• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to mapping units
 Summary of tables
 How this survey was made
 General soil map
 Description of the soils
 Use and management of the...
 Formation and classification of...
 Laboratory data
 Environmental factors affecting...
 Literature cited
 Glossary
 Guide to mapping units
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Marion County area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025717/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Marion County area, Florida
Physical Description: iv, 148 p., 89 folded leaves of plates : maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thomas, Buster P., 1923-
Law, Lloyd
Stankey, Daniel L
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Publisher: National Cooperative Soil Survey
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1979]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Marion County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Marion County   ( lcsh )
Sols -- Cartes -- Floride -- Marion   ( rvm )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 145).
Statement of Responsibility: by Buster P. Thomas, Lloyd Law, Jr., and Daniel L. Stankey ; United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025717
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001201886
notis - AFV2139
oclc - 05750442
lccn - 79601940

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page ia
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Index to mapping units
        Index
    Summary of tables
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
        Unnumbered ( 6 )
    How this survey was made
        Page 1
    General soil map
        Page 2
        Mainly excessively drained, nearly level to strongly sloping soils of the uplands
            Page 2
            1. Astatula association
                Page 3
            2. Candler-Apopka association
                Page 3
        Well drained, nearly level to sloping soils of the uplands
            Page 3
            3.Arredondo-Gainesville association
                Page 3
                Page 4
                Page 5
                Page 6
                Page 7
                Page 8
                Page 9
            4. Kendrick-Hague-Zuber
                Page 10
        Somewhat poorly drained and moderately well drained, nearly level to sloping soils of the upperlands and flatwoods
            Page 11
            5. Sparr-Lochloosa-Tavares association
                Page 11
        Poorly drained, nearly level soils of the flatwoods
            Page 12
            6. Lynne-Pomona-Pompano association
                Page 13
            7. Eureka-Paisley-Eaton assoication
                Page 13
        Poorly drained, nearly level to strongly sloping soils of the uplands
            Page 13
            Blichton-Flemington-Kanapaha association
                Page 13
        Very poorly drained soils of the flatwoods and flood plains
            Page 14
            9. Bluff-Martel association
                Page 14
            10. Okeechobee-Terra Ceia-Tomoka association
                Page 14
    Description of the soils
        Page 15
        Adamsville series
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Anclote series
            Page 17
        Apopka series
            Page 18
        Arredondo series
            Page 19
        Astatula series
            Page 20
        Blichton series
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Bluff series
            Page 23
        Boardman series
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Borrow pits
            Page 25
        Candler series
            Page 25
        Eaton series
            Page 26
        Electra series
            Page 27
        Eureka series
            Page 28
        Fellowship series
            Page 29
        Fellowship variant
            Page 30
            Page 31
        Flemington series
            Page 32
        Gainesville series
            Page 33
        Hague series
            Page 34
            Page 35
        Holopaw series
            Page 36
        Jumper series
            Page 36
        Kanapaha series
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Kendrick series
            Page 39
        Lochloosa series
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Lynne series
            Page 42
        Martel series
            Page 43
        Martel variant
            Page 44
        Micanopy series
            Page 44
            Page 45
        Okeechobee series
            Page 46
        Paisley series
            Page 46
        Pamlico series
            Page 47
        Pedro series
            Page 48
        Placid series
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Pomona series
            Page 51
        Pompano series
            Page 52
        Sparr series
            Page 53
        Tavares series
            Page 54
        Terra Ceia series
            Page 55
        Terra Ceia variant
            Page 56
        Tomoka series
            Page 57
        Udalfic arents
            Page 57
            Page 58
        Urban land
            Page 59
        Wacahoota series
            Page 59
        Wacahoota variant
            Page 60
        Zuber series
            Page 61
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 62
        Crops, pasture, and citrus
            Page 62
            Capability grouping
                Page 63
            Management by capability units
                Page 64
                Page 65
                Page 66
                Page 67
                Page 68
                Page 69
                Page 70
                Page 71
                Page 72
                Page 73
                Page 74
                Page 75
            Estimated yields
                Page 76
        Woodland
            Page 76
            Woodland grouping
                Page 76
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
                Page 80
                Page 81
        Wildlife
            Page 82
            Page 83
        Engineering
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Engineering classification systems
                Page 88
            Engineering test data
                Page 88
            Soil properties significant in engineering
                Page 89
                Page 90
                Page 91
            Water management
                Page 92
            Construction materials
                Page 93
            Soil and water features
                Page 93
                Page 94
                Page 95
                Page 96
                Page 97
                Page 98
                Page 99
                Page 100
                Page 101
                Page 102
                Page 103
                Page 104
                Page 105
                Page 106
                Page 107
                Page 108
                Page 109
                Page 110
                Page 111
                Page 112
                Page 113
                Page 114
                Page 115
                Page 116
                Page 117
        Recreation
            Page 118
        Town and country planning
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Building site development
                Page 130
            Sanitary facilities
                Page 131
    Formation and classification of soils
        Page 131
        Classification of soils
            Page 132
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 133
            Parent material
                Page 133
            Climate
                Page 134
            Plant and animal life
                Page 134
            Relief
                Page 134
            Time
                Page 134
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 135
    Laboratory data
        Page 135
        Methods of sampling and analysis
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
    Environmental factors affecting soil use
        Page 142
        Climate
            Page 142
        Physiography and drainage
            Page 143
        Water
            Page 144
        Farming
            Page 144
        Transportation
            Page 144
        Industry and manufacturing
            Page 144
        Schools and medical facilities
            Page 145
        Recreation
            Page 145
        Trends in soil use
            Page 145
    Literature cited
        Page 145
    Glossary
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 149
        Page 150
    General soil map
        Page 151
    Index to map sheets
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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Full Text




SOIL SURVEY OF


Marion County Area, Florida























INS=-








S United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Soil Science Department










This is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort of the United States
Department of Agriculture and agencies of the States, usually the Agricultural Experiment Stations.
In some surveys, other Federal and local agencies also contribute. The Soil Conservation Service has
leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all who need the information, regardless
of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in the period 1962-73. Soil names and descrip-
tions were approved in 1974. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in the publication refer to conditions
in the survey area in 1973. This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations,
Soil Science Department. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Marion Soil and Water
Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission, but any enlargement of these maps could
cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping and result in erroneous interpretations. Enlarged maps
do not show small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at a larger mapping scale.



HOW TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY
THIS SOIL SURVEY contains information overlay over the soil map and colored to show
that can be applied in managing farms, soils that have a slight limitation or suitability.
ranches, and woodlands; in selecting sites for For example, soils that have a slight limitation
roads, ponds, buildings, and other structures; for a given use can be colored green, those with
and in judging the suitability of tracts of land a moderate limitation can be colored yellow,
for farming, industry, and recreation. and those with a severe limitation can be col-
ored red.
Farmers and those who work with farmers
Locating Soils can learn about use and management of the
All the soils of the Marion County Area are soils from the soil descriptions and from the
shown on the detailed map at the back of this discussions of capability units and woodland
publication. This map consists of many sheets groups.
made from aerial photographs. Each sheet is Foresters and others can refer to the section
numbered to correspond with a number on the "Woodland," where the soils of the survey area
Index to Map Sheets. are grouped according to their suitability for
On each sheet of the detailed map, soil areas trees.
are outlined and are identified by symbols. All Game managers, sportsmen, and others can
areas marked with the same symbol are the find information about soils and wildlife in the
same kind of soil. The soil symbol is inside the section "Wildlife."
area if there is enough room; otherwise, it is Community planners and others can read
outside and a pointer shows where the symbol about soil properties that affect the choice of
belongs, sites for dwellings, industrial buildings, and
recreation areas in the sections "Town and
Country Planning" and "Recreation."
Finding and Using Information Engineers and builders can find, under "En-
The "Guide to Mapping Units" can be used gineering," tables that contain test data, esti-
to find information. This guide lists all the soils mates of soil properties, and information about
of the survey area in alphabetic order by map soil features that affect engineering practices.
symbol and gives the capability classification Scientists and others can read about how the
of each. It also shows the page where each soil soils formed and how they are classified in the
is described and the page for the capability unit section "Formation and Classification of Soils."
to which the soil has been assigned. Newcomers in Marion County Area may be
Individual colored maps showing the relative especially interested in the section "General
suitability or degree of limitation of soils for Soil Map," where broad patterns of soils are
many specific purposes can be developed by us- described. They may also be interested in the
ing the soil map and the information in the section "Environmental Factors Affecting Soil
text. Translucent material can be used as an Use."


Cover: Thoroughbred horse farm. The pasture of improved
bahiagrass is on Kendrick soils. The landscape is typical of
the Kendrick-Hague-Zuber association, which has a high
potential for improved pasture of deep-rooting grasses
and legumes.








Contents
Page Page
Index to mapping units ---------------------- ii Pedro series ------------------------------ 48
Smmary of tables -------------- iii Placid series ------------- ---------------- 49
Pomona series ------------------------------- 51
How this survey was made --------------- 1 Pompano series -------------------------- 52
General soil map --------- --- ----- ---- 2 Sparr series --------------------------------- 53
Tavares series ------------------------------- 54
Mainly excessively drained, nearly level to Terra Ceia series --------------------------- 55
strongly sloping soils of the uplands -----2 Terra Ceia variant -------------------------- 56
1. Astatula association --------------- 3 Tomoka series -------------------------------- 57
2. Candler-Apopka association --3 Udalfic Arents ------------------------------- 57
Well drained, nearly level to sloping soils of the Urban land ------------------------- 59
uplands ------------------ --- -3 Wacahoota series----------------------------- 59
3. Arredondo-Gainesville association -- 3 Wacahoota variant---------------------------- 60
4. Kendrick-Hague-Zuber association ------- 10 Zuber series --------------------------------- 61
Somewhat poorly drained and moderately well
drained, nearly level to sloping soils of the up- Use and management of the soils --------------- 62
lands and flatwoods -------------------------- 11 Crops, pasture, and citrus --------------------- 62
5. Sparr-Lochloosa-Tavares association ----_ 11 Capability grouping ------------------------ 63
Poorly drained, nearly level soils of the flatwoods- 12 Management by capability units --------- 64
6. Lynne-Pomona-Pompano association ---- 13 Estimated yields ---------------------------- 76
7. Eureka-Paisley-Eaton association------- 13 Woodland --------------------------------76
Poorly drained, nearly level to strongly sloping Woodland grouping --------------------- 76
soils of the uplands ------------------------- 13 Wildlife -------- ------------------ -- 82
8. Blichton-Flemington Kanapaha associa- Engineering -------------------------------- 84
tion ---------------- 13 Engineering classification systems ----------- 88
Very poorly drained soils of the flatwoods and Engineering test data ---------------------- 88
flood plains ------ ---------------- 14 Soil properties significant in engineering 89
9. Bluff-Martel association ------------ 14 Water management ----------------------- 92
10. Okeechobee- Terra Ceia-Tomoka associa- Construction materials --------------- 93
tion ----------------------- 14 Soil and water features --------------------- 93
Recreation 118
Descriptions of the soils ---------- -------- 15 Town and country planning ----------- 118
Adamsville series --------------- ------- 15 Building site development ------------------- 130
Anclote series ------------- ----- 17 Sanitary facilities --------- ------- 131
Apopka series .------------------------------ 18
Arredondo series ------------------ 19 Formation and classification of soils ---------- 131
Astatula series ------- ------------------20 Classification of soils --------------------- 132
Blichton series ------------------------ 21 Factors of soil formation ----- ---------- 133
Bluff series ----------.--------------------- 23 Parent material ----- -------------- 133
Boardman series ----------------------- 23 Climate --------------------- ----- 134
Borrow pits ------------------------------- 25 Plant and animal life --------------------- 134
Candler series ------------------____ --- 25 Relief --------------------------_ 134
Eaton series -------------------------------- 26 Time ----- ----- --------------134
Electra series --------------------------------27 Processes of soil formation ---- ---------- 135
Eureka series -------------------------------- 28 Laboratory data ----------------- -----135
Fellowship series ---------------------------- 29 Methods of sampling and analysis -- -------- 135
Fellowship variant ---------------------------- 30
Flemington series --------------------------- 32 Environmental factors affecting soil use ------ 142
Gainesville series ---------------------------- 33 Climate ------------------ -------- 142
Hague series ------------------------------- 34 Physiography and drainage --------- ----- 143
Holopaw series __---------- ----------------__ 36 Water ------------------------------------- 144
Jumper series -------------------------------- 36 Farming -------------------------- 144
Kanapaha series ----------------------------_ 37 Transportation ---------------- ------ 144
Kendrick series ------------------------------ 39 Industry and manufacturing ------ ------- 144
Lochloosa series ----------------------------- 40 Schools and medical facilities ----------- 145
Lynne series -------------------------------- 42 Recreation ----------------------- ---------- 145
Martel series ------------------------------- 43 Trends in soil use --------------------------- 145
Martel variant ------------------_------------ 44
Micanopy series ----------------------------- 44 Literature cited 145
Okeechobee series ------- ---------- 46 Glossary --------------------------145
Paisley series ------------------------------- 46
Pamlico series ------------------------------ 47 Guide to mapping units --- ------- Following 148



Issued March 1979







i








Index to Mapping Units
Page Page
AdB-Adamsville sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes --. 17 Ho-Holopaw sand -------------------------- 36
Ae-Anclote sand -------------------------- 17 JuB-Jumper fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -- 37
AN-Anclote-Tomoka association ----------- 17 KaB-Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .. 38
ApB-Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -------- 18 KeA-Kendrick loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes 40
ApC-Apopka sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes -------- 18 KeB-Kendrick loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 40
ArB-Arredondo sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------ 19 KeC-Kendrick loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 40
ArC-Arredondo sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---.-- 20 LoA-Lochloosa fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes 41
AsB-Arredondo-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 per- LoB-Lochloosa fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -_ 41
cent slopes -------------------------- 20 LoC-Lochloosa fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 42
AtB-Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -------- 20 Ly-Lynne sand ------------------------------ 43
AtC-Astatula sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ------ 21 Ma-Martel sandy clay loam .------------------- 43
BcA-Blichton sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes -------- 22 McB-Micanopy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -__ 45
BcB-Blichton sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -------- 22 McC-Micanopy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes -- 45
BdB-Blichton-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent Ok-Okeechobee muck ----------------------- 46
slopes ---------------- ------ --- 22 Pa-Paisley loamy fine sand -------------------- 47
Bf-Bluff sandy clay ----------------- ------- 23 PB-Pamlico-Martel association ----------- 48
BoC-Boardman loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 24 PeB-Pedro-Arredondo complex, 0 to 5 percent
BoD-Boardman loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes- 24 slopes -.----------------------------- --- 49
Bp-Borrow pits ---------------------------- 25 Pm-Placid sand -------------- ----- 50
CaB-Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------- 26 Pn-Placid-Pompano-Pomona complex ------------ 51
CaC-Candler sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes -------- 26 Po-Pomona sand ----------------------- 52
CwA-Candler clay, overwash, 0 to 2 percent Pp-Pompano sand ----------------------------- 52
slopes --------_---------------------------- 26 Pr-Pompano sand, ponded ------------------ 53
Ea-Eaton loamy sand ------------------------ 27 SpB-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -- 54
EcB-Electra sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes --------- 28 SpC-Sparr fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ----- 54
Er-Eureka loamy fine sand -------------------- 29 SuB-Sparr-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
Es-Eureka loamy fine sand, ponded ------------- 29 slopes -------------------------------- 54
FeB-Fellowship loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 30 TaB-Tavares sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ---. 55
FeC-Fellowship loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 30 Tc-Terra Ceia muck ------------------------ 56
FgB-Fellowship gravelly loamy sand, gravelly Te-Terra Ceia muck, acid variant ---------------- 56
subsoil variant, 2 to 5 percent slopes ----------- 31 To-Tomoka muck ---------------------------- 57
FgC-Fellowship gravelly loamy sand, gravelly UaA-Udalfic Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes _-- 58
subsoil variant, & to 8 percent slopes --------- 31 UaF-Udalfic Arents, 15 to 60 percent slopes-- 59
FmA-Flemington loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent Ur-Urban land ----------------------------- 59
slopes -------------------------------- 32 WaC-Wacahoota loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
FmB-Flemington loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ---- ----------------------------- 59
slopes -------------- -------- 33 WgB-Wacahoota gravelly sand, gravelly subsoil
GaB-Gainesville loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes 34 variant, 2 to 5 percent slopes ----- ------- 61
GaC-Gainesville loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 34 WgC-Wacahoota gravelly sand, gravelly subsoil
HaB-Hague sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -------- 35 variant, 5 to 8 percent slopes ----------------- 61
HaC-Hague sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes --------- 35 ZuA-Zuber loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes 62
HgB-Hague-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent ZuB-Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 62
slopes ------------------------------- 35 ZuC-Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 62




























ii








Summary of Tables
Page

Acreage and Proportionate Extent of the Soils (Table 3) ------------------------ 16
Building Site Development (Table 14) --------------- -------------------------- 123
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets.
Chemical Analyses of Selected Soils (Table 18) --------------- ---------- 138
Classification of the Soils (Table 16) --------------------------------------- 132
Family. Subgroup. Order.
Construction Materials (Table 11) --------------------- ------------------- 112
Road fill. Sand, Gravel. Topsoil.
Engineering Properties and Classifications (Table 8) ---------------------- 94
Depth. USDA texture. Classification. Fragments more than 3 inches. Percentage
passing sieve numbers 4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Engineering Test Data (Table 7) ------------------------ --------------- 90
Parent material. FDOT report number. Depth. Moisture density. Mechanical analysis.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Classification.
Limitations for Selected Uses, by Soil Associations (Table 1)----------------- 4
Particle-size Distribution of Selected Soils (Table 17) ------------------------------- 136
Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils (Table 9) ------------------------- 102
Depth. Permeability. Available water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Risk of corrosion. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group.
Probabilities of Last Freezing Temperatures in Spring and First in Fall (Table 20) -- 143
Recreational Development (Table 13) ------------------------------- 119
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Sanitary Facilities (Table 15) --------------------------------------. 127
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoons. Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary
landfill. Daily cover for landfill.
Soil and Water Features (Table 12) ----- __ __--------- -----------__------- 115
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock. Subsidence.
Sources of Construction Material and Water Management, by Soil Associations (Table 2)- 8
Temperature and Precipitation (Table 19) ----------------- -- ___----_ 142
Water Management (Table 10) _-----_---------------------- ---_-------- 107
Pond reservoir areas. Embankments, dikes, and levees. Aquifer-fed excavated ponds.
Drainage. Irrigation Terraces and diversions. Grassed waterways.
Wildlife Habitat Potentials (Table 6) ----------------------------------------- 85
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat.
Woodland Groups (Table 5) -------------------_--------------------------80
Potential productivity. Management. Preferred species.
Yields Per Acre of Crops and Pasture (Table 4) ___ ___--- ------------------------_ 77
Oranges. Grapefruit. Corn. Peanuts. Watermelons. Tomatoes. Grass-clover. Bahia-
grass.




























iii

















UV JGAINESVILLE-^ ;


\i70 M DAYTONA
SCALA BEACH






TAMPA













MIASH






State Agricultural Experiment Station




Location of Marion County Area in Florida.






































iv













SOIL SURVEY OF MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA

BY BUSTER P. THOMAS, LLOYD LAW, JR., AND DANIEL L. STANKEY, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE1
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE, IN COOPERATION WITH
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT
STATIONS, SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT



M ARION COUNTY AREA is in Marion County, A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons,
which is in north-central Florida. See facing in a soil; it extends from the surface down into the
page. The survey area is bounded by Alachua and Put- parent material that has not been changed much by
nam Counties on the north; Levy County on the west; leaching or by the action of plant roots.
the Withlacoochee River, which is between Marion and The soil scientists made comparisons among the
Citrus Counties, on the southwest; Sumter and Lake profiles they studied, and they compared these profiles
Counties on the south; and the Oklawaha River on the with those in counties nearby and in places more dis-
east. tant. They classified and named the soils according to
The survey area is 1,087 square miles, or 695,586 nationwide, uniform procedures. The soil series and
acres. Ocala, the county seat, is in the east-central the soil phase are the categories of soil classification
part of the survey area. The survey area is about 36 most used in a local survey.
miles long, north to south, and 38 miles wide. Accord- Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil
ing to the 1970 census, the area has a population of series. Except for different texture in the surface
about 69,000. Although the population is centered layer, all the soils of one series have major horizons
around Ocala and the other small urban areas, a large that are similar in thickness, arrangement, and other
percentage resides in the predominantly rural parts of important characteristics. A soil series is commonly
the survey area. named for a town or other geographic feature near the
The survey area has been associated mainly with place where a soil of that series was first observed and
farming and forestry throughout its history. It has mapped. Kendrick and Zuber, for example, are the
one of the most diversified farming programs within names of two soil series. All the soils in the United
the State. During recent years, the number of small States having the same series name are essentially
industries has increased. As a result of the influx of alike in those characteristics that affect their behav-
more people into the area, more of the land previously ior in the undisturbed landscape.
used for crops, pasture, and forests is now under Soils of one series can differ in texture of the sur-
urban development. face layer and in slope, stoniness, or some other char-
The survey area is mostly rolling uplands and to a acteristic that affects use of the soils by man. On the
lesser extent nearly level flatwoods. Most of the flat- basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
woods are in the northeast, but small areas are in the phases. The name of a soil phase indicates a feature
extreme southeastern, southwestern, and northwestern that affects management. For example, Kendrick
parts, loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, is one of three
phases within the Kendrick series.
Some soils are closely related to a soil series, but
How This Survey Was Made depart from it in at least one differentiating charac-
teristic and are of too small extent to justify estab-
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds lishing a new series. These are called soil variants.
of soil are in the Marion County Area, where they are They take the name of the closely related series. The
located, and how they can be used. The soil scientists name of mapping units, however, is modified by the
went into the survey area knowing they likely would chief distinguishing feature. Fellowship gravelly
find many soils they had already seen and perhaps loamy sand, gravelly subsoil variant, 2 to 5 percent
some they had not. They observed the steepness, slopes, for example, is the name of a mapping unit in
length, and shape of slopes, the kinds of native plants the Fellowship variant. A soil recognized as a variant
or crops, the kinds of rock, and many other facts about in one survey area can later be designated as a sepa-
the soils. They dug many holes to expose soil profiles, rate series if it is found to be of important extent.
Sr After a guide for classifying and naming the soils
nOthers participating in the field survey were T. C. MATHWS had been worked out, the soil scientists drew the
and M. M. STRIKnER, University of Florida, Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations, and R. M. CRAIG and W. R. LLEWELLYN, Soil boundaries of the individual soils on aerial photo-
Conservation Service. graphs. These photographs show woodlands, buildings,
1






