• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Manatee County...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and the morphology
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Manatee County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025718/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Manatee County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 159 p., 17 p. of plates : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1983]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Manatee County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Manatee County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 95.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Station and Soil Science Department, and FLorida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued April 1983"--P. iii.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025718
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 003108186
oclc - 11159519
notis - AGE8777
lccn - 83602196

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Manatee County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    How this survey was made
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    General soil map units
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 13
        Soil descriptions
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 43
        Crops and pasture
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Range and grazable woodland
            Page 47
            Page 48
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 49
        Woodland understory vegetation
            Page 50
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 50
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 51
        Engineering
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
    Soil properties
        Page 57
        Engineering index properties
            Page 57
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 58
        Soil and water features
            Page 59
            Page 60
    Classification of the soils
        Page 61
    Soil series and the morphology
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Formation of the soils
        Page 91
        Factors of the soil formation
            Page 91
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
    Reference
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Glossary
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Tables
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
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        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    General soil map
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Index to map sheets
        Page 162
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
Full Text

United States In Cooperation with
Department of University of Florida, S o il S survey of
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Soil Agricultural Experiment M a n t C o unity
Conservation Stations and Soil Science
Service Department, and Florida Flori
Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services






HOW TO US

*^ *' -- "--*
Locate your area of interest on
the "Index to Map Sheets" (the ,
last page of this publication). i

Kokomo

1 / I 4 A
I L. I .. ------

Note the number of the map
S'L_ -*-> "-C--*~ 2. sheet and turn to that sheet.






Locate your area of interest
on the map sheet.



I AA
56 1 '31 1


i34A4






List the map unit symbols
4. that are in your area S b
I 7 Symbols

-151C / C,27C

134A
5656B
S27C 3131B
5l6ll1 3 4A/ ll llllllllll4.. ... 1 3 4 A



134A 1i48 151






=-IS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5. which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. -



















See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6A Contents) for location of additional data
on a specific soil use.
















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was done prior to November 1952, when
the soil survey program was administered by the Bureau of Plant Industry,
Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Research Administration. The
first soil survey of Manatee County was issued in December 1958. In 1980, the
soils were recorrelated, and data were revised and updated for this soil survey.
Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this publication refer to conditions in
the survey area in 1980. This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil
Conservation Service andthe University of Florida, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science
Department, and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. It
is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Manatee River Soil and Water
Conservation District. The Manatee County Board of Commissioners contributed
financially to this soil survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.

Cover: Many of the soils in Manatee County are used for crop production.
The main crops are citrus and tomatoes.

















contents


Index to m ap units....................... ......................... iv Recreation .................................... ................................ 50
Sum m ary of tables..................................... ............. v W wildlife habitat ........................................................... 51
Forew ord ............. .......................................... vii Engineering ........................................ ..................... 52
General nature of the county....... .............. ... 1 Soil properties .................................................. 57
How this survey was made ............. ...... ........ 4 Engineering index properties......... .............. 57
Physical and chemical properties ........................... 58
General soil map units.... ................................ 7 Soil and water features................................... ........... 59
Detailed soil map units ....................... ........ ....... 13 Classification of the soils.......................................... 61
Soil descriptions .......................................................... 13 Soil series and their m orphology................................. 61
Use and management of the soils............................ 43 Formation of the soils............................................. 91
C rops and pasture....................................................... 43 Factors of soil form ation............................................. 91
Range and grazable woodland.................................. 47 Processes of soil formation......................... ....... 92
Woodland management and productivity .... ......... 49 References ....................................... .................. 95
Woodland understory vegetation.................50 Glossary ..............50 Glossary.................................................... 97
Windbreaks and environmental plantings................. 50 Tables .......................... ...................... 105



soil series

Adamsville Variant...................... ..................... 61 Manatee series ...................................................... ....... 75
A nclote series ................................. ........................... 62 M yakka series ................................ ............ .................. 76
B raden series................................ .... ......................... 62 O keelanta series............................................................ 77
Bradenton series ................................... .................... 63 Ona series................................................. 78
Broward Variant........................... .................. ...... 64 O rlando series .................................................... ...... 78
Canaveral series..................................... ...................... 65 O rsino series........................................ .................... 79
Canova series ........................................ ............ 66 Palm etto series........................................ .. .......... 80
C assia series................................. ............................. 66 Parkw ood Variant ............................................................ 81
Chobee series............................................................ 67 Pinellas series...................................... ................ 81
Chobee Variant................................... ....................... 68 Pom ello series ........................................ .... ......... 82
D elray series ........................... ... .. ....................... ...... 69 Pom ona series.............................................................. 82
D uette series............................. ...................................... 69 St. Johns series......................................................... 83
EauGallie series............................. .......... .................. 70 Tavares series .................................................... ...... 84
Estero series.............................................................. 71 Tom oka series ...................................... ...................... 85
Felda series.................................... .. ........................... 72 W abasso series ........................................................ 86
Floridana series ............................ ......................... 72 W abasso Variant ................................. ...................... 86
Gator series ........................................ ................... 73 Wauchula series ..................................... 87
Hallandale series .................................... .. ........... 74 W aveland series ........................................................ 88
Im m okalee series ............................ ........ ....... ..... 74 W ulfert series........................................ ................ 89
Kesson series ................................ ............................ 75 Zolfo series .......................................... ................ 90

Issued April 1983






iii

















index to map units


1-Adamsville Variant fine sand.................................. 13 30-Myakka fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes........... 29
2-Beaches......................... ................................... 14 31-Myakka fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes............ 29
3-Braden fine sand.................................................... 14 32-Myakka fine sand, shell substratum...................... 31
4-Bradenton fine sand............................................. 15 33-Myakka fine sand, tidal......................................... 31
5-Bradenton fine sand, limestone substratum .......... 15 34-Okeelanta muck, tidal ........................................ 31
6-Broward Variant fine sand...................................... 16 35-Ona fine sand, ortstein substratum...................... 32
7-Canova, Anclote, and Okeelanta soils ................... 16 36-Orlando fine sand, moderately wet, 0 to 2
8-Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 17 percent slopes ............................. ........... 32
9-Canaveral sand, filled ............................................. 18 37-Orsino fine sand, to 5 percent slopes............... 33
10-Canaveral sand, organic substratum................... 18 38-Palmeto sand................ ........ 33
1 -- Cassia fine sand ................. ................... ..... 18..................... 33
12-Cassia fine sand, moderately well drained.......... 19 39-Parkwood Variant complex.................................... 34
13-Chobee loamy fine sand ............................................... 19 40-Pinellas fine sand............................................. 34
14-Chobee Variant sandy clay loam .......................... 19 41-Pits and Dumps ............................................. 35
15-Delray mucky loamy fine sand.............................. 20 42-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes............ 35
16-Delray complex ......................... ........ 20 43-St. Johns fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes......... 35
17-Delray-EauGallie complex ..................................... 21 44-St. Johns-Myakka complex .................................... 36
18-Delray-Pomona complex ................................. 22 45-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 37
19-Duette fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 22 46-Tavares fine sand, cemented substratum, 2 to
20-EauGallie fine sand............................................ 23 5 percent slopes........................................... 37
21- Estero m uck................................................................ 24 47- Tom oka m uck ...................... ............. ....... 38
22- Felda fine sand................................................... 24 48- W abasso fine sand .......................................... 38
23-Felda-Palmettd complex......................................... 25 49-Wabasso fine sand, rarely flooded ....................... 39
24-Felda-Wabasso association, frequently flooded.. 25 50-Wabasso Variant fine sand............................... 39
25-Floridana fine sand ......................................... 26 51-Wauchula fine sand .......................................... 40
26-Floridana-lmmokalee-Okeelanta association....... 27 52-Waveland fine sand .......................................... 40
27-Gator muck .................................... .................... 27 53-Wulfert-Kesson association ................................... 41
28-Hallandale fine sand ............................................ 28 54-Zolfo fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes .............. 41
29-Manatee mucky loamy fine sand ........................ 28 55-Zolfo fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes................. 42



















iv

















summary of tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)...................... ................... 106
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 2) ................................ 107
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 3) ............................................. 108
Oranges. Grapefruit. Tomatoes. Watermelons. Cabbage.
Pasture. Grass-clover.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 4)............................................ 111
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Rangeland productivity (table 5) ..................................................................... 112
Range site. Potential annual production.
Woodland management and productivity (table 6)....................................... 114
Ordination symbol Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 7)............................................................... 118
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 8) ....... .................. .................................................... 122
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 9) ............................................................... 125
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 10)......................................................................... 129
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 11) ............................................... 134
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
W ater management (table 12).................................................... .................. 138
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Grassed waterways.
Engineering index properties (table 13) ........................................................ 143
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.


v




















Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 14) ............................. 150
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.
Soil and water features (table 15)....................................................... ..... 155
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Cemented pan. Risk of corrosion.
Classification of the soils (table 16)................................. .......................... 159
Family or higher taxonomic class.




































vi
















foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning programs in
Manatee County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The survey
also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil, improvements needed to
overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management needed for
maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials, engineers, developers,
builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan land use, select sites for
construction, and identify special practices needed to insure proper performance.
Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management,
waste disposal, and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect,
and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some soils are
seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock. Some are too unstable
to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to
use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly suited to
basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this soil
survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location of each soil is
shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is described. Information on
specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this publication and additional information
are available at the local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative
Extension Service.






James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service











vii











TALLAHASSEE

ACKSONVILLE
PENSACOLA



GAINESVIL E






APPROXIMATE SCALES
ORLAN O
0 5.0 100 TAMPA
MILES

BRADENTON -
0 100 200

KILOMETERS




k---




MIAMI



State Agricultural Experiment Station
oo
0




Location of Manatee County in Florida.















X-389958 Ol 12(03)(16-OCT-82-14:07:51) F9710b 11/13/81














soil survey of


Manatee County, Florida


By Adam G. Hyde and Horace F. Huckle, Soil Conservation Service

Soils recorrelated by Horace F. Huckle, Adam G. Hyde, and Robert W. Johnson,
Soil Conservation Service

Soils surveyed by R. E. Caldwell, O. C. Olson, and J. B. Cromrite,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
and R. G. Leighty, Bureau of Soils, USDA

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services





MANATEE COUNTY is in the west-central part of the short mild winters, long warm summers, and rainfall that
peninsula of Florida. It is bounded on the west by the is abundant throughout the year but is heaviest from
Gulf of Mexico, on the north by Hillsborough County, on June through September.
the east by Hardee and De Soto Counties, and on the The climate is tempered by the Gulf of Mexico and
south by Sarasota County. Bradenton is the county seat landlocked bays, rivers, and creeks. The bodies of water
and the largest city. Manatee County has long been a protect the area from frost in winter; thus vegetables and
thriving agricultural and tourist center. It is becoming an citrus fruit can be grown.
industrial and commercial center as well. Monthly, seasonal, and annual temperature and
precipitation data are shown in table 1.
neral natr of the county Temperatures above 950 F occur frequently in
general nature summer. Such temperatures are of short duration
In this section, the environmental and cultural factors because thunderstorms, which usually occur in the
that affect the use and management of soils in Manatee afternoon, quickly cool the air. Temperatures fall below
County are described. These factors are climate; history; the freezing point once or twice a year and generally in
physiography, relief, and drainage; water supply; the eastern part of the county. Frost records kept at
population; farming; transportation; markets; and Bradenton over a 40-year period indicate that the latest
recreation, killing frost in spring occurred on March 25, and the
earliest killing frost in autumn on November 18. There
climate were 13 years with no killing frost in spring and 21 years
with none in autumn.
The climate of Manatee County is oceanic and Some areas near water are frost free the year round.
subtropical. The temperature is influenced by latitude, The soils in these areas are suitable for growing
low elevation, winds that sweep across the peninsula, gladiolus for bulbs and cut flowers. In addition, tomatoes,
and proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. The climate, cabbage, peppers, escarole, lettuce, cucumbers,
consequently, is characterized by high relative humidity, eggplant, and celery are also grown in winter and in
1








2 Soil survey



most years are not damaged by frost. Grazing of native the sea that large areas have undergone little or no
grasses and of most of the improved pasture continues dissection. Invasions of the sea in the Pleistocene epoch
throughout the year. Shelter for livestock generally is not have left successive shorelines at about 100, 70, 42, and
needed. During occasional cold waves, citrus groves are 25 feet above present sea level. The marine terraces
fired to prevent damage to trees and fruit. However, corresponding to the shorelines have been named,
firing of the groves is seldom necessary because respectively, the Wicomico, Penhaloway, Talbot, and
damaging freezes, when temperatures fall to 28 F or Pamlico terraces.
below, occur only once or twice every 5 to 10 years. Most areas of the county are level. Some areas in the
The seasonal distribution of rainfall is generally central and northeastern parts are gently rolling.
uniform. During periods of drought, however, which Elevations range from slightly lower than 150 feet in the
generally occur in spring, crops are irrigated to prevent northeastern tip to sea level along the gulf coast.
damage. The average rainfall for June, July, and August Manatee County has a fairly extensive drainage
during a 72-year period is 26.21 inches. The average system. The headwaters of the Manatee River are in the
rainfall for December, January, and February during this northeastern part of the county. The river flows
same period is 7.76 inches. Winter precipitation generally southwesterly for several miles and then approximately
occurs in the form of a slow steady drizzle. westerly into the Gulf of Mexico. It is joined by the
During September and early October, hurricanes are
Braden River just east of Bradenton. The Little Manatee
likely to form in the area of the Caribbean Sea. There is Braden River just east of Bradenton. The Little Manatee
generally one severe hurricane a year, and about one in River also originates in the northeastern part of the
five strikes the peninsula of Florida. When a hurricane county, but it flows northwesterly and enters
occurs, the accompanying rains damage the crops as Hillsborough County. The Myakka River originates in the
much or more than the wind. far eastern part of the county and flows southwesterly
The mild winters in Manatee County have attracted through Myakka City and the Myakka River State Park
tourists in increasing numbers. Some tourists stay to into Sarasota County. Numerous streams flow into each
make permanent homes. Bradenton is a well-known of these rivers. An extensive network of canals drains
resort. Its population during the tourist season, which some of the low areas.
runs from October through April, is about double that in
summer. water supply

history The city of Bradenton receives its water supply from
Ward Lake, a reservoir with a filtration plant on the
In 1854, Dr. Joseph Braden, a pioneer sugar planter, Braden River. A large part of Manatee County and some
built a house in the area that was to become Bradenton. areas in Sarasota County receive their water supply from
The history of the area, however, dates to the Stone a 2,000-acre reservoir on the Manatee River. In other
Age, relics of which are in the local museum. In 1528, areas in Manatee County, wells are the principal source
the Spanish explorers began coming to the area. of water.
Hernando de Soto arrived in 1539. Water for livestock is plentiful in the many ponds,
Manatee County was established as the 31st county in streams, canals, and rivers. Windmills and pumped wells
Florida on January 9, 1855. It was divided twice to are used in some areas, and dugouts or waterholes are
create new counties. The last time was in 1921 when used on suitable sites. Flow from artesian wells has
Sarasota County was established. There has been a dissipated in all areas except along the coast. Pumped
post office in Bradenton since 1878. wells supply most of the water for irrigation. Water use in
The county takes its name from the manatee, a sea the county is regulated, and permits are required for
cow that formerly inhabited the waters in large numbers construction and use of wells.
but recently has become scarce. The manatee has been o t o i r commercial
Four methods of irrigation are used for commercial
declared an endangered species and accorded special production of crops in the county:
protection.
Furrow or row irrigation. In this method, water is
physiogr lief, and inae released into the rows or furrows. This method is used
physiography, relief, and drainage for crops on the finer textured soils on hammocks. It is
Manatee County lies within the Floridian section of the also used in some citrus groves on hammocks.
Coastal Plain province (5). The natural topographic Seepage irrigation. In this method, small ditches are
divisions in Florida are (1) the Central Highlands, (2) the dug at intervals throughout the field. Water is released
Tallahassee Hills, (3) the Marianna Lowlands, (4) the into the ditches. The water then seeps laterally between
Western Highlands, and (5) the Coastal Lowlands (4). the ditches. This method is used where there is a
Manatee County consists almost entirely of Coastal restrictive layer or pan that restrains the downward
Lowlands. The Coastal Lowlands are made up mainly of movement of water. It is commonly used on Myakka and
nearly level plains that have emerged so recently from EauGallie soils.







Manatee, Florida 3






























Figure 1.-Overhead irrigation of sod on Wabasso fine sand.

Overhead irrigation. In this method, water under farming
pressure is forced through pipes to sprinklers (fig. 1).
The sprinklers are spaced and elevated to give complete In 1978, according to the United States Census of
coverage to the field. Drip, microjet, and semiclosed Agriculture, there were 675 farms in Manatee County,
open-ditch systems are used in vegetable fields. These and the average size of the farms was 511 acres. The
are low pressure, high volume systems that use less land in farms totaled 345,102 acres. Most of the farms
water and less energy in pumping the water. In are in the western part of the county on the soils in the
semiclosed systems, row ditches distribute water that is hammock areas. Vegetable farms are dominant, and
delivered to the field by a buried conduit. Outlet valves at there are some citrus groves. Citrus groves generally are
the head of the irrigation ditch are regulated to control planted on the slightly higher, better drained soils;
water use. however, they are also planted on soils that have a high
Tile irrigation. In some areas tile systems are still in water table if canals are dug to provide drainage. Other
use. These systems distribute water through hollow tiles. citrus-producing areas are near Parrish, Bethany, Oak
The water rises to the surface by capillary action. Tile Knoll, and Duette. Cattle are grazed mainly in the
systems can be designed to provide drainage and central, eastern, and southeastern parts of the county.
control the water table.
transportation
population
Three major highways, U.S. 19, U.S. 41, and U.S. 301,
The population of Manatee County is approximately pass through Manatee County. Rail service is provided
135,000. The median age is 48.7 (6). It is estimated that by the Seaboard Coastline Railroad on a route running
the population will exceed 200,000 in 15 to 20 years. generally north and south.
Most of the population lives within 15 miles of the gulf The Bradenton-Sarasota Airport is located in Manatee
coast. The population is unevenly distributed because County at a point between those two cities. Scheduled
early settlers favored the western part of the county near passenger service, air freight service, and air taxi
large bodies of water that temper the climate and protect charters are available. Tampa International Airport is 50
the surrounding areas from frost. minutes away from the Bradenton-Sarasota Airport.








4 Soil survey



















-- -- Y~



















Figure 2.-An area of Beaches and Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. The groins along the beach help control shore
erosion.

markets Many other types of recreation are available. A
network of county parks offer planned and supervised
Manatee County, which is approximately midway along recreation programs. The north entrance to Myakka
the state's Gulf of Mexico coastline, is adjacent to many River State Park is in Manatee County. There are public
River State Park is in Manatee County. There are public
of thmarkets, including Sarasota County to the south and thewo and private facilities for golf, tennis, handball, raquetball,
of the state's largest counties with a major city to the shuffleboard, bowling, and swimming. Two large public
shuffleboard, bowling, and swimming. Two large public
north and northwest. These are Hillsborough County beaches, a golf course, several boat ramps, and five
and Pinellas County. Port Manatee, in the northwestern
fishing piers are maintained by the county.
corner of the county, is the second largest port in A major league baseball team t ns n non n
tonnage on the gulf coast of Florida. It is channeled to the spring. Nearby Tampa has a professional football
Tampa Harbor, the largest shipping center on the gulf the spring. Nearby Tampa has a professional football
team and a professional soccer team.
coast (6).

recreation how this survey was made
Manatee County has approximately 150 miles of Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils are
shoreline (fig. 2). Areas and facilities for fishing, boating, in the survey area, where they are, and how they can be
and other water sports are plentiful, used. They observed the steepness, length, and shape







Manatee, Florida 5



of slopes; the size of streams and the general pattern of characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data
drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; and the are assembled from other sources, such as test results,
kinds of rock. They dug many holes to study soil profiles. records, field experience, and state and local specialists.
A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in For example, data on crop yields under defined
a soil. It extends from the surface down into the parent management are assembled from farm records and from
material, which has been changed very little by leaching field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
or by plant roots. But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
profiles they studied and compared those profiles with on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
others in nearby counties and in more distant places, other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
They classified and named the soils according to information then needs to be organized so that it can be
nationwide uniform procedures. They drew the used by farmers, rangeland and woodland managers,
boundaries of the soils on aerial photographs. These engineers, planners, developers and builders, home
photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and buyers, and others.
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. This soil survey supersedes the soil survey of Manatee
The soil maps at the back of this publication were County, Florida, published in 1958 (10). This is the first
prepared from aerial photographs. soil survey in Florida to be updated. The soil series in
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units. this survey are described to a greater depth than in the
Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some previous survey. Many of the series and map unit names
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in this have changed because of new information. The soil
survey area are described under "General soil map boundaries are essentially the same as those in the
units" and "Detailed soil map units." original survey. Random transects were made over most
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of the soils with a ground penetrating radar machine.
soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for Ground truth was made by an SCS soil scientist. The
engineering tests. All soils are field tested to determine map units, as described, are based on this data and on
their characteristics. Interpretations of those data in the previous survey.


































X-389958 0005(00)(16-OCT-82-14:01:21) F9658 7/02/82










7









general soil map units


The general soil map at the back of this publication layer is thin and gray. The subsurface layer is white. The
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of subsoil is at a depth of 30 to 50 inches. It is black and
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general dark reddish brown.
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map Cassia soils are in about the same position on the
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor landscape as the Pomello soils. They are somewhat
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up poorly drained to moderately well drained and are fine
one unit can occur in other units but in a different sand throughout. The surface layer is thin and gray. The
pattern. subsurface layer is light gray to white. The subsoil begins
The general soil map can be used to compare the within a depth of 30 inches. It is black to dark reddish
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of brown. The substratum is very pale brown to light gray.
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, Duette soils are moderately well drained and are fine
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. sand throughout. The surface layer is very dark gray to
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for grayish brown and is less than 6 inches thick. The
planning the management of a farm or field or for subsurface layer is white or light gray. The subsoil is
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure, black to dark brown. It is at a depth between 51 and 80
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place inches.
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that The soils of minor extent are wetter than the major
affect management. soils in the map unit. Delray soils are in sloughs.
Floridana, Immokalee, and Okeelanta soils are in small
Soils of the sandy ridges and knolls depressions that are ponded for long periods. Myakka
The soils making up this group are nearly level to and Waveland soils are along the edges of the unit.
gently sloping and moderately well drained to somewhat In most areas, the soils in this unit are in natural
poorly drained. They are sandy throughout. In most vegetation. In some areas they are used as improved
areas the soils have a dark colored subsoil at a depth pasture or range, and in some areas, mostly near the
below 30 inches. The soils are mainly in the coast, they are in urban uses.
northeastern part of the county.
2. Tavares-Cassia-Zolfo
1. Pomello-Cassia-Duette
1. Pomello-Cassia-Duette Nearly level to gently sloping sandy soils; some are
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained moderately well drained and do not have a subsoil, and
and somewhat poorly drained sandy soils that have a others are moderately well drained and somewhat poorly
dark colored subsoil drained and have a dark colored subsoil
This map unit consists mostly of nearly level to gently This map unit consists mainly of nearly level to gently
sloping, deep sandy soils on the highest parts of the sloping, deep sandy soils on some of the higher parts of
county. The soils are in small areas on knolls and ridges the county. The largest area is along Lake Manatee.
mostly in the northeastern part of the county. A few Other areas are near Parrish and Moody Branch. The
areas are near the coast. The vegetation consists of vegetation consists mainly of oak and pine and an
sand pine, live oak, and running oak on the Cassia and undergrowth of shrubs and grasses.
Duette soils and live oak, longleaf pine, and sawpalmetto This map unit makes up about 1 percent, about 6,241
on the Pomello soils. acres, of the survey area. It is about 30 percent Tavares
This map unit makes up about 2 percent, about 11,110 soils, 15 percent Cassia soils, 15 percent Zolfo soils, and
acres, of the survey area. It is about 40 percent Pomello 40 percent soils of minor extent.
soils, 25 percent Cassia soils, 20 percent Duette soils, Tavares soils are moderately well drained. They are
and 15 percent soils of minor extent. fine sand throughout. The surface layer is very dark gray
Pomello soils generally are in lower positions on the about 6 or 7 inches thick. The underlying layer is
landscape than the Duette soils. They are moderately yellowish brown, light yellowish brown, pale brown, and
well drained and are fine sand throughout. The surface white. In some areas, more commonly near streams,







8 Soil survey



fragments of iron-cemented sand occur in the lower part Myakka, shell substratum, soils are the only Myakka
of the soil. soils in this map unit. They are poorly drained. The
Cassia soils are in a slightly lower position than the disturbed surface layer is a mixture of gray, very dark
Tavares soils. They are somewhat poorly drained and gray, and grayish brown fine sand about 15 inches thick.
moderately well drained and are fine sand throughout. The subsurface layer is dark gray and light gray fine
The surface layer is thin and gray or has a salt and sand 11 inches thick. The subsoil is black and dark
pepper appearance. The subsoil is black to dark reddish brown fine sand 15 inches thick. The substratum
brown. It is at a depth of less than 30 inches. The consists of varying amounts of shells, shell fragments,
substratum is very pale brown to light gray. It extends to and sand. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
a depth of 80 inches. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
Zolfo soils are in about the same position as the Canaveral soils that are underlain by muck and Estero
Cassia soils. They are somewhat poorly drained. The muck.
surface layer is very dark gray or gray fine sand 4 to 7 The soils in this unit are used for urban development
inches thick. The subsurface layer is pale brown to light and recreation.
gray fine sand. The subsoil is at a depth between 51 and t
80 inches. It is dark grayish brown to dark brown fine ols e woo
sand. The soils making up this group are nearly level and
The soils of minor extent in this unit are Orlando soils moderately well drained to very poorly drained. This
near Parrish, Duette soils near Moody Branch, Pomello group is the largest in the survey area. The soils are in
soils, which are very common throughout the survey all parts of the survey area except barrier islands and
area, and EauGallie soils in many of the lower, wetter mangrove swamps. In most areas, the soils are sandy
places. throughout and have a dark colored subsoil. In some
In most areas the soils in this unit are used for citrus areas, they are weakly cemented in the subsoil. In some
or general farm crops. areas, they have a loamy subsoil.

Soils of the coastal islands 4. Waveland-Pomello-Myakka
The soils making up this group are nearly level to Nearly level sandy soils that have a dark colored subsoil;
gently sloping and somewhat poorly drained to most are poorly drained and are weakly cemented in the
moderately well drained. On the gulf side they are on low subsoil, and others are moderately well drained and are
coastal dunes and sandy beaches. On the bay side they not cemented in the subsoil
are nearly level and poorly drained. The soils are sandy; This map unit consists of soils in broad flatwoods that
shells and shell fragments are common to many. are interspersed with low ridges. The soils are dissected
by many small creeks. They are in the eastern part of
3. Canaveral-Beaches-Myakka the county. The largest area is a strip about 4 to 6 miles
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained to wide, extending from north of Highway 62 and spreading
poorly drained sandy soils that have shell fragments; out to Hardee and Sarasota Counties. The natural
some have a dark colored subsoil vegetation consists of South Florida slash pine,
sawpalmetto, fetterbush, huckleberry, pine, and pineland
This map unit consists mainly of soils on the larger threeawn. On some of the ridges it consists of sand pine
keys. One area near the northern coastline is adjacent to and live oak.
the mainland. The vegetation consists of salt-tolerant This map unit makes up about 19 percent, about
grasses, various other grasses, and scattered cabbage 89,900 acres, of the survey area. It is about 32 percent
palm, live oak, cedar, myrtle, and sawpalmetto. Waveland soils, 20 percent Pomello soils, 18 percent
This map unit makes up less than 1 percent, about Myakka soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
3,552 acres, of the survey area. It is about 45 percent Waveland soils are poorly drained. They are fine sand
Canaveral soils, 25 percent Beaches, 25 percent or sand throughout. The surface layer is black or dark
Myakka, shell substratum, soils, and 5 percent soils of gray fine sand generally less than 10 inches thick. The
minor extent. subsurface layer is grayish brown to white. The subsoil is
Canaveral soils are on moderately low ridges. They weakly cemented and has a dark color. It begins at a
consist mainly of a mixture of light-colored quartz sand depth of 30 to 50 inches. The substratum is dark grayish
grains and multicolored shell fragments. They are brown to olive gray. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or
moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained, more.
Beaches are long and narrow and are adjacent to the Pomello soils are moderately well drained. They are at
gulf. They consist of quartz sand and many, generally the highest elevations in the unit. They are fine sand
small shell fragments. They are subject to continuous throughout. The surface layer is thin and gray. The
wave action. subsurface layer is thick and white. The subsoil is at a







Manatee County, Florida 9



depth of 30 to 50 inches. It is black and dark reddish brown to olive gray. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or
brown. more.
Myakka soils are poorly drained. They are fine sand Cassia soils are somewhat poorly drained to
throughout. The surface layer has a dark color. It is moderately well drained. They are fine sand throughout.
about 4 to 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray or They are on knolls. The surface layer is thin and gray.
light gray. The subsoil is black to dark brown. It is at a The subsurface layer is light gray to white. The subsoil is
depth of 20 to 30 inches. black to dark reddish brown. It is within a depth of 30
The soils of minor extent are Floridana, Immokalee, inches. The substratum is very pale brown to light gray.
and Okeelanta soils in numerous small depressions that It extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
are ponded for long periods. Anclote, Canova, Delray, The soils of minor extent in this unit are Floridana,
Felda, and Palmetto soils are in sloughs and swamps. Immokalee, and Okeelanta soils that are adjacent in
Cassia and Duette soils are commonly on ridges. many small depressions that are pounded for long
periods. Delray and Pomona soils are in sloughs. Felda
EauGallie, Ona, and Pomona soils are in flatwoods.
Sand Wabasso soils are commonly near major streams
The soils making up this map unit are well suited to and rivers. Duette and Pomello soils are on low ridges
use as improved pasture. In most areas, they are used and knolls. St. Johns soils are in flatwoods and on some
as improved pasture. In some areas, they are used as side slopes.
range that is cutover and undeveloped. In some areas, The soils in this map unit are well suited to use as
they are used for truck crops, mainly tomatoes. improved pasture. In most areas, they are used as
improved pasture. In some areas, they are used as
5. Myakka-Waveland-Cassia range that is cutover and undeveloped. In some areas
Nearly level sandy soils that have a dark colored subsoil; they are used for tomatoes and other truck crops.
most are poorly drained and are not cemented in the 6. EauGallie-Floridana
subsoil, some are poorly drained and are weakly
cemented in the subsoil, and some are somewhat poorly Nearly level sandy soils; most are poorly drained and
drained and moderately well drained and are not have a subsoil that is dark colored and sandy in the
cemented in the subsoil upper part and loamy in the lower part, and some are
This map unit consists of soils in broad flatwoods very poorly drained and have a loamy subsoil
interspersed with many depressions and dissected by This map unit consists of soils in broad flatwoods
many streams. Areas of soils that are on knolls and are interspersed with many depressions that are seasonally
better drained than Myakka, Waveland, and Cassia soils ponded and soils on a few low ridges (fig. 3). This is the
are common in this unit. Myakka, Waveland, and Cassia largest unit west of North Rye Bridge Road. The soils
soils are in very large areas that are east of North Rye are dissected by most of the rivers and many streams in
Bridge Road. The largest area is 3 to 10 miles wide and the county. Most areas are west of North Rye Bridge
spans the entire length of the county. Parrish Lake and Road. A few areas are in the southeastern part of the
Lake Manatee are in this unit. The natural vegetation county near Myakka River State Park. The natural
consists of South Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto, vegetation consists of South Florida slash pine, live oak,
fetterbush, huckleberry, pine, and pineland threeawn. On water oak, cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, fetterbush,
some of the ridges it also consists of sand pine and live huckleberry, and pineland threeawn.
oak. The natural vegetation in the lowest places consists of
sawgrass, maidencane, and willow and in some places a
This unit is the largest in the survey area. It makes up sawgrass, maidencane, and willow and in some places a
t153,300 acres, of the survey few cypresses. In other parts of the depressions, it
abut 33 p t, about consists of maidencane, St.-Johnswort, bluestems,
area. It is about 40 percent Myakka soils, 18 percent smooth cordgrass, and sedges.
Waveland soils, 11 percent Cassia soils, and 31 percent This unit makes up about 25 percent, about 116,660
souls o minor extentacres, of the survey area. It is about 60 percent
Myakka soils are poorly drained. They are fine sand EauGallie soils, 8 percent Floridana soils, and 32 percent
throughout. The surface layer has a dark color. It is soils of minor extent.
about 4 to 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray or EauGallie soils are poorly drained. The surface layer is
light gray. The subsoil is black to dark brown. It begins at very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
a depth of 20 to 30 inches. subsurface layer is grayish brown to light brownish gray
Waveland soils are poorly drained. The surface layer is fine sand. The subsoil is at a depth of less than 40
black or dark gray fine sand. It is generally less than 10 inches. The upper part is black to dark brown fine sand.
inches thick. The other layers are fine sand or sand. The The lower part is grayish brown and is loamy.
subsurface layer is grayish brown to white. The subsoil is Floridana soils are very poorly drained. The surface
weakly cemented and has a dark color. It begins at a layer is thick, dark colored fine sand. The subsurface
depth of 30 to 50 inches. The substratum is dark grayish layer is gray fine sand. The subsoil begins at a depth of







10 Soil survey



































Figure 3.-An area of EauGal/ie-F/oridana soils. These soils are used mainly for improved pasture, but each year more and more
acreage is converted to urban uses.

20 to 40 inches. It is dark gray and gray and is loamy. Manatee River. The natural vegetation is longleaf and
Below the subsoil there is light gray fine sand. slash pine, cabbage palm, live oak, magnolia,
The soils of minor extent are Cassia and Pomello soils sawpalmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, bluestem, indiangrass,
at the highest elevations; Delray, Palmetto, and Florida paspalum, pineland threeawn, panicum,
Immokalee soils in some of the sloughs and deertongue, grassleaf goldaster, huckleberry, and
depressions; Anclote, Canova, and Okeelanta soils in running oak.
more swampy areas; and Wabasso, Pinellas, and This unit makes up about 9 percent, about 40,255
Myakka soils in flatwoods. acres, of the survey area. It is about 24 percent
The soils in this unit are used for improved pasture, Wabasso soils, 17 percent Bradenton soils, 15 percent
truck farming, and urban development. EauGallie soils, and 44 percent soils of minor extent.
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. The surface layer is
7. Wabasso-Bradenton-EauGallie very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; most have a subsoil subsurface layer is gray fine sand. The subsoil to a
that is dark colored and sandy in the upper part and depth of less than 40 inches is fine sand coated with
loamy in the lower part, and some have a loamy subsoil organic material. At a depth between 25 and 40 inches it
and are underlain by limestone is grayish brown to gray loamy material. The substratum
This map unit consists of soils in flatwoods and on to a depth of 80 inches or more consists of sand and
hammocks. Most areas are in the western part of the many shell fragments.
county. A few areas are in the southeastern part of the Bradenton soils are on low-lying ridges and
county near Myakka River State Park. Individual areas hammocks. They are poorly drained. In most areas, the
are irregular in shape and are north and south of the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches







Manatee County, Florida 11



thick. The subsurface layer is thin and is grayish brown soils, 10 percent Floridana soils, and 50 percent soils of
to brown fine sand. The subsoil begins at a depth of less minor extent.
than 20 inches. It is fine sandy loam. It is grayish brown Delray soils have a surface layer of black to very dark
in the upper part and mottled grayish brown, light gray mucky loamy fine sand or fine sand more than 10
brownish gray, and yellowish brown in the lower part. In inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown or
most areas this soil is underlain by hard limestone that light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil begins at a
has fractures and solution holes. depth of more than 40 inches. It is grayish brown to
EauGallie soils are poorly drained. The surface layer is greenish gray fine sandy loam to sandy clay loam.
very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The Floridana soils have a surface layer of thick, dark
subsurface layer is grayish brown to light brownish gray colored fine sand. The subsurface layer is gray fine
fine sand. The subsoil in the upper part is black to dark sand. The subsoil is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. It is
brown fine sand, and in the lower part, at a depth below dark gray and gray and is loamy. Below the subsoil there
40 inches, it is grayish brown sandy clay loam. is light gray fine sand.
T hesis y e nt say ly ila The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Anclote,
The soils of minor extent are mainly in depressions Bradenton, Canova, Felda, Okeelanta, Palmetto, and
and generally are ponded for long periods. Anclote, Parkwood soils.
Canova, Okeelanta, Floridana, Immokalee, and Chobee In some areas the soils in this unit are in natural
soils are in depressions, and in most areas they have vegetation. In many areas they have been drained and
been drained. Pinellas soils are in the same position on are used for improved pasture or, more commonly, for
the landscape as Bradenton soils. truck farming.
The soils in this map unit are used for improved
pasture, truck farming, and urban development. 9. Felda-Wabasso
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils on flood plains;
Soils of the wet depressions, flood plains, swamps, some have a loamy subsoil, and others have a subsoil
and marshes that is dark colored and sandy in the upper part and
loamy in the lower part
The soils making up this group are poorly drained and This map unit consists of nearly level soils adjacent to
very poorly drained. The poorly drained soils are subject major rivers. The soils are frequently subject to overflow.
to flooding. They are loamy beginning at a depth of 20 to The largest area is just south of Taylor Creek and along
40 inches. In some areas these soils have a dark the Myakka River to the Sarasota County line. Areas are
colored sandy subsoil overlying loamy material. In most long, narrow, and winding. The natural vegetation
areas the very poorly drained soils are subject to consists mostly of gum, oak, maple, hickory, bay, and
ponding or tidal flooding. The surface layer is thick and magnolia in the lower areas and scattered pine and
has a dark color. In some areas, these soils have a sawpalmetto on low ridges. In a few places it also
loamy subsoil below a depth of 20 inches. In some consists of water tolerant grasses.
areas, they are organic and have mineral material This unit makes up about 2 percent, about 9,510
beginning at a depth of 16 to 51 inches. In some areas, acres, of the survey area. It is about 60 percent Felda
they are sandy and have a dark colored subsoil. and closely similar soils, 25 percent Wabasso and
closely similar soils, and 15 percent soils of minor extent.
8. Delray-Floridana Felda soils have a surface layer of very dark gray fine
sand 3 to 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray to
Nearly level, very poorly drained sandy soils mainly in grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil begins at a depth
depressions; they have a loamy subsoil of 20 to 40 inches. It is gray to grayish brown sandy
loam to sandy clay loam.
This map unit consists mostly of very poorly drained loam to sandy clay loam.
soils that are nearly level to depressional. The soils are Wabasso sois have a surface layer of very dark gray
in small areas in the western and southeastern parts of fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
the county. In most areas they are narrow and winding to gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 25 to 40 inches
irregular in shape. The native vegetation consists mostly is fine sand that is coated with organic material. At a
of water tolerant grasses such as bluestems, cattail, depth between 25 and 40 inches it is grayish brown to
lopsided Indiangrass, maidencane, St.-Johnswort, gray loamy material. Below that, there is sand and many
pineland threeawn, and sawgrass. In some areas, it shell fragments.
consists of waxmyrtle, sedges, or scattered cypress, bay, The soils of minor extent in this map unit are the
sweetgum, maple, or willow. Anclote, Floridana, Bradenton, and Chobee soils.
This unit makes up about 5 percent, about 24,115 In almost all areas the soils in this unit are in natural
acres, of the survey area. It is about 40 percent Delray vegetation.







