• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Madison County...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Prime farmland
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Madison County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025719/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Madison County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 160 p., 3, 94 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Services
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1990 [i.e. 1991]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Madison County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Madison County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 101).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 91-249-P.
General Note: "Issued October 1990"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025719
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001623220
notis - AHP7866
oclc - 23461017

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Madison County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    How this survey was made
        Page 7
        Map unit composition
            Page 8
        Use of ground-penetrating radar
            Page 9
        Confidence limits of soil survey information
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
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        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Prime farmland
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 59
        Crops and pasture
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 62
            Page 63
        Recreation
            Page 64
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 65
        Engineering
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
    Soil properties
        Page 71
        Engineering index properties
            Page 71
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 72
        Water features
            Page 73
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
        Engineering index test data
            Page 77
            Page 78
    Classification of the soils
        Page 79
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 79
        Alaga series
            Page 79
        Albany series
            Page 80
        Alpin series
            Page 81
        Blanton series
            Page 81
        Bonifay series
            Page 82
        Cantey series
            Page 83
        Chipley series
            Page 83
        Dorovan series
            Page 84
        Esto series
            Page 85
        Eunola series
            Page 85
        Faceville series
            Page 86
        Fuquay series
            Page 87
        Goldsboro series
            Page 88
        Kenansville series
            Page 88
        Lakeland series
            Page 89
        Lovett series
            Page 90
        Lucy series
            Page 90
        Mascotte series
            Page 91
        Nankin series
            Page 92
        Ocilla series
            Page 92
        Orangeburg series
            Page 93
        Pamlico series
            Page 94
        Pelham series
            Page 95
        Plummer series
            Page 95
        Sapelo series
            Page 96
        Surrency series
            Page 97
        Troup series
            Page 98
    Formation of the soils
        Page 99
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 99
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 100
    Reference
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Glossary
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Tables
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
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        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
    General soil map
        Page 161
    Index to map sheets
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
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Full Text



United States
Department of
Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil
Science Department; and
Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services


Soil Survey of

Madison County,

Florida


^










Madison County, Florida


Highly Erodible Land

In this section, highly erodible and potentially highly erodible land is defined and discussed, and the
highly erodible and potentially highly erodible soils in Madison County are listed.

Highly erodible land determinations are an important part of the implementation of the 1985 Food
Security Act. Farmers producing agricultural commodities on highly erodible land without a
conservation plan may lose eligibility for USDA farm program benefits.

The basis for identifying highly erodible land is the erodibility index. The erodibility index of a soil is
determined by dividing the potential erodibility for each soil by the soil loss tolerance (T) value
established for the soil. The "T" value represents the maximum annual rate of soil erosion that could
take place without causing a decline in long term productivity.

A soil map unit is highly erodible if its erodibility index is eight (8) or more. Potentially highly erodible
soils require an on-site visit to determine the measured slope length and steepness of slope of the soil
map unit at that particular site, before the erodibility index can be calculated.

The following map units make up the highly erodible and potentially highly erodible land in Madison
County. The location of each map unit is shown on the detailed soil maps below .The extent of each
unit is given in table"A". The soil qualities that affect use and management are described in the section
"Detailed Soil Map Units."

HIGHLY ERODIBLE SOIL MAP UNITS OF MADISON COUNTY
18 Orangeburg loamy sand, 8-12 percent slopes
56 Nankin loamy sand, 5-8 percent slopes
57 Nankin sandy loam, eroded, 8-12 percent slopes
67 Udorthents, loamy

POTENTIALLY HIGHLY ERODIBLE SOIL MAP UNITS OF MADISON COUNTY
6 Blanton sand, 5-8 percent slopes
11 Lakeland sand, 5-8 percent slopes
14 Lucy sand, 5-8 percent slopes
17 Orangeburg loamy sand, 5-8 percent slopes
27 Troup sand, 5-8 percent slopes
38 Goldsboro loamy sand, 2-5 percent slopes
55 Esto fine sandy loam, 2-5 percent slopes
62 Alaga loamy sand, 5-8 percent slopes
63 Alaga loamy sand, 8-12 percent slopes
66 Lovett sand, 5-8 percent slopes
71 Faceville loamy fine sand, 2-5 percent slopes
72 Faceville loamy fine sand, 5-8 percent slopes


SOIL SURVEY





Madison County, Florida


Hydric Soils

In this Section, Hydric Soils are defined and discussed, and the Hydric Soils in Madison County are
listed. Hydric soils are one of several important groups of soil defined by the U. S. Department of
Agriculture. It is of major importance in implementing parts of the food and Security Act of 1985, and in
land use regulations such as the Warren S. Henderson Wetlands Legislation enforced by the Florida
Department of Environmental Regulations. The U. S. Department of Agriculture recognizes that
government at local, state, and federal levels, as well as individuals, must encourage the wise use of
wetlands because of their benefits to wildlife groundwater recharge, natural filtering abilities,.and buffer
areas, to name a few.

Hydric soils are those soils that in their natural condition are saturated, flooded, ponded long enough
during the growing season* to develop anaerobic conditions that favor the growth and regeneration of
hydrophytic vegetation.

Hydric soil map units must meet the following criteria:
1. Histosols; or
2. Soils that are subject to the following during 25 percent or more of the growing season:

a. frequent flooding of long or very long duration**; or
b. ponding; or
c. either a perched or and apparent water of 6 inches or less; or
d. any combination or a,b, and/or c.

*Growing season: March- October
** Long or very long duration is more than 7 days

Hydric soil map units in Madison County are:

21-Cantey fine sandy loam
22- Pelham sand
48- Plummer and Surrency soils, depressional
74-Dorovan and Pamlico soils, depessional
77- Surrency, Plummer, and Cantey soils, flooded

It is important to remember that since a soil or soils may occur on many different landscape positions,
any list of hydric soils necessarily contains soils that may or may not always be hydric. A hydric map
unit delineation on a soil map represents and area dominated by several kinds ofhydric soils or one
major kind of hydric soil. Each soil has precisely defined limits for the properties of that soil. On the
landscape, however, the soils are natural objects; and they, like all natural objects, are variable in their
properties.

Every map is made up of the soil or soils for which it gets its name and included soils. The presence of
inclusions in no way diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soils data. The objective of soil
mapping is not to delineate soils, but rather to separate the landscape into segments that have that have
similar use and management requirements.

ALL HYDRIC SOIL DETERMINATIONS SHOULD BE MADE BY ON SITE INVESTIGATIONS


Soil Survey

















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps


The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.


To find information about
your area of interest,
locate that area on the
Index to Map Sheets,
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet.


Locate your area of
interest on the map
sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con-
tents), which lists the map
units by symbol and
name and shows the
page where each map
unit is described.


_A -
A Kok mo



MAP SHEET


AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
letters, or they may be a combination
of numbers and letters.


MAP SHEET


The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.


1 j 4



id. 17 18 19 o
INDEX TO MAP SHEETS





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1987. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1987. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1987. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. The survey is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Madison County Soil and Water Conservation
District. The Madison County Board of Commissioners contributed financially to
the acceleration of this survey. Additional assistance was provided by the Florida
Department of Transportation.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: If irrigated, deep, drought soils, such as Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, produce
optimum yields.


















Contents


Index to map units ............................. iv
Summary of tables ............................. v
Forew ord ................ .................. ... vii
General nature of the county ....................... 1
How this survey was made ........................ 7
Map unit composition ............................ 8
Use of ground-penetrating radar ................. 9
Confidence limits of soil survey information ........ 9
General soil map units ......................... 11
Detailed soil map units ......................... 19
Prime farmland.................................. 57
Use and management of the soils.............. 59
Crops and pasture ............................. 59
Woodland management and productivity ......... 62
Recreation ................................... 64
W wildlife habitat ................................. 65
Engineering .................................. 66
Soil properties .................................. 71
Engineering index properties ................... 71
Physical and chemical properties .............. 72
W ater features ............. ................ 73
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
selected soils .............................. 74
Engineering index test data ..................... 77
Classification of the soils ....................... 79
Soil series and their morphology ................ 79
Alaga series .................. ................ 79
Albany series ................................. 80
Alpin series.................................. 81
Blanton series ................................. 81


Bonifay series ............ .................... 82
Cantey series.................................. 83
Chipley series ................................. 83
Dorovan series ............................... 84
Esto series ................................... 85
Eunola series ................................. 85
Faceville series .............................. 86
Fuquay series ................................. 87
Goldsboro series ............................. 88
Kenansville series.......................... 88
Lakeland series ............................ 89
Lovett series................................... 90
Lucy series .................................... 90
Mascotte series ................. ............... 91
Nankin series ................................. 92
Ocilla series ................................... 92
Orangeburg series .............................. 93
Pamlico series ................................ 94
Pelham series ................................ 95
Plummer series ............................... 95
Sapelo series ................................. 96
Surrency series ............................... 97
Troup series................................... 98
Formation of the soils .......................... 99
Factors of soil formation ....................... 99
Processes of horizon differentiation............. 100
References .......... ....................... 101
Glossary............ ..................... .... 103
Tables..................................... 111


Issued October 1990



















Index to Map Units


2-Albany sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........... 19
3-Alpin sand .................................. 20
5-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 21
6-Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .......... 23
10-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 23
11-Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .......... 25
13-Lucy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes .............. 25
14-Lucy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .............. 26
15-Mascotte sand .............................. 27
16-Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes................................... 27
17-Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.................................... 28
18-Orangeburg loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent
slopes............... ................. 29
21-Cantey fine sandy loam ..................... 29
22-Pelham sand ................................ 30
23-Plummer sand ............................... 31
26-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 32
27-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............ 32
28-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...... 33
30-Ocilla sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............. 34
34-Sapelo sand... ............................ 34
38-Goldsboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.................................. 35
48-Plummer and Surrency soils, depressional ..... 36


53-Bonifay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...... 37
55-Esto fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes .... 38
56-Nankin loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes...... 38
57-Nankin sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes,
eroded ..................................... 40
58-Fuquay sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ........... 41
61-Alaga loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes....... 42
62-Alaga loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes....... 43
63-Alaga loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes...... 44
64-Alaga loamy sand, moderately wet, 0 to 5
percent slopes ........................... 45
65-Lovett sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............. 46
66-Lovett sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............. 47
67-Udorthents, loamy ......................... 48
71-Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes................................... 48
72-Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes...................................... 49
74-Dorovan and Pamlico soils, depressional....... 50
77-Surrency, Plummer, and Cantey soils,
frequently flooded ............ .............. 52
78-Alpin fine sand, occasionally flooded........... 52
79-Eunola fine sand, occasionally flooded......... 53
80-Kenansville loamy fine sand, occasionally
flooded ................ ................... 54


















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) .................................. 112

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 2) ...................... 113
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 3)... 114
Land capability. Tobacco. Corn. Wheat. Soybeans.
Watermelons. Bahiagrass. Improved bermudagrass.

Woodland management and productivity (table 4)........................ 117
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Recreational development (table 5) ...................................... 121
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

Wildlife habitat (table 6) ............................................... 124
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 7) ...................................... 126
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.

Sanitary facilities (table 8) .............................................. 129
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.

Construction materials (table 9) ......................................... 132
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.

Water management (table 10)...................................... .134
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.






















Engineering index properties (table 11) ................................. 138
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 12) .................. 142
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.

Water features (table 13) .............................................. 145
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table.

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 14) .................. ........ 147
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 15)............................. 151
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Citrate-dithionite extractable.

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 16) .............................. 155
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.

Engineering index test data (table 17) .................................. 157
Florida Department of Transportation report number.
Classification-AASHTO, Unified. Mechanical analyses.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture density.

Classification of the soils (table 18) .................. ................... 160
Family or higher taxonomic class.

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Madison County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be used
as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to
use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly
suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


Niles T. Glasgow
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service






































































































Location of Madison County in Florida.


I















Soil Survey of

Madison County, Florida


By David A. Howell and Christopher A. Williams, Soil Conservation Service

Fieldwork by Jim Grant, Robert Weatherspoon, Manley Bailey, James Bell, Steven Fisher,
Edward Horn, Kenneth Liudahl, Kenneth Olsen, and Willie Terry, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services


MADISON COUNTY is in the eastern part of the Florida
Panhandle. The total land area is 454,618 acres, or
about 710 square miles. Madison County borders the
state of Georgia on the north, Hamilton and Suwannee
Counties on the east, Lafayette and Taylor Counties on
the south, and Jefferson County on the west. The
Withlacoochee and Suwannee Rivers form a natural
boundary along the eastern part of the county, and the
Aucilla River forms part of the western boundary. These
rivers provide the county with about 50 miles of river
frontage.
The population of the county was about 15,624 in
1986 (7), an increase of 5 percent since 1980. The
population of Madison, the county seat, was 3,608;
Greenville's population was 1,028; and Lee's population
was 270.
Agriculture and commercial woodlands are the
principal businesses in the county. Madison County is
mostly rural, but several light industries (including
greyhound dog farms; poultry, pork, and wood product
processing plants; peach packers; and a pine seedling
nursery) are in the county.

General Nature of the County
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that
affect the use and management of soils in the county


are described. These factors are climate, history and
development, geology, ground water, farming, and
transportation facilities.

Climate
Madison County has a moderate climate that is
favorable for the production of crops, livestock, and
woodland and also for a variety of recreational
activities. The summers are long, hot, and humid.
Although cold air periodically moves down from the
north, winters are mild because of the county's
proximity to the ocean.
Precipitation is fairly heavy most of the year. Spring
droughts occasionally cause crop failure and create a
shortage of forage for livestock. Severe local storms,
including tornadoes, strike occasionally in or near the
county but seldom cause severe damage. Occasionally,
a tropical depression or hurricane moves inland and
causes intense, heavy rains for 1 to 3 days in the
summer or fall. Measurable amounts of snowfall are
rare.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded at Madison in the
period 1951 to 1980 (16). In winter the average
temperature is 54 degrees F, and the average daily
minimum temperature is 42 degrees. The lowest








Soil Survey


temperature on record, which occurred at Madison on
December 13, 1962, is 7 degrees. In summer the
average temperature is 81 degrees, and the average
daily maximum temperature is 92 degrees. The highest
recorded temperature, which occurred at Madison on
May 27, 1953, is 102 degrees.
The total annual precipitation is about 52 inches. Of
this, 30 inches, or about 58 percent, usually falls in April
through September. The growing season for most crops
falls within this period. The heaviest 1-day rainfall
during the period of record was 8.9 inches at Madison
on March 31, 1962. Thunderstorms occur on about 40
days each year, and most occur in July.

History and Development
In 1528, Panfilo Narvaez crossed the Suwannee
River near what is now Dowling Park and became the
first of the early Spaniards to explore the area now
known as Madison County. When the Spaniards
arrived, the Timucuan Indians were inhabiting the area.
Their range extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the
Aucilla River, which is now the western boundary of
Madison County. These Indians were well established in
the area before the Spaniards arrived. Their source of
livelihood was from hunting, fishing, and growing corn.
Exploration in this area increased after the Spanish
explorer, Hernando De Soto, arrived in 1539. By 1675,
Spanish missions were established, and the Spaniards
tried to educate the local Indians in the Christian
religion. The Timucuans lost their tribal identity after
being conquered and converted by the Spanish. The
last remnants of the tribe were absorbed by the
Seminole Indian tribe.
The missions were built along what is now known as
the Old Spanish Trail, a road that linked the two largest
Spanish settlements in Florida at that time. These
settlements are now known as Pensacola and St.
Augustine. The sites of two of the old missions have
been discovered in Madison County.
Between 1815 and 1827, the early settlers of
Madison County began to arrive from the Carolinas and
Georgia. These new settlers were looking for a fresh
start and new land to farm. On December 16, 1827,
Madison County, named for President James Madison,
became the 14th county to be established by the
Legislative Council of Florida. It was formed from part of
Jefferson County, and at the time of its establishment, it
was made up of its present area and what is now
Taylor, Lafayette, and Dixie Counties.
During this period, the area supported a large
population of Seminole Indians, whom the settlers


considered a constant source of peril. One of the more
famous Seminoles was the Indian Chief John Hicks,
who with his followers lived in Madison County in an
area later known as Hixtown. This area was about
halfway between the present towns of Madison and
Greenville.
The Seminole Indian War of 1835-1842 did little to
slow the growth of Madison County. Between 1830 and
1840, the population increased by 400 percent. Farming
on large plantations was the major source of livelihood,
but as the population grew, industry also began to
develop. In 1851, the second cotton mill in Florida was
built in Madison County. Sawmills were built to process
the limitless supply of virgin timber. In 1852, the first
shoe factory in the state was built just east of the town
of Madison.
The citizens of Madison County supported the
Confederate effort during the Civil War. The Wardlaw-
Smith mansion, built in the late 1850's, was used as a
Confederate hospital after the battle of Olustee and is
listed in the National Register of Historic Places.
Confederate soldiers were also supplied with shoes
produced by the shoe factory in the county.
During the resurgence following the Civil War, the
Florida Manufacturing Company, a large processing
plant for sea island cotton, was established in Madison.
During this time, Madison County was known as "King
Cotton" because of the large cotton crop that was
produced. The cotton industry thrived until 1916 when
the Mexican boll weevil all but wiped out cotton

production in the area. Farming became more
diversified and continued to be a major source of
livelihood in the county along with commercial woodland
production.
Madison County has grown slowly over the years. It
has mostly remained a rural county, dependent upon
agriculture and commercial woodland production (9).

Geology
Ronald W. Hoenstine and Steven M. Spencer, Department of
Natural Resources, Florida Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology,
prepared this section.
Madison County is made up of a transitional geologic
area that separates the thick Tertiary carbonate
sediments characteristic of the Florida Peninsula from
the predominant age-equivalent plastic sediments of
western Florida. This area is underlain by thick
limestone deposits of Oligocene and Eocene ages,
which in turn are covered by younger limestone,
dolomite, sand, and clay in the northern half of the
county.








Madison County, Florida


GEORGIA

Cherry Lake
0


Figure 1.-Physiographic map of Madison County.


Two major physiographic regions occur in Madison
County. As proposed by Puri and Vernon (11), these
regions are the Northern Highlands and Coastal
Lowlands (fig. 1). The Northern Highlands region
extends over the northern two-thirds of the county, and
the Coastal Lowlands occupy the remaining third of the
county.
The boundary between these divisions occurs at a
southward-facing escarpment, the Cody Scarp (11).
This escarpment is considered to be one of the most
persistent topographic breaks in Florida. The Cody
Scarp is easily observed to the west in Jefferson
County, but in Madison County, it is irregular and
frequently difficult to observe. However, a series of
north-south topographic profiles shows a distinct break
at the 100-foot contour. This 100-foot elevation, which
was used by Crane (5) and by Cooke (4), is also used
in this survey to define the Cody Scarp in Madison
County.
The Northern Highlands region in Madison County
extends over parts of several counties in Florida and


into Georgia. It includes the area north of the Cody
Scarp (see fig. 1). This physiographic region includes
the Tallahassee Hills. In the study area, the
Tallahassee Hills are between the Florida-Georgia state
line on the north and the Gulf Coastal Lowlands on the
south (see fig. 1). The Tallahassee Hills are erosional
remnant hills and ridges that have elevations as high as
230 feet in Madison County. These hills and ridges
occur extensively throughout the northern two-thirds of
Madison County and are characterized by gentle slopes
and rounded tops. Although the Tallahassee Hills in this
area have been highly dissected by stream erosion and
subsurface solution, they probably once represented a
nearly flat Miocene delta plain that covered all of
northern Madison County.
The other major physiographic region, the Gulf
Coastal Lowlands, has markedly lower elevations. This
region in Madison County is in an area bounded on the
north by the Cody Scarp and on the south by Taylor
and Lafayette Counties. Features in the Gulf Coastal
Lowlands include the Wicomico Terrace, which








Soil Survey


coincides with the top of the Cody Scarp in Madison
County at an elevation of 100 feet above mean sea
level (m.s.l.). Additionally, the San Pedro Bay and the
River Valley Lowlands, which are associated with the
Suwannee, Withlacoochee, and Aucilla Rivers, are in
the Gulf Coastal Lowlands. Numerous tributaries, such
as small streams and creeks, originate in the
Tallahassee Hills and flow into these rivers. Although
these river valley lowlands extend into the Northern
Highlands, they are placed in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands
province on the basis of their lowest elevation (3).
The sediments that are in Madison County range
from Paleozoic to Recent. The deepest penetration of
subsurface sediments in the study area was at a depth
of 10,150 feet below m.s.l. These sediments, obtained
from an oil test well W-15017, permit number P-1033
(10), were identified as Paleozoic quartzitic sandstone
deposited hundreds of millions of years ago. In contrast,
surface and near-surface occurrences include
unconsolidated sand, limestone, and highly indurated
dolomite ranging in age from the Eocene epoch, about
36 to 58 million years ago, to the Recent. The oldest
surface outcrops are dolomite and limestone belonging
to the Eocene epoch of 40 to 38 million years ago.

Ocala Group
The Ocala Group limestones were deposited during
the Eocene epoch about 40 to 38 million years ago and
represent the oldest sediments exposed in Madison
County. These limestones form an integral part of the
Floridan aquifer system and occur at varying depths
throughout the county. The Ocala Group limestones
generally are pale orange, poorly indurated or
moderately indurated, moderately porous or highly
porous, fossiliferous, partly dolomitized, and partly
recrystallized. The occurrence of the distinctive
foraminifera Lepidocyclina is common to abundant and
is often used as an aid in distinguishing this formation
from the overlying, younger Suwannee Formation.
Few wells in the county penetrate the Ocala Group
sediments. The top of these sediments occur about 100
feet below m.s.l., near the city of Madison. Varying in
thickness throughout the county, the Ocala Group is in
the interval from 200 to 385 feet below the surface, a
thickness of 185 feet, in well number W-2549 near the
city of Madison. These sediments unconformably are
underlain by the Avon Park Limestone and are
unconformably overlain by the Oligocene-age
Suwannee Limestone.

Suwannee Limestone Formation
Exposure of limestone and dolomite belonging to the


Suwannee Limestone, which was deposited during the
Oligocene epoch, occurs along the Suwannee River at
Ellaville. An unconformity separates the Suwannee
Limestone from the underlying Ocala Group limestones
and from the overlying St. Marks Formation and
Hawthorn Group. Where the St. Marks and the
Hawthorn Group are absent, the Suwannee Limestone
underlies younger undifferentiated sand and clay.
The Suwannee Limestone is a partly recrystallized
marine limestone. It is very pale orange, is finely
crystalline, is moderately indurated or well indurated,
has moderate or good porosity, and is very fossiliferous.
Chemical tests indicate a composition that is nearly 97
percent calcium carbonate.
In various locations, such as along the Suwannee
River at Ellaville in neighboring Swannee County, the
top of the formation is silicified at the surface and near
subsurface. It has been observed from well cuttings that
dolomitization of the limestone has occurred in the
subsurface at different depths. This process of
secondary dolomitization can also be observed in the
outcrop area along the Aucilla River.
Measurements of the formation's thickness are
approximated because most of the information available
is from wells that terminate in the Suwannee Limestone.
The maximum thickness encountered in a core was in
well number W-15515, located in sec. 5, T. 2 N., R. 8
E., in which 157 feet of limestone was penetrated.
Fossiliferous outcrops of this formation can be observed
along the Suwannee River from White Springs in
Hamilton County to Ellaville in Suwannee County.
In many areas, the Suwannee Limestone is covered
by a thin veneer of Pleistocene sand. Just below
Lamont in Jefferson County to north of Nutall Rise, the
Suwannee Limestone is almost continually exposed
along the banks of the Aucilla River as silicified
boulders or as massive dolomite beds. The dolomite
beds and the silicified boulders often form rapids along
the river.

St. Marks Formation
Early Miocene sediments unconformably overlie the
Suwannee Limestone in many parts of Madison County.
These sediments, which make up the St. Marks
Formation, are white to very pale orange, finely
crystalline, sandy, silty, and clayey limestone. The St.
Marks Formation is poorly indurated or well indurated,
has low or medium porosity, and contains molluscan
casts and a few species of foraminifera. The limestone
has been partly dolomitized and silicified in the
subsurface layer.
In contrast to the Suwannee Limestone, the St.








Madison County, Florida


Marks Formation does not occur in all parts of the
county but occurs sporadically (fig. 2). St. Marks
Formation outcrops are rare as the greater part of the
deposits are covered by younger sediment.
The cross sections (see fig. 2) show the variability of
the St. Marks Formation throughout the survey area.
The sediment is very thin or does not occur in the
central part of the county. The thickness increases to a
maximum of 20 feet in a core in well number W-15537
drilled in north-central Madison County in an area west
of Cherry Lake.
The St. Marks Formation is overlain by the younger
Miocene sediments known as the Hawthorn Group.
These sediments are in the subsurface layer throughout
much of the county.

Hawthorn Group
The Hawthorn Group consists of pale olive to
moderate yellow, sandy, waxy, phosphatic clay and
sand. The clay contains phosphorite grains and is
interbedded with very fine to medium, clayey quartz
sand that also contains phosphorite. The clay and sand
are frequently cherty and are often associated with
stringers of sandy calcilutite.
The Hawthorn Group varies in thickness. It is thin or
does not occur in areas of southern and eastern
Madison County. In contrast, the Hawthorn Group
sediments on the western side of the county are
significantly thicker than sediments to the east and
southeast of the county. The thickest observed section
of Hawthorn occurred in a core in well number W-6558
near U.S. Highway 90 where a thickness of 142 feet
was encountered. Surface outcrops of the Hawthorn
Group occur on the northeastern side of the county
along the Withlacoochee River.
The Hawthorn Group unconformably is underlain by
the St. Marks Formation or the Suwannee Limestone. It
is in turn overlain by the Miccosukee Formation or by
Pleistocene sand.

Miccosukee Formation
The varicolored, heterogeneous complex of
sediments known as the Miccosukee Formation is a
prominent feature throughout Madison County. The
Miccosukee Formation is underlain by the Hawthorn
Group. It generally is present in Madison County except
in the south and east regions.
The Miccosukee Formation is an aggregate of
lenticular clayey sand and clay beds, which individually
can be traced laterally only for short distances. These
sediments are moderately sorted or poorly sorted and


consist of coarse to fine grained, varicolored, quartz
sand and clay. These frequently crossbedded
sediments contain thin laminae of white to light gray
clay. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the laminae
associated with the quartz sand is kaolinite.
In many places, sediments of the Miccosukee
Formation are deeply weathered laterites. The
weathering process has frequently destroyed bedding
that may have been present, giving exposed sediments
a massive appearance. The Miccosukee Formation
varies widely in thickness, a condition attributed partly
to extensive weathering and associated erosion. A
maximum thickness of 78 feet was encountered in the
west-central part of the county in a core in well number
W-6558, suggesting that the tops of some of the highest
hills may represent the original depositional surface.
Similar thicknesses were observed in well cuttings in
the same general area along U.S. Highway 90.
The Miccosukee Formation can be observed in
numerous roadcuts throughout the northern part of the
county. The type locality of this formation can be seen
at a roadcut on the east side of U.S. Highway 19, about
3.1 miles south of the Georgia-Florida state line in
neighboring Jefferson County. The sediments in this
section illustrate rapid sedimentation changes, including
channel cut and fill features of a deltaic environment.

Pleistocene and Holocene Deposits
Surficial sediments of Pleistocene age form much of
the land surface in the southern and southeastern parts
of the county. Less widespread Holocene-age
sediments are confined mainly to the present stream
valleys. The Pleistocene and Holocene deposits are
referred to in the cross sections as undifferentiated
sand and clay.
The Pleistocene deposits that form the Gulf Coastal
Lowlands south of the Cody Scarp are very fine to
medium quartz sand that has bluish green to light olive
clay lenses. The Holocene sediments are essentially
reworked Pleistocene quartz sand and quartz sand
derived from the older formations.
The Pleistocene deposits range in thickness from a
feather edge in the southeastern part of the county to
35 feet in well number W-705, which is located 5 miles
southeast of Lamont near the toe of the Cody Scarp.
These sediments vary widely in thickness throughout
the southern part of Madison County and essentially do
not occur in the northern part. They unconformably are
underlain by the St. Marks Formation and Suwannee
Limestone in the southern part of the county.
















W15537
W15515 ELEV. 185
-200 ELEV. 170 T3N R9E S32
A R8E 5 W15728
15 Cc MCOSUKEE FM W10480 ELEV. 130 W13989
-150 ELEV 83 T3N R10E S33 ELEV. 100 +
T3N R1E Lot 206, T2N R10E S1
-100 HAWTHORN FM. H T\ US A'
-50 HAWTHORN FM GS UDSC.

-o rST. MARKS FM. HTRNUS


SUWANNEE LS.



OCALA GP


4 I 4


SUWANNEELS, SWNN.




OCALAGP. IN

OCALA GP.


SWNN.