2 SOIL SURVEY

field borders, trees, and other details that help in They see that streets, road pavements, and founda-
drawing boundaries accurately. The soil map at the tions for houses are cracked on a given kind of soil,
back of this publication was prepared from aerial and they relate this failure to a high shrink-swell po-
photographs. tential. Thus, they use observation and knowledge of
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping soil properties, together with available research data,
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in to predict limitations or suitability of soils for present
planning the management of farms and fields, a map- and potential uses.
ping unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not After data have been collected and tested for the
exactly equivalent because it is not practical to show key, or benchmark, soils in a survey area, the soil
on such a map all the small, scattered bits of soil of scientists set up trial groups of soils. They test these
some kind that have been seen within an area that is groups by further study and by consultation with
dominantly of a recognized soil phase. farmers, agronomists, engineers, and others. They
Some mapping units are made up of soils of differ- then adjust the groups according to the results of
ent series, or of different phases within one series, their study and consultation. Thus, the groups that
Two such kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil are finally evolved reflect up-to-date knowledge of the
map of Marion County Area: soil complexes and soil soils and their behavior under current methods of use
associations. and management.
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils
so intricately mixed or so small in size that they can-
not be shown separately on the soil map. Each area of General Soil Map
a complex contains some of each of the two or more
dominant soils, and the pattern and relative propor- The general soil map at the back of this survey
tions are about the same in all areas. Generally, the shows, in color, the soil associations in the Marion
name of a soil complex consists of the names of the County Area. A soil association is a landscape that has
dominant soils, joined by a hyphen. Pedro-Arredondo a distinctive proportional pattern of soils. It typically
complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is an example. consists of one or more major soils and at least one
A soil association is made up of adjacent soils that minor soil, and it is named for the major soils. The
occur as areas large enough to be shown individually soils in one association can occur in another, but in a
on the soil map but are shown as one unit because the different pattern.
time and effort of delineating them separately cannot A map showing soil associations is useful to people
be justified. There is a considerable degree of uni- who want a general idea of the soils in the survey area,
formity in pattern and relative extent of the dominant who want to compare different parts of the area, or
soils, but the soils can differ greatly one from another. who want to know the location of large tracts that are
The name of an association consists of the names of suitable for a certain kind of land use. Such a map is a
the dominant soils, joined by a hyphen. Anclote- useful general guide for broad planning on a water-
Tomoka association is an example. shed, a wooded tract, or a wildlife area or for broad
In most areas surveyed there are places where the planning of engineering works, recreational facilities,
soil material is so rocky, so shallow, so severely and community developments. It is not a suitable map
eroded, or so variable that it has not been classified by for detailed planning for management of a farm or
soil series. These places are shown on the soil map and field or for selecting the exact location of a road, build-
are described in the survey, but they are called land ing, or similar structure because the soils in any one
types and are given descriptive names. Urban land is association ordinarily differ in slope, depth, stoniness,
an example, drainage, and other characteristics that affect their
Some soils in the survey area are not classified at management.
the level of soil series because the soil properties vary Tables 1 and 2 show, by soil associations, the limi-
widely, commonly within short distances. Udalfic stations, suitability, and restrictive features of soils
Parents are an example. for selected uses. Descriptions of these uses are under
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists the headings "Engineering," "Recreation," and "Town
take soil samples needed for laboratory measurements and Country Planning."
and for engineering tests. Laboratory data from the The 10 soil associations in this survey area have
same kinds of soil in other places are also assembled. been grouped into general kinds of landscapes for
Data on yields of crops- under defined practices are broad interpretive purposes. These broad groups and
assembled from farm records and from field or plot the soil associations are described on the following
experiments on the same kinds of soil. Yields under pages
defined management are estimated for all the soils.
Soil scientists observe how soils behave when used
as a growing medium for native and cultivated plants Mainly Excessively Drained, Nearly Level to
and as material for structures, foundations for struc- Strongly Sloping Soils of the Uplands
tures, or covering for structures. They relate this be-
havior to properties of the soils. For example, they ob- Most of the soils in the two associations of this
serve that absorption fields for onsite disposal of group are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. On a
sewage fail on a given kind of soil, and they relate this small acreage they are loamy at a depth of 40 to 80
failure to slow permeability or a high water table, inches. These associations are predominantly in the






2 SOIL SURVEY

field borders, trees, and other details that help in They see that streets, road pavements, and founda-
drawing boundaries accurately. The soil map at the tions for houses are cracked on a given kind of soil,
back of this publication was prepared from aerial and they relate this failure to a high shrink-swell po-
photographs. tential. Thus, they use observation and knowledge of
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping soil properties, together with available research data,
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in to predict limitations or suitability of soils for present
planning the management of farms and fields, a map- and potential uses.
ping unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not After data have been collected and tested for the
exactly equivalent because it is not practical to show key, or benchmark, soils in a survey area, the soil
on such a map all the small, scattered bits of soil of scientists set up trial groups of soils. They test these
some kind that have been seen within an area that is groups by further study and by consultation with
dominantly of a recognized soil phase. farmers, agronomists, engineers, and others. They
Some mapping units are made up of soils of differ- then adjust the groups according to the results of
ent series, or of different phases within one series, their study and consultation. Thus, the groups that
Two such kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil are finally evolved reflect up-to-date knowledge of the
map of Marion County Area: soil complexes and soil soils and their behavior under current methods of use
associations. and management.
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils
so intricately mixed or so small in size that they can-
not be shown separately on the soil map. Each area of General Soil Map
a complex contains some of each of the two or more
dominant soils, and the pattern and relative propor- The general soil map at the back of this survey
tions are about the same in all areas. Generally, the shows, in color, the soil associations in the Marion
name of a soil complex consists of the names of the County Area. A soil association is a landscape that has
dominant soils, joined by a hyphen. Pedro-Arredondo a distinctive proportional pattern of soils. It typically
complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is an example. consists of one or more major soils and at least one
A soil association is made up of adjacent soils that minor soil, and it is named for the major soils. The
occur as areas large enough to be shown individually soils in one association can occur in another, but in a
on the soil map but are shown as one unit because the different pattern.
time and effort of delineating them separately cannot A map showing soil associations is useful to people
be justified. There is a considerable degree of uni- who want a general idea of the soils in the survey area,
formity in pattern and relative extent of the dominant who want to compare different parts of the area, or
soils, but the soils can differ greatly one from another. who want to know the location of large tracts that are
The name of an association consists of the names of suitable for a certain kind of land use. Such a map is a
the dominant soils, joined by a hyphen. Anclote- useful general guide for broad planning on a water-
Tomoka association is an example. shed, a wooded tract, or a wildlife area or for broad
In most areas surveyed there are places where the planning of engineering works, recreational facilities,
soil material is so rocky, so shallow, so severely and community developments. It is not a suitable map
eroded, or so variable that it has not been classified by for detailed planning for management of a farm or
soil series. These places are shown on the soil map and field or for selecting the exact location of a road, build-
are described in the survey, but they are called land ing, or similar structure because the soils in any one
types and are given descriptive names. Urban land is association ordinarily differ in slope, depth, stoniness,
an example, drainage, and other characteristics that affect their
Some soils in the survey area are not classified at management.
the level of soil series because the soil properties vary Tables 1 and 2 show, by soil associations, the limi-
widely, commonly within short distances. Udalfic stations, suitability, and restrictive features of soils
Parents are an example. for selected uses. Descriptions of these uses are under
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists the headings "Engineering," "Recreation," and "Town
take soil samples needed for laboratory measurements and Country Planning."
and for engineering tests. Laboratory data from the The 10 soil associations in this survey area have
same kinds of soil in other places are also assembled. been grouped into general kinds of landscapes for
Data on yields of crops- under defined practices are broad interpretive purposes. These broad groups and
assembled from farm records and from field or plot the soil associations are described on the following
experiments on the same kinds of soil. Yields under pages
defined management are estimated for all the soils.
Soil scientists observe how soils behave when used
as a growing medium for native and cultivated plants Mainly Excessively Drained, Nearly Level to
and as material for structures, foundations for struc- Strongly Sloping Soils of the Uplands
tures, or covering for structures. They relate this be-
havior to properties of the soils. For example, they ob- Most of the soils in the two associations of this
serve that absorption fields for onsite disposal of group are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. On a
sewage fail on a given kind of soil, and they relate this small acreage they are loamy at a depth of 40 to 80
failure to slow permeability or a high water table, inches. These associations are predominantly in the






MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

southern part of the survey area. Smaller areas are in small areas of steeper, sharp-breaking slopes. The na-
the northeastern part. tural vegetation is turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak,
1. Astatula association and scattered longleaf pine (fig. 1) and an understory
1. statula association of pineland three-awn and lichens. In the more poorly
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained drained areas, it is slash pine, longleaf pine, gallberry,
soils, sandy to, a depth of more than 80 inches and oak. In the swamps, it is mostly bay, gum, cypress,
The landscape of this association is one of undu- and water-tolerant grasses and sedges.
lating sandhills and a few small grassy ponds. There This association makes up about 29 percent, or
are only four areas of this association. The most ex- 201,720 acres, of the survey area. It is about 77 per-
tensive one is in the southern part of the survey area cent Candler soils, 8 percent Apopka soils, and 15 per-
west of Interstate Highway 75. It extends north from cent Adamsville, Astatula, Pomona, Pompano, and
the county line for about 8 miles and in most places is Tavares soils.
less than 2 miles wide. Three smaller, isolated areas Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
are about 3 and 12 miles southwest of Ocala and 2 surface layer is dark gray sand. Below this to a depth
miles northwest of Candler. of about 67 inches is yellow sand. Very pale brown
The soils are deep, drought sands more than 80 sand that has thin bands of yellowish brown loamy
inches thick. In places the sand is more than 120 sand is between depths of 67 and 109 inches.
inches thick. Slopes are mostly 2 to 8 percent, but Apopka soils are well drained. Typically, the sur-
range from 0 to 12. The natural vegetation is chiefly face layer is yellow sand about 49 inches thick. The
sand pine, bluejack oak, and sand live oak and a sparse subsoil is mostly yellowish red sandy clay loam.
understory of rosemary, pineland three-awn, and pal- Most of this association is still in natural vegeta-
meto. Around the edges of some of the mall ponds is tion. A few large areas are under residential and ur-
scattered slash pine, longleaf pine, and palmetto. Wet- ban development. The rest is dominantly in citrus or
land grasses and sedges are in the ponds. improved pasture. Nearly all the citrus groves in the
This association makes up about 1 percent, or 6,960 improved pasture. Nearly all the citrus groves in the
T of the survy area. It is about 9 percent, or 6,90 southeastern part of the survey area are in this associ-
acres, of the survey area. It is about 94 percent Asta- ation. The soils are fairly well suited to some locally
tula soils and 6 percent Adamsville, Candler, Electra, grown crops. They are moderately well suited to im-
PompAstatula soils and Tavare excessively drained. They com soilsproved pasture. If wooded, they provide protection
Astatula soils are excessively drained. They com- and a fair supply of food for wildlife.
only have a 1-inch covering of leaves, roots, pine
needles, twigs, and partly decomposed organic matter
at the surface. Typically, the surface layer is gray Well Drained, Nearly Level to Sloping Soils
sand and the underlying material is yellowish brown of the Uplands
and very pale brown sand.
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- Most of the soils in the two associations of this
tion. Some areas have been cleared and are under group are sandy in the upper 20 to 80 inches and
residential and urban development. The soils are too loamy below. Some are sandy throughout, and a few
drought and too low in fertility to be suited to culti- are sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches and clayey
vated crops. They are of only limited use for improved below. These associations are mostly in the central
pasture and citrus. If left in woodland, they provide part of the survey area, extending from Sumter
protection for wildlife but only a limited supply of County in the south to Alachua County in the north.
food. Some areas are in the western part, mostly around
2. Candler-Apopka association Martel and Romeo.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained 3. Arredondo-Gainesville association
and well drained sandy soils, some with thin sandy Nearly level to sloping, well drained soils, some sandy
loam lamellae at a depth of 60 to 80 inches and others to a depth of more than 40 inches and loamy below
loamy at a depth of 40 to 80 inches and others sandy throughout
The landscape of this association is one of broad, The landscape of this association is one of rolling
rolling sandhills and swamps, small ponds, and a few uplands interspersed with a few small sinkholes and
sand-bottom lakes. The lakes are mostly less than 10 other depressions and small somewhat poorly drained
acres in size, but those in the southeastern part of the and poorly drained areas. A few isolated spots are
survey area range from about 2 to more than 40 acres. ponded.
Most of the association is in the southeastern and This association occurs dominantly within the cen-
southwestern parts of the survey area. A large area in tral part of the survey area, extending from Alachua
the southeastern part, however, extends north to County in the north to Sumter County in the south. A
within 5 miles of the Alachua County line. This area few areas occur in the western part, mostly around
occurs as a strip, about 2 miles wide, just east of Martel and Romeo and along the Levy County line. In
Ocala. Smaller areas of the association are around four small areas, limestone is about 6 to 63 inches be-
Citra and Orange Springs. low the surface and numerous outcrops of limestone
This association generally occurs as broad, nearly boulders are on the surface. The two largest of these
level to sloping, deep sandy areas intermixed with areas are along the Levy County line in the north-






MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

southern part of the survey area. Smaller areas are in small areas of steeper, sharp-breaking slopes. The na-
the northeastern part. tural vegetation is turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak,
1. Astatula association and scattered longleaf pine (fig. 1) and an understory
1. statula association of pineland three-awn and lichens. In the more poorly
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained drained areas, it is slash pine, longleaf pine, gallberry,
soils, sandy to, a depth of more than 80 inches and oak. In the swamps, it is mostly bay, gum, cypress,
The landscape of this association is one of undu- and water-tolerant grasses and sedges.
lating sandhills and a few small grassy ponds. There This association makes up about 29 percent, or
are only four areas of this association. The most ex- 201,720 acres, of the survey area. It is about 77 per-
tensive one is in the southern part of the survey area cent Candler soils, 8 percent Apopka soils, and 15 per-
west of Interstate Highway 75. It extends north from cent Adamsville, Astatula, Pomona, Pompano, and
the county line for about 8 miles and in most places is Tavares soils.
less than 2 miles wide. Three smaller, isolated areas Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
are about 3 and 12 miles southwest of Ocala and 2 surface layer is dark gray sand. Below this to a depth
miles northwest of Candler. of about 67 inches is yellow sand. Very pale brown
The soils are deep, drought sands more than 80 sand that has thin bands of yellowish brown loamy
inches thick. In places the sand is more than 120 sand is between depths of 67 and 109 inches.
inches thick. Slopes are mostly 2 to 8 percent, but Apopka soils are well drained. Typically, the sur-
range from 0 to 12. The natural vegetation is chiefly face layer is yellow sand about 49 inches thick. The
sand pine, bluejack oak, and sand live oak and a sparse subsoil is mostly yellowish red sandy clay loam.
understory of rosemary, pineland three-awn, and pal- Most of this association is still in natural vegeta-
meto. Around the edges of some of the mall ponds is tion. A few large areas are under residential and ur-
scattered slash pine, longleaf pine, and palmetto. Wet- ban development. The rest is dominantly in citrus or
land grasses and sedges are in the ponds. improved pasture. Nearly all the citrus groves in the
This association makes up about 1 percent, or 6,960 improved pasture. Nearly all the citrus groves in the
T of the survy area. It is about 9 percent, or 6,90 southeastern part of the survey area are in this associ-
acres, of the survey area. It is about 94 percent Asta- ation. The soils are fairly well suited to some locally
tula soils and 6 percent Adamsville, Candler, Electra, grown crops. They are moderately well suited to im-
PompAstatula soils and Tavare excessively drained. They com soilsproved pasture. If wooded, they provide protection
Astatula soils are excessively drained. They com- and a fair supply of food for wildlife.
only have a 1-inch covering of leaves, roots, pine
needles, twigs, and partly decomposed organic matter
at the surface. Typically, the surface layer is gray Well Drained, Nearly Level to Sloping Soils
sand and the underlying material is yellowish brown of the Uplands
and very pale brown sand.
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- Most of the soils in the two associations of this
tion. Some areas have been cleared and are under group are sandy in the upper 20 to 80 inches and
residential and urban development. The soils are too loamy below. Some are sandy throughout, and a few
drought and too low in fertility to be suited to culti- are sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches and clayey
vated crops. They are of only limited use for improved below. These associations are mostly in the central
pasture and citrus. If left in woodland, they provide part of the survey area, extending from Sumter
protection for wildlife but only a limited supply of County in the south to Alachua County in the north.
food. Some areas are in the western part, mostly around
2. Candler-Apopka association Martel and Romeo.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained 3. Arredondo-Gainesville association
and well drained sandy soils, some with thin sandy Nearly level to sloping, well drained soils, some sandy
loam lamellae at a depth of 60 to 80 inches and others to a depth of more than 40 inches and loamy below
loamy at a depth of 40 to 80 inches and others sandy throughout
The landscape of this association is one of broad, The landscape of this association is one of rolling
rolling sandhills and swamps, small ponds, and a few uplands interspersed with a few small sinkholes and
sand-bottom lakes. The lakes are mostly less than 10 other depressions and small somewhat poorly drained
acres in size, but those in the southeastern part of the and poorly drained areas. A few isolated spots are
survey area range from about 2 to more than 40 acres. ponded.
Most of the association is in the southeastern and This association occurs dominantly within the cen-
southwestern parts of the survey area. A large area in tral part of the survey area, extending from Alachua
the southeastern part, however, extends north to County in the north to Sumter County in the south. A
within 5 miles of the Alachua County line. This area few areas occur in the western part, mostly around
occurs as a strip, about 2 miles wide, just east of Martel and Romeo and along the Levy County line. In
Ocala. Smaller areas of the association are around four small areas, limestone is about 6 to 63 inches be-
Citra and Orange Springs. low the surface and numerous outcrops of limestone
This association generally occurs as broad, nearly boulders are on the surface. The two largest of these
level to sloping, deep sandy areas intermixed with areas are along the Levy County line in the north-






MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

southern part of the survey area. Smaller areas are in small areas of steeper, sharp-breaking slopes. The na-
the northeastern part. tural vegetation is turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak,
1. Astatula association and scattered longleaf pine (fig. 1) and an understory
1. statula association of pineland three-awn and lichens. In the more poorly
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained drained areas, it is slash pine, longleaf pine, gallberry,
soils, sandy to, a depth of more than 80 inches and oak. In the swamps, it is mostly bay, gum, cypress,
The landscape of this association is one of undu- and water-tolerant grasses and sedges.
lating sandhills and a few small grassy ponds. There This association makes up about 29 percent, or
are only four areas of this association. The most ex- 201,720 acres, of the survey area. It is about 77 per-
tensive one is in the southern part of the survey area cent Candler soils, 8 percent Apopka soils, and 15 per-
west of Interstate Highway 75. It extends north from cent Adamsville, Astatula, Pomona, Pompano, and
the county line for about 8 miles and in most places is Tavares soils.
less than 2 miles wide. Three smaller, isolated areas Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
are about 3 and 12 miles southwest of Ocala and 2 surface layer is dark gray sand. Below this to a depth
miles northwest of Candler. of about 67 inches is yellow sand. Very pale brown
The soils are deep, drought sands more than 80 sand that has thin bands of yellowish brown loamy
inches thick. In places the sand is more than 120 sand is between depths of 67 and 109 inches.
inches thick. Slopes are mostly 2 to 8 percent, but Apopka soils are well drained. Typically, the sur-
range from 0 to 12. The natural vegetation is chiefly face layer is yellow sand about 49 inches thick. The
sand pine, bluejack oak, and sand live oak and a sparse subsoil is mostly yellowish red sandy clay loam.
understory of rosemary, pineland three-awn, and pal- Most of this association is still in natural vegeta-
meto. Around the edges of some of the mall ponds is tion. A few large areas are under residential and ur-
scattered slash pine, longleaf pine, and palmetto. Wet- ban development. The rest is dominantly in citrus or
land grasses and sedges are in the ponds. improved pasture. Nearly all the citrus groves in the
This association makes up about 1 percent, or 6,960 improved pasture. Nearly all the citrus groves in the
T of the survy area. It is about 9 percent, or 6,90 southeastern part of the survey area are in this associ-
acres, of the survey area. It is about 94 percent Asta- ation. The soils are fairly well suited to some locally
tula soils and 6 percent Adamsville, Candler, Electra, grown crops. They are moderately well suited to im-
PompAstatula soils and Tavare excessively drained. They com soilsproved pasture. If wooded, they provide protection
Astatula soils are excessively drained. They com- and a fair supply of food for wildlife.
only have a 1-inch covering of leaves, roots, pine
needles, twigs, and partly decomposed organic matter
at the surface. Typically, the surface layer is gray Well Drained, Nearly Level to Sloping Soils
sand and the underlying material is yellowish brown of the Uplands
and very pale brown sand.
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- Most of the soils in the two associations of this
tion. Some areas have been cleared and are under group are sandy in the upper 20 to 80 inches and
residential and urban development. The soils are too loamy below. Some are sandy throughout, and a few
drought and too low in fertility to be suited to culti- are sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches and clayey
vated crops. They are of only limited use for improved below. These associations are mostly in the central
pasture and citrus. If left in woodland, they provide part of the survey area, extending from Sumter
protection for wildlife but only a limited supply of County in the south to Alachua County in the north.
food. Some areas are in the western part, mostly around
2. Candler-Apopka association Martel and Romeo.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained 3. Arredondo-Gainesville association
and well drained sandy soils, some with thin sandy Nearly level to sloping, well drained soils, some sandy
loam lamellae at a depth of 60 to 80 inches and others to a depth of more than 40 inches and loamy below
loamy at a depth of 40 to 80 inches and others sandy throughout
The landscape of this association is one of broad, The landscape of this association is one of rolling
rolling sandhills and swamps, small ponds, and a few uplands interspersed with a few small sinkholes and
sand-bottom lakes. The lakes are mostly less than 10 other depressions and small somewhat poorly drained
acres in size, but those in the southeastern part of the and poorly drained areas. A few isolated spots are
survey area range from about 2 to more than 40 acres. ponded.
Most of the association is in the southeastern and This association occurs dominantly within the cen-
southwestern parts of the survey area. A large area in tral part of the survey area, extending from Alachua
the southeastern part, however, extends north to County in the north to Sumter County in the south. A
within 5 miles of the Alachua County line. This area few areas occur in the western part, mostly around
occurs as a strip, about 2 miles wide, just east of Martel and Romeo and along the Levy County line. In
Ocala. Smaller areas of the association are around four small areas, limestone is about 6 to 63 inches be-
Citra and Orange Springs. low the surface and numerous outcrops of limestone
This association generally occurs as broad, nearly boulders are on the surface. The two largest of these
level to sloping, deep sandy areas intermixed with areas are along the Levy County line in the north-






MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

southern part of the survey area. Smaller areas are in small areas of steeper, sharp-breaking slopes. The na-
the northeastern part. tural vegetation is turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak,
1. Astatula association and scattered longleaf pine (fig. 1) and an understory
1. statula association of pineland three-awn and lichens. In the more poorly
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained drained areas, it is slash pine, longleaf pine, gallberry,
soils, sandy to, a depth of more than 80 inches and oak. In the swamps, it is mostly bay, gum, cypress,
The landscape of this association is one of undu- and water-tolerant grasses and sedges.
lating sandhills and a few small grassy ponds. There This association makes up about 29 percent, or
are only four areas of this association. The most ex- 201,720 acres, of the survey area. It is about 77 per-
tensive one is in the southern part of the survey area cent Candler soils, 8 percent Apopka soils, and 15 per-
west of Interstate Highway 75. It extends north from cent Adamsville, Astatula, Pomona, Pompano, and
the county line for about 8 miles and in most places is Tavares soils.
less than 2 miles wide. Three smaller, isolated areas Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
are about 3 and 12 miles southwest of Ocala and 2 surface layer is dark gray sand. Below this to a depth
miles northwest of Candler. of about 67 inches is yellow sand. Very pale brown
The soils are deep, drought sands more than 80 sand that has thin bands of yellowish brown loamy
inches thick. In places the sand is more than 120 sand is between depths of 67 and 109 inches.
inches thick. Slopes are mostly 2 to 8 percent, but Apopka soils are well drained. Typically, the sur-
range from 0 to 12. The natural vegetation is chiefly face layer is yellow sand about 49 inches thick. The
sand pine, bluejack oak, and sand live oak and a sparse subsoil is mostly yellowish red sandy clay loam.
understory of rosemary, pineland three-awn, and pal- Most of this association is still in natural vegeta-
meto. Around the edges of some of the mall ponds is tion. A few large areas are under residential and ur-
scattered slash pine, longleaf pine, and palmetto. Wet- ban development. The rest is dominantly in citrus or
land grasses and sedges are in the ponds. improved pasture. Nearly all the citrus groves in the
This association makes up about 1 percent, or 6,960 improved pasture. Nearly all the citrus groves in the
T of the survy area. It is about 9 percent, or 6,90 southeastern part of the survey area are in this associ-
acres, of the survey area. It is about 94 percent Asta- ation. The soils are fairly well suited to some locally
tula soils and 6 percent Adamsville, Candler, Electra, grown crops. They are moderately well suited to im-
PompAstatula soils and Tavare excessively drained. They com soilsproved pasture. If wooded, they provide protection
Astatula soils are excessively drained. They com- and a fair supply of food for wildlife.
only have a 1-inch covering of leaves, roots, pine
needles, twigs, and partly decomposed organic matter
at the surface. Typically, the surface layer is gray Well Drained, Nearly Level to Sloping Soils
sand and the underlying material is yellowish brown of the Uplands
and very pale brown sand.
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- Most of the soils in the two associations of this
tion. Some areas have been cleared and are under group are sandy in the upper 20 to 80 inches and
residential and urban development. The soils are too loamy below. Some are sandy throughout, and a few
drought and too low in fertility to be suited to culti- are sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches and clayey
vated crops. They are of only limited use for improved below. These associations are mostly in the central
pasture and citrus. If left in woodland, they provide part of the survey area, extending from Sumter
protection for wildlife but only a limited supply of County in the south to Alachua County in the north.
food. Some areas are in the western part, mostly around
2. Candler-Apopka association Martel and Romeo.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained 3. Arredondo-Gainesville association
and well drained sandy soils, some with thin sandy Nearly level to sloping, well drained soils, some sandy
loam lamellae at a depth of 60 to 80 inches and others to a depth of more than 40 inches and loamy below
loamy at a depth of 40 to 80 inches and others sandy throughout
The landscape of this association is one of broad, The landscape of this association is one of rolling
rolling sandhills and swamps, small ponds, and a few uplands interspersed with a few small sinkholes and
sand-bottom lakes. The lakes are mostly less than 10 other depressions and small somewhat poorly drained
acres in size, but those in the southeastern part of the and poorly drained areas. A few isolated spots are
survey area range from about 2 to more than 40 acres. ponded.
Most of the association is in the southeastern and This association occurs dominantly within the cen-
southwestern parts of the survey area. A large area in tral part of the survey area, extending from Alachua
the southeastern part, however, extends north to County in the north to Sumter County in the south. A
within 5 miles of the Alachua County line. This area few areas occur in the western part, mostly around
occurs as a strip, about 2 miles wide, just east of Martel and Romeo and along the Levy County line. In
Ocala. Smaller areas of the association are around four small areas, limestone is about 6 to 63 inches be-
Citra and Orange Springs. low the surface and numerous outcrops of limestone
This association generally occurs as broad, nearly boulders are on the surface. The two largest of these
level to sloping, deep sandy areas intermixed with areas are along the Levy County line in the north-







4 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 1.-LIMITATIONS FOR SELECTED
Degree and kind of limitation for-
Name of association, Sanitary facilities
percentage, and Percent of Septic tank Trench Area
component soils association absorption Sewage sanitary sanitary Shallow
fields lagoon areas landfill landfill excavations
1. Astatula (1 percent) _- __ Slight --- Severe------_ Severe------ Severe ------ Severe
Astatula --------94 Slight' ---- Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: cut-
Minor soils seepage. seepage, seepage. banks cave.
Minor soils ........-----. 6 too sandy.
2. Candler-Apopka (29 percent) -- Slight ------ Severe ----- Severe ------ Severe ---- Severe--
Candler ----------------- 77 Slight ---- Severe: Severe: seep- Severe: Severe: cut-
seepage. age,too seepage, banks cave.
sandy.
Apopka ----------------- 8 Slight ------ Severe: Severe: too Slight ------- Severe: cut-
Minor soils----- 15 seepage. sandy. banks cave.
3. Arredondo-Gainesville (16
percent) ----------- -- Slight ------ Severe ---- Severe--- Severe ------ Severe
Arredondo --------_-- 71 Slight ------ Severe: Severe: seep- Severe: Severe: cut-
seepage, age, too seepage, banks cave.
sandy.
Gainesville ---------- 6 Slight ------ Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: cut-
seepage. seepage, seepage. banks cave.
Minor soils -------------- 23
4. Kendrick-Hague-Zuber (9
percent) _- -------- Slight ------ Moderate -- Slight -- Slight Slight
Kendrick --- ----------- 52 Slight ------- Moderate: Slight ----- Slight --- Slight -----
seepage.
Hague --- --------- 17 Slight -__-- Moderate: Slight ------ Slight Slight
seepage.
Zuber ------___________13 Severe: percs Moderate: Moderate: Slight ---- Moderate:
slowly slope, too clayey. too clayey.