12



10. Estero-Wulfert-Kesson of the two is oblong; it surrounds Cason Lake and
covers about 4 square miles. The natural vegetation in
Nearly level, very poorly drained sandy and organic soils both areas consists of maidencane, sawgrass, cattail,
in tidal mangrove swamps and flags and scattered to dense thickets of woody
This map unit consists of very poorly drained soils in button bush. In a few areas it consists of swamp
mangrove swamps. The soils are in narrow strips hardwoods such as maple, gum, bay, and other wetland
adjacent to bays. They are flooded daily by high tides. hardwoods.
The largest area is between Tampa Bay and Terra Ceia This unit makes up less than 1 percent, about 3,041
Bay. It is about 1 to 2 miles wide and 8 miles long. The acres, of the survey area. It is 90 percent Tomoka soils
natural vegetation consists mainly of black mangrove. In and 10 percent minor soils.
some areas it consists of seashore saltgrass, batis, and Tomoka soils have a layer of black to dark reddish
oxeye daisy. A few spots are bare. brown muck at the surface. The muck is 16 to 51 inches
This map unit makes up about 2 percent, about 9,446 thick. Below that, there is sand, loamy sand, and gray
acres, of the survey area. It is about 70 percent Estero sandy clay loam.
The soils of minor extent are Anclote, Canova,
soils, 15 percent Wulfert soils, 10 percent Kesson soils, Floridana, and Okeelanta soils.
and 5 percent soils of minor extent. ane at sil.
ero soils h a hino ler o m on the s e. In most areas the soils in this unit are used as range
Estero soils have a thin layer of muck on the surface. or improved pasture. In a few areas the soils are in
Below that, there is fine sand. The surface layer is black wetland hardwoods.
and very dark gray. It is about 14 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray and grayish 12. Okeelanta
brown. The subsoil is fine sand that is coated with
organic material and has a dark color. It begins at a Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils on flood
depth of 31 to 56 inches. The substratum is grayish plains
brown. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. This map unit consists of nearly level, very poorly
Wulfert soils consist of dark reddish brown to dark drained organic soils in long and narrow areas along the
brown muck 16 to 51 inches thick and, below that, gray Manatee and Braden Rivers in the western part of the
fine sand. These soils have a high content of sulfur and county. The soils are on the lower parts of the flood
may become very acid after drying. plain. They are subject to tidal and river flooding and are
Kesson soils have a surface layer of black fine sand normally flooded at high tide. The natural vegetation
about 6 inches thick. Beneath the surface layer there is consists mainly of needlegrass rush, seashore saltgrass,
pale brown, light gray, and white fine sand and a few marshhay cordgrass, big cordgrass, and smooth
shell fragments. These soils have a high content of cordgrass.
sulfur and may become very acid after drying. This map unit makes up about 1 percent, about 4,320
acres, of the survey area. It is about 42 percent
Beaches is the most common soil of minor extent in acres, of the survey area. It is about 42 percent
uBeaches is the most common so of minor extent in Okeelanta soils and 58 percent soils of minor extent and
this unit. The other minor soils are Bradenton, Myakka, areas of water.
and Wabasso soils. Also, there are many areas of Okeelanta soils have a layer of black to dark reddish
shallow water in this unit. brown muck at the surface. The muck is 16 to 51 inches
thick. Below that, there is black to light brownish gray or
11. Tomoka gray sand.
The soils of minor extent are the Felda and Wabasso
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils in soils in upstream areas and the Myakka, tidal, soils near
freshwater marshes the mouth of the rivers that run through the map unit.
This map unit consists of nearly level, very poorly The soils in this unit are in natural vegetation, mainly
drained organic soils in freshwater marshes. There are because only diking and pumping can be used in water
only two areas of this map unit in the county. The larger control. In some areas the soils are used as range.







13









detailed soil map units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of Floridana-lmmokalee-Okeelanta association is an
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The example.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
used to plan the management needed for those uses. for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
under "Use and management of the soils." be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an made up of all of them. Canova, Anclote, and Okeelanta
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils soils is an undifferentiated group in this survey area.
for which the unit is named. Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes of these included soils have properties that differ
general facts about the soil and gives the principal substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for differences could significantly affect use and
specific uses. management of the soils in the map unit. The included
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
a special symbol on the soil maps.
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
a series have major horizons that are similar in have little or no soil material and support little or no
composition, thickness, and arrangement, vegetation. Beaches is an example. Miscellaneous areas
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in be shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, maps.
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of tables")
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil give properties of the soils and the limitations,
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
management. For example, Myakka fine sand, 0 to 2
percent slopes, is one of several phases in the Myakka soil descriptions
series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major 1-Adamsville Variant fine sand. This is a nearly
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil level, somewhat poorly drained soil on low ridges that
associations, or undifferentiated groups. are slightly higher than the surrounding flatwoods.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The 8 inches thick. Below the surface layer, there is grayish
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar brown fine sand 18 inches thick and very pale brown fine
in all areas. St. Johns-Myakka complex is an example, sand 13 inches thick. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches
A soil association is made up of two or more or more there is light gray fine sand.
geographically associated soils that are shown as one Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil Ona, Myakka, St. Johns, and Orlando soils.
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical In most years, if this soil is not drained, the water table
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months out of
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar. the year. In some years, it is at a depth of 10 to 20







13









detailed soil map units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of Floridana-lmmokalee-Okeelanta association is an
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The example.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
used to plan the management needed for those uses. for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
under "Use and management of the soils." be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an made up of all of them. Canova, Anclote, and Okeelanta
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils soils is an undifferentiated group in this survey area.
for which the unit is named. Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes of these included soils have properties that differ
general facts about the soil and gives the principal substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for differences could significantly affect use and
specific uses. management of the soils in the map unit. The included
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
a special symbol on the soil maps.
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
a series have major horizons that are similar in have little or no soil material and support little or no
composition, thickness, and arrangement, vegetation. Beaches is an example. Miscellaneous areas
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in be shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, maps.
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of tables")
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil give properties of the soils and the limitations,
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
management. For example, Myakka fine sand, 0 to 2
percent slopes, is one of several phases in the Myakka soil descriptions
series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major 1-Adamsville Variant fine sand. This is a nearly
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil level, somewhat poorly drained soil on low ridges that
associations, or undifferentiated groups. are slightly higher than the surrounding flatwoods.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The 8 inches thick. Below the surface layer, there is grayish
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar brown fine sand 18 inches thick and very pale brown fine
in all areas. St. Johns-Myakka complex is an example, sand 13 inches thick. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches
A soil association is made up of two or more or more there is light gray fine sand.
geographically associated soils that are shown as one Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil Ona, Myakka, St. Johns, and Orlando soils.
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical In most years, if this soil is not drained, the water table
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months out of
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar. the year. In some years, it is at a depth of 10 to 20







14 Soil survey



inches for periods of as much as 2 weeks. In most Beaches range from less than 100 feet to more than
years, it is within a depth of 60 inches for more than 9 500 feet in width. As much as half of the beach may be
months out of the year. Permeability is rapid throughout flooded daily by high tides, and all of the beach may be
the soil. The available water capacity is low in the flooded by storm tides. Beaches in most places slope
surface layer and very low in the other layers. Natural gently to the water's edge, but shape and slope can
fertility is low. change with every storm.
The natural vegetation consists of pine, laurel and Beaches are not suitable for cultivation or for use as
water oak, sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, indiangrass, woodland. Most areas are barren.
bluestems, and low panicums. This unit is not assigned to a capability subclass or a
Periodic wetness is a severe limitation to use of this range site.
soil for cultivated crops. Very few crops can be grown
unless intensive water control measures are used. This 3-Braden fine sand. This is a nearly level to very
soil is well suited to many kinds of flowers and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil on stream
vegetables if a water control system is installed to terraces that are well above normal overflow. Slopes are
remove excess water in wet seasons and distribute smooth and are 0 to 3 percent. They generally grade
water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Other toward the stream.
important management practices include crop rotations Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
with a close growing crop on the soil at least two-thirds about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
of the time. Fertilizer and lime should be added 28 inches, is grayish brown, brown, dark brown, light
according to the needs of the crops. yellowish brown, and yellow fine sand. The subsoil, to a
This soil is moderately suited to citrus if a well depth of 44 inches, is yellowish brown fine sandy loam.
designed drainage system removes excess water rapidly The substratum to a depth of 70 inches or more is light
to a depth of about 4 feet. It is used for citrus in many gray, gray, and light brownish gray fine sand and sand.
areas. The trees should be planted in beds. A cover of Included with this soil in mapping are areas of soils on
close growing vegetation maintained between the trees similar landscapes; however, those soils are sandy to a
helps protect the soil from blowing in dry weather and depth of 80 inches or more. Also included are a few
from washing during heavy rains. Regular applications of areas where the subsoil is at a depth of less than 20
fertilizer are needed. For highest yields, irrigation is inches and some places where a brownish organic
required in seasons of low rainfall. Either sprinklers orain la r is in th surface later
subsurface irrigation through the water control system
ua through the water contr system In most years, the water table is at a depth of 30 to 40
s s s s usedinches for 1 to 3 months out of the year. It rises above a
This soil is well suited to use as pasture. It is used as
pasture in many areas. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are depth of 30 inches briefly during periods of heavy
well adapted. Simple drainage is needed to remove rainfall. The soil is flooded rarely for brief periods
excess surface water in periods of high rainfall. Regular following abnormally high rainfall. Permeability is rapid in
use of fertilizers is also needed. Carefully controlled the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
grazing helps maintain healthy plants for highest yields. subsoil. The available water capacity is medium in the
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately surface layer and subsoil and low in the subsurface layer
high. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant and substratum.
competition are the main management concerns. Slash The natural vegetation consists of open forest of slash
pine is the best tree to plant. pine and live oak and a ground cover of sawpalmetto,
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the South creeping bluestem, panicum, and pineland threeawn.
Florida Flatwoods range site. Most areas are used as range.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients in
2-Beaches. Beaches consist of nearly level to the thick sandy surface layer are severe limitations to
sloping, narrow strips of tide-washed sands and shell use of this soil for cultivated crops. If the soil is
fragments. They are along the Gulf of Mexico shoreline cultivated, special soil improving measures are needed.
and on the larger islands and keys. The most extensive Crop rotations should keep close growing vegetation on
areas are on Anna Maria and Longboat Keys. the soil at least two-thirds of the time. All crops need
Beaches typically consist of loose, gray to white fine frequent fertilizing and liming. Irrigation of a few high
sand mixed with various quantities of broken shells. The value crops is feasible where irrigation water is readily
sand ranges from fine to coarse. Shell fragments are available.
mostly sand size, but in places there are coarser The soil is well suited to citrus in areas that are
fragments or whole shells throughout the soil or in relatively free from freezing temperatures. Close growing
pockets or lenses. The soil layers differ only in color or plants between the trees help protect the soil from
in shell content, or the soil has uniform color and shell blowing. Good yields of oranges and grapefruit generally
content throughout. can be obtained without irrigation. The yields of these







Manatee County, Florida 15



crops can be increased by irrigation where water for This soil is well suited to citrus if a water control
irrigation is readily available, system maintains drainage to a depth of about 4 feet.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. In Bedding and planting the trees in the beds help provide
some areas it is used as improved pasture. Deep rooting good surface drainage. Close growing vegetation
plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses maintained between the trees helps protect the soil from
generally grow well if the soil is well fertilized and limed, blowing in dry weather and from washing during rains.
Production is occasionally restricted by extended Regular applications of fertilizer are needed. Applications
droughts. Controlled grazing helps maintain vigorous of lime are not needed.
plants for highest yields. This is an excellent soil for pasture. It is well suited to
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Pastures of grass
high. Seedling mortality is the main management only or a grass-clover mixture can be grown under good
concern. Slash pine is the best tree to plant. management. Regular application of fertilizer and
This soil is in capability subclass Ills and in the South controlled grazing are needed for highest yields.
Florida Flatwoods range site. The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
4-Bradenton fine sand. This is a poorly drained soil competition are the main management concerns. Slash
on low-lying ridges and hammocks. Slopes are smooth pine is the best tree to plant.
and range from 0 to 2 percent. This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand Cabbage Palm Hammock range site.
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown fine sand 5 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray 5-Bradenton fine sand, limestone substratum.
and gray fine sandy loam about 18 inches thick. Below This is a nearly level, poorly drained soil on low-lying
the subsoil there is a layer of gray loamy fine sand 11 ridges and hammocks. Slopes are smooth and range
inches thick, and below that, there is light gray marl to a from 0 to 2 percent.
depth of 80 inches or more. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer in the upper part is
Parkwood, Floridana, Chobee, Felda, and Manatee soils. grayish brown fine sand 11 inches thick and the lower
Also included are a few areas where the subsoil is finer part is brown fine sand 2 inches thick. The subsoil is fine
textured than that of this Bradenton soil and a few areas sandy loam to a depth of 47 inches. In the upper part it
where a brown sandy layer overlies the subsoil. is grayish brown to a depth of 30 inches, and below that,
If this Bradenton soil is not drained, the water table is it is mottled grayish brown, light brownish gray, and
within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months out of yellowish brown. Below the subsoil there is hard
the year and at a depth between 10 and 40 inches for limestone that has fractures and solution holes.
much of the remainder of the year. In dry seasons the Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar
water table recedes to a depth of 40 inches. Permeability soils where limestone is slightly above a depth of 40
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and inches and areas of soils where the limestone is below a
moderate in the subsoil and substratum. The available depth of 80 inches. In a few places the subsoil is sandy
water capacity is low in the surface layer and clay loam.
substratum, very low in the subsurface layer, and If this Bradenton soil is not drained, the water table is
medium in the subsoil. within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months out of
In many areas this soil is used for citrus and for urban the year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for much of
development. In some areas the soil is in vegetables, the remainder of the year. In dry seasons the water table
and in some areas it is in improved pasture. The native recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches. Permeability
vegetation consists of slash pine, laurel and live oak, is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, magnolia, bluestem, moderate in the subsoil. The available water capacity is
sawpalmetto, and various vines, low in the surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer,
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil for and medium in the subsoil.
cultivated crops. The soil is suitable for many fruit and Many areas are used for citrus or urban development.
vegetable crops if a water control system is installed to Some areas are used for vegetables. The native
remove excess surface water and internal water rapidly. vegetation consists of slash pine, laurel and live oak,
The system should also distribute water for subsurface cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, magnolia, bluestems,
irrigation. Cover crops and crop residue help protect the sawpalmetto, and various vines.
soil from erosion. Other important management practices Wetness is a severe limitations to use of this soil for
are crop rotation that keeps the soil in a close growing cultivated crops. The soil is suitable for many fruit and
crop at least two-thirds of the time, good seedbed vegetable crops if a complete water control system is
preparation, including bedding, and fertilizers applied installed to remove excess surface and internal water
according to the needs of the crop. rapidly and distribute water for subsurface irrigation.







16 Soil survey



Good management also includes seedbed preparation, Wetness, shallowness to rock, and rapid leaching of
including bedding and fertilizing, and crop rotations that plant nutrients are very severe limitations to use of this
keep a close growing crop on the soil at least two-thirds soil for cultivated crops. Most crops are poorly adapted
of the time. Cover crops and all other crop residue help unless water control practices are used. With water
protect the soil from erosion. control, the soil is only fairly suitable for most crops.
This soil is well suited to citrus if a water control Crop rotations should keep close growing plants on the
system is installed to maintain drainage to a depth of soil at least three-fourths of the time. Only certain kinds
about 4 feet. Bedding and planting the trees in beds help of crops can produce good yields without irrigation.
provide surface drainage. Close growing vegetation Irrigation of crops is generally not feasible.
maintained between the trees helps protect the soil from The soil is only fairly suitable for citrus. Close growing
blowing in dry weather and washing during rains. Regular plants between the trees help protect the soil from
applications of fertilizer are required. Applications of lime blowing or washing. Without irrigation, only fair yields of
are not needed. oranges and grapefruit can be obtained. A well designed
This is an excellent soil for pasture. In some areas it is irrigation system that maintains optimum moisture
used as improved pasture. It is well suited to conditions is needed to obtain best yields.
pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and clover. Pasture of grass This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Coastal
alone or a grass-clover mixture can be grown under bermudagrass and bahiagrass are moderately adapted.
good management. Controlled grazing and regular Regular fertilizing and occasional liming are needed.
applications of fertilizers are needed for highest yields. Controlled grazing helps maintain plant vigor for best
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately yields.
high. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
competition are the main management concerns. Slash Slash pine is the best tree to plant. The main
pine is the best tree to plant, management problems are equipment limitations during
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
Cabbage Palm Hammock range site. competition.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the South
6-Broward Variant fine sand. This is a nearly level, Florida Flatwoods range site.
poorly drained soil in flatwoods in the western part of the
county. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 7-Canova, Anclote, and Okeelanta soils. This map
percent. unit consists of nearly level, very poorly drained mineral
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand and organic soils in freshwater swamps and in broad,
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray poorly defined drainageways. It is about 40 percent
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsoil in the upper Canova soils, 25 percent Anclote soils, 20 percent
part is very dark brown fine sand 6 inches thick and in Okeelanta soils, and 15 percent other soils, but the
the lower part is brown fine sand 7 inches thick. The proportion varies in each mapped area. Individual areas
substratum is light brownish gray fine sand 7 inches of each soil are large enough to map separately, but
thick. Below that, there is limestone 21 inches thick and because of present and predicted use they were not
light gray fine sand. separated in mapping. In a typical mapped area,
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar Okeelanta soils are in the lowest places; Anclote soils in
soils that have limestone below a depth of 40 inches. the highest places, generally near the edges; and
Also included are small areas of Wabasso Variant and Canova soils in an intermediate position. In the poorly
Myakka soils. defined drainageways, the Anclote soils and to a lesser
In most years, if this soil is not drained, the water table extent the Canova soils are adjacent to the streams.
is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 5 months Slopes are less than 2 percent.
out of the year. It is at a depth of less than 10 inches for Typically, the surface layer of Canova soils is dark
1 to 4 months in wet seasons and is at a depth of more reddish brown muck 8 inches thick and dark gray fine
than 40 inches in very dry seasons. The available water sand 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine
capacity is very low or low in the surface and subsurface sand 7 inches thick. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam
layers and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in about 39 inches thick. The substratum is gray fine sandy
the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the loam.
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. In most years, Canova soils are ponded, or the water
The native vegetation consists of longleaf pine, slash table is at or near the surface for 9 months or more out
pine, and cabbage palm and an undergrowth that is of the year. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
dominantly sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, inkberry, subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
lopsided indiangrass, chalky and creeping bluestem, available water capacity is high in the surface layer, very
hairy panicum, and fetterbush lyonia. low in the subsurface layer, and medium in the subsoil.







Manatee County, Florida 17



Typically, the surface layer of Anclote soils is black include seedbed preparation, crop rotation, and regular
fine sand 16 inches thick. Below that, to a depth of 80 applications of fertilizer. Cover crops should be rotated
inches or more, there is grayish brown, gray, and light with row crops and should be on the soil two-thirds of
gray fine sand. the time. Crop residue and cover crops help protect the
In most years, Anclote soils are ponded, or the water soil from erosion.
table is at or near the surface for 9 months or more out These soils are not suitable for citrus. With water
of the year. Permeability is rapid throughout. The control, the Anclote and Canova soils are moderately
available water capacity is medium in the surface layer suited to citrus except in areas where they are subject to
and low in the other layers, cold damage. The trees should be planted in beds, and
Typically, the surface layer of Okeelanta soils is black close growing vegetation is necessary between the
muck 20 inches thick. Below the surface layer, there is trees. Regular fertilizing is needed.
black sand 7 inches thick, grayish brown sand 4 inches These soils are too wet for improved pasture grasses.
thick, and light brownish gray sand 29 inches thick. They are well suited to several improved grasses and
In most years, Okeelanta soils are ponded, or the legumes if simple drainage measures remove excess
water table is at or near the surface for 9 months or water after heavy rains. Pangolagrass and white clover
more out of the year. Permeability is rapid throughout. grow well if the soils are adequately fertilized and limed.
The available water capacity if very high in the surface Controlled grazing helps maintain plant vigor for best
layer and low in the other layers. yields.
The most extensive minor soils are the Chobee, The potential productivity for pine trees is high on
Floridana, and Manatee soils. Canova and Anclote soils, but planting is feasible only in
Ssil mi i i i i areas that are adequately drained. Slash pine is the best
The soils making up this map unit are mainly in natural tree to plant. Equipment limitations and seedling
vegetation consisting of bay, gum, ash, swamp maple, mortality are the main management concerns. Okeelanta
water oak, scattered cypress, and some slash pine. In soils are not suitable for pine trees.
many areas they support a thick undergrowth of vines, The soils are in capability subclass Illw. They are not
briers, and water-loving plants. assigned to a range site.
These soils are well suited to many locally important
crops only if a well designed and maintained water 8-Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
control system removes excess water rapidly during is a nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well
heavy rains. Additional important management practices drained to somewhat poorly drained soil on narrow to

























Figure 4.-An area of Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is mainly on the Gulf side of the keys along the
mainland. The areas range in width from a few hundred yards to 2 miles.







18 Soil survey



broad dunelike ridges on the larger islands and keys and organic material. The sand and shells have been
in some places on the mainland (fig. 4). The most dredged or excavated from water areas and deposited
extensive areas are on Anna Maria and Longboat Keys, on tidal swamps or marshes. The areas have been
and they range from a few hundred yards to 2 miles in leveled and smoothed for urban use. Slopes are less
width, than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine The fill material varies within short distances. It ranges
sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying material to a from about 40 to 70 inches in thickness but commonly is
depth of about 17 inches is yellowish brown fine sand. about 45 inches thick. It is about 10 to 80 percent shells.
Below that, to a depth of 34 inches it is light yellowish The sand is fine to coarse. In some places there are
brown fine sand and about 45 percent shell fragments. It balls of clayey or loamy material. In most places, within a
is very pale brown sand and shell fragments to a depth depth of 8 inches, a second layer of mineral material
of 65 inches or more. underlies a layer of muck.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of In most areas this soil is artificially drained. In wet
similar soils that are poorly drained and small areas of seasons the water table is at a depth of about 30 to 60
Myakka soils. inches. The depth to the water table depends on the
In most years, if this soil is not drained, the water table thickness of the fill material. Permeability is very rapid in
is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months out of the fill material and moderately rapid in the organic layer.
the year and at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 4 to 8 The available water capacity is very low in the fill
months out of the year. Permeability is very rapid material and very high in the organic layer.
throughout. Natural fertility is low, and the organic matter In many areas this soil is barren of vegetation. In some
content is low. The available water capacity is very low. places there are weeds and bushes.
The natural vegetation consists of salt-tolerant grasses The present and predicted use of this soil for urban
and scattered palmetto in areas near the Gulf of Mexico. development precludes its use as woodland or for
This soil is not suitable for cultivated field crops. It is cultivated crops, citrus, or pasture.
only fairly suitable for citrus and pasture. The potential This soil is in capability subclass VIs. It is not assigned
productivity for pine trees is low. to a range site.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis. It is not assigned
to a range site.
I1-Cassia fine sand. This is a nearly level,
9-Canaveral sand, filled. This is a nearly level, 11-Cassia fine sand. This is a nearly level,
moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained soil somewhat poorly drained soil on low ridges and knolls
that consists of sand and shells that have been dredged that are slightly higher than the adjacent flatwoods.
or excavated from water areas and then leveled and Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
smoothed, mainly for urban use. Slopes are less than 2 Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
percent. inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray to white
The fill material varies within short distances. It ranges fine sand about 21 inches thick. The subsoil is black to
from about 20 to more than 80 inches in thickness. It is dark reddish brown fine sand coated with organic
about 10 to 80 percent shells. The sand is fine to material and is about 9 inches thick. The substratum to a
coarse. In some places there are balls of clayey or depth of 80 inches or more is very pale brown and light
loamy material. The underlying material is mostly gray fine sand.
mineral, but in a few small areas it is organic. Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Myakka
In most areas this soil is artificially drained. In wet and Pomello soils and soils that are similar to Cassia
seasons the water table is at a depth of about 40 to 60 soils except that they are weakly cemented in the
inches. The depth to the water table depends on the subsoil.
thickness of the fill material. Permeability is very rapid, The water table is at a depth of 15 to 40 inches for
and the available water capacity is very low. about 6 months out of the year and below a depth of 40
In many areas this soil is barren of vegetation. In some inches during dry periods. The available water capacity is
places the vegetation consists of weeds and bushes. very low except in the subsoil, where it is medium.
The present and predicted use of this soil for urban Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface
development precludes its use as woodland or for and subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid
cultivated crops, citrus, or pasture. in the subsoil.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis. It is not assigned The natural vegetation consists of scattered slash and
to a range site. longleaf pine, dwarf oak and sand live oak, sawpalmetto,
pineland threeawn, running oak, and broomsedge
10-Canaveral sand, organic substratum. This is a bluestem. Most areas are used as range.
nearly level, moderately well drained to somewhat poorly This soil generally is not suited to cultivated field crops
drained soil consisting of sand and shells overlying or to citrus. In some irrigated areas it is used for these







Manatee County, Florida 19



crops. In some places it is used for watermelons. Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. Grasses such as about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay loam 43
pangolagrass and bahiagrass grow poorly even if the soil inches thick. In the upper part it is very dark gray to a
is fertilized. Clovers are not adapted. depth of 44 inches, and below that, it is dark gray. The
The potential productivity is low for pine trees. High substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is
seedling mortality is the main management concern, calcareous gray loamy fine sand and fine sand.
Slash pine is better for planting than other trees. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil is in capability subclass Vis and in the Sand Floridana, Gator, Delray, Manatee, and Felda soils. Also
Pine Scrub range site. included are small areas of soils that are similar to the
Chobee soils except that organic material 6 to 16 inches
thick is on the surface and a few areas where the
12-Cassia fine sand, moderately well drained. This surface layer is loamy fine sand or sandy loam.
is a moderately well drained, nearly level soil on low In most years, the water table is above the surface or
ridges and knolls in the uplands. Areas are irregular in within a depth of 10 inches for 6 to 9 months or more
shape and range in size from about 5 to 100 acres, out of the year. It is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for
Slopes are convex and range from 0 to 2 percent. short periods during dry seasons. The available water
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand capacity is medium in all layers. Permeability is
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray to moderately rapid in the surface layer and slow or very
white fine sand. It extends to a depth of 29 inches. The slow in the subsoil and substratum. Natural fertility is
subsoil is dark brown fine sand. It extends to a depth of medium.
41 inches. Below the subsoil there is a layer of pale In some areas this soil is in improved pasture,
brown to white fine sand. vegetables, and citrus. The natural vegetation in swampy
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Pomello areas consists of red maple, water oak, and cabbage
soils. Also included are areas of soils that are similar to palm and an understory of ferns and water tolerant
the Cassia soils except that the subsoil is below a depth grasses. In areas of open marshes and depressions it
of 50 inches, consists of maidencane, pickerelweed, smartweed, and
The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 patches of sawgrass.
to 4 months out of the year but rises to within 40 inches This soil is well suited to many adapted vegetable
of the surface for less than 2 weeks during very wet crops if a well designed and maintained water control
seasons. It recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches system removes excess surface water rapidly. Other
during very dry periods. Permeability is very rapid in the management practices are good seedbed preparation,
surface and subsurface layers and in the substratum and bedding to help lower the water table, and rotating crops
moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water with soil improving crops. Crop residues and cover crops
capacity is medium in the subsoil and very low in the help protect the soil from erosion. Fertilizer is needed.
other layers. This soil is suited to citrus only if the water table is
The native vegetation consists of scrub live oak and maintained at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees
scrub oak, sawpalmetto, sand pine, pricklypear, in beds helps lower the depth of the water table. Cover
rosemary, and pineland threeawn. crops between the trees reduce soil blowing or washing.
This soil generally is not suited to cultivated field crops Fertilizer is needed.
or citrus. If it is irrigated, crops and citrus can be grown. This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. A
Watermelon is the most common crop. water control system is needed to remove excess
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. Grasses such as surface water rapidly. High yields of pangolagrass,
pangolagrass and bahiagrass grow poorly even if the soil bahiagrass, and white clover can be obtained with
is fertilized. Clovers are not adapted, adequate fertilizing. Controlled grazing helps maintain
The potential productivity for pine trees is low. High plant vigor.
seedling mortality is the main management concern. The potential productivity for pine trees is high if a
Sand pine is better for planting than other trees, water control system removes excess surface water.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis and in the Sand Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
Pine Scrub range site. competition are the major management concerns.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. It is not assigned
to a range site.
13-Chobee loamy fine sand. This is a nearly level,
very poorly drained soil that is in small to large 14-Chobee Variant sandy clay loam. This is a
depressions, poorly defined drainageways, and on broad, nearly level, very poorly drained soil in shallow
low flats. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from depressions. Slopes are concave and less than 2
0 to 2 percent. percent.