FM. -FORMATION
LS. LIMESTONE
MSL GP. GROUP
HTRN. HAWTHORN
MICC. MICCOSUKEE
STMK. .ST. MARKS
UDSC. UNDIFFERENTIATED SAND AND
CLAY
SWNN. SUWANNEE


W15803


W15515
200 ELEV. 170
C T2N R8E S5 W15846
15 0ELEV. 135
-150 1 IC T2N R8E S22


W15803
ELEV. 160+
T1N R9E S34


Figure 2.-Geological east to west cross sections A-A' and B-B' and northwest to southeast cross sections C-C' in Madison County.
Numbers preceded by a "W" are Florida Geological Survey well accession numbers.


Soil Survey


MSL- 0


-150







Madison County, Florida


Geologic History
From the end of the Cretaceous period until the early
Miocene, Madison County was an area of carbonate
deposition. Changes in the depositional environment
occurred at the beginning of the early Miocene, which
resulted in deposition of siliciclastics and carbonates of
the Hawthorn Group.
During this time, the Eocene Avon Park Formation,
Eocene Ocala Group, Oligocene Suwannee Limestone,
and early Miocene St. Marks Formation were deposited
in a warm, shallow, open sea.
An influx of plastic sediments generally masked
carbonate deposition during the middle Miocene. At this
time the Hawthorn Group, which consisted mainly of
phosphatic sand and clay, was deposited in a marine
environment. At the cessation of Hawthorn deposition,
the predominantly marine environment changed to a
prodeltaic and deltaic environment. The Miccosukee
Formation deposits formed a widespread delta complex,
covering parts of Madison, Jefferson, Leon, and Gadsen
Counties.
At the beginning of the Pleistocene epoch, the seas
covered much of the county, resulting in the formation
of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands in the southern part of the
county. During this time the present drainage system of
rivers and their associated tributaries were formed.
Other changes may have included the erosion and
subsequent removal of most of the St. Marks Formation
from the Gulf Coastal Lowlands.
Sea level has been fairly stationary during the last
several thousand years of the Holocene epoch.
Deposition now occurring in Madison County is
restricted to alluvium along the many streams and to
organic deposits in the lakes and low areas.

Ground Water
The Floridan aquifer system is the principal water-
bearing unit in Madison County. It includes all of the
middle Eocene to early Miocene geologic units in the
county.
The intermediate aquifer system present in Madison
County is comprised of discontinuous units of
limestone, dolomite, and sand that form the Hawthorn
Group. Although the amount of water obtained from the
intermediate aquifer is minimal compared to that
obtained from the underlying Floridan aquifer system, it
may be sufficient for small domestic supplies. The
quality of the water in the intermediate aquifer system is
inferior to that of the Floridan aquifer system because of
the presence of a greater concentration of dissolved
solids.


The surficial aquifer system occurs in the surficial
sand and clayey sand deposits at higher elevations.
This aquifer receives recharge mainly from rainfall
runoff. Water quality in the surficial aquifer system is
diminished because of the high concentration of iron
and other dissolved substances.

Farming
Madison County's climate and soils attracted settlers
from the southeastern states from about 1815 to the
late 1820's and early 1830's. The economy was highly
dependent on cotton production until about 1916. Since
then farming has been a major economic boost to the
county. A large variety of crops, including shade and
flue-cured tobacco, corn, watermelons, peanuts,
soybeans, cotton, peaches, wheat, oats, rye grains, and
field peas, have been successfully produced in the
county. Except for shade tobacco, most of these crops
are still grown in the county; but in recent years, much
of the cropland has been converted to permanent
pasture or pine tree production. About 10,000 acres of
cropland was converted or scheduled for conversion to
woodland during 1986 and 1987. The erosiveness of
the soils and a depressed agricultural economy were
the major reasons for this conversion.
The Madison County Soil Conservation District was
organized in 1941. Under its leadership, soil and water
conservation practices, such as terraces, grassed
waterways, diversions, contour farming, sediment
control, and water management, have been applied to
hundreds of acres in the county.

Transportation Facilities
A network of highways and secondary roads that
provide access to nearby markets, towns, cities, and
recreational sites meets the county's transportation
needs. According to the 1987 National Resources
County Base Data, the county has about 842 miles of
public roads. Interstate Highway 75 provides north-
south travel, Interstate Highway 10 provides east-west
travel, and U.S. Highway 90 extends east-west through
Lee, Madison, and Greenville. Other county and state
roads and many improved dirt roads are provided for
public use.
A small local airport, rail service, taxi service, and
bus service are also available in the county.


How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about








Soil Survey


the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
slopes, the general pattern of drainage, and the kinds of
crops and native plants growing on the soils. They dug
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The
profile extends from the surface down into the
unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
living organisms and has not been changed by other
biological activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms,
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area.
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, distribution of plant
roots, soil reaction, and other features that enable them
to identify soils. After describing the soils in the survey
area and determining their properties, the soil scientists
assigned the soils to taxonomic classes (units).
Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each taxonomic class
has a set of soil characteristics with precisely defined
limits. The classes are used as a basis for comparison
to classify soils systematically. The system of taxonomic
classification used in the United States is based mainly
on the kind and character of soil properties and the
arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil
scientists classified and named the soils in the survey
area, they compared the individual soils with similar


soils in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that
they could confirm data and assemble additional data
based on experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
of the soils in the area are generally collected for
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists interpreted the data from these analyses and
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
the soil properties in terms of expected behavior of the
soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of the
soils were field tested through observation of the soils
in different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
sources, such as research information, production
records, and field experience of specialists. For
example, data on crop yields under defined levels of
management were assembled from farm records and
from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can state
with a fairly high degree of probability that a given soil
will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a







Madison County, Florida


taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
In the general soil map units, they are called soils of
minor extent.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.

Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar
In Madison County, a ground-penetrating radar
(GPR) system (6, 8) was used to document the type
and variability of soils that occur in the detailed map
units. Random transects were made with the GPR and
by hand. Information from notes and ground-truth
observations made in the field were used with radar
data from this study to classify the soils and to
determine the composition of map units. The map units
described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" are
based on this data.


Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information
The statements about soil behavior in this survey can
be thought of in terms of probability: they are
predictions of soil behavior. The behavior of a soil
depends not only on its own properties but on
responses to such variables as climate and biological
activity. Soil conditions are predictable for the long term,
but predictable reliability is less for any given year. For
example, while soil scientists can state that a given soil
has a high water table in most years, they cannot say
with certainty that the water table will be present next
year.
Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
probability that the composition of a map unit or a
property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
data to determine confidence limits, the natural
variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
must be considered. The composition of map units and
other information are derived largely from extrapolations
made from a small sample. Also, the information relates
only to the soil within 6 feet of the surface. The
information presented in the soil survey is not meant to
be used as a substitute for onsite investigations. Soil
survey information can be used to select from among
alternative practices or to select general designs that
may be needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
units in Madison County were determined by random
transects made with the GPR across mapped areas.
The data are statistically summarized in the description
of each soil in the "Detailed Soil Map Units" section.
Soil scientists made enough transects and took enough
samples to characterize each map unit at a specific
confidence level. This means, for example, that the
resulting composition would read: In 95 percent of the
areas mapped as Alpin sand, the percentage of Alpin
soil will be within the range given in the map unit
description. In about 5 percent of this map unit, the
percentage of Alpin soil can be higher or lower than the
given range.
The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
map units was based on the judgment of the soil
scientist and was not determined by a statistical
procedure.







Madison County, Florida


taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
In the general soil map units, they are called soils of
minor extent.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.

Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar
In Madison County, a ground-penetrating radar
(GPR) system (6, 8) was used to document the type
and variability of soils that occur in the detailed map
units. Random transects were made with the GPR and
by hand. Information from notes and ground-truth
observations made in the field were used with radar
data from this study to classify the soils and to
determine the composition of map units. The map units
described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" are
based on this data.


Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information
The statements about soil behavior in this survey can
be thought of in terms of probability: they are
predictions of soil behavior. The behavior of a soil
depends not only on its own properties but on
responses to such variables as climate and biological
activity. Soil conditions are predictable for the long term,
but predictable reliability is less for any given year. For
example, while soil scientists can state that a given soil
has a high water table in most years, they cannot say
with certainty that the water table will be present next
year.
Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
probability that the composition of a map unit or a
property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
data to determine confidence limits, the natural
variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
must be considered. The composition of map units and
other information are derived largely from extrapolations
made from a small sample. Also, the information relates
only to the soil within 6 feet of the surface. The
information presented in the soil survey is not meant to
be used as a substitute for onsite investigations. Soil
survey information can be used to select from among
alternative practices or to select general designs that
may be needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
units in Madison County were determined by random
transects made with the GPR across mapped areas.
The data are statistically summarized in the description
of each soil in the "Detailed Soil Map Units" section.
Soil scientists made enough transects and took enough
samples to characterize each map unit at a specific
confidence level. This means, for example, that the
resulting composition would read: In 95 percent of the
areas mapped as Alpin sand, the percentage of Alpin
soil will be within the range given in the map unit
description. In about 5 percent of this map unit, the
percentage of Alpin soil can be higher or lower than the
given range.
The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
map units was based on the judgment of the soil
scientist and was not determined by a statistical
procedure.




















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some
minor soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils
making up one unit can occur in other units but in a
different pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.

Soils on the Sand Hills and Ridges
The two general soil map units in this group consist
of nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained
to moderately well drained soils on ridges and slopes
on the uplands. Some soils are sandy throughout, and
some have thin bands of loamy lamellae below a depth
of 40 inches.

1. Alpin-Lakeland-Blanton
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and
moderately well drained soils; some have thin bands of
loamy lamellae below a depth of 40 inches, some have a
loamy subsoil, and some are sandy throughout
This map unit is on landscapes that are
characterized mostly by broad plains interspersed with
sloping landscapes without a well defined drainage
pattern.
The natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, slash
pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, and live oak. The
understory includes grasses and forbs.
This map unit makes up 8 percent of the county. It is
77 percent Alpin soils, 13 percent Lakeland soils, and 5


percent Blanton soils. The soils of minor extent, which
are Alaga, Albany, Cantey, and Lovett soils, make up 5
percent of the map unit.
The Alpin soils are nearly level to gently sloping and
are excessively drained. They are mainly on broad sand
flats and on uplands adjacent to the flood plains. The
surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 4 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 60
inches, is yellowish brown and pale brown sand. The
subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is yellow sand
that has thin bands of brownish yellow loamy material.
The Lakeland soils are nearly level to sloping and
are excessively drained. They are on ridges and in
positions similar to those of the Alpin soils. The surface
layer is brown sand about 4 inches thick. The
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
yellow, brownish yellow, and very pale brown sand.
The Blanton soils are nearly level to sloping and are
moderately well drained. They are on broad uplands
and on slopes adjacent to lakes and streams and are in
positions adjacent to Alpin soils. The surface layer is
dark grayish brown sand about 12 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 69 inches, is
yellowish brown to very pale brown sand. The subsoil to
a depth of about 80 inches is light yellowish brown,
mottled sandy loam.
These soils mostly are used for pine tree production.
They are poorly suited to crops and pasture. The
potential of these soils for production of certain species
of pine trees is moderately high. Droughtiness and poor
fertility are concerns in woodland management.

2. Alaga-Blanton-Troup
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained or
moderately well drained soils; some are sandy
throughout, and some have a loamy subsoil
This map unit is In one contiguous area. The
landscape generally is undulating with occasional broad
ridges.
The natural vegetation is mostly slash pine, longleaf
pine, loblolly pine, live oak, and bluejack oak. The








Soil Survey


understory includes pineland threeawn, blackberry,
sassafras, and winged sumac.
This map unit makes up 6 percent of the county. It is
43 percent Alaga soils, 30 percent Blanton soils, and 22
percent Troup soils. The soils of minor extent, which
are Albany, Lucy, and Ocilla soils, make up 5 percent of
the map unit.
The Alaga soils are nearly level to strongly sloping
and are well drained and moderately well drained. They
are in low positions on the uplands. The surface layer is
very dark grayish brown and dark brown loamy sand
about 9 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying
material, to a depth of 58 inches, is dark brown and
strong brown loamy sand. The lower part to a depth of
about 80 inches is reddish yellow and brownish yellow
sand.
The Blanton soils are nearly level to sloping and are
moderately well drained. They are adjacent to Alaga
soils and are in slightly lower positions on the
landscape. The surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 12 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsurface layer, to a depth of 53 inches, is yellowish
brown and light yellowish brown sand. The lower part,
to a depth of 69 inches, is very pale brown, mottled
sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches or
more is light yellowish brown sandy loam that has light
brownish gray mottles.
The Troup soils are nearly level to sloping and are
well drained. They are in similar positions on the
landscape as Alaga soils. The surface layer is dark
grayish brown sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 68 inches, is dark
yellowish brown and yellowish brown sand. The upper
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 74 inches, is strong
brown loamy sand. The lower part to a depth of 80
inches or more is strong brown sandy clay loam that
has red mottles.
These soils mostly have been cleared and planted to
soybeans, corn, pasture grasses, and pine trees. They
are poorly suited to crops. These soils are moderately
well suited to deep-rooted pasture grasses. The
potential of these soils for pine tree production is
moderately high.

Soils on the Rolling Uplands
The four general soil map units in this group consist
of nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained to
somewhat poorly drained, sandy soils on the uplands.
Some soils in this map unit have a clayey subsoil, some
have a loamy subsoil, and some have a clayey and
loamy subsoil.


3. Lucy-Faceville-Orangeburg
Gently sloping to strongly sloping, well drained, sandy
soils; some have a loamy subsoil, some have a clayey
subsoil, and some have a loamy and clayey subsoil
This map unit consists dominantly of relatively small
areas of gently undulating to rolling soils on the
uplands.
The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly pine, slash
pine, southern red oak, live oak, hickory, and dogwood.
This map unit makes up 3 percent of the county. It is
45 percent Lucy soils, 28 percent Faceville soils, and
20 percent Orangeburg soils. The soils of minor extent,
which are Bonifay, Blanton, Esto, Lovett, Nankin, and
Troup soils, make up 7 percent of the map unit.
The Lucy soils are gently sloping to sloping and are
well drained. They are on the uplands. The surface
layer is very dark grayish brown sand about 11 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 inches, is
strong brown loamy sand. The upper part of the subsoil,
to a depth of about 34 inches, is yellowish red fine
sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or
more is yellowish red sandy clay loam.
The Faceville soils are mainly gently sloping to
sloping and are well drained. They are on upland
ridges. The surface layer is dark brown loamy fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80
inches or more is red sandy clay that has yellowish red
and strong brown mottles below a depth of 60 inches.
The Orangeburg soils are mainly gently sloping to
strongly sloping and are well drained. They are on
upland ridges and in adjacent landscape positions. The
surface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 15 inches, is dark yellowish brown loamy sand.
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 26
inches, is yellowish red fine sandy loam. The lower part
to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish red sandy
clay loam.
These soils mostly have been cleared and planted to
soybeans, corn, watermelons, small grains, pasture
grasses, and pine trees. They are well suited to crops;
however, erosion in the sloping areas is a major
concern in management. These soils are well suited to
pasture grasses. The potential of these soils for
production of pine trees is high. Loblolly pine and slash
pine are the recommended trees to plant for woodland
production.

4. Nankin-Esto-Lovett

Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained and








Madison County, Florida


moderately well drained soils; some have a clayey
subsoil, and some have a loamy subsoil
The soils in this map unit are mostly on gently
undulating to rolling hills on the uplands. They occur in
two general areas of the county, both north of U.S.
Highway 90.
The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly pine, longleaf
pine, slash pine, southern red oak, live oak, laurel oak,
and black cherry.
This map unit makes up 9 percent of the county. It is
about 23 percent Nankin soils, 23 percent Esto soils,
and 22 percent Lovett soils. The soils of minor extent,
which are Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Faceville, Fuquay,
Lucy, Ocilla, and Orangeburg soils, make up 32 percent
of the map unit.
The Nankin soils are gently sloping to strongly
sloping and are well drained. They are on shoulder
slopes and back slopes on the uplands. The surface
layer is brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 12 inches,
is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The next part, to a
depth of about 38 inches, is yellowish brown clay. The
lower part, to a depth of 58 inches, is sandy clay
mottled in shades of gray, yellow, red, and brown. The
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches or more is
sandy clay loam mixed with lenses of sand and is
mottled in shades of gray, yellow, red, and brown.
The Esto soils are gently sloping and are well
drained. They are mainly on summits on the upland
ridges. The surface layer is dark yellowish brown fine
sandy loam about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is clay.
The upper part, to a depth of 18 inches, is yellowish
red. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is
mottled in shades of gray, yellow, red, and brown.
The Lovett soils are nearly level to sloping and are
moderately well drained. They mainly are on back
slopes and foot slopes on the uplands and are generally
adjacent to Nankin or Esto soils. The surface layer is
dark grayish brown sand about 9 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 38 inches, is brownish
yellow sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
47 inches, is yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The
lower part, to a depth of 62 inches, is yellowish brown
sandy clay that is mottled in shades of brown, gray, and
red. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is
mottled yellowish brown, red, and light gray sandy clay.
These soils mostly have been cleared and are used
for soybeans, corn, pecans, peaches, pasture grasses,
and pine trees. These soils are suited to crops in the
nearly level to sloping areas. In the strongly sloping


areas, erosion is a major concern in management. The
potential of these soils for production of pine trees is
moderately high. Slash pine and loblolly pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.

5. Lovett-Blanton-Fuquay

Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained and well
drained soils that have a loamy subsoil
This map unit is on broad, rolling uplands.
The natural vegetation is mostly loblolly pine, slash
pine, laurel oak, live oak, and water oak. The
understory includes wild cherry, broomsedge bluestem,
blackberry, brackenfern, winged sumac, and panicum.
This map unit makes up 9 percent of the county. It is
about 35 percent Lovett soils, 33 percent Blanton soils,
and 5 percent Fuquay soils. The soils of minor extent,
which include Albany, Esto, Lucy, and Pelham soils,
make up 27 percent of the map unit.
The Lovett soils are nearly level to sloping and are
moderately well drained. They are on the uplands. The
surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 38
inches, is brownish yellow sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of about 47 inches, is yellowish
brown fine sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of
about 62 inches, is yellowish brown sandy clay that has
gray and red mottles. The substratum to a depth of
more than 80 inches is sandy clay mottled in shades of
brown, red, and gray.
The Blanton soils are nearly level to sloping and are
moderately well drained. They are on similar
landscapes as Lovett soils and also are in slightly lower
positions on toe slopes. The surface layer is dark
grayish brown sand about 12 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 69 inches, is yellowish
brown, light yellowish brown, and very pale brown sand.
The subsoil to a depth of more than 80 inches is light
yellowish brown sandy loam that has light brownish
gray mottles.
The Fuquay soils are nearly level to gently sloping
and are well drained. They are on the uplands. These
soils are in slightly higher positions on the landscape
than Lovett soils. The surface layer is brown sand about
6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
about 30 inches, is brownish yellow sand. The subsoil
to a depth of about 80 inches is, in sequence
downward, yellowish brown loamy sand; yellowish
brown fine sandy loam that contains about 9 percent
plinthite; sandy clay loam that is mottled in shades of
gray, yellow, and brown and contains about 25 percent








Soil Survey


plinthite; and sandy clay that is mottled in shades of
gray, yellow, and red and contains about 35 percent
plinthite.
These soils mostly have been cleared and planted to
soybeans, corn, small grains, pasture grasses, or
woodland. They are moderately suited to cultivated
crops and are well suited to pasture grasses. The
potential of these soils for production of pine trees is
moderately high. Slash pine and loblolly pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.

6. Blanton-Albany-Ocilla
Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained and
somewhat poorly drained soils that have a loamy subsoil
This map unit consists mostly of soils on gently
undulating landscapes.
The natural vegetation is mostly live oak, water oak,
laurel oak, sweetgum, slash pine, and loblolly pine. The
understory includes broomsedge bluestem, pineland
threeawn, blackberry, waxmyrtle, greenbrier, and
various panicums.
This map unit makes up 21 percent of the county. It
is 57 percent Blanton soils, 15 percent Albany soils,
and 14 percent Ocilla soils. The soils of minor extent,
which are Lovett, Esto, Nankin, Plummer, and Troup
soils, make up 14 percent of the map unit.
The Blanton soils are nearly level to sloping and are
moderately well drained. These soils are on broad
uplands and on slopes. The surface layer is dark
grayish brown sand about 12 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of 69 inches is yellowish
brown sandy clay loam that has light brownish gray
mottles.
The Albany soils are nearly level to gently sloping
and are somewhat poorly drained. These soils are on
landscapes that generally are adjacent to and in slightly
lower positions than Blanton soils. The surface layer is
dark grayish brown sand about 10 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 50 inches, is
grayish brown, very pale brown, and light gray sand that
has brown mottles. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of about 57 inches, is pale brown fine sandy loam
that has brown and gray mottles. The next part, to a
depth of about 69 inches, is light gray sandy clay that
has brown mottles. The lower part to a depth of more
than 80 inches is light gray sandy clay loam that has
brown and red mottles.
The Ocilla soils are nearly level to gently sloping and
are somewhat poorly drained. They are in the same
positions on the landscape as the Albany soils. The
surface layer is grayish brown sand about 3 inches


thick. To a depth of about 29 inches, the subsurface
layer is, in sequence downward, light yellowish brown
sand, very pale brown sand, very pale brown sand that
has reddish yellow and white mottles, and light
yellowish brown loamy sand that has brownish yellow
and light gray mottles. The upper part of the subsoil, to
a depth of about 34 inches, is light yellowish brown fine
sandy loam that has brownish yellow and gray mottles.
The lower part to a depth of more than 80 inches is
light brownish gray sandy clay loam that has yellowish
brown, strong brown, and red mottles.
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to
cultivated crops. Low natural fertility, periodic
droughtiness, and a seasonal high water table are the
main concerns in management. These soils are
moderately suited to pasture. The potential of these
soils for the production of pine trees is moderately high.
Slash pine and loblolly pine are the recommended trees
to plant for woodland production.

Soils in the Swamps and on the Flatwoods and Low
Ridges
The five general soil map units in this group consist
of nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly
drained to very poorly drained soils. Some soils in this
map unit have a loamy subsoil, some have an organic-
stained layer above the subsoil, and some have an
organic layer that is 16 to 51 inches or more thick.

7. Albany-Plummer
Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained to very
poorly drained soils that have a loamy subsoil
This map unit is on broad, gently undulating lowland
landscapes. It is often adjacent to swamps and
drainageways.
The natural vegetation consists mostly of water oak,
sweetgum, red maple, and slash pine. The understory
includes waxmyrtle, gallberry, pineland threeawn,
broomsedge bluestem, and scattered saw palmetto.
This map unit makes up 9 percent of the county. It is
43 percent Albany soils and 42 percent Plummer soils.
The soils of minor extent, which are Blanton, Lovett,
Ocilla, and Goldsboro soils, make up 15 percent of the
map unit.
The Albany soils are nearly level to gently sloping
and are somewhat poorly drained. They are on lowland
landscapes. The surface layer is very dark grayish
brown sand about 10 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 50 inches, is grayish brown,
very pale brown, and light gray sand that has strong
brown and yellowish brown mottles. The upper part of








Madison County, Florida


the subsoil, to a depth of about 57 inches, is pale brown
fine sandy loam that has yellowish brown, strong brown,
and light brownish gray mottles. The lower part to a
depth of 80 inches or more is light gray sandy clay loam
and sandy clay that has brown and red mottles.
The Plummer soils are nearly level and are poorly
drained. They are often between swamps or
drainageways and Albany soils that are in slightly
higher positions than Plummer soils. The surface layer
is very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about
14 inches, is dark grayish brown fine sand. The next
part, to a depth of about 22 inches, is pale brown fine
sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 43 inches, is
light gray fine sand that has brownish yellow mottles.
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 48 inches,
is light gray loamy sand that has brown mottles. The
lower part to a depth of more than 80 inches is light
brownish gray sandy loam that has yellow, brown, and
red mottles.
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to crops
because of periodic wetness and low natural fertility.
They are moderately suited to pasture grasses. The
potential of these soils for production of pine trees is
high. Loblolly pine and slash pine are the recommended
trees to plant for woodland production.

8. Plummer-Surrency
Nearly level, poorly drained to very poorly drained soils
that have a loamy subsoil
This map unit is in swamps and drainageways.
The natural vegetation consists mostly of cypress,
blackgum, redbay, and sweetbay. The understory
includes waxmyrtle, fetterbush lyonia, and St.
Johnswort.
This map unit makes up 4 percent of the county. It is
57 percent Plummer soils and 38 percent Surrency
soils. The soils of minor extent, which are Cantey,
Mascotte, Sapelo, Dorovan, and Pamlico soils, make up
5 percent of the map unit.
The Plummer soils are nearly level and are poorly
drained or very poorly drained. They are on flats, in
depressions, or along drainageways. The surface layer
is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil to a
depth of 80 inches or more is gray fine sandy loam
underlain by gray sandy clay loam that has brown
mottles.
The Surrency soils are nearly level and are very
poorly drained. They are along drainageways on the
uplands and in depressions on the flatwoods. The
surface layer is black loamy sand about 10 inches thick.


The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of
about 14 inches, is dark grayish brown loamy sand. The
lower part, to a depth of 32 inches, is light brownish
-gray sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more
is gray sandy clay loam.
The soils in this map unit are not suited to cultivated
crops or pasture grasses because of the high water
table and low natural fertility. The potential of these
soils for production of pine trees is low, mainly because
of wetness.

9. Sapelo-Plummer-Surrency

Nearly level, poorly drained to very poorly drained soils
that have a loamy subsoil; some have a slowly
permeable, organic-stained layer above the subsoil
This map unit is in swamps and on the flatwoods.
The landscape is characterized by broad, poorly
drained flats interspersed with very poorly drained
depressions.
The natural vegetation consists mostly of slash pine,
loblolly pine, sweetbay, redbay, cypress, blackgum, and
red maple. The understory includes fetterbush lyonia,
saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, titi, gallberry, blueberry,
maidencane, chalky bluestem, and greenbrier.
This map unit makes up 7 percent of the county. It is
54 percent Sapelo soils, 24 percent Plummer soils, and
16 percent Surrency soils. The soils of minor extent,
which are Mascotte, Ocilla, Dorovan, and Pamlico soils,
make up 6 percent of the map unit.
The Sapelo soils are mainly on broad flats and are
poorly drained. The surface layer is black mucky fine
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 50 inches is, in sequence downward,
white sand, very dark grayish brown loamy sand that
has dark grayish brown and black mottles, dark brown
sand that has dark grayish brown mottles, yellowish
brown sand that has brown mottles, very pale brown
sand that has yellowish brown and brown mottles, and
light gray sand. The subsoil is sandy loam. The upper
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 68 inches, is light
brownish gray, and the lower part to a depth of 80
inches or more is gray.
The Plummer soils are in depressional areas and are
very poorly drained. The surface layer is black fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 66 inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil
to a depth of about 80 inches is gray sandy loam. It has
brown mottles in the lower part.
The Surrency soils are along drainageways on the
uplands and in depressions on the flatwoods. These
soils are very poorly drained. The surface layer is black








Soil Survey


loamy sand about 10 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 14 inches, is dark
grayish brown loamy sand. The lower part, to a depth of
32 inches, is light brownish gray sand. The subsoil to a
depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy clay loam.
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to crops
and pasture because of wetness. The potential of these
soils for production of slash pine and loblolly pine is
moderate. Large areas of this map map unit are
managed for pulp and timber production.

10. Dorovan-Pamlico
Nearly level and very poorly drained, organic soils
This map unit is in concave positions on the
landscape.
The natural vegetation consists mostly of cypress,
sweetbay, red maple, blackgum, scattered pond pine,
and slash pine. The understory includes titi, gallberry,
fetterbush lyonia, St. Johnswort, greenbrier, wetland
grasses, sedges, and rushes.
This map unit makes up 16 percent of the county. It
is 56 percent Dorovan soils and 42 percent Pamlico
soils. The soils of minor extent, which are Plummer,
Sapelo, and Surrency soils, make up 2 percent of the
map unit.
The Dorovan soils have a surface layer of very dark
brown muck about 14 inches thick. Below that layer, to
a depth of about 64 inches, is dark reddish brown
muck. The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches
or more is very dark gray sand.
The upper part of the surface layer of the Pamlico
soils is black muck about 15 inches thick. The lower
part, to a depth of about 33 inches, is dusky red muck.
The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of
about 60 inches, is yellowish brown sand. The lower
part to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish brown
sandy clay loam.
The soils in this map unit are not suited to cultivated
crops, pasture grasses, or pine tree production, mainly
because of wetness.