Minor soils ------------- 18
5. Sparr-Lochloosa-Tavares (9
percent) ------------------- Moderate --- Severe ------ Severe ---- Moderate -_- Severe_
Sparr --------- 44 Moderate: Severe: Severe: Moderate: Severe: cut-
wetness, wetness. wetness, wetness. banks cave.
Lochloosa --- _----- 18 Severe: Severe: Severe: Moderate: Severe: wet-
wetness. wetness, wetness, wetness. ness, cut-
banks cave.
Tavares------------- 14 Moderate: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: cut-
wetness. seepage, wetness, seepage, banks cave.
Minor soils------- 24 seepage.
6. Lynne-Pomona-Pompano (9
percent) ----------- ---Severe ------- Severe----- Severe ---- Severe------- Severe
Lynne -------------- 32 Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: cut-
ness, percs wetness, wetness, wetness, banks cave,
slowly, wetness.
Pomona ___--- 30 Severe: Severe: Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: wet-
wetness. wetness. ness, too wetness. ness, cut-
sandy. banks cave.
Pompano ---------------- 10 Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: wet-
wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness, ness cut-
seepage, seepage, seepage, banks cave.
Minor soils _- -------- 28
7. Eureka-Paisley-Eaton (7
percent) --------- Severe ----- Severe------ Severe ------ Severe ------ Severe
Eureka ----------------- 40 Severe: percs Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe:
slowly, wetness, wetness, wetness. wetness.
wetness.








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 5

USES, BY SOIL ASSOCIATIONS
Degree and kind of limitation for-Continued
Building site development _Recreational development
Dwellings Dwellings Small
without with commercial Local roads Camp areas Picnic areas Playgrounds Paths and
basements basements buildings and streets ___ trails
Slight--- Slight .--- Slight --- Slight ---- Severe ----. Severe ------- Severe ------ Severe.
Slight -------Slight ------ Slight ------ Slight -_---. Severe: too Severe: too Severe: too Severe: too
sandy, sandy. sandy. sandy.

Slight--- Slight ------Slight --- Slight --- Slight ------- Severe ------- Severe ----- Severe.
Slight----- Slight --- Slight ------ Slight __---- Severe: too Severe: too Severe: too Severe: too
sandy. sandy, sandy. sandy.

Slight ------ Slight ------ Slighta _--- Slight -___-_- Moderate: Moderate: Severe: too Moderate:
too sandy, too sandy. sandy, too sandy.


Slight------ Slight --- Slight--- Slight ----- Moderate --- Moderate --- Severe ----- Moderate.
Slight----- Slight -- Slight' ______ Slight ---_____ Moderate: Moderate: Severe: too Moderate:
too sandy. too sandy, sandy, too sandy.
Slight ------ Slight ------ Slight ------ Slight --- Moderate: Moderate: Moderate: Moderate:
too sandy. too sandy. too sandy, too sandy.
slope.



Slight -- Slight --- Slight ---- Moderate Moderate -- Moderate Moderate __ Moderate.
Slight --_-- Slight ----- Slight ______ Moderate: Moderate: Moderate: Moderate:' Moderate:
low too sandy. too sandy, too sandy, too sandy.
strength, slope.
Slight ------. Slight ----- Slight' ------Slight ----- Moderate: Moderate: Severe: too Moderate:
too sandy, too sandy, sandy. too sandy.
Moderate: Moderate: Moderate: Severe: low Slight ------ Slight ---- Moderate:' Slight.
shrink- shrink- shrink-swell, strength, slope.
swell, low swell, low slope, low
strength, strength, strength.


Moderate ---- Severe -------Moderate ___. Moderate -- Moderate Moderate -- Severe ----. Moderate.
Moderate: Severe: Moderate: Moderate: Moderate: Moderate: Severe: too Moderate:
wetness, wetness, wetness. wetness. too sandy. too sandy, sandy. too sandy.
Moderate: Moderate: Moderate: Moderate: Moderate: Moderate: Severe: too Moderate:
wetness, wetness, low wetness, low wetness, low too sandy, too sandy. sandy, too sandy,
low strength, strength, strength, wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness.
strength.
Slight ------ Moderate: Slight -----___ Slight -_---__ Moderate: Moderate: Severe: too Moderate:
wetness. too sandy. too sandy. sandy, too sandy.



Severe------- Severe------ Severe _____ -- Severe ----- Severe ------Severe ----- Severe ------ Severe.
Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: low Severe: Severe: Severe: wet- Severe:
wetness, wetness, wetness. strength, wetness. wetness. ness, too wetness.
wetness, sandy.
Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: wet- Severe:
wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness. wetness, ness, too wetness.
sandy.
Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: wet- Severe:
wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness. wetness. ness, too wetness.
corrosive, sandy.


Severe------- Severe ---- Severe ....- Severe ----- Severe ---- Severe ------- Severe ------. Severe.
Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: percs Severe: Severe: percs Severe:
shrink- shrink- shrink- shrink- slowly, wetness, slowly, wetness.
swell, low swell, low swell, low swell, low wetness, wetness.
strength, strength, strength, strength,
wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness.








6 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 1.-LIMITATIONS FOR SELECTED
Degree and kind of limitation for-
Name of association, Sanitary facilities
percentage, and Percent of Septic tank Trench Area
component soils association absorption Sewage sanitary sanitary Shallow
fields lagoon areas landfill landfill excavations
Paisley ------------------ 23 Severe: percs Severe: Severe: wet- Severe: Severe:
slowly, wetness. ness, too wetness, wetness,
wetness. clayey. too clayey.

Eaton ------------------ 10 Severe: percs Severe: Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: wet-
slowly, wetness. ness, too wetness. ness, cut-
wetness, sandy. banks cave.
Minor soils -------------- 27
8. Blichton-Flemington-Kanapaha
(15 percent) ________ Severe -- --- Severe ------- Severe --__- Severe ----. Severe -
Blichton-------- 33 Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe:
ness. wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness.
Flemington ____________ 24 Severe: wet- Moderate: Severe: wet- Severe: Severe:
ness, peres slope. ness, too wetness. wetness,
slowly. clayey, too clayey.

Kanapaha --------- 8 Severe: Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: Severe: cut-
wetness. ness, slope, wetness, wetness, banks cave,
Minor soils -____ 35 too sandy, wetness.

9. Bluff-Martel (1 percent) --___ Severe ------- Severe ------- Severe --_----Severe _-- Severe
Bluff -----------40 Severe: percs Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet-
slowly, wet- ness, floods. ness, floods. ness, floods. ness, floods.
ness, floods.

Martel -------------- 30 Severe: percs Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe:
slowly, wetness. wetness, wetness, wetness,
wetness. too clayey.

Minor soils ------ 30
10. Okeechobee-Terra Ceia-Tomoka
(4 percent) __________ Severe ------ Severe ------ Severe ------- Severe ------- Severe
Okeechobee ----_________ 26 Severe: Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: wet-
wetness. ness, excess ness, excess wetness, ness, excess
humus, humus, seepage. humus.
seepage. seepage.
Terra Ceia -------------- 26 Severe: Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: wet-
wetness. ness, seep- ness, seep- wetness, ness, excess
age, excess age, excess seepage. humus.
humus. humus.
Tomoka _.----- _________ 9 Severe: Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: wet-
wetness. ness, seep- ness, seep- wetness, ness, excess
age, excess age, excess seepage. humus, cut-
humus. humus. banks cave.
Minor soils ------------ 39

SFoundation requirements do not exceed those of ordinary three-story dwellings.
*Because of very rapid permeability, pollution is a possible hazard to nearby lakes, ponds, streams, and other water supplies.


western part of the survey area, one about 3 miles pine, live oak, water oak, laurel oak, magnolia, and
northeast of the intersection of State Roads 200 and dogwood. In the more poorly drained areas, it is
484 and the other north of Citra. chiefly a growth of slash pine, loblolly pine, oak, sweet-
This association is mostly well drained. It is domi- gum, and waxmyrtle.
nantly nearly level and gently sloping, but a few areas This association makes up about 16 percent, or
break sharply for short distances. The small depres- 111,290 acres, of the survey area. It is about 71 per-
sions, which are at the base of slopes, are commonly cent Arredondo soils, 6 percent Gainesville soils, and
well drained and have a surface layer of sandy col- 23 percent Apopka, Candler, Hague, Kanapaha, Ken-
luvium. The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash drick, Pedro, and Sparr soils.







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 7

USES, BY SOIL ASSOCIATIONS-Continued
Degree and kind of limitation for-Continued
Building site development Recreational development
Dwellings Dwellings Small
without with commercial Local roads Camp areas Picnic areas Playgrounds Paths and
basements basements buildings and streets trails
Severe: Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: percs Severe: Severe: Severe:
wetness, ness, shrink- ness, shrink ness, shrink- slowly, wetness, wetness. wetness.
shrink- swell, low swell, low swell, low wetness.
swell, low strength, strength, strength.
strength.
Severe: Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: wet- Severe:
wetness. ness, low ness, low ness, low ness, percs wetness. ness, too wetness.
strength, strength, strength, slowly, sandy.


Severe ----- Severe ------- Severe ------. Severe ------- Severe------ Severe ___------- Severe ------ Severe.
Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe:
wetness, wetness. wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness. wetness.
corrosive.
Severe: Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe:
wetness, ness, shrink- ness, shrink- shrink- wetness, wetness. wetness. wetness.
shrink- swell, low swell, low swell, low
swell, low strength, strength, strength,
strength, wetness.
Severe: Severe: Severe: Severe: Moderate: Moderate: Severe: too Moderate:
wetness, wetness, wetness, wetness. too sandy. too sandy. sandy, slope, too sandy.


Severe ------- Severe ------ Severe ------ Severe ------- Severe ------- Severe ------_ Severe ------ Severe.
Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe:
ness, floods, ness, floods, ness, floods, ness, floods, ness, floods, ness, floods. ness, floods, wetness,
shrink- shrink- shrink-swell shrink- percs solwly. floods.
swell, swell, swell, low
strength.
Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: Severe: Severe:
ness, shrink- ness, shrink- ness, shrink- ness, shrink- ness, percs wetness, wetness. wetness.
swell, low swell, low swell, low swell, low slowly.
strength, strength, strength, strength.



Severe ------. Severe -----. Severe -----. Severe ------ Severe ------- Severe ---- Severe ----. Severe.
Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet-
ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess
humus, low humus, low humus, low humus, low humus, humus. humus, humus.
strength, strength, strength, strength.
Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet-
ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess
humus, low humus, low humus, low humus, low humus. humus, humus, humus.
strength, strength, strength, strength.
Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet- Severe: wet-
ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess ness, excess
humus, low humus, low humus, low humus, low humus. humus, humus, humus.
strength, strength, strength, strength.
corrosive.

Moderate if slope is 4 to 8 percent
SSevere if slope is 6 to 8 percent.


Arredondo soils are well drained. Typically, the more than 80 inches is brown and strong brown loamy
surface layer is dark grayish brown sand. It is under- sand.
lain, to a depth of about 65 inches, by yellowish brown Most of this association is in crops or improved
and strong brown sand. Below this is strong brown pasture. A large part is still in natural vegetation.
loamy sand and fine sandy loam. Some areas have been subdivided and are under resi-
Gainesville soils are well drained. Typically, the sur- dential and urban development. A few are in citrus.
face layer is very dark grayish brown and dark brown Wooded areas provide protection and a fair supply of
loamy sand. The underlying material to a depth of food for wildlife.








8 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 2.-SOURCES OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL


Suitability as a source of-

Name of association, Percent of
percentage, and association Road fill Sand Topsoil
component soils

1. Astatula (1 percent) ------------- __ Good ---------- Good --------- Poor
Astatula --------- ----- 94 Good -------- Good ---------- Poor: too sandy -

Minor soils ------------------- 6
2. Candler-Apopka (29 percent) --.---__ Good --------- Good ---------- Poor-

Candler -------_-- __------77 Good -- ------ Good ___------ Poor: too sandy

Apopka ---------------- 8 Good -------- Good ------- Poor: too sandy

Minor soils --------------- -15
3. Arredondo-Gainesville (16 percent) -_ Good ------------ Fair ----------- Poor-
Arredondo -------- -------- 71 Good ----------Fair: excess fines Poor: too sandy
Gainesville --------------- 6 Good ----- Poor: excess fines Poor: too sandy
Minor soils -- ------------ 23
4. Kendrick-Hague-Zuber (9 percent) --- Fair ------- Unsuited --------- Poor
Kendrick ------- ---------52 Fair: low strength- Unsuited: excess Poor: too sandy
fines.
Hague -------------- --- 17 Good --------- Unsuited: excess Poor: too sandy
fines.
Zuber --- ------------ 13 Poor: low Unsuited: excess Poor: too sandy
strength. fines.
Minor soils -------------------- 18
5. Sparr-Lochloosa-Tavares (9 percent) Good ------- Fair ------------ Poor
Sparr ---------------------- 44 Good -----------Fair: excess fines Poor: too sandy
Lochloosa -------- ------ 18 Fair: low Unsuited: excess Poor: too sandy -
strength, fines.
Tavares ----------------- ----- 14 Good ----------_ Good ------------ Poor: too sandy -
Minor soils --------- ------- 24
6. Lynne-Pomona-Pompano (9 percent) Poor ---------- Fair ----- --_- Poor -----
Lynne --------- ------ _____ ----32 Poor: low Fair: excess fines Poor: too sandy,
strength, wetness.
Pomona ------------------------ 30 Good -------- Fair: excess fines Poor: too sandy,
wetness
Pompano ----- _----- -- ----10 Poor: wetness __- Good ------------ Poor: too sandy,
Minor soils --------------------- 28 wetness.
7. Eureka-Paisley-Eaton (7 percent) --- Poor ----------- Unsuited --------- Poo -
Eureka ____--------- ------------40 Poor: shrink- Unsuited: excess Poor: wetness,
swell, low fines, too sandy.
strength, wetness.
Paisley ------------------------ 23 Poor: shrink- Unsuited: excess Poor: wetness,
swell, low fines, too sandy, thin
strength, wetness. layer.
Eaton _____---- ------------_ 10 Poor: wetness, Unsuited: excess Poor: wetness,
low strength, fines, too sandy.
M inor soils .-................... 27








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 9

AND WATER MANAGEMENT, BY SOIL ASSOCIATIONS

Suitability as a
source of- Water management
Continued
Limitations for- Features affecting-
Daily cover Pond Aquifer-fed Embankments,
for landfill reservoir areas excavated ponds dikes, and levees Drainage Irrigation

Poor ------------ Severe ----------- Severe ----------- Severe ----------- Not needed _----- Seepage, drought,
fast intake.
Poor: too sandy, Severe: seepage Severe: no water Severe: seepage, Not needed ---- Seepage, drought,
seepage. unstable fill, fast intake.
piping.

Poor --------- Severe ---------- Severe ---------- Severe ---------- Not needed ------- Percs rapidly,
drought, fast
intake.
Poor: too sandy, Severe: seepage- Severe: no water Severe: seepage, Not needed ------- Seepage, drought,
seepage. piping, unstable fast intake.
fill.
Poor: too sandy, Severe: seepage Severe: no water Severe: seepage, Not needed --- Seepage, fast
seepage. piping, unstable intake.
fill.

Poor ------------ Severe ----------- Severe -- ------ Severe --------- Not needed ------ Droughty, fast
intake.
Poor: too sandy, Severe: seepage- Severe: no water Severe: seepage, Not needed ---- Droughty, fast
seepage. piping, intake.
Fair: too sandy, Severe: seepage Severe: no water Moderate: Not needed ----- Fast intake,
seepage, seepage, piping, seepage.

Good --------- Moderate --------- Severe ----------- Slight -------- Not needed ----- Favorable.
Good ---------- Moderate: Severe: no water Slight __------ Not needed ---- Favorable.
seepage.
Good -------Severe: seepage -_ Severe: no water Moderate: piping Not needed ------- Fast intake,
slope.
Fair: too clayey Moderate: Severe: no water Moderate: low Not needed ----- Favorable.
seepage. strength.

Poor ---------- Moderate -------- Severe ---------- Moderate ------ Cutbanks cave -- Seepage, fast
intake.
Poor: too sandy, Moderate: Severe: deep to Moderate: piping, Cutbanks cave --- Seepage, fast
seepage. seepage. water. unstable fill. intake.
Good --------- Moderate: Moderate: deep to Slight -------_ Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
seepage. water, wetness.
Poor: too sandy, Severe: seepage Severe: deep to Severe: unstable Cutbanks cave --- Seepage.
seepage. water, fill, piping.

Poor ------------ Slight --------- Slight ----------- Severe ----------- Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
wetness.
Poor: too sandy, Slight --------- Slight --------- Moderate: Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
wetness. unstable fill. percs slowly,
wetness.
Poor: too sandy, Moderate: Slight ------- Severe: piping, Cutbanks cave, Wetness, fast
wetness, seepage. unstable fill. wetness. intake.
Poor: too sandy, Severe: seepage _- Slight -------- Severe: seepage, Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
wetness, seepage. piping. wetness.

Poor -_------ Slight ----------- Slight -------- Moderate ----Percs slowly, Wetness, percs
wetness, slowly.
Poor: too clayey, Slight -- -- Slight ---------Moderate: Percs slowly, Wetness, percs
hard to pack, unstable fill, wetness, slowly.
wetness, shrink-swell.
Poor: too clayey, Slight -----------Slight -------- Severe: shrink- Percs slowly, Wetness, percs
hard to pack, swell, low wetness. slowly.
wetness. strength, hard
to pack.
Poor: wetness ___Slight ----------- Moderate: deep to Slight ------- Percs slowly, Wetness.
water. wetness.







10 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 2.-SOURCES OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL


Suitability as a source of-
Name of association, Percent of
percentage, and association Road fill Sand Topsoil
component soils

8. Blichton-Flemington-Kanapaha (15
percent) ------------------------ Poor ------------ Unsuited -------- Poor----
Blichton ---------------------- 33 Poor: wetness .-_ Unsuited: excess Poor: wetness,
fines. too sandy.
Flemington ------------------ 24 Poor: wetness, Unsuited: excess Poor: wetness,
low strength, fines, thin layer.
shrink-swell.

Kanapaha _----------------- 8 Good ------------ Fair: excess fines Poor: too sandy,
wetness.
Minor soils -------------- 35
9. Bluff-Martel (1 percent) --- ._ Poor ------------ Unsuited -------- Poor
Bluff -------- --__-_--- 40 Poor: shrink- Unsuited: excess Poor: too clayey,
swell, low fines, wetness.
strength, wetness
Martel ------------------__--. 30 Poor: shrink- Unsuited: excess Poor: wetness
swell, low fines.
strength, wetness,
Minor soils -------_---- ---- 30
10. Okeechobee-Terra Ceia-Tomoka (4
percent) ---- --------------------- Poor ------------ Unsuited --------- Poor --
Okeechobee -----_____ --______ 26 Poor: wetness, Unsuited: excess Poor: wetness
excess humus, humus.
low strength.
Terra Ceia ------____ ---______- 26 Poor: wetness, Unsuited: excess Poor: wetness
excess humus, humus.
low strength.
Tomoka ------------------------ 9 Poor: wetness, Unsuited: excess Poor: wetness
excess humus, humus.
low strength.
Minor soils -------------------- 39


4. Kendrick-Hague-Zuber association and sweetgum. In the poorly drained areas, it is com-
Nearly level to sloping, well drained soils, sandy to a only a pine-hardwood mixture and an understory of
depth of less than 40 inches and loamy or clayey below waxmyrtle and other native grasses and sedges.
This association makes up about 9 percent, or 62,600
The landscape of this association is one of rolling acres, of the survey area. It is about 52 percent Ken-
areas of gentle slopes intermixed with small, sharp- drick soils, 17 percent Hague soils, 13 percent Zuber
breaking slopes and long, narrow hillsides. Most areas soils, and 18 percent Arredondo, Blichton, Lochloosa,
are interspersed with small sinkholes. This association Micanopy, Kanapaha, and Sparr soils.
occurs as small areas almost entirely within a tract 9 Kendrick soils are well drained. Typically, the sur-
miles wide that extends in a north-south direction the face layer is dark grayish brown loamy sand and the
entire length of the county, from Orange Lake to Sum- subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy sand. The
merfield. One area is in the west-central part, south- subsoil from a depth of about 26 to more than 60
west of Martel. inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
The soils are influenced by underlying phosphatic Hague soils are well drained. Typically, the sandy
material. They are mostly gently sloping and well surface layer is dark grayish brown and the sandy
drained. In some spots they are poorly drained and subsurface layer is light yellowish brown and reddish
somewhat poorly drained. All are commonly inter- yellow. The upper 25 inches of the subsoil is strong
mixed along slopes and at the base of slopes, brown and yellowish red sandy loam and sandy clay
The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, longleaf loam, and the lower 25 inches is strong brown loamy
pine, loblolly pine, oak, hickory, magnolia, dogwood, sand.








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 11

AND WATER MANAGEMENT, BY SOIL ASSOCIATIONS-Continued

Suitability as a
source of- Water management
Continued
Limitations for- _Features affecting-
Daily cover Pond Aquifer-fed Embankments,
for landfill reservoir areas excavated ponds dikes, and levees Drainage Irrigation


Poor --------- Moderate --------Moderate -------- Slight ------ Wetness -------- Wetness.
Poor: wetness, Moderate: Moderate: deep to Slight ---------- Wetness -------- Wetness.
area reclaim. seepage. water.
Poor: wetness, Slight ----------Severe: slow refill Moderate: Percs slowly, Wetness, percs
too clayey. unstable fill, wetness. slowly.
compressible,
hard to pack.
Poor: wetness, too Slight ------ Moderate: deep to Severe: piping __ Cutbanks cave Fast intake,
sandy, seepage, water, slow refill, wetness.

Poor --------- Slight------ Slight -----------Moderate -------_ Percs slowly, Percs slowly,
wetness. wetness.
Poor: wetness, Slight ------ Slight __-------- Moderate: shrink- Percs slowly, Percs slowly,
too clayey. swell. wetness. wetness.
Poor: wetness, Slight --------- Slight __-------- Moderate: Percs slowly, Percs slowly,
too clayey. unstable fill, wetness, poor wetness.
shrink-swell, outlets.
compressible.