20 Soil survey



Typically, the surface layer is black to very dark gray Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
sandy clay loam about 20 inches thick. The subsoil to a Felda, Floridana, Manatee, and Chobee soils.
depth of 35 inches is sandy clay loam, and to a depth of In most years, if this soil is not drained, a water table
40 inches it is sandy loam. It is light gray and very high is generally at or slightly above the surface for 6 months
in carbonates. The substratum is light gray loamy sand or more out of the year. The available water capacity is
to a depth of 70 inches and light gray and brownish high in the surface layer, medium in the subsoil, and low
yellow sand and common shell fragments to a depth of in the subsurface layer. Permeability is rapid in the
80 inches or more. surface and subsurface layers and moderate to
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is
Floridana soils and a few small areas of organic soils. medium.
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches The natural vegetation in some places is maidencane
for 6 months or more out of the year. Unless drained, and sawgrass in dense stands. In other places it is bay,
this soil will be ponded for a long time. The available sweetgum, and maple.
water capacity is very high. Permeability is slow. Natural This soil is well suited to many locally important crops
fertility and the organic matter content are high. if a well designed and maintained water control system
The natural vegetation consists of swamp oak, swamp removes excess water rapidly during heavy rains. Other
maple, cypress, grasses, vines, and forbs. In some areas important management practices include seedbed
it consists of prairie growth of sawgrass, pickerelweed, preparation, crop rotations, and fertilization. Cover crops
various weeds and grasses, and scattered swamp should be rotated with row crops and should be on the
maple. Most areas are used for timber or as range. soil two-thirds of the time. Crop residue and cover crops
Some areas are used for truck crops. help protect the soil from erosion.
The small areas of this soil that are within the larger With intensive water control, this soil is moderately
areas of Bradenton or Chobee soils are used for growing suited to citrus except in areas that are subject to cold
vegetables. Because this soil is in a low position, damage. The trees should be planted in beds, and close
vegetables may be damaged by high water. Even if growing vegetation is necessary between the trees.
ditches are placed at close intervals, drainage is slow Regular use of fertilizer is needed.
because of the fine texture of the surface layer and This soil is too wet for most improved pasture grasses
subsoil. Fertility is very high. If the soil is properly drained and legumes. With adequate water control, it is well
and well managed, excellent yields of truck crops, suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. These
especially of leafy vegetables, can be obtained, plants grow well if the soil is properly fertilized and limed.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or to use as Controlled grazing helps maintain plant vigor for best
improved pasture in areas where adequate outlets for yields.
artificial drainage systems are not available. The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
This soil generally is not used for pine tree production. high if a water control system removes excess surface
With adequate surface drainage, however, the potential water. Equipment use and seedling mortality are
productivity is high. Equipment limitations and seedling management concerns. Slash pine is the best tree to
mortality are the main management concerns. Slash pine plant.
is better for planting than other trees. This Delray soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the
This soil is in capability subclass VIw. It is not Freshwater Marsh and Ponds range site.
assigned to a range site.
16-Delray complex. This complex consists of
15-Delray mucky loamy fine sand. This is a very several nearly level, very poorly drained soils on flats
poorly drained, nearly level soil in shallow depressions in and in sloughs that are moderately broad, low, and
flatwoods. Individual areas are irregularly shaped. Slopes grassy. The soils are so intermixed that they could not
are 0 to 2 percent. be shown separately at the scale selected for mapping.
Typically, the surface layer is black. In the upper part it Delray soils make up about 45 percent of this
is mucky loamy fine sand 8 inches thick. In the lower complex, and similar soils make up 30 percent. In some
part it is loamy fine sand 8 inches thick. A thin layer of of the similar soils, the surface layer is slightly thinner
muck and litter on the surface is common. The and darker colored than typical for Delray soils, and in
subsurface layer is fine sand. The upper 5 inches is others an organically stained layer is between the
grayish brown, the next 22 inches is light brownish gray, surface layer and the subsoil. Scattered areas of
and the lower 5 inches is grayish brown. The subsoil in Anclote, Felda, Floridana, Ona, and Gator soils make up
the upper 3 inches is grayish brown fine sandy loam. In about 25 percent.
the next 15 inches it is grayish brown sandy clay loam. Typically, the surface layer of Delray soils is black fine
In the next 9 inches it is greenish gray sandy clay loam. sand 15 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more it is grayish brown and light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of
brown sandy clay loam. about 55 inches. The subsoil is grayish brown and







Manatee County, Florida 21



greenish gray fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a Wabasso soils make up 20 percent. Typically, Delray
depth of 80 inches or more. soils are at a slightly lower elevation than EauGallie
In most years, if these Delray soils and the similar soils.
soils are not drained, a water table is at or near the soil Typically, the surface layer of Delray soils is black fine
surface for 6 months or more out of the year. The sand about 15 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
available water capacity is high in the surface layer, grayish brown and light brownish gray fine sand about 40
medium in the subsoil, and low in the subsurface layer. inches thick. The subsoil is grayish brown and greenish
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers gray fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a depth of
and moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural 80 inches or more.
fertility is medium. In most years, if Delray soils are not drained, a water
The natural vegetation consists mainly of water- table is at or near the soil surface for 6 months or more
tolerant grasses such as bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, out of the year. The available water capacity is high in
maidencane, and pineland threeawn. In some places it the surface layer, medium in the subsoil, and low in the
also consists of waxmyrtle and widely spaced gum and subsurface layer. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
cypress. subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid in
These soils are well suited to many locally important the subsoil. Natural fertility is medium.
crops if a well designed and maintained water control Typically, the surface layer of EauGallie soils is dark
system removes excess water rapidly during heavy rains, gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
Other important management practices include seedbed layer is light gray fine sand 9 inches thick. The subsoil in
preparation, crop rotations, and fertilizer. Cover crops the upper part is dark reddish brown and dark brown fine
should be rotated with row crops and should be on the sand. Below that, it is gray sand 5 inches thick. In the
soil two-thirds of the time. Crop residue and cover crops lower part it is gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 76
help protect the soil from erosion. inches or more.
These soils are not suitable for citrus unless they are In most years, if EauGallie soils are not drained, the
drained. With intensive water control, these soils are water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
moderately suited to citrus, except in areas that are months out of the year and within 40 inches of the
subject to cold damage. The trees should be planted in surface for more than 6 months out of the year.
beds, and close growing vegetation is necessary Permeability is rapid and the available water capacity is
between the trees. Regular use of fertilizer is needed. very low in the surface layer, the subsurface layer, and
These soils are too wet for most improved pasture the layer between the upper and lower parts of the
grasses and legumes. If simple drainage measures are subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid to rapid and the
used to remove excess surface water, the soils are well available water capacity is low to medium in the subsoil.
suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. These The natural vegetation consists of scattered pine
plants grow well if the soils are properly fertilized and trees, clumps of sawpalmetto, gallberry, and a stand of
limed. Controlled grazing helps maintain plant vigor for grasses such as bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
best yields. maidencane, and pineland threeawn.
The potential productivity is moderately high for pine Because of wetness and poor soil quality, Delray soils
trees if a water control system is installed to remove have severe limitations and EauGallie soils have very
excess surface water before the trees are planted. severe limitations for cultivated crops. Without water
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main control, only certain kinds of crops can be grown. Crops
management concerns. Slash pine is the best tree to such as corn and soybeans can be grown if a water
plant. control system removes excess water rapidly after heavy
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the Slough rains. Other important management practices are
range site. seedbed preparation that includes bedding the rows and
fertilizing, liming, and a crop rotation that keeps close
17-Delray-EauGallie complex. This complex growing, soil improving crops on the surface at least two-
consists of soils in nearly level, broad grassy sloughs thirds of the time. Cover crops and residue from row
that have poorly defined stream channels in some crops help protect the soil from erosion.
places. Some areas are located around the larger ponds. With intensive water control, Delray soils are
The soils are in the western part of the county, generally moderately suitable for citrus except in areas that are
at an elevation of less than 40 feet. The soils are so subject to cold damage. EauGallie soils are suited to
intermixed that they could not be mapped separately at citrus if the water table is maintained at a depth of about
the scale selected for mapping. Slopes are less than 2 4 feet. Planting the trees in beds helps lower the water
percent, table. Plant cover is necessary between the trees.
Delray soils make up about 45 percent of this These soils are well suited to pasture and hay crops.
complex, EauGallie soils make up 35 percent, and In most places surface ditches are needed to remove
scattered areas of Anclote, Felda, Floridana, and excess surface water during heavy rains. Bahiagrass and







22 Soil survey



white clover are well adapted and grow well under good moderately slow in the lower part of the subsoil,
management. Fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and rapid in
grazing helps maintain vitality of the plants for highest the other layers. Natural fertility is low.
yields. The natural vegetation in areas of this complex
The potential productivity for pine trees on these soils consists of scattered pine trees, clumps of sawpalmetto,
is moderately high if a water control system is installed gallberry, and a stand of grasses such as bluestem,
to remove excess surface water before the trees are lopsided indiangrass, maidencane, and pineland
planted. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are threeawn.
management concerns. Slash pine is the best tree to Wetness and poor soil quality are severe limitations in
plant. Delray soils and very severe limitations in Pomona soils
Delray soils are in capability subclass IIIw and in the to use of these soils for cultivated crops. Without water
Slough range site. EauGallie soils are in capability control, only certain kinds of crops can be grown. Crops
subclass IVw and in the South Florida Flatwoods range such as corn and soybeans can be grown if a water
site. control system removes excess water rapidly after heavy
rains. Seedbed preparation should include bedding the
18-Delray-Pomona complex. This complex consists rows. Other important management practices include
of soils in nearly level, broad grassy sloughs where there fertilizing, liming, and crop rotations that keep close
are poorly defined stream channels in some places. growing, soil improving crops on the surface at least two-
Some areas are located around the larger ponds. The thirds of the time. Cover crops and residue from row
soils are in the eastern part of the county, generally crops help protect the soils from erosion.
above an elevation of about 40 feet. The soils are so With intensive water control, Delray soils are
intermixed that they could not be mapped separately at moderately suited to citrus except in areas that are
the scale selected for mapping. Slopes are less than 2 subject to cold damage. Without water control, Pomona
percent. soils are poorly suited. The water table in both soils
Delray soils make up about 50 percent of this should be maintained at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting
complex, Pomona soils make up 40 percent, and the trees in beds helps lower the water table. A cover of
scattered areas of Myakka, Wauchula, Waveland, and vegetation is necessary between the trees.
Palmetto soils make up 10 percent. Typically, the Delray The soils in this complex are well suited to pasture
soils are at slightly lower elevations than the Pomona and hay crops. In most places surface ditches help
soils. remove excess surface water during heavy rains. Tall
Typically, the surface layer of Delray soils is black fine fescuegrass, bahiagrass, and white clover are well
sand about 15 inches thick. The subsurface layer is adapted and grow well under good management.
grayish brown and light brownish gray fine sand 40 Fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps
inches thick. The subsoil is grayish brown and greenish maintain plant vitality for highest yields.
gray fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a depth of The potential productivity for pine trees on these soils
80 inches or more. is moderately high if a water control system is installed
In most years, if Delray soils are not drained, the water to remove excess surface water before the trees are
table is at or near the surface for 6 months or more out planted. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
of the year. The available water capacity is high in the management concerns. Slash pine is the best tree to
surface layer, medium in the subsoil, and low in the plant.
subsurface layer. Permeability is rapid in the surface and Delray soils are in capability subclass Illw and in the
subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid in Slough range site. Pomona soils are in capability
the subsoil. Natural fertility is medium. subclass IVw and in the South Florida Flatwoods range
Typically, the surface layer of Pomona soils is black site.
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
gray and light gray fine sand 16 inches thick. The subsoil 19-Duette fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
in the upper part is dark reddish brown and dark brown a moderately well drained soil on low ridges and knolls in
fine sand 14 inches thick. Below that, there is pale brown flatwoods. Slopes are smooth.
fine sand 15 inches thick. The subsoil in the lower part is Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
olive gray fine sandy loam 9 inches thick. The about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
substratum is gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 58 inches, is fine sand. In the upper 8 inches it is light
inches. gray, and below that it is white. The subsoil is fine sand
In most years, if Pomona soils are not drained, the that is coated with organic material to a depth of 80
water table is at or near the soil surface for 5 months or inches or more. To a depth of 64 inches, it is dark
more out of the year. The available water capacity is low brown, and below that, it is black.
in the surface layer, medium in both parts of the subsoil, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and very low in the other layers. Permeability is Cassia and Pomello soils.







Manatee County, Florida 23



In most years, if this Duette soil is not drained, the This soil is in capability subclass Vis and in the Sand
water table is at a depth of 48 to 72 inches for 1 to 4 Pine Scrub range site.
months during the wet season. It is below a depth of 72
inches for the rest of the year. The available water 20-EauGallie fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
capacity is very low, except in the subsoil where it is drained soil in broad areas of flatwoods. Slopes are
medium. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is very rapid smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
in the surface layer and moderately rapid in the subsoil. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
The natural vegetation consists of dwarf and scrub 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown
oak, sawpalmetto, sand pine, pricklypear, and pineland and light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 28
threeawn.
Thioil is not suitable for most commonly cultivated inches. The subsoil in the upper part is black fine sand
This soil is not suitable for most commonly cultivateddepth of 42
crops. It is poorly suited to citrus. Only fair yields can be that is coated with organic matter to a depth of 42
obtained under a high level of management. Sprinkler inches. In the lower part it is grayish brown sandy clay
irrigation is needed for best yields. Fertilizer and lime are loam to a depth of 50 inches The substratum is grayish
also needed. brown fine sand, loamy fine sand, and fine sandy loam
This soil is only fairly suitable for improved pasture to a depth of 65 inches.
grasses even if good management practices are used. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bahiagrass is better adapted than other grasses. Clovers Delray, Pinellas, and Wabasso soils. Also included are
are not suited. Droughtiness is the major limitation soils that are similar to the EauGallie soils except that
except during the wet season. Fertilizer and lime are they are yellowish or brownish in the subsurface layer
needed. Controlled grazing helps permit vigorous growth and are in scattered wet depressions.
for highest yields and helps provide good ground cover. In most years, a water table is at a depth of less than
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate. 10 inches for 2 to 4 months during wet seasons and
Seedling mortality, plant competition, and equipment within a depth of 40 inches for more than 6 months out
mobility are the major management problems. Sand pine of the year. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
is the best tree to plant, subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid in















.- sid to t s ad o v be c.












Figure 5.-If the excess water is controlled, EauGallie fine sand is well suited to tomatoes and other vegetable crops.







24 Soil survey



the subsoil and substratum. The available water capacity subsoil, and low or very low in the subsurface layer and
is very low in the surface and subsurface layers, low to in the substratum.
medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. The natural vegetation is dominantly a thick stand of
Organic matter content and natural fertility are low. black mangrove, but in some places it includes seashore
The natural vegetation is slash pine, sawpalmetto, saltgrass, batis, and oxeye daisy.
waxmyrtle, gallberry, and pineland threeawn in open This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, citrus, or
forest and bluestem, panicum, and other grasses, pasture or for use as woodland.
Wetness and sandy texture in the root zone are very This soil is in capability subclass Vllw. It is not
severe limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. assigned to a range site.
Only certain kinds of crops can be grown unless very
intensive management practices are followed. This soil is 22-Felda fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
well suited to a number of vegetable crops if a water drained soil on low hammocks. Slopes are generally
control system removes excess water in wet seasons smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
and distributes water through subsurface irrigation in dry Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
seasons (fig. 5). Row crops should be rotated with close about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
growing, soil improving crops. Seedbed preparation brown fine sand 21 inches thick. It is mottled with gray
should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime and brown. The subsoil is 40 inches thick. It is mottled
should be added according to the needs of the crops. with brown and yellow. The upper 3 inches is grayish
This soil is suitable for citrus only if a carefully brown fine sandy loam, the next 6 inches is gray sandy
designed water control system maintains the water table clay loam, and the lower 29 inches is light gray sandy
at a depth of more than 4 feet. Planting the trees in beds clay loam. Below the subsoil there is light gray sandy
helps lower the effective depth of the water table. A loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
vegetative cover should be maintained between the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are Bradenton soils.
needed. In most years, if this Felda soil is not drained, the
If well managed, this soil is well suited to water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 4
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover. In months out of the year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches
some areas it is used as improved pasture. Water for about 6 months out of the year. It recedes to a depth
control measures are needed to remove excess surface of more than 40 inches in dry seasons. Permeability is
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate
and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps prevent to moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water
weakening of the plants. capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers
This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine and medium in the subsoil.
trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant The natural vegetation consists of live oak, cabbage
competition are the main management concerns. Slash palm, slash pine, pineland threeawn, and bluestem. In
pine is the best tree to plant. many areas the soil is used for vegetables. Most areas
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the South in natural vegetation are used as range.
Florida Flatwoods range site. Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
cultivated crops. The soil is suitable for many fruit and
21-Estero muck. This is a nearly level soil in tidal vegetable crops if a complete water control system
mangrove swamps. It is very poorly drained. Slopes are removes excess surface and internal water rapidly. The
smooth and range from 0 to 1 percent. system should also distribute water for subsurface
Typically, the surface layer is 14 inches thick. In the irrigation. Other management practices are seedbed
uppermost 6 inches it is black muck, and below that it is preparation, fertilizing, and crop rotations that keep the
black and very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer soil in a close growing crop at least two-thirds of the
is light brownish gray and grayish brown fine sand 17 time. Cover crops and all other crop residue should be
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 56 used to protect the soil from erosion.
inches. It is black, dark reddish brown, and dark brown This soil is well suited to citrus if a water control
fine sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or system maintains drainage to a depth of about 4 feet. In
more is grayish brown fine sand. many areas it is used for citrus. Bedding and planting the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of trees in the beds help provide surface drainage. Close
Canaveral, Kesson, Myakka, and Wulfert soils. growing vegetation maintained between the trees helps
Estero muck is very poorly drained. The areas are protect the soil from blowing in dry weather. Fertilizer is
flooded daily by high tides. Permeability is moderately required.
rapid in the subsoil and rapid in the other layers. The This soil is well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass,
available water capacity is high in the layer of muck, and clover. In many areas it is used as improved
medium in the lower part of the surface layer and in the pasture. Pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can







Manatee County, Florida 25



be grown under good management. Regular applications surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
of fertilizers and controlled grazing are required for subsoil.
highest yields. The most common minor soils included in the complex
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately are the Myakka, Delray, and Floridana soils.
high. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant The natural vegetation in areas of this complex
competition are the main management concerns. Slash consists of slash pine, water and live oak, sawpalmetto,
pine is the best tree to plant. running oak, gallberry, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the Slough Wetness and low fertility are severe limitations in
range site. Felda soils and very severe limitations in Palmetto soils
to use of these soils for cultivated crops. Only certain
23-Felda-Palmetto complex. This complex consists kinds of crops can be grown unless very intensive
of soils in broad sloughs where stream channels are management practices are followed. These soils are well
poorly defined and soils around some of the larger suited to a number of vegetable crops if a water control
ponds in the eastern and central parts of the county, system removes excess water in wet seasons and
Felda and Palmetto soils are so intricately mixed that distributes water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons.
they could not be mapped separately at the scale Row crops should be rotated with close growing, soil
selected for mapping. Slopes are less than 2 percent. improving crops. The soil improving crops should be on
Felda soils make up about 40 percent of the complex, the soil three-fourths of the time. Crop residue and cover
Palmetto soils and some similar soils make up 35 crops help protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed
percent, and minor soils make up 25 percent. preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer
and lime are needed.
Typically, the surface layer of Felda soils is very dark and lime arneeded
gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface These soils are suitable for citrus only if a carefully
layer is grayish brown fine sand 21 inches thick. The designed water control system maintains the water table
subsoil in the upper part is grayish brown fine sandy below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be planted in
loam 3 inches thick, in the middle part it is gray sandy beds to help lower the water table, and a vegetative
clay loam 6 inches thick, and in the lower part it is light cover is necessary between the trees. Fertilizer and lime
gray sandy clay loam 29 inches thick. The substratum is are needed.
at a depth of about'62 inches and is light gray sandy These soils are well suited to pasture and are used as
loam. improved pasture in many areas. Pangolagrass,
Felda soils are poorly drained. In most years, if the improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if the
soils are not drained, the water table is within a depth of soils are well managed. Water control measures are
10 inches for 2 to 4 months out of the year and at a needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6 months out of the rains. Fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing
year. It recedes to below a depth of 40 inches in dry helps prevent weakening of the plants.
seasons. Permeability is rapid in the surface and Felda soils have moderately high potential productivity
subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid in and Palmetto soils have moderate potential productivity
the subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in for pine trees, but a water control system is needed for
the surface and subsurface layers and medium in the each soil to reach its potential. Equipment limitations and
subsoil. seedling mortality are the main management concerns.
Typically, the surface layer of Palmetto soils is black Slash pine is the best tree to plant, but only where water
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark control is adequate.
gray or gray sand to a depth of 25 inches. The subsoil is Felda soils are in capability subclass IIIw, and
dark grayish brown and very dark grayish brown sand to Palmetto soils are in subclass IVw. Both soils are in the
a depth of about 45 inches. It is grayish brown and dark Oak Hammock range site.
grayish brown sandy clay loam and sandy loam to a
depth of about 64 inches and dark grayish brown loamy 24-Felda-Wabasso association, frequently
sand to a depth of 68 inches. The soils that are similar flooded. This association consists of nearly level, poorly
to Palmetto soils have a thicker, dark colored surface drained Felda soils and Wabasso soils and soils that are
layer. closely similar to them. The soils are in a regular and
Palmetto soils are poorly drained. In most years, if the repeating pattern on the flood plains along the larger
soils are not drained, the water table is within 10 inches streams in the county. The Wabasso soils are on low
of the surface for 2 to 6 months out of the year. In some ridges. The Felda soils are at slightly lower elevations.
areas water stands on the surface briefly after heavy Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Areas are generally narrow
rainfall. Permeability is rapid in the surface and and long and follow streambeds and flood plains. Some
subsurface layers and moderately slow in the subsoil. areas are broad and range in width to almost 2 miles.
The available water capacity is low to medium in the Areas of the individual soils are large enough to map







26 Soil survey



separately, but in considering the present and predicted The most extensive soils included in the association
use they were mapped as one unit. are the Anclote, Floridana, Bradenton, and Chobee soils.
The composition of this map unit is more variable than The natural vegetation consists mostly of gum, oak,
that of most other map units in the county; nevertheless, maple, hickory, bay, and magnolia in the lower areas and
valid interpretations for the expected uses of the soils scattered pine and sawpalmetto on the low ridges. In a
can still be made. few places it consists of water-tolerant grasses. Almost
Felda soils and those that are closely similar to them all areas of this unit are in natural vegetation.
make up about 60 percent of the association, Wabasso These soils are not suited to crops. They are
soils and those that are closely similar to them make up moderately well suited to use as improved pasture.
25 percent, and minor soils make up 15 percent. Flooding and wetness, the major limitations, are difficult
Typically, the surface layer of Felda soils is very dark to overcome. If the soils are drained and well managed,
gray fine sand 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is pasture of good quality can be grown.
grayish brown fine sand 21 inches thick. The subsoil is These soils are not suitable for citrus.
between depths of 24 and 64 inches. In the upper part it The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
is grayish brown fine sandy loam 3 inches thick. In the high if water control is provided. Equipment limitations
middle part it is gray sandy clay loam 6 inches thick. In and seedling mortality are the main management
the lower part it is light gray sandy clay loam 29 inches concerns. Slash pine is the best tree to plant.
thick. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is These soils are in capability subclass Vw. They are not
light gray sandy loam. In some of the closely similar soils assigned to a range site.
the subsoil is nearer the surface and in others the 25-Fodana fne sand. Ths s a neay eve, vey
25--Floridana fine sand. This is a nearly level, very
surface layer is thicker than in Felda soils.
surface layer is thicker than in Felda soils. poorly drained soil in low flats that have been drained by
In most years, if Felda soils are not drained, the water ditches and channels in many places. Slopes are smooth
table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 4 months out to concave and are less than 2 percent.
of the year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6 Typically, the surface layer is about 15 inches thick. In
months out of the year. It recedes to below a depth of the upper part it is black fine sand 4 inches thick, and in
70 inches in dry seasons. Stream overflow frequently the lower part it is very dark gray fine sand 11 inches
floods these soils. Permeability is rapid in the surface thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand 17 inches
and subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid thick. The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam to a
in the subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in depth of 44 inches and gray sandy loam to a depth of 65
the surface and subsurface layers and medium in the inches. The substratum is light gray fine sand to a depth
subsoil. of 80 inches or more.
Typically, Wabasso soils have a surface layer of very Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Delray
dark gray fine sand 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer and Felda soils and a few areas of organic soils.
is gray and light gray fine sand 14 inches thick. The In most years, if this Floridana soil is not drained, the
subsoil in the upper part is black, dark reddish brown, water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for about
and brown fine sand 10 inches thick. In the lower part it 6 months out of the year. Permeability is rapid in the
is grayish brown sandy loam and gray sandy clay loam surface and subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil.
28 inches thick. A 6-inch layer of pale brown fine sand The available water capacity is medium in the surface
separates the two parts. The substratum to a depth of layer and subsoil and low in the subsurface layer.
80 inches or more is gray sand mixed with shell The natural vegetation consists of cattails and dense
fragments. The closely similar soils are like Wabasso stands of maidencane and sawgrass. Most areas are
soils except that they do not have the lower part of the used for vegetables. Many areas are in improved
subsoil. pasture.
In most years, if Wabasso soils are not drained, the This soil is too wet for cultivated crops. If a well
water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more designed and maintained water control system removes
than 6 months out of the year and within a depth of 10 excess water during heavy rains, the soil is well suited to
inches for less than 60 days in wet seasons. Stream many locally important crops. Additional management
overflow frequently floods these soils. practices include seedbed preparation, crop rotation, and
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface regular applications of fertilizer and lime. Cover crops
layers, in the layer between the two parts of the subsoil, should be rotated with row crops and should be on the
and in the substratum. It is moderate to moderately rapid soil two-thirds of the time.
in the upper part of the subsoil and slow to very slow in This soil is not suitable for citrus.
the lower part. The available water capacity is very low This soil is too wet for most improved pasture grasses
in the surface and subsurface layers and in the layer and legumes. If simple drainage measures remove
between the two parts of the subsoil. It is medium in the excess surface water after heavy rains, the soil is well
upper and lower parts of the subsoil, suited to many grasses and legumes. Pangolagrass,







Manatee County, Florida 27



bahiagrass, and clover grow well if the soil is adequately the subsoil, low in the surface layer, and very low in the
fertilized and limed. Controlled grazing helps maintain other layers.
plant vigor for best yields. Typically, Okeelanta soils in the uppermost 20 inches
This soil generally is not used for pine tree production, are black muck. Below that, to a depth of 54 inches or
With adequate surface drainage the potential productivity more, there is black and light brownish gray sand.
for pine trees is high. The main management concerns In most years, in undrained areas Okeelanta soils are
are equipment limitations and seedling mortality. Slash ponded for 9 months or more, and the water table is
pine and South Florida slash pine are the best trees to near the surface for the rest of the time. Permeability is
plant. rapid throughout the soil. The available water capacity is
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the very high in the organic layer and low in the sandy
Freshwater Marsh and Ponds range site. layers.
Included with the soils in this map unit are areas of
26-Floridana-lmmokalee-Okeelanta association. Anclote, Chobee, Delray, Manatee, Myakka, and Pomona
This map unit consists of nearly level, very poorly soils.
drained Floridana soils, poorly drained Immokalee soils, The natural vegetation in the lowest places is
and very poorly drained Okeelanta soils. It is about 35 sawgrass, maidencane, willow, and, in places, a few
percent Floridana soils, 30 percent Immokalee soils, 20 cypress. In other areas, the vegetation is maidencane,
percent Okeelanta soils, and 15 percent minor soils. St.-Johnswort, various bluestems, smooth cordgrass, and
These soils are in small to large shallow grassy ponds sedges.
mainly in the central and eastern parts of the county. The soils are not suited to crops or improved pasture
Generally, Okeelanta soils are in the lowest places near or to use as woodland. In many areas they are used as
the center of the ponds; Floridana soils are in an rangeland.
intermediate position; and Immokalee soils are along the The soils are in capability subclass Vllw and in the
edges of ponds. Slopes are less than 2 percent. Areas Freshwater Marsh and Ponds range site.
of the individual soils are large enough to map
separately, but in considering the present and predicted 27-Gator muck. This is a very poorly drained, nearly
use they were mapped as one unit. Most of the mapped level soil in depressions. Most areas are on Terra Ceia
areas are circular or oblong. Island. Slopes are 1 percent or less.
The composition of this map unit is more variable than Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 18
that of most other map units in the county; nevertheless, inches thick. Below the surface layer there is light gray,
valid interpretations for expected uses of the soil can still dark grayish brown, and grayish brown sandy loam to a
be made. depth of 55 inches. Below that, there is grayish brown
Typically, the surface layer of Floridana soils is black loamy sand to a depth of 72 inches and stratified layers
and very dark gray fine sand about 19 inches thick. The of light gray sand and loamy sand to a depth of 80
subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 17 inches thick. inches or more.
The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam 17 inches thick. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The substratum is light gray fine sand that extends to a Chobee, Bradenton, and Floridana soils. Also included
depth of 80 inches or more. are soils with sandy layers between the organic layers
In most years, in undrained areas Floridana soils are and the loamy substratum and soils where the organic
ponded for 6 to 9 months or more out of the year. The material is less than 16 inches thick or more than 40
water table is at a depth within 40 inches for the rest of inches thick.
the year except in extended dry periods. Permeability is In undrained areas this Gator soil is ponded or the
rapid in the surface layer, subsurface layer, and water table is within a depth of 10 inches except in
substratum; it is slow in the subsoil. The available water extended dry seasons. The available water capacity is
capacity is medium in the surface layer and subsoil and very high in the organic layers, medium in the loamy
low in the other layers. layers, and low in the underlying sandy material.
Typically, the surface layer of Immokalee soils is black Permeability is rapid in the organic layer and moderate in
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is the loamy layer. Natural fertility is medium to high.
dark gray, gray, and light gray fine sand 29 inches thick. In some areas this soil is used for vegetables and
The subsoil is dark reddish brown and dark brown fine pasture. In other areas the natural vegetation consists of
sand 9 inches thick. The substratum to a depth of 80 willows, red maple, sawgrass, pickerelweed, sedges,
inches or more is grayish brown fine sand. ferns, maidencane, and other water-tolerant grasses.
Immokalee soils are ponded for 6 months or more in This soil is well suited to most vegetable crops if a
most years. The water table is at a depth within 40 well designed and maintained water control system
inches for much of the remainder of the year. removes excess water when the soil is in crops. The
Permeability is moderate in the subsoil and rapid in all system should also keep the soil saturated at all other
other layers. The available water capacity is medium in times. Water tolerant cover crops should be on the soil







28 Soil survey



when it is not in crops. Crop residue and cover crops The soil is poorly suited to citrus without very intensive
help protect the soil from erosion. This soil is not management. In areas that are relatively free from
suitable for citrus. freezing temperatures, the soil is suitable for citrus if a
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover grow well carefully designed water control system maintains the
if a water control system maintains the water table near water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
the surface to prevent excessive oxidation of the organic planted in beds, and a vegetative cover is necessary
layer. Controlled grazing should be used for maximum between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizers and
yields, lime are needed.
This soil is not suitable for pine trees. If well managed, this soil is well suited to
This soil is in capability subclass VIIw and in the pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Freshwater Marsh and Ponds range site. Water control measures are needed to remove excess
surface water after heavy rains. Regular applications of
28-Hallandale fine sand. This is a nearly level, fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps
poorly drained sandy soil that overlies limestone. The prevent weakening of the plants.
depth to limestone varies from 7 to 20 inches within The potential productivity for pine trees is high. South
short distances. This soil is on low flats that generally Florida slash pine is better for planting than other trees.
border ponds and swamps. Slopes are smooth to Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
concave and are less than 2 percent. competition are the main management concerns.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 6 This soil is in capability subclass IV and in the
inches thick. The underlying material is very pale brown Cabbage Palm Flatwoods range site.
sand overlying hard, fractured limestone boulders at a
depth of about 15 inches. The limestone is at a depth of 29-Manatee mucky loamy fine sand. This is a
more than 20 inches in solution holes and in fractures nearly level, very poorly drained soil in drained
between boulders. depressions. Areas are irregular in shape. Slopes are
d. less than 2 percent.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of less than 2 percent.
the Broward Variant, Parkwood Variant, and Wabasso Typically, the surface layer is black mucky loamy fine
the Broward Variant, Parkwood Variant, and Wabasso sand to a depth of 8 inches and loamy fine sand to a
soils. Rock outcrops are common, particularly near the depth of 13 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is very
depth of 13 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is very
rim of ponds and depressions. Adark gray fine sandy loam 12 inches thick, the middle
maps indicates exposed rock. part is dark gray fine sandy loam 9 inches thick, and the
In most years, if this soil is not drained, the water table lower part is dark gray loamy fine sand 18 inches thick.
is within 10 inches of the surface for 4 to 6 months out The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark
of the year and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches the rest of gray fine sand with yellowish red mottles.
the year, except during extremely dry periods. Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Chobee
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available water and Floridana soils. Also included are small areas of a
capacity is medium in the surface layer and low in the soil that is similar to Manatee soils except that it has a
underlying material. The content of organic matter and surface layer of muck or fine sand. Also included are
natural fertility are low. small areas of Manatee soils in depressions that are not
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, a few adequately drained and are subject to ponding for
live oak, sawpalmetto, cabbage palm, inkberry, scattered several months of the year.
cypress, southern bayberry, pineland threeawn, and a In most years, a water table is within 10 inches of the
wide variety of other grasses. Most areas are in native surface for 2 to 4 months out of the year. Permeability is
vegetation and are used as range. Some areas are used moderate in the surface layer and in the subsoil. Natural
for truck crops. fertility and organic matter content are high. The
Wetness, shallow depth, and low available water available water capacity is high in the surface layer and
capacity are very severe limitations to use of this soil for medium in the other layers.
cultivated crops. This soil is suitable for a number of The natural vegetation consists of pickerelweed,
vegetable crops if a water control system removes sedge, maidencane, Jamaica sawgrass, broomsedge
excess water in wet seasons and distributes water for bluestem, panicum, cinnamon fern, and other perennial
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. The limestone near grasses.
the surface makes construction of such a system This soil is well suited to many crops if a well designed
difficult. Row crops should be rotated with close growing, and maintained water control system removes excess
soil improving crops. The rotation should keep soil water rapidly during heavy rains. Other management
improving crops on the soil three-fourths of the time. practices include seedbed preparation, crop rotations,
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. and regular applications of fertilizer. Soil improving cover
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the crops should be rotated with row crops. They should be
needs of the crop. on the soil at least two-thirds of the time.







Manatee County, Florida 29



This soil is moderately suited to citrus if a water water after rains. High yields of pangolagrass,
control system maintains soil aeration to a depth of bahiagrass, and white clover can be obtained with
about 4 feet. The trees should be planted in beds. Close adequate fertilizing and liming. Controlled grazing helps
growing vegetation between the trees helps prevent maintain plant vigor for best yields.
blowing and washing. Regular applications of fertilizers The potential productivity for pine trees is high if the
are required, excess water is drained. Equipment limitations, seedling
This soil is too wet for most improved pasture grasses. mortality, and plant competition are the main
It is well suited to several improved grasses and management concerns. Slash pine is the best tree to
legumes if simple drainage measures remove excess plant after excess water has been removed.















































Figure 6.-Grass-clover pasture on Myakka fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. Water control measures are needed after heavy rains.







30 Soil survey



This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the competition. A water control system to remove excess
Freshwater Marsh and Ponds range site. surface water is needed for highest yields.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the South
Florida Flatwoods range site.
30-Myakka fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This
is a nearly level, poorly drained soil in areas of broad
flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to concave. 31-Myakka fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This is
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand a gently sloping, poorly drained soil in areas of flatwoods
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand. along many of the main drainage channels in the county.
In the upper 8 inches it is gray, and below that, it is light Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
gray. The subsoil is fine sand 22 inches thick. In the inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand
upper 6 inches it is black, in the next 8 inches it is dark about 6 inches thick. The subsoil in the upper part is
reddish brown, and in the lower 8 inches it is dark very dark brown fine sand about 21 inches thick. The
brown. Below the subsoil there is brown fine sand to a next layer is brown fine sand 28 inches thick. The
depth of 61 inches, and below that, there is very dark subsoil in the lower part is very dark brown fine sand to
brown fine sand to a depth of 75 inches or more. a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
EauGallie, Ona, Pomona, St. Johns, Wabasso, Ona, Pomona, St. Johns, and Wauchula soils and areas
Wauchula, and Waveland soils. of soils that have a less well developed subsoil.
In most years, the water table is at a depth of less In most years, the water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months out of the year. It than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months out of the year. It
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches in very dry recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches in very dry
seasons. The available water capacity is medium in the seasons. The available water capacity is medium in the
subsoil and very low in the other layers. Permeability is subsoil and very low in the other layers. Permeability is
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
substratum and moderate or moderately rapid in the substratum and moderate or moderately rapid in the
subsoil. Internal drainage is slow, and runoff is slow. subsoil. Internal drainage is slow and runoff is slow to
Natural fertility is low. moderate. Natural fertility is low.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
pines and an undergrowth of sawpalmetto, running oak, pines and an undergrowth of sawpalmetto, running oak,
gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and
scattered fetter bushes. Many areas are used as scattered fetter bushes. In most areas the soils are used
rangeland and improved pasture and for vegetables, as forest or range.
Wetness and sandy texture are very severe limitations Wetness, sandy texture, and a slight hazard of erosion
to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Only certain kinds are very severe limitations to use of this soil for
of crops can be grown unless very intensive cultivated crops. Only certain kinds of crops can be
management practices are followed. The soil is suitable grown unless very intensive management practices are
for vegetable crops if a water control system removes followed. The soil is suitable for a number of vegetable
excess water in wet seasons and distributes water for crops if a water control system removes excess water in
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop residue and wet seasons and distributes water for subsurface
cover crops help protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed irrigation in dry seasons. Crop residue and cover crops
preparation should include bedding of the rows. help protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation
The soil is suitable for citrus if a carefully designed should include bedding the rows.
water control system maintains the water table below a The soil is suitable for citrus only if a carefully
depth of 4 feet. The trees should be planted in beds to designed water control system maintains the water table
help lower the water table, and a vegetative cover is below a depth of 4 feet. Trees should be planted in beds
necessary between the trees. to help lower the water table, and a vegetative cover is
If well managed, this soil is well suited to necessary between the trees.
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover If well managed, this soil is well suited to
(fig. 6). Water control measures are needed to remove pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular Water control measures help remove excess surface
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled water after heavy rains. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
grazing helps prevent weakening of the plants. Controlled grazing helps prevent weakening of the
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate. plants.
Slash pine is the best tree to plant. The main The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
management problems are equipment limitations during Slash pine is the best tree to plant. The main
periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant management problems are equipment limitations during







Manatee County, Florida 31



periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant lower the water table. A vegetative cover is necessary
competition. A water control system to remove excess between the trees to help reduce erosion.
surface water is needed for highest yields. If well managed, this soil is well suited to
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the South pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Florida Flatwoods range site. Water control measures are needed to remove excess
surface water after heavy rains. Fertilizer and lime are
32-Myakka fine sand, shell substratum. This is a needed. Controlled grazing helps prevent weakening of
nearly level, poorly drained soil in areas of flatwoods the plants.
mainly on Anna Marie and Longboat Keys. Slopes are The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. Slash pine is the best tree to plant. The main
Typically, the surface layer is a mixture of gray, very management problems are equipment limitations during
dark gray, and grayish brown fine sand about 15 inches periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
thick. The original surface layer and part of the competition. A water control system to remove excess
subsurface layer have been mixed by machinery. The surface water is needed for highest yields.
subsurface layer is fine sand 11 inches thick. In the This soil is in capability subclass IVw. It is not
upper 4 inches it is dark gray, and below that, it is light assigned to a range site.
gray. The subsoil is fine sand 15 inches thick. It is
weakly cemented in a few places. In the upper 3 inches 33-Myakka fine sand, tidal. This is a nearly level,
it is black, and below that, it is dark brown. The very poorly drained soil in high-lying tidal marshes
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark between the mangrove swamps and better drained
yellowish brown and yellowish brown fine sand that is upland soils. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
mixed with common to many shells and shell fragments. from 0 to 2 percent.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Typically, the surface layer is mixed very dark gray and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Canaveral soils and soils that are similar to Myakka soils light gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is fine sand 12 inches thick. In the upper 4 inches it
except that the subsoil is weakly developed. Also is gray, and below that, it is mixed gray and very dark
included are a few areas where the original surface layer
is covered by sandy and shelly fill material 20 inches gray. The subsoil is black fine sand 22 inches thick. The
is covered by sandy and shelly fill material 20 inches substrark n ale bown
thick, substratum is dark grayish brown, brown, and pale brown
.. fine sand to a depth of 75 inches or more.
In most years, if this soil is not drained, a water able Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months Wulfert, Kesson, and Myakka soils. Also included are a
out of the year. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 few areas of soils that are underlain by limestone.
inches in very dry seasons. Most areas have been The water table fluctuates with the tide. It is at a depth
drained to some extent. The available water capacity is of less than 10 inches for most of the year except where
medium in the subsoil and very low in the other layers. the soil is artificially drained or diked. The soil is
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface frequently flooded during storms or after heavy rains.
layers, very rapid in the substratum, and moderate or The available water capacity is medium in the subsoil
moderately rapid in the subsoil. Internal drainage is slow, and very low in the other layers. Permeability is rapid in
and runoff is slow. Natural fertility is low. the surface and subsurface layers and substratum and
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil. Internal
pine and an undergrowth of sawpalmetto, running oak, drainage is slow, and runoff is slow. Natural fertility is
cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. low.
This soil is mainly in urban uses, which preclude the In most areas, the native vegetation consists of sparse
use of this soil for agriculture or as woodland. stands of pines, mangrove, needlerush, and sawgrass. In
Nevertheless, wetness and sandy texture are very some areas, Brazilian pepper is common. In many areas,
severe limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. there is no vegetation.
Only certain kinds of crops can be grown unless This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops or citrus or
intensive management practices are followed. The soil is for use as woodland.
suitable for a number of vegetable crops if a water This soil is in capability subclass VlIIw. It is not
control system removes excess water in wet seasons assigned to a range site.
and distributes water for subsurface irrigation in dry
seasons. Crop residue and cover crops help protect the 34-Okeelanta muck, tidal. This is a very poorly
soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation should include drained organic soil in the tidal marsh, mainly along the
bedding the rows. Manatee and Braden Rivers. Slopes are less than 2
The soil is suitable for citrus only if a carefully percent.
designed water control system maintains the water table Typically, the surface layer is black and dark reddish
below a depth of 4 feet. Planting the trees in beds helps brown muck to a depth of 39 inches. Below the muck







32 Soil survey



there is light brownish gray sand to a depth of 60 inches time. These crops and crop residue help protect the soil
or more. from erosion. Fertilizer and lime should be added to the
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Gator soil.
and Myakka, tidal, soils. Also included are small areas of The soil is poorly suited to citrus unless drained. It is
soils that are similar to Okeelanta soils except that moderately suited to oranges and grapefruit if drainage
limestone is within a depth of 60 inches, removes excess water rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet.
The water table fluctuates with the tide. This soil is The trees should be planted in beds. Close growing
flooded during normal high tides. The available water vegetation between the trees helps protect the soil from
capacity is very high in the organic layers and low in the wind and water erosion. Fertilizer and occasional
underlying sand. Natural fertility is high. Permeability is applications of lime are needed. Irrigation is required for
rapid throughout. highest yields. Irrigation is feasible only where water is
The native vegetation consists dominantly of readily available.
needlegrass rush, seashore saltgrass, marshhay If well managed, this soil is well suited to
cordgrass, big cordgrass, and smooth cordgrass. pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Simple drainage to
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops or pasture remove excess water, regular use of fertilizers and lime,
grasses or for use as woodland. The potential for these and controlled grazing are required to maintain healthy
crops is very low because of the daily flood hazard and plants for highest yields.
the high content of salt. Water control can be The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
accomplished only by diking and pumping. high. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the
This soil is in capability subclass VIllw and in the Salt main management concerns. Slash pine is the best tree
Marsh range site. to plant.
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the South
35-Ona fine sand, ortstein substratum. This is a Florida Flatwoods range site.
nearly level, poorly drained soil that is in areas of broad
flatwoods. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 36-Orlando fine sand, moderately wet, 0 to 2
percent. percent slopes. This is a moderately well drained,
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 nearly level soil on uplands.
inches thick. The subsoil in the upper part is very dark Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
brown and dark reddish brown fine sand 11 inches thick. about 12 inches thick. The underlying material is fine
The next layer is brown and light brownish gray fine sand sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is dark brown to
36 inches thick. The subsoil in the lower part is black a depth of 18 inches, brown to a depth of 43 inches,
fine sand that is weakly cemented to a depth of 68 pale brown to a depth of 58 inches, and grayish brown
inches and black friable fine sand to a depth of 80 to a depth of 80 inches or more.
inches or more. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Tavares soils and small areas where a layer of dark
Myakka, Pompano, St. Johns, Waveland, and Wauchula colored fine sand is below a depth of about 70 inches.
soils. In most years, the water table is at a depth of 40 to 72
In most years, a water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches. In some years it rises to a depth of less than 40
inches for periods of 4 to 6 months out of the year. It inches for brief periods. The available water capacity is
rises to a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 2 months low in the surface layer and very low in the other layers.
out of the year. It may recede to a depth of more than Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is low.
40 inches in very dry seasons. Permeability is moderate The content of organic matter is moderate in the surface
in the upper part of the subsoil, slow or very slow in the layer and moderately low to low in the other layers.
lower part of the subsoil, and rapid in the other layers. The native vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
The available water capacity is medium in the surface pines, laurel, live, and turkey oaks and an understory of
layer and in the subsoil and low in the layer between the widely spaced sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, and
two parts of the subsoil. paspalum.
The native vegetation consists of pine trees and an Sandy texture is a severe limitation to use of this soil
understory of sawpalmetto, running oak, pineland for cultivated crops. Intensive soil management practices
threeawn, and gallberry. are required if this soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil for rapid leaching of applied plant nutrients reduce the
cultivated crops. The soil is well suited to many kinds of potential yields and the variety of adapted crops. Crop
vegetable crops if a water control system removes rotations should keep close growing crops on the soil at
excess water in wet seasons and distributes water for least two-thirds of the time. Regular applications of lime
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Other management and fertilizer are needed. Irrigation of a few high value
practices include crop rotations with close growing, soil crops is generally feasible where irrigation water is
improving crops on the soil at least two-thirds of the readily available.







