depth of 20 inches, do not have a loamy subsoil, or
Limitations affecting recreational facilities are severe have a surface layer that is more than 9 inches thick.
because of the loose, sandy surface layer. Establishing Also included are soils that are similar to the Holopaw
turf grasses that are tolerant of droughtiness and traffic soil but do not have bedrock within a depth of 80
can help to stabilize the surface layer. Applications of inches; have a dark, organically stained layer that is







Levy C6unty, Florida 75


more than 2 inches thick overlying the loamy subsoil; do stocking rates, pasture rotation, and applications of
not have a loamy subsoil; or have a dark surface layer fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good condition.
that is rore than 7 inches thick. The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Boca and is moderate. The main management concerns are the
Holopaw soils in mapping occur as small areas of equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
Aripeka, Bradenton, Chobee, Hallandale, Hicoria, competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
Matmon, Placid, Popash, and Waccasassa soils, should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
Aripeka and Matmon soils are in the slightly higher mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
landscape positions. Bradenton, Hallandale, and vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
Waccasassa soils are in positions on the landscape bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Shallow
similar to those of the Boca and Holopaw soils. Chobee, surface ditches can be installed to remove excess water
Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils are in the lower more rapidly during wet periods. Limiting mechanical
landscape positions. Bradenton and Waccasassa soils operations to the drier periods reduces the equipment
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. limitation and usually results in less soil compaction and
Hallandale and Waccasassa soils have limestone damage to roots during thinning operations. Planting
bedrock within a depth of 20 inches. adapted trees, such as slash pine, reduces the seedling
In most years the seasonal high water table is within mortality rate. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing
a depth of 12 inches in the Boca and Holopaw soils for in established stands help to control competing
2 to 6 months, but it can be above the surface for 1 to 2 vegetation and to maintain accessibility. During harvest,
weeks following heavy rains or can recede to a depth of site preparation, and road-building activities, the flow of
about 60 inches during drought periods. Permeability the creeks and drainageways that remove excess water
is moderate in the Boca soil and moderately slow or from the area should not be impeded.
moderate in the Holopaw soil. Available water capacity The individual components of this map unit may differ
is very low in the Boca soil and moderate in the somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland
Holopaw soil. management. See table 7 for more detailed information
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or regarding each component.
the production of pine trees. Natural vegetation consists The wetness and the depth to bedrock are severe
mainly of slash pine, loblolly pine, sweetgum, laurel limitations on sites for septic tank absorption fields.
oak, and cabbage-palm in the overstory and bluestems, Careful site investigation is needed to locate suitably
blackberry, poison ivy, hatpin, gallberry, waxmyrtle, large areas that are deep enough over bedrock.
fetterbush, maidencane, and scattered saw palmetto in Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil material can
the understory. This map unit generally is in the North help to overcome the limitations affecting septic tank
Florida Flatwoods ecological community (24). absorption fields. The wetness is a severe limitation
These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops, affecting residential and commercial buildings, local
Wetness during the growing season and low natural roads and streets, and recreational facilities. Filling,
fertility are the main management concerns. Shallow which raises building foundations above the level of the
surface ditches can be installed to remove excess water seasonal wetness, can help to overcome the limitations
more rapidly during wet periods. Bedding is necessary affecting residential and commercial buildings. Raising
for most row crops. Proper seedbed preparation and road bases above the level of the seasonal wetness
weed control are needed to control competing and installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts
vegetation. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime can help to overcome the limitations affecting local
generally are needed to improve and maintain fertility, roads and streets. Restricting access during wet periods
Returning crop residue to the soil and using a cropping and establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant
system that includes grasses and legumes can help to of wetness and traffic can help to overcome the
maintain the content of organic matter and improve tilth. limitations affecting recreational uses.
These soils are moderately suited to pasture. The The capability subclass is Illw for the Boca soil and
wetness and the low natural fertility are the main IVw for the Holopaw soil. The woodland ordination
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant symbol is 8W for the Boca soil and 10W for the
species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface Holopaw soil.
ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as 59-Aripeka-Matmon complex. This map unit
Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if consists of a moderately deep Aripeka soil and a
properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet shallow Matmon soil. These somewhat poorly drained,
periods helps to prevent damage to plant roots. Proper nearly level soils are on low ridges. Individual areas are







76 Soil Survey


generally irregular in shape and range from 3 to nearly in the Matmon soil. Available water capacity is very low
800 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. in both soils.
Typically, the surface layer of the Aripeka soil is dark Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The the production of pine trees. Small areas are used as
subsoil is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of about cropland or support natural vegetation and serve only
12 inches and strong brown fine sandy loam to a depth as wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation consists mainly of
of 24 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about live oak, water oak, laurel oak, eastern redcedar,
24 inches. sweetgum, magnolia, slash pine, and loblolly pine in the
Typically, the surface layer of the Matmon soil is very overstory and cabbage-palm, greenbrier, yaupon,
dark grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The brackenfern, poison ivy, bluestems, and panicums in
subsurface layer is brown fine sand to a depth of about the understory. This map unit generally is in the
6 inches. The subsoil is strong brown sandy clay loam Wetland Hardwood Hammocks ecological community
to a depth of about 15 inches. Soft, unconsolidated (24).
limestone that can be dug with a spade is at a depth of These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
about 15 inches. Harder limestone bedrock is at a depth main management concerns are seasonal wetness,
of about 24 inches. which may delay planting; a thin root zone; and the
Generally, the mapped areas average about 52 shallowness to bedrock. Shallow surface ditches and
percent Aripeka and similar soils and 34 percent grassed waterways can help to remove excess water
Matmon and similar soils. The components of this map during wet periods. Because of the shallowness to
unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map bedrock, special equipment may be needed. During
them separately at the scale used in mapping. drought periods, the water table is below the bedrock,
However, the proportions of the Aripeka and Matmon and thus sufficient moisture is not available to plant
soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most roots. Special cultivation equipment may be needed
mapped areas. because of the limited depth to bedrock. Proper
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Aripeka- seedbed preparation and weed control generally are
Matmon complex, Aripeka, Matmon, and similar soils needed to control competing vegetation.
make up about 80 to 92 percent of the mapped areas. These soils are moderately suited to pasture.
Dissimilar soils make up about 8 to 20 percent. On 5 Seasonal wetness and the thin root zone are the main
percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up management concerns. They limit the periods of
more than 20 percent of the mapped areas. grazing. Restricting grazing during very wet periods or
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to plant
Aripeka and Matmon soils but have a surface layer of roots. A wide variety of plants, including Pensacola
loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam, contain an average bahiagrass (fig. 8) and hairy indigo, grow well if properly
of more than 35 percent clay throughout the subsoil, do managed. Proper stocking rates and pasture rotation
not have bedrock within a depth of 40 inches, or have generally are adequate to keep the pasture in good
bedrock within a depth of 10 inches. condition.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Aripeka and The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
Matmon soils in mapping occur as small areas of Boca, is moderate. The main management concerns are the
Bradenton, Chobee, Hicoria, Moriah, Waccasassa, and equipment limitation, plant competition, and windthrow,
Wekiva soils. Also included are small areas of rock which is caused by the seasonal wetness and the
outcrop. Chobee and Hicoria soils are in the lower shallowness to bedrock. Site preparation should include
landscape positions. Boca, Bradenton, Waccasassa, removing the larger debris to facilitate mechanical
and Wekiva soils are in the slightly lower landscape operations and chopping the woody understory
positions. Moriah soils are in positions on the landscape vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition.
similar to those of the Aripeka and Matmon soils. Because of the shallowness to bedrock, specialized
Moriah soils are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches. equipment may be needed for proper site preparation
The seasonal high water table is within crevices and and tree planting activities. Limiting mechanical
solution holes in the bedrock at a depth of 18 to 30 operations to the drier periods reduces the equipment
inches in the Aripeka soil for more than 6 months during limitation and usually results in less soil compaction and
most years. It is at a depth of 12 to 24 inches in the damage to roots during thinning operations. Prescribed
Matmon soil. Water may be perched above the loamy burning and controlled grazing in established stands
subsoil or may be ponded on the surface for several help to control competing vegetation and to maintain
days following heavy rains. Permeability is moderate or accessibility. Thinning the hardwood overstory instead
moderately slow in the Aripeka soil and moderately slow of clearcutting or leaving some rows of unharvested