Poor --------- Severe ------- Slight _------- Severe -------- Wetness, excess Wetness.
humus.
Poor: wetness, Severe: excess Slight ---------- Severe: excess Wetness, excess Wetness.
excess humus. humus, seepage, humus, piping, humus.
seepage.
Poor: wetness, Severe: excess Slight -__---------- Severe: excess Wetness, excess Wetness.
excess humus. humus, seepage, humus, piping, humus.
seepage.
Poor: wetness, Severe: excess Slight ------- Severe: Wetness, poor Wetness.
excess humus, humus, seepage. compressible, low outlets, excess
seepage. strength, piping. humus.



Zuber soils are well drained. Typically, the surface and loamy below. Some are sandy to a depth of more
layer is dark grayish brown loamy sand. Below this is than 80 inches, and some are sandy to a depth of less
yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper 5 inches of the than 20 inches and have a clayey subsoil. This associa-
subsoil is dark yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and tion occurs throughout the survey area.
the lower 57 inches is dark yellowish brown and yel- 5. Sparr-LochloosaTavares association
lowish brown sandy clay and clay.
Most of this association is in crops or improved pas- Nearly level to sloping, somewhat poorly drained and
ture. The rest is dominantly in natural vegetation or moderately well drained soils, some sandy to a depth
is under urban development. A few areas are in citrus. of 20 to more than 40 inches and loamy below and
Wooded areas provide a good supply of food and good others sandy throughout
protection for wildlife, especially birds and small This association is on uplands and flatwoods. In the
animals, uplands, in the central and western parts of the survey
area, it is commonly interspersed with small sinkholes
and in the flatwoods with wet spots and grassy ponds.
Somewhat Poorly Drained and Moderately Well In the nearly level and gently sloping uplands are some
Drained, Nearly Level to Sloping Soils of the sharp-breaking slopes of somewhat poorly drained
Uplands and Flatwoods soils. The wetness in these sloping parts is the result
of hillside seepage. This association occurs as small
The soils in the only soil association of this group areas mostly throughout the central part of the sur-
are dominantly sandy to a depth of less than 80 inches vey area and around Citra, Fort McCoy, and Orange








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 11

AND WATER MANAGEMENT, BY SOIL ASSOCIATIONS-Continued

Suitability as a
source of- Water management
Continued
Limitations for- _Features affecting-
Daily cover Pond Aquifer-fed Embankments,
for landfill reservoir areas excavated ponds dikes, and levees Drainage Irrigation


Poor --------- Moderate --------Moderate -------- Slight ------ Wetness -------- Wetness.
Poor: wetness, Moderate: Moderate: deep to Slight ---------- Wetness -------- Wetness.
area reclaim. seepage. water.
Poor: wetness, Slight ----------Severe: slow refill Moderate: Percs slowly, Wetness, percs
too clayey. unstable fill, wetness. slowly.
compressible,
hard to pack.
Poor: wetness, too Slight ------ Moderate: deep to Severe: piping __ Cutbanks cave Fast intake,
sandy, seepage, water, slow refill, wetness.

Poor --------- Slight------ Slight -----------Moderate -------_ Percs slowly, Percs slowly,
wetness. wetness.
Poor: wetness, Slight ------ Slight __-------- Moderate: shrink- Percs slowly, Percs slowly,
too clayey. swell. wetness. wetness.
Poor: wetness, Slight --------- Slight __-------- Moderate: Percs slowly, Percs slowly,
too clayey. unstable fill, wetness, poor wetness.
shrink-swell, outlets.
compressible.


Poor --------- Severe ------- Slight _------- Severe -------- Wetness, excess Wetness.
humus.
Poor: wetness, Severe: excess Slight ---------- Severe: excess Wetness, excess Wetness.
excess humus. humus, seepage, humus, piping, humus.
seepage.
Poor: wetness, Severe: excess Slight -__---------- Severe: excess Wetness, excess Wetness.
excess humus. humus, seepage, humus, piping, humus.
seepage.
Poor: wetness, Severe: excess Slight ------- Severe: Wetness, poor Wetness.
excess humus, humus, seepage. compressible, low outlets, excess
seepage. strength, piping. humus.



Zuber soils are well drained. Typically, the surface and loamy below. Some are sandy to a depth of more
layer is dark grayish brown loamy sand. Below this is than 80 inches, and some are sandy to a depth of less
yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper 5 inches of the than 20 inches and have a clayey subsoil. This associa-
subsoil is dark yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and tion occurs throughout the survey area.
the lower 57 inches is dark yellowish brown and yel- 5. Sparr-LochloosaTavares association
lowish brown sandy clay and clay.
Most of this association is in crops or improved pas- Nearly level to sloping, somewhat poorly drained and
ture. The rest is dominantly in natural vegetation or moderately well drained soils, some sandy to a depth
is under urban development. A few areas are in citrus. of 20 to more than 40 inches and loamy below and
Wooded areas provide a good supply of food and good others sandy throughout
protection for wildlife, especially birds and small This association is on uplands and flatwoods. In the
animals, uplands, in the central and western parts of the survey
area, it is commonly interspersed with small sinkholes
and in the flatwoods with wet spots and grassy ponds.
Somewhat Poorly Drained and Moderately Well In the nearly level and gently sloping uplands are some
Drained, Nearly Level to Sloping Soils of the sharp-breaking slopes of somewhat poorly drained
Uplands and Flatwoods soils. The wetness in these sloping parts is the result
of hillside seepage. This association occurs as small
The soils in the only soil association of this group areas mostly throughout the central part of the sur-
are dominantly sandy to a depth of less than 80 inches vey area and around Citra, Fort McCoy, and Orange






12 SOIL SURVEY


































Figure 1.-Turkey oak, bluejack oak, post oak, and longleaf pine on Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This plant cover is typical
of the Candler-Apopka association.

Springs in the northeast. The largest area is in the cally, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The
southwest. subsurface layer is very pale brown and pale brown
The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, longleaf fine sand. The upper 7 inches of the subsoil is yellow-
pine, live oak, water oak, post oak, dogwood, and ish brown fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam, and
sweetgum and an understory of waxmyrtle, briers, the lower 34 inches is gray sandy clay loam and sandy
sedges, and grasses. In poorly drained areas it is pine, clay.
gum, waxmyrtle, palmetto, gallberry, and native Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typi-
grasses. In the small ponded areas, it is commonly cally, the surface layer is dark gray and gray sand.
water-tolerant grasses. The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or
This association makes up about 9 percent, or more is pale brown, very pale brown, light gray, and
62,600 acres, of the survey area. It is about 44 percent white sand.
Sparr soils, 18 percent Lochloosa soils, 14 percent Most of this association is still in natural vegeta-
Tavares soils, and 24 percent Micanopy, Adamsville, tion. In the central part of the survey area, however,
Arredondo, Blichton, Kendrick, Lynne, and Pompano much of it is in crops or improved pasture. A few
soils. Of the less extensive soils, Micanopy soils are areas are under residential and urban development. A
dominant. small acreage is in citrus. Wooded areas provide pro-
Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, tection and a fair supply of food for many kinds of
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand. Below this, to wildlife.
a depth of 48 inches, is very pale brown and yellowish
brown fine sand. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil is Poorly Drained, Nearly Level Soils of
yellowish brown sandy loam, the next 16 inches is the Flatwoods
gray sandy clay, and the lower 27 inches is gray sandy
clay loam. In the two associations of this group are sandy soils
Lochloosa soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typi- interspersed with ponds and swamps. Some are sandy







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 13

in the upper layers, are weakly cemented within a The landscape of this association is one of broad,
depth of 30 inches, and are loamy or clayey in the nearly level flatwoods intermixed with small ponds
lower layers. Some have sandy layers less than 40 and scattered depressions. Some of the depressions are
inches deep over a clayey subsoil. The ponds and isolated, and others are connected by narrow drainage-
swamps are mostly sandy throughout, but some are ways. Most of this association is in the east-central
sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy or part of the survey area. The largest area is east of
clayey below. These associations are mostly in the Silver Springs and extends in a north-south direction
northeastern part of the survey area, but occur in all along State Road 315 to northwest of Fort McCoy.
of the flatwoods to some extent. Two small areas are in the extreme southwestern part
of the survey area along the Withlacoochee River.
6. Lynne-Pomona-Pompano association The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, some sandy to a pine, and palm, but in some areas is a hardwood
depth of 22 to 80 inches, weakly cemented within a growth of swamp white oak, gum, maple, and mag-
depth of 30 inches, and loamy and clayey in the lower nolia. The understory is waxmyrtle, bluestem, pal-
layers and others sandy throughout metto, briers, gallberry, and native grasses. The vege-
tation in the pounded areas is dominantly cypress and
The landscape of this association is one of nearly some gum and pond pine.
level pine and palmetto flatwoods interspersed with This association makes up about 7 percent, or 48,690
cypress ponds, swamps, and small, grassy, wet de- acres, of the survey area. It is about 40 percent Eureka
pressions. Some of the ponded areas are connected by soils, 23 percent Paisley soils, 10 percent Eaton soils,
narrow, wet drainageways. This association is most and 27 percent Bluff, Holopaw, Lynne, Martel, and
extensive in the northeast, around Orange Springs and Pamlico soils and the Martel variant.
Fort McCoy. Other areas are along the Withlacoochee Eureka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
River in the southwest. A few small areas are in the face layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The sub-
northwest. surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand. The
In the broad, poorly drained areas, the natural vege- subsoil is gray sandy clay.
station is longleaf pine, slash pine, palmetto, wax- Paisley soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
myrtle, gallberry, runner oak, and native grasses. In face layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The sub-
the very poorly drained depressions, it is water- surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand. The
tolerant grasses. In the ponds and swamps, it is chiefly subsoil is dark gray and gray sandy clay that contains
cypress, bay, and gum. some carbonatic material below a depth of about 45
This association makes up about 9 percent, or 62,600 inches.
acres, of the survey area. It is about 32 percent Lynne Eaton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
soils, 30 percent Pomona soils, 10 percent Pompano face layer is dark gray loamy sand. The subsurface
soils, and 28 percent Adamsville, Eaton, Electra, Eu- layer is gray loamy sand. The subsoil is gray sandy
reka, Jumper, Holopaw, and Placid soils, clay loam and sandy clay.
Lynne soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur- Most of this association is still in natural vegeta-
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface tion. Most of the cleared areas are in improved pas-
layer is light brownish gray and light gray sand. Be- ture, but a few small areas are used for vegetables.
tween depths of 20 and 31 inches is black and mixed Many kinds of native birds and animals live on the
black and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented loamy broad expanses of this association, and these unde-
sand. Below this is gray sandy clay loam and sandy veloped areas provide food and good protection for
clay. wildlife.
Pomona soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface
layer is gray and light gray sand. Between depths of Poorly Drained, Nearly Level to Strongly Sloping
26 to 39 inches is dark colored, weakly cemented Soils of the Uplands
sand. Next, to a depth of 51 inches, is brown sand. The one association in this group consists of soils of
Below this is gray sandy clay loam and light sandy The one associateon in this group consists of soils of
lay this is gray sandy clay loam and light sandy the rolling uplands. Some soils are sandy to a depth of
Pompano soils are poorly drained. They are sand to less than 40 inches and have a loamy or clayey subsoil.
a depth om more sois ar e p y drained. Ty are sfad t Others are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and
a depth of more than 80 inches. Typically, the surface loamy below. Most of this association is in the north-
layer is very dark gray to black and the underlying western part of the survey assorea. on the orth-
material is gray to white. western part of the survey area.
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- 8. Blichton-Flemington-Kanapaha association
tion. A small acreage is in improved pasture. A few
small areas are used for gardens. Undeveloped areas Nearly level to strongly sloping, poorly drained soils,
provide habitat for many kinds of native birds and sandy to a depth of less than 20 to more than 40 inches
animals. and loamy or clayey below
7. Eureka-Paisley.Eaton association The landscape of this association is one of upland
slopes, some of which are sharp breaking and wet and
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy to a depth of others long and seepy. All are interspersed with sink-
5 to 40 inches and clayey below holes. Wetness is the result of hillside seepage. In







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 13

in the upper layers, are weakly cemented within a The landscape of this association is one of broad,
depth of 30 inches, and are loamy or clayey in the nearly level flatwoods intermixed with small ponds
lower layers. Some have sandy layers less than 40 and scattered depressions. Some of the depressions are
inches deep over a clayey subsoil. The ponds and isolated, and others are connected by narrow drainage-
swamps are mostly sandy throughout, but some are ways. Most of this association is in the east-central
sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy or part of the survey area. The largest area is east of
clayey below. These associations are mostly in the Silver Springs and extends in a north-south direction
northeastern part of the survey area, but occur in all along State Road 315 to northwest of Fort McCoy.
of the flatwoods to some extent. Two small areas are in the extreme southwestern part
of the survey area along the Withlacoochee River.
6. Lynne-Pomona-Pompano association The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, some sandy to a pine, and palm, but in some areas is a hardwood
depth of 22 to 80 inches, weakly cemented within a growth of swamp white oak, gum, maple, and mag-
depth of 30 inches, and loamy and clayey in the lower nolia. The understory is waxmyrtle, bluestem, pal-
layers and others sandy throughout metto, briers, gallberry, and native grasses. The vege-
tation in the pounded areas is dominantly cypress and
The landscape of this association is one of nearly some gum and pond pine.
level pine and palmetto flatwoods interspersed with This association makes up about 7 percent, or 48,690
cypress ponds, swamps, and small, grassy, wet de- acres, of the survey area. It is about 40 percent Eureka
pressions. Some of the ponded areas are connected by soils, 23 percent Paisley soils, 10 percent Eaton soils,
narrow, wet drainageways. This association is most and 27 percent Bluff, Holopaw, Lynne, Martel, and
extensive in the northeast, around Orange Springs and Pamlico soils and the Martel variant.
Fort McCoy. Other areas are along the Withlacoochee Eureka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
River in the southwest. A few small areas are in the face layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The sub-
northwest. surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand. The
In the broad, poorly drained areas, the natural vege- subsoil is gray sandy clay.
station is longleaf pine, slash pine, palmetto, wax- Paisley soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
myrtle, gallberry, runner oak, and native grasses. In face layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The sub-
the very poorly drained depressions, it is water- surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand. The
tolerant grasses. In the ponds and swamps, it is chiefly subsoil is dark gray and gray sandy clay that contains
cypress, bay, and gum. some carbonatic material below a depth of about 45
This association makes up about 9 percent, or 62,600 inches.
acres, of the survey area. It is about 32 percent Lynne Eaton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
soils, 30 percent Pomona soils, 10 percent Pompano face layer is dark gray loamy sand. The subsurface
soils, and 28 percent Adamsville, Eaton, Electra, Eu- layer is gray loamy sand. The subsoil is gray sandy
reka, Jumper, Holopaw, and Placid soils, clay loam and sandy clay.
Lynne soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur- Most of this association is still in natural vegeta-
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface tion. Most of the cleared areas are in improved pas-
layer is light brownish gray and light gray sand. Be- ture, but a few small areas are used for vegetables.
tween depths of 20 and 31 inches is black and mixed Many kinds of native birds and animals live on the
black and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented loamy broad expanses of this association, and these unde-
sand. Below this is gray sandy clay loam and sandy veloped areas provide food and good protection for
clay. wildlife.
Pomona soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface
layer is gray and light gray sand. Between depths of Poorly Drained, Nearly Level to Strongly Sloping
26 to 39 inches is dark colored, weakly cemented Soils of the Uplands
sand. Next, to a depth of 51 inches, is brown sand. The one association in this group consists of soils of
Below this is gray sandy clay loam and light sandy The one associateon in this group consists of soils of
lay this is gray sandy clay loam and light sandy the rolling uplands. Some soils are sandy to a depth of
Pompano soils are poorly drained. They are sand to less than 40 inches and have a loamy or clayey subsoil.
a depth om more sois ar e p y drained. Ty are sfad t Others are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and
a depth of more than 80 inches. Typically, the surface loamy below. Most of this association is in the north-
layer is very dark gray to black and the underlying western part of the survey assorea. on the orth-
material is gray to white. western part of the survey area.
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- 8. Blichton-Flemington-Kanapaha association
tion. A small acreage is in improved pasture. A few
small areas are used for gardens. Undeveloped areas Nearly level to strongly sloping, poorly drained soils,
provide habitat for many kinds of native birds and sandy to a depth of less than 20 to more than 40 inches
animals. and loamy or clayey below
7. Eureka-Paisley.Eaton association The landscape of this association is one of upland
slopes, some of which are sharp breaking and wet and
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy to a depth of others long and seepy. All are interspersed with sink-
5 to 40 inches and clayey below holes. Wetness is the result of hillside seepage. In







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 13

in the upper layers, are weakly cemented within a The landscape of this association is one of broad,
depth of 30 inches, and are loamy or clayey in the nearly level flatwoods intermixed with small ponds
lower layers. Some have sandy layers less than 40 and scattered depressions. Some of the depressions are
inches deep over a clayey subsoil. The ponds and isolated, and others are connected by narrow drainage-
swamps are mostly sandy throughout, but some are ways. Most of this association is in the east-central
sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy or part of the survey area. The largest area is east of
clayey below. These associations are mostly in the Silver Springs and extends in a north-south direction
northeastern part of the survey area, but occur in all along State Road 315 to northwest of Fort McCoy.
of the flatwoods to some extent. Two small areas are in the extreme southwestern part
of the survey area along the Withlacoochee River.
6. Lynne-Pomona-Pompano association The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, some sandy to a pine, and palm, but in some areas is a hardwood
depth of 22 to 80 inches, weakly cemented within a growth of swamp white oak, gum, maple, and mag-
depth of 30 inches, and loamy and clayey in the lower nolia. The understory is waxmyrtle, bluestem, pal-
layers and others sandy throughout metto, briers, gallberry, and native grasses. The vege-
tation in the pounded areas is dominantly cypress and
The landscape of this association is one of nearly some gum and pond pine.
level pine and palmetto flatwoods interspersed with This association makes up about 7 percent, or 48,690
cypress ponds, swamps, and small, grassy, wet de- acres, of the survey area. It is about 40 percent Eureka
pressions. Some of the ponded areas are connected by soils, 23 percent Paisley soils, 10 percent Eaton soils,
narrow, wet drainageways. This association is most and 27 percent Bluff, Holopaw, Lynne, Martel, and
extensive in the northeast, around Orange Springs and Pamlico soils and the Martel variant.
Fort McCoy. Other areas are along the Withlacoochee Eureka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
River in the southwest. A few small areas are in the face layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The sub-
northwest. surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand. The
In the broad, poorly drained areas, the natural vege- subsoil is gray sandy clay.
station is longleaf pine, slash pine, palmetto, wax- Paisley soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
myrtle, gallberry, runner oak, and native grasses. In face layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The sub-
the very poorly drained depressions, it is water- surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand. The
tolerant grasses. In the ponds and swamps, it is chiefly subsoil is dark gray and gray sandy clay that contains
cypress, bay, and gum. some carbonatic material below a depth of about 45
This association makes up about 9 percent, or 62,600 inches.
acres, of the survey area. It is about 32 percent Lynne Eaton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
soils, 30 percent Pomona soils, 10 percent Pompano face layer is dark gray loamy sand. The subsurface
soils, and 28 percent Adamsville, Eaton, Electra, Eu- layer is gray loamy sand. The subsoil is gray sandy
reka, Jumper, Holopaw, and Placid soils, clay loam and sandy clay.
Lynne soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur- Most of this association is still in natural vegeta-
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface tion. Most of the cleared areas are in improved pas-
layer is light brownish gray and light gray sand. Be- ture, but a few small areas are used for vegetables.
tween depths of 20 and 31 inches is black and mixed Many kinds of native birds and animals live on the
black and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented loamy broad expanses of this association, and these unde-
sand. Below this is gray sandy clay loam and sandy veloped areas provide food and good protection for
clay. wildlife.
Pomona soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface
layer is gray and light gray sand. Between depths of Poorly Drained, Nearly Level to Strongly Sloping
26 to 39 inches is dark colored, weakly cemented Soils of the Uplands
sand. Next, to a depth of 51 inches, is brown sand. The one association in this group consists of soils of
Below this is gray sandy clay loam and light sandy The one associateon in this group consists of soils of
lay this is gray sandy clay loam and light sandy the rolling uplands. Some soils are sandy to a depth of
Pompano soils are poorly drained. They are sand to less than 40 inches and have a loamy or clayey subsoil.
a depth om more sois ar e p y drained. Ty are sfad t Others are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and
a depth of more than 80 inches. Typically, the surface loamy below. Most of this association is in the north-
layer is very dark gray to black and the underlying western part of the survey assorea. on the orth-
material is gray to white. western part of the survey area.
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- 8. Blichton-Flemington-Kanapaha association
tion. A small acreage is in improved pasture. A few
small areas are used for gardens. Undeveloped areas Nearly level to strongly sloping, poorly drained soils,
provide habitat for many kinds of native birds and sandy to a depth of less than 20 to more than 40 inches
animals. and loamy or clayey below
7. Eureka-Paisley.Eaton association The landscape of this association is one of upland
slopes, some of which are sharp breaking and wet and
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy to a depth of others long and seepy. All are interspersed with sink-
5 to 40 inches and clayey below holes. Wetness is the result of hillside seepage. In







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 13

in the upper layers, are weakly cemented within a The landscape of this association is one of broad,
depth of 30 inches, and are loamy or clayey in the nearly level flatwoods intermixed with small ponds
lower layers. Some have sandy layers less than 40 and scattered depressions. Some of the depressions are
inches deep over a clayey subsoil. The ponds and isolated, and others are connected by narrow drainage-
swamps are mostly sandy throughout, but some are ways. Most of this association is in the east-central
sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy or part of the survey area. The largest area is east of
clayey below. These associations are mostly in the Silver Springs and extends in a north-south direction
northeastern part of the survey area, but occur in all along State Road 315 to northwest of Fort McCoy.
of the flatwoods to some extent. Two small areas are in the extreme southwestern part
of the survey area along the Withlacoochee River.
6. Lynne-Pomona-Pompano association The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, some sandy to a pine, and palm, but in some areas is a hardwood
depth of 22 to 80 inches, weakly cemented within a growth of swamp white oak, gum, maple, and mag-
depth of 30 inches, and loamy and clayey in the lower nolia. The understory is waxmyrtle, bluestem, pal-
layers and others sandy throughout metto, briers, gallberry, and native grasses. The vege-
tation in the pounded areas is dominantly cypress and
The landscape of this association is one of nearly some gum and pond pine.
level pine and palmetto flatwoods interspersed with This association makes up about 7 percent, or 48,690
cypress ponds, swamps, and small, grassy, wet de- acres, of the survey area. It is about 40 percent Eureka
pressions. Some of the ponded areas are connected by soils, 23 percent Paisley soils, 10 percent Eaton soils,
narrow, wet drainageways. This association is most and 27 percent Bluff, Holopaw, Lynne, Martel, and
extensive in the northeast, around Orange Springs and Pamlico soils and the Martel variant.
Fort McCoy. Other areas are along the Withlacoochee Eureka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
River in the southwest. A few small areas are in the face layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The sub-
northwest. surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand. The
In the broad, poorly drained areas, the natural vege- subsoil is gray sandy clay.
station is longleaf pine, slash pine, palmetto, wax- Paisley soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
myrtle, gallberry, runner oak, and native grasses. In face layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The sub-
the very poorly drained depressions, it is water- surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand. The
tolerant grasses. In the ponds and swamps, it is chiefly subsoil is dark gray and gray sandy clay that contains
cypress, bay, and gum. some carbonatic material below a depth of about 45
This association makes up about 9 percent, or 62,600 inches.
acres, of the survey area. It is about 32 percent Lynne Eaton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
soils, 30 percent Pomona soils, 10 percent Pompano face layer is dark gray loamy sand. The subsurface
soils, and 28 percent Adamsville, Eaton, Electra, Eu- layer is gray loamy sand. The subsoil is gray sandy
reka, Jumper, Holopaw, and Placid soils, clay loam and sandy clay.
Lynne soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur- Most of this association is still in natural vegeta-
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface tion. Most of the cleared areas are in improved pas-
layer is light brownish gray and light gray sand. Be- ture, but a few small areas are used for vegetables.
tween depths of 20 and 31 inches is black and mixed Many kinds of native birds and animals live on the
black and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented loamy broad expanses of this association, and these unde-
sand. Below this is gray sandy clay loam and sandy veloped areas provide food and good protection for
clay. wildlife.
Pomona soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface
layer is gray and light gray sand. Between depths of Poorly Drained, Nearly Level to Strongly Sloping
26 to 39 inches is dark colored, weakly cemented Soils of the Uplands
sand. Next, to a depth of 51 inches, is brown sand. The one association in this group consists of soils of
Below this is gray sandy clay loam and light sandy The one associateon in this group consists of soils of
lay this is gray sandy clay loam and light sandy the rolling uplands. Some soils are sandy to a depth of
Pompano soils are poorly drained. They are sand to less than 40 inches and have a loamy or clayey subsoil.
a depth om more sois ar e p y drained. Ty are sfad t Others are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and
a depth of more than 80 inches. Typically, the surface loamy below. Most of this association is in the north-
layer is very dark gray to black and the underlying western part of the survey assorea. on the orth-
material is gray to white. western part of the survey area.
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- 8. Blichton-Flemington-Kanapaha association
tion. A small acreage is in improved pasture. A few
small areas are used for gardens. Undeveloped areas Nearly level to strongly sloping, poorly drained soils,
provide habitat for many kinds of native birds and sandy to a depth of less than 20 to more than 40 inches
animals. and loamy or clayey below
7. Eureka-Paisley.Eaton association The landscape of this association is one of upland
slopes, some of which are sharp breaking and wet and
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, sandy to a depth of others long and seepy. All are interspersed with sink-
5 to 40 inches and clayey below holes. Wetness is the result of hillside seepage. In