Manatee County, Florida 33



This soil is well suited to citrus, and in many areas it is time. A few crops produce good yields without irrigation.
used for citrus. Close growing plants between the trees Irrigation of these crops is generally feasible where water
help protect the soil from blowing. In most years, good is readily available.
yields of citrus can be obtained without irrigation. The soil is suitable for citrus in areas that are relatively
Irrigation is generally feasible where irrigation water is free from freezing temperatures. Close growing plants
readily available, between the trees help protect the soil from blowing or
This soil is well suited to pasture. Deep rooting plants from washing. In some years good yields of oranges and
such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass generally grapefruit can be obtained without irrigation. A well
grow well if the soil is well fertilized and limed. Drought designed irrigation system to maintain optimum moisture
limits yields in prolonged dry seasons. Controlled grazing conditions is needed for best yields.
is needed to maintain plant vigor for best yields. The soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay crops.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately Deep rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and
high. The main management concerns are equipment bahiagrass are well adapted, but periodic droughts
limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition. reduce yields. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
Slash pine is better suited than other species. are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant
This soil is in capability subclass Ills and in the vigor.
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
37-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is management concerns. South Florida slash pine and
a nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained sand pine are the best trees to plant.
soil on low ridges and knolls at some of the higher This soil is in capability subclass IVs and in the Sand
elevations in the county. Slopes are convex and range Pine Scrub range site.
from 0 to 5 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4 38-Palmetto sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand 14 drained soil in flatwoods. The soil is in sloughs, in poorly
inches thick. The subsoil in the upper part, to a depth of defined drainageways, and in narrow bands around some
27 inches, is brownish yellow fine sand that has dark ponds. Slopes are smooth to slightly concave and are
reddish brown bodies that are not cemented. Tongues of less than 2 percent.
white fine sand from the subsurface layer extend into Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 8
this layer. The subsoil in the lower part, to a depth of 50 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray or gray
inches, is brownish yellow and yellow fine sand. The sand to a depth of 25 inches. The upper part of the
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is white fine subsoil is dark grayish brown and very dark grayish
sand. brown sand to a depth of about 45 inches. The lower
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of part of the subsoil is grayish brown and dark grayish
Cassia and Pomello soils and small areas of soils that brown sandy clay loam and sandy loam to a depth of
are similar to Orsino soils except that a water table is at about 64 inches and dark grayish brown loamy sand to a
a depth of more than 60 inches. depth of 68 inches.
In most years, a water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar
inches for more than 6 months out of the year. It soils that have a yellowish subsurface layer, that do not
recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during have a loamy subsoil, or that have a slightly more
periods of lower rainfall. Permeability is very rapid, developed, brownish subsurface layer. Also included are
Natural fertility, content of organic matter, and the small areas of Delray soils. The included soils make up
available water capacity are very low. about 25 percent of the map unit.
The natural vegetation consists mainly of sand pine, In most years, if this Palmetto soil is not drained, the
sand live oak, and a few sawpalmetto. Native grasses water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6
include pineland threeawn. In some places near the Little months out of the year. In some areas the soil may be
Manatee River, the native vegetation consists almost ponded briefly after heavy rainfall. Permeability is rapid in
entirely of dense stands of sand live oak. In the Whitfield the surface and subsurface layers and moderately slow
Estates, in the extreme southwestern part of the county, in the subsoil. The available water capacity is low to
there is some scrub hickory. medium in the surface and subsurface layers and
Droughtiness is a very severe limitation to use of this medium in the subsoil.
soil for cultivated crops. Intensive management practices Some areas are used for improved pasture. A few
are required if the soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and areas are used for vegetable crops. In many areas the
rapid leaching of plant nutrients reduce the variety and native vegetation consists of chalky bluestem, blue
potential yields of adapted crops. Row crops should be maidencane, sand cordgrass, pineland threeawn, low
planted on the contour. Crop rotations should keep close panicums, scattered slash pines, and clumps of
growing crops on the soil at least three-fourths of the sawpalmetto.







34 Soil survey



Wetness and a thick sandy surface layer are very medium in the subsoil. Permeability is very rapid in the
severe limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. surface layer and moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural
Only certain kinds of crops can be grown unless very fertility is medium.
intensive management practices are followed. This soil is The natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, a
well suited to a number of vegetable crops if a water few live oak, slash pine, water oak, magnolia, and an
control system removes excess water in wet seasons undergrowth of shrubs, vines, grasses, and sawpalmetto.
and distributes water for subsurface irrigation in dry A few areas are used for vegetables, citrus, and
seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close improved pasture grasses.
growing, soil improving crops that are on the soil three- Wetness is a severe limitation to use of these soils for
fourths of the time. Crops residue and soil improving cultivated crops. The soils are suitable for many fruit and
crops should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation vegetable crops if a complete water control system
should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime removes excess surface and internal water rapidly. The
should be added to the soil according to the needs of system should also distribute water for subsurface
the crops. irrigation. Soil improving crops and crop residue help
This soil is suitable for citrus only if a carefully protect the soil from erosion. Other important
designed water control system maintains the water table management practices include crop rotations that keep
below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be planted in the soil in a close growing crop at least two-thirds of the
beds, and a vegetative cover is needed between the time, seedbed preparation, including bedding, and
trees. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are fertilizers applied according to the needs of the crop.
needed. These soils are well suited to citrus if a water control
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, system maintains good drainage to a depth of about 4
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well under feet. Bedding and planting the trees in the beds help
good management. Water control measures are needed provide good surface drainage. Close growing vegetation
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains, maintained between the trees helps protect the soil from
Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are needed. blowing in dry weather and from washing during rains.
Controlled grazing helps prevent weakening of the Regular applications of fertilizer are required.
plants. Applications of lime are not needed.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate if These soils are excellent for pasture. They are well
a water control system is installed. Equipment limitations, suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Pastures
seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main of grass only or a grass-clover mixture can be grown
management concerns. Slash pine is the best tree to under good management. Regular applications of
plant but only in areas with adequate water control. fertilizers and controlled grazing are needed for highest
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the yields.
Slough range site. The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the
39-Parkwood Variant complex. This complex main management concerns. Slash pine is the best tree
consists of nearly level, poorly drained, and very poorly to plant.
drained soils on cabbage palm hammocks, in These soils are in capability subclass IIIw and in the
drainageways, and around the edges of ponds. The soils Cabbage Palm Hammock range site.
are so intermixed that they could not be mapped
separately at the scale selected for mapping. 40-Pinellas fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
Parkwood Variant soils make up about 40 percent of drained soil in areas of flatwoods bordering sloughs and
this complex. A soil that is similar to Parkwood Variant depressions. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2
soils makes up 15 percent; there is no limestone in this percent.
soil. A soil that is similar to Chobee and Wabasso soils Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
makes up 30 percent; there is limestone beneath the about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
loamy layer. Scattered areas of Anclote, Delray, Felda, to a depth of 33 inches. In the upper 6 inches it is
and Manatee soils make up 20 percent. grayish brown, and below that, it has carbonate
Typically, the surface layer of Parkwood Variant soils accumulations and is calcareous. It is dark grayish brown
is black and very dark gray loamy fine sand about 9 to a depth of 15 inches and gray to a depth of 33
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam 12 inches
inches; it is gray fine sandy loam. The substratum is thick. The substratum is light gray fine sand to a depth of
white soft limestone to a depth of 80 inches or more. 53 inches and light gray fine sand and many shell
The soil is calcareous throughout. fragments to a depth of 60 inches or more.
In most years, a water table is within 10 inches of the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
surface for 2 to 4 months during wet seasons. The similar soils that have a subsoil at a depth of more than
available water capacity is low in the surface layer and 40 inches, areas of similar soils that have a dark colored







Manatee County, Florida 35



surface layer more than 6 inches thick, and areas of This unit is not assigned to a capability subclass or a
soils that have a yellowish layer above the subsoil and range site.
limestone below. Also included are small areas of
Bradenton, Broward Variant, EauGallie, and Wabasso 42-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This
soils. is a nearly level, moderately well drained soil on low
In most years, if this soil is not drained, the water table ridges in flatwoods. Individual areas are irregularly
is at a depth within 10 inches of the surface for less than shaped. Slopes are smooth to concave.
3 months out of the year and at a depth of 10 to 40 Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand 2 inches
inches for 4 to 6 months out of the year. It may recede thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand to a depth
to a depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry of 46 inches. The subsoil is fine sand. In the upper 5
periods. Permeability is rapid in the surface and inches it is black. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The more it is dark reddish brown.
available water capacity is very low in the surface layer Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
and medium in the subsurface layer and subsoil. Natural have a subsoil below a depth of 50 inches. Also included
fertility and the content of organic matter are low. are small areas of Cassia, Duette, and Zolfo soils and
In some areas this soil is used for vegetables and Pomello soils on 2 to 5 percent slopes.
improved pasture. The natural vegetation consists of In most years, the water table is at a depth of 24 to 40
South Florida slash pine, cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, inches for 1 to 4 months out of the year and at a detph
waxmyrtle, gallberry, broomsedge, chalky bluestem, blue of 40 to 60 inches for 8 months out of the year. The
maidencane, lopsided indiangrass, sand cordgrass, and available water capacity is very low except in the subsoil,
pineland threeawn. where it is medium. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is
very rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
If this soil is not drained, wetness is a severe limitation ery rapid in the su e a subsu s
to use of this soil for cultivated crops. The soil is well moderately rapid in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of dwarf and sand live
suited to many vegetable crops if a complete water oaks, sawpalmetto, longleaf and slash pines, pineland
control system removes excess surface water and threeawn, running oak, creeping bluestem, broomsedge
distributes water for subsurface irrigation. Cover crops bluestem, splitbeard bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
and all crop residue should be plowed under. Other st sspanium, and paspalum
switchgrass, panicum, and paspalum. A few areas are
management practices include crop rotations that keep used for citrus, vegetables, and improved pasture
the soil in close growing cover crops between cropping grasses where the areas are near other soils used for
seasons, seedbed preparation, including bedding, and these crops.
fertilizers applied according to the needs of the crop. This soil is not suitable for most commonly cultivated
This soil is suited to citrus if a well designed water crops. It is poorly suited to citrus. Only fair yields can be
control system maintains the water table below a depth obtained under a high level of management. Sprinkler
of 4 feet. Trees planted in beds helps provide good irrigation is needed for best yields. Regular applications
surface drainage. Close growing vegetation maintained of fertilizers and lime are needed.
between the trees helps protect the soil from blowing. The soil is only fairly suitable for improved pasture
Regular applications of fertilizers are needed. grasses even under good management. Bahiagrass is
This soil is well suited to pangolagrass, improved better adapted than other grasses. Clovers are not
bahiagrass, and clover. Regular applications of fertilizers suited. Droughtiness is the major limitation except in the
and controlled grazing are needed, wet season. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
The potential productivity for pine trees is medium. are needed. Controlled grazing permits vigorous growth
The main management concerns include seedling for highest yields and provides good ground cover.
mortality, windthrow hazard, and plant competition. Slash The potential productivity is moderate for pine trees.
pine is better suited than other species. Seedling mortality, plant competition, and equipment
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the mobility are the main management concerns. Sand pine
Cabbage Palm Flatwoods range site. is the best tree to plant.
This soil is in capability subclass VIs and in the Sand
41-Pits and Dumps. Pits and Dumps consist of Pine Scrub range site.
areas in which large excavations were made in mining
for phosphate. The refuse was left on the adjoining land. 43-St. Johns fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
There are several areas in the western part of the is a gently sloping, poorly drained soil on seepy side
county. The largest is near the fuller's earth plant east of slopes adjacent to drainageways. Most areas of this soil
Ellenton. Most areas have been abandoned. Pits and are long and narrow.
Dumps have little or no value for crops and pasture or Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand to a
for pine trees. Some revegetated areas provide good depth of 7 inches and very dark gray fine sand to a
wildlife habitat. depth of 13 inches. The subsurface layer, to a depth of







36 Soil survey



28 inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil is black to 44-St. Johns-Myakka complex. This complex
very dark gray fine sand about 32 inches thick. The sand consists of nearly level soils in broad areas of flatwoods.
grains in the subsoil are well coated with organic matter. The soils are mainly in the northeastern part of the
The next layer is dark gray fine sand about 8 inches county; they are also in smaller areas scattered
thick, and the layer below that, to a depth of 80 inches throughout the eastern half of the county. The areas of
or more, is black fine sand. these soils are so intermixed that they could not be
Included with this soil in mapping are small but mapped separately at the scale selected for mapping.
numerous areas of very poorly drained sandy soils in Slopes are less than 2 percent.
seeps. Also included are areas of a similar soil that has St. Johns soils make up about 45 percent of the
a subsoil below a depth of 30 inches, areas of other complex; Myakka soils make up 40 percent; and
similar soils that are cemented in the subsoil, and a few Immokalee, Ona, Palmetto, and Wauchula soils make up
areas where slopes are greater than 5 percent. 15 percent.
In most years, if this soil is not drained, the water table Typically, the surface layer of St. Johns soils is black
is within a depth of 15 inches for 2 to 6 months out of fine sand about 11 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
the year and at a depth of 15 to 30 inches during light gray fine sand 15 inches thick. The subsoil is black
periods of lower rainfall. Permeability is rapid in the and dark reddish brown fine sand. It extends to a depth
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the of 43 inches. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or
subsoil. Natural fertility is low, and the content of organic more, there is brown, pale brown, and light brownish
matter is moderate. The available water capacity is gray fine sand.
medium in the subsoil and low in the surface and In most years, the water table in St. Johns soils is
subsurface layers. within a depth of 15 inches for 2 to 6 months out of the
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly year and between a depth of 15 and 30 inches for more
bay, sawpalmetto, and gallberry. The native grasses than 6 months out of the year. Permeability is moderate
include chalky bluestem, cinnamon fern, and pineland in the subsoil and rapid in the other layers. The available
threeawn. water capacity is medium in the subsoil and low in the
If this soil is not drained, wetness and the erosion other layers.
hazard are severe limitations to use of this soil for Typically, the surface layer of Myakka soils is very
cultivated crops. Only water tolerant crops can be grown. dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
Water control measures are needed to remove surface layer is gray and light gray fine sand about 19 inches
water during periods of high rainfall. Good management thick. The subsoil, to a depth of about 46 inches, is
practices also include contour cultivation and bedding of black, dark reddish brown, and dark brown fine sand.
row crops, alternating strips of row crops with cover Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more, there is
crops, and crop rotations that maintain cover crops on brown, pale brown, and light brownish gray fine sand.
the soil at least two-thirds of the time. These crops and In most years, the water table in Myakka soils is at a
all other crop residue should be plowed under. Fertilizer depth of 10 inches or less for 1 to 4 months out of the
and lime should be added to the soil according to the year. It recedes to a depth of 40 inches or more in dry
needs of the crop. seasons. The available water capacity is medium in the
Unless it is drained, this soil is poorly suited to citrus. It subsoil and very low in the other layers. Permeability is
is moderately suited to oranges and grapefruit if excess rapid in the surface layer, subsurface layer, and
water is removed rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet. The substratum and moderate or moderately rapid in the
trees should be planted in contour beds. Close growing subsoil.
vegetation between the trees helps protect the soil from The natural vegetation in areas of this complex is
wind and water erosion. Regular applications of fertilizer longleaf and slash pines and an undergrowth of
and occasional applications of lime are needed. Highest sawpalmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
yields require irrigation, which is feasible only where huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and scattered fetter
water is readily available, bushes.
If well managed, this soil is well suited to Wetness and the sandy texture are very severe
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Simple drainage to limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Only
remove excess water, regular use of fertilizers and lime, certain kinds of crops can be grown unless intensive
and controlled grazing are needed to maintain healthy management practices are used. The soils are suitable
plants for highest yields. for a number of vegetable crops if a water control
Potential productivity for pine trees is moderate. Slash system is installed to remove excess water in wet
pine is the best tree to plant. The main management seasons and distribute water for subsurface irrigation in
problems are equipment limitations during periods of dry seasons. Seedbed preparation should include
heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant competition, bedding of the rows.
This soil is in capability subclass llw and in the South The soils are suitable for citrus only if a carefully
Florida Flatwoods range site. designed water control system is installed to maintain








Manatee County, Florida 37



the water table below a depth of 4 feet. Planting the irrigation water is readily available. Fertilizer and lime are
trees in beds helps lower the water table. A vegetative needed.
cover is needed between the trees to reduce erosion. This soil is well suited to pangolagrass, Coastal
If well managed, the soils are well suited to bermudagrass, and bahiagrass. Yields are good if the
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover, soil is fertilized and limed. Controlled grazing is needed
Water control measures help remove excess surface to maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields.
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps prevent high. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
weakening of the plants. competition are the main management concerns. Slash
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate. pine is the best tree to plant.
Slash pine is the best tree to plant. The main This soil is in capability subclass Ills and in the
management problems are equipment limitations during Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site.
periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
competition. A water control system helps remove 46-Tavares fine sand, cemented substratum, 2 to
excess surface water. 5 percent slopes. This is a moderately well drained soil
The soils are in capability subclass IVw and in the on low benches along some of the larger creeks and
South Florida Flatwoods range site. rivers. Slopes are generally smooth and grade to
streams and rivers.
45-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This This soil is fine sand to a depth of about 60 inches.
is a moderately well drained soil on ridges and knolls. Typically, the surface layer, to a depth of about 7 inches,
Slopes are smooth to convex, is very dark gray. The underlying material, to a depth of
The soil is fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. 60 inches, is yellowish brown and light brown and has
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray to a depth segregated iron mottles in shades of yellow, red, and
of about 6 inches. The underlying material is yellowish brown in the lower part. Below that, to a depth of 80
brown and light yellowish brown to a depth of 56 inches, inches or more it is mottled yellow, brown, and gray
very pale brown to a depth of 79 inches, and white to a extremely hard iron-cemented sand.
depth of 80 inches or more. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Braden soils. Also included are small areas of the
Adamsville Variant, Orlando, Orsino, and Zolfo soils. Also Tavares soil on 0 to 2 percent slopes.
included are small areas of Tavares soils on 5 to 8 In most years, if this soil is not drained, the water table
percent slopes. is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 6 to 12 months and
In most years, if this soil is not drained, a water table at a depth of more than 60 inches during very dry
is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 6 to 12 months and periods. The available water capacity is very low.
at a depth of 60 inches or more during very dry periods. Permeability is very rapid above the cemented layer and
The available water capacity is very low. Permeability is slow in that layer. Natural fertility is low.
very rapid. Natural fertility is low. The natural vegetation is a hammock consisting chiefly
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf of water and laurel oaks and a few other hardwoods and
pine, blackjack, turkey, and post oak, and an understory a heavy undergrowth of vines and shrubs.
of pineland threeawn, creeping bluestem, lopsided Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are
indiangrass, hairy panicum, low panicums, purple severe limitations to use of this soil for most cultivated
lovegrass, and broomsedge bluestem. crops. They limit the kinds of crops that can be grown
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are and reduce potential yields. Management practices
severe limitations to use of this soil for most cultivated should include row crops planted on the contour and
crops. Only certain kinds of crops can be grown, and alternate strips of close growing crops. Crop rotations
potential yields are limited. Management practices should include close growing crops on the soil at least
include row crops on the contour and alternate strips of two-thirds of the time. All crops should be fertilized and
close growing crops. Crop rotation should include close limed. Irrigation of high-value crops is usually feasible
growing crops on the soil at least two-thirds of the time. where irrigation water is readily available.
The soil should be fertilized and limed for all crops. This soil is highly suitable for citrus where it is
Irrigation of high-value crops is generally feasible where relatively free from freezing temperatures. Close growing
irrigation water is readily available, vegetation is needed between the trees to reduce
This soil is highly suitable for citrus where it is erosion. Citrus generally can be grown without irrigation.
relatively free from freezing temperatures. In many areas Irrigation to maintain optimum yields is generally feasible
it is used for citrus. Close growing vegetation is needed where irrigation water is readily available. Fertilizer and
between the trees to help prevent erosion. Citrus lime are needed.
generally can be grown without irrigation. Irrigation to The soil is well suited to pangolagrass, Coastal
maintain optimum yields generally is feasible where bermudagrass, and bahiagrass. Yields are good if the







38 Soil survey



soil is fertilized and limed. Controlled grazing helps The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand
maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields. and many shell fragments.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
high. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant EauGallie and Felda soils. The included soils make up
competition are the main management concerns. Slash about 5 percent of this unit.
pine is the best tree to plant. In most years, if this soil is not drained, the water table
This soil is in capability subclass Ills and in the is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. out of the year. It is at a depth of less than 10 inches for
less than 60 days in wet seasons and at a depth of more
47-Tomoka muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly than 40 inches in very dry seasons. The available water
drained organic soil in freshwater marshes. Slopes are capacity is very low or low in the sandy layers and
less than 2 percent. medium in the loamy subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
Typically, in the uppermost 28 inches the soil is black sandy surface and subsurface layers, slow to very slow
and dark reddish brown muck. Below that, there is gray in the loamy layers, and very rapid in the substratum.
and light brownish gray sand 4 inches thick and black The natural fertility is low.
loamy sand and sand 3 inches thick. Below that, to a The native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
depth of 75 inches or more, there is gray sandy clay pines, scattered cabbage palms, and an understory of
loam. sawpalmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, creeping bluestem,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of indiangrass, little bluestem, Florida paspalum, pineland
Chobee, Delray, Floridana, and Manatee soils and areas threeawn, panicums, deertongue, grassleaf goldaster,
where the organic material is less than 16 inches thick. huckleberry, and running oak. Most areas are in native
vegetation and are grazed. Areas with adequate water
control are used for citrus, truck crops, and improved
rapid and in the loamy layers is moderately rapid or pasture
moderate. In most years a water table is at a depth pasture.
moderate. In most years a water table is at a depth Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
within 10 inches of the surface for 9 to 12 months, and of
water is commonly above the surface. In dry periods it is cultivated crops. Only certain kinds of crops can be
grown unless intensive water control measures are used.
at a depth of 10 to 30 inches. This soil is well suited to many kinds of flower and
In most areas the natural vegetation consists of vegetable crops if a water control system removes
maidencane, sawgrass, cattails, flags, and scattered to excess water in wet seasons. The system should also
dense thickets of woody button bush. A few areas are in distribute water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons.
swamp hardwoods consisting of maple, gum, bay, and Good management practices include crop rotations with
other wetland hardwoods. Some areas are used as close growing, soil improving crops on the soil at least
range and improved pasture. two-thirds of the time. These crops and the residue of all
This soil is suited to vegetables if a water control other crops should be plowed under. Fertilizer and lime
system keeps the water table at the proper depth for should be added according to the needs of the crop.
vegetables and improved pasture grasses and clover. This soil is poorly suited to citrus because of wetness.
The system also should reduce the hazard of It is moderately suited to oranges and grapefruit if
subsidence by oxidation of the organic matter. The soil is drainage removes excess water rapidly to a depth of
not suited to citrus or to use as woodland. With water about 4 feet after heavy rains. The trees should be
control, it is well suited to improved pasture grasses and planted in beds. Close growing vegetation maintained
clover, lawn grasses, and many kinds of ornamental between the trees helps protect.the soil from blowing
plants. when it is dry and from washing during heavy rains.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the Regular applications of fertilizer and occasional
Freshwater Marsh and Ponds range site. applications of lime are needed. For highest yields,
irrigation through the water control system or by
48-Wabasso fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly sprinklers is required in seasons of low rainfall.
drained soil in areas of broad flatwoods. Slopes are less If well managed, this soil is well suited to
than 2 percent. pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Simple drainage to
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand remove excess surface water is required during periods
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine of high rainfall. Regular use of fertilizers and lime is also
sand 14 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand coated needed. Carefully controlled grazing helps maintain
with organic material to a depth of about 28 inches. In healthy plants for highest yields.
the upper 4 inches it is black, and in the lower 3 inches The potential productivity for pine trees is medium.
it is dark reddish brown. The next layer, to a depth of 37 Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
inches, is brown fine sand. Below that, to a depth of 65 competition are the main management concerns. Slash
inches, there is grayish brown to gray loamy material. pine is the best tree to plant.







Manatee County, Florida 39



This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the South irrigation through a water control system or by sprinklers
Florida Flatwoods range site. is needed in seasons of low rainfall.
If well managed, this soil is well suited to
49-Wabasso fine sand, rarely flooded. This is a pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Simple drainage is
nearly level, poorly drained soil on stream terraces well needed to remove excess surface water in periods of
above normal overflow. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent and high rainfall. Regular use of fertilizers and lime is also
generally grade toward the stream. required. Carefully controlled grazing helps maintain
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand healthy plants for highest yields.
7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and light The potential productivity for pine trees is medium.
gray fine sand 14 inches thick. The subsoil in the upper Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
part is black, dark reddish brown, and brown fine sand competition are the main management concerns. Slash
10 inches thick. In the lower part it is grayish brown pine is the best tree to plant.
sandy loam and gray sandy clay loam 28 inches thick. A This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the South
6-inch layer of pale brown fine sand separates the two Florida Flatwoods range site.
parts. The substratum is at a depth of 65 inches. It is
gray fine sand. 50-Wabasso Variant fine sand. This is a nearly
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas level, poorly drained soil in areas of flatwoods in the
where the lower part of the subsoil is at a depth of more western part of the county. Slopes range from 0 to 2
than 40 inches. Also included are a few small areas ofernt
Braden and Myakka soils.
Bradu env. ay is r d Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4
In most years, if this soil is not drained, the water table n Typicall, he surface layer is ac and about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and light gray
is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months fine sand 19 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand 13
out of the year and within a depth of 10 inches for less inches thick. he ue is da d
inches thick. In the uppermost 7 inches it is dark reddish
than 60 days in wet seasons. The soil is rarely flooded brown fine sand, and below that, it is mottled yellowish
during periods of very high rainfall. Permeability is rapid wn wnih ello an gra la o
in the surface and subsurface layers, in the layer brow, brhad niestonello an a depth of c36 inches.
between the two parts of the subsoil, and in the ledge of hard limestone is at a depth of 36 to 56 inches.
substratum. It is moderate or moderately rapid in the Below the limestone there is light gray and white fine
upper part of the subsoil and slow to very slow in the sand.
lower part. The available water capacity is very low in Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils
the surface and subsurface layers and in the layer except that limestone is below a depth of 40 inches.
between the two parts of the subsoil and medium in both Also included are small areas of Broward Variant and
parts of the subsoil. Myakka soils.
The natural vegetation consists of an open forest of In most years, if this soil has not been drained, the
slash pine and a ground cover of sawpalmetto, creeping water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more
bluestem, panicum, and pineland threeawn. Some areas than 5 months out of the year. It is at a depth of less
are used as improved pasture. Most areas are used as than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months in wet seasons and is
range. at a depth of more than 40 inches in very dry seasons.
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil for The available water capacity is very low or low in the
cultivated crops. Only certain kinds of crops can be surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
grown unless intensive water control measures are used. subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
It is well suited to many kinds of vegetable crops if a subsurface layers and slow to moderately slow in the
water control system removes excess water in wet subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
seasons and distributes subsurface irrigation in dry The native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
seasons. Good management practices include crop pines, cabbage palm, and an undergrowth dominantly of
rotations with close growing, soil improving crops on the sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, inkberry, lopsided
soil at least two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer and lime indiangrass, chalky and creeping bluestem, hairy
should be added according to the needs of the crop. panicum, and fetterbush lyonia.
The soil is poorly suited to citrus because of wetness. Wetness and shallow depth to rock are severe
It is moderately suited to oranges and grapefruit if limitations to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Only
drainage removes excess water rapidly to a depth of certain kinds of crops can be grown unless very
about 4 feet after heavy rains. The trees should be intensive management practices are followed. It is suited
planted in beds. Close growing vegetation maintained to a number of vegetable crops if a water control system
between the trees helps protect the soil from blowing removes excess water in wet seasons. The system also
when it is dry and from washing during heavy rains, should provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry
Regular applications of fertilizer and occasional seasons. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of
applications of lime are needed. For highest yields, the rows.








40 Soil survey



This soil is poorly suited to citrus without very intensive The soil is well suited to many kinds of flower and
management. In areas that are relatively free from vegetable crops if a water control system removes
freezing temperatures, it is suitable for citrus if a carefully excess water in wet seasons and distributes subsurface
designed water control system maintains the water table irrigation in dry seasons. Good management practices
below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be planted in include crop rotations with close growing, soil improving
beds, and a vegetative cover is necessary between the crops on the soil at least two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer
trees. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are and lime should be added according to the needs of the
needed. crop.
If well managed, this soil is suited to pangolagrass, This soil is poorly suited to citrus because of wetness.
improved bahiagrass, and white clover. Water control It is moderately suited to oranges and grapefruit if a
measures are needed to remove excess surface water water control system removes excess water rapidly to a
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and depth of about 4 feet after heavy rains. The trees should
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps prevent be planted in beds. Close growing vegetation maintained
weakening of the plants, between the trees helps protect the soil from blowing
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately when it is dry and from washing during heavy rains.
high. Slash pine is the best tree to plant. The main Regular applications of fertilizer and occasional
management concerns are equipment use during periods applications of lime are needed. For highest yields,
of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant irrigation through the water control system or by
competition. sprinklers is needed in seasons of low rainfall.
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the South If well managed, this soil is well suited to
Florida Flatwoods range site. pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Simple drainage is
needed to remove excess surface water in periods of
51-Wauchula fine sand. This is a poorly drained, high rainfall. Carefully controlled grazing helps maintain
nearly level soil in broad areas of flatwoods. Slopes are healthy plants for highest yields.
less than 2 percent. The potential productivity for slash pine is moderately
Typically, the surface layer is about 7 inches thick. In high. Bedding the rows helps seedlings to survive by
the uppermost 3 inches it is black loamy fine sand, and providing additional aeration for the roots. For highest
below that, it is very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface yields, a surface drainage system is needed to remove
layer is fine sand about 13 inches thick. In the excess water in wet seasons.
uppermost 6 inches it is gray, and below that, it is light This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the South
gray. It has streaks of dark gray and very dark gray. The Florida Flatwoods range site.
subsoil begins at a depth of 20 inches. In the upper part,
to a depth of 25 inches, it is dark reddish brown fine 52-Waveland fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
sand that has sand grains coated with organic matter; nearly level soil in broad areas of flatwoods. Slopes are
and below that, it is dark brown fine sand that has black, smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
weakly cemented bodies. The next layer is grayish brown Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 8 inches
fine sand 5 inches thick. Below that, there is light gray thick. In the upper 5 inches it is black, and below that, it
mottled sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of is dark gray. The subsurface layer is 24 inches thick. In
80 inches or more is light gray loamy fine sand. the uppermost 13 inches it is grayish brown sand, and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of below that, it is light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a
Immokalee, Myakka, and Ona soils. depth of 51 inches, is black sand. The substratum to a
The natural vegetation consists of forest of longleaf depth of 80 inches or more is sand that has pockets of
pine, slash pine, and sawpalmetto and an understory of sandy loam. In the upper 6 inches it is dark grayish
gallberry and pineland threeawn. Many areas have been brown, in the next 9 inches it is grayish brown, and in the
cut over and replanted to slash pine. A few areas are lower part it is olive.
used as improved pasture. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
In most years, the water table is within 10 inches of Myakka, Ona, and Pomona soils.
the surface for 1 to 4 months out of the year and within In most years, the water table is within a depth of 10
a depth of 40 inches for about 6 months out of the year. inches for 1 to 4 months out of the year and within a
In the driest seasons, it recedes to a depth of more than depth of 40 inches for 6 months or more out of the year.
40 inches. The available water capacity is low. It is above the subsoil early in the summer rainy season
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and after periods of heavy rainfall in other seasons. The
and moderate in the subsoil. The natural fertility and the water table recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches in
content of organic matter are low. extended dry seasons. The available water capacity is
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil for low in the surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer,
cultivated crops. Only certain kinds of crops can be medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum.
grown unless intensive water control measures are used. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface






4







Manatee County, Florida 41



layers, very slow to slow in the subsoil, and moderate to Wulfert soils are flooded daily by high tides.
rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and organic Permeability is rapid throughout. The available water
matter content are low. capacity is medium to high in the muck layers and very
Large areas are cleared and used for improved low to low in the sandy layers.
pasture. The native vegetation consists of South Florida Typically, the surface layer of Kesson soils is black
slash pine and an understory of sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, fine sand 6 inches thick. Below the surface layer there is
gallberry, huckleberry, fetterbush, lopsided indiangrass, pale brown, light gray, and white fine sand to a depth of
creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, Florida threeawn, 80 inches or more. Shell fragments are few to common
and pineland threeawn. in these layers.
Wetness is a very severe limitation to use of this soil Kesson soils are flooded daily by high tides.
for cultivated crops. The soil is suitable for vegetable Permeability is moderately rapid to rapid throughout. The
crops if a water control system removes excess water, available water capacity is medium in the surface layer
Good management practices include crop rotations that and low to medium in the other layers.
keep the soil in close growing, soil improving crops at Included with the soils in this map unit are areas of
least two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer and lime should be beaches on the north and west side of some of the
applied according to the needs of the crop. larger islands. Also included are areas of Wulfert soils
This soil is moderately suited to citrus if a drainage that overlie limestone in some places. Also included are
system rapidly removes excess water after heavy rains small areas of silty soils that overlie limestone.
to a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees in beds The natural vegetation consists mostly of mangrove,
helps to lower the water table. Close growing vegetation but in some places it also consists of seashore
between the trees helps protect the soil from erosion. saltgrass, batis, and oxeye daisy. Some places are bare.
Regular applications of fertilizer are required. Irrigation is This unit is not suitable for cultivation, citrus, or
needed in seasons of low rainfall for highest yields. pasture or for use as woodland.
If well managed, this soil is well suited to This unit is in capability subclass VIllw. It is not
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers. Water control assigned to a range site.
measures are needed to remove surface water in
periods of heavy rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer 54-Zolfo fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This is a
are required. Carefully controlled grazing helps to somewhat poorly drained soil on low to high ridges and
maintain healthy plants for highest yields. knolls in flatwoods.
The potential productivity for pine is moderate. Slash Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
pine is the best adapted species. For highest yields, a about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
good drainage system is needed to remove excess brownish gray, pale brown, and light gray fine sand. The
surface water. Equipment limitations and seedling subsoil begins at a depth of 65 inches. In the upper 7
mortality are the main management concerns. inches it is dark grayish brown fine sand, and below that,
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the South it is dark brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
Florida Flatwoods range site. more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
53-Wulfert-Kesson association. This map unit Cassia, Duette, Orsino, Pomello, and Tavares soils. Also
consists of nearly level, very poorly drained Wulfert and included are soils that are very similar to Zolfo soils
Kesson soils. It is about 45 percent Wulfert soils, 35 except that the subsoil is less well developed.
percent Kesson soils, and 20 percent other soils. These Permeability is very rapid in the surface and
soils occur in a regular and repeating pattern in subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. In most
mangrove swamps along the Gulf Coast and on coastal years, if this soil is not drained, the high water table is at
islands. Generally, Kesson soils are in the outer parts of a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months out of the
areas of this complex near the water's edge, and Wulfert year. In some years the water table is at a depth of 10 to
soils are in the inner parts. Areas of the individual soils 24 inches for periods of as much as 2 weeks. The water
are large enough to map separately, but in considering table is at a depth of less than 60 inches for more than
the present and predicted use they are mapped as one 9 months out of the year.
unit. Slopes are less than 1 percent. The available water capacity is low to very low in the
The composition of this map unit is more variable than surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
that of most other map units in the county; nevertheless, subsoil. Natural fertility is low, and the content of organic
valid interpretations for the expected uses of the soils matter is low to very low.
can still be made. The native vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
Typically, the surface layer of Wulfert soils is dark pines, laurel, bluejack, turkey, live and water oaks, and
reddish brown and dark brown muck that extends to a an understory of sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn,
depth of about 36 inches. Below that, there is gray fine broomsedge and chalky bluestems, and other perennial
sand to a depth of 60 inches or more. grasses.