Levy County, Florida 77































Figure 8.-Bahiagrass pasture in an area of Aripeka-Matmon complex.



trees as windbreaks reduces the hazard of windthrow. A roadside ditches and culverts can help to overcome
wide variety of trees, including slash pine and loblolly these limitations, but special equipment may be needed
pine, grow well if properly managed. During harvest, because of the shallow bedrock. Limitations affecting
site preparation, and road-building activities, the flow of most recreational facilities are severe because of the
the creeks and drainageways that remove excess water wetness, the depth to bedrock, and the loose, sandy
from the area should not be impeded, surface layer. Restricting access during wet periods and
The individual components of this map unit may differ establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations
management. See table 7 for more detailed information affecting recreational uses.
regarding each component. The capability subclass is IVw for the Aripeka soil
The wetness and the depth to bedrock are severe and IVs for the Matmon soil. The woodland ordination
limitations on sites for septic tank absorption fields and symbol is 10W for the Aripeka soil and 9W for the
residential buildings. Careful site investigation is needed Matmon soil.
to locate suitably large areas that are deep enough over
bedrock. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil 60-EauGallie-Holopaw complex, limestone
material can help to overcome the limitations affecting substratum. These poorly drained, deep or very deep,
septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises nearly level soils are on flatwoods. Individual areas are
building foundations above the level of the seasonal generally irregular in shape and range from 4 to nearly
wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting 3,200 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
residential and commercial buildings. The wetness and Typically, the surface layer of the EauGallie soil is
the depth to bedrock are moderate limitations affecting very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
local roads and streets. Raising road bases above the subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of about
level of the seasonal wetness and installing a system of 16 inches. The upper subsoil is black, organically







78 Soil Survey


coated fine sand to a depth of about 19 inches; brown recede to a depth of about 60 inches during drought
fine sand to a depth of 25 inches; and yellowish brown periods. Permeability is moderately slow or moderate.
fine sand to a depth of 35 inches. Below this, to a depth Available water capacity is low.
of about 55 inches, is an intervening layer of very pale Most areas of this map unit are used for the
brown fine sand. The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy production of pine trees. Other areas are used as
loam to a depth of about 61 inches. Limestone bedrock pasture, cropland, or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation
is at a depth of about 61 inches. consists mainly of slash pine in the overstory and saw
Typically, the surface layer of the Holopaw soil is palmetto, cabbage-palm, pineland threeawn, bluestems,
very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The waxmyrtle, fetterbush, and gallberry in the understory.
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of about 9 This map unit generally is in the North Florida
inches, grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 19 inches, Flatwoods ecological community (24).
and pale brown fine sand to a depth of 42 inches. The These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops.
subsoil is olive gray sandy clay loam to a depth of Wetness during the growing season and low natural
about 52 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of fertility are the main management concerns. Shallow
about 52 inches. surface ditches can be installed to remove excess water
Generally, the mapped areas average about 61 more rapidly during wet periods. Bedding is necessary
percent EauGallie and similar soils and 23 percent for most row crops. Proper seedbed preparation and
Holopaw and similar soils. The components of this map weed control are needed to control competing
unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map vegetation. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime
them separately at the scale used in mapping. generally are needed to improve and maintain fertility.
However, the proportions of the EauGallie and Holopaw Returning crop residue to the soil and using a cropping
soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most system that includes grasses and legumes can help to
mapped areas. maintain the content of organic matter and improve tilth.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as EauGallie- These soils are moderately suited to pasture. The
Holopaw complex, limestone substratum, EauGallie, wetness and the low natural fertility are the main
Holopaw, and similar soils make up about 77 to 91 management concerns. They limit the selection of plant
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface
about 9 to 23 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
the dissimilar soils make up more than 23 percent of rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as
the mapped areas. Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet
EauGallie and Holopaw soils but do not have bedrock periods helps to prevent damage to plant roots. Proper
within a depth of 80 inches; have bedrock at a depth of stocking rates, pasture rotation, and applications of
40 to 50 inches; have a sandy, organically coated fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good condition.
subsoil at a depth of 30 to 50 inches; or do not have a The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
loamy subsoil within a depth of 80 inches. Also included is moderate. The main management concerns are the
are soils that are similar to the Holopaw soil but have a equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
subsurface layer that has colors in shades of yellowish competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
brown or brownish yellow, should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
Dissimilar soils that are included with the EauGallie mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
and Holopaw soils in mapping occur as small areas of vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
Boca, Chobee, Hallandale, Hicoria, Janney, Pineda, bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Shallow
Placid, and Popash soils. Boca, Hallandale, Janney, surface ditches can be installed to remove excess water
and Pineda soils are in positions on the landscape more rapidly during wet periods. Limiting mechanical
similar to those of the EauGallie and Holopaw soils, operations to the drier periods reduces the equipment
Chobee, Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils are in the limitation and usually results in less soil compaction and
lower landscape positions. Boca, Hallandale, and damage to roots during thinning operations. Planting
Janney soils have limestone bedrock within a depth of adapted trees, such as slash pine, reduces the seedling
40 inches. Pineda and Boca soils have a loamy subsoil mortality rate. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing
within a depth of 40 inches. in established stands help to control competing
During most years the seasonal high water table is vegetation and to maintain accessibility. During harvest,
within a depth of 12 inches in the EauGallie and site preparation, and road-building activities, the flow of
Holopaw soils for 2 to 6 months, but it can be above the the creeks and drainageways that remove excess water
surface for 1 to 2 weeks following heavy rains or can from the area should not be impeded.