11. Dorovan-Pamlico-Albany
Nearly level to gently sloping, very poorly drained to
somewhat poorly drained soils; some are organic, and
some are sandy and have a loamy subsoil
This map unit is predominantly in the southwestern
part of the county, southwest of Alligator Creek.
The natural vegetation in the very poorly drained
areas consists of cypress, sweetbay, redbay, blackgum,
and red maple. The understory includes titi, gallberry,


and fetterbush lyonia. In the somewhat poorly drained
areas, the natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
loblolly pine, water oak, and sweetgum. The understory
includes waxmyrtle, broomsedge bluestem, and
pineland threeawn.
This map unit makes up 5 percent of the county. It is
33 percent Dorovan soils, 24 percent Pamlico soils, and
20 percent Albany soils. The soils of minor extent,
which are Blanton, Chipley, and Plummer soils, make
up 23 percent of the map unit.
The Dorovan soils are nearly level and are very
poorly drained. They are in concave positions on the
landscape. The upper part of the surface layer is very
dark brown muck about 14 inches thick. The lower part,
to a depth of about 64 inches, is dark reddish brown
muck. The underlying material to a depth of about 80
inches or more is very dark gray sand.
The Pamlico soils are nearly level and are very
poorly drained. The upper part of the surface layer is
black muck about 15 inches thick. The lower part, to a
depth of about 33 inches, is dusky red muck. The upper
part of the underlying material, to a depth of about 60
inches, is yellowish brown sand. The lower part to a
depth of about 80 inches or more is sandy clay loam.
The Albany soils are nearly level to gently sloping
and are somewhat poorly drained. The surface layer is
very dark grayish brown sand about 10 inches thick.
The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of
about 26 inches, is grayish brown sand that has strong
brown mottles. The lower part, to a depth of about 39
inches, is light gray sand that has yellowish brown
mottles. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
about 46 inches, is pale brown fine sandy loam that has
brown and gray mottles. The next part, to a depth of
about 58 inches, is light gray sandy clay that has brown
mottles. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more
is light gray sandy clay that has brown and red mottles.
The Dorovan and Pamlico soils are not suited to
cultivated crops, pasture grasses, or pine tree
production mainly because of wetness. The Albany soils
are poorly suited to cultivated crops because of low
natural fertility, periodic droughtiness, and a seasonal
high water table. These soils are moderately suited to
pasture grasses. The potential of the soils in this map
unit for production of pine trees is moderately high.
Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.

Soils on the Flood Plains
The two general soil map units in this group consist
of nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained to








Madison County, Florida


very poorly drained soils. Some soils in this map unit
are sandy throughout and have thin bands of loamy
lamellae below a depth of 40 inches, some have a
loamy subsoil, and some have a clayey subsoil.

12. Alpin-Eunola-Kenansville

Nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained to
somewhat poorly drained soils; some are sandy
throughout and have thin bands of lamellae below a
depth of 40 inches, and some have a loamy subsoil
This map unit is on the flood plains of the
Withlacoochee and Suwannee Rivers. These soils are
occasionally flooded for long periods following rains of
prolonged high intensity.
The natural vegetation consists mostly of slash pine,
longleaf pine, live oak, water oak, turkey oak, bluejack
oak, sweetgum, and blackgum. The understory includes
American holly, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, yaupon,
hawthorn, huckleberry, sparkleberry, saltbush, and
bluestar.
This map unit makes up 2 percent of the county. It is
35 percent Alpin soils, 32 percent Eunola soils, and 30
percent Kenansville soils. The soils of minor extent,
which are Chipley, Blanton, and Troop soils, make up 3
percent of the map unit.
The Alpin soils are excessively drained and are in
broad areas in higher positions on the river terrace than
the Eunola and Kenansville soils. The surface layer is
dark brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 55 inches, is light
yellowish brown fine sand in the upper part and in the
lower part is very pale brown fine sand that has light
yellowish brown mottles. The subsoil to a depth of 80
inches or more is white sand that has thin horizontal
bands of yellowish brown sand.
The Eunola soils are somewhat poorly drained and
are in low river terrace positions that are interspersed
with sinkholes. The surface layer is dark grayish brown
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
a depth of 12 inches, is pale brown loamy fine sand. To
a depth of about 65 inches, the subsoil is, in sequence
downward, yellowish brown and strong brown sandy
clay loam; strong brown sandy clay that has gray, red,
and brown mottles; strong brown sandy clay loam that
has gray, red, and brown mottles; and brownish yellow
loamy fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80
inches or more is white fine sand that has brown
mottles.
The Kenansville soils are well drained and are in
slightly higher positions on the river terrace. The


surface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 22
inches, is loamy fine sand. It is pale brown in the upper
part and pale yellow in the lower part. To a depth of
about 56 inches, the subsoil is, in sequence downward,
brownish yellow fine sandy loam, yellowish brown sandy
clay loam, and brownish yellow fine sandy loam. The
upper part of the substratum, to a depth of 69 inches, is
pale yellow fine sand with yellowish brown bands of
loamy material. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches
is white fine sand with yellowish brown streaks.
The soils in this map unit are used mostly for pine
tree production or as habitat for wildlife. These soils are
unsuited to most other uses because of the hazard of
occasional flooding. The potential of these soils for
production of pine trees is moderately high.

13. Surrency-Plummer-Cantey

Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained
soils; some have a loamy subsoil, and some have a clay
subsoil
This map unit is predominantly along the Aucilla
River and its tributaries. These soils are frequently
flooded.
The natural vegetation consists of cypress,
blackgum, sweetgum, ironwood, sweetbay, water oak,
and slash pine. The understory includes gallberry,
fetterbush lyonia, and waxmyrtle.
This map unit makes up 1 percent of the county. It is
33 percent Surrency soils, 32 percent Plummer soils,
and 25 percent Cantey soils. The soils of minor extent,
which are Sapelo soils, make up 10 percent of the map
unit.
The Surrency soils are very poorly drained. The
surface layer is black loamy sand about 10 inches thick.
The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 32 inches, is
light brownish gray sand. The upper part of the subsoil
is dark gray sandy clay loam. The lower part to a depth
of about 80 inches or more is gray sandy clay. Other
soils occur in areas of the Surrency soils. These soils
are similar to Surrency soils, but they have an organic
surface layer that is more than 16 inches thick.
The Plummer soils are poorly drained or very poorly
drained. The surface layer is black fine sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
58 inches, is very pale brown fine sand in the upper
part and light brownish gray fine sand in the lower part.
The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is light
brownish gray sandy clay loam.
The Cantey soils are poorly drained. The upper part











of the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam
about 5 inches thick. The lower part, to a depth of about
10 inches, is dark gray fine sandy loam. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 19 inches, is light brownish
gray fine sandy loam. The subsoil to a depth of about
80 inches or more is light brownish gray sandy clay in


the upper part and gray, mottled sandy clay in the lower
part.
The soils in this map unit are used mainly as habitat
for wildlife. These soils are not suited to cultivated
crops, pasture, or pine trees.



















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Orangeburg loamy sand, 5
to 8 percent slopes, is one of several phases in the
Orangeburg series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called undifferentiated
groups.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can


be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
made up of all of them. Dorovan and Pamlico soils,
depressional, is an undifferentiated group in this survey
area.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named.
Some of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

2-Albany sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
nearly level and gently sloping and is somewhat poorly
drained. It is adjacent to swamps and drainageways on
the uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
and range from 3 to 75 acres.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Albany sand, 0 to
5 percent slopes, Albany and similar soils make up 82
to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up
1 to 18 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 10 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 50 inches. It is grayish
brown, mottled sand in the upper part; very pale brown,
mottled sand in the next part; and light gray, mottled
sand in the lower part. The subsoil extends to a depth
of about 80 inches or more. It is pale brown, mottled
fine sandy loam in the upper part; light gray, mottled
sandy clay in the next part; and light gray, mottled
sandy clay loam in the lower part.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Blanton and Plummer soils. Blanton soils are in









Soil Survey


higher positions on the landscape than the Albany soil
and are moderately well drained. Plummer soils are in
lower positions and are poorly drained.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 12 to 30 inches
Permeability: Rapid over moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of water oak, loblolly
pine, slash pine, and live oak. The understory includes
fetterbush lyonia and broomsedge bluestem. Pineland
threeawn is the dominant grass.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Crop
residue management, such as conservation tillage, is
needed to conserve moisture during dry periods and
reduce soil blowing and erosion. Seasonal wetness and
low fertility are limitations affecting cropland use and
management. Water control, such as a proper drainage
system, is needed to prevent crop failure caused by
excessive wetness. Irrigation is needed in dry periods.
Applications of lime and fertilizer are needed to
compensate for low fertility.
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture
grasses. Coastal bermudagrass and improved
bahiagrass produce moderate yields when properly
managed. Controlled grazing, proper lime and fertilizer
amendments, and control of surface wetness are
needed to gain optimum returns from pasture grasses.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
high. Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are the main concerns in management.
Slash pine and loblolly pine are the recommended trees
to plant for woodland production. Soil compaction
reduces the productivity of this soil. The sandy surface
layer restricts the use of wheeled equipment, especially
when the soil is saturated or very dry. The seasonal
high water table restricts the use of equipment during
wet periods. Intensive site preparation and maintenance
can keep undesirable plants from restricting adequate
natural or artificial reforestation. Site preparation, such
as chopping, applying herbicides, and bedding, reduces
debris, controls immediate plant competition, and
facilitates mechanical planting. Hardwood understory
can be reduced by controlled burning, applying
herbicides, girdling, or cutting unwanted trees. Bedding
of rows helps to minimize the effects of wetness.
Bedding should not block natural surface drainage.
Because of the risk of erosion and the wetness, road
construction, logging, and site preparation should be
avoided in streambeds and nearby areas.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. Fill


material and drainage are needed for most urban uses.
Subsurface drainage will reduce excessive wetness. If
the density of housing is moderate or high, a community
sewage system is needed to prevent contamination of
the water supplies as a result of seepage. Access roads
must be designed to control surface runoff and to help
stabilize cut slopes.
The land capability classification is Ille, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 9W.

3-Alpin sand. This soil is nearly level and
excessively drained. It is on broad sand flats. The
mapped areas range from 4 to 500 acres. Slopes are 0
to 2 percent.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Alpin sand, Alpin
and similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the map
unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 20 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 3
inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer, to
a depth of about 34 inches, is brownish yellow sand.
The next part, to a depth of about 55 inches, is very
pale brown sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches
or more is very pale brown sand that has horizontal
bands of strong brown loamy sand. Some soils
occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to the
Alpin soil but have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 60
inches.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Blanton, Chipley, and Albany soils. Blanton soils are
in similar positions on the landscape as the Alpin soil
and have a loamy subsoil. Chipley and Albany soils are
in slightly lower positions and are somewhat poorly
drained. Albany soils have a loamy subsoil.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Rapid or moderately rapid
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of scattered slash
pine, longleaf pine, turkey oak, post oak, and blackjack
oak. The understory vegetation includes bluestem, low
panicums, fringeleaf paspalum, and native annual forbs.
Most areas are planted to pine trees.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. A very
low content of organic matter, excessive nutrient
leaching, and low available water capacity are
limitations affecting crop production. Intensive soil
management practices are needed if this soil is
cultivated. Row crops should be planted in alternate
strips with close-growing cover crops to reduce soil








Madison County, Florida


blowing. In areas without adequate windbreaks, blowing
sand can damage young plants. A crop rotation system
that keeps the soil covered with close-growing, soil-
improving crops at least three-fourths of the time is
needed. Planting soil-improving crops and leaving all
crop residue on the soil help to maintain the content of
organic matter and control erosion. Only a few crops
produce fair yields without irrigation. Irrigation generally
is economically feasible if well water is readily available.
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
Conservation tillage will help control erosion and
conserve moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, can be grown with
intensive management, but yields are reduced because
of periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain plant vigor and ensure optimum yields.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. Equipment use and seedling mortality
are the main concerns in management. The very low
available water capacity adversely affects seedling
survival in areas where understory plants are
numerous. The sandy surface layer restricts the use of
wheeled equipment, especially when the soil is
saturated or very dry. Droughtiness increases the rate
of seedling mortality. Undesirable plants can restrict
adequate natural or artificial reforestation. Intensive site
preparation and maintenance generally are not needed.
Site preparation, such as chopping, applying herbicides,
and bedding, reduces debris, controls immediate plant
competition, and facilitates mechanical planting. This
soil commonly is very low in content of organic matter,
and harvesting operations that remove all tree biomass
on the site will reduce the fertility of the soil. Preferred
harvesting methods leave residual biomass distributed
over the site. Slash pine and longleaf pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.
Sand pine also grows well on this soil.
This soil is moderately well suited to building site
development. It is poorly suited to most sanitary
facilities because seepage of effluent can contaminate
the underground freshwater supplies and because of
the sandy texture of the soil but is moderately well
suited to septic tank absorption fields. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of the
ground water supplies. Lawn or pasture grasses should
be planted during construction or installation of sanitary
facilities, building sites, and roads and streets to


stabilize the soil surface and reduce the hazard of
erosion.
The land capability classification is IVs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10S.

5-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
nearly level and gently sloping and is moderately well
drained. It is on ridges and slopes throughout the
county. The mapped areas range from 5 to 150 acres.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Blanton sand, 0 to
5 percent slopes, Blanton and similar soils make up 85
to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up
1 to 15 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 12 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsurface layer, to a depth of 37 inches, is yellowish
brown sand. The next part, to a depth of 53 inches, is
light yellowish brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of
69 inches, is very pale brown sand. The subsoil to a
depth of 80 inches or more is light yellowish brown,
mottled sandy loam. Some soils occurring in areas of
this map unit are similar to the Blanton soil, but they
have a subsoil that contains more than 5 percent
plinthite, have a sandy surface layer less than 40
inches thick, or are sandy throughout.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Albany,
Alpin, and Ocilla soils. Albany and Ocilla soils are in
lower positions on the landscape than the Blanton soil
and are somewhat poorly drained. Alpin soils are in
slightly higher positions, do not have a continuous
subsoil, and are excessively drained.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Perched at a depth of 48 to
72 inches
Permeability: Moderate or moderately rapid
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, and live oak. The understory vegetation
includes blackberry, sassafras, winged sumac,
brackenfern, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to the commonly cultivated
crops in this county. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
nutrients are limitations affecting crop production, and
intensive management is needed. Yields are reduced
and choice of plants is limited unless corrective
measures, such as irrigation, applications of fertilizer
and lime, and conservation tillage, are used to conserve
moisture and reduce the risk of erosion. A crop rotation
system that keeps cover crops on the soil at least two-







Soil Survey


Figure 3.-Strips of rye were planted in this area of Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, to help reduce crop damage caused by blowing
sand.


thirds of the time is needed. Planting soil-improving
cover crops and leaving crop residue on the soil
increase the content of organic matter, control erosion,
and conserve moisture. Strip crops are often used to
reduce crop damage caused by soil blowing (fig. 3).
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
crops. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well
adapted to this soil, but yields are reduced because of
periodic droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain plant vigor and a good ground cover.
Overseeding the pasture with rye, clover, or other
recommended winter forage will produce the extra
tonnage needed to allow grazing through the winter.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. Equipment use and seedling mortality
are moderate concerns in management. The low
available water capacity adversely affects seedling
survival in areas where understory plants are


numerous. This soil commonly is very low in content of
organic matter, and harvesting operations that remove
pli tree biomass on the site will reduce the fertility of the
0Qil. Preferred harvesting methods leave residual
IpQmass distributed over the site. Organic matter can be
unserved by restricting burning and leaving slash well
Ijetributed. Competing vegetation can be controlled by
e preparation. Spraying, cutting, or girdling controls
wanted weeds, brush, or trees. Using special
prvesting equipment with large tires or tracks reduces
Ie equipment use limitation, minimizes root damage,
0id reduces soil compaction during thinning operations.
This soil is moderately suited to most sanitary
4cilities and is well suited to building site development.
e sandy texture is a limitation affecting sanitary
facilities because seepage of effluent can contaminate
!pderground freshwater supplies. Lawn or pasture
passes should be planted to stabilize the exposed soil
surface during the construction or installation of sanitary








Madison County, Florida


facilities, buildings, and roads to reduce the hazard of
erosion.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11S.

6--Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is
gently sloping and is moderately well drained. It is on
side slopes and narrow ridges. The mapped areas are
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 15 acres.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Blanton sand, 5 to
8 percent slopes, Blanton and similar soils make up 80
to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up
1 to 20 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 57 inches, is yellowish brown sand. The upper
part of the subsoil is pale brown sandy loam. The lower
part to a depth of about 80 inches is pale brown sandy
clay loam that has gray mottles.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Alpin soils.
These soils are in slightly higher positions on the
landscape than the Blanton soil and do not have a
continuous subsoil.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Perched at a depth of 48 to
72 inches
Permeability: Moderate or moderately rapid
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, live
oak, water oak, and laurel oak. The understory
vegetation includes blackberry, greenbrier, wild cherry,
panicum, and bluestem.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness, rapid leaching of nutrients, and
steepness of slope are the main limitations affecting
cropland use. The irregular slopes hinder tillage
operations. Maintaining crop residue on or near the
surface reduces runoff, helps to maintain soil tilth, and
increases the content of organic matter in the soil. Most
crops and pasture plants respond well to regular
applications of fertilizer, and lime generally is needed
on this soil.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main
limitations are droughtiness and low natural fertility.
Pasture grasses can be grown to help control erosion.
Suitable pasture plants are bahiagrass and improved
bermudagrass. Fertilizer and lime are needed for
optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderately high. The low available water capacity


adversely affects seedling survival in areas where
understory plants are numerous. This soil commonly is
very low in content of organic matter, and harvesting
operations that remove all tree biomass on the site will
reduce the fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting
methods leave residual biomass distributed over the
site. Organic matter can be conserved by restricting
burning and leaving slash well distributed. Competing
vegetation can be controlled by site preparation.
Spraying, cutting, or girdling controls unwanted weeds,
brush, or trees. Using special harvesting equipment with
large tires or tracks reduces the equipment use
limitation, minimizes root damage, and reduces soil
compaction during thinning operations.
This soil is moderately suited to most sanitary
facilities and is well suited to building site development
(fig. 4). The sandy texture is a limitation affecting
sanitary facilities because seepage of effluent can
contaminate the underground freshwater supplies. Lawn
or pasture grasses should be planted during
construction and installation of sanitary facilities,
buildings, and roads to stabilize the exposed soil
surface and to reduce the hazard of erosion.
The land capability classification is IVs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11S.

10-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
is nearly level to gently sloping and is excessively
drained. It is in broad upland areas on the Lower
Coastal Plain. The mapped areas range from 10 to 80
acres.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Lakeland sand, 0
to 5 percent slopes, Lakeland and similar soils make up
80 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 1 to 20 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 4
inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material,
to a depth of about 35 inches, is yellow sand. The next
part, to a depth of about 63 inches, is brownish yellow
sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is
very pale brown sand.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Blanton soils. These soils are in slightly lower
positions on the landscape than the Lakeland soil and
have a loamy subsoil.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Very rapid
Available water capacity: Very low







Soil Survey


Figure 4.-This housing development is on Cherry Lake, which is an attractive setting for urban development. The soil is Blanton sand, 5 to
8 percent slopes.


The natural vegetation consists of turkey oak,
blackjack oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The
understory vegetation includes sumac and Florida
bluestem. In many areas, this soil has been cleared and
planted to slash pine.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients.
Frequent applications of fertilizer and an irrigation
system are necessary for good crop production.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Deep-rooted
plants, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are adapted to this soil. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.


The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderate. Slash pine and longleaf pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.
Equipment use and seedling mortality are moderate
concerns in management. Droughtiness increases the
rate of seedling mortality. Hardwood understory can be
reduced by controlled burning, applying herbicides,
girdling, or cutting unwanted trees. The sandy surface
layer restricts the use of wheeled equipment, especially
when the soil is very dry.
This soil is well suited to building site development
except for shallow excavations, which are subject to
caving. It is poorly suited to most sanitary facilities








Madison County, Florida


because of its sandy texture and because of seepage,
but it is well suited to septic tank absorption fields. If the
density of housing is moderate or high, a community
sewage system is needed to prevent contamination of
the ground water supplies as a result of seepage.
Because of the sandy texture of this soil, it is poorly
suited to recreational development.
The land capability classification is IVs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10S.

11-Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil
is gently sloping to sloping and is excessively drained. It
is on broad ridges on the uplands and in low
depositional positions. The mapped areas are irregular
in shape and range from 5 to 20 acres.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Lakeland sand, 5
to 8 percent slopes, Lakeland and similar soils make up
80 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 1 to 20 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of about 80 inches is yellowish
brown sand and brownish yellow sand. Some soils
occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to the
Lakeland soil, but they have more than 10 percent silt
and clay in the 10- to 40-inch control section or they
have lamellae.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Blanton and Troup soils. These soils have a loamy
subsoil. Blanton soils are moderately well drained, and
Troup soils are well drained.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Very rapid
Available water capacity: Very low
The natural vegetation consists of bluejack oak,
turkey oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The
understory vegetation includes sumac and Florida
bluestem.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The main
limitations affecting irrigated crops are rapid leaching of
nutrients, droughtiness, and very low natural fertility.
Crop residue left on or near the surface helps to
conserve moisture, maintain tilth, and control erosion.
Practices that can be used to control erosion include
early fall seeding, conservation tillage, and grassed
waterways. Most crops and pasture plants respond
moderately to fertilizer, and lime generally is needed.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Suitable


pasture plants are bahiagrass and improved
bermudagrass. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderate. Slash pine and longleaf pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.
Equipment use and seedling mortality are moderate
concerns in woodland management. Droughtiness
increases the rate of seedling mortality. Hardwood
understory can be reduced by controlled burning,
applying herbicides, girdling, or cutting unwanted trees.
The sandy surface layer restricts the use of wheeled
equipment, especially when the soil is very dry.
This soil is well suited to most building site
development except for shallow excavations, which are
subject to caving. It is poorly suited to most sanitary
facilities because of its sandy texture, but it is
moderately suited to septic tank absorption fields. If the
density of housing is moderate or high, a community
sewage system is needed to prevent contamination of
the ground water supplies as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is Vis, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10S.

13-Lucy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
nearly level to gently sloping and is well drained. It is on
broad upland ridges. The mapped areas are irregular in
shape and range from 15 to 60 acres.
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Lucy sand, 2
to 5 percent slopes, Lucy and similar soils make up 81
to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up
1 to 19 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown sand about 11 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of 24 inches, is strong brown loamy
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 34
inches, is yellowish red fine sandy loam. The lower part
to a depth of about 80 inches or more is yellowish red
sandy clay loam.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Faceville soils. These soils have a clayey subsoil.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of maple, hickory,
bluejack oak, and live oak. The understory vegetation
includes ash, greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.








Soil Survey


In most areas, this soil is used for cultivated crops or
is planted to pasture.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. It
can be cultivated if good farming methods are used, but
droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
the choice of crops that can be grown and the potential
yields of adapted crops. With proper management, corn,
soybeans, peanuts, and tobacco can be grown. A crop
rotation system that keeps cover crops on the soil at
least half the time is needed. These cover crops and all
crop residue should be left on the ground to conserve
moisture and reduce the risk of erosion. Good seedbed
preparation and applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed to obtain maximum yields. Irrigation of some
high value crops generally is feasible if water is readily
available.
This soil is well suited to hay crops and pasture.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce well if
fertilizer and lime are applied. Controlled grazing is
necessary to maintain plant vigor and a good ground
cover and to ensure maximum yields.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderately high. Seedling mortality, equipment use,
and plant competition are the main concerns in
management. Slash pine and loblolly pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.
Intensive site preparation and maintenance can keep
undesirable plants from restricting natural or artificial
reforestation. Hardwood understory can be reduced by
controlled burning, applying herbicides, girdling, or
cutting unwanted trees.
This soil has slight limitations affecting most sanitary
facilities and building site development except for
shallow excavations, which are subject to caving. Lawn
or pasture grasses should be planted to stabilize the
exposed soil surface and reduce the hazard of erosion
during construction or installation of sanitary facilities,
buildings, and roads.
The land capability classification is IIs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

14-Lucy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is
gently sloping to sloping and is well drained. It is on
side slopes and narrow ridges. The mapped areas are
irregular in shape and range from 15 to 40 acres.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Lucy sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes, Lucy and similar soils make up 75 to 96
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 4 to
25 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown sand about 11 inches thick. The subsurface


layer, to a depth of about 24 inches, is strong brown
loamy sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
about 34 inches, is yellowish red fine sandy loam. The
lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is sandy clay
loam. Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to Lucy soil, but they have a subsoil at a depth
of less than 20 inches or below a depth of 40 inches.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Faceville soils. These soils have a clayey subsoil.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of maple, hickory,
bluejack oak, and live oak. The understory includes
ash, greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.
In most areas, this soil is used for cultivated crops or
is planted to pasture.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. It
can be cultivated if good farming methods are used, but
droughtiness, a moderate erosion hazard, and rapid
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of crops that
can be grown and the potential yields of adapted crops.
With proper management corn, soybeans, peanuts, and
tobacco can be grown. A crop rotation system that
keeps cover crops on the soil at least half the time is
needed. These cover crops and all crop residue should
be left on the ground to conserve moisture and reduce
the risk of erosion. Good seedbed preparation and
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed to obtain
maximum yields. Irrigation of some high value crops
generally is feasible if water is readily available. Early
seeding, stubble mulching, and tilling and planting on
the contour or across the slope will reduce erosion.
Also, waterways should be shaped and seeded to
perennial grass.
This soil is well suited to hay crops and pasture.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce well if
fertilizer and lime are applied. Controlled grazing is
necessary to maintain plant vigor and a good ground
cover and to ensure maximum yields.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderately high. Seedling mortality, equipment use,
and plant competition are the main concerns in
management. Slash pine and loblolly pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.
Intensive site preparation and maintenance can keep
undesirable plants from restricting adequate natural or








Madison County, Florida


artificial reforestation. Hardwood understory can be
reduced by controlled burning, applying herbicides,
girdling, or cutting unwanted trees.
This soil has slight limitations for most sanitary
facilities and building site development except for
shallow excavations, which are subject to caving. Lawn
or pasture grasses should be planted during
construction and installation of sanitary facilities,
buildings, and roads to stabilize the exposed soil
surface and reduce the hazard of erosion.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

15-Mascotte sand. This soil is nearly level and
poorly drained. It is on the flatwoods and in positions
adjacent to swamps or depressions. The mapped areas
are 5 to 20 acres. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Mascotte sand,
Mascotte and similar soils make up 84 to 99 percent of
the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 16 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 14
inches, is light gray sand. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches. In sequence downward, it is black
sand, very dark brown sand coated with organic matter,
light yellowish brown sand, and gray sandy clay loam.
Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to the Mascotte soil, but they have a loamy
subsoil below a depth of 40 inches.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Ocilla and Plummer soils. Ocilla soils are in slightly
higher positions on the landscape than the Mascotte
soil and do not have an organic-stained sandy subsoil.
Plummer soils are in slightly lower positions than the
Mascotte soil and do not have an organic-stained sandy
subsoil.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 0 to 12 inches
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of redbay, water oak,
and slash pine. The understory vegetation includes
chalky bluestem, sumac, inkberry, greenbrier, titi,
waxmyrtle, and saw palmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of wetness. The number of adapted crops that can be
grown is very limited unless intensive water-control
measures are used. With a water-control system that is
designed to remove excess water during wet periods,
this soil is well suited to a variety of vegetable crops. In


addition to water control, proper management should
include crop rotation and keeping close-growing, soil-
improving crops on the land at least two-thirds of the
time. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
the needs of the crop.
This soil is fairly suited to pasture. The main
limitations are seasonal wetness and very low natural
fertility. Wetness limits the choice of plants that can be
grown and the period of grazing. When the soil is wet,
grazing causes compaction of the surface layer and
damage to the plant community. Excess surface water
can be removed from most areas by field drains. The
main suitable pasture plants are bahiagrass and
bermudagrass. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and
restricted grazing during wet periods help keep the
pasture and soil in good condition. Fertilizer and lime
are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderate. The seasonal high water table restricts the
use of equipment during wet periods. Site preparation,
such as chopping, applying herbicides, and bedding,
reduces debris, controls immediate plant competition,
and facilitates mechanical planting. Planting trees on
bedded rows minimizes the effects of wetness. Using
special harvesting equipment with large tires or tracks
reduces the equipment use limitation, minimizes root
damage, and reduces soil compaction during thinning
operations.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities and is
fairly suited to building site development. The main
limitations are wetness, seepage, the sandy texture,
and the instability of cutbanks. Fill material is needed
for most urban uses. Drainage is needed if roads and
building foundations are constructed. Excess water can
be removed by installing shallow ditches and providing
the proper ditch grade. Septic tank absorption fields are
mounded in most areas. If the density of housing is
moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent contamination of the water supplies
as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10W.