14 SOIL SURVEY

many areas the nearly level soils at the base of slopes woods and on the flood plain of the Oklawaha River
are covered with water because runoff on the slopes is and Silver Run. It is usually covered with water or
rapid and drainage outlets are lacking. This associa- flooded for periods of about 6 months or more during
tion occurs as a large area in the northwestern part of most years. In the flatwoods the ponds and swamps
the survey area. Scattered areas are in the central are isolated within broad, poorly drained expanses.
part, from McIntosh in the north to Summerfield in They lack a good natural drainage system and have
the south. Spots of somewhat poorly drained and well only a few scattered drainageways. Most of this asso-
drained soils occur along some slopes. Most of these ciation occurs on the flood plain of the Oklawaha
better drained soils are near McIntosh, Ocala, and River. One area is in the flatwoods southeast of Citra,
Summerfield. The natural vegetation is slash pine, lob- another is north of Fort McCoy, and one small area is
lolly pine, longleaf pine, laurel oak, water oak, sweet- in the southwest, just north of Sumter County.
gum, hickory, magnolia, and dogwood and an under- The natural vegetation on the flood plain is a swamp
story of chiefly waxmyrtle, gallberry, and native hardwood growth of oak, maple, gum, cypress, and
grasses, palm and a few areas of a mixture of pine and hard-
This association makes up about 15 percent, or woods. In the flatwoods it is mostly cypress, gum, and
104,340 acres, of the survey area. It is about 33 per- water-tolerant grasses.
cent Blichton soils, 24 percent Flemington soils, 8 per- This association makes up about 1 percent, or 6,961
cent Kanapaha soils, and 35 percent Boardman, Fel- acres, of the survey area. It is about 401 percent Bluff
lowship, Kendrick, Lochloosa, Martel, Micanopy, soils, 30 percent Martel soils, and 30 percent Anclote,
Sparr, and Wacahoota soils. Of the less extensive soils, Eureka, Paisley, Placid, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils.
the sloping and strongly sloping Boardman, Fellow- Black Sing Prairie, southeast of Citra, is in this asso-
ship, and Wacahoota soils on seepy hillsides are ciation. On this prairie are mostly Anclote and Placid
dominant. soils, which are very poorly drained and are sandy
Blichton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur- throughout.
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface Bluff soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
layer, to a depth of 26 inches, is gray sand. The sub- have a black and very dark gray sandy clay and sandy
soil is gray sandy loam in the upper 4 inches and dark clay loam surface layer about 17 inches thick. The sub-
gray and gray sandy clay loam below, soil is dark gray and gray sandy clay and sandy clay
Flemington soils are poorly drained. Typically, the loam that has pockets of white carbonatic material
surface layer is very dark gray loamy sand and the Martel soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
subsurface layer is gray loamy sand. The subsoil, be- surface layer is black and very dark gray sandy clay
tween depths of 9 and 53 inches, is dark gray and gray loam about 19 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray
clay. The underlying material is light gray clay. and gray sandy clay and clay.
Kanapaha soils are poorly drained. Typically, the Almost all of this association is still in natural vege-
surface layer is gray fine sand and the subsurface station. Only a small acreage is in improved pasture.
layer is light gray fine sand. The subsoil, between The swamps are a natural habitat for many kinds of
depths of 48 and 82 inches, is gray. The upper 7 inches birds, but protection for many of the small animals is
is sandy loam, the next 15 inches is sandy clay, and the limited by flooding.
lower 12 inches is sandy clay loam. 10. Okeechobee-Terr CeTomoa association
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- 10. Okeechobee-Terra Cea.Tomoka oeaton
tion. Most cleared areas are in improved pasture. Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils, some
Some are in crops and citrus. A few are under resi- organic to a depth of 52 inches and others organic in
dential development, although the major soils have the upper 16 to 40 inches and sandy and loamy below
severe limitations for dwellings and small commercial This association is in marshes and swamps along
buildings. Wooded areas provide food and good pro- the Oklawaha River and in large isolated ponds and
tection for wildlife, especially birds and small animals, swamps within the broad flatwoods in the northwest.
It is covered with water, except during extended dry
Very Poorly Drained Soils of the Flatwoods periods. It is very poorly drained. The natural vegeta-
and Flood Plains tion is a swamp hardwood growth of cypress, white
bay, red maple, tupelo-gum, and titi or an aquatic
In the two soil associations of this group are mineral plant cover of grasses, sedges, and water hyacinths.
and organic soils in ponds and swamps. The mineral This association makes up about 4 percent, or
soils are commonly loamy or clayey throughout. These 27,825 acres, of the survey area. It is about 26 percent
associations are on the flood plain of the Oklawaha Okeechobee soils, 26 percent Terra Ceia soils, 9 per-
River and Silver Run and in large areas of the very cent Tomoka soils, and 39 percent Anclote and Bluff
wet flatwoods in the northeast, soils and the Pamlico-Martel association. The Pamlico-
Martel association is mostly in the flatwoods of the
9. Bluff-Martel association northwestern part of the survey area.
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils, some lo y Okeechobee soils are typically black muck to a
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils, some loamy depth of about 32 inches and very dark brown mucky
and clayey throughout and others loamy in the upper peat between depths of 32 and 65 inches.
part and clayey within a depth of 20 inches Terra Ceia soils are typically black muck to a depth
This association is in ponds and swamps of the flat- of about 61 inches and dark reddish brown mucky peat







14 SOIL SURVEY

many areas the nearly level soils at the base of slopes woods and on the flood plain of the Oklawaha River
are covered with water because runoff on the slopes is and Silver Run. It is usually covered with water or
rapid and drainage outlets are lacking. This associa- flooded for periods of about 6 months or more during
tion occurs as a large area in the northwestern part of most years. In the flatwoods the ponds and swamps
the survey area. Scattered areas are in the central are isolated within broad, poorly drained expanses.
part, from McIntosh in the north to Summerfield in They lack a good natural drainage system and have
the south. Spots of somewhat poorly drained and well only a few scattered drainageways. Most of this asso-
drained soils occur along some slopes. Most of these ciation occurs on the flood plain of the Oklawaha
better drained soils are near McIntosh, Ocala, and River. One area is in the flatwoods southeast of Citra,
Summerfield. The natural vegetation is slash pine, lob- another is north of Fort McCoy, and one small area is
lolly pine, longleaf pine, laurel oak, water oak, sweet- in the southwest, just north of Sumter County.
gum, hickory, magnolia, and dogwood and an under- The natural vegetation on the flood plain is a swamp
story of chiefly waxmyrtle, gallberry, and native hardwood growth of oak, maple, gum, cypress, and
grasses, palm and a few areas of a mixture of pine and hard-
This association makes up about 15 percent, or woods. In the flatwoods it is mostly cypress, gum, and
104,340 acres, of the survey area. It is about 33 per- water-tolerant grasses.
cent Blichton soils, 24 percent Flemington soils, 8 per- This association makes up about 1 percent, or 6,961
cent Kanapaha soils, and 35 percent Boardman, Fel- acres, of the survey area. It is about 401 percent Bluff
lowship, Kendrick, Lochloosa, Martel, Micanopy, soils, 30 percent Martel soils, and 30 percent Anclote,
Sparr, and Wacahoota soils. Of the less extensive soils, Eureka, Paisley, Placid, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils.
the sloping and strongly sloping Boardman, Fellow- Black Sing Prairie, southeast of Citra, is in this asso-
ship, and Wacahoota soils on seepy hillsides are ciation. On this prairie are mostly Anclote and Placid
dominant. soils, which are very poorly drained and are sandy
Blichton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur- throughout.
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface Bluff soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
layer, to a depth of 26 inches, is gray sand. The sub- have a black and very dark gray sandy clay and sandy
soil is gray sandy loam in the upper 4 inches and dark clay loam surface layer about 17 inches thick. The sub-
gray and gray sandy clay loam below, soil is dark gray and gray sandy clay and sandy clay
Flemington soils are poorly drained. Typically, the loam that has pockets of white carbonatic material
surface layer is very dark gray loamy sand and the Martel soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
subsurface layer is gray loamy sand. The subsoil, be- surface layer is black and very dark gray sandy clay
tween depths of 9 and 53 inches, is dark gray and gray loam about 19 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray
clay. The underlying material is light gray clay. and gray sandy clay and clay.
Kanapaha soils are poorly drained. Typically, the Almost all of this association is still in natural vege-
surface layer is gray fine sand and the subsurface station. Only a small acreage is in improved pasture.
layer is light gray fine sand. The subsoil, between The swamps are a natural habitat for many kinds of
depths of 48 and 82 inches, is gray. The upper 7 inches birds, but protection for many of the small animals is
is sandy loam, the next 15 inches is sandy clay, and the limited by flooding.
lower 12 inches is sandy clay loam. 10. Okeechobee-Terr CeTomoa association
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- 10. Okeechobee-Terra Cea.Tomoka oeaton
tion. Most cleared areas are in improved pasture. Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils, some
Some are in crops and citrus. A few are under resi- organic to a depth of 52 inches and others organic in
dential development, although the major soils have the upper 16 to 40 inches and sandy and loamy below
severe limitations for dwellings and small commercial This association is in marshes and swamps along
buildings. Wooded areas provide food and good pro- the Oklawaha River and in large isolated ponds and
tection for wildlife, especially birds and small animals, swamps within the broad flatwoods in the northwest.
It is covered with water, except during extended dry
Very Poorly Drained Soils of the Flatwoods periods. It is very poorly drained. The natural vegeta-
and Flood Plains tion is a swamp hardwood growth of cypress, white
bay, red maple, tupelo-gum, and titi or an aquatic
In the two soil associations of this group are mineral plant cover of grasses, sedges, and water hyacinths.
and organic soils in ponds and swamps. The mineral This association makes up about 4 percent, or
soils are commonly loamy or clayey throughout. These 27,825 acres, of the survey area. It is about 26 percent
associations are on the flood plain of the Oklawaha Okeechobee soils, 26 percent Terra Ceia soils, 9 per-
River and Silver Run and in large areas of the very cent Tomoka soils, and 39 percent Anclote and Bluff
wet flatwoods in the northeast, soils and the Pamlico-Martel association. The Pamlico-
Martel association is mostly in the flatwoods of the
9. Bluff-Martel association northwestern part of the survey area.
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils, some lo y Okeechobee soils are typically black muck to a
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils, some loamy depth of about 32 inches and very dark brown mucky
and clayey throughout and others loamy in the upper peat between depths of 32 and 65 inches.
part and clayey within a depth of 20 inches Terra Ceia soils are typically black muck to a depth
This association is in ponds and swamps of the flat- of about 61 inches and dark reddish brown mucky peat







14 SOIL SURVEY

many areas the nearly level soils at the base of slopes woods and on the flood plain of the Oklawaha River
are covered with water because runoff on the slopes is and Silver Run. It is usually covered with water or
rapid and drainage outlets are lacking. This associa- flooded for periods of about 6 months or more during
tion occurs as a large area in the northwestern part of most years. In the flatwoods the ponds and swamps
the survey area. Scattered areas are in the central are isolated within broad, poorly drained expanses.
part, from McIntosh in the north to Summerfield in They lack a good natural drainage system and have
the south. Spots of somewhat poorly drained and well only a few scattered drainageways. Most of this asso-
drained soils occur along some slopes. Most of these ciation occurs on the flood plain of the Oklawaha
better drained soils are near McIntosh, Ocala, and River. One area is in the flatwoods southeast of Citra,
Summerfield. The natural vegetation is slash pine, lob- another is north of Fort McCoy, and one small area is
lolly pine, longleaf pine, laurel oak, water oak, sweet- in the southwest, just north of Sumter County.
gum, hickory, magnolia, and dogwood and an under- The natural vegetation on the flood plain is a swamp
story of chiefly waxmyrtle, gallberry, and native hardwood growth of oak, maple, gum, cypress, and
grasses, palm and a few areas of a mixture of pine and hard-
This association makes up about 15 percent, or woods. In the flatwoods it is mostly cypress, gum, and
104,340 acres, of the survey area. It is about 33 per- water-tolerant grasses.
cent Blichton soils, 24 percent Flemington soils, 8 per- This association makes up about 1 percent, or 6,961
cent Kanapaha soils, and 35 percent Boardman, Fel- acres, of the survey area. It is about 401 percent Bluff
lowship, Kendrick, Lochloosa, Martel, Micanopy, soils, 30 percent Martel soils, and 30 percent Anclote,
Sparr, and Wacahoota soils. Of the less extensive soils, Eureka, Paisley, Placid, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils.
the sloping and strongly sloping Boardman, Fellow- Black Sing Prairie, southeast of Citra, is in this asso-
ship, and Wacahoota soils on seepy hillsides are ciation. On this prairie are mostly Anclote and Placid
dominant. soils, which are very poorly drained and are sandy
Blichton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur- throughout.
face layer is very dark gray sand. The subsurface Bluff soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
layer, to a depth of 26 inches, is gray sand. The sub- have a black and very dark gray sandy clay and sandy
soil is gray sandy loam in the upper 4 inches and dark clay loam surface layer about 17 inches thick. The sub-
gray and gray sandy clay loam below, soil is dark gray and gray sandy clay and sandy clay
Flemington soils are poorly drained. Typically, the loam that has pockets of white carbonatic material
surface layer is very dark gray loamy sand and the Martel soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
subsurface layer is gray loamy sand. The subsoil, be- surface layer is black and very dark gray sandy clay
tween depths of 9 and 53 inches, is dark gray and gray loam about 19 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray
clay. The underlying material is light gray clay. and gray sandy clay and clay.
Kanapaha soils are poorly drained. Typically, the Almost all of this association is still in natural vege-
surface layer is gray fine sand and the subsurface station. Only a small acreage is in improved pasture.
layer is light gray fine sand. The subsoil, between The swamps are a natural habitat for many kinds of
depths of 48 and 82 inches, is gray. The upper 7 inches birds, but protection for many of the small animals is
is sandy loam, the next 15 inches is sandy clay, and the limited by flooding.
lower 12 inches is sandy clay loam. 10. Okeechobee-Terr CeTomoa association
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- 10. Okeechobee-Terra Cea.Tomoka oeaton
tion. Most cleared areas are in improved pasture. Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils, some
Some are in crops and citrus. A few are under resi- organic to a depth of 52 inches and others organic in
dential development, although the major soils have the upper 16 to 40 inches and sandy and loamy below
severe limitations for dwellings and small commercial This association is in marshes and swamps along
buildings. Wooded areas provide food and good pro- the Oklawaha River and in large isolated ponds and
tection for wildlife, especially birds and small animals, swamps within the broad flatwoods in the northwest.
It is covered with water, except during extended dry
Very Poorly Drained Soils of the Flatwoods periods. It is very poorly drained. The natural vegeta-
and Flood Plains tion is a swamp hardwood growth of cypress, white
bay, red maple, tupelo-gum, and titi or an aquatic
In the two soil associations of this group are mineral plant cover of grasses, sedges, and water hyacinths.
and organic soils in ponds and swamps. The mineral This association makes up about 4 percent, or
soils are commonly loamy or clayey throughout. These 27,825 acres, of the survey area. It is about 26 percent
associations are on the flood plain of the Oklawaha Okeechobee soils, 26 percent Terra Ceia soils, 9 per-
River and Silver Run and in large areas of the very cent Tomoka soils, and 39 percent Anclote and Bluff
wet flatwoods in the northeast, soils and the Pamlico-Martel association. The Pamlico-
Martel association is mostly in the flatwoods of the
9. Bluff-Martel association northwestern part of the survey area.
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils, some lo y Okeechobee soils are typically black muck to a
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils, some loamy depth of about 32 inches and very dark brown mucky
and clayey throughout and others loamy in the upper peat between depths of 32 and 65 inches.
part and clayey within a depth of 20 inches Terra Ceia soils are typically black muck to a depth
This association is in ponds and swamps of the flat- of about 61 inches and dark reddish brown mucky peat







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 15

between depths of 61 and 68 inches. The Terra Ceia gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that
variant is similar to other Terra Ceia soils, but is ex- are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. These soils
tremely acid to strongly acid. occur as broad areas of the flatwoods and along the
Tomoka soils are typically black muck to a depth of lower slopes of the sandy uplands. They formed in
about 32 inches and gray sand and dark gray sandy thick beds of sandy marine sediments. The water table
clay loam below, is 20 to 40 inches below the surface for cumula-
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- tive periods of 2 to 6 months during most years. Dur-
tion. One large area long the Oklawaha River in the ing some wet periods it rises to within 10 to 20 inches
southeast has been diked, ditched, and cropped. This of the surface for short periods, ordinarily less than
association is a natural habitat for many kinds of 2 weeks. During dry periods it recedes to a depth of
wildlife, more than 40 inches.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
Descriptions of the Soils gray sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying ma-
terial to a depth of 88 inches is sand. The upper 14
This section describes the soil series and mapping inches is gray mottled with light brownish gray, the
units in the Marion County Area. Each soil series is next 8 inches is gray mottled with brownish yellow,
described in detail, and then, briefly, each mapping and the lower 60 inches is white mottled with light
unit in that series. Unless it is specifically mentioned gray.
otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is stated Available water capacity is low to very low. Natural
about the soil series holds true for the mapping units fertility is low. Permeability is rapid to a depth of
in that series. Thus, to get full information about any more than 80 inches. Organic-matter content is low.
one mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the de- Adamsville soils are only moderately well suited to
scription of the soil series to which it belongs and the most general farm crops and improved pasture
description of the mapping unit. grasses
An important part of the description of each soil Representative profile of Adamsville sand, 0 to 5
series is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers percent slopes, in an old field presently in slash pine,
from the surface downward to underlying material, oak, sedge, and gallberry, 175 feet south of Burbank
Each series contains two descriptions of this profile. Road and 31/2 miles west of State Road 315,
The first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman. NW1/4NW1/ sec. 17, T. 14 S., R. 23 E.
The second is much more detailed and is for those who
need to make thorough and precise studies of soils. Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak me-
Color terms are for moist soil unless otherwise stated. dium granular structure; very friable; numerous
fine medium roots; many fine and medium clean
The profile described in the series is representative for quart grains, which give the horizon a salt an
mapping units in that series. If the profile of a. given pepper effect; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
mapping unit is different from the one described for boundary.
the series, these differences are stated in describing c1-6 to 20 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few medium faint
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; single
the mapping unit, or they are differences that are ap- grained; loose; common fine and few medium
parent in the name of the mapping unit. roots; many uncoated sand grains; very strongly
As mentioned in the section "How This Survey Was acid; clear wavy boundary.
Made," not all mapping units are members of a soil C2-20 to 28 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; few fine faint
series. Urban land, for example, does not belong to a brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; few fine and
medium roots; single grained; loose; sand grains
soil series, but nevertheless, is listed in alphabetic uncoated in matrix; very strongly acid; gradual
order along with the soil series, wavy boundary.
Preceding the name of each mapping unit is a sym- C3-28 to 88 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few medium
faint light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) mottles; single
bol. This symbol identifies the mapping unit on the de- grained; looseght ra (10YR 7/ /2) mottles; single
tailed soil map. Listed at the end of the description of strongly acid.
most mapping units are the capability unit and the
woodland group to which the mapping unit has been The solum is 80 inches or more thick. The soil is sand to a
woodland grou o w h te m g nit has been depth of 80 inches or more and is less than 5 percent fines
assigned. The page for the description of each capa- of silt and clay between depths of 10 and 40 inches. Reaction
ability unit can be found by referring to the "Guide to ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid.
Mapping Units" at the back of this survey. The A horizon is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), gray (N
5/0, 10YR 5/1), or grayish brown (10YR 5/2). It is 4 to
The acreage and proportionate extent of each map- inches or grayish brown (ck.YR 5/2) is 4 to 7
ping unit are shown in table 3. Many of the terms used The C1 horizon is gray (10 YR 5/1, 6/1), light brownish
in describing soils can be found in the Glossary at the gray (10YR 6/2), or very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 8/3) and is
end of this survey, and more detailed information 8 to 23 inches thick. The C2 horizon is mottled very pale
about the terminology and methods of soil mapping brow (10YR 7/3) and light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), or it is
gray (10YR 6/1!) or light gray and has few to common yel-
can be obtained from the Soil Survey Manual (5).2 lowish or brownish mottles. It is 9 to 38 inches thick. The
C3 horizon is light gray (10YR 7/1) or white (10YR 8/1) and
Adamsville Series is 17 to 50 or more inches thick. Some pedons have a white
(10YR 8/1) C4 horizon. Few to common mottles in shades of
The A sville series oni o nea ee gray, yellow, and brown commonly occur in the C horizon.
The Adamsville series consists of nearly level to Adamsville soils are associated with Astatula, Candler,
Pomona, Placid, Pompano, and Tavares soils. They are more
'Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. poorly drained than Astatula, Candler, and Tavares soils.
145. They are better drained than Pomona soils and lack







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 15

between depths of 61 and 68 inches. The Terra Ceia gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that
variant is similar to other Terra Ceia soils, but is ex- are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. These soils
tremely acid to strongly acid. occur as broad areas of the flatwoods and along the
Tomoka soils are typically black muck to a depth of lower slopes of the sandy uplands. They formed in
about 32 inches and gray sand and dark gray sandy thick beds of sandy marine sediments. The water table
clay loam below, is 20 to 40 inches below the surface for cumula-
Most of this association is still in natural vegeta- tive periods of 2 to 6 months during most years. Dur-
tion. One large area long the Oklawaha River in the ing some wet periods it rises to within 10 to 20 inches
southeast has been diked, ditched, and cropped. This of the surface for short periods, ordinarily less than
association is a natural habitat for many kinds of 2 weeks. During dry periods it recedes to a depth of
wildlife, more than 40 inches.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
Descriptions of the Soils gray sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying ma-
terial to a depth of 88 inches is sand. The upper 14
This section describes the soil series and mapping inches is gray mottled with light brownish gray, the
units in the Marion County Area. Each soil series is next 8 inches is gray mottled with brownish yellow,
described in detail, and then, briefly, each mapping and the lower 60 inches is white mottled with light
unit in that series. Unless it is specifically mentioned gray.
otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is stated Available water capacity is low to very low. Natural
about the soil series holds true for the mapping units fertility is low. Permeability is rapid to a depth of
in that series. Thus, to get full information about any more than 80 inches. Organic-matter content is low.
one mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the de- Adamsville soils are only moderately well suited to
scription of the soil series to which it belongs and the most general farm crops and improved pasture
description of the mapping unit. grasses
An important part of the description of each soil Representative profile of Adamsville sand, 0 to 5
series is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers percent slopes, in an old field presently in slash pine,
from the surface downward to underlying material, oak, sedge, and gallberry, 175 feet south of Burbank
Each series contains two descriptions of this profile. Road and 31/2 miles west of State Road 315,
The first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman. NW1/4NW1/ sec. 17, T. 14 S., R. 23 E.
The second is much more detailed and is for those who
need to make thorough and precise studies of soils. Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak me-
Color terms are for moist soil unless otherwise stated. dium granular structure; very friable; numerous
fine medium roots; many fine and medium clean
The profile described in the series is representative for quart grains, which give the horizon a salt an
mapping units in that series. If the profile of a. given pepper effect; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
mapping unit is different from the one described for boundary.
the series, these differences are stated in describing c1-6 to 20 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few medium faint
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; single
the mapping unit, or they are differences that are ap- grained; loose; common fine and few medium
parent in the name of the mapping unit. roots; many uncoated sand grains; very strongly
As mentioned in the section "How This Survey Was acid; clear wavy boundary.
Made," not all mapping units are members of a soil C2-20 to 28 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; few fine faint
series. Urban land, for example, does not belong to a brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; few fine and
medium roots; single grained; loose; sand grains
soil series, but nevertheless, is listed in alphabetic uncoated in matrix; very strongly acid; gradual
order along with the soil series, wavy boundary.
Preceding the name of each mapping unit is a sym- C3-28 to 88 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few medium
faint light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) mottles; single
bol. This symbol identifies the mapping unit on the de- grained; looseght ra (10YR 7/ /2) mottles; single
tailed soil map. Listed at the end of the description of strongly acid.
most mapping units are the capability unit and the
woodland group to which the mapping unit has been The solum is 80 inches or more thick. The soil is sand to a
woodland grou o w h te m g nit has been depth of 80 inches or more and is less than 5 percent fines
assigned. The page for the description of each capa- of silt and clay between depths of 10 and 40 inches. Reaction
ability unit can be found by referring to the "Guide to ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid.
Mapping Units" at the back of this survey. The A horizon is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), gray (N
5/0, 10YR 5/1), or grayish brown (10YR 5/2). It is 4 to
The acreage and proportionate extent of each map- inches or grayish brown (ck.YR 5/2) is 4 to 7
ping unit are shown in table 3. Many of the terms used The C1 horizon is gray (10 YR 5/1, 6/1), light brownish
in describing soils can be found in the Glossary at the gray (10YR 6/2), or very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 8/3) and is
end of this survey, and more detailed information 8 to 23 inches thick. The C2 horizon is mottled very pale
about the terminology and methods of soil mapping brow (10YR 7/3) and light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), or it is
gray (10YR 6/1!) or light gray and has few to common yel-
can be obtained from the Soil Survey Manual (5).2 lowish or brownish mottles. It is 9 to 38 inches thick. The
C3 horizon is light gray (10YR 7/1) or white (10YR 8/1) and
Adamsville Series is 17 to 50 or more inches thick. Some pedons have a white
(10YR 8/1) C4 horizon. Few to common mottles in shades of
The A sville series oni o nea ee gray, yellow, and brown commonly occur in the C horizon.
The Adamsville series consists of nearly level to Adamsville soils are associated with Astatula, Candler,
Pomona, Placid, Pompano, and Tavares soils. They are more
'Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. poorly drained than Astatula, Candler, and Tavares soils.
145. They are better drained than Pomona soils and lack