Levy County, Florida 79


The individual components of this map unit may differ percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland less than 7 percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the
management. See table 7 for more detailed information dissimilar soils make up more than 7 percent of the
regarding each component. mapped areas.
The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
tank absorption fields, residential and commercial Millhopper soil but do not have a seasonal high water
buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational table within a depth of 72 inches or have a dark surface
facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil layer that is more than 9 inches thick. Also included are
material can help to overcome the limitations affecting soils that are similar to the Bonneau soil but have sandy
septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises materials underlying the subsoil. have a seasonal high
building foundations above the level of the seasonal water table below a depth of 72 inches, or have a dark
wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting surface layer that is more than 9 inches thick. Also
residential and commercial buildings. Raising road included are soils that are similar to the Millhopper and
bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and Bonneau soils but have bedrock at a depth of 60 to 80
installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can inches.
help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads Dissimilar soils that are included with the Millhopper
and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and and Bonneau soils in mapping occur as small areas of
establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of Adamsville, Astatula, Candler. Levyville, Lochloosa,
wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations Orlando. Sparr, and Tavares soils and soils that are in
affecting recreational uses. the more sloping areas. Astatula. Candler. Levyville.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland Orlando. and Tavares soils are in positions on the
ordination symbol is 10W. landscape similar to those of the Millhopper and
Bonneau soils. Adamsville. Lochloosa. and Sparr soils
62-Millhopper-Bonneau complex, 1 to 5 percent are in the lower landscape positions.
slopes. These moderately well drained, very deep. The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth
nearly level to gently sloping soils are on uplands, of 42 to 72 inches in the Millhopper and Bonneau soils
Individual areas are generally irregular in shape and for 1 to 3 months during most years. Permeability is
range from 5 to nearly 1.650 acres in size. slow to moderate. Available water capacity is low.
Typically, the surface layer of the Millhopper soil is Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or
very dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 9 cropland. Other areas are used for the production of
inches. The subsurface layer is pale brown fine sand to pine trees or have been subdivided for residential
a depth of about 30 inches, very pale brown fine sand development. Natural vegetation consists mainly of live
to a depth of 42 inches, and light gray fine sand to a oak, laurel oak, loblolly pine. longleaf pine, slash pine,
depth of 74 inches. The subsoil is pale brown fine and scattered turkey oak in the overstory and
sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. blackberry, pineland threeawn, greenbrier, brackenfern,
Typically, the surface layer of the Bonneau soil is bluestems, and scattered saw palmetto and cabbage-
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The palm in the understory. This map unit generally is in the
subsurface layer is pale brown fine sand to a depth of Upland Hardwood Hammocks ecological community
about 29 inches. The subsoil is light yellowish brown (24).
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 37 inches and light These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops.
yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 60 Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and soil blowing are
inches. The underlying material is light gray fine sandy the main management concerns. A well designed
loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. sprinkler irrigation system is necessary to maintain
Generally, the mapped areas average about 53 adequate soil moisture during the growing season for
percent Millhopper and similar soils and 44 percent most cultivated crops. Returning crop residue to the soil
Bonneau and similar soils. The components of this map and mulching can increase the content of organic
unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map matter and the water-holding capacity of the topsoil.
them separately at the scale used in mapping. Green manure crops, including grasses and legumes.
However, the proportions of the Millhopper and should be used in the crop rotation. Frequent
Bonneau soils and of the similar soils are fairly applications of lime and fertilizer generally are needed
consistent in most mapped areas. to improve and maintain fertility. Establishing
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Millhopper- windbreaks around fields and utilizing field windstrips
Bonneau complex, 1 to 5 percent slopes, Millhopper, with row crops can minimize loss of topsoil and damage
Bonneau, and similar soils make up about 93 to 100 to emergent plants caused by soil blowing.







80 Soil Survey


These soils are well suited to pasture. Seasonal dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 3
droughtiness and the low natural fertility are the main inches and gray fine sand to a depth of about 8 inches.
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant The subsurface layer is fine sand. It is dark grayish
species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants, brown to a depth of about 14 inches, grayish brown to a
such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow depth of 25 inches, dark brown to a depth of 34 inches,
well if properly managed. Restricting grazing during and brown to a depth of 38 inches. The subsoil is light
extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to plant brownish gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 66 inches
roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and and light gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches
applications of fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good or more.
condition. Generally, the mapped areas average about 53
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees percent Sparr and similar soils and 33 percent
is high. The main management concerns are seedling Lochloosa and similar soils. The components of this
mortality caused by the seasonal droughtiness and the map unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to
low fertility; the equipment limitation caused by the map them separately at the scale used in mapping.
loose, sandy surface layer: and, in some areas, plant However, the proportions of the Sparr and Lochloosa
competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine, soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
and planting during the wetter months reduce the mapped areas.
seedling mortality rate. Using harvesting and planting On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Sparr-
machinery equipped with large rubber tires helps to Lochloosa complex, 1 to 5 percent slopes, Sparr,
overcome the equipment limitation. Prescribed burning Lochloosa, and similar soils make up about 75 to 97
and controlled grazing in established stands generally percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
are adequate to control competing vegetation and to about 3 to 25 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage.
maintain accessibility, the dissimilar soils make up more than 25 percent of
These soils have only slight limitations affecting sites the mapped areas.
for residential and commercial buildings and local roads Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
and streets. Seasonal wetness is a moderate limitation Sparr soil but have a seasonal high water table at a
on sites for septic tank absorption fields. Installing an depth of 42 to 72 inches. Also included are soils that
oversized septic tank absorption field and taking care are similar to the Lochloosa soil but have a seasonal
not to cluster homes and septic systems can help to high water table at a depth of 60 to 72 inches or 18 to
overcome this limitation and minimize the hazard of 30 inches. Also included are soils that are similar to the
ground-water pollution. Limitations affecting most Sparr and Lochloosa soils but have a dark, organically
recreational facilities are severe because of the loose, stained layer that overlies the subsoil; are sandy to a
sandy surface layer. Establishing species of turf grass depth of more than 80 inches; have bedrock at a depth
that are tolerant of traffic and restricting access to of 60 to 80 inches; have a dark surface layer that is
stabilized areas can help to overcome these limitations, more than 10 inches thick; or have sandy materials
Applications of mulch, applications of fertilizer, and underlying the subsoil.
irrigation generally are needed to establish turf grasses. Dissimilar soils that are included with the Sparr and
The capability subclass is Ills for the Millhopper soil Lochloosa soils in mapping occur as small areas of
and IIs for the Bonneau soil. The woodland ordination Bivans, Bushnell, Ft. Green. Hicoria, Holopaw. Mabel.
symbol is 10S for the Millhopper soil and 11S for the Micanopy, Moriah, and Popash soils. Bushnell, Bivans,
Bonneau soil. Ft. Green, Mabel, Micanopy, and Moriah soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the Sparr
65-Sparr-Lochloosa complex, 1 to 5 percent and Lochloosa soils. Hicoria, Holopaw, and Popash
slopes. These somewhat poorly drained, very deep, soils are in depressions. Bushnell, Bivans, Mabel, and
nearly level to gently sloping soils are on uplands. Micanopy soils have a loamy or clayey subsoil within a
Individual areas are generally irregular in shape and depth of 20 inches. Bivans and Ft. Green soils have a
range from 3 to nearly 1.500 acres in size. seasonal high water table within a depth of 18 inches.
Typically, the surface layer of the Sparr soil is dark Bushnell, Mabel, and Moriah soils have limestone
gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface bedrock within a depth of 80 inches.
layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 45 In most years the seasonal high water table is at a
inches and pale brown fine sand to a depth of 50 depth of 18 to 42 inches in the Sparr soil for 1 to 4
inches. The subsoil is light gray fine sandy loam to a months and is at a depth of 30 to 60 inches in the
depth of 80 inches or more. Lochloosa soil for 1 to 3 months. Permeability is slow or
Typically, the surface layer of the Lochloosa soil is moderately slow in the Sparr soil and slow in the