42



Periodic wetness that limits the root zone is a severe subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. In most
limitation to use of this soil for cultivated crops. Only a years, if this soil is not drained, a high water table is at a
few adapted crops can be grown unless intensive water depth of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months out of the
control measures are used. This soil is well suited to year. In some years the water table is at a depth of 10 to
many kinds of flowers and vegetables if a water control 24 inches for periods of as much as 2 weeks. The water
system removes excess water in wet seasons. The table is at a depth of less than 60 inches for more than
system also should distribute water during dry periods. 9 months out of the year.
Planting the crops in beds helps lower the water table. The available water capacity is low to very low in the
Good management practices include the use of soil surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
improving crops and crop rotations that keep a close subsoil. Natural fertility is low, and the content of organic
growing crop on the soil at least two-thirds of the time. matter is low to very low.
Crop residue should be plowed under. Fertilizer and lime The native vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
should be added according to the needs of the crop. pines, laurel, bluejack, turkey, live, and water oaks, and
This soil is moderately suited to citrus except in areas an understory of sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn,
that are subject to frequent freezing temperatures. A broomsedge and chalky bluestems, and other perennial
water control system is needed to remove excess water grasses.
rapidly and maintain the water table to a depth of about Periodic wetness that limits the root zone and a slight
4 feet. Planting the trees in beds helps lower the water hazard of erosion are severe limitations to use of this
table, soil for cultivated crops. Only certain kinds of crops can
Close growing vegetation maintained between the be grown unless intensive water control measures are
trees helps protect the soil from blowing in dry weather used. This soil is well suited to many kinds of flowers
and from washing during heavy rains. Regular and vegetables if a water control system removes
applications of fertilizer and lime are required. For excess water in wet seasons. The system should also
highest yields, irrigation is needed in seasons of low distribute water during dry periods. Planting the crops in
rainfall, beds helps lower the water table. Management practices
This soil is moderately well suited to pangolagrass and also include crop rotations with a close growing crop on
bahiagrass. A simple system to remove excess surface the soil at least two-thirds of the time and the use of soil
water in periods of high rainfall is needed. Regular use improving crops. Crop residue should be plowed under.
of fertilizers and lime is needed. Controlled grazing helps Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
maintain healthy plants for highest yields, needs of the crop.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately This soil is moderately suited to citrus except in areas
high. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant that are subject to frequent freezing temperatures. A
competition are the main management concerns. Slash water control system is needed to remove excess water
pine is the most suitable species to plant. rapidly during wet periods and lower the water table to a
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the South depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees in beds helps
Florida Flatwoods range site. lower the water table. Close growing vegetation
maintained between the trees helps protect the soil from
55-Zolfo fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This is a blowing in dry weather and from washing during heavy
somewhat poorly drained soil on slopes of ridges that rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
border the larger streams and rivers, required. For highest yields, irrigation is needed in
Typically, the surface layer is a gray fine sand about 4 seasons of low rainfall.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray, This soil is moderately well suited to pangolagrass and
pale brown, light gray, and white fine sand. The subsoil bahiagrass. A simple system is needed to remove
begins at a depth of about 65 inches. In the upper 15 excess surface water in periods of high rainfall. Regular
inches it is dark reddish brown fine sand, and below that, use of fertilizers and lime is needed. Controlled grazing
it is black fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. helps maintain healthy plants for highest yields.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
Cassia, Duette, Orsino, Pomello, and Tavares soils. Also high. The main management concerns are equipment
included are soils that are very similar to Zolfo soils limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
except that the subsoil is less well developed and areas Slash pine is the most suitable species for planting.
of Zolfo soils on 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the South
Permeability is very rapid in the surface and Florida Flatwoods range site.







43








use and management of the soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural listed for each soil.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid Planners of management systems for individual fields
soil-related failures in land uses. or farms should consider the detailed information given
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, in the description of each soil under "Detailed soil map
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive units." Specific information can be obtained from the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Cooperative Extension Service.
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses In 1974, approximately 118,000 acres in Manatee
and management. Field experience and collected data County was used for crops and pasture, according to the
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Census of Agriculture, the Soil Conservation Service
in predicting soil behavior. Now-on-the-Land Records, the Manatee County
Information in this section can be used to plan the use Extension Service estimates, and the Florida Agricultural
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as Statistics, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary Of this total, 70,000 acres was used for pasture; 15,000
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and acres for citrus; and 30,000 acres for special crops,
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife mainly tomatoes, watermelons, sweet corn, peppers, and
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and cucumbers. There were smaller acreages of squash,
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help eggplant, field peas, sod, and nursery plants.
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil About 267,000 acres is now used as grazable
properties. woodland and native pasture. Much of this land could be
Planners and others using soil survey information can used for increased crop production. The potential of the
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity soils in Manatee County for increased food production is
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. good. Deficiencies in soil quality are somewhat offset by
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a the climate and the availability of water.
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. Acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of decreased as urban development takes up more and
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to more land. In 1967, about 20,000 acres in the county
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil was urban land. Since then, the acreage of urban land
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, has been increasing about 10 percent per year,
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and according to estimates of the Tampa Bay Regional
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can Planning Council. The use of this soil survey to help
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate make broad land use decisions that will influence the
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, future role of farming in the county is discussed in the
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. section "General soil map units".
Soil erosion is a problem on about one-tenth of the
crops and pasture cropland in Manatee County. On the poorly drained
Myakka and St. Johns soils, where the slope is more
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, and Irving H. Stewart, than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard.
district conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare this Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
section. for two reasons. First, productivity drops as the content
General management needed for crops and pasture is of organic matter in the soil is reduced and part of the
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants subsurface layer or the subsoil is incorporated into the
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly plow layer. Second, soil erosion on farmland results in
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of sedimentation of streams. Control of erosion minimizes
land capability classification used by the Soil the pollution of streams by sediment and improves the







43








use and management of the soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural listed for each soil.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid Planners of management systems for individual fields
soil-related failures in land uses. or farms should consider the detailed information given
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, in the description of each soil under "Detailed soil map
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive units." Specific information can be obtained from the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Cooperative Extension Service.
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses In 1974, approximately 118,000 acres in Manatee
and management. Field experience and collected data County was used for crops and pasture, according to the
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Census of Agriculture, the Soil Conservation Service
in predicting soil behavior. Now-on-the-Land Records, the Manatee County
Information in this section can be used to plan the use Extension Service estimates, and the Florida Agricultural
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as Statistics, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary Of this total, 70,000 acres was used for pasture; 15,000
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and acres for citrus; and 30,000 acres for special crops,
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife mainly tomatoes, watermelons, sweet corn, peppers, and
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and cucumbers. There were smaller acreages of squash,
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help eggplant, field peas, sod, and nursery plants.
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil About 267,000 acres is now used as grazable
properties. woodland and native pasture. Much of this land could be
Planners and others using soil survey information can used for increased crop production. The potential of the
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity soils in Manatee County for increased food production is
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. good. Deficiencies in soil quality are somewhat offset by
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a the climate and the availability of water.
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. Acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of decreased as urban development takes up more and
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to more land. In 1967, about 20,000 acres in the county
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil was urban land. Since then, the acreage of urban land
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, has been increasing about 10 percent per year,
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and according to estimates of the Tampa Bay Regional
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can Planning Council. The use of this soil survey to help
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate make broad land use decisions that will influence the
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, future role of farming in the county is discussed in the
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. section "General soil map units".
Soil erosion is a problem on about one-tenth of the
crops and pasture cropland in Manatee County. On the poorly drained
Myakka and St. Johns soils, where the slope is more
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, and Irving H. Stewart, than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard.
district conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare this Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
section. for two reasons. First, productivity drops as the content
General management needed for crops and pasture is of organic matter in the soil is reduced and part of the
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants subsurface layer or the subsoil is incorporated into the
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly plow layer. Second, soil erosion on farmland results in
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of sedimentation of streams. Control of erosion minimizes
land capability classification used by the Soil the pollution of streams by sediment and improves the






44 Soil survey



quality of water for municipal and recreation use and for Wind erosion is a major hazard on nearly all of the
fish and wildlife. cropland in the county. Wind erosion can damage soils
Erosion-control practices provide protective surface and tender crops in open, unprotected areas in a few
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A cropping hours if the winds are strong and the soil is dry and bare
system that keeps a plant cover on the soil for extended of vegetation and surface mulch. Maintaining vegetative
periods can hold soil losses through erosion to an cover and surface mulch minimizes wind erosion.
amount that will not reduce the productive capacity of Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It
the soil. On livestock farms, where pasture and hay are reduces soil fertility by removing the finer textured soil
necessary, the legume and grass crops in the cropping particles and the organic matter. It damages or destroys
system reduce erosion on sloping land and also provide crops by sandblasting. It spreads disease, insects, and
nitrogen and improve tilth for the following crop. weed seeds; and it creates health hazards and cleaning
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the problems. Control of wind erosion helps prevent
surface help to increase infiltration of water and reduce duststorms and improves air quality.
runoff and erosion. These practices can be adapted to Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as
most soils in the county. Carolina laurelcherry, slash pine, southern redcedar, and
The soils in the county are so sandy that terracing Japanese privet, and buffer strips of small grains are
generally is not practiced. Stripcropping and diversions effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage.
reduce the length of the slope and help control runoff Field windbreaks and buffer strips are narrow plantings
and erosion. They are more practical on deep, well made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at
drained soils that have smooth, uniform slopes, specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend
Diversions and sod waterways can be adapted to much on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the
of the cropland to reduce runoff and erosion. crop to damage from sandblasting.

































Figure 7Z-A dairy farm with water control measures in the pastures and a waste management system. The soil is Myakka fine
sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.







Manatee County, Florida 45



Information for the design of erosion control practices Orlando, and Tavares soils have sandy material to a
for each kind of soil is in the "Water and Wind Erosion depth of 80 inches or more. The Duette, EauGallie,
Control Handbook-Florida," which is available in local Myakka, Ona, Pomello, St. Johns, Wabasso, and
offices of the Soil Conservation Service. Wauchula soils have an organically stained layer within
Soil drainage is a major management need on about the sandy subsurface layer.
90 percent of the acreage used for crops and pasture in Most of the soils have a surface layer that is strongly
the county (fig. 7). Some soils are naturally so wet that acid to very strongly acid, and if they have never been
most crops cannot be grown without extensive water limed they require applications of ground limestone to
control. These are the poorly drained soils, such as raise the pH level sufficiently for good crop growth. The
Bradenton, EauGallie, Felda, Myakka, Palmetto, Pinellas, levels of nitrogen, potassium, and available phosphorus
St. Johns, and Wabasso soils, and the very poorly are naturally low in most of these soils. On all soils,
drained soils, such as Chobee, Delray, Floridana, additions of lime and fertilizer should be based on the
ane o, e d a, l. a, results of soil tests, the needs of the crops, and the
Manatee, Gator, Okeelanta, and Tomoka soils. In all, expected level of yields. The Cooperative Extension
these soils make up about 230,000 acres. Service can help in determining the kind and amount of
Unless they are artificially drained, some of the fertilizer and lime to apply.
somewhat poorly drained soils are wet enough in the Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
root zone during wet seasons to cause damage to most seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
crops in most years. Adamsville Variant and Zolfo soils, that have good tilth are granular and porous. Preparing a
which make up about 3,500 acres, are in this category. good seedbed and tilling are difficult in areas of the
Unless they are artificially drained, some of the poorly Hallandale soils because of limestone near the surface.
drained soils are wet enough to cause some damage to The same difficulties are encountered on the Bradenton
pasture plants in wet seasons. These are mainly the soils and Parkwood Variant soils because of limestone
EauGallie, Felda, Myakka, Ona, Palmetto, St. Johns, boulders on the surface.
Wabasso, and Wauchula soils. The soils also have a low Generally, the structure of the surface layer of most
water-holding capacity and are drought in dry periods, soils in the county is weak. On dry soils that are low in
Subsurface irrigation of the soils is necessary for organic matter, intense rainfall causes the colloidal
maximum pasture production. matter to cement, forming a slight crust. When the crust
The very poorly drained soils are very wet during the dries, it hardens and becomes slightly impervious to
rainy periods. Water stands on the surface in most water; thus, it reduces infiltration and increases runoff.
areas, and the production of good quality pasture is not Regular additions of crop residue, manure, and other
possible without artificial drainage. Some of the very organic material can help to improve soil structure and to
poorly drained soils are the Chobee, Delray, Floridana, reduce crust formation.
Gator, Manatee, Okeelanta, and Tomoka soils. The acreage of corn, grain sorghum, sunflowers, and
The design of surface drainage and subsurface potatoes can be increased under favorable economic
irrigation systems varies with the kind of soil and the conditions.
grasses grown. A combination of surface drainage and Rye is the common close-growing crop. Wheat, oats,
subsurface irrigation systems is needed on many soils and triticale also can be grown.
for intensive pasture production. Information on drainage Citrus and tomatoes are the primary special crops
and irrigation for each kind of soil is contained in the grown in the county. Other special crops grown
Technical Guide, which is available in the local offices of commercially are watermelons, snap beans, cucumbers,
the Soil Conservation Service. and peppers. A small acreage is used for squash,
l f y is n y l i m s i t c eggplant, cauliflower, nursery plants, and sod production.
Soi fertility is naturally low in most soils in the county. Under favorable economic conditions, a larger acreage
Except the Chobee, Delray, Floridana, Gator, Manatee, can be used for blueberries, grapes, blackberries,
Okeelanta, St. Johns, and Tomoka soils, the soils in the nursery plants, sod, cabbage cauliflower, turnips, and
survey area have a sandy or loamy sand surface layer mustard.
that is light in color and low to moderate in content of s u


DeepMany of the soils have a loamy subsoil. In this Tomoka, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils arainage arsuited to
organic matter. Gator, Okeelanta, and Tomoka soils
have an organic surface layer. The Bradenton, limestone especially well suited to citrus. In Manatee County these
substratum, soils and the Parkwood Variant soils have



category are the Bradenton, Chobee, Delray, EauGallie, vegetables and small fruits.
Felda, Floridana, Manatee, Palmetto, Wabasso, and Most of the well drained and moderately well drained
Wauchula soils. The Adamsville Variant, Canaveral, soils in the county are suitable for orchards and nursery







46 Soil survey



plants. Soils that have poor air drainage and common agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
frost pockets generally are poorly suited to early results of field trials and demonstrations are also
vegetables, small fruits, and orchards. considered.
The latest information and suggestions for growing The management needed to obtain the indicated
special crops can be obtained from local offices of the yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
Service. control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
Pastures in the county are used to produce forage for and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
beef and dairy cattle. Cow-calf operations make up the appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
major livestock enterprise. Bahiagrass, pangolagrass, diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
limpograss (Hermathria latissima), and bermudagrass are and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
the major pasture plants grown in the county. Grass and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
seeds or sprigs can be harvested from these grasses for residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and
improved pasture plantings as well as for commercial harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
purposes. Many cattlemen oversow pasture with For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
ryegrass in the fall for winter and spring grazing. Hay is irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
harvested from pangolagrass and bermudagrass in grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
summer for feeding in winter. applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
The moderately well drained and somewhat poorly The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
drained soils, for example, the Adamsville Variant, each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
Cassia, Pomello, Tavares, and Zolfo soils, are well suited to increase as new production technology is developed.


If they are drained, the Bradenton, Chobee, Delray, Crops other than those shown in table 3 are grown in
EauGallie, Felda, Manatee, Myakka, Ona, Palmetto, the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
Pinellas, St. Johns, Wabassoa,and Wauchula soils are because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
iella, suited to bahia ass o, and Waucula soils are office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
well suited to bahiagrass and limpograss pasture.
Subsurface irrigation, where needed, will lengthen the Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
growing seasons and increase forage production. These about the management and productivity of the soils.
soils, if adequate amounts of lime and fertilizer are land capability classification
added, are well suited to white clover and other
legumes. Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly depleted the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops
by continuous excessive grazing. Yields of pasture are that require special management are excluded. The soils
increased with lime, fertilizer, legumes, irrigation, and are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,
other management practices. the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields way they respond to management. The grouping does
are closely related to the kind of soil. Management of not take into account major and generally expensive
pasture is based on the interrelationship of soils, pasture landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
plants, lime, fertilizer, and moisture. characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible
The latest information and suggestions for growing but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability
pasture can be obtained from local offices of the classification is not a substitute for interpretations
Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of
Service. soils for rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering
Hay and pasture yields predicted under a high level of purposes.
management for varieties of grasses and legumes suited In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
to the soil are shown in table 3. three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
yields per acre are defined in the following paragraphs.
The average yields per acre that can be expected of Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
the principal crops under a high level of management designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
are shown in table 3. In any given year, yields may be numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. defined as follows:
The yields are based mainly on the experience and Class I soils have slight limitations that restrict their
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension use.







Manatee County, Florida 47



Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the throughout the survey area are used as native range by
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation livestock. Of this acreage, 160,000 acres are used
practices. strictly as range, and 107,000 acres are used as
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the grazable woodland.
choice of plants or that require special conservation The dominant range plant species that grow on a soil
practices, or both. are generally the most productive and the most suitable
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce for livestock. They can maintain themselves with a
the choice of plants or that require very careful sustained yield so long as the environment is not altered
management, or both. from its natural conditions. Improper use of fire and
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other drainage can alter the natural environment so that range
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use. sites do not achieve their potential production. Range
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them plants are grouped in three categories according to their
generally unsuitable for cultivation, response to grazing: decreasers, increases, and
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make invaders.
them unsuitable for cultivation. Decreasers generally are the plants most palatable to
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have livestock. They decrease in abundance if the range is
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial under continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are less
crop production. palatable; under continuous heavy grazing they increase
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class, for a while but eventually decrease. Invaders are native
They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or to the range in small percentages of the overall plant
c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e composition. Invaders have little forage value; they are
shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless not palatable to livestock and tend to increase only after
close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that other vegetation has been grazed out.
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or Range condition is a measure of the current
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly productivity of the rangeland in relation to its potential.
corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is Four classes are used to evaluate range condition. They
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony; are: excellent-producing 76 to 100 percent of the
and c, used in only some parts of the United States, potential; good-producing 51 to 75 percent of the
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold potential; fair-producing 26 to 50 percent of the
or very dry. potential; and poor-producing 0 to 25 percent of the
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of potential.
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the Only about 15 percent of the rangeland in Manatee
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in County is in excellent or good condition, and about 85
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have percent is in fair or poor condition.
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, For those soils in the county that are used as or are
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. suited to use as rangeland, table 5 shows the range site
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The and the potential annual production in favorable, normal,
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to and unfavorable years. Potential production is the
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar amount of forage that can be expected to grow on well
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability managed rangeland. Yields are expressed in terms of
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic pounds per acre of air-dry forage for range in excellent
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lle-4 or condition for favorable, normal, and unfavorable years.
llle-6. Favorable years are those in which climatic factors, such
The acreage of soils in each capability class and as rainfall distribution and temperature, are favorable for
subclass is shown in table 4. The capability classification plant growth. Forage refers to total vegetation produced,
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed soil whether or not it is palatable to grazing animals, and
map units." does not reflect forage value or grazing potentials. Total
production is the amount of vegetation that can be
range and grazable woodland expected to grow annually on well managed rangeland
that is supporting the potential natural plant community.
R. Gregory Hendricks, area range conservationist, Soil Conservation It includes grasses, forbs, and the current year's growth
Service, helped prepare this section. of leaves, twigs, and fruits of woody plants. It does not
Native range plants make up a significant part of the include the increase in stem diameter of trees and
year-round supply of forages for livestock in Manatee shrubs.
County. Range forages are an economical source of A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
feed and are suited to the cow-calf operations that are produces a characteristic natural plant community that
dominant in this part of the country. About 267,000 acres differs from natural plant communities on other range







48 Soil survey



sites in the kind, amount, and proportion of range plants. Cabbage Palm Hammock range site. The Bradenton
The relationship between soils and vegetation was and Parkwood Variant soils (map units 4, 5, and 39) are
determined when this survey was made; thus, range in this range site. These soils have low potential for
sites generally can be determined directly from the soil producing forage because of the dense canopy of palm
map. The productivity of a soil is closely related to the trees. The trees provide shade and rest areas for cattle.
natural drainage. The wettest soils, such as those in Cabbage Palm Flatwoods range site. The Hallandale
marshes, produce the greatest amount of vegetation, and Pinellas soils (map units 28 and 40) are in this range
and the deep, drought soils in the sandhills normally site. There are cabbage palm trees throughout the areas.
produce the least forage annually. This site is a preferred grazing area because of the high
Range management requires a knowledge of the kinds quality and quantity of the forage. Creeping bluestem,
of soil and of the potential natural plant community. It chalky bluestem, indiangrass, and various panicums are
also requires an evaluation of the present range important in this site.
condition. Range condition is determined by comparing Freshwater Marsh and Ponds range site. Some of
the present plant community with the potential natural the Delray and Okeelanta soils, Floridana, Immokalee,
plant community on a particular range site. The more Gator, Manatee, and Tomoka soils (map units 15, 25, 26,
closely the existing community resembles the potential 27, 29, and 47) are in this range site. These soils have
community, the better the range condition. Range potential for producing significant amounts of
condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a maidencane. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane
specific meaning that pertains to the present plant dominate some of the drier edges of this site. The water
community in a given use. level fluctuates throughout the year; thus grazing is
The objective in range management is to control naturally deferred when the water level is high. Forage
grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about production increases during the rest period. This site is
the same in kind and amount as the potential natural preferred by cattle because of the high quantity and
plant community for that site. Such management quality of the forage.
generally results in the optimum production of Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. The
vegetation, conservation of water, and control of erosion. Orlando and Tavares soils (map units 36, 45, and 46)
Sometimes, however, a range condition somewhat below are in this range site. These soils have moderately low
the potential meets grazing needs, provides wildlife potential for producing high quality forage. Natural fertility
is low because of the rapid movement of plant nutrients
habitat and pts sol and wer resources and water through the soil. Because the quantity and
Grazable woodland is forest that has an understory of quality of forage are poor, cattle do not readily graze this
native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is an site if other sites are available.
integral part of the forest plant community. The native Oak Hammock range site. The soils in the Felda-
plants can be grazed without significantly impairing other Palmetto complex (map unit 23) are in this range site.
forest values. On such forestland, grazing is compatible The areas are characterized by a usually dense canopy
with timber management if it is controlled or managed in of large live oak trees and a relatively open understory.
such a manner that timber and forage resources are The areas are used by cattle primarily for shade and
maintained or enhanced. resting.
Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs, Sand Pine Scrub range site. The Cassia, Duette,
shrubs, and other plants used by livestock or by grazing Orsino, and Pomello soils (map units 11, 12, 19, 37, and
or browsing wildlife. A well managed wooded area can 42) are in this range site. These soils have limited
produce enough understory vegetation to supply food to potential for producing native forage. The plant
large numbers of livestock and wildlife, community consists of a fairly dense stand of sand pine
The amount of forage production varies according to trees and a dense woody understory. Cattle do not graze
the different kinds of grazable woodland; the amount of this site if other sites are available.
shade cast by the canopy; the accumulation of fallen Salt Marsh range site. The Okeelanta soil (map unit
needles; the influence of time and intensity of grazing on 34) is in this range site. The soil has potential for
the herbage; and the number, size, and spacing of tree producing significant amounts of smooth cordgrass,
plantings, as well as the method of site preparation. marshhay cordgrass, seashore saltgrass, and numerous
The soils in Manatee County are assigned to one of other grasses and forbs for forage. This site can provide
nine range sites. The range sites are Cabbage Palm good grazing for cattle.
Hammock, Cabbage Palm Flatwoods, Freshwater Marsh Slough range site. Some of the Delray soils and the
and Ponds, Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills, Oak Felda and Palmetto soils (map units 16, 22, and 38) are
Hammock, Sand Pine Scrub, Salt Marsh, Slough, and in this range site. These soils have potential for
South Florida Flatwoods. Some soils are not assigned to producing significant amounts of blue maidencane,
a range site mainly because they are heavily wooded. chalky bluestem, and various panicums. Carpetgrass, an







Manatee County, Florida 49



introduced species, tends to become dominant if the site extensively to reduce "rough," which is a dangerous fire
is overgrazed. This site is a preferred grazing area. hazard, and to help facilitate natural regeneration.
South Florida Flatwoods range site. The Adamsville There are several wood-using industries in Manatee
Variant, Braden, and Broward Variant soils, some of the County. One small sawmill is located in Myakka City.
Delray soils, and the EauGallie, Myakka, Ona, Pomona, Pulpwood sold in the county is shipped to mills in other
St. Johns, Wabasso, Wabasso Variant, Wauchula, parts of the state. Woodland in Manatee County also has
Waveland, and Zolfo soils (map units 1, 3, 6, 17, 18, 20, high value for grazing and as food and cover for wildlife
30, 31, 35, 43, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, and 55) are in and has high esthetic value for recreation. More detailed
this range site. These soils have potential for producing information about woodland management can be
significant amounts of creeping bluestem, indiangrass, obtained from the local office of the Soil Conservation
chalky bluestem, various panicums, and numerous Service, the Florida Division of Forestry, and the County
legumes and forbs. If the site is allowed to deteriorate, Extension Service.
sawpalmetto and pineland threeawn become dominant. Table 6 can be used by woodland owners or forest
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.
woodland management and productivity Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
Hal E. Brockman, state staff forester, Soil Conservation Service, table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for
helped prepare this section. each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol
require the same general management and have about
Approximately 96,000 acres of land in Manatee County the same potential productivity.
is woodland, nearly all of which is privately owned. Most The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
of this acreage is grazed. There is about 1,000 acres of indicates the potential productivity of the soils for
planted pine in the county. The pine trees scattered important te Te n r i e
throughout Manatee County are in areas used primarily
throughout Manatee County are in areas used primarily productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate;
as rangeland and are not considered to be woodland. and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter,
South Florida slash pine, which grows in the flatwoods, indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter
makes up most of the woodland. Part of the forested indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter w
land is the oak-gum-cypress type, which is dominated by indicates sandy texture. The letter o indicates that
indicates sandy texture. The letter o indicates that
the oak and gum.
South Florida slash pine forest is the most important limitations or restrictions are insignificant. If a soil has
type in this area. Sand pine grows in a small part of the more than one limitation, the priority is as follows: w
county, mainly on the sand ridges in the northeastern and s.
and central eastern parts of the county. These sand In table 6, slight moderate, and severe indicate the
pines do not have high economic value. degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
A mixed oak and pine forest grows in slightly elevated management.
areas in the flatwoods. A mixed oak and hickory forest Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss
grows on the flood plains of the Manatee and Myakka of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the
Rivers and Braden Creek. The oak and hickory are not expected soil loss is small, moderate if measures are
economically valuable as lumber, but they have needed to control erosion during logging and road
considerable value for wildlife and for recreation uses. A construction, and severe if intensive management or
mixed oak and gum forest grows along several creeks special equipment and methods are needed to prevent
and generally is stocked with valuable sawtimber. These excessive loss of soil.
areas may be of more value for the wildlife they harbor Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the
and the water resources they protect than for the timber characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use
they could produce. of the equipment generally needed in woodland
Mangrove forests are of economic value in Manatee management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates
County. Four species of mangrove-red, white, black, that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
and buttonwood-and other salt-marsh trees make an equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short
important contribution to fisheries. They provide a seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in
complex base food chain for growth and development of management or in equipment; and severe indicates a
many saltwater fish and other marine animals. seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or
Housing developments, agriculture, and wildlife have management, or a hazard in the use of equipment.
reduced woodland resources in recent years. Many Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
areas that are protected from fire are reverting to pine the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
forest, competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
Timber management generally consists of natural apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly
regeneration following harvest cutting. Prescribed planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of
burning is an important management tool. It is used slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than







50 Soil survey



25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe, spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock
more than 50 percent, of suitable species should be planted properly on a well
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to prepared site and maintained in good condition.
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where Additional information on planning windbreaks and
there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
rating of slight indicates little or no competition from Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is Service or from a nursery.
expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked
stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant recreation
competition is expected to prevent the establishment of
a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared, The soils of the survey area are rated in table 7
weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable according to limitations that affect their suitability for
plants, recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
The potentialproductivity of merchantable or common features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
the average height, in feet, that dominant and considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
number of years. The site index was determined at 25 size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
years for South Florida slash pine and at 50 years for all vegetation, access to water, potential water
other species. The site index applies to fully stocked, impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
are those that woodland managers generally favor in ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
marketability. and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
and to commercial wood production, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
woodland understory vegetation slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
Properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs, minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
shrubs, and other plants. Some woodland, if well
managed, can produce enough understory vegetation to limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
support grazing of livestock or wildlife, or both, without design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
damage to the trees. properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
The quantity and quality of understory vegetation vary offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
with the kind of soil, the age and kind of trees in the intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
canopy, the density of the canopy, and the depth and of these measures.
condition of the litter. The density of the canopy The information in table 7 can be supplemented by
determines the amount of light that understory plants other information in this survey, for example,
receive. interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
windbreaks and environmental plantings and for local roads and streets in table 9.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens, and and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low- and facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
provide the most protection, soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife, constructing campsites.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,







50 Soil survey



25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe, spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock
more than 50 percent, of suitable species should be planted properly on a well
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to prepared site and maintained in good condition.
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where Additional information on planning windbreaks and
there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
rating of slight indicates little or no competition from Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is Service or from a nursery.
expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked
stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant recreation
competition is expected to prevent the establishment of
a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared, The soils of the survey area are rated in table 7
weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable according to limitations that affect their suitability for
plants, recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
The potentialproductivity of merchantable or common features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
the average height, in feet, that dominant and considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
number of years. The site index was determined at 25 size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
years for South Florida slash pine and at 50 years for all vegetation, access to water, potential water
other species. The site index applies to fully stocked, impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
are those that woodland managers generally favor in ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
marketability. and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
and to commercial wood production, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
woodland understory vegetation slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
Properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs, minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
shrubs, and other plants. Some woodland, if well
managed, can produce enough understory vegetation to limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
support grazing of livestock or wildlife, or both, without design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
damage to the trees. properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
The quantity and quality of understory vegetation vary offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
with the kind of soil, the age and kind of trees in the intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
canopy, the density of the canopy, and the depth and of these measures.
condition of the litter. The density of the canopy The information in table 7 can be supplemented by
determines the amount of light that understory plants other information in this survey, for example,
receive. interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
windbreaks and environmental plantings and for local roads and streets in table 9.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens, and and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low- and facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
provide the most protection, soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife, constructing campsites.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,







Manatee County, Florida 51



are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding There are a number of endangered and threatened
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or species in Manatee County. They range from the rarely
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping seen red-cockaded woodpecker to more common
sites or of building access roads and parking areas. species, such as the alligator and wood stork. A detailed
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive list of threatened and endangered species as well as
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not information on range and habitat needs is available from
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The the district conservationist at the local Soil Conservation
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains, Service office.
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
considered. the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
bicycling should require little or no cutting and filling. The distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty be created or improved by planting appropriate
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
once a year during the period of use. They have promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated
the surface. according to their potential for providing habitat for
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be planning parks, wildlife refuges, and nature study areas
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm and for farm wildlife; in selecting soils that are suitable
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to for establishing, improving, or maintaining specific
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining the
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the intensity of management needed for each element of the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is habitat.
not considered in rating the soils. The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
wildlife ha t kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
wife habitat maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
prepare this section, indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Good wildlife habitat is available in many areas of Moderately intensive management is required for
Manatee County. The wetlands along the Manatee and satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
Myakka Rivers and the mangrove forests along the limitations are severe for the designated element or kind
coast provide particularly valuable habitat. of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
The primary game is deer, wild turkey, and quail, maintained in most places, but management is difficult
Populations are good in undeveloped areas. Other game and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
includes squirrels and Florida ducks. Nongame includes that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
raccoon, opossum, armadillo, gray fox, bobcat, otter, very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
mink, skunk, pelican, and a variety of songbirds, expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
woodpecker, shore birds, wading birds, reptiles, and impractical or impossible.
amphibians. The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
Matters of concern include the changes in habitat following paragraphs.
caused by urban development in the coastal areas and Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
by intensive agriculture, such as citrus groves and producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
improved pasture. The large acreages of citrus and features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
improved pasture are interspersed with other areas that are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
provide good food and cover for wildlife. Overall, good available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
habitat is available in the rural areas. Some native stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
rangeland could offer better habitat for wildlife if poor moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and
grazing and burning practices could be improved, seed crops are corn, soybeans, browntop millet, wheat,
Phosphate mining disrupts large areas of natural habitat; and grain sorghum.
however, good wildlife habitat can be reestablished in Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
these areas by proper reclamation. A potentially greater and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
problem for wildlife is the urban development that is that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
generally associated with the mining operations. of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available