16-Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is
well drained. It is on the uplands. The mapped areas
range from 3 to 80 acres.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Orangeburg loamy
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Orangeburg and similar
soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 18 percent.








Soil Survey


Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of 15 inches, is dark yellowish brown
loamy sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
26 inches, is yellowish red fine sandy loam. The lower
part to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish red
sandy clay loam. Other soils occurring in areas of this
map unit are similar to the Orangeburg soil, but they
have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 20 inches.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Faceville soils. These soils are clayey.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Moderate
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly
pine, and southern red oak. The understory vegetation
includes blackberry and wild cherry.
This soil is well suited to crops. The hazard of
erosion is the main concern in management if this soil
is cultivated. Conservation tillage is needed to minimize
soil blowing and erosion. Fertilizer and lime are needed
to provide essential and minor nutrients for the selected
plants.
This soil is also well suited to improved pasture.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well
adapted to this soil. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderately high. There are no major management
concerns; however, caution should be exercised during
site preparation to minimize soil loss caused by erosion.
Undesirable plants can restrict adequate natural or
artificial reforestation. Intensive site preparation and
maintenance generally are not needed. Hardwood
understory can be reduced by controlled burning,
applying herbicides, girdling, or cutting unwanted trees.
This soil commonly is very low in content of organic
matter, and harvesting operations that remove all tree
biomass on the site will reduce the fertility of the soil.
Preferred harvesting methods leave residual biomass
distributed over the site. Slash pine and loblolly pine are
the recommended trees to plant for woodland
production.
This soil is well suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development.
The land capability classification is lie, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8A.


17-Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. This soil is gently sloping to sloping and is well
drained. It is on the uplands. The mapped areas range
from 5 to 50 acres.
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Orangeburg loamy
sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Orangeburg and similar
soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 20 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of 15 inches, is yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 18 inches, is strong
brown sandy loam. The next part, to a depth of 35
inches, is yellowish red sandy clay loam. The lower part
to a depth of 80 inches or more is strong brown sandy
clay loam. Some soils occurring in areas of this map
unit are similar to the Orangeburg soil, but they have a
loamy subsoil below a depth of 20 inches.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Troup soils. These soils have a loamy subsoil below
a depth of 40 inches.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly
pine, and southern red oak. The understory vegetation
includes wild cherry, blackberry, and redcedar.
This soil is moderately well suited to cultivated crops.
The hazard of erosion is the main concern in
management if this soil is cultivated. Conservation
tillage, contour farming, stripcropping, or a combination
of these practices is needed to reduce soil loss caused
by water erosion. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
according to the needs of the crop for optimum yields.
Growing cover crops and leaving all crop residue on the
soil reduce the risk of erosion and conserve moisture.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted to this
soil if properly managed. Permanent pasture is
preferred in cropland areas that are subject to severe
erodibility. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderately high. The hazard of erosion is the main
concern in management. Undesirable plants can restrict
adequate natural or artificial reforestation. Intensive site
preparation and maintenance generally are not needed.








Madison County, Florida


Slash pine and loblolly pine are the recommended trees
to plant for woodland production.
This soil is well suited to building site development. It
is well suited to most sanitary facilities except sewage
lagoons. Special design and proper site selection are
needed when planning the installation of a sewage
lagoon on this soil. The main limitation affecting sanitary
facilities is seepage of effluent. Steepness of slope and
seepage are moderate limitations affecting sewage
lagoons. If the density of housing is moderate or high, a
community sewage system is needed to prevent
contamination of the ground water supplies as a result
of seepage.
The land capability classification is Ille, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8A.

18-Orangeburg loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent
slopes. This soil is sloping to strongly sloping and is
well drained. It is on the uplands. The mapped areas
range from 5 to 50 acres.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Orangeburg loamy
sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes, Orangeburg and similar
soils make up 79 to 99 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 21 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is yellowish brown loamy
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 17 inches, is yellowish brown loamy
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 60
inches, is yellowish red sandy clay loam. The lower part
to a depth of 80 inches or more is strong brown sandy
clay loam. Some soils occurring in areas of this map
symbol are similar to the Orangeburg soil, but they have
a loamy subsoil below a depth of 20 inches.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Troup soils. These soils have a loamy subsoil below
a depth of 40 inches. Also included are small areas of
soils that have a clayey texture.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly
pine, and southern red oak. The understory vegetation
includes wild cherry, blackberry, and redcedar.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
hazard of erosion is the main concern in management if
this soil is cultivated. Conservation tillage, contour
farming, stripcropping, or a combination of these
practices is needed to reduce soil loss caused by water


erosion. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according
to the needs of the crop for optimum yields. Growing
cover crops and leaving all crop residue on the soil
reduce the risk of erosion and conserve moisture.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted to this
soil if properly managed. Permanent pasture is
preferred in cropland areas that are subject to severe
erodibility. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderately high. The hazard of erosion is the main
concern in management. Undesirable plants can reduce
adequate natural or artificial reforestation. Intensive site
preparation and maintenance generally are not needed.
Hardwood understory can be reduced by controlled
burning, applying herbicides, girdling, or cutting
unwanted trees. This soil commonly is very low in
content of organic matter, and harvesting operations
that remove all tree biomass on the site will reduce the
fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting methods leave
residual biomass distributed over the site. Slash pine
and loblolly pine are the recommended trees to plant for
woodland production.
This soil is moderately suited to building site
development. It is also moderately suited to most
sanitary facilities except sewage lagoons. The main
limitations affecting sanitary facilities is seepage of
effluent. Steepness of slope and seepage are severe
limitations affecting sewage lagoons. Special design
and proper site selection are needed when planning the
installation of a sewage lagoon on this soil. If the
density of housing is moderate or high, a community
sewage system is needed to prevent contamination of
the ground water supplies as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is IVe, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8A.

21-Cantey fine sandy loam. This soil is nearly level
and poorly drained. It is in low-lying, flat areas where
excess water ponds for long periods after heavy rainfall.
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Cantey fine sandy
loam, Cantey and similar soils make up 80 to 99
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to
20 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is very
dark gray fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about
10 inches, is dark gray fine sandy loam. The lower part,
to a depth of about 19 inches, is light brownish gray fine
sandy loam. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80








Soil Survey


inches or more. The upper part of the subsoil is light
brownish gray sandy clay that has strong brown
mottles. The next part is gray sandy clay that has
yellowish brown and red mottles. The lower part is gray
sandy clay that has brownish gray mottles. Some soils
occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to the
Cantey soil, but they have a loamy surface layer more
than 20 inches thick or a slope of as much as 10
percent.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Albany, Ocilla, Plummer, and Surrency soils. These
soils are sandy below a depth of 20 inches. Albany and
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained, have a loamy
subsoil, and are in higher positions on the landscape
than the Cantey soil. Plummer soils are in similar
positions as the Cantey soil and have a loamy subsoil.
Surrency soils are very poorly drained.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 0 to 12 inches
Permeability: Slow
Available water capacity: Moderate
The natural vegetation consists of laurel oak, water
oak, sweetgum, blackgum, cypress, red maple, loblolly
pine, and slash pine. The understory vegetation
includes bluestem and water-tolerant grasses.
This soil is used mostly as woodland. A few areas
are used as pasture.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. It is
limited mainly because of wetness and ponding.
Generally, this soil is not suited to cultivation. If water
control is maintained through a system of dikes,
ditches, and pumps, however, this soil is suited to truck
crops. Proper row arrangement, field ditches, and
vegetated outlets are needed to remove excess surface
water.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture, but with water
control management, it is fairly suited to this use. The
main limitations are wetness and ponding. Wetness
limits the choice of plants that can be grown and the
period of grazing. Suitable pasture plants are
bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine
and loblolly pine, if drained, is moderately low.
Hardwoods, if left uncontrolled, will reduce pine tree
stands; therefore, hardwoods could initially be a less
expensive management alternative, depending on the
management objective. The main concerns in woodland
management are equipment use and seedling mortality.
Wetness is a limitation affecting the use of equipment
on this soil. After harvesting, reforestation must be


carefully managed to reduce competition from
undesirable understory plants. Water-tolerant trees
should be planted, and harvesting operations should be
scheduled during dry periods. Because the clayey soil
is sticky when wet, most planting and harvesting
equipment can be used only during dry periods.
Bedding of rows helps to minimize the effects of
excessive wetness.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development. The main limitations are
wetness, the clayey texture, and slow permeability. Fill
material and drainage are needed for most urban uses.
Selection of vegetation adapted to this soil is critical for
the establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and
vegetable gardens. The slow permeability and the high
water table increase the possibility that septic tank
absorption fields will not function properly on this soil.
The land capability classification is VIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8W.

22-Pelham sand. This soil is nearly level and is
poorly drained. It is on flats and in depressions. The
mapped areas range from 5 to 30 acres. Slopes are 0
to 2 percent.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Pelham sand,
Pelham and similar soils make up 80 to 94 percent of
the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 6 to 20 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is very
dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The lower part, to
a depth of 13 inches, is dark grayish brown sand. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 inches, is very pale
brown loamy sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of
80 inches or more. In sequence downward, it is light
brownish gray sandy loam that has yellowish red and
yellowish brown mottles; light brownish gray sandy clay
loam that has yellowish red and yellowish brown
mottles; gray sandy clay that has dark red, yellow, pale
brown, and gray mottles; and gray clay that has dark
red, yellow, pale brown, and gray mottles. Some soils
occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to the
Pelham soil, but some have a loamy subsoil below a
depth of 40 inches, some have an organic-stained
subsurface layer, and others are somewhat poorly
drained.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Cantey soils. These soils are clayey within 20 inches
of the surface.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 0 to 12 inches
Permeability: Slow
Available water capacity: Low








Madison County, Florida


The natural vegetation consists of laurel oak, water
oak, and slash pine. The understory vegetation includes
waxmyrtle, inkberry, fetterbush lyonia, scattered saw
palmetto, chalky bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. It is
limited by wetness after periods of heavy rainfall and by
the low available water capacity in the sandy surface
and subsurface layers during dry periods. A water
control system designed to remove excess water is
needed before these soils are suitable for cultivated
crops. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of
rows. Row crops should be planted in alternate strips
with close-growing crops at least three-fourths of the
time. Leaving all crop residue on the soil and growing
cover crops reduce the risk of erosion and conserve
moisture. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed.
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture
grasses. Proper management practices, such as water
control, controlled grazing, and applications of fertilizer
and lime, are needed.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. A water-control system is needed, and
bedding of rows is desirable. Site preparation, such as
chopping, applying herbicides, and bedding, reduces
debris, controls immediate plant competition, and
facilitates mechanical planting. Planting trees on
bedded rows minimizes the effects of wetness. Using
special harvesting equipment with large tires or tracks
reduces the equipment use limitation, minimizes root
damage, and reduces soil compaction during thinning
operations.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities, building
site development, and recreational development
because of wetness.
The land capability classification is Vw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W.

23-Plummer sand. This soil is nearly level and
poorly drained. It is in broad, flat areas or along
drainageways. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
and range from 5 to 200 acres. Slopes are 0 to 2
percent.
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Plummer sand,
Plummer and similar soils make up 83 to 99 percent of
the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 17 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is very
dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The lower part, to
a depth of 14 inches, is dark grayish brown sand. The
upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about
22 inches, is light brownish gray sand. The next part, to
a depth of 43 inches, is light gray sand that has gray


and brownish yellow mottles. The lower part, to a depth
of 52 inches, is white sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 57 inches, is light gray loamy
sand that has brown mottles. The lower part to a depth
of 80 inches or more is light brownish gray fine sandy
loam that has mottles in shades of red, yellow, and
brown. Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit
are similar to the Plummer soil, but they are sandy to a
depth of less than 40 inches and are somewhat poorly
drained.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Chipley and
Surrency soils. Chipley soils are in slightly higher
positions on the landscape than the Plummer soils and
do not have a loamy subsoil. Surrency soils are in
slightly lower positions and have a black surface layer
about 10 inches or more thick.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 0 to 12 inches
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine and
longleaf pine. The understory vegetation includes
waxmyrtle, inkberry, fetterbush lyonia, brackenfern,
scattered saw palmetto, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops mainly
because of wetness after heavy rainfall and low
available water capacity during dry periods. A water
control system designed to remove excess surface and
subsurface water is needed before these soils are
suitable for cultivated crops. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of rows. Row crops should be
planted in alternate strips with close-growing crops at
least three-fourths of the time. Leaving all crop residue
on the soil and growing cover crops reduce erosion and
conserve moisture. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed.
This soil is moderately suited to improved grasses.
Proper management practices, such as water control,
controlled grazing, and regular applications of fertilizer
and lime, are needed.
The potential productivity of this soil for loblolly pine
is moderate. The seasonal high water table restricts the
use of equipment during wet periods. Wetness and
strong winds increase the hazard of windthrow.
Seedling mortality is very severe because of the high
water table that is at or near the soil surface for about 6
months of the year. Site preparation, such as chopping,
applying herbicides, and bedding, reduces debris,
controls immediate plant competition, and facilitates
mechanical planting. Hardwood understory can be









Soil Survey


reduced by controlled burning, applying herbicides,
girdling, or cutting unwanted trees. Using special
planting stock that is larger than usual or that is
containerized will reduce the rate of seedling mortality.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities or
building site development because of the seasonal high
water table.
The land capability classification is IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W.

26-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
nearly level to gently sloping and is well drained. It is on
the Coastal Plain uplands. The mapped areas range
from 10 to 120 acres.
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Troup sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes, Troup and similar soils make up 78 to
99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1
to 22 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsurface layer, to a depth of 18 inches, is dark
yellowish brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of 68
inches, is yellowish brown sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 74 inches, is strong brown loamy
sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is
strong brown sandy clay loam. Some soils occurring in
areas of this map unit are similar to the Troup soil, but
they are sandy to a depth of less than 40 inches or are
sandy throughout.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Blanton and Lovett soils. These soils are moderately
well drained.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Very low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, and bluejack oak. The understory
vegetation includes pineland threeawn and other native
grasses.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients are the
major limitations affecting row crops. All crops need
frequent applications of fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is
feasible if water is readily available. Conservation tillage
is recommended to conserve moisture and reduce the
risk of erosion.
This soil is moderately well suited to hay crops and
pasture. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well


adapted to this soil, but yields are reduced by periodic
droughts. Grazing should be controlled.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately high. The very low available water capacity
adversely affects seedling survival in areas where
understory plants are numerous. This soil commonly is
very low in content of organic matter, and harvesting
operations that remove all tree biomass on the site will
reduce fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting methods
leave residual biomass distributed over the site. Organic
matter can be conserved by restricting burning and
leaving slash well distributed. Competing vegetation can
be controlled by site preparation. Spraying, cutting, or
girdling controls unwanted weeds, brush, or trees.
Using special harvesting equipment with large tires or
tracks reduces the equipment use limitation, minimizes
root damage, and reduces soil compaction during
thinning operations.
This soil is well suited to most building site
development except for shallow excavations, which are
subject to caving. It is poorly suited to most sanitary
facilities, such as sewage lagoons or sanitary landfills,
because of its sandy texture and because seepage of
effluent can contaminate ground water supplies, but it is
well suited to use as septic tank absorption fields.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

27-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is
gently sloping to sloping and is well drained. It is on
broad, long side slopes adjacent to deep sand. The
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 10
to 60 acres.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Troup sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes, Troup and similar soils make up 90 to
99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1
to 10 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand about
8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
about 40 inches, is dark yellowish brown sand. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 76 inches, is
brownish yellow sand and yellow sand. The lower part
to a depth of 80 inches is brownish yellow sandy clay
loam.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Blanton soils. These soils are in lower positions on
the landscape than the Troup soil and are moderately
well drained.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface








Madison County, Florida


Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Very low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, turkey oak, and hickory. The understory
vegetation includes pineland threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. It is
limited mainly because of the sandy texture,
droughtiness, and very low natural fertility. A well
designed and properly managed sprinkler irrigation
system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and
ensure maximum yields. Returning all crop residue to
the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures help to
maintain fertility and tilth. Most crops and pasture plants
respond well to fertilizer. Lime generally is needed on
this soil. Soil blowing is a hazard in cultivated areas, but
it can be controlled with a good ground cover of close-
growing plants.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main
limitations are droughtiness and very low fertility. Low
available water capacity limits plant production, and
drought-tolerant plants are most suitable for planting.
The main suitable pasture plants are bahiagrass and
improved bermudagrass. Grazing rotation helps to
maintain forage quality. Proper grazing practices, weed
control, and fertilizer are needed for maximum forage
quality. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for loblolly pine
is moderately low. Loblolly pine and slash pine are
suitable for planting. The main concern in management
is the very low available water capacity, which causes
severe seedling mortality and reduces growth. This soil
is often very low in content of organic matter, and
harvesting operations that remove all tree biomass on
the site will reduce fertility. Preferred harvesting
methods leave residual biomass distributed over the
site.
This soil is poorly suited to most sanitary facilities
and well suited to building site development. Seepage
is the main limitation affecting sewage lagoons.
Mulching, fertilizing, and irrigating are needed to
establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants.
During the rainy season, effluent from onsite sewage
disposal systems can seep into points downslope. If the
density of housing is moderate or high, a community
sewage system is needed to prevent contamination of
the water supplies as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is IVs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.


28-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is somewhat
poorly drained. It is on uplands and knolls. The mapped
areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 40
acres.
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Chipley fine sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes, Chipley and similar soils make up
81 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 1 to 19 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
underlying material, to a depth of about 23 inches, is
yellowish brown fine sand. The next part, to a depth of
47 inches, is very pale brown fine sand that has yellow,
white, and yellowish brown mottles. The lower part to a
depth of about 80 inches is white fine sand that has
yellow and reddish yellow mottles.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Albany and
Plummer soils. These soils have a loamy layer below a
depth of 40 inches.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 24 to 36 inches
Permeability: Rapid
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
sweetgum, and turkey oak. The understory vegetation
includes blackberry, inkberry, bluestem, and pineland
threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of a low content of organic matter, excessive nutrient
leaching, low available water capacity, and seasonal
droughtiness. Irrigation generally is feasible in most
areas if water is readily available. Maintaining crop
residue on or near the surface reduces runoff and helps
to maintain tilth and content of organic matter in the
soil. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime
generally are needed to improve the quality of the soil.
This soil is fairly suited to pasture. It has few
limitations; however, the low available water capacity
limits the production of plants during extended dry
periods. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more drought
tolerant if properly fertilized and limed.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderately high. The low available water capacity
adversely affects seedling survival in areas where
understory plants are numerous. This soil is often very
low in content of organic matter, and harvesting
operations that remove all tree biomass on the site will








Soil Survey


reduce the fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting
methods leave residual biomass distributed over the
site. Organic matter can be conserved by restricting
burning and leaving slash well distributed. Competing
vegetation can be controlled by site preparation.
Spraying, cutting, or girdling controls unwanted weeds,
brush, or trees. Using special harvesting equipment with
large tires or tracks reduces the equipment use
limitation, minimizes root damage, and reduces soil
compaction during thinning operations.
This soil is poorly suited to most sanitary facilities
and building site development. Wetness and the sandy
texture are limitations affecting sanitary facilities
because seepage of effluent can contaminate
underground freshwater supplies. During construction or
installation of sanitary facilities, buildings, and roads,
lawn grasses or pasture grasses should be planted to
stabilize the exposed soil surface and to reduce the
hazard of erosion. Fill material is needed for most urban
uses.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11S.

30-Ocilla sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
nearly level to gently sloping and is somewhat poorly
drained. It is on low uplands. The mapped areas are
oval or elongated and range from 5 to 50 acres.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Ocilla sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes, Ocilla and similar soils make up 79 to
99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1
to 21 percent of.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
about 3 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 24 inches, is light yellowish
brown and very pale brown sand that has reddish
yellow and white mottles. The lower part, to a depth of
about 29 inches, is light yellowish brown loamy sand
that has light gray and brownish yellow mottles. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 34 inches,
is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has
brownish yellow and light gray mottles. The lower part
to a depth of about 80 inches is light brownish gray
sandy clay that has red, yellowish brown, and strong
brown mottles.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Blanton and Goldsboro soils. Blanton soils are
moderately well drained and have a loamy subsoil at a
depth of 40 inches or more. Goldsboro soils have a
loamy subsoil within 20 inches of the surface and are in
slightly higher positions on the landscape than the
Ocilla soil.


Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 12 to 30 inches
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, laurel
oak, and water oak. The understory vegetation includes
partridge pea, sumac, American beautyberry,
waxmyrtle, blackberry, and wild grape.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. It is
limited mainly because of seasonal wetness and the
thick, sandy surface and subsurface layers. Soybeans,
corn, and small grain are the main crops. Maintaining
crop residue on or near the surface reduces runoff and
helps to maintain tilth and the content of organic matter.
Lime generally is needed on this soil. An adequate
water control system, such as surface and subsurface
drainage, is needed to attain maximum productivity.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main
limitations are wetness and low fertility. Wetness limits
the choice of plants that can be grown and the period of
grazing. Suitable pasture plants are bahiagrass and
improved bermudagrass. Fertilizer and lime are needed
for optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderately high. The main concerns in management
are equipment use and seedling mortality. The sandy
surface layer restricts the use of wheeled equipment,
especially when the soil is saturated or very dry. Site
preparation, such as chopping, applying herbicides, and
bedding, reduces debris, controls immediate plant
competition, and facilitates mechanical planting. This
soil commonly is very low in content of organic matter,
and harvesting operations that remove all tree biomass
on the site will reduce the fertility of the soil. Preferred
harvesting methods leave residual biomass distributed
over the site. Bedding of rows helps to minimize the
effects of the wetness. Bedding should not block natural
surface drainage.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development. The main limitations are
seepage and wetness. Drainage is needed to minimize
the effects of wetness, and fill material is needed for
most urban uses.
The land capability classification is Illw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8W.

34-Sapelo sand. This soil is nearly level and poorly
drained. It is on the flatwoods and in areas bordering
swamps and depressions. The mapped areas range
from 10 to 200 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.








Madison County, Florida


In 95 percent of areas mapped as Sapelo sand,
Sapelo and similar soils make up 82 to 99 percent of
the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 18 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 11 inches, is gray sand. The subsoil extends to
a depth of 80 inches or more. The subsoil is, in
sequence downward, black sand, very dark brown and
dark brown sand, light gray sand, and light gray sandy
clay loam. Some soils occurring in areas of this map
unit are similar to Sapelo soil, but they have a subsoil
that is alkaline, have a loamy subsoil that is at a depth
of less than 40 inches, do not have a loamy subsoil
within 80 inches of the surface, or have an organic
surface layer as much as 5 inches thick.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Albany, Ocilla, and Plummer soils. Albany and Ocilla
soils do not have a dark, organic-coated subsoil and are
somewhat poorly drained. These soils generally occur
as small knobs that are less than 2 acres in size.
Plummer soils are in small depressions and are very
poorly drained.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 6 to 12 inches
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine. The
understory vegetation includes saw palmetto, pineland
threeawn, and waxmyrtle.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of wetness. The number of adapted crops that can be
grown is very limited unless water-control measures are
used. With a water-control system that is designed to
remove excess water during wet periods, this soil is
well suited to a variety of vegetable crops. In addition to
water-control, proper management should include crop
rotation and keeping close-growing, soil-improving crops
on the land at least two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer and
lime should be applied according to the needs of the
crop.
This soil is fairly suited to pasture. The main
limitations are seasonal wetness and very low natural
fertility. Wetness limits the choice of plants that can be
grown and the period of grazing. When the soil is wet,
grazing causes compaction of the surface layer and
damage to the plant community. Excess surface water
can be removed from most areas by field drains. The
main suitable pasture plants are bahiagrass and
bermudagrass. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and
restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep the


pasture and the soil in good condition. Fertilizer and
lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderate. The seasonal high water table restricts the
use of equipment during wet periods. Site preparation,
such as chopping, applying herbicides, and bedding,
reduces debris, controls immediate plant competition,
and facilitates mechanical planting. Planting trees on
bedded rows minimizes the effects of wetness. Using
special harvesting equipment with large tires or tracks
reduces the equipment use limitation, minimizes root
damage, and reduces soil compaction during thinning
operations.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development. The main limitations are
wetness, seepage, the sandy texture, and the instability
of cutbanks. Fill material is needed for most urban
uses. Drainage is needed if roads and building
foundations are constructed. Excess water can be
removed by installing shallow ditches and providing the
proper ditch grade. Septic tank absorption fields are
mounded in most areas. If the density of housing is
moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent contamination of the water supplies
as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 7W.

38-Goldsboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is
somewhat poorly drained. It is in low areas on the
uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from 2 to 20 acres.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Goldsboro loamy
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Goldsboro and similar soils
make up 78 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 1 to 22 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown loamy sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 15 inches, is brown loamy
sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 80
inches. The subsoil is, in sequence downward, brownish
yellow, mottled sandy loam; brownish yellow sandy clay
loam; yellowish brown, mottled sandy clay loam; and
mottled gray, brownish yellow, and dark red sandy clay
loam. Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to Goldsboro soil, but they have a sandy surface
layer and subsurface layer more than 20 inches thick.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Orangeburg and Plummer soils. Orangeburg soils are








Soil Survey


well drained. Plummer soils are poorly drained and are
sandy below a depth of 40 inches.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 24 to 36 inches
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Moderate
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, water
oak, and live oak. The understory vegetation includes
wild cherry.
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops. It is limited
mainly because of seasonal wetness and low fertility. A
well designed and properly managed sprinkler irrigation
system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and
ensure highest yields. Excessive cultivation can result in
the formation of a plowpan. This plowpan can be
broken up by subsoiling when the soil is dry. Returning
all crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume
mixtures help to maintain fertility and tilth. Crusting of
the surface and compaction can be reduced by
returning crop residue to the soil. Frequent applications
of fertilizer and lime generally are needed to improve
the quality of the soil. Most crops respond well to
fertilizer. Conservation tillage, buffer strips, and a crop
rotation system that includes close-growing cover crops
can be used to control erosion.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Proper stocking,
pasture rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help
keep the pasture in good condition. Fertilizer and lime
are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes. Suitable pasture plants are bahiagrass and
bermudagrass.
The potential productivity of this soil for loblolly pine
is moderate. Site preparation, such as chopping,
applying herbicides, and bedding, reduces debris,
controls immediate plant competition, and facilitates
mechanical planting. This soil is often very low in
content of organic matter, and harvesting operations
that remove all tree biomass on the site will reduce the
fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting methods leave
residual biomass distributed over the site. Bedding of
rows helps to minimize the effects of the wetness.
Bedding should not block natural surface drainage.
Using special harvesting equipment with large tires or
tracks reduces the equipment use limitation, minimizes
root damage, and reduces soil compaction during
thinning operations.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development. The main limitation is
wetness. Generally, soils in nearby areas at higher


elevations are more suited to these uses. Effluent from
septic tank absorption fields can surface in downslope
areas and create a health hazard. Adding suitable fill
material and installing drainage systems can improve
the suitability of this soil for septic tank absorption
fields.
The land capability classification is lie, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 9W.

48-Plummer and Surrency soils, depressional.
These soils are nearly level and are very poorly
drained. They do not occur in a regular repeating
pattern. Excess water ponds in low-lying areas for long
periods after heavy rainfall. The mapped areas are as
much as several hundred acres. Slopes are concave
and are 0 to 1 percent.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Plummer and
Surrency soils, depressional, Plummer, Surrency, and
similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 20 percent.
Plummer and similar soils make up about 60 percent
of the map unit and Surrency and similar soils about 31
percent. Each soil is not present in every mapped area;
the relative proportion of combinations varies. The
mapped areas of the individual soils are large enough
to map separately; however, in considering the present
and predicted use, they were mapped as one map unit.
Typically, the surface layer of the Plummer soil is
black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 66 inches, is light gray,
mottled fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil is gray
fine sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of about 80
inches is gray sandy clay loam that has brown mottles.
Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is
black loamy sand about 10 inches thick. The upper part
of the subsurface layer is dark grayish brown loamy
sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 32 inches, is
light brownish gray sand. The subsoil to a depth of
about 80 inches is mottled, gray sandy clay loam.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Pamlico, Cantey, and Mascotte soils. Pamlico soils
are organic and are in lower positions on the landscape
than the Plummer and Surrency soils. Cantey soils have
a clayey texture within 20 inches of the surface and are
poorly drained. Mascotte soils have an organic-stained,
sandy subsoil and are poorly drained.
Important soil properties of Plummer and Surrency
soils:
Seasonal high water table: From 24 inches above the
surface to a depth of 6 inches








Madison County, Florida


Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low-Plummer; moderate-
Surrency
The natural vegetation consists of cypress,
blackgum, and redbay. The understory vegetation
includes greenbrier, waxmyrtle, St. Johnswort, and
fetterbush lyonia.
The soils in this map unit are used mostly as
woodland.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or
improved pasture. A seasonal high water table,
ponding, low fertility, and limited drainage outlets are
the main limitations.
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
is low. These soils generally are not suited to pine trees
because of the ponding. Equipment use, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are severe concerns in
woodland management. Water-tolerant trees should be
planted. Planting and harvesting operations should be
scheduled during dry periods. These soils may be
suited to cypress and hardwoods.
These soils are not suited to sanitary facilities or
building site development. Fill materials and drainage
are needed for most urban uses.
The land capability classification for these soils is
Vw, and the woodland ordination symbol is 7W.