Levy County, Florida 81


Lochloosa soil. Available water capacity is low in the wide variety of trees, including slash pine and loblolly
Sparr soil and moderate in the Lochloosa soil. pine, grow well if properly managed.
Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or The individual components of this map unit may differ
cropland. Other areas are used for the production of somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland
pine trees or support natural vegetation and are used management. See table 7 for more detailed information
only as wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation consists regarding each component.
mainly of laurel oak, live oak, slash pine, loblolly pine, Sparr soils have moderate limitations on sites for
longleaf pine, magnolia, sweetgum, hickory, and residential and commercial buildings and local roads
eastern redcedar in the overstory and cabbage-palm, and streets because of wetness. Lochloosa soils have
blackberry, American beautyberry, greenbrier, saw slight limitations on sites for residential and commercial
palmetto, Florida holly, dogwood, bluestems, and buildings and local roads and streets. Installing a
panicums in the understory. This map unit generally is subsurface drainage system around the foundations of
in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks ecological buildings and installing shallow ditches along roadsides
community (24). can help to overcome these limitations. The wetness is
These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops. a severe limitation on sites for septic tank absorption
The main management concerns are seasonal wetness, fields. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
which may delay planting; seasonal droughtiness material generally can overcome this limitation.
caused by the low or moderate available water capacity; Limitations affecting most recreational facilities are
and low natural fertility. Shallow surface ditches and severe because of the loose, sandy surface layer.
grassed waterways can help to remove excess water Establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
during wet periods. A well designed sprinkler irrigation traffic can help to overcome these limitations.
system can help to maintain optimum soil moisture in The capability subclass is IIIw for the Sparr soil and
the root zone during drought periods. Frequent Ilw for the Lochloosa soil. The woodland ordination
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed symbol is 10W for the Sparr soil and 11A for the
to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop residue Lochloosa soil.
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses and legumes can help to maintain the content 66-Levyville-Shadeville complex, 2 to 5 percent
of organic matter and improve tilth. Green manure slopes. This map unit consists of a well drained, very
crops, including grasses and legumes, should be used deep Levyville soil and a moderately well drained, deep
in the crop rotation. or very deep Shadeville soil. These gently sloping soils
These soils are well suited to pasture. The main are on karst uplands. Individual areas are generally
management concern is the seasonal droughtiness and irregular in shape and range from 6 to 2,400 acres in
the low natural fertility. They limit the selection of plant size.
species and the periods of grazing. Adapted plants. Typically, the surface layer of the Levyville soil is
such as Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow dark brown loamy fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
well if properly managed. Restricting grazing during subsoil is brown sandy clay loam to a depth of about 54
extended dry periods helps to prevent damage to plant inches and dark yellowish brown sandy clay loam to a
roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and depth of 80 inches or more.
applications of fertilizer help to keep the pasture in good Typically, the surface layer of the Shadeville soil is
condition. dark grayish brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees subsurface layer is brown fine sand to a depth of about
is high. The main management concerns are the 15 inches and yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of
equipment limitation and plant competition caused by 26 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy
the seasonal wetness. Limiting mechanical operations loam to a depth of about 38 inches, yellowish brown
to the drier periods reduces the equipment limitation sandy clay loam to a depth of 41 inches, and gray
and usually results in less soil compaction and damage sandy clay to a depth of 63 inches. Limestone bedrock
to roots during thinning operations. Site preparation is at a depth of about 63 inches.
should include removing the larger debris to facilitate Generally, the mapped areas average about 61
mechanical operations and chopping the woody percent Levyville and similar soils and 29 percent
understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant Shadeville and similar soils. The components of this
competition. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing map unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to
in established stands generally are adequate to control map them separately at the scale used in mapping.
competing vegetation and to maintain accessibility. A However, the proportions of the Levyville and







82 Soil Survey


Shadeville soils and of the similar soils are fairly Hardwood Hammocks ecological community (24).
consistent in most mapped areas. These soils are well suited to cultivated crops. The
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Levyville- main management concern is the hazard of erosion.
Shadeville complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Levyville, Conservation practices, such as farming on the contour,
Shadeville, and similar soils make up about 77 to 100 applying a system of conservation tillage, and terracing,
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up can minimize topsoil loss caused by erosion. Proper
less than 23 percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the seedbed preparation, weed control, and applications of
dissimilar soils make up more than 23 percent of the lime and fertilizer generally can assure high yields.
mapped areas. These soils are well suited to pasture. A wide variety
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the of plants, including Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy
Levyville soil but have a surface layer of fine sand or indigo, grow well if properly managed. Proper stocking
fine sandy loam that is more than 3 inches thick, have rates and pasture rotation generally are adequate to
bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, have a seasonal keep the pasture in good condition.
high water table at a depth of 40 to 50 inches, have The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
base saturation of more than 60 percent in the lower is high. The main management concerns are the
part of the subsoil, or contain an average of less than equipment limitation caused by the loose, sandy surface
18 percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the subsoil. layer and plant competition. Using harvesting and
Also included are soils that are similar to the Shadeville planting machinery equipped with large rubber tires
soil but have bedrock at a depth of 24 to 40 inches, do helps to overcome the equipment limitation. Prescribed
not have bedrock within a depth of 72 inches, have a burning and controlled grazing in established stands
surface layer of loamy fine sand, or do not have a generally are adequate to control competing vegetation.
seasonal high water table within a depth of 72 inches. A wide variety of trees, including slash pine, loblolly
Also included are soils that are similar to the Levyville pine, and longleaf pine, grow well if properly managed.
and Shadeville soils but have a dark surface layer that The individual components of this map unit may differ
is more than 10 inches thick or contain an average of somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland
more than 35 percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the management. See table 7 for more detailed information
subsoil. regarding each component.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Levyville These soils have only slight limitations affecting sites
and Shadeville soils in mapping occur as small areas of for residential and commercial buildings and local roads
Bushnell, Lutterloh, Mabel, Micanopy, Moriah, Otela, and streets. Wetness, the restricted permeability in the
Pedro, and Tavares soils. Bushnell, Lutterloh, Mabel, subsoil, and the bedrock are moderate limitations on
Micanopy, Moriah, Otela, Pedro, and Tavares soils are sites for septic tank absorption fields. Installing an
in positions on the landscape similar to those of the oversized septic tank absorption field and taking care
Levyville and Shadeville soils. Bushnell, Lutterloh, not to cluster homes and septic systems can help to
Mabel, Micanopy, and Moriah soils are somewhat overcome these limitations and minimize the hazard of
poorly drained. Lutterloh, Otela, and Tavares soils are ground-water pollution. The Shadeville soil has severe
sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more. Bushnell and limitations on sites for most recreational facilities
Pedro soils have limestone bedrock within a depth of 40 because of the loose, sandy surface layer. The
inches. Levyville soil has slight limitations on sites for most
The seasonal high water table is below a depth of 60 recreational facilities. Establishing species of turf grass
inches in the Levyville soil throughout the year and is that are tolerant of traffic and restricting access to
perched at a depth of 48 to 72 inches in the Shadeville stabilized areas can help to overcome these limitations.
soil for 1 to 3 months during most years. Permeability is The capability subclass is lie for the Levyville soil
moderate in the Levyville soil and slow in the Shadeville and Ils for the Shadeville soil. The woodland ordination
soil. Available water capacity is moderate in both soils, symbol is 11A for the Levyville soil and 11S for the
Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or Shadeville soil.
cropland. Other areas are used for residential
development or the production of pine trees. Natural 67-Immokalee, limestone substratum-Janney
vegetation consists mainly of live oak, laurel oak, complex. This map unit consists of a deep or very deep
magnolia, loblolly pine, slash pine, eastern redcedar, Immokalee soil and a moderately deep Janney soil.
and longleaf pine in the overstory and blackberry, These poorly drained, nearly level soils are on
pineland threeawn, greenbrier, American beautyberry, flatwoods. Individual areas are generally irregular in
brackenfern, bluestems, and scattered cabbage-palm in shape and range from 2 to 160 acres in size. Slopes
the understory. This map unit generally is in the Upland range from 0 to 2 percent.