16 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 3.-ACREAGE AND PROPORTIONATE EXTENT OF THE SOILS

Map Soil name Acres Percent apl Soil name Acres Percent
symbol symbol

AdB Adamsville sand, 0 to 5 percent KaB Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 per-
slopes ---------------10,930 1.6 cent slopes ---------------__ 8,860 1.3
Ae Anclote sand ------------------- 1,750 0.3 KeA Kendrick loamy sand, 0 to 2 per-
AN Anclote-Tomoka association ------ 2,980 0.4 cent slopes ____------_____ 1,860 0.3
ApB Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes 15,460 2.2 KeB Kendrick loamy sand, 2 to 5 per-
ApC Apopka sand, 5 to 12 percent cent slopes ---______________ 36,560 5.2
slopes ------------------- 2,300 0.3 KeC Kendrick loamy sand, 5 to 8 per-
ArB Arredondo sand, 0 to 5 percent cent slopes ----------- 3.770 0.5
slopes ----------------- 78,480 11.3 LoA Lochloosa fine sand, 0 to 2 per-
ArC Arredondo sand, 5 to 8 percent cent slopes ------------_ 980 0.1
slopes ----------- 4,950 0.7 LoB Lochloosa fine sand, 2 to 5 per-
AsB Arredondo-Urban land complex, cent slopes ----------- 12,450 1.8
0 to 5 percent slopes---- 2,540 0.4 LoC Lochloosa fine sand, 5 to 8 per-
AtB Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent cent slopes ___---------- 1,150 0.2
slopes -----------------8,900 1.3 Ly Lynne sand ----------- 20540 2.9
AtC Astatula sand, 5 to 12 percent Ma Martel sandy clay loam--- 3,780 0.5
slopes -------- 1,800 0.3 McB Micanopy fine sand, 2 to 5 per-
BcA Blichton sand, 0 to 2 percent cent slopes ----------------_ 6,250 0.9
slopes-------- 6,460 0.9 McC Micanopy fine sand, 5 to 8 per-
BcB Blichton sand, 2 to 5 percent cent slopes ------------- 780 0.1
slopes --------31,970 4.6 Ok Okeechobee muck ----_________ 7,460 1.1
BdB Blichton-Urban land complex, 0 Pa Paisley loamy fine sand -----__ 11.780 1.7
to 5 percent slopes ------------ 400 0.1 PB Pamlico-Martel association ____ 9,180 1.3
Bf Bluff sandy clay ______________- 4,870 0.7 PeB Pedro-Arredondo complex, 0 to 5
BoC Boardman loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---------- 7,790 1.1
percent slopes _______________ 5,060 0.7 Pm Placid sand ----_____________- 11,730 1.7
BoD Boardman loamy sand, 8 to 12 Pn Placid-Pompano-Pomona
percent slopes ________________ 1,380 0.2 complex ------------------ 6.030 0.9
Bp Borrow pits __________________- 2,400 0.3 Po Pomona sand __________________ 19,790 2.8
CaB Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent Pp Pompano sand-- --- 3.870 0.6
slopes ------------137,160 19.7 Pr Pompano sand, ponded---- 2.990 0.4
CaC Candler sand, 5 to 12 percent SpB Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes ------------------- 26,840 3.9 slopes __----------_ 26,720 3.8
CwA Candler clay, overwash, 0 to 2 SpC Sparr fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
percent slopes --------------- 500 0.1 slopes------------ 1,270 0.2
Ea Eaton loamy sand --------5,100 0.7 SuB Sparr-Urban land complex, 0 to 5
EcB Electra sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes 5,010 0.7 percent slopes ---------------- 780 0.1
Er Eureka loamy fine sand --------_ 17,260 2.5 TaB Tavares sand, 0 to 5 percent
Es Eureka loamy fine sand, ponded _- 4,030 0.6 slopes -------------------- 13230 1.9
FeB Fellowship loamy sand, 2 to 5 Tc Terra Ceia muck _---------- 5,660 0.8
percent slopes --------------- 2,550 0.4 Te Terra Ceia muck, acid variant __ 1,920 0.3
FeC Fellowship loamy sand, 5 to 8 To Tomoka muck ___-------------- 2,490 0.4
percent slopes -------- 1,500 0.2 UaA Udalfic Arents, 0 to 5 percent
FgB Fellowship gravelly loathy sand, slopes -----------740 0.1
gravelly subsoil variant, 2 to 5 UaF Udalfic Arents, 15 to 60 percent
percent slopes --------------- 870 0.1 slopes----- 2-2.340 0.3
FgC Fellowship gravelly loamy sand, Ur Urban land ------------------ 790 0.1
gravelly subsoil variant, 5 to 8 WaC Wacahoota loamy sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes ------------ 910 0.1 percent slopes ----- 5,270 0.8
FmA Flemington loamy sand, 0 to 2 WgB Wacahoota gravelly sand, gravelly
percent slopes ___ __----------- 2,270 0.3 subsoil variant, 2 to 5 percent
FmB Flemington loamy sand, 2 to 5 slopes----- .1170 0.2
percent slopes --------------_ 23.380 3.4 WgC Wacahoota gravelly sand, gravelly
GaB Gainesville loamy sand, 0 to 5 subsoil variant, 5 to 8 percent
percent slopes _______---____ 6,960 1.0 slopes ----------- 1.080 0.2
GaC Gainesville loamy sand, 5 to 8 ZuA Zuber loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent
percent slopes ---------------- 490 0.1 slopes -------------570 0.1
HaB Hague sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 9,020 1.3 ZuB Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
HaC Hague sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 1,360 0.2 slopes -------- 6,780 1.0
HgB Hague-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 ZuC Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
percent slopes ---------------- 2,370 0.3 slopes ---------- 1,880 0.
Ho Holopaw sand ___---- _____ -3,760 0.5 Mine pits __----------- 1260 0.2
JuB Jumper fine sand, 0 to 5 percent Water ------------- 4.616 0.6
slopes ------------ ----- 5.550 0.8 Total --------------------- 695,586 100.0

1Indicated on soil map by appropriate symbol.
'Indicated on soil map by appropriate symbol for pond or lake. The ponds or lakes are less than 40 acres in size.







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 17

the Bh horizon characteristic of those soils. They are better The A horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), very dark
drained than Placid and Pompano soils and lack the umbric gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), or very dark grayish brown (10YR
epipedon characteristic of Placid soils. 3/2) sand. It ranges from medium acid to slightly acid and
is less than 20 percent organic matter. It is generally 12
AdB-Adamsville sand, 0 to 5 percent. slopes. This to 18 inches thick, but ranges from 10 to 24 inches.
is a nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly The C horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1) light gray (10YR
drained soil that occurs as small and large areas in the 7/1), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), or light brownish gray
fdraine d s oil that occurs ast small and la e sandy uh (10YR 6/2) sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand. In places
flatwoods and along the lower slopes of the sandy up- it is mottled with gray, yellow, and brown. It is slightly
lands. The water table rises to within 10 to 20 inches acid or neutral. It is more than 80 inches thick.
of the surface for less than 2 weeks during wet peri- Anclote soils are closely associated with Bluff, Holopaw,
ods, but remains at 20 to 40 inches for cumulative Pompano, and Tomoka soils. They are sandy to a depth of
more than 80 inches, whereas Bluff soils are sandy clay
periods of 2 to 6 months during most years. It recedes loam throughout and Holopaw soils are sandy clay loam
to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods, at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. They are more poorly drained
Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas than Pompano soils and have a thicker dark colored A hori-
of a similar soil that is fine sand, is extremely acid, or zon, are less acid, and have higher base saturation. They
are of mineral origin, whereas Tomoka soils are of organic
has a slope of 5 to 8 percent. Also included are small origin.
areas of Candler, Pomana, Pompano, and Tavares Ae-Anclote sand. This is a very poorly drained soil
soils. Included soils make up about 15 percent of any that occurs as small areas on low flats, in depressions,
one mapped area. and along poorly defined drainageways in the flat-
The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, woods. It has the profile described as representative
longleaf pine, water oak, and live oak and an under- of the series. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The water table
story of low-growing native shrubs and grasses. Most is within a depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months,
areas are still in native vegetation. Capability unit and in depressions the surface is covered with about 4
IIIw-1; woodland group 3wl. to 20 inches of water for 6 months or more during
most years. Areas along the Oklawaha River are sub-
Anclote Series ject to flooding.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
The Anclote series consists of nearly level, very of Holopaw, Okeechobee, Placid, Bluff, and Tomoka
poorly drained sandy soils that formed in beds of soils; small areas where the surface layer is 8 to 16
sandy marine sediments. These soils are in depres- inches thick and is more than 20 percent organic mat-
sions, on low flats, and along poorly defined drainage- ter; and a few small areas of a similar soil that has a
ways in the flatwoods. The water table is within a sandy clay loam subsoil at a depth of 50 to 80 inches.
depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months during most Included soils make up about 20 percent of any one
years. Depressional areas are covered with water for mapped area.
6 months or more annually. The natural vegetation is chiefly cypress, bay, gum,
In a representative profile the surface layer is sand palm, ash, and maple. Some depressions have non-
about 20 inches. thick. The upper 16 inches is black, woody vegetation of waterhyacinth, sawgrass, water-
and the lower 4 inches is very dark gray. The under- cress, sedge, and other water-tolerant plants. Most
lying material to a depth of 80 inches is light gray areas are still in natural vegetation. Capability unit
sand mottled with dark gray. IIIw-4; woodland group 2w3.
Available water capacity is medium in the upper 16 AN-Anclote-Tomoka association. This mapping
inches and low to very low below. Permeability is unit consists of very poorly drained, nonacid mineral
rapid. Natural fertility and organic-matter content and organic soils. It occurs as large areas on the flood
are high in the upper 16 inches and low below, plain along the Oklawaha River and as areas about
Under natural conditions, Anclote soils are poorly one-fourth to one-half mile wide in the swamps along
suited to crops and pasture. If drainage is adequate the Oklawaha and Withlacoochee Rivers. It is about
and water is otherwise controlled, however, they are 45 percent Anclote soil and 40 percent Tomoka soil,
well suited to commonly grown special crops and im- but the composition differs from area to area. The
proved pasture. outer rims of delineated areas are dominantly Anclote
Representative profile of Anclote sand, 0 to 2 per- soil, and the flooded areas toward the river are domi-
cent slopes, in a swamp 250 feet west of the Oklawaha nantly Tomoka soil. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
River at Cabbage Landing, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 5, T. 14 S., This mapping unit is subject to flooding. During
R. 24 E. most years, the water table is within a depth of 10
All-0 to 16 inches; black (N 2/0) sand; weak fine and me- inches for 9 to 12 months and water is on the surface
dium granular structure; very friable; few fine and for more than 8 months.
medium roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. Included in this unit in mapping are areas where a
A12-16 to 20 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; sin- 24- to 35-inch, very dark gray sandy surface layer is
lghl ained; loos few fiyun medium roots; underlain to a depth of more than 60 inches by gray
C1-20 to 29 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; common or light gray, nonacid sand; areas where an 8- to 16-
fine and medium dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles; inch, black surface laver that is more than 20 percent
single grained; loose; few fine roots; neutral; organic matter is underlain to a depth of more than
gradual wavy boundary. 60 inches by sandy material; and many areas of Okee-
C2-29 to 80 inches; light gray (10 YR 7/1) sand; few fine chobee and Terra Ceia soils. The extent of included
and medium dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles; single chobee and Terra Ceia soils. The extent of included
grained; loose; neutral, soils varies, but averages about 15 percent.







18 SOIL SURVEY

The natural vegetation is swamp hardwood, chiefly distinct white (10YR 8/2) mottles; weak fine sub-
water tupelo, cypress, ash, palm, and swamp maple. angular blocky structure; friable; few fine carbon
The unit is still in natural vegetation. Capability unit a cl; few uncoatd snd gras; very strongly
Vw-1; woodland group 2w3 for Anclote soil, Tomoka C-81 to 88 inches; mottled strong brown (7.5YR 5/8),
soil not assigned, yellowish red (5YR 5/8), yellowish brown (10YR
5/6), and white (10YR 8/1), partly weathered
sandy loam and sandy clay loam; massive; slightly
Apopka Series firm; very strongly acid.
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction ranges
The Apopka series consists of nearly level to from very strongly acid to medium acid in all horizons.
strongly sloping, well drained soils that formed in The A horizon is 40 to 80 inches thick. The Ap or Al hori-
thick beds of sandy and loamy deposits. These soils zon is dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish brown (10YR
occur as small areas in the uplands. Th water table is 4/2), or grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand 5 to 8 inches thick.
occur as small areas in te uplands. The water table is In some pedons the Ap horizon is very dark gray (10YR
at a depth of more than 72 inches. 3/1) or very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2).
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark The A2 horizon is very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4),
gray sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer pale brown (10YR 6/3), brown (10YR 5/3), light yel-
lowish brown (10YR 6/4), yellow (I)YR 7/6, 7/8),
is about 49 inches of sand, many grains of which are bowish brown (10YR 6/46, 6, oyellowish brow6
uncoated. The upper 22 inches is light yellowish (10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8). In some pedons it has few to common
brown, and the lower 27 inches is yellow. The subsoil fine mottles of gray (10YR 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2),
is about 26 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is yellow- and white (10YR 8/1, 8/2). These mottles are the color of
ish red sandy clay loam having a few lenses of sandy the clean sand grains; they do not indicate wetness. The
ish red sandy clay loam having a few lenses of sandy A2 horizon is 35 to 72 inches thick. It is less than 5 percent
loam, the next 9 inches is yellowish red sandy clay fines of silt and clay. Many of the sand grains are uncoated.
loam mottled' with red, and the lower 12 inches is The B2t horizon is strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8), yellow-
mottled yellowish red and red light sandy clay loam. ish red (5YR 5/6, 5/8, 4/6, 4/8), light yellowish brown
The underlying material to a depth f 88 inches is (10YR 6/4), brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8), yellowish
The underlying material to a depth of 88 inches is brown (1OYR 5/6, 5/8), and red (2.5YR 5/6, 5/8, 4/6, 4/8)
mottled strong brown, yellowish red, yellowish brown, sandy loam or sandy clay loam. It ranges from 18 to 32
and white, partly weathered sandy loam and sandy inches or more in thickness.
clay loam. The B3 horizon is strong brown (75YR, 5/6, 5/8), yel-
Available water capacity is very low in lowish red (5 YR 5/6, 5/8, 4/6, 4/8), or red (2.5YR 4/6, 4/8)
available water capacity is very low in the paper sandy loam or sandy clay loam 10 inches or more thick. In
55 inches and medium to high below. Permeability is many pedons it has few to common mottles in various
rapid in the upper 55 inches and moderate below. Na- shades of yellow, brown, and red. Mottles of gray (10YR
tural fertility and the organic-matter content are low. 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), or white (1OYR 8/1,
8/2), are probably remnants of the parent; material. They
Apopka soils are only moderately well suited to do not indicate wetness.
most general farm crops. They are well suited to cit- The C horizon is mottled gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), yellowish
rus if the climate is favorable. They are well suited to brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8), and
improved pasture of deep-rooting grasses and legumes. yellowish red (5YR 5/6, 5/8) sandy loam and sandy clay
loam.
Representative profile of Apopka sand, 0 to 5 per- Apopka soils are associated with Candler, Jumper, Sparr,
cent slopes, about 150 feet north of graded county and Tavares soils. They have a loamy Bt horizon beginn-
road, 2 miles west of Weirsdale, and one-half mile ing at a depth of 40 to 80 inches, whereas Candler soils
north of State Road 42, SESEl/4 sec. 25, T. 17 S., are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches. They are
R. 23 E. better drained than Jumper soils and have a thicker A hori-
zon. They are better drained than Sparr and Tavares soils.
They also differ from Tavares soils in having a Bt horizon
Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak me- that begins at a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
dium granular structure; very friable; common
fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand ApB-Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a
grains; few fine carbon particles; very strongly nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil that
acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 28 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) generally occurs as small areas in the uplands. It has
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium the profile described as representative of the series.
roots; many uncoated sand grains; few fine carbon The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.
particles; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
gra22-28 to 55 inhed; looses; yellow (10YR 7/6) sand; single of similar soils, where the sandy surface and subsur-
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; many
uncoated sand grains; few fine carbon particles; face layers combined are less than 40 inches thick, the
very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary, slope is 5 to 8 percent, or the surface layer is fine sand
B21t-55 to 60 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy clay and small areas of Candler, Jumper, and Tavares soils.
loam; few fine lenses of sandy loam; weak medium Also included, in the western part of the county, are a
subangular blocky structure; friable; very few
fine roots; few fine carbon particles; sand grains few areas where 35 to 60 inches of strongly acid to
coated and bridged with clay; few uncoated sand slightly acid fine sand overlies a slightly acid to nen-
grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. tral subsoil and calcareous limestone. Included soils
B22t-60 to 69 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy clay make up about 15 percent of any one mapped area.
loam; few medium and coarse distinct red (2.5YR
4/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, turkey oak,
structure; friable; few fine carbon particles; sand post oak, bluejack oak, and live oak and an understory
grains coated and bridged with clay; few uncoated of native grasses. Most areas are cleared and are in
d ans; very strongly acid; gradual wavy citrus. Capability unit IIIs-1; woodland group 3s1.
B3-69 to 81 inches; mottled yellowish red (SYR 5/8) and ApC-Apopka sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This is
red (2.5YR 4/8 )light sandy clay loam; few fine a sloping to strongly sloping, well drained soil that oc-







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 19

curs as small areas on sharp-breaking slopes in the up- rounded particles; strongly acid; gradual wavy
lands. It has a profile similar to that described as rep- 46 boundary.
resentative of the series, but has a thinner surface B12-46 to 65 inches; strong brown (7.SYR 5/6) sand with
resentative of the series, but has a thinner surface few fine white mottles and streaks of uncoated
layer. The hazard of erosion is slight. The water table sand grains, streaks %4 inch to 3 inches long; mod-
is at a depth of more than 72 inches. rate medium granular structure; friable; few
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of a fine and medium roots; sand grains well coated;
few fine carbon particles; few fine rounded black
similar soil, where the sandy surface and subsurface particles; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
layers combined are less than 40 inches thick, areas B21t-65 to 70 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) loamy
where the subsoil is slightly compact, and small areas sand; few fine white mottles and streaks of un-
of Candler, Jumper, Sparr, and Tavares soils. Also in- coated sand grains; moderate medium granular
structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; sand
eluded are small areas, of a similar soil, where the grains coated and bridged with clay; few fine
slope is 0 to 5 percent. Included soils make up about 15 rounded black particles; medium acid; gradual
percent of any one mapped area. wavy boundary.
The natural vegetation is chiefly longleaf pine, tur- B22t-70 to 90 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) fine
key oak, post oak, and bluejack oak and an understory medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few
of native grasses. Most areas are in citrus or improved fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged with
pasture. Capability unit IVs-2; woodland group 3sl. clay; few fine rounded black particles; strongly
acid.
The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Reaction ranges
Arredondo Series from very strongly acid to medium acid in all horizons.
Few weathered and leached phosphatic pebbles ranging in
The Arredondo series consists of nearly level to diameter from 2 to 20 millimeters are in most pedons.
well drained soils that formed in thick beds of The Al or Ap horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark
sloping, well drained soils that formed in thick beds of gryish brown (10YR 4/2),'or grayish brown (10YR 5/2).
sandy and loamy marine material. These soils occur as It is 5 to 8 inches thick.
broad rolling areas of the upland. The water table is The A2 horizon is light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), yel-
at a depth of more than 72 inches. lowish brown (10YR 5/4), or dark yellowish brown (10YR
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark 4/4). The B1 horizon is yellowish brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8),
n a representative profile the surface layer is dark brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8), or strong brown (7.5YR
grayish brown sand about 7 inches thick. The subsur- 5/6, 5/8). More than 50 percent of the sand grains in the
face layer is mixed yellowish brown and dark yellow- A and B1 horizons are well coated with clay and oxides.
ish brown sand about 11 inches thick. The subsoil ex- These horizons are 5 to 15 percent silt and clay.
The B2t horizon is light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4),
tends to a depth of 90 inches or more. In sequence brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4,
downward, it is 28 inches of yellowish brown sand 5/6, 5/8), or strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8). The B21t hori-
mottled with strong brown, 19 inches of strong brown zon is loamy sand, loamy fine sand, or sandy loam. It is 4
sand having a few white mottles, 5 inches of strong to 8 inches thick. The B22t horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy
loam, or sandy clay loam. It is 15 to 32 inches thick.
brown loamy sand, and 20 inches of strong brown fine The B3 horizon, if it occurs, is dominantly yellowish
sandy loam. brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8) or strong brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8,
Available water capacity is low in the upper 65 but in places is light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) and
inches, medium from 65 to 70 inches, and medium to brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8). In places it has gray
mottles. It is sandy loam or sandy clay loam 0 to more
high below. Permeability is rapid in the upper 65 than 10 inches thick.
inches, moderately rapid from 65 to 70 inches, and Arredondo soils are associated with Candler, Hague,
moderate below. Natural fertility is low in the sandy Kanapaha, Kendrick, and Sparr soils. They are sandy to a
upper 70 inches and medium in the finer textured depth of 40 to 80 inches, whereas Candler soils are sandy
layers below. Organic-matter content i lowto a depth of more than 80 inches. They do not have the
layers below. Organic-matter content is low. uniform loamy sand texture that is common in Gainesville
Arredondo soils are moderately well suited to most soils. They have a thicker A horizon than Kendrick and
general farm crops. They are well suited to improved Hague soils and are better drained than Kanapaha and
pasture of deep-rooting grasses and legumes. Sparr soils.
Representative profile of Arredondo sand, 0 to 5 ArB-Arredondo sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
percent slopes, in a pasture 115 feet west of Inter- a nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil that
state Highway 75 and 1.5 miles north of U.S. High- occurs as both small and large areas in the upland. It
way 27, NEI/SE1/4 sec. 34, T. 14 S., R. 21 E. has the profile described as representative of the
series. The water table is at a depth of more than 72
Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand; inches.
weak fine granular structure; very friable many Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
smoothfine andboundary.oots; strongly acid; abrup of Candler, Kendrick, Hague, Gainesville, and Sparr
A2-7 to 18 inches; mixed yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) soils; a few small areas where the surface layer is fine
and dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sand; weak sand, loamy sand, and loamy fine sand; a few areas of
fine granular structure; very friable; common fine a similar soil, where the slope is 5 to 8 percent; and, in
and medium roots; sand grains coated; few fine rounded black part the south-central part of the county, spots where 35 to
carbon particles; few fine rounded black particles;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary. 65 inches of strongly acid to medium acid fine sand
Bll-18 to 46 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sand; overlies limestone. Also included are rock outcrop,
few medium strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles sinkholes, and a few small depressions where a very
sand grains; weak fine granular structure; very dark gray or black surface layer 8 to 24 inches thick
friable; few fine and medium roots; sand grains overlies gray sand. The rock outcrop, the sinkholes,
coated; few fine carbon particles; few fine black and the depressions are identified by spot symbols on