53-Bonifay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is well drained.
It is on foot slopes on the uplands. The mapped areas
are irregular in shape and range from 40 to 200 acres.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Bonifay fine sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes, Bonifay and similar soils make up
77 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 1 to 23 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 48 inches. In sequence
downward, it is yellowish brown fine sand, brownish
yellow sand, brownish yellow fine sand, and yellowish
brown loamy sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 55 inches, is yellowish brown sandy clay loam
that contains 15 percent plinthite. The lower part to a
depth of 80 inches or more is reticulately mottled gray,
brown, and red sandy clay loam that contains 10
percent plinthite. Some soils occurring in areas of this
map unit are similar to the Bonifay soil, but they do not
contain plinthite.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Goldsboro and Lucy soils. Goldsboro soils are in
slightly lower positions on the landscape than the


Bonifay soil and have a loamy subsoil within 20 inches
of the surface. Lucy soils do not have a water table
within 72 inches of the surface.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Perched at a depth of 48 to
60 inches
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
Runoff: Slow
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, southern red oak, post oak, live oak, and
laurel oak.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. It is
limited mainly because of droughtiness, low fertility, and
rapid loss of nutrients by leaching. This soil is friable,
and good tilth is easily maintained. The soil can be tilled
throughout a wide range of moisture content. A well
designed and properly managed sprinkler irrigation
system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and
ensure maximum yields. Returning all crop residue to
the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures help to
maintain fertility and tilth. Frequent applications of
fertilizer and lime generally are needed to improve the
quality of the soil. Soil blowing is a hazard in cultivated
areas, but it can be controlled with a good ground cover
of close-growing plants.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The low
available water capacity limits the production of plants
suitable for pasture. Proper stocking, pasture rotation,
and timely deferment of grazing help to keep the
pasture in good condition. Drought-tolerant plants, such
as bahiagrass and bermudagrass, are most suitable for
planting. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderate. The sandy surface layer restricts the use of
wheeled equipment, especially when the soil is very wet
or very dry. Droughtiness increases the rate of seedling
mortality. Intensive site preparation and maintenance
will keep undesirable plants from restricting adequate
natural or artificial reforestation. Hardwood understory
can be reduced by controlled burning, applying
herbicides, girdling, or cutting unwanted trees. This soil
commonly is very low in content of organic matter, and
harvesting operations that remove all tree biomass on
the site will reduce the fertility of the soil. Preferred
harvesting methods leave residual biomass distributed
over the site.
This soil is moderately suited to sanitary facilities and








Soil Survey


building site development. Wetness is a limitation
affecting septic tank absorption fields and dwellings with
basements. Seepage and the sandy texture are
limitations affecting sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills,
and daily cover for landfills. Subsurface drainage will
reduce excessive wetness. The moderately slow
permeability and the high water table increase the
possibility that septic tank absorption fields will not
function properly on this soil.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10S.

55-Esto fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
This soil is nearly level to gently sloping. It is on knolls
and ridgetops on the uplands. The mapped areas range
from 5 to 160 acres.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Esto fine sandy
loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Esto and similar soils make
up 87 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils
make up 1 to 13 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown
fine sandy loam about 7 inches thick. The upper part of
the subsoil, to a depth of about 18 inches, is yellowish
red clay. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more
is mottled yellowish red, brownish yellow, dusky red,
reddish brown, light gray, and dark red clay. Some soils
occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to Esto
soil, but they have a 20 percent or more decrease in
clay content in the lower part of the subsoil or the
surface layer is sandy and is more than 20 inches thick.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Fuquay,
Goldsboro, and Orangeburg soils. Fuquay soils have a
sandy surface layer more than 20 inches thick and have
a loamy subsoil. Orangeburg soils are loamy, and
Goldsboro soils are loamy and are somewhat poorly
drained.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Slow
Available water capacity: High
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
slash pine, loblolly pine, southern red oak, water oak,
and laurel oak. The understory vegetation includes wild
cherry, waxmyrtle, and bluestem.
This soil is only fairly suited to cultivated crops
because of the clayey subsoil and erodibility. Locally
grown tobacco, corn, soybeans, small grain, and
peaches (fig. 5) produce fair yields with proper
management. Conservation management practices


include crop rotation, leaving crop residue on or in the
soil, conservation tillage, applications of fertilizer and
lime, and irrigation.
This soil is moderately well suited to improved
pasture grasses. Regular applications of lime and
fertilizer produce high yields of bermudagrass,
bahiagrass, and a variety of adapted deep-rooted
grasses.
The potential productivity of this soil for pines is
moderately low. The very low available water capacity
in the surface layer adversely affects seedling survival
in areas where understory plants are numerous. This
soil is often very low in organic matter, and harvesting
operations that remove all tree biomass on the site will
reduce the fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting
methods leave residual biomass distributed over the
site. Organic matter can be conserved by restricting
burning and leaving slash well distributed. Competing
vegetation can be controlled by site preparation.
Spraying, cutting, or girdling controls unwanted weeds,
brush, or trees. Using special harvesting equipment with
large tires or tracks reduces the equipment use
limitation, minimizes root damage, and reduces soil
compaction during thinning operations.
This soil is moderately suited to most sanitary
facilities because of its slow permeability. Increasing the
size of the septic tank absorption field will help
overcome the permeability limitation. This soil is well
suited to sanitary landfills. It has fair to poor suitability
for building site development because of the shrink-
swell potential.
The land capability classification is Ille, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8A.

56-Nankin loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
This soil is gently sloping to sloping and is well drained.
It is on ridgetops and side slopes on the uplands. The
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 5
to 100 acres.
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Nankin loamy
sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Nankin and similar soils
make up 77 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 1 to 23 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is brown loamy sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of
about 52 inches. It is strong brown sandy clay loam in
the upper part; strong brown clay in the next part; and
mottled reddish yellow, strong brown, and red sandy
clay in the lower part. The substratum to a depth of
about 80 inches or more is mottled gray, yellowish
brown, and red sandy clay loam. Some soils occurring
in areas of this map unit are similar to the Nankin soil,







Madison County, Florida


Figure 5.-This peach grove in an area of Esto fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, is a leading contributor to Madison County's
economy.


but some are clayey below a depth of 60 inches and
others have a sandy surface layer more than 20 inches
thick.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Orangeburg soils. These soils do not have a clayey
subsoil. Also included are some soils that have a water
table within 60 inches of the surface.


Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderately slow
Available water capacity: Low
Runoff: Rapid
Hazard of water erosion: Moderate







Soil Survey


The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
loblolly pine, slash pine, southern red oak, and hickory.
The understory vegetation includes wild cherry,
dogwood, sassafras, blackberry, brackenfern, and
assorted grasses.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
surface layer is friable; but where cultivated, the soil is
somewhat difficult to keep in good tilth if some of the
clayey subsoil has been mixed into the plow layer or if
the soil is tilled when it is too dry. This soil is also
limited by low fertility. Erosion is a moderate hazard.
The main crops are soybeans, corn, peaches, and other
crops adapted to the area. Irregularly shaped slopes
hinder tillage operations. Sprinkler irrigation systems
are fairly suited to this soil. A well designed and
properly managed sprinkler irrigation system helps to
maintain optimum soil moisture and ensure maximum
yields. A plowpan forms easily if this soil is tilled when
wet. Chiseling or subsoiling can be used to break up
the plowpan. Returning all crop residue to the soil and
using a cropping system that includes grasses,
legumes, or grass-legume mixtures help to maintain
fertility and tilth. Frequent applications of fertilizer and
lime generally are needed to improve the quality of the
soil. Conservation practices that can control erosion
include early fall seeding, conservation tillage, terraces
and diversions, and grassed waterways. Gradient
terraces and farming on the contour can reduce the risk
of sheet and rill erosion on the steep slopes.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Seedbed
preparation should be on the contour or across the
slope where practical. When the soil is wet, grazing
causes compaction of the surface layer, poor tilth, and
excessive runoff. Growing pasture grasses on this soil
helps to control erosion. Proper stocking, pasture
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help
to keep the pasture and the soil in good condition.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. The main suitable pasture plants
are bahiagrass and bermudagrass.
The potential productivity of this soil for loblolly pine
is moderately low. Intensive site preparation and
maintenance will keep undesirable plants from
restricting adequate natural or artificial reforestation.
Hardwood understory can be reduced by controlled
burning, applying herbicides, girdling, or cutting
unwanted trees. This soil is often very low in organic
matter, and harvesting operations that remove all tree
biomass on the site will reduce the fertility of the soil.
Preferred harvesting operations leave residual biomass
distributed over the site.
This soil is moderately suited to sanitary facilities and


is well suited to building site development. Seepage,
slope, and the clayey texture are the main limitations
affecting sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills, daily cover
for landfills, and shallow excavations. Slow percolation
is a limitation affecting septic tank absorption fields.
Erosion is a hazard in the steeper areas. Excavations
for roads and buildings increase the hazard of erosion
on construction sites. Existing plant cover should be left
on construction sites, and only that part of the site that
is used for construction should be disturbed.
Revegetating disturbed areas as soon as possible helps
to control erosion. Plant cover can be established and
maintained with proper fertilizing, seeding, mulching,
and shaping of the slopes. Roads should be designed
to offset the limited ability of the soil to support a heavy
load.
The land capability classification is Ille, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8A.

57-Nankin sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes,
eroded. This soil is sloping to strongly sloping and is
well drained. It is on ridgetops and side slopes on the
uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 40 acres.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Nankin sandy
loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes, eroded, Nankin and
similar soils make up 90 to 99 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 10 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is brown sandy loam
about 5 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of about
27 inches, is red sandy clay. The substratum to a depth
of about 80 inches or more is red sandy clay loam.
Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to the Nankin soil, but some are clayey below a
depth of 60 inches and others have a sandy surface
layer more than 20 inches thick.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Troup soils. These soils are sandy to a depth of 40
inches or more. Also included are soils that have a
water table within 60 inches of the surface.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderately slow
Available water capacity: Moderate
Runoff: Rapid
Hazard of water erosion: Severe
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
loblolly pine, slash pine, southern red oak, and hickory.
The understory vegetation includes wild cherry,







Madison County, Florida


dogwood, sassafras, blackberry, brackenfern, and
assorted grasses.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The surface
layer is friable; but where cultivated, the soil is
somewhat difficult to keep in good tilth if some of the
clayey subsoil has been mixed into the plow layer. Also,
erosion is a hazard.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. Seedbed
preparation should be on the contour or across the
slope where practical. When the soil is wet, grazing
causes compaction of the surface layer, poor tilth, and
excessive runoff. Growing pasture grasses on this soil
helps to control erosion. Proper stocking, pasture
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help
to keep the pasture and soil in good condition. Fertilizer
and lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes. The main suitable pasture plants are
bahiagrass and bermudagrass.
The potential productivity of this soil for loblolly pine
is moderately low. Intensive site preparation and
maintenance will keep undesirable plants from
restricting adequate natural or artificial reforestation.
Hardwood understory can be reduced by controlled
burning, applying herbicides, girdling, or cutting
unwanted trees. This soil commonly is very low in
content of organic matter, and harvesting operations
that remove all tree biomass on the site will reduce the
fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting methods leave
residual biomass distributed over the site.
This soil is moderately suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development. Seepage, slope, and the
clayey texture are the main limitations affecting sewage
lagoons, sanitary landfills, daily cover for landfills, or
shallow excavations. Slow percolation is a limitation of
this soil for septic tank absorption fields. Erosion is a
hazard in the steeper areas. Excavations for roads and
buildings increase the hazard of erosion on construction
sites. Existing plant cover should be left on construction
sites, and only that part of the site that is used for
construction should be disturbed. Revegetating
disturbed areas around construction sites as soon as
possible helps to control erosion. Plant cover can be
established and maintained with proper fertilizing,
seeding, mulching, and shaping of the slopes. Roads
should be designed to offset the limited ability of the
soil to support a heavy load.
The land capability classification is Vie, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8A.

58-Fuquay sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
is nearly level to gently sloping and is well drained. It is


on low ridges on the uplands. The mapped areas range
from 5 to 40 acres.
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Fuquay sand,
2 to 5 percent slopes, Fuquay and similar soils make up
80 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 1 to 20 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 30
inches, is brownish yellow sand. The subsoil to a depth
of 80 inches is, in sequence downward, yellowish brown
loamy sand; yellowish brown fine sandy loam that
contains about 9 percent plinthite; sandy clay loam
mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and brown and
containing about 10 percent plinthite; and sandy clay
mottled in shades of gray and red and containing about
10 percent plinthite. Some soils occurring in areas of
this map unit are similar to the Fuquay soil, but they
have a sandy surface layer more than 40 inches thick
or have a finer textured subsoil that contains less than
5 percent plinthite.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Esto and
Blanton soils. Esto soils do not have a perched water
table. Blanton soils have a loamy subsoil below a depth
of 40 inches.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Perched at a depth of 48 to
72 inches
Permeability: Slow
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, slash
pine, live oak, laurel oak, and water oak. The
understory vegetation includes wild cherry, blackberry,
greenbrier, Florida bluestem, and other grasses.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops
commonly grown in the area. Periodic droughtiness and
rapid leaching of nutrients are the main limitations. Crop
yields are reduced unless crops are irrigated and
fertilizer and lime are added to the soil. Returning crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
includes grasses and legumes or a grass-legume
mixture improve fertility.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Bahiagrass and
improved bermudagrass are the recommended plants.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for
optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderate. The low available water capacity adversely
affects seedling survival in areas where understory
plants are numerous. This soil commonly is very low in
content of organic matter, and harvesting operations








Soil Survey


that remove all tree biomass on the site will reduce the
fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting methods leave
residual biomass distributed over the site. Organic
matter can be conserved by restricting burning and
leaving slash well distributed. Competing vegetation can
be controlled by site preparation. Spraying, cutting, or
girdling controls unwanted weeds, brush, or trees.
Using special harvesting equipment with large tires or
tracks reduces the equipment use limitation, minimizes
root damage, and reduces soil compaction during
thinning operations.
This soil is moderately well suited to most sanitary
facilities and building site development. During
construction and installation of sanitary facilities,
buildings, and roads, grasses should be planted to
stabilize the exposed soil surface and to reduce the
hazard of erosion. Wetness is a limitation affecting
dwellings with basements. Slow percolation is a
limitation affecting septic tank absorption fields.
The land capability classification is Ils, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

61-Alaga loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is well drained.
It is in broad, low areas on the uplands. The mapped
areas range from 10 to 140 acres.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Alaga loamy sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes, Alaga and similar soils make up
77 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 1 to 23 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown and dark brown loamy sand about 9 inches thick.
The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of
58 inches, is dark brown and strong brown loamy sand.
The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is reddish yellow
and brownish yellow sand. Some soils occurring in
areas of this map unit are similar to the Alaga soil, but
they have thin, discontinuous bands of loamy material
below a depth of 60 inches.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Blanton and Lucy soils. Blanton soils have a loamy
subsoil below a depth of 40 inches and are moderately
well drained. Lucy soils have a loamy subsoil at a depth
of 20 to 40 inches. Also included are some soils that
have a thick, dark, mineral surface in local alluvial
areas.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Rapid or very rapid
Available water capacity: Low


The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and southern red oak. The
understory vegetation includes sumac, persimmon,
blackberry, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients.
Conservation management practices should include a
crop rotation system that keeps close-growing cover
crops on the soil at least two-thirds of the time. Planting
soil-improving crops and leaving all crop residue on the
soil help to control erosion, maintain the content of
organic matter, and conserve moisture. All crops should
be irrigated, and regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed on this soil. Conservation tillage is also
recommended to conserve moisture and reduce
erosion.
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
and bahiagrass, are recommended. Fertilizer and lime
are needed for optimum growth.
The potential productivity of this soil for pines is
moderately high. The low available water capacity
adversely affects seedling survival in areas where
understory plants are numerous. This soil is often very
low in organic matter, and harvesting operations that
remove all tree biomass on the site will reduce the
fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting methods (fig. 6)
leave residual biomass distributed over the site. Using
special planting stock that is larger than usual or that is
containerized can reduce the rate of seedling mortality.
Organic matter can be conserved by restricting burning
and leaving slash well distributed. Competing vegetation
can be controlled by site preparation. Spraying, cutting,
or girdling controls unwanted weeds, brush, or trees.
Using special harvesting equipment with large tires or
tracks reduces the equipment use limitation, minimizes
root damage, and reduces soil compaction during
thinning operations. Equipment use, plant competition,
and seedling mortality are the main concerns in
woodland management.
This soil is well suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development except for shallow
excavations, which are subject to caving. Rapid
permeability is a limitation affecting septic tank
absorption fields but can be overcome by increasing the
size of the septic tank absorption field. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of the water
supplies as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.








Madison County, Florida


Figure 6.-The harvesting of slash pine in an area of Alaga loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, will leave residual biomass on the site and
thus increase fertility of the soil.


62-Alaga loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
soil is gently sloping to sloping and is well drained. It is
on the uplands. The mapped areas range from 10 to 40
acres.
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Alaga loamy sand,
5 to 8 percent slopes, Alaga and similar soils make up


83 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 1 to 17 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish
brown loamy sand and brownish yellow sand. Some








Soil Survey


soils occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to
the Alaga soil, but they have thin, discontinuous bands
of sandy loam or sandy clay below a depth of 60
inches.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Blanton, Bonifay, and Lucy soils. Also included are
some soils that have a thick, dark, mineral surface in
local alluvial areas. Blanton and Bonifay soils have a
loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches, and Blanton
soils are moderately well drained. Lucy soils have a
loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Rapid
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and southern red oak. The
understory vegetation includes sumac, persimmon,
blackberry, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients.
Conservation management practices should include a
crop rotation system that keeps close-growing cover
crops on the soil at least two-thirds of the time. Planting
soil-improving crops and leaving all crop residue on the
soil help to control erosion, increase the content of
organic matter, and conserve moisture. All crops should
be irrigated, and regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed on this soil. Conservation tillage is also
recommended to conserve moisture and reduce the risk
of erosion.
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
and bahiagrass, are recommended. Fertilizer and lime
are needed for optimum growth.
The potential productivity of this soil for pines is
moderately high. The low available water capacity
adversely affects seedling survival in areas where
understory plants are numerous. This soil is often very
low in organic matter, and harvesting operations that
remove all tree biomass on the site will reduce the
fertility of the soil. Using special planting stock that is
larger than usual or that is containerized will reduce the
rate of seedling mortality. Organic matter can be
conserved by restricting burning and leaving slash well
distributed. Competing vegetation can be controlled by
site preparation. Spraying, cutting, or girdling controls
unwanted weeds, brush, or trees. Using special
harvesting equipment with large tires or tracks reduces


the equipment use limitation, minimizes root damage,
and reduces soil compaction during thinning operations.
Equipment use, plant competition, and seedling
mortality are the main concerns in woodland
management.
This soil is well suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development except for shallow
excavations, which are subject to caving. Rapid
permeability is a limitation affecting septic tank
absorption fields but can be overcome by increasing the
size of the septic tank absorption field. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of the water
supplies as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is IVs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

63-Alaga loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This
soil is sloping to strongly sloping and is well drained. It
is on moderately broad, long side slopes on the
uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from 10 to 50 acres.
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Alaga loamy sand,
8 to 12 percent slopes, Alaga and similar soils make up
81 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 1 to 19 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of about 80 inches is yellowish
brown loamy sand. Some soils occurring in areas of this
map unit are similar to the Alaga soil, but they have a
loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Lucy soils. Lucy soils have a loamy subsoil between
depths of 20 and 40 inches. Also included are soils that
have a water table within 60 inches of the surface and
other soils that have a slope of less than 8 percent.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Rapid or very rapid
Available water capacity: Low
Natural fertility: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and southern red oak. The
understory vegetation includes sumac, persimmon,
blackberry, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients.
Conservation management practices should include a








Madison County, Florida


crop rotation system that keeps close-growing cover
crops on the land at least two-thirds of the time.
Planting soil-improving crops and leaving all crop
residue on the soil reduce erosion, increase the content
of organic matter, and conserve moisture. All crops
should be irrigated, and fertilizer and lime are needed
on this soil. Conservation tillage is also recommended
to conserve moisture and reduce the risk of erosion.
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
and bahiagrass, are recommended. Fertilizer and lime
are needed for optimum growth.
The potential productivity of this soil for pines is
moderately high. The low available water capacity
adversely affects seedling survival in areas where
understory plants are numerous. This soil is often very
low in organic matter, and harvesting operations that
remove all tree biomass on the site will reduce the
fertility of the soil. Using special planting stock that is
larger than usual or that is containerized will reduce the
rate of seedling mortality. Organic matter can be
conserved by restricting burning and leaving slash well
distributed. Competing vegetation can be controlled by
site preparation. Spraying, cutting, or girdling controls
unwanted weeds, brush, or trees. Using special
harvesting equipment with large tires or tracks reduces
the equipment use limitation, minimizes root damage,
and reduces soil compaction during thinning operations.
Equipment use, plant competition, and seedling
mortality are the main concerns in woodland
management.
This soil is well suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development except for shallow
excavations, which are subject to caving. Rapid
permeability is a limitation affecting septic tank
absorption fields but can be overcome by increasing the
size of the septic tank absorption field. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of the water
supplies as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is Vis, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

64-Alaga loamy sand, moderately wet, 0 to 5
percent slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently
sloping and is moderately well drained. It is in broad,
low areas on the uplands. The mapped areas range
from 10 to 80 acres.
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Alaga loamy sand,
moderately wet, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Alaga and
similar soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 18 percent.


Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The upper part
of the underlying material, to a depth of 36 inches, is
dark brown loamy sand. The next part, to a depth of 70
inches, is strong brown loamy sand. The lower part to a
depth of 80 inches or more is reddish yellow sand that
contains many uncoated sand grains. Some soils
occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to the
Alaga soil, but they have a thick, dark, mineral surface
layer and are in the local alluvial areas.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Lovett and Ocilla soils. These soils have a loamy and
clayey subsoil within 40 inches of the surface.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 48 to 72 inches
Permeability: Rapid
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, southern red oak, and hickory. The
understory vegetation includes sumac, persimmon,
blackberry, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is only moderately suited to cultivated crops
because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
nutrients. Conservation management practices should
include a crop rotation system that keeps close-growing
crops on the soil at least two-thirds of the time. Planting
soil-improving crops and leaving all crop residue on the
soil help to reduce erosion, maintain the content of
organic matter, and conserve moisture. Fertilizer and
lime should be added according to the needs of the
crop, and the crops should be irrigated before this soil
can reach its maximum productivity. Conservation
tillage also helps to control erosion and conserve
moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
and bahiagrass, perform well when properly managed.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
moderately high. Equipment use, plant competition, and
seedling mortality are the main concerns in woodland
management. Intensive site preparation and
maintenance can keep undesirable plants from
restricting adequate natural or artificial reforestation.
Hardwood understory can be reduced by controlled
burning, applying herbicides, girdling, or cutting
unwanted trees. This soil generally is very low in
content of organic matter, and harvesting operations
that remove all tree biomass on this site reduce the








Soil Survey


fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting methods leave
residual biomass distributed over the site. Using special
harvesting equipment with large tires or tracks reduces
the equipment use limitation, minimizes root damage,
and reduces soil compaction during thinning operations.
This soil is well suited to building site development
except for shallow excavations, which are subject to
caving. It is poorly suited to most sanitary facilities
because of seepage of effluent, but it is well suited to
septic tank absorption fields. If the density of housing is
moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent contamination of the ground water
supplies as a result of sewage.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

65-Lovett sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
nearly level to gently sloping and is moderately well
drained. It is on broad to narrow bands on the uplands.
The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range
from 5 to 80 acres.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Lovett sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes, Lovett and similar soils make up 78 to
94 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 6
to 22 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 38 inches, is brownish yellow sand. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 47 inches,
is yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The lower part, to a
depth of 62 inches, is yellowish brown sandy clay that
has light gray and red mottles. The substratum to a
depth of about 80 inches is reticulately mottled
yellowish brown, red, and light gray sandy clay. Some
soils occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to
the Lovett soil, but they have a sandy surface layer less
than 20 inches thick or have more than 5 percent
plinthite.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Bonifay soils. These soils have a loamy subsoil
below a depth of 40 inches.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Perched at a depth of 36 to
54 inches
Permeability: Slow
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of live oak, laurel
oak, water oak, slash pine, loblolly pine, sweetgum, and
blackgum. The understory vegetation includes
waxmyrtle, poison ivy, sparkleberry, winged sumac, and
Carolina jessamine.


This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. It is
limited mainly because of the low available water
capacity, low fertility, and seasonal wetness. The
perched water table that develops during rainy periods
early in the spring and summer generally limits the
suitability of this soil for deep-rooted crops. Returning
all crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume
mixtures help to maintain fertility and tilth. Crusting of
the surface and compaction can be reduced by
returning crop residue to the soil. Frequent applications
of fertilizer and lime generally are needed to improve
the quality of the soil. Most crops and pasture plants
respond well to fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. If this soil is
used for pasture, the main limitations are seasonal
droughtiness and low fertility. Seedbed preparation
should be on the contour or across the slope where
practical. When the soil is wet, grazing results in
compaction of the surface layer, poor tilth, and
excessive runoff. Growing pasture grasses on this soil
helps to control erosion. The main suitable pasture
plants are bahiagrass and bermudagrass. Proper
stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during
wet periods help to keep the pasture and soil in good
condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
high. The main limitations for woodland management
are equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. Erosion is a slight hazard. The sandy
surface layer restricts the use of wheeled equipment,
especially when the soil is saturated or very dry.
Intensive site preparation and maintenance will keep
undesirable plants from restricting adequate natural or
artificial reforestation. Site preparation, such as
chopping, applying herbicides, and bedding, reduces
debris, controls immediate plant competition, and
facilitates mechanical planting. Hardwood understory
can be reduced by controlled burning, applying
herbicides, girdling, or cutting unwanted trees. This soil
commonly is very low in content of organic matter, and
harvesting operations that remove all tree biomass on
the site reduce the fertility of the soil. Preferred
harvesting methods leave residual biomass distributed
over the site. Slash pine or loblolly pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development except for dwellings without
basements and small commercial buildings. The main
limitations are wetness, seepage, and the sandy
texture. A drainage system is needed to control









Madison County, Florida


wetness. Erosion is a hazard in the steeper areas.
Excavations for roads and buildings increase the hazard
of erosion on construction sites. Only that part of the
site that is used for construction should be disturbed.
Structures to divert runoff are needed if buildings and
roads are constructed. Settling can be minimized by
adding loamy fill material to the soil surface and by
controlling the level of the water table. The slow
permeability and the high water table increase the
possibility that septic tank absorption fields will not
function properly. Effluent can surface in downslope
areas and create a health hazard. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of the water
supplies as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is Ils, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 12S.