Levy County, Florida 83


Typically, the surface layer of the Immokalee soil is soils for 2 to 6 months, but it can be above the surface
very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The for 1 to 2 weeks following heavy rains or can recede to
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of about a depth of about 60 inches during drought periods.
41 inches. The subsoil is very dark brown, organically Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the
coated fine sand to a depth of about 46 inches. The Immokalee soil and moderate in the Janney soil.
underlying material is light yellowish brown fine sand Available water capacity is low in the Immokalee soil
about 3 inches thick. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of and very low in the Janney soil.
about 49 inches. Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture.
Typically, the surface layer of the Janney soil is very Other areas are used for cropland or the production of
dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The pine trees. Natural vegetation consists mainly of slash
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of about pine and scattered sweetgum in the overstory and saw
14 inches and light gray fine sand to a depth of 20 palmetto, pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle, fetterbush,
inches. The subsoil is very dark brown fine sand to a gallberry, bluestems, and scattered cabbage-palm in the
depth of about 24 inches and very dark grayish brown understory. This map unit generally is in the North
fine sand to a depth of 27 inches. Limestone bedrock is Florida Flatwoods ecological community (24).
at a depth of about 27 inches. These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Generally, the mapped areas average about 47 Wetness during the growing season, occasional
percent Immokalee and similar soils and 40 percent droughtiness, and low natural fertility are the main
Janney and similar soils. The components of this map management concerns. Shallow surface ditches can be
unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map installed to remove excess water more rapidly during
them separately at the scale used in mapping. the growing season. Bedding is necessary for most row
However, the proportions of the Immokalee and Janney crops. A well designed sprinkler irrigation system can
soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most help to maintain optimum soil moisture during drought
mapped areas. periods. Proper seedbed preparation and weed control
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Immokalee, are needed to control competing vegetation. Frequent
limestone substratum-Janney complex, Immokalee, applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed
Janney, and similar soils make up about 80 to 95 to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop residue
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
about 5 to 20 percent. On 10 percent of the acreage, grasses and legumes can help to maintain the content
the dissimilar soils make up more than 20 percent of of organic matter and improve tilth.
the mapped areas. These soils are moderately suited to pasture. The
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the wetness and the low natural fertility are the main
Immokalee and Janney soils but have a loamy subsoil management concerns. They limit the selection of plant
that overlies the bedrock, do not have bedrock within a species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface
depth of 72 inches, or do not have an organically ditches can be installed to remove excess water more
coated subsoil within a depth of 50 inches. Also rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as
included are soils that are similar to the Janney soil but Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if
do not have a subsurface layer or have an organically properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet
coated subsoil at a depth of 30 to 38 inches. periods or extended dry periods helps to prevent
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Immokalee damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture
and Janney soils in mapping occur as small areas of rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the
Aripeka, Bradenton, Broward, Hallandale, Hicoria, pasture in good condition.
Lutterloh, Moriah, Placid, Popash, Seaboard, and The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
Wekiva soils. Aripeka, Broward, Lutterloh, Moriah, and is moderate. The main management concerns are the
Seaboard soils are in the slightly higher landscape equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant
positions. Bradenton, Hallandale, and Wekiva soils are competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation
in positions on the landscape similar to those of the should include removing the larger debris to facilitate
Immokalee and Janney soils. Hicoria, Placid, and mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory
Popash soils are in depressions. Bradenton and Wekiva vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and
soils have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Limiting
Hallandale soils have limestone bedrock within a depth mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the
of 20 inches, equipment limitation and usually results in less soil
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a compaction and damage to roots during thinning
depth of 6 to 18 inches in the Immokalee and Janney operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,







84 Soil Survey


reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning map unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to
and controlled grazing in established stands help to map them separately at the scale used in mapping.
control competing vegetation and to maintain However, the proportions of the Myakka and Immokalee
accessibility. soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
The wetness and the depth to bedrock are severe mapped areas.
limitations on sites for septic tank absorption fields. On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Myakka,
Careful site investigation is needed to locate suitably limestone substratum-lmmokalee complex, Myakka,
large areas that are deep enough over bedrock. Immokalee, and similar soils make up about 78 to 100
Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil material can percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
help to overcome the limitations affecting septic tank less than 22 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage, the
absorption fields. The wetness is a severe limitation dissimilar soils make up more than 22 percent of the
affecting residential and commercial buildings, local mapped areas.
roads and streets, and recreational facilities. Filling, Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
which raises building foundations above the level of the Myakka and Immokalee soils but have a loamy subsoil
seasonal wetness, can help to overcome the limitations below a depth of 40 inches, do not have an organically
affecting residential and commercial buildings. Raising coated subsoil within a depth of 50 inches, or have an
road bases above the level of the seasonal wetness organically coated subsoil within a depth of 20 inches.
and installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts Also included are soils that are similar to the Myakka
can help to overcome the limitations affecting local soil but have a dark surface layer that is more than 8
roads and streets. Restricting access during wet periods inches thick or do not have bedrock within a depth of 80
and establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant inches. Also included are soils that are similar to the
of wetness and traffic can help to overcome the Immokalee soil but have bedrock at a depth of 40 to 80
limitations affecting recreational uses. inches.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland Dissimilar soils that are included with the Myakka
ordination symbol is 8W. and Immokalee soils in mapping occur as small areas
of Boca, Bradenton, Broward, Hallandale, Hicoria,
68-Myakka, limestone substratum-lmmokalee Janney, Lutterloh, Moriah, Pineda, Placid, Popash, and
complex. This map unit consists of a deep or very deep Seaboard soils. Broward, Lutterloh, Moriah, and
Myakka soil and a very deep Immokalee soil. These Seaboard soils are in the slightly higher landscape
poorly drained, nearly level soils are on flatwoods. positions. Boca, Bradenton, Hallandale, Janney, and
Individual areas are generally irregular in shape and Pineda soils are in positions on the landscape similar to
range from 2 to nearly 800 acres in size. Slopes range those of the Myakka and Immokalee soils. Hicoria,
from 0 to 2 percent. Placid, and Popash soils are in depressions. Boca,
Typically, the surface layer of the Myakka soil is very Bradenton, Hallandale, and Pineda soils do not have an
dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The organically stained subsoil. Boca, Hallandale, and
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of about Janney soils have limestone bedrock within a depth of
24 inches. The subsoil is very dark brown, organically 40 inches.
coated fine sand to a depth of about 35 inches and dark In most years the seasonal high water table is at a
brown fine sand to a depth of 40 inches. The underlying depth of 6 to 18 inches in the Myakka and Immokalee
material is light yellowish brown fine sand. Limestone soils for 2 to 6 months, but it can be above the surface
bedrock is at a depth of about 54 inches. for 1 to 2 weeks following heavy rains or can recede to
Typically, the surface layer of the Immokalee soil is a depth of about 60 inches during drought periods.
very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid in the
subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of about Myakka soil and moderate in the Immokalee soil.
22 inches and light gray fine sand to a depth of 37 Available water capacity is low in both soils.
inches. The subsoil is black, organically coated fine Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture.
sand to a depth of about 41 inches, dark brown fine Other areas are used for cropland or the production of
sand to a depth of 54 inches, and dark brown fine sand pine trees. Natural vegetation consists mainly of slash
to a depth of 70 inches. The underlying material is light pine, longleaf pine, and scattered sweetgum in the
yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or overstory and saw palmetto, pineland threeawn,
more. waxmyrtle, fetterbush, gallberry, bluestems, and
Generally, the mapped areas average about 48 scattered cabbage-palm in the understory. This map
percent Myakka and similar soils and 40 percent unit generally is in the North Florida Flatwoods
Immokalee and similar soils. The components of this ecological community (24).