52 Soil survey



water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard, associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray
bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and fox, raccoon, and deer.
sesbania. Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
properties and features that affect the growth of these birds, otter, and water rat.
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface engineering
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild This section provides information for planning land
herbaceous plants are bluestems, goldenrod, uses related to urban development and to water
beggarweed, partridgepea, and bristlegrass. management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil given in the following tables: Building site development,
properties and features that affect the growth of Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, management. The ratings are based on observed
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
these plants are oak, palmetto, maple, sweetgum, wild test data in the "Soil properties" section (tables 13, 14,
grape, hawthorn, viburnum, hickory, blackberry, and and 15).
blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are Information in this section is intended for land use
suitable for planting on soils rated good are firethorn, planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
wild plum, and crabapple. planning site investigations prior to design and
Coniferous plants furnish browse, seeds, and cones. construction. The information, however, has limitations.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of For example, estimates and other data generally apply
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness. Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar, may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
and juniper. soil.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild The information is not site specific and does not
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil Additional testing and analysis by personnel experienced
properties and features affecting wetland plants are in the design and construction of engineering works may
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, be necessary.
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, saltgrass, certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds, not considered in preparing the information in this
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less section. Local ordinances and regulations need to be
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
created by dams, levees, or other water-control Soil properties, site features, and observed
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow performance were considered in determining the ratings
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
ponds. bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
the following paragraphs. table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas swell potential, available water capacity, and other
include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow, behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
cottontail, and armadillo. This information can be used to (1) evaluate the
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and and recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of







Manatee County, Florida 53



construction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative routes water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5) stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
(6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
small structures and pavements by comparing the gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
performance of existing similar structures on the same or flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
similar soils. limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
survey can be used to make additional interpretations, water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
Glossary. shrink-swell potential, frost action potential, and depth to
Sa high water table affect the traffic supporting capacity.
building site development Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
without basements, small commercial buildings, local features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper
features are generally favorable for the indicated use 40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic
and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope,
if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic
indicated use and special planning, design, or matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the vegetation is established.
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features Soil erosion is a problem in disturbed areas. Water
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that erosion can damage the soils if rains are intense and the
special design, significant increases in construction soils are bare of vegetation and surface mulch.
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required. Grading removes topsoil and may expose the loamy
Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil subsoil of the Braden, Bradenton, Canova, Chobee,
limitations are severe. Delray, EauGallie, Felda, Floridana, Manatee, Parkwood
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a Variant, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils. Ripping the
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, exposed subsoil and covering it with less erodible topsoil
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The helps to reduce erosion.
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and Erosion control practices provide protective cover,
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, reduce runoff, and increase the infiltration of water.
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to Diversions and contouring reduce the length of slope
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer; and reduce runoff and erosion. They are most practical
stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the on soils that have uniform slopes.
year that excavations can be made is affected by the Soil blowing is a major hazard on sandy soils. Wind
depth to a seasonal high water table and the erosion can damage soils in a few hours in open,
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the unprotected areas if the winds are strong and the soil is
excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is dry and bare of vegetation and surface mulch. Blowing
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table, soil can cause problems for drainage ditches, roads,
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are fences, and equipment, and it can cause health
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed problems by polluting the air.
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family Maintaining plant cover and surface mulch minimizes
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made soil blowing. Windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs
for small commercial buildings without basements, for and buffer strips of small grains are effective in reducing
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without wind erosion.
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site Clearing and distributing the minimum area necessary
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high for construction helps to reduce water runoff and soil







54 Soil survey



blowing. Mulching helps to reduce damage from water floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
runoff and soil blowing and improves moisture conditions compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
for seedlings. the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
Information for the design of erosion control practices impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
for each kind of soil is available in local offices of the required to minimize seepage and contamination of
Soil Conservation Service. ground water.
Table 10 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
sanitary facilities up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
are considered slight if soil properties and site features observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
are generally favorable for the indicated use and ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the and content of organic matter.
indicated use and special planning, design, or Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
special design, significant increases in construction or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required. organic matter in the soil is detrimental to proper
Table 10 also shows the suitability of the soils for use functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that activity. Slope, bedrock, and cemented pans can cause
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use construction problems, and large stones can hinder
and good performance and low maintenance can be compaction of the lagoon floor.
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
features are moderately favorable for the use and one or disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
more soil properties or site features make the soil less landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
that one or more soil properties or site features are daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
costly alteration. and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which away from the site.
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site needs to be considered.
features, and observed performance of the soils. The ratings in table 10 are based on soil properties,
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a site features, and observed performance of the soils.
cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan high water table, slope, and flooding affect both the
interfere with installation, trench and area types of landfill. Texture, stones and
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption boulders, highly organic layers, soil reaction, and content
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, of salts and sodium affect trench type landfills. Unless
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that part of
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate may not
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if be valid. Onsite investigation is needed.
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
the absorption field to effectively filter the effluent. Many landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
thickness. Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover







Manatee County, Florida 55



for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
and seepage, the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
After soil material has been removed, the soil material of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over thick.
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
generally has the best workability, more organic matter, Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 11, only
and the best potential for plants. Therefore, material the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
from the surface layer should be stockpiled for use as evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
the final cover, purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
construction materials excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
Table 11 gives information about the soils as a source sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated by the engineering classification of the soil), the
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil. thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain
properties and site features that affect the removal of sizes is given in the table on engineering index
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal properties.
compaction, minor processing, and other standard A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
and used in road embankments in another place. In this stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
exacting in design than higher embankments. Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface T
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within lant got i tentd toxic mater and b
their profile. The table showing engineering index Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties provides detailed information about each soil properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
layer. This information can help determine the suitability fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
in the ratings. of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
after it has been compacted and drained is determined are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering not so wet that excavation is difficult.
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential. Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more not so wet that excavation is difficult.
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10, near the surface.







56



The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
moisture and nutrients for plant growth. It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
water management permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
Table 12 gives information on the soil properties and only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
site features that affect water management. The degree impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to
properties and site features are generally favorable for bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease
the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily of excavation.
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
not favorable for the indicated use and special planning, subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
overcome that special design, significant increase in a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding; and
are required. subsidence of organic layers. Excavating and grading
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive and the stability of ditchbanks are affected by depth to
features that affect drainage, irrigation, and grassed bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones, slope, and
waterways. the hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of the
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or soil after drainage is adversely affected by extreme
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low acidity or by toxic substances in the root zone, such as
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil not considered in the ratings.
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
of the reservoir area. and management of an irrigation system are affected by
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed sodium, and soil reaction.
and compacted during construction. Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
depth even greater than the height of the embankment stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
can affect performance and safety of the embankment. cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
determine these properties. capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include construction.







57









soil properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the adopted by the American Association of State Highway
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of and Transportation Officials (1).
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on The Unified system classifies soils according to
the following pages. properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to soils as Pt. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
compaction characteristics. SM.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the those properties that affect roadway construction and
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
accurately by field observation, and help characterize grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
key soils. Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. groups are further classified as A--a, A--b A-2-4, A-2-
Si p 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
engineering index properties refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
classification and of the range of index properties for the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils 20 or higher for the poorest.
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
or 6 feet. indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
properties of each layer are given for each soil series weight percentage.
under "Soil series and their morphology." Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary. indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
Classification of the soils is determined according to estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system from nearby areas and on field examination.







57









soil properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the adopted by the American Association of State Highway
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of and Transportation Officials (1).
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on The Unified system classifies soils according to
the following pages. properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to soils as Pt. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
compaction characteristics. SM.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the those properties that affect roadway construction and
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
accurately by field observation, and help characterize grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
key soils. Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. groups are further classified as A--a, A--b A-2-4, A-2-
Si p 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
engineering index properties refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
classification and of the range of index properties for the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils 20 or higher for the poorest.
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
or 6 feet. indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
properties of each layer are given for each soil series weight percentage.
under "Soil series and their morphology." Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary. indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
Classification of the soils is determined according to estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system from nearby areas and on field examination.







58 Soil survey



The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent, water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits plants or crops to be grown and in the design and
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points) management of irrigation systems. Available water
across classification boundaries, the classification in the capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
marginal zone is omitted in the table. actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
physical and chemical properties expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics and many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
The estimates are based on field observations and on fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
test data for these and similar soils. corrosion.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
particles that are. less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter, saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential, soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations, construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root measurements of similar soils.
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward often needed.
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems, change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
rate of water movement under saturated conditions less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
affects behavior. more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water is sometimes used.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies, factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
depending on soil properties that affect the retention of to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
water and the depth of the root zone. The most and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
important properties are the content of organic matter, are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and







Manatee County, Florida 59



organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure The content of organic matter of a soil can be
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69. maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
sheet and rill erosion by water, infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum other nutrients for crops.
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur without affecting crop productivity over a soil and water features
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have Table 15 gives estimates of various soil and water
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind features. The estimates are used in land use planning
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the that involves engineering considerations.
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
distinctions: assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine according to the intake of water when the soils are
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops, thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to duration storms.
establish. The four hydrologic soil groups are:
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
erosion are used. gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy transmission.
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
control wind erosion are used. or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can transmission.
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
are used. thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
control wind erosion are used. Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
control wind erosion are used. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and In table 15, some soils are assigned to two hydrologic
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, soil groups. Soils that have a seasonal high water table
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly but can be drained are assigned first to a hydrologic soil
erodible. Crops can easily be grown, group that denotes the drained condition of the soil and
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay then to a hydrologic group that denotes the undrained
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. condition, for example, A/D and B/D. Because there are
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily different degrees of drainage and water table control,
be grown. onsite investigation is needed to determine the
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject hydrologic group of the soil in a particular location.
to wind erosion. Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
soil at various stages of decomposition. slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
In table 14, the estimated content of organic matter of rainfall and water in swamps and marshes are not
the plow layer is expressed as a percentage, by weight, considered flooding.
of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in Table 15 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
diameter. and the time of year when flooding is most likely.







60



Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare, are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
common, occasional, and frequent. None means that indicates that the water table is above the surface of the
flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but soil and the soil is ponded. The first numeral in the range
possible under unusual weather conditions; common that indicates how high the water rises above the surface.
it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it The second numeral indicates the depth below the
occurs on an average of once or less in 2 years; and surface.
frequent that it occurs on an average of more than once Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if less of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, long if 7 days to 1 on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
month, and very long if more than 1 month. Probable specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
dates are expressed in months; November-May, for fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
example, means that flooding can occur during the machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
period November through May. or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
The information is based on evidence in the soil needed for excavation.
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay Cementedpans are cemented or indurated subsurface
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic layers within a depth of 5 feet. Such pans cause difficulty
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of in excavation. Pans are classified as thin or thick. A thin
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject pan is less than 3 inches thick if continuously indurated
to flooding. or less than 18 inches thick if discontinuous or fractured.
Also considered are local information about the extent Excavations can be made by trenching machines,
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on backhoes, or small rippers. A thick pan is more than 3
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the inches thick if continuously indurated or more than 18
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than inches thick if discontinuous or fractured. Such a pan is
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that so thick or massive that blasting or special equipment is
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency needed in excavation.
levels
h water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves o
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
soil. Indicated in table 15 are the depth to the seasonal electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
soil. Indicated in table 15 are the depth to the seasonal
high water table; the kind of water table-that is, concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the
year that the water table commonly is high. A water table Special site examination and design may be needed if
s seasonal hih fr les tn 1 mon is nt the combination of factors creates a severe corrosion
that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not
indicated in table 15. environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is of soil or within one soil layer.
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
beneath an impermeable layer. When this layer is total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased borehole. electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
A perched water table is water standing above an For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone. acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.







61









classification of the soils


The system of soil classification used by the National there is much biological activity. Among the properties
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (11). and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
observed in the field or inferred from those observations of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
or from laboratory measurements. In table 16, the soils properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
of the survey area are classified according to the Typic Haplaquods.
system. The categories are defined in the following SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An differ within a series.
example is Spodosol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil soil series and their morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the
that reflect the most important variables within the survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder in alphabetic order.
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, meaning Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
water, plus od, from Spodosol). formed are identified for each series. The soil is
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
base status. Each great group is identified by the name follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (9). Many of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
the soil. An example is Haplaquod (Hapl, meaning in Soil Taxonomy (11). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime). description is the range of important characteristics of
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. the soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The The map units of each soil series are described in the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not section "Detailed soil map units."
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Adamsville Variant
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Adamsville Variant soils are somewhat poorly drained
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each and rapidly permeable. They formed in thick beds of
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives sandy marine sediment. These soils are nearly level and
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective are on low ridges that are slightly higher than the
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great surrounding flatwoods. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. In
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. most years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months of the
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other year. In some years, it is at a depth of 10 to 20 inches
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the for periods of up to 2 weeks. In most years, it is within a
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where depth of 60 inches for more than 9 months of the year.







61









classification of the soils


The system of soil classification used by the National there is much biological activity. Among the properties
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (11). and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
observed in the field or inferred from those observations of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
or from laboratory measurements. In table 16, the soils properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
of the survey area are classified according to the Typic Haplaquods.
system. The categories are defined in the following SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An differ within a series.
example is Spodosol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil soil series and their morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the
that reflect the most important variables within the survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder in alphabetic order.
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, meaning Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
water, plus od, from Spodosol). formed are identified for each series. The soil is
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
base status. Each great group is identified by the name follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (9). Many of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
the soil. An example is Haplaquod (Hapl, meaning in Soil Taxonomy (11). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime). description is the range of important characteristics of
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. the soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The The map units of each soil series are described in the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not section "Detailed soil map units."
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Adamsville Variant
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Adamsville Variant soils are somewhat poorly drained
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each and rapidly permeable. They formed in thick beds of
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives sandy marine sediment. These soils are nearly level and
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective are on low ridges that are slightly higher than the
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great surrounding flatwoods. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. In
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. most years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months of the
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other year. In some years, it is at a depth of 10 to 20 inches
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the for periods of up to 2 weeks. In most years, it is within a
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where depth of 60 inches for more than 9 months of the year.







62 Soil survey



These soils are siliceous, hyperthermic Humaqueptic These soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
Psammaquents. Haplaquolls.
Adamsville Variant soils are near Cassia, Myakka, Anclote soils are near Canova, Okeelanta, Floridana,
Ona, Orlando, and St. Johns soils. Cassia, Myakka, Ona, Manatee, and Chobee soils in swamps and
and St. Johns soils have a spodic horizon, and all except drainageways and Myakka, Wauchula, EauGallie,
Cassia and Orlando soils are poorly drained. Cassia soils Waveland, and Bradenton soils in the surrounding
are somewhat poorly drained and moderately well flatwoods and hammocks. All the associated soils in
drained, and Orlando soils are moderately well drained, swamps except Okeelanta soils have an argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Adamsville Variant fine sand, in an Okeelanta soils are organic. The associated soils in
orange grove, about one-fourth of a mile south of the flatwoods are better drained than the Anclote soils and
Hillsborough County line and about 700 feet west of U.S. have a spodic horizon. Bradenton soils are better
Highway 301, NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 3, T. 33 S., R. 19 E. drained and have an argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Anclote fine sand, in an area of
Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; Canova, Anclote, and Okeelanta soils, in woodland,
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine about 2 miles southeast of Parish, SW1/4SW1/4 sec.
and common medium roots; strongly acid; clear 27, T 33 S., R. 19 E.
smooth boundary.
C1-8 to 16 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; A1-0 to 16 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
common coarse distinct light gray (10YR 6/1) and medium granular structure; very friable; many fine
few medium distinct light yellowish brown (10YR and common medium roots; high organic matter
6/4) mottles; single grained; loose; common fine content; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Clg-16 to 22 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
C2-16 to 29 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common medium distinct very dark gray
sand; common medium and coarse faint brownish (10YR 3/1) mottles; single grained; loose; neutral;
yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; gradual wavy boundary.
few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. C2g-22 to 68 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; few
fine distinct streaks of dark gray (10YR 4/1); single
C3-29 to 43 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; grained; loose; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
common medium and fine distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine C3g-68 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. single grained; loose; neutral.
C4-43 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; Reaction ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline
few fine faint light brownish gray and very pale throughout. The content of silt and clay in the 10- to 40-
brown mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid. inch control section is less than 15 percent.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
These soils are fine sand or sand throughout except chroma of 1 or 2; or it has no hue (N), and value is 2 or
for the A1, or Ap, horizon, which is fine sand. Reaction is 3; or it has hue of 2.5Y, value of 3, and chroma of 2. It
strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout. ranges from 10 to 20 inches in thickness.
The A1, or Ap, horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 to 7,
3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 6 to 10 inches in and chroma of 1 where there may or not be any mottles
thickness, or chroma of 2 where there are mottles. It is sand or fine
The C1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and sand. The sand grains are dominantly uncoated.
chroma of 2 or 3 and has mottles or has value of 1 with
or without mottles. The rest of the C horizon has hue of Braden series
10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 4. In most
pedons, chroma of 1 or 2 is dominant in the lower part The Braden series consists of somewhat poorly
of the C horizon. In most pedons the C horizon is drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in
mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and brown. alluvial sandy and loamy sediments. The soils are mainly
nearly level and are on stream terraces well above
Anclote series normal overflow. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to
3 percent. In most years, the water table is at a depth of
The Anclote series consists of very poorly drained, 30 to 40 inches for 1 to 3 months out of the year. It rises
rapidly permeable soils that formed in deep deposits of to a depth of less than 30 inches briefly during periods
sandy marine sediment. These soils are nearly level and of heavy rainfall. The soils are flooded rarely for brief
are in freshwater swamps and poorly defined periods following abnormally high rainfall. These soils are
drainageways. Slopes are less than 2 percent. In most loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Hapludults.
years, the soils are ponded or the water table is at or Braden soils are near Cassia, EauGallie, Myakka,
near the soil surface for 9 months or more of the year. Pomello, Wabasso, Wauchula, and Zolfo soils. All of







Manatee County, Florida 63



these soils have a spodic horizon. EauGallie, Myakka, C3g-55 to 70 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; many
Wabasso, and Wauchula soils are poorly drained, and coarse distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; single
Pomello soils are moderately well drained. Cassia, grained; loose; very strongly acid.
Pomello, and Zolfo soils have a spodic horizon and are
sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. The solum ranges from 40 to 60 inches in thickness.
Typical pedon of Braden fine sand, in woodland, about The A horizon is very strongly acid or strongly acid. The
2 miles southwest of Lorraine and three-fourths of a mile Bt and C horizons range from extremely acid to strongly
south of Florida Highway 70, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 21, T. acid.
35 S., R. 19 E. The A1, or Ap, horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2,
and chroma of 1 or value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 1 to 3.
A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed It is less than 10 inches thick where value is 3 or less
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; and chroma is 2 or 1.
common fine roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth The A21 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
boundary, and chroma of 2. The A22 to A24 horizons have hue of
A21-4 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 3 to 6; or value of
single grained; loose; common fine roots; very 4 and chroma of 3 or 4; or value of 7 and chroma of 3 or
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. 4. In some pedons there are few to common mottles or
A22-6 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single splotches of uncoated sand grains that have chroma of
grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid; 2 or 1. The A horizon is sand or fine sand. There is no
clear wavy boundary. A21 horizon in some pedons.
A23-10 to 18 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5
single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; to 7, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is sand, fine sand, loamy
clear wavy boundary. sand, or loamy fine sand. There is no B1 horizon in
A24-18 to 24 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) some pedons.
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
fine sand; common fine faint very pale brown The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly acid; chroma of o ; or ue of 7 vale of 8 and
gradual wavy boundary chroma of 4 or 6; or value of 6 and chroma of 4 to 8 and
Bgra1- to 28 inc ; yelow ( 7/) fe few to many mottles that have chroma of 2 or less.



B21-2 to 36 inches; yellowish brown (YR 5/8) fine 2 are at a depth of less
There are mottles of higher value and chroma in many


sandy lm; common n fine dint light than 30 inches. They indicate wetness.
gray (YR 7/1; 7/2) and common fine faint strong In some pedons the lower part of the B2t horizon has
brown and yellowish red motles gr weak coarse hue of YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or 1; or

subangular blocky structure; friable; sand grains hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2; or hue of
bridged and coated with clay; extremely acid; 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1; or it has no hue
gradual wavy boundary. (N), value is 4 to 7, and in some pedons, there are
B22t-36 to 40 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine mottles otht hve cro wn ofr gray. The texture is
sandy loam; many medium distinct light gray (1 OYR sndy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
7/2) and common fine faint strong brown and ne B3 horizon has hue, value, and chroma that are
yellowish red mottles; weak coarse subangular similar to those of the B2t horiz a t r roma fine
blocky structure; friable; sand grains coated and sandy loam to loamy sand. There is no B3 horizon in
bridged with clay; few thin lenses of loamy fine s5vae o or and hro o o h no
sand; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary. The Cg horizon has hue, value, and chroma similar to
B3-40 to 44 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) loamy those of the lower part of the B2t horizon. It is sand or
fine sand; many medium distinct light gray (10YR fine sand.
7/2) and many fine faint strong brown mottles;
moderate medium granular structure; very friable; Bradenton series
extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. e r
Clg-44 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; The Bradenton series consists of poorly drained,
few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; moderately permeable soils that formed in
single grained; loose; extremely acid; gradual wavy unconsolidated loamy marine sediment underlain by marl
boundary. and, in some places, hard limestone. The soils are nearly
C2g-50 to 55 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) level and are on low-lying ridges and hammocks. Slopes
fine sand; few medium faint light gray (10YR 7/2) are generally smooth and are less than 2 percent. In
mottles; single grained; loose; clear wavy boundary, most years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is







64 Soil survey



within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months out of has no hue (N) and value of 4 to 7 and mottles of gray,
the year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for much of brown, or yellow. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
the rest of the year. In dry periods the water table neutral. The total thickness of the A horizon is less than
recedes to a depth below 40 inches. These soils are 20 inches.
coarse-loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Ochraqualfs. The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
Bradenton soils are near Chobee, Delray, EauGallie, and chroma of 1; or hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to
Felda, Floridana, Manatee, Wabasso, and Waveland 7, and chroma of 2; or it has no hue (N) and value of 4
soils. Chobee soils are fine-loamy. Delray and Floridana to 7 and, in places, mottles of brown, yellow, or red. The
soils have a mollic epipedon and an A horizon that is horizon is sandy loam or fine sandy loam, and it ranges
more than 20 inches thick. EauGallie, Wabasso, and from slightly acid to mildly alkaline. In many pedons the
Waveland soils have a spodic horizon. Felda soils have lower part of the horizon has soft calcium carbonate
an A horizon that is 20 to 40 inches thick. Manatee soils accumulations and nodules. The B3g horizon is similar in
have a mollic epipedon. color to the B2tg horizon. It is loamy sand or loamy fine
Typical pedon of Bradenton fine sand, in a hardwood- sand and is mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline. In
cabbage palm hammock, about one-eighth mile east of some places there is no B3g horizon.
the Sarasota County line along the north boundary of the The C horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 5 to
Myakka River State Park, SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 6, T. 37 S., 8, and chroma of 2 or 1. It is predominantly marl that has
R. 21 E. texture of loamy sand or loamy fine sand. However, in
some pedons the C horizon is a mixture of shells, shell
A1-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; fragments, and sand.
moderate medium granular structure; very friable; In some pedons a layer of limestone about 1.5 to 3
many fine and medium roots; medium acid; clear feet thick underlies the Btg, B3g, or C horizons at a
smooth boundary. depth between 40 and 80 inches. The limestone can be
A2-4 to 9 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; dug with a backhoe. It has few to common solution holes
few medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles; or fractures. Below the limestone there is variable sand
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; to sandy clay loam mixed with shells and shell
medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary. fragments.
B21tg-9 to 20 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy
loam; common fine and medium distinct yellowish Broward Variant
brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine Broward Variant soils are poorly drained and
and medium roots; few thin discontinuous clay films moderately permeable. They formed in sandy marine
on surface of peds; slightly acid; gradual wavy sediment overlying limestone. These soils are nearly
boundary. level and are in moderately large to small areas of
B22tg-20 to 27 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy flatwoods, mainly in the western part of the county.
loam; many fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. In most years, if the soils are
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; not drained, the water table is between depths of 10 and
friable; few thin discontinuous clay films on surface 40 inches for more than 6 months of the year. It is at a
of peds; common soft white calcium carbonate depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months in wet
accumulations; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy seasons and recedes to a depth below 40 inches in very
boundary. dry seasons. These soils are sandy, siliceous,
B3g-27 to 38 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine sand; hyperthermic Entic Haplaquods.
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; very Broward Variant soils are near Chobee, Delray,
friable; many sand grains coated with white calcium EauGallie, Myakka, and Wabasso Variant soils. All the
carbonate, few white calcium carbonate nodules; associated soils except Wabasso Variant soils do not
mildly alkaline, calcareous; clear wavy boundary, have limestone within a depth of 80 inches. Chobee and
C-38 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that has Delray soils have a mollic epipedon, do not have a
texture of loamy fine sand; massive; friable; spodic horizon, and have an argillic horizon. EauGallie
moderately alkaline, calcareous. soils have an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches.
Myakka soils have a spodic horizon that is better
The solum ranges from 20 to 50 inches in thickness. developed than that of Broward Variant soils. Wabasso
The Al, or Ap, horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to Variant soils have an argillic horizon between the spodic
4, and chroma of 1; or it has no hue (N) and value of 2 horizon and limestone.
to 4. It ranges from medium acid to neutral and ranges Typical pedon of Broward Variant fine sand, in a partly
from 4 to 6 inches in thickness. cleared area, about 2 miles west of Oneco and about
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and 1,000 feet north of 53rd Ave., SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 11, T.
chroma of 1; or value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 2; or it 35 S., R. 17 E.







Manatee County, Florida 65



A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed greatly in thickness within short distances but is
fine sand, unrubbed material is a mixture of black generally a ledge about 12 to 30 inches thick.
organic matter and light gray sand grains; weak fine The IIICg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 5
granular structure; very friable; many fine and to 7, and chroma of 3 or less and, in some pedons, has
common medium roots; very strongly acid; clear mottles. It is sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand and is
wavy boundary, mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline.
A2-6 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; few
medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) verticle Canaveral series
streaks; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. The Canaveral series consists of nearly level to gently
roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. sloping, somewhat poorly drained to moderately well
B2h--14 to 20 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine sloping, somewhat poorly drained to moderately well
dB2h-14 to 20 inches; ery dark brown (YR 2) fine drained sandy soils in areas of low dunes near the coast.
sand; moderate medium granular structure; friable; The soils formed in thick beds of marine sand and shell
most sand grains are coated with collodial organic
matter; few fine are coed wiu h roots mostly at uer fragments. In most years, if the soils are not drained, the
ar; few fine ad medim oos mosly aupp water table is within 10 to 40 inches of the surface for 2
boundary; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. to 6 months or more of the year. It recedes to a depth of
83-20 to 27 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; weak 50 inches or more during dry periods. Slopes range from
medium granular structure; very friable; many 0 to 5 percent. These soils are hyperthermic, uncoated
uncoated sand grains; neutral; gradual wavy Aquic Quartzipsamments.
boundary. Canaveral soils are near Beaches and Myakka soils.
C1-27 to 34 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine Canaveral soils are better drained than Beaches and are
sand; single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt in dunelike positions adjacent to Beaches. Canaveral
wavy boundary. soils differ from Myakka soils in that Canaveral soils are
IIR-34 to 55 inches; hard limestone that can be better drained, contain many shell fragments, and do not
chipped but not dug with a spade. have a spodic horizon.
IllC2g-55 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; Typical pedon of Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
few to common distinct mottles of yellowish brown slopes, east of the beach on Anna Maria Key,
(10YR 5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6); single SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 18, T. 34 S., R. 16 E.
grained; loose; moderately alkaline.
A1-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
The Al, or Ap, horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, sand; single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; gradual
and chroma of 1; or value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 1 or smooth boundary.
2. It is less than 8 inches thick. C1-6 to 17 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and sand; single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt
chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and wavy boundary.
chroma of 2. Total thickness of the A horizon is less C2-17 to 34 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
than 30 inches. The A horizon is sand or fine sand fine sand mixed with multicolored shell fragments;
throughout except the A1, or Ap, horizon, which is fine single grained; loose; about 45 percent by volume
sand. Reaction in the A horizon ranges from very shell fragments ranging to 3 mm; moderately
strongly acid to slightly acid. alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
The B2h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and C3-34 to 65 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) shell
chroma of 1; or value of 3 and chroma of 2 or 3; or hue fragments; single grained; loose; about 60 percent
of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2 to 4; or hue of by volume shell fragments ranging to 3 mm;
7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2. The horizon is sand, moderately alkaline.
fine sand, or loamy fine sand. It ranges from 4 to 8 Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline
inches in thickness. The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, throughout.
value of 4, and chroma of 3 or 4; or hue of 7.5YR, value The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
of 4, and chroma of 2 to 4; or hue of 5YR, value of 4, chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 1 to 8 inches in
and chroma of 3 or 4. There is no B3 horizon in some thickness. It is fine sand or sand.
pedons. Reaction in the B horizon ranges from very The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
strongly acid to neutral. chroma of 2 to 4. It extends to a depth of more than 65
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to inches. It is sand or fine sand. In some pedons the sand
7, and chroma of 3 or less. It is sand or fine sand. is mixed with broken shell fragments, but in most pedons
The IIR horizon is limestone of varying degrees of the sand and shell fragments are stratified. The content
hardness. It is at a depth of less than 40 inches, of shell fragments ranges from 15 to 60 percent.
Commonly, it can be chipped but not dug with a hand In some places the soils consist of mixed sand and
spade. It can be dug using power machinery. It varies shells that have been dredged or excavated from areas







66 Soil survey



of water and deposited on low-lying mineral soils. In B31g-45 to 63 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
other places the soils consist of dredged or excavated loam; few fine and medium faint light gray (10YR
material that has been deposited over organic soil 7/1) calcium carbonate accumulations and few fine
material in tidal marsh. distinct dark yellowish brown mottles; massive;
friable; few lenses and pockets of fine sandy loam
Canova series and sandy loam; moderately alkaline, calcareous;
gradual wavy boundary.
The Canova series consists of very poorly drained, B32g-63 to 68 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam
moderately permeable soils that formed in loamy marine with common fine and medium distinct light gray
material under conditions favorable for the accumulation (10YR 7/1) calcium carbonate accumulations;
of organic material. The soils are nearly level and are in massive; friable; moderately alkaline, calcareous.
freshwater swamps and poorly defined drainageways.
Slopes are less than 2 percent. In most years, the soils Reaction is medium acid or slightly acid in the Oa
are ponded, or the water table is at or near the surface horizon, slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the A
for 9 months or more of the year. These soils are fine- horizon, and mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline in the
loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Glossaqualfs. B2t horizon. The B3g horizon is calcareous.
Canova soils are near Anclote, Chobee, Floridana, The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2, and
Manatee, and Okeelanta soils in swamps and chroma of 1 or 2; or value of 3 and chroma of 2 or 3; or
drainageways and EauGallie, Bradenton, Myakka, hue of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1; or hue of
Wauchula, and Waveland soils in surrounding flatwoods. 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or it has no hue (N),
Anclote, Chobee, Floridana, and Manatee soils have a and value is 2. In some pedons this horizon consists of
mollic epipedon. Okeelanta soils are organic. EauGallie, fibric or hemic material. It ranges from 5 to 16 inches in
Myakka, Wauchula, and Waveland soils are better thickness.
drained than Canova soils and have a spodic horizon. The Al horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR;
Bradenton soils are better drained and do not have a value is 4 to 6, and chroma is 0 or 1; or it has hue of
histic epipedon. 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 2. It is fine
Typical pedon of Canova muck, in an area of Canova, sand or sand and ranges from 7 to 13 inches in
Anclote, and Okeelanta soils, in woodland, about 2 miles thickness.
southeast of Parish, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 27, R. 33 S., T. The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR;
19 E. value is 5 to 7, and chroma is 0 or 1; or it has hue of
10YR or 2.5Y, value of 7, and chroma of 2. There are
Oa-0 to 8 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) rubbed few to common mottles or streaks with higher or lower
muck; about 15 percent fiber, 5 percent rubbed; values. This horizon ranges from 4 to 9 inches in
weak medium granular structure; very friable; many thickness. It is sand or fine sand.
fine and common medium roots; slightly acid; abrupt The B21tg part of the B21tg&A horizon and the B22tg
smooth boundary, horizon have no hue (N) or have hue of 10YR or 5Y;
A1-8 to 17 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; value is 4 to 6, and chroma is 0 or 1. They have mottles
single grained; loose; few fine roots; few medium in shades of yellow and brown. They are dominantly
very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks; slightly acid; sandy clay loam but range to sandy loam or sandy clay
gradual wavy boundary, loam in the upper part. The A part of the B21tg&A
A2-17 to 24 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; few horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR; value is 4 to
medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) streaks; single 7, and chroma is 0 or 1. It is sand or fine sand.
grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt The B3g horizon has about the same color range as
irregular boundary. that of the B2tg horizon. It is sandy loam, fine sandy
B21tg&A-24 to 34 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam, or sandy clay loam and has lenses and pockets of
loam and few coarse distinct tongues of dark gray sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. There are few to
(10YR 4/1) sand and few medium distinct yellowish common, fine to medium light gray and white fragments
brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular of calcium carbonate material.
blocky structure; friable; sand grains coated and
bridged with clay; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy Cassia series
boundary.
B22tg-34 to 45 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay The Cassia series consists of somewhat poorly
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown drained and moderately well drained soils that formed in
(10YR 5/6) and dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) thick deposits of marine sand. Permeability is moderate
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; to moderately rapid. The soils are nearly level and are
friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay; on low to moderately high ridges and knolls that are
mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary, scattered throughout the flatwoods. In most years, if the







Manatee County, Florida 67



soils are not drained, the water table is at a depth of 15 pedons, this horizon is mottled gray, yellow, and brown.
to 40 inches for about 6 months of the year and below a Many pedons have a transitional horizon one-half inch to
depth of 40 inches during dry periods. In some areas the 2 inches thick that has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR;
water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 value is 2 through 4, and chroma is 2 to 0. The
months of the year; it rises to within 40 inches of the combined thickness of the Al and A2 horizons ranges
surface for less than 2 weeks during very wet seasons from 20 to 30 inches.
and recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during The Bh horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
dry periods. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. These soils are 7.5YR; value is 2 through 4, and chroma is 4 to 0. The
sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Haplohumods. horizon is fine sand, loamy fine sand, or loamy sand and
Cassia soils are near EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, is 9 to 20 inches thick. Some pedons have a B3 horizon
Pomello, and Waveland soils. EauGallie, Immokalee, that has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and
Myakka, and Waveland soils are poorly drained and are chroma of 3 or 4.
in slightly lower positions on the landscape than Cassia The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7,
soils. EauGallie soils have an argillic horizon. Immokalee and chroma of 1 through 4. It has mottles in shades of
and Pomello soils have a spodic horizon between depths gray, brown, and yellow. Its texture is fine sand or sand.
of 30 and 50 inches.
Typical pedon of Cassia fine sand, in a wooded area,
2 miles southeast of Duette, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 14, T. 34
S., R. 22 E. Chobee series

A1-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1, rubbed) fine sand; The Chobee series consists of very poorly drained
single grained; loose; many fine roots; very strongly soils that formed in thick beds of moderately fine
acid; clear smooth boundary, textured marine sediment. Permeability is slow or very
slow. The soils are nearly level and are in small to large
A21-3 to 7 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; depressions, poorly defined drainageways, and broad
single grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly low flats. In most years, if the soils are not drained, the
acid; clear wavy boundary. water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 6
A22-7 to 24 inches; white (N 8/0) fine sand; single months or more out of the year. In most places, slopes
grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth are less than 1 percent, but they range to 2 percent.
boundary. These soils are fine-loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
B21h-24 to 27 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; Argiaquolls.
massive parting to moderate fine granular; firm; sand Chobee soils are near Bradenton, Delray, EauGallie,
grains coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; Felda, Myakka, Palmetto, Parkwood Variant, and
clear wavy boundary. Wabasso soils. Bradenton, Felda, and Palmetto soils do
B22h-27 to 33 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) not have a mollic epipedon. Felda soils have an A
fine sand; few very dark brown (10YR 2/2) and horizon 20 to 40 inches thick. Palmetto soils have an A
black (5YR 2.5/1) medium pockets; massive parting horizon 40 to 80 inches thick and a low base saturation.
to moderate fine granular; firm; sand grains coated Delray soils have an A horizon 40 to 80 inches thick.
with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy EauGallie, Myakka, and Wabasso soils have a spodic
boundary, horizon. Parkwood Variant soils have a thinner, dark
colored epipedon and are calcareous throughout.
C-33 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine Typical pedon of Chobee loamy fine sand, in an
sand, light gray (10YR 7/1) in the lower part; improved pasture, about 5 miles east of Piney Point and
common medium faint brown (10YR 5/2) and dark one-half mile south of the Hillsborough County line,
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) mottles and few fine NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 1, T. 33 S., R. 18 E.
distinct very dark gray mottles; single grained; loose;
very strongly acid. Ap-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand;
few fine distinct gray fine sand pockets; moderate
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium medium granular structure; friable; many fine roots;
acid. slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
The Al horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR; B21t-8 to 24 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy
the value is 5 through 7, and chroma is 1 or 0. Unrubbed clay loam; common, medium, distinct gray (10YR
material has a salt and pepper appearance. Thickness 5/1) sand streaks; weak coarse subangular blocky
ranges from 2 to 5 inches. structure; friable; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR; common fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged
the value is 6 through 8, and chroma is 1 or 0. In some with clay; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.