66-Lovett sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is
gently sloping to sloping and is moderately well drained.
It is on short side slopes on the uplands. The mapped
areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 30
acres.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Lovett sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes, Lovett and similar soils make up 90 to
99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 1
to 10 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 36 inches, is brownish yellow sand that
has pale brown mottles. The subsoil extends to a depth
of about 80 inches. It is brownish yellow sandy clay
loam in the upper part and reticulately mottled red,
gray, and yellowish brown clay in the lower part. Some
soils occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to
the Lovett soil, but they have a sandy surface layer less
than 20 inches thick or have more than 5 percent
plinthite.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Blanton soils. These soils have a loamy subsoil
below a depth of 40 inches.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Perched at a depth of 36 to
54 inches
Permeability: Moderately slow or slow
Available water capacity: Low to medium
The natural vegetation consists of live oak, water
oak, laurel oak, slash pine, loblolly pine, and sweetgum.
The understory vegetation includes wild cherry,
American beautyberry, blueberry, greenbrier, hawthorn,


waxmyrtle, winged sumac, and Carolina jessamine.
This soil, is moderately suited to cultivated crops. This
soil is friable, and good tilth can be easily maintained.
The soil can be tilled throughout a wide range of
moisture content. Irregularly shaped slopes hinder
tillage operations. A well designed and properly
managed sprinkler irrigation system helps to maintain
optimum soil moisture and ensure maximum yields.
Excessive cultivation can result in the formation of a
plowpan. This plowpan can be broken up by subsoiling
when the soil is dry. Returning all crop residue to the
soil and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
legumes, or grass-legume mixtures help to conserve
moisture, maintain fertility, and control erosion.
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime generally are
needed to improve the quality of the soil. Conservation
practices that can be used to control erosion include
early fall seeding, conservation tillage, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways. All tillage
operations should be done on the contour or across the
slope.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. If this
soil is used for pasture, the main limitations are
seasonal droughtiness and low fertility. Seedbed
preparation should be on the contour or across the
slope where practical. When the soil is wet, grazing
causes compaction of the surface layer, poor tilth, and
excessive runoff. Growing pasture grasses helps to
control erosion. The main suitable pasture plants are
bahiagrass and bermudagrass. Proper stocking, pasture
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help
to keep the pasture and soil in good condition. Fertilizer
and lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for slash pine is
high. The main limitations for woodland management
are equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. The sandy surface layer restricts the use of
wheeled equipment, especially when the soil is
saturated or very dry. Intensive site preparation and
maintenance will keep undesirable plants from
restricting adequate natural or artificial reforestation.
Site preparation, such as chopping, applying herbicides,
and bedding, reduces debris, controls immediate plant
competition, and facilitates mechanical planting.
Hardwood understory can be reduced by controlled
burning, applying herbicides, girdling, or cutting
unwanted trees. This soil commonly is very low in
content of organic matter, and harvesting operations
that remove all tree biomass on the site reduce the
fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting methods leave
residual biomass distributed over the site. Slash pine









Soil Survey


and loblolly pine are the recommended trees to plant for
woodland production.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development except for dwellings without
basements and small commercial buildings. The main
limitations are wetness, seepage, and the sandy
texture. A drainage system is needed to control
wetness. Erosion is a hazard in the steeper areas.
Excavations for roads and buildings increase the hazard
of erosion on construction sites. Only that part of the
site that is used for construction should be disturbed.
Structures to divert runoff are needed if buildings and
roads are constructed. Settling can be minimized by
adding loamy fill material to the soil surface and by
controlling the level of the water table. The slow
permeability and the high water table increase the
possibility that septic tank absorption fields will not
function properly. Effluent can surface in downslope
areas and create a health hazard. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of the water
supplies as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is Ille, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 12S.

67-Udorthents, loamy. This map unit consists of
areas that have been excavated by earth-moving
equipment. Excess water ponds in low-lying areas for
long periods after heavy rainfall. The mapped areas
generally are square or rectangular and range from 5 to
80 acres. Slopes are highly variable, ranging from
nearly level to steep.
Typically, these soils are sandy clay loam to a depth
of 60 inches. The upper part is mottled strong brown,
weak red, light gray, and pale yellow to a depth of
about 13 inches. The next part, to a depth of about 33
inches, is dark reddish brown, strong brown, and white.
The lower part is coarsely mottled dark reddish brown,
strong brown, and white. Large pockets of sandy loam
material are in the lower part. Some soils occurring in
areas of this map unit are similar to these soils, but
some are sandy throughout, some are clayey
throughout, and others contain a few large boulders.
Included in mapping are soils in areas that are too
small to delineate. Soil properties, including
permeability, depth to the water table, available water
capacity, soil reaction, natural fertility, and the hazard of
erosion, are too variable to estimate.
In most areas flooding is controlled, but some areas
in the Suwannee River flood plain are occasionally
flooded. The surface layer of these soils is very sticky
when wet and dries slowly.


The natural vegetation consists of slash pine and
loblolly pine. The understory vegetation includes
broomsedge bluestem and waxmyrtle.
This map unit is used mainly as habitat for wildlife
and for recreational development. It is also used as
pasture or woodland.
These soils generally are not suited to most
cultivated crops, pasture, commercial woodland,
sanitary facilities, or building site development because
of irregular slopes, slow percolation, and the potential
for ponding.
Some areas are suitable for pasture and pine tree
production. These areas should be evaluated for these
uses on an individual site basis.
No land capability classification or woodland
ordination symbol is assigned.

71-Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is
well drained. It is on the uplands. The mapped areas
are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Faceville loamy
fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Faceville and similar
soils make up 75 to 90 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 25 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 17 inches, is red sandy clay. The
next part, to a depth of 53 inches, is red clay that has
reddish yellow mottles. The lower part to a depth of 80
inches or more is yellowish red clay that has mottles in
shades of yellow and red. Some soils occurring in areas
of this map unit are similar to the Faceville soil, but
some are loamy and others are reticulately mottled in
the upper part of the Bt horizon.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Lovett and Lucy soils. Lovett soils have a perched
water table. Lucy soils have a loamy subsoil below a
depth of 20 inches. Also included are soils that have a
water table within 60 inches of the surface.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Moderate
Runoff: Rapid
Hazard of water erosion: Slight
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
loblolly pine, slash pine, southern red oak, and hickory.
The understory vegetation includes wild cherry,








Madison County, Florida


dogwood, sassafras, wild persimmon, blackberry,
brackenfern, and other native grasses.
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops. The main
crops are soybeans, corn, peaches, and other crops
adapted to the area. This soil is friable, and good tilth is
easily maintained. The soil is somewhat difficult to keep
in good tilth, however, if some of the clayey subsoil has
been mixed into the plow layer. It can be tilled
throughout a wide range of moisture content. Sprinkler
irrigation systems are suited to this soil. A well designed
and properly managed sprinkler irrigation system helps
to maintain optimum soil moisture and ensure maximum
yields. A plowpan forms easily if this soil is tilled when
wet. Chiseling or subsoiling can be used to break up
the plowpan. Returning all crop residue to the soil and
using a cropping system that includes grasses,
legumes, or grass-legume mixtures help to maintain
fertility and tilth. Frequent applications of fertilizer and
lime generally are needed to improve the quality of the
soil. Conservation practices to control erosion include
early fall seeding, conservation tillage, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
This soil is well suited to pasture. When the soil is
wet, grazing causes compaction of the surface layer,
poor tilth, and excessive runoff. Growing pasture
grasses on this soil helps to control erosion. Proper
stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during
wet periods help to keep the pasture and soil in good
condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes. The main suitable
pasture plants are bahiagrass and bermudagrass.
The potential productivity of this soil for loblolly pine
is moderately low. Loblolly pine and slash pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.
Intensive site preparation and maintenance will keep
undesirable plants from restricting adequate natural or
artificial reforestation. Hardwood understory can be
reduced by controlled burning, applying herbicides,
girdling, or cutting unwanted trees. This soil commonly
is very low in content of organic matter, and harvesting
operations that remove all tree biomass on the site will
reduce the fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting
methods leave residual biomass distributed over the
site.
This soil is moderately suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development. Seepage, the clayey texture,
and low soil strength are the main limitations affecting
sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
and roads. Excavation for roads and buildings increases
the hazard of erosion on construction sites. Existing
plant cover should be left on construction sites, and
revegetating disturbed areas as soon as possible helps


to control erosion. Plant cover can be established and
maintained with proper fertilizing, seeding, mulching,
and shaping of the slopes. Roads should be designed
to offset the limited ability of the soil to support a heavy
load.
The land capability classification is lie, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8A.

72-Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. This soil is gently sloping to sloping and is well
drained. It is on ridgetops and side slopes on the
uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 100 acres.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Faceville loamy
fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Faceville and similar
soils make up 84 to 99 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 16 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is reddish loamy fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80
inches or more is yellowish red and red sandy clay.
Reddish yellow mottles are below a depth of 52 inches.
Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to the Faceville soil, but some are loamy and
others have a sandy surface layer more than 20 inches
thick.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Lucy soils. These soils have a loamy subsoil below a
depth of 20 inches.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Moderate
Runoff: Rapid
Hazard of water erosion: Moderate
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
loblolly pine, slash pine, southern red oak, and hickory.
The understory vegetation includes wild cherry,
dogwood, sassafras, blackberry, brackenfern, and
assorted grasses.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. It is
limited mainly because of the moderate erosion hazard.
The main crops are soybeans, corn, peaches, and other
crops adapted to the area. The soil is friable, and good
tilth can be easily maintained. The soil is somewhat
difficult to keep in good tilth, however, if some of the
clayey subsoil has been mixed into the plow layer. It
can be tilled throughout a wide range of moisture
content. Irregular slopes hinder tillage operations.
Sprinkler irrigation systems are suited to this soil. A well








Soil Survey


designed and properly managed sprinkler irrigation
system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and
ensure maximum yields. A plowpan forms easily if this
soil is tilled when wet. Chiseling or subsoiling can be
used to break up the plowpan. Returning all crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures
help to maintain fertility and tilth. Frequent applications
of fertilizer and lime generally are needed to improve
the quality of the soil. Conservation practices to control
erosion include early fall seeding, conservation tillage,
terraces and diversions, and grassed waterways.
Gradient terraces and contour farming will reduce the
risk of sheet and rill erosion on the steep slopes.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Seedbed
preparation should be on the contour or across the
slope where practical. When the soil is wet, grazing
causes compaction of the surface layer, poor tilth, and
excessive runoff. Growing pasture grasses on this soil
helps to control erosion. Proper stocking, pasture
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help
to keep the pasture and soil in good condition. Fertilizer
and lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes. The main suitable pasture plants are
bahiagrass and bermudagrass.
The potential productivity of this soil for loblolly pine
is moderately low. Intensive site preparation and
maintenance will keep undesirable plants from
restricting adequate natural or artificial reforestation.
Hardwood understory can be reduced by controlled
burning, applying herbicides, girdling, or cutting
unwanted trees. This soil commonly is very low in
content of organic matter, and harvesting operations
that remove all tree biomass on the site reduce the
fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting methods leave
residual biomass distributed over the site.
This soil is moderately suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development. Seepage, slope, the clayey
texture, and low soil strength are the main limitations
affecting sewage lagoon areas, sanitary landfills, daily
cover for landfills, shallow excavations, and roads.
Erosion is a hazard in the steeper areas. Excavations
for roads and buildings increase the hazard of erosion
on construction sites. Existing plant cover should be
kept on construction sites, and only that part of the site
that is used for construction should be disturbed.
Revegetating disturbed areas as soon as possible helps
to control erosion. Plant cover can be established and
maintained with proper fertilizing, seeding, mulching,
and shaping of the slopes. Roads should be designed
to offset the limited ability of the soil to support a heavy
load.


The land capability classification is Ille, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8A.

74-Dorovan and Pamlico soils, depressional.
These soils are nearly level and very poorly drained.
They are in very broad, titi and bay tree swamps and in
depressions on the flatwoods. Most areas are ponded
for 6 to 12 months during most years. The mapped
areas are irregular in shape and range from 20 to 1,800
acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and are 0 to 1
percent.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Dorovan and
Pamlico soils, depressional, Dorovan, Pamlico, and
similar soils make up 85 to 99 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 15 percent.
The Dorovan soil makes up about 58 percent of the
map unit and the Pamlico soil about 31 percent. Some
areas consist mostly of the Dorovan soil, and some are
mostly of the Pamlico soil. Other areas contain
substantial amounts of both soils. The proportion varies
from one area to another. These soils do not occur in a
regular repeating pattern. The mapped areas of the
individual soils are large enough to map separately;
however, in considering the present and predicted use,
they were mapped as one map unit.
Typically, the surface layer of the Dorovan soil
extends to a depth of about 70 inches. In sequence
downward, it is very dark brown mucky peat, very dark
brown muck, dark reddish brown muck, and dark
reddish brown mucky peat. The underlying material to a
depth of 80 inches or more is very dark gray sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is
about 33 inches thick. The upper part, to a depth of
about 6 inches, is partly decomposed roots, twigs, and
leaves. The next layer, to a depth of about 15 inches, is
black muck. The lower part is dark brown muck. The
upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of
about 60 inches, is yellowish brown fine sand. The
lower part to a depth of 80 inches is grayish brown
sandy clay loam that has small gray pockets of sand.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Surrency, Sapelo, and Plummer soils that are in
depressions. These soils have a loamy subsoil below a
depth of 20 inches. They are mineral soils.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At the surface to 24 inches
above the surface
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Very high
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,









Madison County, Florida


Figure 7.-Very thick vegetation consisting mostly of greenbrier in an area of Dorovan and Pamlico soils, depressional.


cypress, sweetbay, and blackgum. The understory
vegetation includes white titi, black titi, and greenbrier
(fig. 7).
These soils are mostly used as habitat for wetland
wildlife. A few areas have been partly drained and are
used for pine tree production.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or
pasture. They are limited mainly because of wetness,
ponding, and a moderate or high subsidence potential if
drained.


These soils generally are not suited to the production
of pines because of the wetness and the prolonged
ponding. They are moderately suited to cypress and
hardwoods, but harvesting and planting should be
scheduled during extended dry periods. Some areas in
San Pedro Bay are partly drained and can be used for
pine tree production; however, seedling mortality,
equipment use, plant competition, and the windthrow
hazard are the main concerns in woodland
management.








Soil Survey


This map unit is not suited to sanitary facilities or
building site development.
The land capability classification is Vllw. The
woodland ordination symbol is 7W for Dorovan soil and
4W for Pamlico soil.

77-Surrency, Plummer, and Cantey soils,
frequently flooded. These soils are nearly level and
are poorly drained and very poorly drained. They are on
river and creek flood plains. These soils are frequently
flooded for very long periods following prolonged, high-
intensity rains. The mapped areas range from 80 to 640
acres. Slopes are dominantly less than 2 percent.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Surrency,
Plummer, and Cantey soils, frequently flooded,
Surrency, Plummer, Cantey, and similar soils make up
90 to 98 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 2 to 10 percent.
Surrency and similar soils make up about 33 percent
of the map unit, Plummer and similar soils make up
about 32 percent, and Cantey and similar soils make up
about 25 percent. Every soil is not in every mapped
area; the relative proportion of combinations varies. The
mapped areas of the individual soils are large enough
to map separately; however, in considering the present
and predicted use, they were mapped as one map unit.
The Surrency soil is very poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is black loamy sand about 10 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 33
inches, is light brownish gray sand. The upper part of
the subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam. The lower part
to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy clay.
Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to the Surrency, Plummer, and Cantey soils, but
they have a surface layer that is thicker and that has a
higher content of organic matter.
Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 4 inches thick.
The upper part of the subsurface layer is light gray fine
sand. The lower part, to a depth of 58 inches, is light
brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80
inches or more is light brownish gray sandy clay loam.
Cantey soil is poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is about 10 inches thick. The upper part, to a
depth of about 5 inches, is very dark gray fine sandy
loam. The lower part is dark gray fine sandy loam. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 19 inches, is light
brownish gray fine sandy loam. The upper part of the
subsoil is light brownish gray sandy clay. The lower part
to a depth of about 80 inches or more is gray, mottled
sandy clay.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas


of Sapelo soils. These soils are on slightly higher knolls
on the landscape than the major soils in this map unit.
Important soil properties of Surrency, Plummer, and
Cantey soils:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 0 to 6 inches
Permeability: Moderate-Surrency and Plummer; slow-
Cantey
Available water capacity: Low-Surrency and Plummer;
moderate-Cantey
The natural vegetation consists of cypress,
blackgum, sweetgum, ironwood, sweetbay, water oak,
and slash pine. The understory vegetation includes
gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, and waxmyrtle.
Most of the acreage in this map unit has been left in
native woodland.
These soils generally are not suited to most
cultivated crops because of the flooding.
These soils are poorly suited to pasture. The main
limitations are low natural fertility and the seasonal high
water table. Flooding is a hazard. Wetness limits the
choice of plants that can be grown and the period of
grazing. When the soil is wet, grazing causes
compaction of the surface layer and damage to the
plant community. The use of equipment is limited
because of wetness and surface stickiness. Bahiagrass
is a suitable pasture plant.
These soils are not suited to the production of pines
because of the flooding and the extended wetness.
They may be suited to cypress and hardwood
production through natural regeneration.
These soils are not suited to sanitary facilities or

building site development mainly because of the
frequent flooding.
The land capability classification is VIw for Surrency
and Cantey soils and IVw for Plummer soil. The
woodland ordination symbol is 10W for Surrency soil,
11W for Plummer soil, and 8W for Cantey soil.

78-Alpin fine sand, occasionally flooded. This soil
is nearly level to gently sloping and is excessively
drained. It is on the uplands and is adjacent to the flood
plains. The soil is occasionally flooded for brief periods
following prolonged, high-intensity rains. The mapped
areas are irregular in shape and range from 40 to 300
acres. Slope is 0 to 5 percent.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Alpin fine sand,
occasionally flooded, Alpin and similar soils make up
about 77 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils
make up 1 to 23 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand








Madison County, Florida


about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface
layer is light yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part,
to a depth of about 55 inches, is" very pale brown fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is
white fine sand that has horizontal bands of yellowish
brown sand.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Eunola and Troup soils. Eunola soils are in slightly
lower positions on the landscape than the Alpin soil and
have a loamy subsoil at a depth of less than 20 inches.
Troup soils have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40
inches.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Rapid
Available water capacity: Low
The natural vegetation consists of live oak, longleaf
pine, slash pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak,
and blackgum. The understory vegetation includes
persimmon, American holly, sparkleberry, and saw
palmetto.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are droughtiness, excessive nutrient
leaching, and the low available water capacity. Flooding
is a hazard. This soil is friable, and good tilth can be
easily maintained. The soil can be tilled throughout a
wide range of moisture content. Sprinkler irrigation
systems are suited to this soil. Irrigation generally is
feasible in most areas if water is readily available. A
well designed and properly managed sprinkler irrigation
system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and
ensure maximum yields. Returning all crop residue to
the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures help to
maintain fertility and tilth. Crops respond to lime and
fertilizer. Diversions and grassed waterways may be
needed.
This soil is fairly suited to pasture. The main
limitations are droughtiness, very low fertility, and the
low available water capacity. Flooding is a hazard. The
low available water capacity limits the production of
plants during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants,
such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are
more drought-tolerant if properly fertilized and limed.
Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment
of grazing help to keep the pasture in good condition.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes.
The potential productivity of this soil for pines is


moderate. The main concern in woodland management
is the low available water capacity, which increases the
rate of seedling mortality and reduces plant growth.
Longleaf pine, slash pine, and sand pine are the
recommended trees to plant for woodland production.
Site preparation, such as chopping, burning, applying
herbicides, and bedding, reduces debris, controls
immediate plant competition, and facilitates hand and
mechanical planting. Using special planting stock that is
larger than usual or that is containerized will reduce the
rate of seedling mortality. Natural regeneration may be
preferable. Other management practices include
selecting appropriate plants and leaving debris onsite to
conserve organic matter. These soils commonly are
very low in content of organic matter, and harvesting
operations that remove all tree biomass on the site will
reduce the fertility of the soil. Preferred harvesting
methods leave residual biomass distributed over the
site.
This soil is poorly suited to building site development.
The main limitation is seepage. Flooding is a hazard.
Soils that are better suited to building site development
generally are in nearby areas at higher elevations.
Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to slumping. If
the density of housing is moderate or high, community
sewage systems are needed to prevent contamination
of the water supplies as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is IVs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10S.

79-Eunola fine sand, occasionally flooded. This
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is somewhat
poorly drained. It is on low river terraces. The soil is
occasionally flooded for very brief periods following
prolonged, high-intensity rains. Excess water ponds in
low-lying areas for brief periods after heavy rainfall. The
mapped areas range from 320 to 640 acres. Slopes
range from 0 to 5 percent.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Eunola fine sand,
occasionally flooded, Eunola and similar soils make up
87 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 1 to 13 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of 12 inches, is pale brown loamy fine sand. The
subsoil extends to a depth of about 65 inches. In
sequence downward, it is yellowish brown sandy clay
loam; strong brown sandy clay loam; strong brown
sandy clay and sandy clay loam that have gray, red,
and brown mottles; and brownish yellow loamy fine
sand that has brown and red mottles. The substratum to
a depth of about 80 inches is white fine sand that has








Soil Survey


brown mottles. Some soils occurring in areas of this
map unit are similar to the Eunola soil, but they have a
sandy surface layer more than 20 inches thick.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Alpin fine sand that are occasionally flooded. These
soils are in slightly higher positions on the landscape
than the Eunola soil and do not have a continuous
subsoil. Small sinkholes occur in some areas.
Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 18 to 30 inches
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Moderate
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, water
oak, live oak, blackgum, sweetgum, yaupon, and
hawthorn. The understory vegetation includes
huckleberry, American holly, cabbage palm, American
beautyberry, saltbush, and bluestar.
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops. It is limited
mainly because of the occasional flooding. A well
designed and properly managed sprinkler irrigation
system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and
ensure maximum yields. Excessive cultivation can result
in the formation of a plowpan. This plowpan can be
broken by subsoiling when the soil is dry. Returning all
crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume
mixtures help to maintain fertility and tilth. Crusting of
the surface and compaction can be reduced by
returning crop residue to the soil. Frequent applications
of fertilizer and lime generally are needed to improve
the quality of the soil. Most crops respond well to
fertilizer. Conservation tillage, buffer strips, and a crop
rotation system that will keep close-growing cover crops
on the soil control erosion.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Grasses and
legumes grow well if adequate fertilizer is added.
Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment
of grazing help to keep the pasture in good condition.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes. The use of equipment is limited
because of sinkholes. Suitable pasture plants are
bahiagrass and bermudagrass.
The potential productivity of this soil for loblolly pine
is moderate. Site preparation, such as chopping,
applying herbicides, and bedding, reduces debris,
controls immediate plant competition, and facilitates
mechanical planting. This soil is often very low in
organic matter, and harvesting operations that remove
all tree biomass on the site will reduce the fertility of the
soil. Preferred harvesting methods leave residual


biomass distributed over the site. Bedding of rows helps
to minimize the effects of the wetness. Bedding should
not block natural surface drainage. Road construction,
logging, and site preparation should be avoided in
streambeds and nearby areas because of the risk of
erosion and the wetness. Using special harvesting
equipment with large tires or tracks reduces the
equipment use limitation, minimizes root damage, and
reduces soil compaction during thinning operations.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities and
building site development. The main limitation is
wetness. Flooding is a hazard. Soils that are better
suited to these uses generally are in nearby areas at
higher elevations. Roads and streets should be
constructed above flood level. Septic tank absorption
field effluent can surface in downslope areas and create
a health hazard.
The land capability classification is IIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 9W.

80-Kenansville loamy fine sand, occasionally
flooded. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is
well drained. It is on river terraces. The soil is
occasionally flooded for long periods following
prolonged, high-intensity rains. Excess water ponds in
low-lying areas for brief periods after heavy rainfall. The
mapped areas range from 80 to 320 acres. Slopes
range from 0 to 5 percent.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Kenansville loamy
fine sand, occasionally flooded, Kenansville and similar
soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 18 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 22 inches, is pale brown and pale yellow
loamy fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 26 inches, is brownish yellow fine sandy loam.
The next part, to a depth of 49 inches, is yellowish
brown sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of 56
inches, is brownish yellow fine sandy loam. The upper
part of the substratum, to a depth of 69 inches, is pale
yellow fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80
inches or more is white fine sand. Some soils occurring
in areas of this map unit are similar to the Kenansville
soil, but they have a loamy subsoil within 20 inches of
the surface and have a seasonal high water table within
80 inches of the surface.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas
of Alpin fine sand that are occasionally flooded. Alpin
soils are in slightly higher positions on the landscape
than the Kenansville soil and do not have a continuous
subsoil. Small sinkholes occur in some areas.








Madison County, Florida


Important soil properties:
Seasonal high water table: Not within 72 inches of the
surface
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The surface layer of this soil remains wet for long
periods after heavy rains.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, water
oak, sweetgum, live oak, and hickory. The understory
vegetation includes wild persimmon, poison ivy,
sparkleberry, Virginia creeper, brackenfern, indigo, and
low panicum.
This soil is fairly suited to cultivated crops. The main
limitations are droughtiness and low natural fertility. The
occasional flooding is a hazard. Sprinkler irrigation
systems are suited to this soil. Irrigation generally is
feasible in most areas if water is readily available. A
well designed and properly managed sprinkler irrigation
system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and
ensure maximum yields. Excessive cultivation can result
in the formation of a plowpan. This plowpan can be
broken up by subsoiling when the soil is dry. Subsoiling
increases the effective rooting depth. Returning all crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures
help to conserve moisture, maintain fertility, and control
erosion. Crusting of the surface layer and compaction
can be reduced by returning crop residue to the soil.
Most crops respond well to fertilizer. Soil blowing is a
hazard in cultivated areas but can be controlled with a
good ground cover of close-growing plants.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture.
Grasses and legumes grow well if adequate fertilizer is
added. When the soil is wet, grazing causes
compaction of the surface layer, poor tilth, and
excessive runoff. Excess surface water can be removed
from most areas by field drains. Low available water
capacity limits the production of plants suitable for
pasture. Drought-tolerant plants are most suitable for
planting. Suitable pasture plants are bahiagrass and


bermudagrass. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and
timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in
good condition.
The potential production of this soil for loblolly pine
and slash pine is moderate. The sandy surface layer
restricts the use of wheeled equipment, especially when
the soil is very dry. Droughtiness increases the rate of
seedling mortality. Site preparation, such as chopping,
applying herbicides, and bedding, reduces debris,
controls immediate plant competition, and facilitates
mechanical planting. This soil is often very low in
organic matter, and harvesting operations that remove
all tree biomass on the site will reduce the fertility of the
soil. Preferred harvesting methods leave residual
biomass distributed over the site. Bedding of rows helps
to minimize the effects of the wetness. Bedding should
not block natural surface drainage. Road construction,
logging, and site preparation should be avoided in
streambeds and nearby areas because of the risk of
erosion and the wetness. Using special harvesting
equipment with large tires or tracks reduces the
equipment use limitation, minimizes root damage, and
reduces soil compaction during thinning operations.
This soil is poorly suited to building site development.
The occasional flooding is a hazard. Dikes and
channels that have outlets to bypass floodwater can be
used to protect buildings and onsite sewage disposal
systems from flooding. Generally, soils in nearby areas
that are at higher elevations are better suited to building
site development and septic tank absorption fields.
Roads and streets should be constructed above flood
level. Selection of vegetation adapted to this soil is
critical for the establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees,
and vegetable gardens. Mulching, fertilizing, and
irrigation are needed to establish lawn grasses and
other small seeded plants. If the density of housing is
moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent contamination of the water supplies
as a result of seepage.
The land capability classification is Ils, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.





















Prime Farmland


In this section, prime farmland is defined and
discussed, and the prime farmland soils in Madison
County are listed.
Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important
farmland defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
It is of major importance in meeting the Nation's short-
and long-range needs for food and .fiber. The acreage
of high-quality farmland is limited, and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture recognizes that government
at local, state, and federal levels, as well as individuals,
must encourage and facilitate the wise use of our
Nation's prime farmland.
Prime farmland soils, as defined by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, are soils that are best suited
to producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops.
Such soils have properties that are favorable for the
economic production of sustained high yields of crops.
The soils need only to be treated and managed using
acceptable farming methods. The moisture supply, of
course, must be adequate, and the growing season has
to be sufficiently long. Prime farmland soils produce the
highest yields with minimal inputs of energy and
economic resources. Farming these soils results in the
least damage to the environment.
Prime farmland soils may presently be in use as
cropland, pasture, or woodland, or they may be in other
uses. They are used for producing food or fiber or are
available for these uses. Urban or built-up land, public
land, and water areas cannot be considered prime
farmland. Urban or built-up land is any contiguous unit
of land 10 acres or more in size that is used for such
purposes as housing, industrial, and commercial sites,
sites for institutions or public buildings, small parks, golf


courses, cemeteries, railroad yards, airports, sanitary
landfills, sewage treatment plants, and water control
structures. Public land is land not available for farming
in national forests, national parks, military reservations,
and state parks.
Prime farmland soils usually get an adequate and
dependable supply of moisture from precipitation or
irrigation. The temperature and growing season are
favorable. The acidity or alkalinity level of the soils is
acceptable. The soils have few or no rocks and are
permeable to water and air. They are not excessively
erodible or saturated with water for long periods and
are not subject to frequent flooding during the growing
season. The slope ranges mainly from 0 to 5 percent.
The following map units make up prime farmland in
Madison County. The location of each map unit is
shown on the detailed soil maps at the back of this
publication. The extent of each unit is given in table 2.
The soil qualities that affect use and management are
described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units." This
list does not constitute a recommendation for a
particular land use.