20 SOIL SURVEY

the soil map. Included soils make up about 20 percent in the upland. The water table is at a depth of more
of any one mapped area. than 72 inches.
The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, lob- In a representative profile a 1-inch covering of
lolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, water oak, leaves, roots, pine needles, twigs, and partly decom-
hickory, sweetgum, and dogwood. Most areas are posed organic material is at the surface. The surface
cleared and are used for cultivated crops and im- layer is gray sand about 3 inches thick. The under-
proved pasture. Capability unit mIs-1; woodland lying material to a depth of 92 inches is sand. The up-
group 3s1. per 54 inches is yellowish brown, and the lower 35
ArC-Arredondo sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is inches is very pale brown.
a sloping, well drained soil that occurs as small areas Available water capacity is very low. Organic-
on sharp-breaking slopes and on long slopes of the up- matter content is very low. Natural fertility is low.
land. In places a few rills have formed as a result of Permeability is very rapid.
erosion. The water table is at a depth of more than 72 Astatula soils are not suited to general farm crops.
inches. They are of only limited use for improved pasture,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas forest, and citrus.
of Candler, Kendrick, and Hague soils; a few small Representative profile of Astatula sand, 0 to 5 per-
depressions where a black surface layer 8 to 24 inches cent slopes, in an undisturbed area where the plant
thick overlies yellowish brown to grayish brown sandy cover is chiefly of sand pine, scrub live oak, American
material; and a few areas, of a similar soil, where the holly, and rosemary; 1.2 miles west of Interstate
slope is 0 to 5 or 8 to 12 percent. Also included are a Highway 75 and 200 feet north of State Road 484,
few small areas where the surface layer is fine sand, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 11, T. 17 S., R. 21 E.
loamy sand, and loamy fine sand. Rock outcrop and 01-1 inch to 0; leaves, roots, pine needles, twigs, and
sinkholes, both of which occur in places, are identified partly decomposed organic material.
by spot symbols on the soil map. Included soils make Al-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grained;
up about 15 percent of any one mapped area. loose; common fine and medium roots; many un-
up about 15coated sand grains; strongly acid; abrupt smooth
The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, boundary.
live oak, water oak, hickory, and dogwood and an C1-3 to 57 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sand;
understory of shrubs and native grasses. Most areas single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
have been cleared and are in cultivated crops or im- many uncoated sand grains; few isolated medium
sized dark brown (10TR 4/3) sandy nodules in
proved pasture. Capability unit IVs-2; woodland upper 6 inches; strongly acid; clear wavy bound-
group 3s1. ary.
AsB-Arredondo-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 per- C2-57 to 72 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
cent slopes. This mapping unit is about 60 to 70 per- single grained; loose; very few roots; many un-
cent well drained Arredondo sand and 30 to 40 per- boundary.
cent Urban land. The percentage differs from one C3-72 to 92 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/4) sand;
mapped area to another. Arredondo sand is in open single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
areas, such as parks, playgrounds, and vacant lots. strongly acid.
Urban land is covered with sidewalks, streets, houses, Astatula soils have a uniform texture of sand to a depth
driveways, industrial buildings, parking lots, and of more than 80 inches. They are less than 5 percent silt
driveways, industrial buildings, park lots, and and clay between depths of 10 and 40 inches. Reaction is
other structures. very strongly acid to medium acid in all horizons.
About 15 to 25 percent of the open area has been The A horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish
modified by the cutting, grading, and spreading of the brown (10YR 4/2, 2.5Y 4/2), gray (10YB 5/1, 6/1), gray
ish brown (10YR 5/2, 2.5Y 5/2), or light brownish gray
soil material in preparing sites for buildings, streets, (10YR 6/2). It is 2 to 5 inches thick.
and septic tanks. The soil material excavated is spread Some pedons have a 1- to 5-inch AC horizon that is
over adjacent areas. In most places it is 1 inch to 12 mixed gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2),
inches thick. It is sandy. pale brown (10YR 6/3), very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4),
Included in this unit in mapping are Gainesville, and light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4).
Included in this unit in mapping are Gainesvle, The C horizon is very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4, 8/4),
Candler, and Kendrick soils, all of which are similar pale brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR
to the Arredondo sand. These included soils make up 6/4), yellow (10YR 7/6, 7/8), brownish yellow (10YR 6/6,
about 15 percent of some open areas. Also included are 6/8), and yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8) to strong
small areas of a similar soil that has a slope of 5 to 8 (10YR 4/3), dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), or brown
percent. (10YR 5/3) nodules do not occur in the upper 6 inches of
This mapping unit is well suited to lawn grasses this horizon. Few to many fine and medium mottles and
and ornamental plants. The water table is at a depth streaks of gray (10YR 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1), and
of more than 72 inches. Not assigned to a capability white (10YR 8/1, 8/2) occur in some pedons. These mot-
of more than 72 chess. Not assigned to a capability tles are the color of the sand grains; they do not indicate
unit or woodland group, wetness.
Astatula soils are closely associated with Adamsville,
Candler, Electra, Pompano, and Tavares soils. They are
Astatula Series more excessively drained than Candler soils, and they do
not have the thin lamellae that occur in those soils at a
The Astatula series consists of nearly level to depth of about 65 to 75 inches. They are better drained
strongly sloping, excessively drained sandy soils that than Adamsville, Pompano, Tavares, and Electra soils
formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments more They also differ from Electra soils in having no Bh horizon.
than 7 feet thick. These soils are on broad sand ridges AtB-Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 21

nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil clay loam mottled with yellowish brown and yellowish
that occurs as small and large areas in the upland. It red.
has the profile described as representative of the Available water capacity is low in the upper 26
series. To a depth of 40 inches or more, many of the inches and medium below. Permeability is rapid in
sand grains are uncoated. The water table is at a depth the upper 26 inches, moderately rapid from 26 to 30
of more than 72 inches. inches, moderate from 30 to 77 inches, and moderately
Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas rapid from 77 to 81 inches. Natural fertility is low in
of a similar soil, where the texture is fine sand; a few the upper 26 inches and medium below. Organic-
small areas where the slope is 5 to 12 percent; and matter content is low.
small areas of a similar excessively drained soil that is Blichton soils are moderately well suited to com-
sandy clay loam below a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Also only grown cultivated crops. They are well suited to
included are a few small areas of Candler, Electra, improved pasture of locally grown grasses and legumes
Pompano, Adamsville, and Tavares soils. Included (fig. 2).
soils make up about 12 percent of any one mapped Representative profile of Blichton sand, 2 to 5 per-
area. cent slopes, in bahiagrass pasture about 21/2 miles
The natural vegetation is chiefly sand pine, bluejack southwest of Ocala 09 of a mile west-northwest of
oak, and sand live oak and a sparse understory of rose- intersection of Buffington Road and State Road 475,
mary, holly, pineland three-awn, and palmetto. Most SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 38, T. 15 S., R. 22 E. (Catalina de
areas are still in natural vegetation. Capability unit Jesus Hijuelas Grant):
VIs-1; woodland group 5sl. Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; common
AtC-Astatula sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This is fine and medium roots; few ironstone and weath-
a sloping to strongly sloping, excessively drained soil ered phosphatic nodules; medium acid; abrupt
that occurs as small and large areas of the upland. The wavy boundary.
water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. A2-5 to 26 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; few large light
gray (10YR 7/1) splotches and few fine distinct
Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas very pale brown streaks along root channels in
of a similar soil, where the texture is fine sand; a few upper part; single grained; loose; common fine
areas where the slope is 0 to 5 percent; and a few and medium roots; about 2 percent fine ironstone
areas were e lope is to percent an a ew and weathered phosphatic nodules; medium acid;
spots of an excessively drained soil that is sandy clay clear wavy boundary.
loam below a depth of 60 to 80 inches. Also included B21tg-26 to 30 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; mod-
are a few small areas of Candler, Electra, Pompano, erate medium and coarse granular structure; fri-
and Adamsville soils. Included soils make up about 10 abld poe; abn 4and eentim rstootsan weath
percent of any one mapped area. ered phosphatic nodules; strongly acid; clear wavy
The natural vegetation is chiefly sand pine and, in boundary.
some areas, intermixed bluejack oak, sand live oak, B22tg-30 to 45 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sandy clay
Saa, n a a, sand live oakloam; common large prominent red (2.5YR 4/8)
and rosemary. Most areas are still in native vegeta- and yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate
tion. Capability unit VIIs-1; woodland group 5sl. medium angular and subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine and medium roots; faint discon-
tinuous clay films; about 12 percent plinthite;
Blichton Series few ironstone and weathered phosphatic nodules;
some rod-shaped fragments or pieces of siliceous
The Blichton series consists of nearly level to gently
sloping, poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds
of loamy marine sediments. These soils occur as small

and large areas in the upland. The water table is
within a depth of 10 inches for cumulative periods of
1 month to 4 months during most years. During dry
periods it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches.
Wet slopes are the result of seepage.
In a representative profile the surface layer is very
dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is gray sand about 21 inches thick. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 77 inches. The upper 4 inches is
gray sandy loam, about 4 percent of which is iron-
stone and weathered phosphatic nodules. The next 35
inches is mottled dark gray sandy clay loam. The up-
per 15 inches of this layer is about 12 percent plinthite
and has a few ironstone and weathered phosphatic
nodules, and the lower 20 inches is about 10 percent
plinthite and has common medium ironstone nodules.
The lower 12 inches of the subsoil is mottled gray
sandy clay loam and lenses of sandy loam. The under-
lying material between depths of 77 and 81 inches is
gray stratified sandy loam, loamy sand, and sandy Figure 2--Alye clover on Blichton sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.







22 SOIL SURVEY

material about 7 millimeters (/4 inch) in diameter Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
and 2.5 to 5 centimeters (1 inch to 2 inches) in of a similar soil that is less than 5 percent plinthite
h; very strongly acid; gradual wavy bound- within a depth of 60 inches and a few areas where 20
B23tg-45 to 65 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sandy clay to 40 inches of pale brown to yellowish brown sandy
loam, gray (N 5/0), crushed; common medium dis- material overlies a subsoil of gray to light gray sandy
tinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) and few fine light clay loam. Also included are some spots of Kanapaha,
gray mottles; moderate medium angular and sub-
angular blocky structure; friable; few fine and Flemington, and Lochloosa soils and a few areas, of a
medium roots; distinct clay films along ped faces; similar soil, where the slope is 2 to 5 percent. Rock
about 10 percent plinthite; common medium iron- outcrop and sinkholes, both of which occur in some
stone nodules; very strongly acid; gradual wavy areas, are identified by spot symbols on the soil map.
boundary.
B24tg-65 to 77 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam; Included soils make up about 15 percent of any one
common fine distinct very pale brown and com- mapped area.
mon fine prominent yellowish red mottles; weak The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly
subangular blocky structure; friable; few medium pine, water oak, and sweetgum. The understory is
light gray (10YR 7/1) lenses of sandy loam; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. dominantly waxmyrtle and native grasses. Most areas
Cg-77 to 81 inches; gray (N 5/0) stratified sandy loam, are still in forest. Most cleared areas are in improved
loamy sand, and sandy clay loam; common me- pasture. Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland group 2wl.
dium and coarse yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and BcB-Blichton sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This is a
common medium prominent yellowish red (5YR
5/6) mottles; massive; friable; very strongly acid. gently sloping, poorly drained soil occurring as both
The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Ironstone and small and large areas in the upland. It has the profile
weathered phosphatic nodules are in the A and Btg hori- described as representative of the series. The water
zons. Fragments or pieces of rod-shaped siliceous material table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 month to 4
less than 3 inches in length and about one-fourth inch in months during most years. During dry periods it re-
diameter are, by volume, 1 to 5 percent of these horizons cedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
in some pedons. Plinthite occurs within a depth of 30 to
42 inches. The content of plinthite ranges from 5 to 20 Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
percent. areas of a similar soil that is moderately eroded; some
The texture of the A horizon is sand. Reaction ranges areas, of a similar soil, where the volume of plinthite
from very strongly acid to medium acid. The Al and Ap within a depth of 60 inches is less than 5 percent of
horizons are very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), or dark
gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1). They are 4 to 9 inches thick. If any one horizon; and a few small areas where 20 to 40
very dark gray, they are 4 to 6 inches thick. The A2 hori- inches of pale brown and yellowish brown sand over-
zon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), lies sandy clay loam. Also included are some spots of
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), and grayish brown Kanapaha, Flemington, Lochloosa, and Sparr soils; a
(10YR 5/2). It is 16 to 30 inches thick. In some pedons Kanapaha, Flemington, Lochloosa, and Sparrsoils; a
has few to common mottles in shades of yellow, brown, few small areas, of a similar soil, where the subsurface
and gray. layer and the upper 20 inches of the subsoil are 5 to
Reaction in the Btg horizon is very strongly acid or 35 percent gravel or rock fragments less than 3 inches
strongly acid. The B21tg horizon is dark gray (N 4/0, i diameter; and spots of a similar soil that has a
10YR 4/1), gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), light brown- meter; and spots of a similar soil that has a
ish gray (10YR 6/2), and light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2). slope of 0 to 2 percent. The rock outcrop and sinkholes
Most pedons have common mottles in shades of yellow, that occur in some areas are identified by spot sym-
brown, and red. Texture of the B21tg horizon is sandy loam bols on the soil map. Included soils make up about 15
or fine sandy loam. Thickness is 3 to 6 inches. The B22tg, p t f o
B23tg, and B24tg horizons are dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR percent of any one mapped area.
4/1), gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), or light grayish The natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine,
brown (10YR 6/2) sandy clay loam mottled with yellow, longleaf pine, water oak, dogwood, sweetgum, and
brown, and red. They are 38 to 54 inches thick. Some hickory and an understory of waxmyrtle, gallberry,
pedons have a B3g horizon the same color and texture as
the Btg horizon. and native grasses. Although most areas are still in
The Cg horizon is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), gray forest, many have been cleared. Most of the cleared
(N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), or light gray (10YR 7/1) areas are used for improved pasture. Capability unit
sandy loam or sandy clay loam that has lenses of coarser IIIw-7; woodland group 2wl.
textured material or is stratified with this material. In a
few pedons it is sandy clay or clay. BdB-Blichton-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
Blichton soils are closely associated with Fellowship, slopes. This mapping unit is 65 to 75 percent poorly
Flemington, Kanapaha, Kendrick, Lochloosa, Micanopy, drained Blichton sand and 25 to 35 percent Urban
and Sparr soils. They have a thicker A horizon and less land. The percentage differs from one mapped area to
clay in the Btg horizon than Fellowship and Flemington
soils. Their A horizon is thinner than that of Kanapaha another. Blichton sand is in open areas, such as parks.
and Sparr soils and thicker than that of Micanopy soils. playgrounds, and vacant lots. Urban land is covered
They are more poorly drained than Kendrick, Lochloosa, with sidewalks, streets, houses, driveways, industrial
Sparr, and Micanopy soils. buildings, parking lots, and other structures.
BcA-Blichton sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This is a About 20 to 30 percent of the open area has been
nearly level, poorly drained soil that occurs as small modified by the cutting, grading, and spreading of the
areas in the upland. Runoff is slow, and during ex- soil material in preparing sites for buildings, streets,
tremely wet periods the surface may be covered with and septic tanks. The soil material excavated is spread
water for brief periods. The water table is at a depth over adjacent areas. In most places it is 1 inch to 12
of less than 10 inches for cumulative periods of 1 inches thick. It is sandy and loamy.
month to 4 months during most years, but recedes to a Included in this unit in mapping are Flemington,
depth of more than 40 inches during drier periods. Kanapaha, and Sparr soils, all of which are similar to







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 23

the Blichton sand. These included soils make up about mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
20 percent of some open areas. Also included are small structure; very firm, sticky and plastic, hard; few
fine and medium slickensides; common fine streaks
areas where the slope is 5 to 8 percent. and pockets of soft and hard white (N 8/0) cal-
This mapping unit is well suited to lawn grasses and cium carbonate; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
many kinds of ornamental plants. The water table is B3g-38 to 60 inches; gray (N 6/0) sandy clay; common
within a depth of 10 inches for 1 month to 4 months medim distinct strong brown (.5YR 5/6) and
few medium distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
during most years. During dry seasons it recedes to a mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
depth of 40 inches or more. Not assigned to a capa- firm, sticky and plastic; few to common lenses of
ability unit or woodland group, sandy clay and sandy loam; few slickensides; com-
mon fine streaks and pockets of white (N 8/0)
calcium carbonate; mildly alkaline.
Bluff Series The solum ranges from 40 to 60 inches or more in thick-
ness. Marl is commonly at a depth of more than 60 inches.
The Bluff series consists of nearly level, very poorly The A horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1) to very dark
drained soils that formed in thick beds of alkaline gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1). It is sandy clay or sandy clay
loamy marine sediments. These soils are along the loam. Organic matter content is about 2 to 12 percent in
flood plain of the Oklawaha River. The water table is most pedons, but ranges to 20 percent. Reaction in the A
horizon ranges from strongly acid to neutral. Thickness is
within a depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months 14 to 24 inches.
during most years. The soils are usually flooded for a The Bg horizon is sandy clay loam or sandy clay. It
period of 1 month or more annually, ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline. Streaks
In a representative profile the surface layer is about and pockets of calcium carbonate are commonly within a
depth of 17 to 42 inches. They generally increase in abun-
17 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is black sandy clay, dance with increasing depth. The Bg horizon is dark gray
the next 7 inches is black sandy clay loam, and the (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), or
lower 4 inches is very dark gray sandy clay. The sub- light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; N 7/0) and is 22 to 40 or more
soil is between depths of 17 and 60 inches. The upper inches thick. Mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and brown
are common in the B2g and B3g horizons.
12 inches is dark gray sandy clay and has few medium The Cg horizon, if it occurs, is mixed gray (N 5/0, 6/0;
streaks and pockets of white calcium carbonate; the 10YR 5/1, 6/1) and light gray (N 7/0, 10YR 7/1) sandy
next 9 inches is gray sandy clay loam and has common clay loam or sandy clay. It has few to many pockets of
fine streaks and pockets of white calcium carbonate; soft calcium carbonate and common large pockets of
coarser of finer textured material. Reaction is mildly or
and the lower 22 inches is gray sandy clay loam and moderately alkaline.
has common fine streaks and pockets of white calcium Bluff soils are associated with Anclote, Paisley, Okeecho-
carbonate. bee, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. They are finer textured
Available water capacity is high in the upper 13 than Anclote soils. They are more poorly drained than
Available water capacity is ig in te upper aisley soils and do not have the A2 horizon typical of
inches and medium to high below. Permeability is those soils. They are mineral, whereas Okeechobee, Terra
moderately slow in the upper 13 inches and slow be- Ceia, and Tomoka soils are organic.
low. Organic-matter content is high in the upper 13 Bf-Bluff sandy clay. This is a very poorly drained
inches. Natural fertility is high. soil that occurs as large and small areas along the flood
Bluff soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. plain of the Oklawaha River. Slopes are 0 to 2 per-
Under natural conditions, they are poorly suited to cent. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches
improved pasture. If water is properly controlled and for more than 6 months during most years, and the
the soil is well managed, however, they are suited to surface is usually flooded for a period of 1 month or
improved clover-grass pasture. more annually.
Representative profile of Bluff sandy clay, 200 feet Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
south of State Road 40, one-fourth mile west of Okla- of similar soils, where the surface layer is sandy loam
waha River, just west of the boat basin, NE1/4SW1 or the subsoil is sandy clay and small areas of Anclote,
sec. 3, T. 15 S., R. 23 E. Paisley, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. Also included
All-0 to 6 inches; black (N 2/0) sandy clay; weak me- is a 400-acre area of a very poorly drained, nonacid
dium subangular blocky structure; firm, hard; few soil that is 45 to 60 percent silt and 18 to 30 percent
bfinend medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy clay and ranges from silt loam to silty clay loam. The
A12-6 to 13 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam; position of this included soil on the landscape, the
weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm, plant cover, and the required management are similar
hard; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; to those of Bluff sandy clay. Included soils make up
clear wavy boundary. less than 25 percent of the unit.
A13-13 to 17 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) sandy clay; The natural vegetation is chiefly a swamp hardwood
weak medium subangular blocky structure; verye tural vegetation is chiefly a swamp hardwood
firm, very plastic and sticky, hard; few fine roots; growth of oak, maple, gum, cypress, and palm. In some
few slickensides; slightly acid; clear wavy bound- areas it is a mixture of swamp hardwood and loblolly
B21g-17ary29 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sandy clay; few pine. All areas are still in natural vegetation. Capa-
medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mot- ability unit Vw-1; woodland group 2w3.
tles; moderate medium subangular blocky struc-
ture; very firm, very sticky and plastic, hard; few Boardman Series
medium distinct slickensides; few medium white
(N 8/0) streaks and pockets of white (N 8/0) The Boardman series consists of sloping to strongly
calcium carbonate; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
B22g-29 to 38 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam; com- sloping, poorly drained soils that formed in moder-
mon fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) ately thick beds of loamy and clayey marine sedi-







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 23

the Blichton sand. These included soils make up about mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
20 percent of some open areas. Also included are small structure; very firm, sticky and plastic, hard; few
fine and medium slickensides; common fine streaks
areas where the slope is 5 to 8 percent. and pockets of soft and hard white (N 8/0) cal-
This mapping unit is well suited to lawn grasses and cium carbonate; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
many kinds of ornamental plants. The water table is B3g-38 to 60 inches; gray (N 6/0) sandy clay; common
within a depth of 10 inches for 1 month to 4 months medim distinct strong brown (.5YR 5/6) and
few medium distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
during most years. During dry seasons it recedes to a mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
depth of 40 inches or more. Not assigned to a capa- firm, sticky and plastic; few to common lenses of
ability unit or woodland group, sandy clay and sandy loam; few slickensides; com-
mon fine streaks and pockets of white (N 8/0)
calcium carbonate; mildly alkaline.
Bluff Series The solum ranges from 40 to 60 inches or more in thick-
ness. Marl is commonly at a depth of more than 60 inches.
The Bluff series consists of nearly level, very poorly The A horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1) to very dark
drained soils that formed in thick beds of alkaline gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1). It is sandy clay or sandy clay
loamy marine sediments. These soils are along the loam. Organic matter content is about 2 to 12 percent in
flood plain of the Oklawaha River. The water table is most pedons, but ranges to 20 percent. Reaction in the A
horizon ranges from strongly acid to neutral. Thickness is
within a depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months 14 to 24 inches.
during most years. The soils are usually flooded for a The Bg horizon is sandy clay loam or sandy clay. It
period of 1 month or more annually, ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline. Streaks
In a representative profile the surface layer is about and pockets of calcium carbonate are commonly within a
depth of 17 to 42 inches. They generally increase in abun-
17 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is black sandy clay, dance with increasing depth. The Bg horizon is dark gray
the next 7 inches is black sandy clay loam, and the (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), or
lower 4 inches is very dark gray sandy clay. The sub- light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; N 7/0) and is 22 to 40 or more
soil is between depths of 17 and 60 inches. The upper inches thick. Mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and brown
are common in the B2g and B3g horizons.
12 inches is dark gray sandy clay and has few medium The Cg horizon, if it occurs, is mixed gray (N 5/0, 6/0;
streaks and pockets of white calcium carbonate; the 10YR 5/1, 6/1) and light gray (N 7/0, 10YR 7/1) sandy
next 9 inches is gray sandy clay loam and has common clay loam or sandy clay. It has few to many pockets of
fine streaks and pockets of white calcium carbonate; soft calcium carbonate and common large pockets of
coarser of finer textured material. Reaction is mildly or
and the lower 22 inches is gray sandy clay loam and moderately alkaline.
has common fine streaks and pockets of white calcium Bluff soils are associated with Anclote, Paisley, Okeecho-
carbonate. bee, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. They are finer textured
Available water capacity is high in the upper 13 than Anclote soils. They are more poorly drained than
Available water capacity is ig in te upper aisley soils and do not have the A2 horizon typical of
inches and medium to high below. Permeability is those soils. They are mineral, whereas Okeechobee, Terra
moderately slow in the upper 13 inches and slow be- Ceia, and Tomoka soils are organic.
low. Organic-matter content is high in the upper 13 Bf-Bluff sandy clay. This is a very poorly drained
inches. Natural fertility is high. soil that occurs as large and small areas along the flood
Bluff soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. plain of the Oklawaha River. Slopes are 0 to 2 per-
Under natural conditions, they are poorly suited to cent. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches
improved pasture. If water is properly controlled and for more than 6 months during most years, and the
the soil is well managed, however, they are suited to surface is usually flooded for a period of 1 month or
improved clover-grass pasture. more annually.
Representative profile of Bluff sandy clay, 200 feet Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
south of State Road 40, one-fourth mile west of Okla- of similar soils, where the surface layer is sandy loam
waha River, just west of the boat basin, NE1/4SW1 or the subsoil is sandy clay and small areas of Anclote,
sec. 3, T. 15 S., R. 23 E. Paisley, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. Also included
All-0 to 6 inches; black (N 2/0) sandy clay; weak me- is a 400-acre area of a very poorly drained, nonacid
dium subangular blocky structure; firm, hard; few soil that is 45 to 60 percent silt and 18 to 30 percent
bfinend medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy clay and ranges from silt loam to silty clay loam. The
A12-6 to 13 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam; position of this included soil on the landscape, the
weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm, plant cover, and the required management are similar
hard; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; to those of Bluff sandy clay. Included soils make up
clear wavy boundary. less than 25 percent of the unit.
A13-13 to 17 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) sandy clay; The natural vegetation is chiefly a swamp hardwood
weak medium subangular blocky structure; verye tural vegetation is chiefly a swamp hardwood
firm, very plastic and sticky, hard; few fine roots; growth of oak, maple, gum, cypress, and palm. In some
few slickensides; slightly acid; clear wavy bound- areas it is a mixture of swamp hardwood and loblolly
B21g-17ary29 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sandy clay; few pine. All areas are still in natural vegetation. Capa-
medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mot- ability unit Vw-1; woodland group 2w3.
tles; moderate medium subangular blocky struc-
ture; very firm, very sticky and plastic, hard; few Boardman Series
medium distinct slickensides; few medium white
(N 8/0) streaks and pockets of white (N 8/0) The Boardman series consists of sloping to strongly
calcium carbonate; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
B22g-29 to 38 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam; com- sloping, poorly drained soils that formed in moder-
mon fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) ately thick beds of loamy and clayey marine sedi-