Levy County, Florida 85


These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. help to overcome the limitations affecting local roads
Wetness during the growing season, occasional and streets. Restricting access during wet periods and
droughtiness, and low natural fertility are the main establishing species of turf grass that are tolerant of
management concerns. Shallow surface ditches can be wetness and traffic can help to overcome the limitations
installed to remove excess water more rapidly during affecting recreational uses.
the growing season. Bedding is necessary for most row The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
crops. A well designed sprinkler irrigation system can ordination symbol is 8W.
help to maintain optimum soil moisture during drought
periods. Proper seedbed preparation and weed control 69-Broward-Lutterloh, limestone substratum,
are needed to control competing vegetation. Frequent complex. This map unit consists of a moderately deep
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed Broward soil and a very deep Lutterloh soil. These
to improve and maintain fertility. Returning crop residue somewhat poorly drained, nearly level soils are on low
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes ridges. Individual areas are generally irregular in shape
grasses and legumes can help to maintain the content and range from 2 to nearly 2,000 acres in size. Slopes
of organic matter and improve tilth. range from 0 to 2 percent.
These soils are moderately suited to pasture. The Typically, the surface layer of the Broward soil is
wetness and the low natural fertility are the main dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying
management concerns. They limit the selection of plant material is a mixture of light yellowish brown and
species and the periods of grazing. Shallow surface brownish yellow fine sand to a depth of about 10 inches
ditches can be installed to remove excess water more and yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 25 inches.
rapidly during wet periods. Adapted plants, such as Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 25 inches.
Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if Typically, the surface layer of the Lutterloh soil is
properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet dark gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
periods or extended dry periods helps to prevent subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of
damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture about 35 inches and brown fine sand to a depth of 52
rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the inches. The subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy
pasture in good condition. loam to a depth of 61 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees depth of about 61 inches.
is moderate. The main management concerns are the Generally, the mapped areas average about 57
equipment limitation, seedling mortality, and plant percent Broward and similar soils and 35 percent
competition caused by the wetness. Site preparation Lutterloh and similar soils. The components of this map
should include removing the larger debris to facilitate unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map
mechanical operations, chopping the woody understory them separately at the scale used in mapping.
vegetation to reduce immediate plant competition, and However, the proportions of the Broward and Lutterloh
bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate. Limiting soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the mapped areas.
equipment limitation and usually results in less soil On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Broward-
compaction and damage to roots during thinning Lutterloh, limestone substratum, complex, Broward,
operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine, Lutterloh, and similar soils make up about 87 to 98
reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
and controlled grazing in established stands help to about 2 to 13 percent. On 5 percent of the acreage, the
control competing vegetation and to maintain dissimilar soils make up more than 13 percent of the
accessibility, mapped areas.
The wetness is a severe limitation on sites for septic Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
tank absorption fields, residential and commercial Broward soil but have bedrock at a depth of 12 to 20
buildings, local roads and streets, and recreational inches, have a loamy or organically stained subsoil that
facilities. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil overlies the bedrock, or have bedrock at a depth of 40
material can help to overcome the limitations affecting to 60 inches. Also included are soils that are similar to
septic tank absorption fields. Filling, which raises the Lutterloh soil but are sandy to a depth of 80 inches
building foundations above the level of the seasonal or more, have an organically stained subsoil, have a
wetness, can help to overcome the limitations affecting dark surface layer that is more than 9 inches thick, or
residential and commercial buildings. Raising road have bedrock at a depth of 40 to 60 inches.
bases above the level of the seasonal wetness and Dissimilar soils that are included with the Broward
installing a system of roadside ditches and culverts can and Lutterloh soils in mapping occur as small areas of







86 Soil Survey


Boca, Bushnell, Hallandale, Hicoria, Holopaw, Placid, equipment limitation and plant competition caused by
Pompano, Popash, Orsino, and Otela soils. Also the seasonal wetness and seedling mortality caused by
included are soils that are in positions on the landscape the very low available water capacity and the low
similar to those of the Broward and Lutterloh soils but fertility. Limiting mechanical operations to the drier
have bedrock within a depth of 12 inches. Bushnell soils periods reduces the equipment limitation and usually
are in positions on the landscape similar to those of the results in less soil compaction and damage to roots
Broward and Lutterloh soils. Orsino and Otela soils are during thinning operations. Site preparation should
in the slightly higher landscape positions. Boca, include removing the larger debris to facilitate
Hallandale, Holopaw, and Pompano soils are in the mechanical operations and chopping the woody
slightly lower landscape positions. Hicoria, Placid, and understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant
Popash soils are in depressions. Bushnell soils have a competition. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine,
clayey subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to and controlled grazing in established stands generally
30 inches in the Broward and Lutterloh soils for 2 to 6 are adequate to control competing vegetation and to
months during most years. Permeability is rapid in the maintain accessibility.
Broward soil and moderate in the Lutterloh soil. Wetness is a moderate limitation affecting sites for
Available water capacity is very low in both soils. residential and commercial buildings and local roads
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or and streets. Installing a subsurface drainage system
the production of pine trees. Other areas have been around the foundations of buildings and installing
subdivided for residential development. Natural shallow ditches along roadsides can help to overcome
vegetation consists mainly of live oak, slash pine, and this limitation. The wetness and the moderate depth to
loblolly pine in the overstory and pineland threeawn, bedrock are severe limitations on sites for septic tank
saw palmetto, gallberry, blackberry, bluestems, running absorption fields. Careful site investigation is needed to
oak, cabbage-palm, and reindeer moss in the locate suitably large areas that are deep enough over
understory. This map unit generally is in the North bedrock. Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil
Florida Flatwoods ecological community (24). material can help to overcome the limitations.
These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. The Limitations affecting recreational facilities are severe
main management concerns are seasonal wetness, because of the loose, sandy surface layer. Establishing
which may delay planting; seasonal droughtiness
which may delay planting; seasonal droughtiness species of turf grass that are tolerant of traffic can help
caused by the very low available water capacity; and .
to overcome these limitations.
low natural fertility. Shallow surface ditches and grassed he aailit s lass is the a sil
The capability subclass is IVw for the Broward soil
waterways can help to remove excess water during wet ad w for the oo wrd o
and l1lw for the Lutterloh soil. The woodland ordination
periods. A well designed sprinkler irrigation system can
help to maintain optimum soil moisture in the root zones 9W for the Broward so and for the
during drought periods. Frequent applications of Lutterloh soil.
fertilizer and lime generally are needed to improve and
maintain fertility. Returning crop residue to the soil and 70-Hallandale-Boca-Holopaw complex. This map
using a cropping system that includes grasses and unit consists of a shallow or very shallow Hallandale
legumes can help to maintain the content of organic soil, a moderately deep Boca soil, and a very deep
matter and improve tilth. Green manure crops, including Holopaw soil. These poorly drained, nearly level soils
grasses and legumes, should be used in the crop are on low ridges and flatwoods. Individual areas are
rotation. generally irregular in shape and range from 2 to nearly
These soils are moderately suited to pasture. The 2,200 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
main management concerns are the seasonal Typically, the surface layer of the Hallandale soil is
droughtiness and the low natural fertility. They limit the light gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
selection of plant species and the periods of grazing. subsurface layer is white fine sand to a depth of about
Adapted plants, such as Pensacola bahiagrass and 12 inches. The subsoil is very pale brown fine sand to a
hairy indigo, grow well if properly managed. Restricting depth of 19 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of
grazing during extended dry periods helps to prevent about 19 inches.
damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture Typically, the surface layer of the Boca soil is dark
rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
pasture in good condition. layer is white fine sand to a depth of about 10 inches
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees and very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 21 inches.
is moderate. The main management concerns are the The subsoil is light brownish gray sandy clay loam to a