55 Esto fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
79 Eunola fine sand, occasionally flooded
71 Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes
72 Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes
38 Goldsboro loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
16 Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
17 Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes





















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It
can be used to identify the limitations of each soil for
specific land uses and to help prevent construction
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where wetness can cause difficulty in
excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
William F. Kuenstler, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service,
helped to prepare this section.
The major concerns in managing soils for crops and
pasture are described in this section. In addition, the


crops or pasture plants best suited to the soils,
including some not commonly grown in the county, are
discussed. The system of land capability classification
used by the Soil Conservation Service is explained, and
the estimated yields of the main crops and hay and
pasture plants are presented for each soil.
This section provides information about the overall
agricultural potential of the county and about the
management practices that are needed. The information
is useful to farmers, equipment dealers, land
improvement contractors, fertilizer companies,
processing companies, planners, conservationists, and
others. For each kind of soil, information about
management is presented in the section "Detailed Soil
Map Units." Planners of management systems for
individual fields or farms should also consider the
detailed information given in the description of each
soil.
Over 80,000 acres in Madison County was used for
crops and pasture in 1986, according to agriculture
census data and Soil Conservation Service data. Of this
total, about 44,000 acres was in row crops, mainly corn,
soybeans, tobacco, and watermelons; about 12,000
acres was in close-grown crops, such as wheat and rye;
and about 25,000 acres was in permanent pasture.
About 12,000 acres of the row cropland was seeded to
rye for winter grazing.
The acreage in crops has been decreasing slightly as
the economics of crop production have changed. The
land that was used mostly for crops is being planted to
pine trees. Population growth in the county has been
slow, and only a small acreage is being used for urban
development.
Soil erosion caused by water is a major problem in
Madison County on cropland that has slope of more
than 2 percent. Alaga, Blanton, and Faceville soils have
slopes that are as much as 8 percent and are very
susceptible to erosion under intensive cropping
systems.
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is
damaging because productivity is reduced as the
surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is


















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It
can be used to identify the limitations of each soil for
specific land uses and to help prevent construction
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where wetness can cause difficulty in
excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
William F. Kuenstler, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service,
helped to prepare this section.
The major concerns in managing soils for crops and
pasture are described in this section. In addition, the


crops or pasture plants best suited to the soils,
including some not commonly grown in the county, are
discussed. The system of land capability classification
used by the Soil Conservation Service is explained, and
the estimated yields of the main crops and hay and
pasture plants are presented for each soil.
This section provides information about the overall
agricultural potential of the county and about the
management practices that are needed. The information
is useful to farmers, equipment dealers, land
improvement contractors, fertilizer companies,
processing companies, planners, conservationists, and
others. For each kind of soil, information about
management is presented in the section "Detailed Soil
Map Units." Planners of management systems for
individual fields or farms should also consider the
detailed information given in the description of each
soil.
Over 80,000 acres in Madison County was used for
crops and pasture in 1986, according to agriculture
census data and Soil Conservation Service data. Of this
total, about 44,000 acres was in row crops, mainly corn,
soybeans, tobacco, and watermelons; about 12,000
acres was in close-grown crops, such as wheat and rye;
and about 25,000 acres was in permanent pasture.
About 12,000 acres of the row cropland was seeded to
rye for winter grazing.
The acreage in crops has been decreasing slightly as
the economics of crop production have changed. The
land that was used mostly for crops is being planted to
pine trees. Population growth in the county has been
slow, and only a small acreage is being used for urban
development.
Soil erosion caused by water is a major problem in
Madison County on cropland that has slope of more
than 2 percent. Alaga, Blanton, and Faceville soils have
slopes that are as much as 8 percent and are very
susceptible to erosion under intensive cropping
systems.
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is
damaging because productivity is reduced as the
surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is








Soil Survey


incorporated into the plow layer. The loss of the surface
layer is damaging on soils that have a clayey subsoil,
such as Nankin and Faceville soils. Soil erosion on
farmland also results in sediment entering streams. If
erosion is controlled, sediment pollution can be reduced
and the quality of water for municipal use, for
recreation, and for fish and wildlife can be improved.
Conservation practices, such as maintaining a
vegetative cover on the surface layer, reducing runoff,
and increasing infiltration, will help to control erosion. A
cropping system that maintains a plant cover on the soil
for extended periods can hold soil erosion losses to
amounts that do not reduce the productive capacity of
the soils. On livestock farms, legumes and grasses
should be included in the cropping system to reduce
erosion on sloping land, provide nitrogen, and improve
tilth for the next crop.
Conservation tillage is an excellent erosion control
method. The crop residue that is left on the soil surface
intercepts falling rain so it cannot dislodge soil particles.
The residue also slows water that is flowing across the
soil surface, so it has less energy to cause erosion.
Conservation tillage is adapted to Nankin, Lovett, and
other soils that are moderately well drained or well
drained. Conservation tillage also reduces soil moisture
loss by evaporation from the soil surface. The extra
moisture that is saved can carry a crop that might
otherwise go into stress through a short period of
drought.
Terraces and diversions are practices that reduce
runoff, thereby reducing the risk of erosion. Terraces
are suitable on soils with long, regular slopes, such as
Lucy and Orangeburg soils. Terraces are not suited or
not needed on soils with short, irregular slopes.
Contour farming is an erosion control practice that
has been applied on only a few farms in Madison
County, but it has a great potential for use. Contouring
is an effective practice that costs little to apply but can
reduce erosion by as much as 50 percent on many
soils. Contouring and contour stripcropping are also
suited to Lucy and Orangeburg soils.
Soil blowing is a hazard on the sandy Albany and
Blanton soils. Soil blowing is seldom so serious that it
damages the soil as much as water erosion; however,
soil blowing can damage or destroy tender young crops
in a few hours. Leaving crop residue on the soil surface,
planting permanent windbreaks of trees and shrubs, or
planting annual windbreaks of small grain will effectively
reduce soil blowing.
Information on the design of erosion control practices
for each kind of soil can be obtained from the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service.


Soil fertility is naturally low on most of the cropland in
the county. The soils are moderately acid to very
strongly acid. For successful crop production,
agricultural limestone must be applied to raise the pH,
and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash must also be
applied. Lime and fertilizer applications should be based
on soil tests, the needs of the crop, and the planned
yield level.
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
seed and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils that
have good tilth have granular structure, are porous, and
are easily tilled.
Most of the cropland in the county has a sandy or
sandy loam surface layer that is light in color and low in
content of organic matter. A thin crust can form on the
surface after an intense, heavy rainfall. This crust
reduces infiltration of subsequent rainfall and slows crop
seedling emergence. Returning crop residue to the soil,
spreading manure, and planting cover and green
manure crops will increase the content of organic
matter, improve soil structure, and increase the
available water capacity of the soil.
The hazard of erosion will increase if cropland is
tilled in the fall and left bare during the winter. If
cropland is disked or plowed in the fall, a cover crop of
wheat, rye, or ryegrass should be planted to control
erosion.
The soils and climate of Madison County are suited
to the production of many different field crops. The main
crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, and grain sorghum.
Some tobacco, cotton, peanuts, and watermelons are
also grown.
Growing hay for sale has good potential in the
county. Demand is growing for good quality grass or
legume hay. With a good fertility program, 8 to 10 tons
per acre of excellent quality bermudagrass hay can be
produced. Florigraze, a perennial forage peanut, is
adapted to conditions in north Florida. It is suited to well
drained soils and can be cut for hay. Any forage crop
provides excellent erosion control on sloping land.
Some specialty crops, such as sweet corn, snap
beans, and potatoes, are grown on a small acreage in
the county. Some nursery and foliage plants are also
grown. The latest information and suggestions on
growing special crops can be obtained from the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service and the
Cooperative Extension Service.
Pastures in Madison County produce forage for beef
and dairy cattle. On livestock farms, beef cattle and
cow-calf operations are the most common. Bahiagrass
and improved bermudagrass are the main pasture
plants grown. Many farmers seed small grain in the fall








Madison County, Florida


for winter and spring grazing. Excess grass is harvested
during the summer to use as feed during the winter.
The well drained soils that have a loamy surface layer,
such as Esto and Faceville soils, are well suited to
legumes planted along with bahiagrass and improved
bermudagrass. If adequate lime and fertilizer are added,
legumes, such as white, crimson, and arrowleaf clovers,
are well suited to these soils.
The potential of the soils in the county for increasing
pasture production is high. Much of the pasture is not
producing to its potential because of poor management,
overgrazing, and improper applications of fertilizer and
lime, but by adjusting stocking rates, implementing
rotational grazing plans, and fertilizing for the planned
production, pasture-carrying capacities can often be
doubled. Planting legumes in pastures provides free
nitrogen for the grass and increases the protein content
of the forage.
Fields planted to pines often produce significant
amounts of grazing for 3 to 6 years after planting.
These areas should be closely monitored to ensure that
livestock do not damage the pine seedlings. Another
woodland grazing system involves changing the tree
spacing in pine plantings. Instead of planting trees on
an 8 by 12 foot spacing, they are planted in double
rows on a 4 by 8 foot spacing with a 40-foot space
between the double rows. This planting pattern provides
significant forage production for 8 to 12 years after
planting. Timber production is equivalent to that
obtained from the common planting patterns. The latest
information and suggestions for pasture management
can be obtained from the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service and the Cooperative Extension
Service.

Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 3. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage,
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper


planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
the smallest possible loss.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a
minimum.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
likely to increase as new production technology is
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 3 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The
soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
and the way they respond to management. The criteria
used in grouping the soils do not include major, and
generally expensive, landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for woodland and for
engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey. These
levels are defined in the following paragraphs.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their








Soil Survey


use. There are no class I soils in Madison County.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production. There are no class VIII soils in
Madison County.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
w, or s. to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter
e shows that the main hazard is risk of erosion unless a
close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
corrected by artificial drainage); and s shows that the
soil is limited mainly because it is shallow or drought.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, woodland,
wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains only the
subclasses indicated by w or s.
The capability classification of each map unit is given
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Woodland Management and Productivity
Ernie Ash. forester. Florida Division of Forestry, helped to prepare
this section.
Although Madison County's economy is primarily
agricultural, commercial woodlands have also
contributed to the economy for many years. These
commercial woodlands are mainly owned by large
timber and wood product industries. The rest of the
woodland acreage is small, privately owned tracts.
The main commercial trees are slash pine, longleaf
pine, and loblolly pine. The most common hardwoods


are laurel oak, water oak, sweetgum, black cherry, and
various hickory trees.
An excellent market for woodland products is in
Madison County, which has a large sawmill, a plywood
mill, a hardwood pallet mill, and a few small pine,
hardwood, and cypress sawmills that produce most of
the timber and other woodland products. Two paper
mills and a large treating facility are in the surrounding
counties.
Large parts of the county were once covered by
native longleaf pine that supported an active turpentine
industry for many years. Turpentine is no longer
produced in the county, and the longleaf pine acreage
is declining steadily.
For many years, individuals and the woodland
industries have planted and grown pines for profit.
Recently, many farmers have been planting pines in idle
fields because of declining profits in agriculture. Slash
pine is by far the most common tree planted because of
its fast growth on a wide variety of soils. It can be easily
transplanted. Longleaf pine is the recommended tree to
plant on the dry sandy soils that are mostly in the
northern part of the county. Loblolly pine grows
exceptionally well.
On a properly managed pine plantation, production of
1 12 cords per acre, per year, is not unusual (12). Some
recommended woodland management practices are
annual fireline plowing to protect the stand from wildfire,
periodic selective thinning to reduce excessive
competition, and regular prescribed burning to control
undesirable hardwoods and improve wildlife habitat.
Soils vary in their ability to support trees. Depth of
the soil, fertility, texture, and the available water
capacity influence tree growth. Available water capacity
and depth of the root zone are major influences of tree
growth.
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
land. Some soils respond better to fertilization than
others, and some are more susceptible to erosion after
roads are built and timber is harvested. Some soils
require special efforts to reforest. For each map unit in
the survey area suitable for producing timber, the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units" presents information
about productivity, limitations for harvesting timber, and
management concerns for producing timber. The
common forest understory plants are also listed. Table
4 summarizes this forestry information and rates the
soils for a number of factors to be considered in
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be
considered in forest management.








Madison County, Florida


The first tree listed for each soil under the column
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil.
An indicator species is a tree that is common in the
area and that is generally the most productive on a
given soil.
Table 4 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential
productivity is based on the site index and the point
where mean annual increment is the greatest.
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which
excessive water, either seasonal or year round, causes
a significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry
sandy soil. The letter A indicates a soil that has no
significant restrictions or limitations for forest use and
management. If a soil has more than one limitation, the
priority is W and then S.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or
harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight
if no particular preventive measures are needed under
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control
measures are needed for particular silvicultural
activities; and severe if special precautions are needed
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings
of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of
roads, additional care in planning of harvesting and
reforestation operations, or use of specialized
equipment.
Ratings of the equipment limitation indicate limits on
the use of forest management equipment, year round or
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
wetness, or susceptibility of the surface layer to
compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used.
On the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot
be operated; more sophisticated systems are needed.
The rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil
wetness for less than 2 months and if special
equipment is not needed. The rating is moderate if
slopes are steep enough that wheeled equipment
cannot be operated safely across the slope, if soil
wetness restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per
year, or if special equipment is needed to avoid or
reduce soil compaction. The rating is severe if slopes
are steep enough that tracked equipment cannot be


operated safely across the slope, if soil wetness
restricts equipment use for more than 6 months per
year, or if special equipment is needed to avoid or
reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or severe
indicate a need to choose the most suitable equipment
and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting and other
management operations.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
death of naturally occurring or properly planted
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much
water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil
for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer,
depth and duration of the water table, rooting depth,
and the aspect of the slope. Mortality generally is
greatest on soils that have a sandy or clayey surface
layer. The risk is slight if, after site preparation,
expected mortality is less than 25 percent; moderate if
expected mortality is between 25 and 50 percent; and
severe if expected mortality exceeds 50 percent.
Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it may be
necessary to use containerized or larger than usual
planting stock or to make special site preparations,
such as bedding, furrowing, or installing surface
drainage. Reinforcement planting is often needed if the
risk is moderate or severe.
Ratings of the windthrow hazard indicate the
likelihood of trees being uprooted by the wind.
Restricted rooting depth is the main reason for
windthrow. Rooting depth can be restricted by a high
water table or by such factors as soil wetness, texture,
structure, and depth. The risk is slight if strong winds
cause trees to break but do not uproot them; moderate
if strong winds cause an occasional tree to be blown
over and many trees to break; and severe if moderate
or strong winds commonly blow trees over. Ratings of
moderate or severe indicate the need for care in
thinning or possibly not thinning. Specialized equipment
may be needed to avoid damage to shallow root
systems in partial cutting operations. A plan for periodic
salvage of windthrown trees and the maintenance of a
road and trail system may be needed.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition becomes more severe on the more
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
inhibits adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from









Soil Survey


undesirable plants inhibits natural or artificial
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
ensure the development of an adequately stocked
stand. Managers must plan site preparation measures
to ensure reforestation without delays.
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil
is expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
the order of their observed general occurrence.
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
For the soils that are commonly used to produce
timber, the yield is predicted in cubic meters. It is
predicted at the point where mean annual increment
culminates.
The site index is determined by taking height
measurements and determining the age of selected
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
specified number of years. This index applies to fully
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands.
The productivity class represents an expected volume
produced by the most important trees, expressed in
cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
multiplying by 14.3. Cubic feet can be converted to
board feet by multiplying by a factor of about 5. For
example, a productivity class of 8 means the soil can be
expected to produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at
the point where mean annual increment culminates, or
about 570 board feet per acre per year.
Trees to plant are those that are used for
reforestation or, if suitable conditions exist, natural
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and will
produce a commercial wood crop. The desired product,
topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and
personal preference are only three factors of many that
can influence the choice of trees to use for
reforestation.

Recreation
Recreation in Madison County includes a variety of
activities. Hunting for deer, dove, quail, and turkey is a
popular activity in the area. Fishing in the many lakes
and ponds is enjoyed by many year-round residents
and by visitors. Boating and canoeing on the
Withlacoochee and Suwannee Rivers, swimming and
scuba or skin diving in Blue Springs, and water skiing


on Cherry Lake are some of the more popular water
sports. A golf course, baseball fields, tennis courts,
handball courts, basketball courts, and nature trails are
available in Madison County.
In table 5, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 5, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 5 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 8
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
for local roads and streets in table 7.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that








Madison County, Florida


increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access
roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
have moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil for tees
or greens is not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, biologist. Soil Conservation Service, helped to
prepare this section.
Wildlife is a valuable resource of Madison County.
Fishing and hunting are popular sports. Large acreages
of wetlands and upland soils provide habitat for a wide
diversity of wildlife.
The main species include white-tailed deer, squirrel,
turkey, dove, bobwhite quail, feral hogs, and waterfowl.
Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit, armadillo,
opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray and red fox, otter, and a
variety of songbirds, wading birds, woodpeckers,
predatory birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Some of the
more important habitat areas are the large wetland
areas of the Hixtown Swamp and San Pedro Bay in the
western and southern parts of the county and along the
Suwannee River on the eastern boundary.
Numerous small lakes are in the county. Cherry
Lake, the largest lake in the county, covers about 475
acres. Fishing is good throughout the county. Game
and nongame fish include largemouth bass, channel
catfish, bullhead, catfish, bluegill, redear, spotted
sunfish, warmouth, black crappie, chain pickerel, gar,
bowfin, and sucker.
A number of endangered and threatened species are
in the county. These range from the seldom seen red-
cockaded woodpecker to the more commonly seen
southeastern kestrel. A detailed list of these species
with information on range and habitat needs is available
from the district conservationist at the local office of the
Soil Conservation Service.


Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
plants.
In table 6, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element
of the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, and
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily created, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
created, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, and flood
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are
corn, soybeans, wheat, browntop millet, and grain
sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, flood hazard, and slope. Soil
temperature and soil moisture are also considerations.








Soil Survey


Examples of grasses and legumes are bahiagrass,.
lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and sesbania.
Wild herbaceous plant are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, and flood
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants are
bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed, partridge pea, and
bristlegrass.
Hardwood trees and the woody understory produce
nuts or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and
foliage. Soil properties and features that affect the
growth of hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the
root zone, the available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of these plants are oak, palmetto, cherry,
sweetgum, wild grape, hawthorn, dogwood, hickory,
blackberry, and blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing
shrubs that are suitable for planting on soils rated good
are firethorn, wild plum, and shrub lespedeza.
Coniferous plants furnish browse, seeds, and cones.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
and juniper.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, and
slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed, wild
millet, wildrice, pickerelweed, cordgrass, rushes,
sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are wetness, slope, and permeability.
Examples of shallow water areas are marshes,
waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds.
Habitats for various kinds of wildlife are described in
the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
and wild herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to
these areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark,
field sparrow, cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of


deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels,
gray fox, raccoon, deer, and bear.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
birds, otter, mink, and beaver.

Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet,
and because of the map scale, small areas of different
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a
specific soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness,
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood
of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell
potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral
characteristics affecting engineering uses.








Madion County, Florida


This information can be used to evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detai ed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
locate potential sources of sand, earthfill, and topsoil;
plan rainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
terraces, and other structures for soil and water
cons rvation; and predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same
or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
this survey can be used to make additional
interpretations.
Sdme of the terms used in this soil survey have a
spec al meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.
Building Site Development
Table 7 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
site features are generally favorable for the indicated
use and limitations are minor and easily overcome;
moderate if soil properties or site features are not
favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
overcome that special design, significant increases in
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
are required. Special feasibility studies may be required
where the soil limitations are severe.
S allow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by a very firm dense
layer, soil texture, and slope. The time of the year that
excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a
seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the
soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls
or banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil
texture and the depth to the water table.


Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
made for small commercial buildings without
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
soil properties, site features, and observed performance
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell
potential, and organic layers can cause the movement
of footings. Depth to a high water table and flooding
affect the ease of excavation and construction.
Landscaping and grading that require cuts and fills of
more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to a high water table, flooding, and
slope affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification
of the soil), shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high
water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table, the
available water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the
content of sodium affect plant growth. Flooding,
wetness, slope, and the amount of sand, clay, or
organic matter in the surface layer affect trafficability
after vegetation is established.
Sanitary Facilities
Table 8 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
soil properties or site features are moderately favorable
for the indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are unfavorable for the use and if overcoming the
unfavorable properties require special design, extra
maintenance, or alteration.
Table 8 also shows the suitability of the soils for use








Soil Survey


as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates
that soil properties and site features are favorable for
the use and that good performance and low
maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that soil
properties and site features are moderately favorable
for the use and one or more soil properties or site
features make the soil less desirable than the soils
rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration,
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a high water table, and flooding
affect absorption of the effluent.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material
beneath the absorption field to filter the effluent
effectively. Many local ordinances require that this
material be of a certain thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 8 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high
water table, flooding, and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the
level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high


content of organic matter is detrimental to proper
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic
activity. Slope can hinder compaction of the lagoon
floor.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
layer of soil from a source away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 8 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a water table, slope, and flooding
affect both types of landfill. Texture, highly organic
layers, soil reaction, and content of sodium affect trench
type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of about 6
feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or
moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation is
needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils are the
best cover for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or
cloddy and are difficult to spread; sandy soils are
subject to soil blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
enough over the water table to permit revegetation. The
soil material used as final cover for a landfill should be
suitable for plants. The surface layer generally has the
best workability, more organic matter, and the best
potential for plants. Material from the surface layer
should be stockpiled for use as the final cover.

Construction Materials
Table 9 gives information about the soils as a source
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil








Madison County, Florida


properties and site features that affect the removal of
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help determine the suitability
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not
considered in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. The
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
The ease of excavation is affected by a high water table
and slope. How well the soil performs in place after it
has been compacted and drained is determined by its
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification
of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand.
They have at least 5 feet of suitable material, low
shrink-swell potential, and slopes of 15 percent or less.
Depth to the water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated
fair are more than 35 percent silt- and clay-size
particles and have a plasticity index of less than 10.
They have moderate shrink-swell potential or slopes of
15 to 25 percent. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, or slopes of more than 25
percent. They are wet, and the depth to the water table
is less than 1 foot. They may have layers of suitable
material, but the material is less than 3 feet thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand
and gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 9, only
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil)


and the thickness of suitable material. Kinds of acidity
and stratification are given in the soil series
descriptions. Gradation of grain sizes is given in the
table on engineering index properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of
clean sand or a layer of sand that is up to 12 percent
silty fines. This material must be at least 3 feet thick. All
other soils are rated as an improbable source.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by slope, a water table, soil texture, and
thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of the
borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, and
toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They have slopes of less
than 8 percent. They are naturally fertile or respond well
to fertilizer and are not so wet that excavation is
difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20
to 40 inches of suitable material, or soils that have
slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so wet that
excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have slopes of more
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
retention of moisture and releases a variety of nutrients
as it decomposes.

Water Management
Table 10 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil
properties and site features are generally favorable for
the indicated use and limitations are minor and are
easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
features are not favorable for the indicated use and
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil











properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
difficult to overcome that special design, significant
increase in construction costs, and possibly increased
maintenance are required.
This table also gives the restrictive features that
affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage
capacity of the reservoir area.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
mixed and compacted during construction.
The ratings-do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth greater than the height of the embankment can
affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
content of organic matter or sodium. A high water table
affects the amount of usable material. It also affects
trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a


permanent water table and permeability of the aquifer.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
layers that affect the rate of water movement;
permeability; depth to a high water table or depth of
standing water if the soil is subject to ponding; slope;
susceptibility to flooding; and subsidence of organic
layers. Excavating and grading and the stability of
ditchbanks are affected by slope and the hazard of
cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil after
drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or by
toxic substances in the root zone, such as sodium.
Availability of drainage outlets is not considered in the
ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
design and management of an irrigation system are
affected by depth to the water table, the need for
drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
root zone, the amount of sodium, and soil reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
combination of channels and ridges constructed across
a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
intercepting runoff. Slope and wetness affect the
construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
rooting depth, a severe hazard of soil blowing or water
erosion, an excessively coarse texture, and restricted
permeability adversely affect maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
Wetness and slope affect the construction of grassed
waterways. A hazard of soil blowing, low available
water capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic
substances such as sodium, and restricted permeability
adversely affect the growth and maintenance of the
grass after construction.



















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine mechanical analyses, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 17.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 11 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters


in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO
classification for soils tested is given in table 17.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3



















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine mechanical analyses, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 17.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 11 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters


in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO
classification for soils tested is given in table 17.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3








Soil Survey


inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area
or from nearby areas and on field examination.

Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 12 shows estimates of some characteristics
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey
area. The estimates are based on field observations
and on test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink-
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving
operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at
/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and
root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by
texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
movement of water through the soil when the soil is
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and


texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and
construction where the rate of water movement under
saturated conditions affects behavior.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
plants. The capacity for water storage in each major soil
layer is stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The
capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
design and management of irrigation systems. Available
water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
water actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
minerals with water and varies with the amount and
type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
measurements of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
often needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change
of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and
high, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9
percent, is sometimes used.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)








Madison County, Florida


to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
per year. These estimates are based primarily on
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values
of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by
water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water
that can occur over a sustained period without affecting
crop productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre
per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to soil
blowing in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility to soil blowing. Soils are grouped
according to the following distinctions:
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult
to establish.
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops
can be grown if intensive measures to control soil
blowing are used.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive
measures to control soil blowing are used.
4L. Calcareous, loamy soils that are less than 35
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can
be grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing
are used.
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay
loams that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils
are moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if
measures to control soil blowing are used.
5. Loamy soils that are less than 20 percent clay
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium
carbonate and sandy clay loams and sandy clays that
are less than 5 percent finely divided calcium
carbonate. These soils are slightly erodible. Crops can
be grown if measures to control soil blowing are used.
6. Loamy soils that are 20 to 35 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate,
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly
erodible. Crops can easily be grown.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent
clay and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium


carbonate. These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops
can easily be grown.
8. Other soils not subject to soil blowing.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition.
In table 12, the estimated content of organic matter is
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter of a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Water Features
Table 13 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
groups. They are grouped according to the infiltration of
water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
precipitation from long-duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
water transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
moderate rate of water transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
consist chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate
of water transmission.
In table 13, some soils are assigned to two
hydrologic soil groups. Soils that have a seasonal high









Soil Survey


water table but can be drained are assigned first to a
hydrologic group that denotes the drained condition of
the soil and then to a hydrologic group that denotes the
undrained condition, for example, B/D. Because there
are different degrees of drainage and water table
control, onsite investigation is needed to determine the
hydrologic group of the soil in a particular location.
Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface
by flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high
tides. Shallow water standing or flowing for short
periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered
flooding. Standing water in swamps and marshes or in
a closed depression is considered ponding.
Table 13 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely to
occur.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of
occurrence are estimated. Frequency generally is
expressed as none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None
means that flooding is not probable. Rare means that
flooding is unlikely but possible under unusual weather
conditions (there is a near 0 to 5 percent chance of
flooding in any year). Occasional means that flooding
occurs infrequently under normal weather conditions
(there is a 5 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any
year). Frequent means that flooding occurs often under
normal weather conditions (there is more than a 50
percent chance of flooding in any year). Duration is
expressed as very brief (less than 2 days), brief (2 to 7
days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very long (more
than 1 month). The time of year that floods are most
likely to occur is expressed in months. November-May,
for example, means that flooding can occur during the
period November through May. About two-thirds to
three-fourths of all flooding occurs during the stated
period.
The information on flooding is based on evidence in
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of sand, silt, or clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not
subject to flooding.
Also considered is local information about the extent
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a.


seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils.
The estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. Indicated in table 13 are the depth to the seasonal
high water table; the kind of water table, that is-
perched or apparent; and the months of the year that
the water table commonly is highest. A water table that
is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated
in table 13.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A
perched water table is water standing above an
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth"
column indicate the normal range in depth to a
saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of
the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a depth of 6
feet for less than a month.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor, and Dr. Mary E. Collins,
associate professor, Soil Science Department, University of Florida,
helped to prepare this section.
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
properties of representative pedons sampled in Madison
County are presented in tables 14, 15, and 16. The
analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil
Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida.
Detailed profile descriptions of the analyzed soils are
given in alphabetical order in the section "Classification
of the Soils." Laboratory data and profile information for
additional soils in Madison County, as well as for other
counties in Florida, are on file at the University of
Florida, Soil Science Department.
Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air dried, crushed,
and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most
analytical methods used are outlined in Soil Survey
Investigations Report No. 1 (15).
Particle-size distribution was determined using a
modified pipette method with sodium
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil








Madison County, Florida


cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
100 centimeters water (1io bar) and 345 centimeters
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were
oven dried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and
the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic
carbon was determined by a modification of the
Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils
with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined
by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. The sum of
cations, which may be considered a measure of cation
exchange capacity, was calculated by adding the values
for extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation-
exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH
measurements were made with a glass electrode using
a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal
potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry.
Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns
was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at
18-angstrom, 14-angstrom, 7.2-angstrom, and 4.31-
angstrom positions represent montmorillonite,
interstratified expandable vermiculite or 14-angstrom
intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz, respectively. Peaks
were measured, summed, and normalized to give the
percent of soil minerals identified in the x-ray
diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate
absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do
imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular
mineral suite. Absolute percentages would require
additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit
structure substitution, and matrix problems.