68 Soil survey



B22tca-24 to 44 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy marine sediment. These soils are nearly level and
sandy clay loam; weak coarse subangular blocky are in shallow depressions mainly in the western part of
structure; friable; sticky and plastic; few fine roots; the county. The water table is at a depth of less than 10
many soft white calcium carbonate accumulations; inches for 6 months or more of the year. Undrained
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; areas pond for long periods. Slopes range from 0 to 2
moderately alkaline, calcareous; gradual wavy percent. These soils are fine-loamy, carbonatic,
boundary. hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls.
B23tca-44 to 51 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy Chobee Variant soils are near Bradenton, Chobee,
clay loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR Felda, and Manatee soils. Bradenton soils do not have a
5/4) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak mollic epipedon and are poorly drained. Chobee soils
coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; sticky have an argillic horizon. Felda soils are poorly drained
and plastic; sand grains coated and bridged with and have an argillic horizon below a depth of 20 inches.
clay; many fine and medium white calcium Manatee soils have a sandy loam argillic horizon.
carbonate accumulations; moderately alkaline, Typical profile of Chobee Variant sandy clay loam, in a
calcareous; gradual wavy boundary. wooded area, 100 feet east of Cedar Drain and one-half
B3g-51 to 63 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy loam; mile south of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, SE1/4NE1/4
common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR sec. 28, T. 33 S., R. 18 E.
5/4) mottles; massive; friable; common calcium
carbonate nodules; moderately alkaline, calcareous; A11-0 to 13 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam;
gradual wavy boundary. weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; high
Cg-63 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) loamy fine sand in organic matter; few fine and medium roots;
and fine sand; massive; very friable; few small neutral; clear wavy boundary.
calcium carbonate nodules; moderately alkaline, A12-13 to 20 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy
calcareous. clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; common fine faint very dark grayish brown
The solum is more than 40 inches thick, mottles; firm; few fine and medium roots; neutral;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and clear wavy boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to B2gca-20 to 35 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy
moderately alkaline. Thickness ranges from 4 to 18 clay loam; common fine distinct dark gray (10YR
inches. 4/1) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
The B2t and B2tca horizons have no hue (N) or have structure; sticky; soft accumulations of calcium
hue of 10YR; value is 2 through 5, and chroma is 1 or 0; carbonate; moderately alkaline, calcareous; clear
or they have hue of 5YR, value of 4 through 6, and wavy boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2 and, in some pedons, mottles of gray B3gca-35 to 40 inches; light gray sandy loam; common
or brown; or they have hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and medium distinct yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles; weak
chroma of 2 and mottles. Texture is sandy loam or sandy fine subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; soft
clay loam. Clay content in the upper 20 inches of the accumulations of calcium carbonate; moderately
argillic horizon ranges from 18 to 35 percent. In the Btca alkaline, calcareous; clear wavy boundary.
horizon, reaction ranges from neutral to moderately Clg-40 to 70 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) loamy sand;
alkaline and calcareous. weak medium granular structure; few fine shell
The B3g horizon has the same color range as the B2t fragments; very friable; moderately alkaline,
and B2tca horizons. Its texture is sandy loam or fine calcareous; clear wavy boundary.
sand loam. The horizon has pockets or lenses of coarser C2g-70 to 80 inches; mixed light gray (10YR 7/2) and
material in some places. brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; single grained;
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through loose; common shell fragments; moderately alkaline,
7, and chroma of 1; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 through 7, calcareous.
and chroma of 2; hue of 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5GY, value of 5 or 6, and The solum ranges from 35 to 60 inches in thickness.
chroma of 1 and, in some pedons, mottles. Its texture Base saturation is 50 percent or more in all horizons.
ranges from fine sand or loamy fine sand to clay loam. The mollic epipedon is 10 to 24 inches thick.
Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline and The A horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR;
calcareous. There are shell fragments in some pedons. value is 2 or 3, and chroma is 1 or 0. Reaction ranges
from medium acid to neutral.
Chobee Variant The Bgca horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 1OYR;
value is 5 to 7, and chroma is 2 to 0. The texture is
Chobee Variant soils are very poorly drained, slowly mainly sandy clay loam or sandy clay but ranges to
permeable soils that formed in thick beds of alkaline sandy loam in the lower part. The content of clay in the







Manatee County, Florida 69



10- to 40-inch control section averages 20 to 35 percent. A23-43 to 48 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
Reaction is mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline. There sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; neutral;
are few to common mottles in shades of yellow or clear wavy boundary.
brown. B21tg-48 to 51 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine
The Cg horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR; sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
value is 5 to 7, and chroma is 2 to 0. The texture is sand structure; friable; sand grains coated and bridged
or loamy sand. Carbonatic accumulations are common in with clay; few fine roots; mildly alkaline; clear wavy
some pedons. Shell fragments range from few to boundary.
common. B22tg-51 to 66 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
clay loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
Delray series 5/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; few clay films on ped surfaces;
The Delray series consists of very poorly drained soils neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
that formed in marine sandy and loamy material. B23tg-66 to 75 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) sandy
Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid. The soils clay loam; common medium distinct olive brown
are nearly level and are in low shallow depressions. In (2.5Y 4/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular
most years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is blocky structure; firm; clay films on ped surfaces;
at or slightly above the surface for more than 6 months neutral; clear wavy boundary.
of the year. Slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils B24tg-75 to 80 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
are loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Grossarenic Argiaquolls. clay loam; few fine faint light gray mottles; weak
Delray soils are near Bradenton, Felda, Floridana, medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few clay
EauGallie, Manatee, Myakka, Ona, Pomona, and films on ped surfaces; common fine sand lenses
Waveland soils. Bradenton soils do not have a mollic between peds; neutral.
epipedon but have an argillic horizon at a depth of less Reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral in the A
than 20 inches. Felda soils do not have a mollic horizon and from neutral to mildly alkaline in the Btg
epipedon but have an argillic horizon at a depth between horizon.
20 and 40 inches. Floridana soils have an argillic horizon The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or less,
at a depth between 20 and 40 inches. Manatee soils and chroma of 2 or 1; or it has no hue (N) and value of 2
have an argillic horizon at a depth of less than 20 or 3. The content of organic matter ranges from about 2
inches. EauGallie, Myakka, Ona, Pomona, and Waveland to 18 percent. The horizon ranges from 10 to 24 inches
soils have a spbdic horizon and are better drained than in thickness.
Delray soils. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5YR, value of 4
Typical pedon of Delray mucky loamy fine sand, in a to 7, and chroma of 2; or it has hue of 10YR, value of 4
wooded area, about 2.5 miles east of the Sarasota to 7, and chroma of 1; or it has no hue (N) and value of
County line and 0.75 mile south of Florida Highway 18, 4 to 7. The texture is fine sand or sand. The horizon
NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 16, T. 37 S., R. 21 E. ranges from 27 to 55 inches in thickness.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4
A11-0 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) mucky loamy fine to 6, and chroma of 1; or hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable; and chroma of 2; or it has no hue (N), and value is 4 to
common fine and medium roots; neutral; gradual 6. It has mottles of brown, yellow, or olive in some
smooth boundary, pedons. Its texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay
A12-8 to 16 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; loam.
few fine faint dark gray mottles; weak medium The B3g horizon is similar in color to the B2tg horizon.
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; Its texture is loamy sand or loamy fine sand. There is no
neutral; clear wavy boundary. B3g horizon in some pedons.
A21-16 to 21 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; common medium distinct very dark gray Duette series
(10YR 3/1) streaks and mottles; single grained;
loose; common fine and few medium roots; neutral; The Duette series consists of moderately well drained
clear wavy boundary. soils that formed in thick deposits of marine sand.
A22-21 to 43 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) Permeability is moderately rapid. The soils are nearly
fine sand; common medium distinct dark gray (10YR level to gently sloping and are on low ridges and knolls
4/1) mottles and very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks in flatwoods. In most years, if the soils are not drained,
along old root channels; single grained; loose; the water table is at a depth of 48 to 72 inches for 1 to 4
common fine and few medium roots; neutral; clear months during the wet season. It is at a depth of more
wavy boundary. than 72 inches for the rest of the year. Slopes range







70 Soil survey



from 0 to 5 percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous, EauGallie soils are near Delray, Pinellas, and Wabasso
hyperthermic Grossarenic Entic Haplohumods. soils. Delray soils are very poorly drained, have a mollic
Duette soils are near Cassia, Myakka, and Pomello epipedon, and do not have a spodic horizon. Pinellas
soils. Cassia and Myakka soils have a spodic horizon at soils do not have a spodic horizon. Wabasso soils have
a depth of less than 30 inches. Cassia soils are an argillic horizon at a lesser depth.
somewhat poorly drained, and Myakka soils are poorly Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand, in a pasture,
drained. Pomello soils have a spodic horizon at a depth about 2.5 miles west of Foxleigh and 3.25 miles
between 30 and 50 inches. southeast of the Manatee River, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 26,
Typical pedon of Duette fine sand, 0 to 5 percent T. 34 S., R. 18 E.
slopes, in an area of sand scrub, approximately 2.25
miles east of the northeast corner of the Myakka River Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
State Park, SW1/4SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 3, T. 37 S., R. 21 weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
E. roots; mixture of light gray sand grains and black
organic matter granules; very strongly acid; gradual
A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed, wavy boundary.
salt and pepper appearance unrubbed, fine sand; A21-5 to 12 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A21-4 to 12 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; A22-12 to 28 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
single grained; loose; few fine and coarse roots; fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; few
slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. medium distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles;
A22-12 to 58 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
single grained; loose; few fine and coarse roots; B2h-28 to 42 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand;
slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. massive in place, crushes to moderate medium
B21h-58 to 64 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine
B21h-58 to 64 inches; dark brown (75YR 3/2) fine granular structure; friable sand grains coated with
sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure; organic matter; few fine roots; very strongly acid;
friable; sand grains well coated with organic matter; clear wavy boundary.
few fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. B2tg-42 to 50 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
B22h-64 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many
medium s ar locy strouct; friab; many structure; firm and slightly sticky; few fine roots;
fine and medium roots; strongly acid.
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; slightly
Reaction ranges from slightly acid to strongly acid acid; gradual wavy boundary.
throughout. Texture is sand or fine sand in all horizons. C-50 to 65 inches; mixed lenses and pockets of grayish
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand, loamy fine sand, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Unrubbed material has a salt and fine sandy loam; massive; friable; few pockets of
pepper appearance. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6 grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy clay loam; slightly
inches. acid.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Combined thickness of the Al and A2 The solum is more than 46 inches thick. The A horizon
horizons ranges from 51 to 75 inches. is less than 30 inches thick. The Btg horizon is at a
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and depth of more than 40 inches. The A and Bh horizons
chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and are sand or fine sand.
chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
of 1 to 4. chroma of 1. It ranges from 3 to 9 inches in thickness.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
EauGallie series chroma of 2 or 1. The A horizon is very strongly or
strongly acid.
The EauGallie series consists of poorly drained soils The B2h horizon has no hue (N) and value of 2; or
that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2;
sediment. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid, or hue of 5YR and 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2;
The soils are nearly level and are in broad areas of or hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 3. The sand
flatwoods and, in some places, in slightly depressed grains are coated with organic matter. Reaction ranges
areas. In most years, a water table is at a depth of less from very strongly acid to slightly acid. The B3 horizon
than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months in wet seasons and at has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 3. It
a depth of less than 40 inches for more than 6 months consists of sand or fine sand. It is commonly below the
of the year. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. These Bh horizon. The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4
soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods. or 5, and chroma of 1; or hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of







Manatee County, Florida 71



5 or 6, and chroma of 2. There is no A'2 horizon in some A22-20 to 31 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
pedons. sand; few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/6)
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 mottles; single grained; loose; few very fine roots;
to 6, and chroma of 2 or 1. In some pedons it has mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or gray. Its texture is B21h-31 to 41 inches; black (5YR 2/1) and dark
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. There are pockets of grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand; massive; very
sand or loamy sand. Reaction is medium acid to mildly friable; sand grains thinly coated with organic matter;
alkaline. very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 or B22h-41 to 46 inches; black (10YR 2/1) and dark
6, and chroma of 2 or 1. In some pedons it has mottles reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine sand; massive; very
in shades of yellow or brown. Its texture is fine sand, friable; sand grains thinly coated with organic matter;
loamy fine sand, or sandy loam. The horizon has very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
pockets of finer textured material in some pedons. B3-46 to 56 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) and black
Reaction is slightly acid to mildy alkaline. (10YR 2/1) fine sand; massive; very friable; very
/strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Estero series C-56 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles; single
The Estero series consists of very poorly drained soils grained; loose; very strongly acid.
that formed in thick deposits of sandy marine sediment a A h r
under conditions favorable for the accumulation of Reaction in the a and A horizons angels from neutral
organic material. Permeability is moderately rapid. These to moderately alkaline by field test and from very
soils are nearly level and are in tidal mangrove swamps, strongly acid to mildly alkaline after drying. The Bh
Slopes are less than 1 percent. These soils are flooded horizon is strongly acid or very strongly acid.
daily by high tides. The water table is above the surface Conductivity of the saturation extract ranges from about
or just below the surface, depending on the tide. These 45 to 350 mmho/cm in the Oa horizon and from 15 to
soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic 45 mmho/cm in the mineral horizons.
Haplaquods. The Oa or Oe horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or
Estero soils are near Wulfert and Kesson soils in tidal 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. In pedons where the Oa or Oe
swamps and Myakka, Delray, Bradenton, and St. Johns horizon is less than 10 inches thick, there is a histic
soils on uplands. Wulfert soils are organic. Kesson soils epipedon if the soil is mixed to a depth of 10 inches.
do not have a spodic horizon. Myakka, Delray, The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
Bradenton, and St. Johns soils do not have a histic chroma of 1; or value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 1 or 2; or
epipedon. Delray soils have a mollic epipedon, do not hue of 2.5Y, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2; or it has
have a spodic horizon, and have an argillic horizon, no hue (N), and value is 2 to 4. Where value is 3 or less
Bradenton soils do not have a spodic horizon but have and chroma is 2 or 1, it is less than 10 inches thick even
an argillic horizon. St. Johns soils have an umbric after mixing with the Oa or Oe horizon to a depth of 10
epipedon. inches. The texture is sand, fine sand, mucky sand, or
Typical pedon of Estero muck, in a mangrove swamp, mucky fine sand.
on Perico Island, SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 27, R. 16 E., T. 34 The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
S. chroma of 1 or 2 and, in some pedons, has brown,
yellow, red, or gray mottles and streaks. Its texture is
Oa-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 90 sand or fine sand.
percent fiber, less than 10 percent rubbed; massive; The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
friable; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. chroma of 1; or value of 3 and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue
A11-6 to 11 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR,
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; value of 2, and chroma 1 or 2; or value of 3 and chroma
moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary. of 1 to 4. The B21h horizon does not have colors of
A12-11 to 14 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine higher chroma, as described, in all pedons. Texture is
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand. There are few to
many fine roots; moderately alkaline; clear wavy common uncoated sand grains in the upper part of the
boundary, horizon.
A21-14 to 20 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
fine sand; few fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) chroma of 3; or value of 4 and chroma of 2 to 4; or hue
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; of 7.5YR and 5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2 or 4. Its
moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary. texture is sand or fine sand.







72 Soil survey



The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and B23tg-33 to 64 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) sandy
chroma of 3 or less. Its texture is sand or fine sand. In clay loam; many coarse prominent brownish yellow
some pedons, shells are mixed with the sand. (10YR 6/8) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; clay bridging between sand grains;
few krotovinas filled with grayish brown fine sand;
Felda series mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
B3g-64 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) sandy loam;
The Felda series consists of poorly drained soils that few medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediment underlain by mottles; massive; very friable; mildly alkaline.
calcareous material. Permeability is moderate to
moderately rapid. These soils are nearly level and are in The solum ranges from about 30 to 80 inches or more
low hammocks, sloughs, and drainageways. Slopes are in thickness.
generally smooth and are less than 2 percent. In most The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is at a 5, and chroma of 1; or hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5,
depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months of the and chroma of 2; or it has no hue (N), and value is 2 to
year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6 4. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid.
months of the year. It recedes to a depth of more than Thickness ranges from 3 to 8 inches.
40 inches in dry seasons. Drainageways are frequently The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
flooded by stream overflow. These soils are loamy, chroma of 1; or value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 1 or 2; or
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2; or it has
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
no hue (N), and value is 4 to 7. Yellow and brown
Felda soils are near Bradenton, Delray, EauGallie, moles ane om fe to m eaon rae om
SMamottles range from few to many. Reaction ranges from
Floridana, Manatee, Wabasso, and Waveland soils. slightly acid to mildly alkaline. Thickness of the A horizon
Bradenton soils have an A horizon less than 20 inches slightly acid to mildly alkaline. Thickness of the A horizon
Bradenton soils have an A horizon less than 20 inches ranges from 20 to 40 inches.
thick. Delray, Floridana, and Manatee soils have a mollic ranges from 20 to 40 inches.
thick. Delray, Floridana, and Manatee soils have a mollie The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 or
epipedon. Delray soils have an A horizon more than 40 5, and chroma of 1; or value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 1
inches thick. Manatee soils have an A horizon less than or 2; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2; or
20 inches thick. EauGallie, Wabasso, and Waveland soils it has no hue (N), and value is 4 to 7. Mottles of yellow,
have a spodic horizon. brown, or red range from few to many. Reaction ranges
Typical pedon of Felda fine sand, in an improved from neutral to moderately alkaline. Texture ranges from
pasture, about 1.5 miles northeast of Parrish, sandy loam to sandy clay loam. Krotovinas filled with
SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 21, T. 33 S., R. 19 E. sandy material from the A2 horizon range from none to
common.
A1-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed, The B3g horizon has the same color range and
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; reaction range as the B2tg horizon. Its texture ranges
many fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. from loamy sand to fine sandy loam.
A21-3 to 11 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine The C3 horizon has a color range like that of the B2tg
sand; many fine faint very dark gray, dark gray, and horizon. Its texture ranges from sand to loamy fine sand.
brown streaks and mottles; single grained; loose; There is not a C3 horizon in some pedons.
many fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary. Floridana series
A22-11 to 24 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; many medium distinct dark yellowish brown The Floridana series consists of very poorly drained,
(10YR 4/6) mottles; single grained; loose; common slowly permeable soils that formed in sandy and loamy
fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. marine sediment. The soils are nearly level and are in
B21tg-24 to 27 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine depressions and in low broad flats. In most years, if the
sandy loam; many medium distinct dark yellowish soils are not drained, the water table in the low broad
brown (10YR 4/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular flats is within 10 inches of the surface for more than 6
blocky structure; very friable; neutral; few krotovinas months of the year. In most years, the depressions are
filled with grayish brown fine sand; gradual wavy ponded for 6 to 9 months of the year. Slopes are less
boundary. than 2 percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous,
B22tg-27 to 33 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay hyperthermic Arenic Argiaquolls.
loam; many medium distinct dark yellowish brown Floridana soils are near Bradenton, Chobee, Delray,
(10YR 4/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky EauGallie, Felda, Immokalee, Manatee, Okeelanta, and
structure; friable; clay bridging between sand grains; Tomoka soils. Bradenton soils are poorly drained, have
few krotovinas filled with grayish brown fine sand; an A horizon less than 20 inches thick, and do not have
mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. a mollic epipedon. Chobee and Manatee soils have an A







Manatee County, Florida 73



horizon less than 20 inches thick. Felda soils are poorly loamy fine sand. The clay content ranges from 14 to 30
drained and do not have a mollic epipedon. Delray soils percent but is normally 16 to 23 percent.
have an argillic horizon between depths of 40 and 80 The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and
inches. EauGallie and Immokalee soils are poorly chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine sand, or loamy sand.
drained, do not have a mollic epipedon, but have a Bh
horizon. Okeelanta and Tomoka soils are organic. Gator series
Typical pedon of Floridana fine sand, in a pasture,
about three-fourths of a mile east of the intersection of The Gator series consists of very poorly drained,
Buckeye Road and U.S. Highway 31, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. moderately permeable soils that formed in thin deposits
10, T. 33 S., R. 19 E. of well decomposed organic material and underlying
sandy and loamy mineral material. The soils are nearly
A11-0 to 4 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine level. They are in freshwater marshes. Slopes are less
granular structure; friable; many fine and few than 2 percent. In undrained areas the water table is at
medium roots; sand grains coated with organic or above the surface except during extended dry
material; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. periods. These soils are loamy, siliceous, euic,
A12-4 to 15 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists.
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; Gator soils are near Felda, Manatee, and Parkwood
many fine and few medium roots; many fine and few Variant soils. All the associated soils are mineral soils
coarse gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; slightly acid; clear and, except for Manatee soils, are better drained and are
wavy boundary. on higher landscapes than Gator soils.
A2-15 to 32 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; Typical pedon of Gator muck, about 3 miles north of
common coarse distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) Parish and 0.25 mile east of U.S. Highway 301,
mottles; single grained; loose; common medium SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 10, T. 33 S., R. 19 E.
roots;slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. Oa-0 to 18 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; moderate
B2tg-32 to 44 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay medium granular structure; friable; many fine roots;
loam; common coarse faint light brownish gray slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
YR 6/2) mottles; weak medium subangular C1-18 to 25 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy loam;
blocky structure; slightly plastic; common fine and
medium roots; sand grains coated and bridged with massive friable; slg acid; clear way boundary
clay; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. IIC2-25 to 42 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
clayB3g mildly44 to 65 inches; gradualy (N 6/0) sandy boundary. am; sandy loam; massive; friable; slightly acid; gradual
B3g-44 to 65 inches; gray (N 6/0) sandy loam; wavy boundary.
common medium faint light brownish gray (10YR to 5 inc grayih brown ( /
6/2) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky IIC3-42 to 55 inches; grayish brown (10OYR 5/2) sandy
structure; common medium lenses and pockets of loam; massive; friable; slightly acid; gradual wavy
structure; common medium lenses and pockets of boundary.
light gray (10YR 7/1) loamy fine sand and fine sand; boundary.
light gray (lYR 7/1) loamy fine sand and fine sand, 0IIIC4-55 to 72 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy
many uncoated sand grains; mildly alkaline; gradual C4-55 to 72 inches; grayish brown (1aYR 5/2) loamy
wavy boundary. sand; massive; friable; slightly acid; gradual wavy
Cg-65 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; boundary.
single grained; loose; common medium pockets of I115-72 to 80 inches; stratified light gray (10YR 6/1)
sandy loam; mildly alkaline. sand and loamy sand; single grained; loose; slightly
acid.
In all horizons, reaction ranges from medium acid to Reaction in the Oa horizon is more than 4.5 in 0.1M
mildly alkaline. CaCI2 and more than 6.1 in field test. The IIC and IIIC
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, or it has no horizons range from slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
hue (N); value is 3 or less and chroma is 2 to 0. It is 10 The Oa horizon ranges from 16 to 40 inches in
to 16 inches thick. The All horizon is fine sand, and the thickness. It has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or 5YR;
A12 horizon is sand or fine sand. The A2 horizon has value is 2, and chroma is 0 or 1; or hue of 5YR, value of
hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, or it has no hue (N); value is 4 to 2, and chroma of 2; or value of 3 and chroma of 1 or 2.
7, and chroma is 2 to 0. It is fine sand or sand. The The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 7, and
combined thickness of the Al and A2 horizons ranges chroma of 1 or 2. It has mottles that have higher or
from 20 to 40 inches, lower value and chroma in some pedons. Its texture is
The B2tg and B3g horizons have hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
or they have no hue (N); value is 5 to 7, and chroma is 2 The IIIC horizon has the same color range as the IIC
to 0. In some pedons they have mottles of gray, yellow, horizon and also has hue of 2.5YR. Its texture is
or brown. They are sandy loam or sandy clay loam. In variable, ranging from sand to loamy fine sand. It is
some pedons there are pockets of sand, fine sand, or commonly stratified.







74 Soil survey



Hallandale series The Bt horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam. It is thin and discontinuous and is in
The Hallandale series consists of poorly drained, solution pits. It has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
rapidly permeable, shallow soils that formed in thin beds chroma of 3 to 6. There is no Bt horizon in some
of sandy marine sediment over large limestone boulders. pedons. In the deeper solution pits the Bt horizon is
The soils are nearly level. They are in low areas thicker and has a higher content of clay.
generally bordering ponds and swamps. In most years, if
the soils are not drained, the water table is within 10
inches of the surface for 4 to 6 months of the year and
at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for the rest of the time, Immokalee series
except during extremely dry periods. These soils are The Immokalee series consists of poorly drained soils
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents. that formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediment.
Hallandale soils are near Broward Variant, Chobee,
PHalldalmett arkweood ariant, ad Wabasso sCobee Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid. These
Broward Variant and Wabasso soils have a spodic soils are nearly level. They are in small to large nearly
horizon. Broward Variant soils have limestone at depth level depressions. In most years, they are ponded for 6
between 20 and 40 inches. Wabasso soils do not have to 9 months. Slopes are less than 2 percent These soils
limestone but have an argillic horizon. Chobee soils have are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Haplaquods.
a mollic epipedon, an argillic horizon, and do not have Immokalee soils are near Delray, Floridana, Myakka,
limestone. Parkwood Variant soils have a calcareous Okeelanta, Palmetto, and Pomona soils. Delray,
argillic horizon. Palmetto soils have a deep argillic Floridana, and Okeelanta soils are very poorly drained.
horizon and do not have limestone. Delray and Floridana soils have a mollic epipedon and
Typical pedon of Hallandale fine sand, in a wooded an argillic horizon and do not have a spodic horizon.
area, about 2.5 miles west of Oneco, SW1/4SE1/4 sec. Okeelanta soils are organic. Myakka soils have an A
10, T. 35 S., R. 17 E. horizon less than 30 inches thick. Palmetto and Pomona
soils have an argillic horizon. Palmetto soils do not have
A-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; few a spodic horizon.
medium faint dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) Typical pedon of Immokalee fine sand, in an area of
mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable; Floridana-lmmokalee-Okeelanta association, in a
many uncoated sand grains; many fine and medium, depression, about 0.4 mile northwest of the northeast
few coarse roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy
few coarse roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy corner of the Myakka River State Park, NW1/4SW1/4
boundary.
C-6 to 15 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; sec. 24, T. 37 S., R. 21 E.
common medium distinct light yellowish brown A11-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
(10YR 6/4) and few fine distinct yellowish brown
Sew fnedstnct yelowsh brown granular structure; loose; many fine and common
(10YR 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual smooth
and medium roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
boundary.
IIR-- inches; hard fractured limestone boulders. A12-5 to 10 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
common medium gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; single
This soil is commonly 7 to 20 inches thick, but there is grained; loose; many fine and common medium
a thin discontinuous Bt horizon in fractures between roots; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
limestone boulders and in solution holes. The solution A21-10 to 16 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
holes extend to a depth of 50 inches or more. grained; loose; many fine and few medium roots;
The A horizon ranges from strongly acid to slightly very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
acid. It has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR; value is 2 to A22-16 to 34 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
5, and chroma is 1 or 0. It ranges from 2 to 7 inches in single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
thickness, common medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and vertical streaks along root channels; very strongly
chroma of 1 to 4. Its texture is sand or fine sand. acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Reaction is medium acid to moderately alkaline. B21h-34 to 39 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
The underlying limestone appears to be a highly fine sand; common coarse distinct dark brown
fractured remnant of bedrock that once was continuous. (10YR 3/3) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
It consists mostly of large flat boulders. The fractures structure; firm; noncemented; many fine roots;
between the boulders range from less than 1 inch to 3 common medium distinct dark grayish brown (10YR
inches or more in width. Solution holes are in and 4/2) streaks; sand grains coated with colloidal
between the boulders and range from about 4 inches to organic matter, many uncoated; very strongly acid;
3 feet in diameter and are 1 to 6 feet apart, clear broken boundary.







Manatee County, Florida 75



B22h-39 to 43 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine spodic horizon. Canaveral soils are somewhat poorly
coarse subangular blocky structure; firm; drained and are on higher elevations. Myakka and
noncemented; common fine roots; sand grains Bradenton soils are better drained than Kesson soils.
coated with colloidal organic matter; very strongly Myakka soils have a spodic horizon. Bradenton soils
acid; clear irregular boundary, have an argillic horizon, and they do not have
C-43 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; appreciable amounts of sulfur.
common medium and fine gray (10YR 6/1) to light Typical pedon of Kesson fine sand, in an area of
gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; single grained; loose; few Wulfert-Kesson association, in a mangrove swamp, on
fine roots; common medium distinct very dark gray McGill Island, near the southwest corner of sec. 5, T. 34
(10YR 3/1) streaks increasing to many with S., R. 17 E.
increasing depth; very strongly acid. ,
Sd A-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
The soil is sand or fine sand in all horizons except the grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
Al horizon to a depth of 80 inches or more; the Al about 15 percent shell fragments; about 3 percent
horizon is fine sand. Reaction ranges from strongly acid sulfur; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear smooth
to very strongly acid except where the soil has been boundary.
limed or irrigated with alkaline water. C1-6 to 14 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
The Al horizon is light gray and black sand that has a single grained; loose; common fine and medium
salt and pepper appearance. When crushed, it has hue roots; about 10 percent shell fragments; about 3
of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or 0; or percent sulfur; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear
value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 2 or 1. It ranges from 2 to smooth boundary.
10 inches in thickness. C2-14 to 25 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) and gray (5Y
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6/1) fine sand; common medium distinct dark gray
more, and chroma of 2 or 1. In many pedons, vertical (10YR 4/1) streaks; single grained; loose; about 5
streaks of material from the Al horizon extend into the percent shell fragments; about 2.5 percent sulfur;
A2 horizon. In many pedons there is a transitional moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
A2&Bh horizon one-half inch to 2 inches thick. Total boundary.
thickness of the A horizon is 30 to 50 inches. C3-25 to 45 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand; single
The Bh horizon is not cemented. Sand grains are grained; loose; about 30 percent shell fragments;
mostly coated with colloidal organic matter. The horizon moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR, value of 2, and chroma boundary.
of 2 or 1; or hue of 5YR or 7.5YR, value of 3, and C4-45 to 80 inches; white (5Y 8/1) fine sand; single
chroma of 2 to 4. In many pedons it has dark brown to grained; loose; about 5 percent shell fragments;
black mottles and lighter colored streaks. It ranges from moderately alkaline; calcareous.
4 to 24 inches in thickness. The content of sulfur is more than 0.75 percent, and
The B3 horizon has hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and the CaCO3 equivalent is more than three times the
chroma of 2 to 4; or hue of 10YR, value of 3, and content of sulfur. Reaction ranges from mildly alkaline to
chroma of 4; or value of 4 and chroma of 3 or 4. In strongly alkaline and calcareous. Texture is sand or fine
some pedons there are fragments that are not cemented sand throughout.
or mottles that have the same color as those of the Bh The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and
horizon. There is no B3 horizon in some pedons. chroma of 1 to 3. The content of shell fragments ranges
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and from about 5 to 15 percent. In some pedons there is an
chroma of 3 or less. In some pedons it has mottles in organic horizon less than 8 inches thick above the A
shades of brown, yellow, or gray. horizon.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 to 7,
Kesson series and chroma of 1 to 3. The content of shell fragments
ranges from about 5 to 30 percent.
The Kesson series consists of very poorly drained ranges from about 5 to 30 percent.
soils that formed in thick deposits of sand and shell Manatee series
fragments. Permeability is moderately rapid to rapid. The
soils are nearly level. They are in tidal mangrove The Manatee series consists of very poorly drained,
swamps. Slopes are less than 1 percent. They are moderately permeable soils that formed in thick beds of
flooded daily by high tides. These soils are siliceous, moderately fine textured material. The soils are nearly
hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents. level. They are in depressions that once were overgrown
Kesson soils are near Wulfert, Estero, and Canaveral with sawgrass but subsequently have been drained by
soils in tidal swamps and Myakka and Bradenton soils large ditches and canals. In most years, the water table
on uplands. Wulfert soils are organic. Estero soils have a is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months.







76 Soil survey



Slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils are coarse- horizon is loamy fine sand or loamy sand. There is no B3
loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. horizon in some pedons.
Manatee soils are near Bradenton, Chobee Variant, The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
Felda, Floridana, and Parkwood Variant soils. Bradenton chroma of 1. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
and Parkwood Variant soils do not have a mollic In many pedons there are common accumulations of soft
epipedon. Chobee Variant soils do not have an argillic calcium carbonate or nodules of calcium carbonate. The
horizon and are finer textured throughout. Felda soils do horizon is loamy sand or fine sand.
not have a mollic epipedon but have an argillic horizon
at a depth of more than 20 inches. Floridana soils have Myakka series
an argillic horizon at a depth between 20 and 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Manatee mucky loamy fine sand, in a The Myakka series consiss of poorly drained and very
cultivated area, about 1.6 miles northeast of Parish, poorly drained soils that formed in sandy marine deposits
NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 21, T. 33 S., R. 19 E. that are underlain in places by shells and shell
fragments. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid.
Ap-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky loamy fine The soils are nearly level. They are mainly in flatwoods
sand; moderate medium granular structure; friable; on the mainland, but some are in high tidal marshes and
many fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. some are on coastal islands of Anna Maria Key and
A12-8 to 13 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; Longboat Key. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. In
moderate medium granular structure; friable; many most years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is
fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. within a depth of 10 inches for about 1 to 4 months of
B21t-13 to 25 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine the year; it recedes to a depth of 40 inches or more in
sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; dry seasons. The high tidal marshes are flooded during
friable; sand grains are bridged and coated with storms or other periods when tides are above normal.
friable; sand grains are bridged and coated with Tese soilsar sniceousypethermic Aec
clay; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. These soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Aeric
clay; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. Hpaod
B22tg-25 to 34 inches; dark gray (5YR 4/1) fine sandy Haplaquods.
Myakka soils are near Cassia, EauGallie, Immokalee,
loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; lOna, Pomello, Wabasso, and Waveland soils on the
slightly sticky; sand grains are bridged and coated mainland and Canaveral and Estero soils on the
with clay; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. islands.a Cans era and omello soils n e tthe draiha
B3g-34 to 52 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine the Myakka soils. Pomello soils have a spodic horizon at
sand; common coarse faint grayish brown fine sandy a greater depth. EauGallie and Wabasso soils have an
loam pockets; common medium prominent yellowish argillic horizon below the spodic horizon. Ona soils do
red (5YR 5/6) mottles in the lower part; weak fine not have an A2 horizon. Immokalee soils have a spodic
subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; mildly horizon at a greater depth. Waveland soils have ortstein.
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. Canaveral soils are better drained and do not have a
Cg-52 to 80 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; spodic horizon. Estero soils are in mangrove swamps
few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/6) mottles; and have a histic epipedon.
many medium faint gray sand pockets; weak Typical pedon of Myakka fine sand, 0 to 2 percent
medium granular structure; friable; moderately slopes, in an area of flatwoods, about 0.25 mile east of
alkaline. the Sarasota County line in the Myakka River State Park,

The solum is 30 to 60 inches thick. Reaction ranges SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 18, T. 37 S., R. 21 E.
from slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the A horizon, A1-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
neutral to mildly alkaline in the B2tg horizon, and mildly fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and
alkaline to moderately alkaline in the B3g and Cg few medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth
horizons. boundary.
The Ap, or Al, horizon has no hue (N) and value of 2; A21-5 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
or it has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1. common fine and medium distinct dark grayish
It is 10 to 18 inches thick. brown (10YR 4/2) and dark gray (10YR 4/1) verticle
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and streaks in root channels; single grained; loose;
chroma of 1; or it has no hue (N) and value of 2. It is 21 common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
to 60 inches thick. It is sandy loam or fine sandy loam. gradual wavy boundary.
This horizon has pockets of fine sand or sandy loam. A22-13 to 23 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and few fine and medium distinct dark grayish brown
chroma of 1 or 2. It is as much as 18 inches thick. In (10YR 4/2) and dark gray (10YR 4/1) verticle
many pedons, accumulations of soft calcium carbonate streaks in root channels; single grained; loose; few
or nodules of calcium carbonate are common. The B3 fine roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.