Levy County, Florida 87


depth of about 25 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a moderate in the Boca soil, and moderately slow or
depth of about 25 inches. moderate in the Holopaw soil. Available water capacity
Typically, the surface layer of the Holopaw soil is is very low in the Hallandale and Boca soils and low in
very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The the Holopaw soil.
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or
about 28 inches and very pale brown fine sand to a the production of pine trees. Natural vegetation consists
depth of 52 inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam mainly of slash pine. loblolly pine. sweetgum, laurel
to a depth of 80 inches or more. oak. and cabbage-palm in the overstory and bluestems,
Generally, the mapped areas average about 35 blackberry. poison ivy, hatpin, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
percent Hallandale and similar soils, 28 percent Boca fetterbush. maidencane, and scattered saw palmetto in
and similar soils, and 27 percent Holopaw and similar the understory. This map unit generally is in the North
soils. The components of this map unit are so Florida Flatwoods ecological community (24).
intermingled that it is not practical to map them These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
separately at the scale used in mapping. However, the main management concerns are the shallowness to
proportions of the Hallandale. Boca. and Holopaw soils bedrock, low natural fertility, and wetness, which may
and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most delay planting. Bedding and installing surface ditches
mapped areas. generally are needed if row crops are grown, but
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Hallandale- special equipment may be needed because of the
Boca-Holopaw complex, Hallandale. Boca. Holopaw. limited depth to bedrock. During drought periods, the
and similar soils make up about 75 to 100 percent of water table is below the bedrock, and thus sufficient
the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up less than moisture is not available to plant roots. Special
25 percent. On 20 percent of the acreage. the dissimilar cultivation equipment may be needed because of the
soils make up more than 25 percent of the mapped limited depth to bedrock. Proper seedbed preparation
areas. and weed control are needed to control competing
Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the vegetation. Frequent applications of lime and fertilizer
Hallandale soil but have a continuous, loamy subsoil generally are needed to improve and maintain fertility.
that overlies the bedrock; have a dark surface layer that Returning crop residue to the soil and using a cropping
is more than 7 inches thick; or have bedrock within a system that includes grasses and legumes can help to
depth of 4 inches. Also included are soils that are maintain the content of organic matter and improve tilth.
similar to the Boca soil but do not have a loamy subsoil These soils are moderately suited to pasture. The
at least 4 inches thick, have a loamy subsoil within a wetness, a thin root zone, and the low natural fertility
depth of 20 inches, or have bedrock at a depth of 40 to are the main management concerns. They limit the
80 inches. Also included are soils that are similar to the selection of plant species and the periods of grazing.
Holopaw soil but have bedrock at a depth of 40 to 80 Shallow surface ditches can help to remove excess
inches, have a dark surface layer that is more than 7 water more rapidly during wet periods, but special
inches thick, or do not have a loamy subsoil within a equipment may be needed because of the limited depth
depth of 80 inches. Also included are soils that are to bedrock. During drought periods, the water table is
similar to the Hallandale, Boca, and Holopaw soils but below the bedrock, and thus sufficient moisture is not
have a dark, organically stained subsoil that is more available to plant roots. Adapted plants, such as
than 2 inches thick. Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, grow well if
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Hallandale. properly managed. Restricting grazing during very wet
Boca, and Holopaw soils in mapping occur as small periods or extended dry periods helps to prevent
areas of Adamsville, Broward, Hicoria, Lutterloh. damage to plant roots. Proper stocking rates, pasture
Moriah, Placid, Popash, and Seaboard soils. Also rotation, and applications of fertilizer help to keep the
included are small areas of rock outcrop. Hicoria. pasture in good condition.
Placid, and Popash soils are in depressions. The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
Adamsville, Broward, Lutterloh, Moriah. and Seaboard is moderate. The main management concerns are the
soils are in the slightly higher landscape positions. equipment limitation, seedling mortality, plant
In most years the seasonal high water table is within competition, and windthrow, which is caused by the
a depth of 12 inches in the Hallandale, Boca, and wetness and the shallowness to bedrock. Site
Holopaw soils for 2 to 6 months, but it can be above the preparation should include removing the larger debris to
surface for 1 to 2 weeks following heavy rains or can facilitate mechanical operations, chopping the woody
recede to a depth of about 60 inches during drought understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant
periods. Permeability is rapid in the Hallandale soil. competition, and bedding to reduce the seedling







88 Soil Survey


mortality rate. Shallow surface ditches can be installed Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
to remove excess water more rapidly during wet brown loamy fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
periods. Because of the shallowness to bedrock, subsurface layer is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand
specialized equipment may be needed for proper site to a depth of about 14 inches. The subsoil is sandy clay
preparation and tree planting activities. Limiting loam. It is yellowish brown to a depth of about 18
mechanical operations to the drier periods reduces the inches, brownish yellow to a depth of 48 inches, and
equipment limitation and usually results in less soil gray to a depth of 58 inches. The underlying material is
compaction and damage to roots during thinning light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or
operations. Planting adapted trees, such as slash pine, more.
reduces the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Pender
and controlled grazing in established stands help to loamy fine sand, Pender and similar soils make up
control competing vegetation and to maintain about 75 to 94 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
accessibility. Thinning the hardwood overstory instead soils make up about 6 to 25 percent. On 10 percent of
of clearcutting or leaving some rows of unharvested the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up more than 25
trees as windbreaks reduces the hazard of windthrow. percent of the mapped areas.
During harvest, site preparation, and road-building Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
activities, the flow of the creeks and drainageways that Pender soil but have a seasonal high water table at a
remove excess water from the area should not be depth of 30 to 60 inches, contain less than 18 percent
impeded. clay in the upper 20 inches of the subsoil, have average
The individual components of this map unit may differ content of clay in the upper part of the subsoil that is
somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland less than twice that of the overlying layer, have a
management. See table 7 for more detailed information subsoil that does not have mottles in shades of gray
regarding each component. within the upper 10 inches, have a strong brown or
The wetness and the depth to bedrock are severe reddish yellow subsoil that does not decrease in content
limitations on sites for septic tank absorption fields, of clay by as much as 20 percent within a depth of 60
residential and commercial buildings, local roads and inches, have bedrock at a depth of 60 to 80 inches,
streets, and recreational facilities. Careful site have a surface layer of fine sand or fine sandy loam,
investigation is needed to locate suitably large areas have a subsurface layer of fine sand, or have a loamy
that are deep enough over bedrock. Installing a filtering subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
mound of suitable soil material can help to overcome Dissimilar soils that are included with the Pender soil
the limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields. in mapping occur as small areas of Bradenton,
Filling, which raises building foundations above the level Bushnell, Hague, Hicoria, Levyville, Mabel, Pineda,
of the seasonal wetness, can help to overcome the Popash, and Sparr soils. Hague and Levyville soils are
limitations affecting residential and commercial in the slightly higher landscape positions. Bushnell,
buildings. Raising road bases above the level of the Mabel, and Sparr soils are in positions on the
seasonal wetness and installing a system of roadside landscape similar to those of the Pender soil. Bradenton
ditches and culverts can help to overcome the and Pineda soils are in the slightly lower landscape
limitations affecting local roads and streets; however, positions. Hicoria and Popash soils are in depressions.
the installation of ditches may require the use of special Bushnell and Mabel soils have a clayey subsoil and
equipment because of the shallowness to bedrock. have limestone bedrock within a depth of 80 inches.
Restricting access during wet periods and establishing Sparr soils are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
species of turf grass that are tolerant of wetness and In most years the seasonal high water table is at a
traffic can help to overcome the limitations affecting depth of 18 to 30 inches in the Pender soil for 1 to 3
recreational uses. months, but it can recede to a depth of about 60 inches
The capability subclass is IVw for the Hallandale and during drought periods. Permeability is moderate.
Holopaw soils and Illw for the Boca soil. The woodland Available water capacity is moderate.
ordination symbol is 8W for the Hallandale and Boca Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or
soils and 10W for the Holopaw soil. the production of nursery stock. Other areas are used
for the production of pine trees or support natural
71-Pender loamy fine sand. This somewhat poorly vegetation and are used only as wildlife habitat. Natural
drained, very deep, nearly level soil is on uplands. It vegetation consists mainly of live oak, laurel oak,
occurs as one area that is irregular in shape and is magnolia, sweetgum, loblolly pine, slash pine, cedar,
nearly 1,000 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 and longleaf pine in the overstory and blackberry,
percent. pineland threeawn, greenbrier, American beautyberry,