Physical Properties
Representative soils sampled for laboratory analyses
in Madison County were inherently very sandy (table
14); however, most of these soils had an argillic horizon
in the lower part of the solum. The total sand content
was more than 90 percent in one horizon or more in all


soils sampled except Esto, Faceville, Lucy, Orangeburg,
and Pelham soils. Alpin and Chipley soils contained
more than 93 percent sand to a depth of 2 meters or
more. Albany, Blanton, and Troup soils contained more
than 90 percent sand to a depth of slightly more than 1
meter.
The content of clay in these excessively sandy
horizons was rarely more than 3.5 percent. Deeper
argillic horizons in Albany, Blanton, Esto, Eunola,
Faceville, Fuquay, Kenansville, Lovett, Lucy, Nankin,
Ocilla, Orangeburg, Pelham, Plummer, and Troup soils
contained large amounts of clay that ranged from 10.9
to 70.7 percent.
The content of silt ranged from 0.5 to 14.4 percent.
The low and high content of silt was in Kenansville
soils. All horizons sampled in Albany, Esto, Fuquay,
Lovett, Ocilla, and Plummer soils contained more than
4.5 percent silt. All horizons sampled in Chipley soil
contained less than 4 percent silt.
Fine sand dominated the sand fractions of all soils in
Madison County but rarely occurred in amounts of more
than 50 percent. The content of very fine sand was
more than 20 percent in one horizon or more of
Chipley, Esto, Eunola, Faceville, Kenansville, Lovett,
Pamlico, and Plummer soils. The content of medium
sand was more than 20 percent in one horizon or more
in Esto, Lovett, Pamlico, and Plummer soils. The
content of coarse sand was more than 7.5 percent in
one horizon or more of Alaga, Albany, Alpin, Blanton,
Lucy, and Troup soils. Very coarse sand generally
ranged from nondetectable to about 2 percent. The
excessively sandy soils, such as Chipley and Alpin
soils, rapidly become very drought during periods of
low precipitation when rainfall is widely scattered. Soils
with inherently poor drainage, such as Pamlico and
Plummer soils, remain saturated because the ground
water is close to the surface for long periods.
Hydraulic conductivity values exceeded 25
centimeters per hour in the upper sandy epipedons of
Alpin and Blanton soils and in the histic horizons of
Pamlico muck. Similarly high but inconsistent values
were recorded for the Albany and Troup soils. Hydraulic
conductivity values in the lower part of the solum of
these soils and in the argillic horizon of all the other
soils sampled rarely exceeded 2.0 centimeters per hour.
Low hydraulic conductivity values at a shallow depth in
soils, such as in Esto, Eunola, Faceville, and Pelham
soils, could affect the design and function of septic tank
absorption fields. Albany, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay,
Nankin, Pelham, and Plummer soils had one horizon or
more with hydraulic conductivity values of 0.2
centimeter per hour or less. The available water for








Soil Survey


plants can be estimated from bulk density and water
content data. The excessively sandy soils, such as
Alpin sand, retain very low amounts of available water.
Conversely, soils that have a higher content of organic
matter or fine-textured material, such as Pamlico muck
and Esto fine sandy loam, retain much larger amounts
of available water.

Chemical Properties
Chemical soil properties (table 15) show that soils in
Madison County contain a wide range of extractable
bases. Except for Lucy sand and Orangeburg loamy
sand, all of the soils contained one horizon or more that
had less than 1 milliequivalent per 100 grams
extractable bases. Lucy soils had the highest amount of
extractable bases that ranged from 1.76 to 3.62
milliequivalents per 100 grams, and Chipley fine sand
had the lowest amount that ranged from 0.09 to 0.24
milliequivalents per 100 grams. Alpin, Blanton, Chipley,
Eunola, and Ocilla soils contained less than 1
milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases. Only
one horizon in the Alaga, Albany, Pelham, Plummer,
and Troup soils had more than 1 milliequivalent per 100
grams extractable bases. The relatively mild, humid
climate of Madison County results in the depletion of
basic soil cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and
potassium) through leaching.
Calcium was the dominant base in all of the soils
sampled except Pamlico muck. Magnesium dominated
Pamlico soils and the deeper horizons of Esto, Lucy,
Nankin, and Orangeburg soils but was only more than 1
milliequivalent per 100 grams in one horizon or more of
the Esto, Faceville, Lovett, Lucy, Orangeburg, and
Pamlico soils. The highest content of magnesium was
2.22 milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface layer
of Pamlico muck, and the lowest content of 0.02
milliequivalents per 100 grams or less was in one
horizon or more of Albany, Alpin, Blanton, Chipley,
Eunola, Ocilla, Pamlico, Pelham, and Plummer soils.
The highest content of extractable calcium and
magnesium occurred in Esto, Faceville, Lucy, and
Orangeburg soils. Sodium generally occurred in
amounts that were much less than 0.20 milliequivalents
per 100 grams. Albany and Alpin soils contained 0.05
milliequivalents or less of sodium to a depth of 2 meters
or more. All of the soils sampled contained one horizon
or more that had 0.02 milliequivalents per 100 grams or
less extractable potassium except Fuquay soils, which
contained large amounts of potassium, ranging from
0.05 to 0.29 milliequivalents per 100 grams. In one
horizon or more of Alpin, Chipley, Eunola, Kenansville,


and Pamlico soils that was sampled, potassium was not
detected.
Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indicator of
plant-nutrient capacity, were more than 10
milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface layer of
Alaga, Esto, Kenansville, Orangeburg, Pamlico,
Pelham, and Plummer soils. Soils that have low cation-
exchange capacity in the surface layer, such as Alpin
and Troup soils, require only small amounts of lime or
sulfur to significantly alter the base status and soil
reaction. Generally, soils of low inherent soil fertility are
associated with low values for extractable bases and
low cation-exchange capacity. Fertile soils are
associated with high values for extractable bases, high
base saturation values, and high cation-exchange
capacity.
The content of organic carbon was less than 1
percent in Alpin, Chipley, Eunola, Fuquay, Lovett, Lucy,
and Ocilla soils and less than 3 percent in all soils
sampled except Pamlico muck. Two horizons in Pamlico
muck contained more than 50 percent organic carbon.
In all soils sampled, the content of organic carbon
decreased rapidly as depth increased. Since the
content of organic carbon in the surface layer is directly
related to the soil nutrient- and water-holding capacities
of sandy soils, management practices that conserve
and maintain the content of organic carbon are highly
desirable.
Electrical conductivity values were less than 0.10
millimhos per centimeter in all soils except Pamlico
soils, which ranged from 0.11 to 0.20 millimhos per
centimeter in the histic horizons. Values of 0.01
millimhos per centimeter or less were recorded in the
pedons of Alaga, Chipley, Esto, Fuquay, Lovett, Lucy.
Nankin, and Orangeburg soils. These data indicate that
the content of soluble salt in soils in Madison County
was insufficient to detrimentally affect the growth of salt-
sensitive plants.
Soil reaction in water generally was between pH 4.5
and 5.5. With few exceptions, soil reaction values were
about 0.2 to 1.0 pH unit lower in calcium chloride and
potassium chloride than in water. The maximum plant
nutrient availability generally is attained when soil
reaction is between pH 6.0 and 7.0; however, under
Florida conditions, maintaining soil reaction above pH
6.0 is not economically feasible for most agricultural
production purposes.
Spodosols were not sampled in Madison County;
therefore, amounts of pyrophospate extractable carbon,
iron, and aluminum were not determined.
Citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the Bt horizon of








Madison County, Florida


Albany, Blanton, Esto, Eunola, Faceville, Fuquay,
Kenansville, Lovett, Lucy, Nankin, Ocilla, Orangeburg,
Pelham, Plummer, and Troup soils ranged from 0.02 to
3.48 percent and was frequently less than 1 percent.
The amounts of iron and aluminum in the soils in the
county were not sufficient to detrimentally affect
phosphorus availability.

Mineralogical Properties
Sand fractions of 2 to 0.05 millimeters were siliceous,
and quartz was overwhelmingly dominant in all pedons.
Varying amounts of heavy minerals were in most
horizons with the greatest concentration in the very fine
sand fraction. No weatherable minerals were observed.
Crystalline mineral components of the clay fraction of
less than 0.002 millimeter are shown in table 16 for
major horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay
mineralogical suite was made up mostly of
montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom intergrade, kaolinite,
and quartz.
Montmorillonite occurred only in selected horizons of
the Alpin, Blanton, Chipley, Pamlico, and Plummer
soils. The 14-angstrom intergrade mineral occurred
throughout all of the sampled soils but was not detected
in the Ap and Bt horizons of Blanton sand. Kaolinite,
generally the dominant clay mineral in Madison County
soils, occurred in all pedons of the sampled soils. The
content of mica and gibbsite was insufficient for the
assignment of numerical values.
Montmorillonite in Madison County soils was
generally inherited from the sediments in which these
soils formed. The stability of montmorillonite is generally
favored by high levels of pH in areas where the alkaline
elements have not been leached by percolation of
rainwater; however, montmorillonite may occur in
moderate amounts regardless of drainage or chemical
conditions.
The 14-angstrom intergrade, a mineral of uncertain
origin, is widespread in Florida soils. It tends to be more
prevalent under moderately acidic, relatively well
drained conditions; although, it occurs in a variety of
soil environments. This material is a major constituent


of coatings of sand grains in Alaga, Alpin, and Chipley
soils; however, the amount of coatings that occur in
these soils is sufficient to meet taxonomic criteria
established for the recognition of coated Typic
Quartzipsamments.
Kaolinite was most likely inherited from the parent
material, but some may have formed as a weathering
product of other minerals. Kaolinite is relatively stable in
the acidic environments of Madison County soils. Clay-
size quartz has primarily resulted from decrements of
the silt fraction.
Clay mineralogy can have a significant impact on soil
properties, particularly for soils of higher clay content.
Soils that contain montmorillonitic clay have a higher
capacity for plant nutrient retention than soils dominated
by kaolinite, 14-angstrom intergrade minerals, and
quartz. None of the soils sampled in Madison County
contain montmorillonitic clay in amounts that would
create problems for most types of construction. The
clay mineralogy influences the use and management of
soils in the county less frequently than the total content
of clay.

Engineering Index Test Data

Table 17 shows laboratory test data for several
pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
described in the section "Soil Series and Their
Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the
Florida Department of Transportation, Materials Office.
The testing methods generally are those of the
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
The tests and methods are AASHTO classification-
M 145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Unified
classification-D 2487 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis-T
88 (AASHTO), D 2217 (ASTM); Liquid limit-T 89
(AASHTO), D 423 (ASTM); Plasticity index-T 90
(AASHTO), D 424 (ASTM); and Moisture density,
Method A-T 99 (AASHTO), D 698 (ASTM).





















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (14).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 18 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Ultisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Udult (Ud, meaning
humid, plus ult, from Ultisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Hapludults (Hapl, meaning
minimal horizonation, plus udult, the suborder of the
Ultisols that has a udic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Aquic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Aquic Hapludults.


FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is fine-loamy, siliceous,
thermic, Aquic Hapludults.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (13). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in Soil Taxonomy (14). Unless otherwise stated,
matrix colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Alaga Series
The soils in the Alaga series are thermic, coated


















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (14).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 18 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Ultisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Udult (Ud, meaning
humid, plus ult, from Ultisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Hapludults (Hapl, meaning
minimal horizonation, plus udult, the suborder of the
Ultisols that has a udic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Aquic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Aquic Hapludults.


FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is fine-loamy, siliceous,
thermic, Aquic Hapludults.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (13). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in Soil Taxonomy (14). Unless otherwise stated,
matrix colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Alaga Series
The soils in the Alaga series are thermic, coated


















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (14).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 18 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Ultisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Udult (Ud, meaning
humid, plus ult, from Ultisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Hapludults (Hapl, meaning
minimal horizonation, plus udult, the suborder of the
Ultisols that has a udic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Aquic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Aquic Hapludults.


FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is fine-loamy, siliceous,
thermic, Aquic Hapludults.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (13). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in Soil Taxonomy (14). Unless otherwise stated,
matrix colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Alaga Series
The soils in the Alaga series are thermic, coated









Soil Survey


Typic Quartzipsamments. They are well drained and
moderately well drained. Permeability is rapid or very
rapid. The Alaga soils formed in sandy marine sediment
in smooth to rolling areas on the Coastal Plain. The
seasonal high water table is below a depth of 72 inches
throughout the year. Slopes range from 0 to 12 percent.
The Alaga soils are geographically associated with
Alpin, Blanton, Lakeland, and Troup soils. These
associated soils are in similar positions on the
landscape as the Alaga soils. Alpin and Lakeland soils
do not have more than 10 percent silt plus clay in the
control section, and Alpin soils have lamellae below a
depth of 40 inches. Blanton and Troup soils have an
argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Alaga loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes; 2 miles north of Florida Highway 6 and 0.38
mile east of secondary road 255, SW1/4SE1/4SE1/4NW1/4
sec. 11,T. 1 N., R. 10 E.

A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A2-4 to 9 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) loamy sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C1-9 to 29 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) loamy
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-29 to 58 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C3-58 to 72 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C4-72 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid.

Reaction ranges from extremely acid to medium acid.
The content of silt plus clay in the 10- to 40-inch control
section ranges from 10 to 20 percent.
The A horizon is 4 to 9 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 or 3. Texture is
mainly loamy sand but can be fine sand.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4
to 7, and chroma of 4 to 8. Texture is loamy sand or
fine sand and is sand below a depth of 40 inches.

Albany Series
The soils in the Albany series are loamy, siliceous,
thermic Grossarenic Paleudults. They are somewhat


poorly drained. Permeability is rapid to moderate. The
Albany soils formed in sandy and loamy marine
sediment on the Coastal Plain. The seasonal high water
table is between depths of 12 and 30 inches for 1 to 4
months during most years. Slopes range from 0 to 5
percent.
The Albany soils are geographically associated with
Ocilla, Plummer, Lovett, Sapelo, and Blanton soils.
Ocilla and Lovett soils are in similar positions on the
landscape as the Albany soils and have a Bt horizon
within 40 inches of the surface. Plummer and Sapelo
soils are in lower positions than the Albany soils and
have a water table nearer the surface. Blanton soils are
in higher positions on the landscape than the Albany
soils and have a water table at a greater depth.
Typical pedon of Albany sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes;
2.5 miles north of U.S. Highway 90, 0.3 mile east of
Florida Highway 53, NWI/SW'/4 sec. 10, T. 1 N., R. 9
E.

Ap-0 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
common medium and fine roots; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
E1-10 to 26 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
few fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
common medium and fine roots; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
E2-26 to 37 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand;
few fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles
and few fine faint white (10YR 8/2) mottles; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; few pockets of
dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
E3-37 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand;
common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bt-50 to 57 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy
loam; common fine faint light brownish gray (10YR
6/2) and common fine prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
discontinuous clay films in some pores; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-57 to 69 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay; common medium prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; firm; about 4 percent plinthite;
sand grains coated and bridged; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.









Madison County, Florida


Btg2-69 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; common fine prominent red (2.5YR 4/6) and
common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; extremely acid.

Reaction is extremely acid to slightly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick.
Texture is mainly sand but can be fine sand or loamy
sand.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 2 to 6. This horizon is 34 to 60 inches thick.
Texture is mainly sand but can be fine sand or loamy
sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
to 7, and chroma of 1 to 6. Mottles are white, yellow,
gray, brown, or red. In some pedons, some subhorizons
contain 5 percent or less plinthite, generally, below a
depth of 60 inches. Texture is fine sandy loam, sandy
clay loam, or sandy clay. The weighted average clay
content in the upper 20 inches of the Bt horizon is less
than 35 percent.
These Albany soils are taxadjuncts to the Albany
series because they are slightly higher in clay than is
allowed in the series. This does not significantly affect
the use and management of these soils.

Alpin Series
The soils in the Alpin series are thermic, coated
Typic Quartzipsamments. They are excessively drained.
Permeability is rapid or moderately rapid. The Alpin
soils formed in thick marine sandy sediment. They are
on broad sand flats and river terraces on the Gulf
Coastal Lowlands. The water table is below a depth of
72 inches throughout the year. Slopes range from 0 to 5
percent.
The Alpin soils are geographically associated with
Troup, Blanton, Chipley, and Lakeland soils. These
associated soils do not have lamellae. Troup soils are
well drained, and Blanton soils are moderately well
drained. Troup and Blanton soils have a Bt horizon.
Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Alpin sand; in an area of planted
pines, 1.25 miles north of the Lafayette County line, 1
mile east of secondary road 255, SE1/4NE1/4SE/4 sec.
25, T. 2 S., R. 10 E.

A-0 to 3 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;


very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E1-3 to 34 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
E2-34 to 55 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
few fine faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles;
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E/B-55 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3)
sand; single grained; loose; common uncoated sand
grains; common strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy
sand lamellae, Q.1 to 0.6 inch thick; individual
lamellae, discontinuous in length; very strongly acid.

Reaction is slightly acid to very strongly acid. Depth
to.lamellae ranges from 40 to 70 inches. The lamellae
have a cumulative thickness of 1 to 6 inches within 80
inches of the surface.
The A or Ap horizon is 3 to 6 inches thick. It has hue
of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture
is sand.
The E horizon is 36 to 56 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2 to 8 or hue of
2.5Y, value of 7, and chroma of 6. Some pedons have
streaks and small to large pockets of uncoated sand
grains, which have hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons, a few light yellowish
brown or brownish yellow mottles are in the lower part
of this horizon. They generally are below a depth of 34
inches. Texture is mainly sand but can be fine sand.
The E/B horizon is 10 to 40 inches thick. The E part
of this horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
chroma of 3 to 6. Texture is sand or fine sand. The B
part has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 6 to 8. The lamellae range from 0.1 to 0.8
inch in thickness and from 1 inch to more than 3 feet in
horizontal length in the pedon. Texture of the lamellae
is loamy sand and loamy fine sand.

Blanton Series

The soils in the Blanton series are loamy, siliceous,
thermic Grossarenic Paleudults. They are moderately
well drained. Permeability is moderate or moderately
rapid. The Blanton soils formed in sandy or loamy
marine sediment. They are on broad uplands and on
slopes adjacent to lakes and streams. The water table
is dominantly between depths of 48 and 72 inches for 1
to 4 months during most years. Slopes range from 0 to
8 percent.
The Blanton soils are geographically associated with









Madison County, Florida


Btg2-69 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; common fine prominent red (2.5YR 4/6) and
common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; extremely acid.

Reaction is extremely acid to slightly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick.
Texture is mainly sand but can be fine sand or loamy
sand.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 2 to 6. This horizon is 34 to 60 inches thick.
Texture is mainly sand but can be fine sand or loamy
sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
to 7, and chroma of 1 to 6. Mottles are white, yellow,
gray, brown, or red. In some pedons, some subhorizons
contain 5 percent or less plinthite, generally, below a
depth of 60 inches. Texture is fine sandy loam, sandy
clay loam, or sandy clay. The weighted average clay
content in the upper 20 inches of the Bt horizon is less
than 35 percent.
These Albany soils are taxadjuncts to the Albany
series because they are slightly higher in clay than is
allowed in the series. This does not significantly affect
the use and management of these soils.

Alpin Series
The soils in the Alpin series are thermic, coated
Typic Quartzipsamments. They are excessively drained.
Permeability is rapid or moderately rapid. The Alpin
soils formed in thick marine sandy sediment. They are
on broad sand flats and river terraces on the Gulf
Coastal Lowlands. The water table is below a depth of
72 inches throughout the year. Slopes range from 0 to 5
percent.
The Alpin soils are geographically associated with
Troup, Blanton, Chipley, and Lakeland soils. These
associated soils do not have lamellae. Troup soils are
well drained, and Blanton soils are moderately well
drained. Troup and Blanton soils have a Bt horizon.
Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Alpin sand; in an area of planted
pines, 1.25 miles north of the Lafayette County line, 1
mile east of secondary road 255, SE1/4NE1/4SE/4 sec.
25, T. 2 S., R. 10 E.

A-0 to 3 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;


very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E1-3 to 34 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
E2-34 to 55 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
few fine faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles;
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E/B-55 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3)
sand; single grained; loose; common uncoated sand
grains; common strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy
sand lamellae, Q.1 to 0.6 inch thick; individual
lamellae, discontinuous in length; very strongly acid.

Reaction is slightly acid to very strongly acid. Depth
to.lamellae ranges from 40 to 70 inches. The lamellae
have a cumulative thickness of 1 to 6 inches within 80
inches of the surface.
The A or Ap horizon is 3 to 6 inches thick. It has hue
of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture
is sand.
The E horizon is 36 to 56 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2 to 8 or hue of
2.5Y, value of 7, and chroma of 6. Some pedons have
streaks and small to large pockets of uncoated sand
grains, which have hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons, a few light yellowish
brown or brownish yellow mottles are in the lower part
of this horizon. They generally are below a depth of 34
inches. Texture is mainly sand but can be fine sand.
The E/B horizon is 10 to 40 inches thick. The E part
of this horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
chroma of 3 to 6. Texture is sand or fine sand. The B
part has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 6 to 8. The lamellae range from 0.1 to 0.8
inch in thickness and from 1 inch to more than 3 feet in
horizontal length in the pedon. Texture of the lamellae
is loamy sand and loamy fine sand.

Blanton Series

The soils in the Blanton series are loamy, siliceous,
thermic Grossarenic Paleudults. They are moderately
well drained. Permeability is moderate or moderately
rapid. The Blanton soils formed in sandy or loamy
marine sediment. They are on broad uplands and on
slopes adjacent to lakes and streams. The water table
is dominantly between depths of 48 and 72 inches for 1
to 4 months during most years. Slopes range from 0 to
8 percent.
The Blanton soils are geographically associated with








Soil Survey


Albany, Alpin, Bonifay, Chipley, Lakeland, Lovett, Ocilla,
and Troup soils. Albany and Ocilla soils are somewhat
poorly drained. Alpin, Chipley, and Lakeland soils do
not have a Bt horizon. Bonifay soils have more than 5
percent plinthite within 60 inches of the surface. Lovett
soils have a sandy surface layer and subsurface layer
less than 40 inches thick. Troup soils are well drained.
Typical pedon of Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes;
0.30 mile west of Florida Highway 53, 1.15 miles north
of Interstate 10, SE/4SE1/4NW/4NW/ sec. 12, T. 1 S.,
R. 9 E.

Ap-0 to 12 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
common fine and few medium roots; very strongly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
E1-12 to 37 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E2-37 to 53 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; common uncoated sand grains; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; few medium roots;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E3-53 to 69 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand;
common medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
6/6) splotches; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; few medium roots; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
Bt-69 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sandy loam; many fine distinct light brownish gray
(10YR 6/2) mottles; weak fine granular structure;
friable; strongly acid.

Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium
acid. The content of ironstone pebbles and plinthite
ranges from 0 to 5 percent within 60 inches of the
surface.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or
4. and chroma of 2. The thickness of this horizon
ranges from 6 to 12 inches. Texture is mainly sand but
can be fine sand.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 4 to 8 or hue of 10YR, value of 7, and
chroma of 3 to 6. Brownish yellow or yellowish brown
mottles and uncoated sand splotches are common. This
horizon is 39 to 70 inches thick. Texture is sand, fine
sand, or loamy sand.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 4 to 8. Mottles are gray, brown, and red.
Texture generally is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. In
some pedons, however, it is coarser or finer below a
depth of 60 inches.


Bonifay Series
The soils in the Bonifay series are loamy, siliceous,
thermic Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults. They are well
drained. Permeability is moderate. The Bonifay soils
formed in sandy or loamy sediment on foot slopes on
the Coastal Plain. The water table is below a depth of
about 48 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
The Bonifay soils are geographically associated with
Fuquay, Troup, Orangeburg, and Lucy soils. These
associated soils are in similar positions on the
landscape as the Bonifay soils. Fuquay soils have a Bt
horizon within 40 inches of the surface. Troup,
Orangeburg, and Lucy soils do not have plinthite. In
addition, Orangeburg soils have a Bt horizon within 20
inches of the surface, and Lucy soils have a Bt horizon
within 20 to 40 inches of the surface.
Typical pedon of Bonifay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes; 1.25 miles east of Florida Highway 53, north of
U.S. Highway 90, NW14NE/SE1/4, sec. 10, T. 1 N., R. 9
E.

A1-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E1-6 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
E2-14 to 32 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
E3-32 to 44 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
sand; common medium faint yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E4-44 to 48 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loamy
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btl-48 to 55 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
sandy clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky
structure; friable; about 15 percent yellowish red
plinthite nodules; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Bt2-55 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled pinkish gray
(7.5YR 7/2), dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3),
yellowish red (5YR 4/6 and 5/8), and reddish brown
(5YR 5/4) sandy clay loam; weak fine subangular
blocky structure; friable; about 10 percent yellowish
red plinthite; very strongly acid.

Reaction is slightly acid to very strongly acid.
The A or Ap horizon is 4 to 8 inches thick. It has hue








Madison County, Florida


of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2. Texture is
mainly fine sand but can be sand or loamy sand.
The E horizon is 38 to 50 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. The
mottles are strong brown, light gray, or shades of yellow
in the lower part of the E horizon. Texture is sand, fine
sand, or loamy sand.
The Btl horizon is 5 to 8 inches thick. It has hue of
10YR, value of 5, and chroma of 4 to 6. It contains
about 10 to 15 percent plinthite. The Bt2 horizon has
hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6; or
it is reticulately mottled gray, brown, yellow, and red
and contains about 10 to 15 percent plinthite. Texture of
the Bt horizon is sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
Some pedons have a C horizon, which has hue of
10YR or 7.5YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.

Cantey Series
The soils in the Cantey series are clayey, kaolinitic,
thermic Typic Albaquults. They are poorly drained and
are slowly permeable. The Cantey soils formed in thick
beds of marine sediment on the Coastal Plain. The
water table is at a depth of 0 to 12 inches for 2 to 6
months. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
The Cantey soils are geographically associated with
Albany, Blanton, Ocilla, Pelham, Plummer, and
Surrency soils. The associated soils have sandy layers
to a depth of more than 20 inches and have less than
35 percent clay in the argillic horizon. Albany and Ocilla
soils are in higher landscape positions than the Cantey
soils. Pelham and Plummer soils are mainly in nearly
level areas adjacent to the Cantey soils. Surrency soils
are in lower positions than the Cantey soils, are
somewhat wetter, and commonly are ponded for longer
periods.
Typical pedon of Cantey fine sandy loam; 2.6 miles
west of the junction of U.S. Highway 90 and secondary
road 360-A, 0.18 mile south of Captain Broad Road,
NW4SE4 sec. 19, T. 1 N., R. 9 E.

A-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy
loam; weak medium granular structure; friable;
many fine and very fine roots; very strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
AE-5 to 10 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy
loam; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
many fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
E-10 to 19 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sandy loam; many fine prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) and many fine faint gray (10YR 6/1)


mottles; moderate medium granular structure;
friable; many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
Btgl-19 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sandy clay; many fine prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; firm; few fine roots;, very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-26 to 37 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay;
many fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and
common medium prominent red (2.5YR 4/6)
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Btg3-37 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay;
common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
5/6), few medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR
6/6), and many fine faint light brownish gray (10YR
6/2) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; common pockets of sand; very
strongly acid.

The solum ranges from 50 to more than 80 inches in
thickness. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly
acid. Texture of the A, AE, and E horizons is fine sandy
loam.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 4 to 9 inches thick.
The AE horizon, if present, has hue of 10YR, value
of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is as much as 5
inches thick.
The E horizon, if present, has hue of 10YR, value of
5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 9 inches thick.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Few to many red, strong
brown, yellowish brown, and gray mottles are in most
pedons. Texture is sandy clay or clay.
Some pedons have BCg or Cg horizons below a
depth of 50 inches. These horizons have colors that are
similar to those in the Btg horizon but have varying
textures of stratified sand and clay.

Chipley Series
The soils in the Chipley series are thermic, coated
Aquic Quartzipsamments. They are somewhat poorly
drained and are rapidly permeable. The Chipley soils
formed in thick deposits of sandy marine sediment.
They are on the nearly level to gently sloping uplands
and on knolls on the Eastern Gulf Coastal Flatwoods on
the Lower Coastal Plain. The seasonal high water table
is between depths of 24 and 36 inches for 2 to 4




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