Manatee County, Florida 77



B21h-23 to 29 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; Okeelanta series
weak coarse subangular blocky structure parting to
moderate medium granular; friable; many fine and The Okeelanta series consists of very poorly drained,
medium roots; few uncoated sand grains; very rapidly permeable soils that formed in well decomposed
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. nonwoody plant remains and underlying sandy material.
B22h-29 to 37 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) The soils are nearly level. They are in freshwater
fine sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure swamps, marshy depressions, and tidal marshes. Slopes
parting to moderate medium granular; friable; are less than 2 percent. In most years, the soils are
common fine roots; sand grains well coated with pounded or the water table is at or near the surface for 9
colloidal organic matter; very strongly acid; clear months or more. Tidal marshes are flooded daily. These
wavy boundary. soils are sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic,
B3&Bh-37 to 45 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists.
Okeelanta soils are near Anclote, Chobee, Floridana,
sand; single grained; loose; many medium distinct
dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fragments; strongly BCanova, and Manatee soils in swamps and EauGallie,
Bradenton, Myakka, Wauchula, and Waveland soils in
acid; clear wavy boundary. the surrounding flatwoods. All the associated soils are
A'2-45 to 61 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; mineral soils. Chobee, Floridana, Canova, and Manatee
single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy soils have an argillic horizon. Anclote soils are sandy
boundary. throughout. Bradenton soils are better drained than
B'23h-61 to 75 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) Okeelanta soils and have an argillic horizon. EauGallie,
fine sand; weak medium granular structure; friable; Myakka, Wauchula, and Waveland soils are better
sand grains well coated with colloidal organic drained and have a spodic horizon.
matter; strongly acid. Typical pedon of Okeelanta muck, tidal, about 0.3 mile
southwest of the northeast corner of the county and
The solum is more than 40 inches thick. Reaction about 200 yards northwest of the highway, NW1/4NE1/4
ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid, but in tidal sec. 1, T. 33 S., R. 22 E.
marshes it ranges to moderately alkaline.
The A1, or Ap, horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to Oa-0 to 20 inches; black (5YR 2/1) rubbed and
4, and chroma of 1; or it has no hue (N) and value of 2 unrubbed muck; about 5 percent fiber unrubbed;
to 4. It ranges from 4 to 8 inches in thickness. The A2 weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of and common medium roots; neutral; clear smooth
1; or it has no hue (N) and value of 6 to 8 and, in some boundary.
pedons, mottles or streaks of gray, yellow, or brown. IIC1-20 to 27 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; single
Total thickness of the A horizon ranges from 20 to 30 grained; loose; few fine roots; mildly alkaline; clear
inches. wavy boundary.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and IIC2-27 to 31 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand
chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and with common, medium, distinct black (10YR 2/1)
chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 mottles; single grained; loose; mildly alkaline;
or 2 or value of 3 and chroma of 2 to 4. It is fine sand or gradual wavy boundary.
loamy fine sand. IIC3-31 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
The B3 part of the B3&Bh horizon has hue of 7.5YR, sand with few medium distinct dark grayish brown
value of 4, and chroma of 4; or hue of 10YR, value of 3 (10YR 4/2) streaks; single grained; loose; mildly
alkaline.
or 4, and chroma of 3 or 4 and medium and coarse alkaline.
fragments that have colors similar to those of the B2h Reaction of the organic material ranges from medium
horizon. Some pedons have a B3 horizon that has colors acid to moderately alkaline by the Hellige-Troug test or is
similar to those of the B3 part of the B3&Bh horizon. 4.5 or more in 0.01M CaCI2. The organic layers range
The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and from 16 to 40 inches in thickness.
chroma of 2 to 4. There is no A'2 horizon in some The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2,
pedons. The B2h horizon extends to a depth of 75 and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 3, chroma
inches or more. The B'2h horizon has the same colors of 2 or 3; or hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of
as those of the B2h horizon. 3; or it has no hue (N), and value is 2; or hue of 7.5YR,
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and value of 3, and chroma of 2. The content of unrubbed
chroma of 2 or 1 and, in some pedons, has mottles of fiber ranges to about 50 percent; the content of rubbed
brown, yellow, or gray. On the coastal islands the B2h fiber ranges from 3 to 16 percent. The content of
horizon is underlain by a IIC horizon that consists of minerals ranges from about 10 to 40 percent.
variable amounts of shells, shell fragments, and sand. The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
There is no C horizon in some pedons. chroma of 1; or value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 1 or 2; or








78 Soil survey



it has no hue (N), and value is 2 to 6. It ranges from B'24h-68 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
sand to loamy fine sand. There are few to many shell massive; friable; sand grains well coated with
fragments in some pedons. colloidal organic matter; strongly acid.
na erie Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly
na series acid throughout, and the texture is sand or fine sand
The Ona series consists of poorly drained, slowly throughout. The B'h horizon is at a depth of 40 to 80
permeable to very slowly permeable soils that formed in inches but more commonly it is at a depth of 40 to 60
thick deposits of sandy marine sediment. The soils are inches.
nearly level. They are in flatwoods. Slopes are less than The Ap, or Al, horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or
2 percent. In most years, the water table is at a depth of 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons an incipient A2
10 to 40 inches for 4 to 6 months of the year; it rises to horizon ranging to 2 inches in thickness is between the
a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 2 months of the Ap or Al horizon and the Bh horizon.
year and recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
during very dry periods. These soils are sandy, siliceous, chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquods. chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1
Ona soils are near Adamsville Variant, Cassia, Delray, or 2 or value of 3 and chroma of 2 or 3. Sand grains are
Myakka, Palmetto, St. Johns, and Waveland soils. thinly to thickly coated with colloidal organic matter.
Adamsville Variant and Cassia soils are better drained The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
than Ona soils. Adamsville Variant soils do not have a chroma of 1 to 3; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
spodic horizon. Cassia soils have an A2 horizon. Delray chroma of 2 and, in some pedons, mottles.
soils have a mollic epipedon and do not have a spodic The B'23h horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of
horizon. Myakka, St. Johns, and Waveland soils have an 2, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it has no hue (N), and value
A2 horizon. Palmetto soils do not have a spodic horizon is 2. It is weakly or moderately cemented in more than
but have an argillic horizon at a depth of more than 40 half of the horizon. It is firm or very firm and is generally
inches. brittle. Sand grains are thickly coated with organic
Typical pedon of Ona fine sand, ortstein substratum, in matter. In some pedons there is no B'24 horizon. The
an improved pasture, about 2.9 miles southeast of the B'23h horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or more
junction of Florida Highway 18 and the Sarasota County or is underlain by a C horizon that has colors similar to
line, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 9, T. 37 S., R. 21 E. those of the A'2 horizon. The B'24h horizon has color
similar to that of the B'23h horizon; hue of 10YR,
Ap-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) rubbed, fine sand; value of 2, and chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 3,
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and chroma of 2 or 3. This horizon is not cemented and
roots; unrubbed material is a mixture of black has a loose to friable consistence.
organic matter and light gray sand grains; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
B21h-5 to 11 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine Orlando series
sand; moderate medium granular structure; friable,
noncemented; common fine roots; sand grains well The Orlando series consists of moderately well
coated with colloidal organic matter; strongly acid; drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick
clear wavy boundary. deposits of marine sand. The soils are nearly level. They
B22h--11 to 16 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) are on uplands. The seasonal high water table is at a
fine sand; moderate medium granular structure; depth of 40 to 72 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 2
friable; noncemented; few fine roots; sand grains percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
well coated with colloidal organic matter; strongly Quartzipsammentic Haplumbrepts.
acid; clear wavy boundary. Orlando soils are near Bradenton, Cassia, Ona,
A'21-16 to 37 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; Myakka, Delray, and Tavares soils. Orlando soils have
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains; an umbric epipedon. Bradenton, Myakka, and Ona soils
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, are poorly drained. Bradenton soils have an argillic
A'22-37 to 52 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) horizon, and Myakka and Ona soils have a spodic
fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; abrupt horizon. Cassia soils are somewhat poorly drained and
wavy boundary, have a spodic horizon. Delray soils are very poorly
B'23h-52 to 68 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; drained and have a mollic epipedon.
massive; firm; weakly cemented; sand grains thickly Typical pedon of Orlando fine sand, moderately wet, 0
coated with colloidal organic matter; strongly acid; to 2 percent slopes, in an orange grove, in Parrish,
gradual wavy boundary. NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 29, T. 3 S., R. 19 E.







Manatee County, Florida 79



Ap-0 to 12 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand Orsino soils are near Cassia and Pomello soils. Cassia
mixed with fine particles of decomposed organic and Pomello soils have a spodic horizon.
matter; weak medium granular structure; very friable; Typical pedon of Orsino fine sand, in a forest of sand
many fine and medium roots; few uncoated sand pine, 500 feet east of Warner Bayou and 0.25 mile south
grains; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. of the Manatee River, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 20, T. 34 S., R.
C1-12 to 18 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; 17 E.
single grained; loose; few fine roots; few fine carbon
pieces; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. A1-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine
C2-18 to 43 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single granular structure; very friable; common fine medium
grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy roots and few coarse roots; strongly acid; clear
boundary, smooth boundary.
C3-43 to 58 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; A2-4 to 18 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few fine
few fine and medium strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse roots;
wavy boundary. strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
C4-58 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine B21&Bh-18 to 29 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
sand; common strong brown and yellowish brown fine sand; weak medium granular structure; very
mottles; single grained; loose; few vertical streaks of friable; few medium roots; dark reddish brown (5YR
light gray (10YR 7/2) sand grains; strongly acid. 3/4) discontinuous uncemented bodies one-half inch
to three-fourths of an inch in diameter along the
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to medium acid exterior of white (10YR 8/1) tongues 10 inches long
throughout except where lime has been applied. Fine and 2 inches across; strongly acid; gradual smooth
sand extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The boundary.
content of silt and clay in the 10- to 40-inch control B22-29 to 44 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
section is less than 10 percent. sand; common fine faint light yellowish brown and
The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value few medium faint reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8)
of 3 or less, and chroma of 2 or 1. mottles; moderate medium granular structure;
The A&C horizon is generally a uniform mixture that friable; few fine, medium, and coarse roots; strongly
has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of acid; clear smooth boundary.
4 or less or value of 4 or 5 and chroma mainly of 2. B3-44 to 59 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; few
There are other colors to a lesser extent. There are coarse faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8) and
small pockets, lenses, or streaks of gray to white many coarse distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
uncoated sand grains in some pedons. There is no A&C mottles; common coarse distinct dark gray (10YR
horizon in some pedons. 4/1) mottles in lower 3 inches; single grained; loose;
The C1, C2, and C3 horizons have hue of 10YR, value few medium and coarse roots; strongly acid; clear
of 4, and chroma of 3 or 4, or value of 5 to 7 and wavy boundary.
chroma of 3 to 8. In some pedons fine to coarse mottles C-59 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few
-or splotches of gray to white uncoated sand are few to medium distinct red (2.5YR 5/8) mottles; single
common in the C1, C2, and C3 horizons. They are not grained; loose medium acid.
indicative of wetness. In most pedons the C3 horizon
has a few distinct strong brown to brownish yellow Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid. Texture
mottles. The C4 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to is sand or fine sand throughout except for the Al
7, and chroma of 3 or less. It has few to common horizon, which is fine sand.
mottles in shades of yellow, brown, red, or gray. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 2 to 5 inches in
Orsino series thickness. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6
to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 9 to 26 inches thick.
The Orsino series consists of moderately well drained, Total thickness of the A horizon is 22 to 28 inches.
very rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick beds of The B horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
sandy marine deposits. The soils are nearly level to chroma of 4 to 8. Tongues from the A2 horizon
gently sloping. They are on low ridges and knolls at extending into the B horizon have hue of 10YR, value of
some of the higher elevations in the county. In most 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Bh part of this horizon
years, the water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for has discontinuous uncemented layers or coarse mottles
more than 6 months of the year. It recedes to a depth of that are one-half inch to 2 inches in diameter and have
more than 60 inches during periods of low rainfall, hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 3 or hue of 7.5YR
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. These soils are or 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. The Bh
hyperthermic, uncoated Spodic Quartzipsamments. part is generally at the upper contact of the B horizon








80 Soil survey



but in places extends throughout the horizon as small B21tg-45 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
bodies of uncemented fine sand. The B&Bh horizon is clay loam; few medium distinct yellowish brown
18 to 43 inches thick. (10YR 5/6) and few coarse faint dark grayish brown
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
chroma of 1 to 4. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or friable; sand grains moderately coated and bridged
more. with clay; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-60 to 64 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
Palmetto series sandy loam; common coarse faint grayish brown
(2.5Y 5/2) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
The Palmetto series consists of deep, poorly drained structure; friable; sand grains moderately coated and
soils that formed in thick deposits of sand and loamy bridged with clay; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
marine sediment. Permeability is moderately slow. The boundary.
soils are nearly level. They are in the flatwoods in B3g-64 to 68 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
sloughs, in poorly defined drainageways, and in loamy sand; massive; friable; very strongly acid.
depressions. Slopes are less than 2 percent. In most
years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is at a The B'2tg horizon is at a depth of more than 40
depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months of the year. In inches. The A and Bh horizons are extremely acid to
depressions water is ponded for 2 to 6 months of the strongly acid. The B2t, B3g, and g horizons are very
year. These soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic strongly acid or strongly acid.
Grossarenic Paeaq s strongly acid or strongly acid.
Grossarenic Paleaquults. The Al, or Ap, horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 1 to
Palmetto soils are near Delray, EauGallie, Wabasso, The An or A, horizon has hue of value to
and Waveland soils. Delray soils have a mollic epipedon 4, and chroma of 2 or 1; or it has no hue (N), and value
and are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. is 1 to 4. It is as much as 8 inches thick where value is 2
and are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
EauGallie, Wabasso, and Waveland soils have a spodic or 3. Its texture is sand or fine sand.
horizon. A part of the spodic horizon in Waveland soils is The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR or
ortstein. 2.5Y; value is 5 to 7, chroma is 2 to 0, and there are
Typical pedon of Palmetto sand, about 2.25 miles mottles in some pedons; or value is 5, chroma is 2, and
north of Verna, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 24, T. 35 S., R. 20 E. there are mottles. Its texture is sand or fine sand.
The Bh&A2 horizon has the same colors as those of
A11-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; moderate the component horizons. There is no Bh&A2 horizon in
medium granular structure; very friable; many fine some pedons.
roots; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. The B2h horizon does not meet the requirements of a
A12-8 to 10 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; spodic horizon. It mainly has hue of 10YR, value of 3,
common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; and chroma of 2 or 3 or value of 4 and chroma of 2 to 4;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; extremely or hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2 or 4; but it
acid; gradual wavy boundary. ranges to hue of 10YR, value of 5, and chroma of 2 to 4
A2-10 to 25 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common where the A2 horizon has value of 7. Uncoated sand
medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1) and light gray grains in the B2h horizon are common to many. The
(10YR 7/1) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine horizon is sand or fine sand.
roots; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
Bh&A2-25 to 30 inches; dark grayish brown (1 OYR 4/2) to 7, and chroma of 3 or less. Its texture is sand or fine
sand; many coarse distinct gray (10YR 5/1) mottles sand. There is no A'2 horizon in some pedons.
consisting of material from the A2 horizon and o B h ,
common medium distinct very dark grayish brown The B2tg or '2tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y,
(10YR 3/2) Bh fragments; single grained; loose; value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 2.5Y,
many uncoated sand grains; extremely acid; gradual value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 2.5Y,
wavy boundary, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2; or it has no hue (N)
B21h-30 to 40 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and value of 4 to 7, and, in some pedons, mottles of
sand; common medium faint very dark grayish yellow, brown, red, or gray. The control section is sandy
brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; single grained; loose; loam or sandy clay loam. In some pedons the lower B2tg
many uncoated sand grains; extremely acid; gradual horizon is sandy clay.
wavy boundary. The B3 or B'3g horizon has the same color range as
B22h-40 to 45 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR that of the B2tg horizon. It ranges from loamy sand to
3/2) sand; common coarse faint dark grayish brown fine sandy loam.
(10YR 4/2) mottles; single grained; loose; many The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of
uncoated sand grains; extremely acid; clear wavy 5 to 8, and chroma of 4 or less. It ranges from sand to
boundary. loamy fine sand. There is no Cg horizon in some pedons.







Manatee County, Florida 81



Parkwood Variant and chroma of 1 or value of 7 or 8 and chroma of 1 or 2;
or it has no hue (N), and value is 5 to 8; or it has hue of
Parkwood Variant soils are poorly drained and 2.5Y, value of 7, and chroma of 2 and, in places, yellow
moderately permeable. They formed in beds of sandy and brown mottles. Its texture is sandy loam or fine
and loamy marine sediment overlying limestone. These sandy loam. There are common to many secondary
soils are nearly level. They are in cabbage palm accumulations of calcium carbonate in root channels and
hammocks, in drainageways, or along the edge of in pockets or lenses. Reaction is mildly or moderately
ponds. Slopes are less than 2 percent. The water table alkaline and calcareous.
is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 4 months in wet The IICr horizon is primarily soft and porous but also
seasons. These soils are coarse-loamy, siliceous, has hard pockets and fragments. Solution holes, mainly
hyperthermic Mollic Ochraqualfs. about 6 to 10 inches in diameter, are few to common.
Parkwood Variant soils are near Bradenton, Chobee, Depth to limestone is highly irregular.
Delray, Felda, Manatee, and Wabasso soils. Bradenton
and Chobee soils are fine-loamy. Chobee soils have a Pinellas series
mollic epipedon. Delray soils have a mollic epipedon, The Pinellas series consists of poorly drained,
and the argillic horizon is at a depth of more than 40 moderately permeable soils that formed in sandy and
inches. Felda soils are in an arenic subgroup and are not loamy marine sediment. The soils are nearly level. They
calcareous. Manatee soils have a mollic epipedon. are in flatwoods. Some areas border sloughs and
Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon, depressions and generally are long and narrow; others are
Typical pedon of Parkwood Variant loamy fine sand, in moderately large. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. In most
an area of Parkwood Variant complex, in a wooded area, years, the water table is within a depth of 10 inches for
about 1.5 miles east of Elwood Park and 1.25 miles less than 3 months of the year and within a depth of 10 to
north of Florida Highway 7, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 2, R. 18 40 inches for 2 to 6 months of the year. These soils are
E., T. 35 S. loamy, mixed, hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
A11-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; Pinellas soils are near Bradenton, Chobee, EauGallie,
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine Felda, Floridana, Myakka, Parkwood Variant, and
and common medium roots; moderately alkaline, Wabasso soils. Bradenton, Chobee, and Parkwood
calcareous; gradual wavy boundary. Variant soils have an A horizon less than 20 inches thick.
A12-4 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy Chobee soils are very poorly drained and have a mollic
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; epipedon, and Parkwood Variant soils are calcareous
many fine and common medium roots; moderately throughout. EauGallie, Myakka, and Wabasso soils have a
alkaline, calcareous; clear wavy boundary. spodic horizon. Felda soils do not have an A2ca horizon.
B21tgca-9 to 31 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy Floridana soils are very poorly drained and have a mollic
loam; few fine faint yellowish brown mottles; epipedon.
moderate medium granular structure; friable; few Typical pedon of Pinellas fine sand, in an idle field,
coarse roots; sand grains coated and bridged with about 2 miles east-southeast of Oneco, SW1/4SW1/4
clay; moderately alkaline, calcareous; gradual wavy sec. 16, T. 35 S., R. 18 E.
boundary.
B22tgca-31 to 37 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
loam; many medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR weak fine granular structure; very friable; mixture of
5/4) mottles; moderate medium granular structure; organic matter and uncoated sand grains; many fine
friable; few thin lenses or pockets of white (10YR roots; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
8/1) calcium carbonate; sand grains coated and A21-5 to 11 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
bridged with clay; moderately alkaline; clear irregular sand; many fine faint light gray and dark grayish
boundary. brown mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
IICr-37 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) soft limestone; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
massive; firm; about 35 percent hard limestone A22ca-11 to 15 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
fragments; most roots do not penetrate this layer; fine sand; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
solution holes filled with loamy material and 5/4) mottles; single grained; loose; moderately
limestone fragments are common. alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
The A horizon ranges from 6 to 10 inches in thickness. A23ca-15 to 33 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
It has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR; value is 2 or 3, common medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
and chroma is 0 to 2; or it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, 6/6) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak
and chroma of 2. Reaction ranges from neutral to mildly fine granular structure; very friable; secondary
alkaline. The Al 1 horizon is not calcareous in some accumulations of carbonates occur in interstices
pedons. between sand grains; moderately alkaline;
The B2tgca horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.







82 Soil survey



B2tg-33 to 45 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay Waveland, and Zolfo soils. Cassia soils are on slightly
loam; common medium distinct brownish yellow lower elevations than the Pomello soils, are somewhat
(10YR 6/6) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) poorly drained, and have a spodic horizon above a depth
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; of 30 inches. Zolfo soils are better drained and have a
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; sand grains coated spodic horizon below a depth of 50 inches. EauGallie,
and bridged with clay; common pockets of light gray Myakka, and Waveland soils are poorly drained.
fine sand; secondary accumulations of carbonates in EauGallie and Myakka soils have an A horizon that is
some old root channels; moderately alkaline; clear less than 30 inches thick, and Waveland soils have
irregular boundary. ortstein.
Cg-45 to 53 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; Typical pedon of Pomello fine sand, in an area of
many coarse prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) undisturbed natural vegetation, about 3.25 miles south of
mottles; single grained; loose; few pockets loamy Myakka City, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 36, T. 36 S., R. 21 E.
fine sand; moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual A1-0 to 2 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine
wavy boundary. granular structure; very friable; many fine roots;
IIC-53 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand mixed uncoated sand grains and organic matter with
mixed with many white shell fragments; single a salt and pepper appearance; very strongly acid;
grained; loose; many small unbroken shells; clear smooth boundary.
moderately alkaline; calcareous. A2-2 to 46 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; single
The solum is less than 60 inches thick. Reaction in the grained; loose; few fine medium and coarse roots;
Al or Ap horizon and in the upper part of the A2 horizon few dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) streaks in old
ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline. The lower root channels; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
part of the A2 horizon is mildly to strongly alkaline and boundary.
calcareous. The total thickness of the A horizon ranges B21h-46 to 51 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
from 20 to 40 inches. fine granular structure; very friable; few fine and
The Al or Ap horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of medium roots; sand grains coated with organic
10YR; value is 2 to 4, and chroma is 1 or 0. An Al matter; common dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
horizon that has value of 3.5 or less is generally less pockets and weakly cemented bodies; very strongly
than 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, acid; clear wavy boundary.
value of 4, and chroma of 2 or value of 5 to 8 and B22h-51 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
chroma of 1 to 3; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and fine sand; massive in places parting to weak fine
chroma 2 and, in places, mottles of gray, brown, or granular structure; very friable; few medium roots;
yellow. Subhorizons of the A2 horizon that have a few weakly cemented fragments; sand grains thinly
secondary accumulation of carbonates are firm to loose coated with organic matter; very strongly acid;
in consistence. gradual wavy boundary.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to The solum is more than 40 inches thick and commonly
8, and chroma of 1 and, in places, mottles or chroma of exceeds 60 inches in thickness. Reaction ranges from
2 and brown, yellow, olive, or gray mottles. It is fine very strongly acid to medium acid.
sandy loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. Reaction The Al horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR;
ranges from neutral to strongly alkaline and calcareous. value is 4 to 6, and chroma is 1 or 0. It ranges from 1 to
The Cg and IIC horizons have colors that are similar to 5 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon has no hue (N) or
those of the B2tg horizon. The Cg horizon does not have has hue of 10YR; value is 6 to 8, and chroma is 2 or 1.
shell fragments. The Cg and IIC horizons are fine sand Total thickness of the A horizon ranges from 30 to 50
or sand. In some pedons there is neither a Cg nor a IIC inches.
horizon. The B2h horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
Pomello series chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2
The Pomello series consists of deep, moderately well to 4. In some pedons there are few to common, small to
drained soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy large pockets of material from the A2 horizon in this
marine sediment. Permeability is moderately rapid. The horizon. In some pedons the B2h horizon is weakly
soils are nearly level. They are on low ridges and knolls cemented in less than 50 percent of the pedon or has
in flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The weakly cemented fragments. It ranges from 6 to more
water table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 than 20 inches in thickness.
months in the wet season and at a depth of 40 to 60 The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
inches in the drier seasons. These soils are sandy, chroma of 3; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Haplohumods. 2 to 4. The B3&Bh horizon has a matrix that is the same
Pomello soils are near Cassia, EauGallie, Myakka, color as that of the B3 horizon and has darker colored,







Manatee County, Florida 83



weakly cemented fragments from the Bh horizon. There B3-32 to 36 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand;
is neither a B3 nor a B3&Bh horizon in some pedons. common medium distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2)
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and and very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) mottles;
chroma of 2 to 4. There is no C horizon in some pedons single grained; loose; common fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Pomona series A'2-36 to 51 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
The Pomona series consists of poorly drained soils common medium distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2)
that formed in sandy and loamy marine deposits. mottles; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
Permeability is moderately slow. The soils are nearly strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
level. They are on broad flats in the flatwoods. They are B'2tg-51 to 60 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) fine sandy
in the eastern half of the county, generally above an loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
elevation of 40 feet. Slope is less than 2 percent. In very friable; common fine roots; sand grains are
most years, if the soils are not drained, the water table is coated and bridged with clay; very strongly acid;
at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 3 months of clear wavy boundary.
the year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months Cg-60 to 80 inches; gray (N 6/0) loamy fine sand;
or more of the year. These soils are sandy, siliceous, massive; friable; common fine roots; very strongly acid.
hyperthermic Ultic Haplaquods. The solum is 60 inches or more thick. The Bh horizon
Pomona soils are near Anclote, Delray, Myakka, Ona, is at a depth of less than 30 inches. The B'2t horizon is
Wabasso, Wauchula, and Waveland soils. Anclote and at a depth of more than 40 inches. Reaction ranges from
Delray soils have a mollic epipedon and do not have a extremely acid to strongly acid in all horizons.
spodic horizon. Sellers soils have a very thick umbric The Al, or Ap, horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of
epipedon and do not have an argillic horizon. Myakka 10YR; value is 2 to 4, and chroma is 1 or 0. In
and Ona soils do not have an argillic horizon. Wabasso undisturbed areas, the horizon is a mixture of uncoated
and Wauchula soils have an argillic horizon at a depth sand grains and small pieces of organic material. The A2
between 20 and 40 inches. Waveland soils have ortstein horizon has no hue (N) or has hue of 10YR; value is 5 to
and do not have an argillic horizon. 8, and chroma is 1 or 2; or it has no hue (N), and value
Typical pedon of Pomona fine sand, in an area of is 5 to 8. In some pedons the A2 horizon has a few
Delray-Pomona complex, in a pasture, about 3.5 miles mottles in shades of yellow and brown. In other pedons
south of Myakka City, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 18, T. 36 S., R. it has vertical streaks that have hue of 10YR, value of 2
21 E. to 4, and chroma of 1. The A horizon is sand or fine
sand except for the Al or Ap horizon, which is fine sand.
A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) rubbed, fine sand; Total thickness of the A horizon ranges from 20 to 30
weak fine crumb structure; very friable; many inches.
uncoated sand grains; many fine roots; extremely The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2, and
acid; clear wavy boundary. chroma of 1 or 2 or value of 3 and chroma of 1 to 4; hue
A21-6 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR,
common medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) value of 3, and chroma of 2; or no hue (N) and value of
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very 2. Its texture is sand or fine sand, and the sand grains
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. are coated with colloidal organic material.
strongly acid; cler wy b y. The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
A22-13 to 22 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; chroma of 3; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of
few common distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) 2 or value of 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. Its texture is sand
mottles; single grained; loose; many fine roots; or fine sand, and the sand grains are uncoated.
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
B21h-22 to 26 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) chroma of 1 to 3 or value of 4 and chroma of 2. Its
fine sand; weak medium subangular blocky texture is sand or fine sand. There is no A'2 horizon in a
structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots; few pedons.
most sand grains are coated with organic matter; The B'tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 to
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It generally has mottles in
B22h-26 to 32 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) shades of yellow, brown, or red. Its texture is sandy
fine sand; common medium distinct dark reddish loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In the lower
brown (5YR 3/2) mottles; moderate medium part there are pockets and lenses of coarser or finer
granular structure; very friable; many fine and textured material.
medium roots; most sand grains are coated with The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of
colloidal organic matter; very strongly acid; clear 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it has no hue (N), and
wavy boundary, value is 5 to 8. It generally has mottles in shades of







84 Soil survey



yellow, brown, or red. Its texture is sand, fine sand, Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium
loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. The horizon is at a acid. The texture is sand or fine sand throughout, except
depth of 80 inches or more in some pedons. for the Al horizon, which is fine sand.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
St. Johns series chroma of 1. It is 10 to 13 inches thick. The A2 horizon
The St. Johns series consists of poorly drained, has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2.
moderately permeable soils that formed in thick deposits It is 7 to 15 inches thick. Total thickness of the A horizon
of marine sand. The soils are nearly level to gently is less than 30 inches.
sloping. They are in broad areas of flatwoods and on The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 or
side slopes adjacent to drainageways. In most years, the 3, and chroma of 3 or less. It is 10 to 38 inches thick.
water table is within a depth of 15 inches for 2 to 6 The A'2 horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 4
months of the year and at a depth of 15 to 30 inches for to 6, and chroma of 2 or less. It ranges to 8 inches in
more than 6 months of the year. These soils are sandy, thickness. The B'2h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Haplaquods. or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It extends to a depth of 80
St. Johns soils are near Cassia, Myakka, Ona, inches or more.
Wabasso, and Waveland soils. St. Johns soils differ from In some pedons there is no second sequum of A'2
all the associated soils except Ona soils by having an and B'2h horizons, but there is a B3 horizon that has
umbric epipedon. Cassia soils are moderately well hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 or 4.
drained and somewhat poorly drained. Wabasso soils In some pedons there is a C horizon that has hue of
have an argillic horizon. Ona soils do not have an A2 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.
horizon. Waveland soils have a cemented Bh horizon T re r
below a depth of 30 inches.
Typical pedon of St. Johns fine sand, in a cutover The Tavares series consists of moderately well
wooded area where the slope is 3 percent, 100 feet drained, very rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick
northwest of graded road, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 16, T. 33 beds of sandy marine or aeolian sediment. The soils are
S., R. 21 E. nearly level to gently sloping. They are on knolls and
ridges in the western and central parts of the county. In
A11-0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak a few areas the soils are on benches mainly along the
medium crumb structure; friable; many fine and Little Manatee River and along the larger streams and
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly .
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly rivers. In most years, if the soils are not drained, the
acid; gradual smooth boundary. water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 6 to 10
A12-7 to 13 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine months of the year and at a depth below 60 inches
sand; weak fine crumb structure; very friable; during very dry periods. These soils are hyperthermic,
common fine roots; common uncoated sand grains; uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A213 to 28 inches; light gray YR 6/1) fine sand; Tavares soils are near Adamsville Variant, EauGallie,
A2-13 to 28 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; Myakka, Orlando, and Zolfo soils. Adamsville Variant
clear wavy boundary. soils are at lower elevations and are somewhat poorly
B21h--28 to 41 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few drained. EauGallie and Myakka soils are poorly drained
fine faint black splotches; weak fine subangular and have a spodic horizon. Orlando soils have an umbric
blocky structure; friable; many fine and medium epipedon. Zolfo soils have a spodic horizon.
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Tavares fine sand, in an orange
B22h-41 to 53 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few grove, about 2 miles southeast of Manhattan along
fine faint very dark grayish brown mottles; weak fine Florida Highway 675, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 28, T. 34 S., R.
subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly 20 E.
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
B23h-53 to 60 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine weak medium granular structure; loose; many fine,
sand; weak medium crumb structure; friable; very medium, and coarse roots; many uncoated sand
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A'2-60 to 68 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; C1-6 to 13 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
common fine faint very dark gray mottles; single sand; weak medium granular structure; loose; many
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy fine and common coarse roots; few fine carbon
boundary, particles; sand grains slightly coated; strongly acid;
B'2h-68 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; gradual wavy boundary.
weak medium crumb structure; friable; very strongly C2-13 to 34 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
acid. fine sand; few fine faint light gray and brownish







Manatee County, Florida 85



yellow mottles in lower 2 inches of horizon; weak and except for the Delray and Floridana soils are better
medium granular structure; loose; common fine and drained than the Tomoka soils.
coarse roots; few fine scattered carbon particles; Typical pedon of Tomoka muck, about 5 miles
dark brown staining along root channels; strongly southwest of Myakka City and 0.25 mile south of Cason
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Lake, NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 29, T. 36 S., R. 21 E.
C3-34 to 56 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine Oal-0 to 12 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; moderate
sand; weak medium granular structure; loose; few medium granular structure; friable; extremely acid;
coarse roots; few fine faint gray splotches; sand gradual wavy boundary.
grains lightly coated; very strongly acid; gradual Oa2-12 to 18 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
wavy boundary. muck; moderate medium granular structure; friable;
C4-56 to 76 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
sand; common fine and medium distinct strong Oa3-18 to 25 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; moderate
brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium granular medium granular structure; friable; extremely acid;
structure; loose; few coarse roots; many uncoated gradual wavy boundary.
sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Oa4-25 to 28 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; common
C5-76 to 86 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few coarse distinct gray (10YR 5/1) sand lenses;
fine faint yellowish brown and very pale brown moderate medium granular structure; friable;
mottles; single grained; loose; few coarse roots; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
strongly acid. IgC1--28 to 32 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) and light
brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand; single grained;
These soils are fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
more. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to IIC2-32 to 35 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand and loamy
medium acid in all horizons. The content of silt and clay sand; single grained; loose; medium acid; abrupt
in the 10- to 40-inch control section is less than 5 percent. wavy boundary.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and IIlC3-35 to 40 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
chroma of 1 or 2 or value of 5 and chroma of 1; or hue loam; many fine and medium distinct very dark gray
chroma of 1 or 2 or value of 5 and chroma of 1; i 3 o (10YR 3/1) and light gray (10YR 6/1) mottles and
of 2.5Y, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2. It is 3 to 8 streaks of sand; massive; friable; slightly acid;
inches thick. streaks of sand; massive; friable; slightly acid;
inches ic. gradual wavy boundary.
The C horizon in the upper part has hue of 10YR, IllC4-40 to 50 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 3 or 4 or value of 5 and loam; massive; friable; slightly acid; gradual wavy
chroma of 2 to 8. In the lower part it has hue of 10YR, boundary.
value of 6, and chroma of 1 to 3 or value of 7 and IIIC5-50 to 75 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam
chroma of 1 to 4 or value of 8 and chroma of 1 or 2. In with common light gray (10YR 6/1) sand pockets
the lower part there are brown, yellow, or red mottles. In and lenses; massive; friable; neutral.
some pedons, large splotches or mottles that have Reaction of the Oa horizon is less than 4.5 in 0.01M
chroma of 2 or 1 are within a depth of 40 inches. The CaCI2 and from 5.5 to 6.5 in field test. The IIC and IIIC
colors are those of the sand grains and are not horizons range from very strongly acid to neutral.
indicative of wetness. The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2,
The lower part of the C horizon, in pedons on benches and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5YR, value of 3, and
along the larger streams and rivers, is at a depth of more chroma of 2 or 3; or no hue (N) and value of 2. It ranges
than 40 inches; it is extremely hard (iron-cemented) sand from 16 to 40 inches in thickness.
or fine sand. It has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to
chroma of 3 to 8. 6, and chroma of 2 or 1. It ranges from sand to loamy
Tomoka series fine sand. The IIIC horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y,
value of 2 to 7, and chroma of 2 or 1. It is sandy loam,
The Tomoka series consists of very poorly drained fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In many pedons
soils that formed in well decomposed organic material there are lenses and pockets of finer or coarser textured
and in the underlying sandy and loamy mineral material, material in the lower IIIC horizons.
Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid. The soils
are nearly level. They are in freshwater marshes. Slopes Wabasso series
are less than 2 percent. In undrained areas the water The Wabasso series consists of poorly drained, slowly
table is at or above the surface except during extended permeable to very slowly permeable soils that formed in
dry periods. These soils are loamy, siliceous, dysic, sandy and loamy marine sediment. The soils are nearly
hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists. level. They are in areas of low, broad flatwoods on flood
Tomoka soils are near Bradenton, Delray, Felda, and plains. In most years, if the soils are not drained, the
Floridana soils. All the associated soils are mineral soils water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more




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