Levy County, Florida 89


brackenfern, bluestems, and scattered cabbage-palm subsurface layer is brown fine sand to a depth of about
and saw palmetto in the understory. This map unit 15 inches. The subsoil is strong brown sandy clay loam
generally is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks to a depth of about 30 inches, strong brown fine sandy
ecological community (24). loam to a depth of 55 inches, and a mixture of strong
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The brown and brownish yellow loamy fine sand to a depth
main management concern is seasonal wetness, which of 65 inches. The underlying material is white fine sand
may delay planting. Shallow surface ditches and to a depth of 80 inches or more.
grassed waterways can help to remove excess water Typically, the surface layer of the Hague soil is dark
during wet periods. Proper seedbed preparation, weed grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
control, and applications of lime and fertilizer generally subsurface layer is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth
can assure high yields. of about 24 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown
This soil is well suited to pasture. A wide variety of sandy clay loam to a depth of about 36 inches, a
plants, including Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy indigo, mixture of yellowish brown and brownish yellow fine
grow well if properly managed. Proper stocking rates sandy loam to a depth of 50 inches, and a mixture of
and pasture rotation generally are adequate to keep the yellowish brown and brownish yellow loamy fine sand to
pasture in good condition. a depth of 60 inches. The underlying material is very
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is pale brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
high. The main management concerns are the Generally, the mapped areas average about 61
equipment limitation and plant competition caused by percent Levyville and similar soils and 35 percent
the seasonal wetness. Limiting mechanical operations Hague and similar soils. The components of this map
to the drier periods reduces the equipment limitation unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map
and usually results in less soil compaction and damage them separately at the scale used in mapping.
to roots during thinning operations. Site preparation However, the proportions of the Levyville and Hague
should include removing the larger debris to facilitate soils and of the similar soils are fairly consistent in most
mechanical operations and chopping the woody mapped areas.
understory vegetation to reduce immediate plant On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Levyville-
competition. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing Hague complex, Levyville, Hague, and similar soils
in established stands generally are adequate to control make up about 87 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
competing vegetation and to maintain accessibility. A Dissimilar soils make up less than 13 percent. On 5
wide variety of trees, including slash and loblolly pine. percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up
grow well if properly managed. more than 13 percent of the mapped areas.
The seasonal wetness is a moderate limitation Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
affecting sites for residential and commercial buildings Levyville soil but have a surface layer of loamy fine
and local roads and streets. Installing a subsurface sand or fine sandy loam, have a seasonal high water
drainage system around the foundations of buildings table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches, have base
and installing shallow ditches along roadsides can help saturation of more than 60 percent in the lower part of
to overcome this limitation. The wetness is a severe the subsoil, or contain less than 18 percent clay in the
limitation on sites for septic tank absorption fields. upper 20 inches of the subsoil. Also included are soils
Installing a filtering mound of suitable soil material that are similar to the Hague soil but have a seasonal
generally can overcome this limitation. Limitations high water table at a depth of 40 to 72 inches. Also
affecting recreational facilities are moderate because of included are soils that are similar to the Levyville and
the seasonal wetness. Establishing species of turf grass Hague soils but that have base saturation of less than
that are tolerant of traffic and restricting access during 35 percent in the lower part of the subsoil, that have
wet periods can help to overcome these limitations, limestone below a depth of 60 inches, or in which the
The capability class is IIw. The woodland ordination content of clay in the subsoil does not decrease by as
symbol is 11W. much as 20 percent within a depth of 60 inches.
Dissimilar soils that are included with the Levyville
72-Levyville-Hague complex. These well drained, and Hague soils in mapping occur as small areas of
very deep, nearly level soils are on uplands. Individual Adamsville, Candler, Hicoria, Lochloosa, Millhopper,
areas are generally irregular in shape and range from Otela, Pender, Placid, Popash, Sparr, and Tavares
35 to nearly 2,000 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to soils. Candler, Millhopper, Otela, and Tavares soils are
2 percent. in positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Typically, the surface layer of the Levyville soil is Levyville and Hague soils. Adamsville, Lochloosa,
dark grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The Pender, and Sparr soils are in the slightly lower







90 Soil Survey


landscape positions. Hicoria, Placid, and Popash soils areas can help to overcome these limitations.
are in depressions. Candler, Millhopper, Otela, and The capability class is I for the Levyville soil and IIs
Tavares soils are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or for the Hague soil. The woodland ordination symbol is
more. 11A for both soils.
Throughout the year, the seasonal high water table is
below a depth of 60 inches in the Levyville soil and 73-Orlando fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes. This
below a depth of 72 inches in the Hague soil. well drained, very deep, nearly level and gently
Permeability is moderate in both soils. Available water undulating soil is on uplands. Individual areas are
capacity is moderate. generally irregular in shape and range from 2 to nearly
Most areas of this map unit are used for pasture or 5,200 acres in size.
the production of nursery stock. Natural vegetation Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
consists mainly of live oak, laurel oak, magnolia, loblolly sand about 11 inches thick. The underlying material is
pine, slash pine, cedar, and longleaf pine in the fine sand. It is dark brown to a depth of about 28
overstory and blackberry, pineland threeawn, inches, dark yellowish brown to a depth of 34 inches.
greenbrier, dogwood, American beautyberry, strong brown to a depth of 72 inches, and light
brackenfern, bluestems, and scattered cabbage-palm in yellowish brown to a depth of 80 inches or more.
the understory. This map unit generally is in the Upland On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Orlando
Hardwood Hammocks ecological community (24). fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes, Orlando and similar
These soils are well suited to cultivated crops. Proper soils make up about 91 to 100 percent of the mapped
seedbed preparation, weed control, and applications of areas. Dissimilar soils make up less than 9 percent. On
lime and fertilizer generally can assure high yields. 5 percent of the acreage, the dissimilar soils make up
Returning crop residue to the soil and using a cropping more than 9 percent of the mapped areas.
system that includes grasses and legumes can help to Included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
maintain the content of organic matter and improve tilth. Orlando soil but do not have a dark surface layer more
These soils are well suited to pasture. A wide variety than 10 inches thick, have slopes of more than 5
of plants, including Pensacola bahiagrass and hairy percent, or contain less than 5 percent or more than 10
indigo, grow well if properly managed. Proper stocking percent silt and clay between depths of 10 and 40
rates and pasture rotation generally are adequate to inches.
keep the pasture in good condition. Dissimilar soils that are included with the Orlando soil
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees in mapping occur as small areas of Adamsville, Apopka,
is high. The main management concern is plant Bonneau, Millhopper, Placid, Popash, Sparr, and
competition. Prescribed burning and controlled grazing Tavares soils. Apopka, Bonneau, Millhopper, and
in established stands generally are adequate to control Tavares soils are in positions on the landscape similar
competing vegetation. A wide variety of trees, including to those of the Orlando soil. Adamsville and Sparr soils
slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine, grow well if are in the slightly lower landscape positions. Placid and
properly managed. Popash soils are in depressions. Apopka, Bonneau, and
The individual components of this map unit may differ Millhopper soils have a loamy subsoil within a depth of
somewhat in the characteristics that affect woodland 80 inches. Bonneau, Millhopper, and Tavares soils are
management. See table 7 for more detailed information moderately well drained.
regarding each component. The seasonal high water table is below a depth of 72
These soils have only slight limitations affecting sites inches in the Orlando soil throughout the year.
for residential and commercial buildings and local roads Permeability is rapid. Available water capacity is low.
and streets. Levyville soils have moderate limitations on Most areas of this map unit are used as pasture or
sites for septic tank absorption fields because of the cropland. Other areas are used for residential
moderate permeability in the subsoil and seasonal development or the production of pine trees. Natural
wetness. Hague soils have slight limitations on sites for vegetation consists mainly of live oak, laurel oak,
septic tank absorption fields. Installing an oversized bluejack oak, loblolly pine, slash pine, longleaf pine,
septic tank absorption field and taking care not to and scattered turkey oak in the overstory and
cluster homes and septic systems can help to overcome blackberry, pineland threeawn, Spanish bayonet,
these limitations and minimize the hazard of ground- brackenfern, bluestems, and scattered saw palmetto in
water pollution. Limitations affecting most recreational the understory. This map unit generally is in the Upland
facilities are severe because of the loose, sandy Hardwood Hammocks ecological community (24).
surface layer. Establishing species of turf grass that are This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
tolerant of traffic and restricting access to stabilized Droughtiness and soil blowing are the main




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