24 SOIL SURVEY

ments. These soils are on seepy hillsides of the upland. IICg-56 to 68 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) clay; few medium
Hillside seepage raises the water table to within 10 distinct greenish gray (5GY 6/1) and few fine and
inches of the surface for 1 month to 4 months during medium pale olive (5Y 6/3) mottles; massive;
most years. very firm; few fine white soft and hard limestone
most years, nodules 2 to 8 millimeters in size; few fine weath-
In a representative profile the surface layer is about ered phosphatic pebbles; strongly acid.
5 inches of very dark gray loamy sand that is 11 per- The solum is 50 to 74 inches thick. Reaction is mostly
cent gravel. The subsurface layer is about 11 inches of very strongly acid and strongly acid throughout, but is
gray loamy sand that is 25 percent gravel. The subsoil lower in the A horizon if the soil is limed. In the A and Btg
extends to a depth of 56 inches. The upper 6 inches is horizons, the content of weathered fragments and pebbles
gray sandy loam that is 17 percent gravel; the next 12 ranges from 5 to 25 percent by volume. Below these hori-
zons, the content of rock fragments or pebbles ranges from
inches is mottled gray sandy clay loam that is 6 per- 0 to 25 percent. The content of ironstone pebbles ranges
cent gravel; and the lower 22 inches is mottled gray from 0 to 25 percent.
sandy clay that is 5 percent gravel in the upper 11 The Al or Ap horizon is very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR
3/1) or dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) loamy sand 4 to 6
inches and less than 5 percent below. The underlying inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR
material to a depth of 68 inches is mottled gray clay. 5/1, 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), or light brownish
Available water capacity is low in the upper 16 gray (10YR 6/2) loamy sand 8 to 14 inches thick.
inches, low to medium from 16 to 22 inches, medium The B21tg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
to high from 22 to 45 inches, and high below. Permea- or dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) sandy loam 6 to 9 inches
to high from 22 to 45 inches and high below. Permea- thick. In places it is mottled with yellow and brown. The
ability is rapid in the upper 16 inches, moderate from B22tg and B23tg horizons have the same colors as the
16 to 22 inches, moderately slow from 22 to 34 inches, B21tg horizon, but are mottled with yellow, brown, and
and slow below. Natural fertility is medium. Organic- red. The B22tg horizon is sandy clay loam and is 10 to 14
matter content in the surface layer is medium. inches thick. The B23tg is sandy clay loam or sandy clay
matter content in the surface layer is medium, and is about 10 to 16 inches thick. The B3g horizon is
Boardman soils are poorly suited to most general gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1) or light gray (10YR 7/1)
farm crops. If the slope is less than 8 percent, they are sandy clay or clay mottled with yellow, brown, or red. It is
moderately well suited to crops commonly grown in 10 to 16 inches thick.
the area. They are well suited to improved pasture of The IICg horizon is mottled gray (Y 5/1, 6/1) or
light gray (10YR 7/1, 5Y 7/1, N 7/0) clay.
locally grown grasses and legumes. Boardman soils are closely associated with Blichton, Fel-
Representative profile of Boardman loamy sand, 5 lowship, Flemington, Micanopy, and Wacahoota soils. They
to 8 percent slopes, in an improved pasture three- are, by volume, 5 percent or more gravel and rock frag-
quarters of a mile west of Interstate Highway 75 and ments, whereas Blichton, Fellowship, Flemington and
quarters of a mile west of Interstate Highway 75 and Micanopy soils are less than 5 percent They have a thinner
Dungarvin Road and 500 feet south of Dungarvin A horizon than Blichton soils and are finer textured in the
Road, NE1/SE1/4 sec. 23, T. 12 S., R. 20 E. lower part of the Bg horizon. They have an Al horizon
that is less than 7 inches thick, whereas the Al horizon of
Ap--0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) loamy sand; Fellowship soils is 10 inches or more thick. They are of

moderate medium granular structure; very friable; siliceous mineralogy, whereas Flemington soils are of mont-
common fine roots; about 11 percent weathered morillonitic mineralogy. They are more poorly drained
phosphatic limestone gravel; medium acid; clear than Micanopy soils and have a thinner A horizon than
wavy boundary. Wacahoota soils.
A2-5 to 16 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) loamy sand; moder-
ate medium granular structure; very friable; few BoC-Boardman loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
fine roots; about 25 percent weathered phosphatic This is a sloping, poorly drained soil on seepy hillsides
limestone gravel; medium acid; gradual wavy in the upland. It has the profile described as repre-
boundary.
B21tg-16 to 22 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; weak tentative of the series. Hillside seepage raises the
fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine water table to within 10 inches of the surface for 1
roots; about 17 percent weathered phosphatic month to 4 months during most years. Surface runoff
limestone gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy bound- is rapid.
ary. Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
B22tg-22 to 34 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
few fine distinct very pale brown mottles; moder- areas, of a similar soil, where the slope is 2 to 5 or 8 to
ate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; 12 percent; small areas of Blichton, Fellowship, Flem-
few fine roots; thin discontinuous clay films on ington, Micanopy, and Wacahoota soils; a few small
faces of peds; about 6 percent weathered phos-
phatic limestone gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy areas where the subsurface layer is gravelly and sandy
boundary, and the subsoil is gravelly and loamy. Also included
B23tg-34 to 45 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay; few are a few areas, of a similar soil, where the content of
fine and medium distinct white (O1YR 8/1) and gravel is less than 5 percent and a few small areas
few fine distinct very pale brown mottles; moder-
ate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; where the soil is moderately eroded. The rock outcrop
few fine roots; thin continuous clay films on faces and sinkholes that occur in some areas are identified
of peds; about 5 percent weathered phosphatic by spot symbols on the soil map. Included soils make
limestone gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy up about 20 percent of any one mapped area.
boundary.
B3-45 to 56 inches; gray (N 6/0) sandy clay; common The natural vegetation is a forest of loblolly pine,
medium faint light gray (10YR 7/1) and few me- slash pine, sweetgum, magnolia, hickory, oak, maple,
dium distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3) mot- and dogwood and an understory of chiefly waxmyrtle,
ties; weak fine subangular blocky structure firm; native shrubs, and grasses. Most areas are uncleared.
few fine soft white (10YR 8/1) calcareous nodules Most cleared areas are in improved pasture. Capa-
about 2 millimeters in size; few fine weathered Most
phosphatic pebbles; strongly acid; clear wavy ability unit IVw-5; woodland group 2wl.
boundary. BoD-Boardman loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 25

This is a strongly sloping, poorly drained soil of the cent slopes, in an undisturbed area where the natural
upland. It occurs as short, sharp-breaking slopes and vegetation is turkey oak and scattered longleaf pine,
on long, seepy hillsides. Surface runoff is rapid. The 200 feet west of Baseline Road, three-quarters of a
erosion hazard is severe on unprotected slopes. Hill- mile north of Silver Springs, SE1/SE1/4 sec. 36, T. 14
side seepage raises the water table to within 10 inches S., R. 22 E.
of the surface for 1 month to 4 months during most A1-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single
years. grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; many
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where uncoated and thinly coated sand grains; some
the soil is similar to Blichton, Fellowship, Flemington, mixing of light yellowish brown (IOYR 6/4) in
lower 1 inch to 1 inches; strongly acid; clear
and Wacahoota soils on 8 to 12 percent slopes; small wavy boundary.
areas of a soil that is similar to this Boardman soil but A21-5 to 27 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) sand; single
the slope is 5 to 8 percent; and a few small areas grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; many
where the subsurface layer is gravelly loamysand and wunatdun d grans; strongly acid; gradual
the subsoil is a gravelly loamy soil. Also included are a A22-27 to 67 inches; yellow (10YR 7/8) sand; single
few small areas where the soil is moderately eroded, grained; loose; few roots; many uncoated sand
The rock outcrop and sinkholes that occur in some grains; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A&B1-67 to 95 inches; very pale brown (O10YR 7/4) sand;
areas are identified by spot symbols on the soil map. few fine and medium distinct white (10YR 8/2)
Included soils make up about 20 percent of any one mottles; single grained; loose; few roots; many
mapped area. uncoated sand grains; few very thin yellowish
The natural vegetation is loblolly pine, slash pine, brown (10YR 5/8) loamy sand lamellae, 1 milli-
meter to 3 millimeters thick and 1 centimeter to 8
sweetgum, magnolia, and hickory and an understory centimeters long, slightly increasing in abundance
of mainly waxmyrtle and native grasses. Most areas with depth; sand grains in lamellae well coated;
are still in natural vegetation. Most cleared areas are strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
in improved pasture. Capability unit VIw-1; wood- A&B2-95 to 109 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
land group 2wl. sand; few fine and medium distinct white (10YR
8/2) mottles; single grained; loose; many sand
grains uncoated; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
Borrow Pits loamy sand lamellae, about 1 centimeter to 8 centi-
meters long and 3 to 8 millimeters thick, increas-
Bp-Borrow pits are areas where soil has been ex- ing in abundance with depth; sand grains in lamel-
Bp-Borrow pits are areas where soil has been ex- lae well coated; very strongly acid; clear wavy
cavated and used in road construction and as fill ma- boundary.
trial in preparation of building sites. The areas vary B2t-109 to 115 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy
in size, shape, and depth. Most excavations are small, loam; moderate medium, granular structure; fri-
but some are as large as 30 to 40 acres. Pits too small able; sand grains well coated; very strongly acid.
to delineate are identified by spot symbols on the soil The solum is 80 inches or more thick. The content of silt
map. The depth is generally about 5 to 12 fe This and clay is less than 5 percent between depths of 10 and
map. The depth is generally about 5 to 12 feet. This 40 inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to me-
mapping unit is of limited use other than as wildlife dium acid in all horizons.
habitat and water areas. Capability unit VIIIs-1; not The Al or Ap horizon is gray (10YR 5/1), grayish
assigned to a woodland group. brown (10YR 5/2), dark gray (10YR 4/1, dark grayish
brown (10YR 4/2), very dark gray (10YR 3/1), or very
dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) sand. It is 3 to 7 inches

Candler Series thick.
The A21 and A22 horizons are very pale brown (10YR
The Candler series consists of nearly level to 7/3, 7/4), pale brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown
(10YR 6/4), yellow (1OYR 7/6, 7/8, 8/6, 8/8), brownish
strongly sloping, excessively drained soils that formed (yellowR (4 yelo ( 06/8), yellowish brown (YR 5/4, 5/6,
in thick beds of sandy marine deposits. These soils oc- 5/8) or reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6, 6/8) sand 53 to 76
cur as broad areas of the sandy uplands. The water inches thick.
table is at a depth of more than 60 inches. The A&B1 and A&B2 horizons are light brownish gray
(10YR 6/2), very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4, 8/4), pale
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4),
gray sand about 5 inches thick. It is underlain by 62 brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), or yellow (10YR 7/6, 7/8,
inches of yellow sand. The next 42 inches is very pale 8/6, 8/8 )sand or fine sand. Few to common small, medium,
brown sand that is mottled with white and has thin and large pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) and white
lamelae of yellowish brown loamy sand. Below this is YR 8/1, 8/2) clean sand grains are in many pedons. The
lamellae of yellowish brown loamy sand. Below this is A&B1 and A&B2 horizons have lamellae of brownish yel-
6 inches of brownish yellow sandy loam. low (10YR 6/6, 6/8) yellowish brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8), or
Available water capacity is very low in the upper 67 strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8) loamy sand, loamy fine
inches, low from 67 to 109 inches, and medium below. sand, or sandy loam. Depth to the lamellae is commonly
ermeaility is very raid in the e below 60 to 80 inches, but ranges from 50 to 80 inches. The
Permeability is very rapid in the upper 67 inches, lamellae range from about 1 millimeter to 1 centimeter
rapid from 67 to 109 inches, and moderately rapid thick. Total thickness of the lamellae is 1 inch to 6 inches
below. Natural fertility is low. Organic-matter con- with a depth of 80 inches. The A part of the A&B1 and
tent is very low. A&B2 horizons, which is between the lamellae, ranges
from 2 to 8 inches in thickness.
Candler soils have limited suitability for most gen- In some pedons few to common small and large pockets
eral farm crops. If the climate is favorable, however, of light gray are in the A2 and the A&B horizons.
they are suited to special crops grown in the area, The B2t horizon is yellow (10YR 7/6, 7/8), brownish
especially to citrus. yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6,
Representative profile of Candler sand, to 5 er- 5/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8), or yellowish red
Representative profile of Candler sand, 0 to 5 per- (5YR 5/6, 5/8) sandy loam or sandy clay loam. In a few







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 25

This is a strongly sloping, poorly drained soil of the cent slopes, in an undisturbed area where the natural
upland. It occurs as short, sharp-breaking slopes and vegetation is turkey oak and scattered longleaf pine,
on long, seepy hillsides. Surface runoff is rapid. The 200 feet west of Baseline Road, three-quarters of a
erosion hazard is severe on unprotected slopes. Hill- mile north of Silver Springs, SE1/SE1/4 sec. 36, T. 14
side seepage raises the water table to within 10 inches S., R. 22 E.
of the surface for 1 month to 4 months during most A1-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single
years. grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; many
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where uncoated and thinly coated sand grains; some
the soil is similar to Blichton, Fellowship, Flemington, mixing of light yellowish brown (IOYR 6/4) in
lower 1 inch to 1 inches; strongly acid; clear
and Wacahoota soils on 8 to 12 percent slopes; small wavy boundary.
areas of a soil that is similar to this Boardman soil but A21-5 to 27 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) sand; single
the slope is 5 to 8 percent; and a few small areas grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; many
where the subsurface layer is gravelly loamysand and wunatdun d grans; strongly acid; gradual
the subsoil is a gravelly loamy soil. Also included are a A22-27 to 67 inches; yellow (10YR 7/8) sand; single
few small areas where the soil is moderately eroded, grained; loose; few roots; many uncoated sand
The rock outcrop and sinkholes that occur in some grains; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A&B1-67 to 95 inches; very pale brown (O10YR 7/4) sand;
areas are identified by spot symbols on the soil map. few fine and medium distinct white (10YR 8/2)
Included soils make up about 20 percent of any one mottles; single grained; loose; few roots; many
mapped area. uncoated sand grains; few very thin yellowish
The natural vegetation is loblolly pine, slash pine, brown (10YR 5/8) loamy sand lamellae, 1 milli-
meter to 3 millimeters thick and 1 centimeter to 8
sweetgum, magnolia, and hickory and an understory centimeters long, slightly increasing in abundance
of mainly waxmyrtle and native grasses. Most areas with depth; sand grains in lamellae well coated;
are still in natural vegetation. Most cleared areas are strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
in improved pasture. Capability unit VIw-1; wood- A&B2-95 to 109 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
land group 2wl. sand; few fine and medium distinct white (10YR
8/2) mottles; single grained; loose; many sand
grains uncoated; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
Borrow Pits loamy sand lamellae, about 1 centimeter to 8 centi-
meters long and 3 to 8 millimeters thick, increas-
Bp-Borrow pits are areas where soil has been ex- ing in abundance with depth; sand grains in lamel-
Bp-Borrow pits are areas where soil has been ex- lae well coated; very strongly acid; clear wavy
cavated and used in road construction and as fill ma- boundary.
trial in preparation of building sites. The areas vary B2t-109 to 115 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy
in size, shape, and depth. Most excavations are small, loam; moderate medium, granular structure; fri-
but some are as large as 30 to 40 acres. Pits too small able; sand grains well coated; very strongly acid.
to delineate are identified by spot symbols on the soil The solum is 80 inches or more thick. The content of silt
map. The depth is generally about 5 to 12 fe This and clay is less than 5 percent between depths of 10 and
map. The depth is generally about 5 to 12 feet. This 40 inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to me-
mapping unit is of limited use other than as wildlife dium acid in all horizons.
habitat and water areas. Capability unit VIIIs-1; not The Al or Ap horizon is gray (10YR 5/1), grayish
assigned to a woodland group. brown (10YR 5/2), dark gray (10YR 4/1, dark grayish
brown (10YR 4/2), very dark gray (10YR 3/1), or very
dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) sand. It is 3 to 7 inches

Candler Series thick.
The A21 and A22 horizons are very pale brown (10YR
The Candler series consists of nearly level to 7/3, 7/4), pale brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown
(10YR 6/4), yellow (1OYR 7/6, 7/8, 8/6, 8/8), brownish
strongly sloping, excessively drained soils that formed (yellowR (4 yelo ( 06/8), yellowish brown (YR 5/4, 5/6,
in thick beds of sandy marine deposits. These soils oc- 5/8) or reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6, 6/8) sand 53 to 76
cur as broad areas of the sandy uplands. The water inches thick.
table is at a depth of more than 60 inches. The A&B1 and A&B2 horizons are light brownish gray
(10YR 6/2), very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4, 8/4), pale
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4),
gray sand about 5 inches thick. It is underlain by 62 brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), or yellow (10YR 7/6, 7/8,
inches of yellow sand. The next 42 inches is very pale 8/6, 8/8 )sand or fine sand. Few to common small, medium,
brown sand that is mottled with white and has thin and large pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) and white
lamelae of yellowish brown loamy sand. Below this is YR 8/1, 8/2) clean sand grains are in many pedons. The
lamellae of yellowish brown loamy sand. Below this is A&B1 and A&B2 horizons have lamellae of brownish yel-
6 inches of brownish yellow sandy loam. low (10YR 6/6, 6/8) yellowish brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8), or
Available water capacity is very low in the upper 67 strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8) loamy sand, loamy fine
inches, low from 67 to 109 inches, and medium below. sand, or sandy loam. Depth to the lamellae is commonly
ermeaility is very raid in the e below 60 to 80 inches, but ranges from 50 to 80 inches. The
Permeability is very rapid in the upper 67 inches, lamellae range from about 1 millimeter to 1 centimeter
rapid from 67 to 109 inches, and moderately rapid thick. Total thickness of the lamellae is 1 inch to 6 inches
below. Natural fertility is low. Organic-matter con- with a depth of 80 inches. The A part of the A&B1 and
tent is very low. A&B2 horizons, which is between the lamellae, ranges
from 2 to 8 inches in thickness.
Candler soils have limited suitability for most gen- In some pedons few to common small and large pockets
eral farm crops. If the climate is favorable, however, of light gray are in the A2 and the A&B horizons.
they are suited to special crops grown in the area, The B2t horizon is yellow (10YR 7/6, 7/8), brownish
especially to citrus. yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6,
Representative profile of Candler sand, to 5 er- 5/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8), or yellowish red
Representative profile of Candler sand, 0 to 5 per- (5YR 5/6, 5/8) sandy loam or sandy clay loam. In a few








26 SOIL SURVEY

pedons it is loamy sand. It is at a depth of 85 to 135 inches. Natural fertility is medium in the clayey material and
In places the upper 10 to 20 inches is clayey mine wash low in the sandy material. Organic-matter content is
from the mining of phosphate.
Candler soils are associated with Apopka, Astatula, low.
Arredondo, Adamsville, Pompano, and Tavares soils. They Included with this soil in mapping are about 30
are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches, whereas acres, of a similar soil, where the mine wash is 20 to
Apopka soils are sandy clay loam below a depth of 40 to 36 inches deep over the sandy soil, small areas where
80 inches and Arredondo soils are sandy to a depth of 40
to 80 inches. They are better drained than Adamsville, the mine wash in only 3 to 10 inches deep, and small
Pompano, and Tavares soils. They have a slightly thicker areas where the water table is within a depth of 72
A horizon than Astatula soils and are darker colored. inches. Also included is about 10 acres where 20 to 30
CaB-Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a inches of mine wash overlies a poorly drained sandy
nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil that has a loamy subsoil. Included soils make up
sandy soil that has thin lamellae of loamy sand within about 20 percent of any one mapped area.
a depth of 60 to 80 inches. It occurs as small and large The natural vegetation is post oak, live oak, water
areas on sandy ridges in the uplands. It has the profile oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine and an understory
described as representative of the series. The water of sedges, briers, and native grasses. Most areas are in
table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. native vegetation. A few are cleared and are in im-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas proved pasture. Capability unit VIs-2; woodland
of Arredondo, Apopka, Astatula, Adamsville, and Ta- group 4s1.
vares soils. Also.included are small areas of a similar
soil having no thin lamellae of loamy sand and a few Eatn Series
areas of a similar soil having a slope of 5 to 12 per- on ee
cent. Included soils make up about 15 percent of any The Eaton series consists of nearly level, poorly
one mapped area. drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and
The natural vegetation is turkey oak, bluejack oak, clayey marine sediments. These soils occur as broad
post oak, sand live oak, and longleaf pine and an areas of the flatwoods. The water table is within a
understory of mostly pineland three-awn and, in some depth of 10 inches for 2 to 4 months during most
open areas, lichens. Most are still in native vegetation. years.
Most cleared areas are in citrus and improved pasture. In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
Capability unit IVs-1; woodland group 4sl. gray loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
CaC-Candler sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This is a layer is gray loamy sand about 24 inches thick. The
sloping to strongly sloping, excessively drained sandy subsoil extends to a depth of 78 inches. The upper 3
soil that has thin lamellae of loamy sand within a inches is mottled gray sandy clay loam, and the lower
depth of 60 to 80 inches. It occurs as small and large 45 inches is mottled gray sandy clay. The underlying
areas on sandy ridges in the uplands. The hazard of material to a depth of 92 inches is mottled gray sandy
erosion is slight during periods of high rainfall. The clay that has pockets of light gray loamy sand.
water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. Available water capacity is low in the upper 30
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas inches and medium to high below. Permeability is
of Apopka, Arredondo, Tavares, Adamsville, and rapid in the upper 30 inches, slow to about 78 inches,
Pompano soils. Also included are spots, of a similar and moderately slow below. Natural fertility is me-
soil, where the slope is 0 to 5 percent and small areas dium, and organic-matter content is low.
of a similar soil having no thin lamellae of loamy sand. Under natural conditions, Eaton soils are poorly
Included soils make up about 20 percent of any one suited to cultivated crops. If water is properly con-
mapped area. trolled, however, they are well suited to special crops
The native vegetation is turkey oak, bluejack oak, grown in the area and to improved pasture of locally
post oak, and scattered longleaf pine and a sparse grown grasses and legumes.
understory of pineland three-awn and lichens. The Representative profile of Eaton loamy sand, in an
largest acreage is still in native vegetation. Most undisturbed area where the plant cover is slash pine,
cleared areas are in citrus or improved pasture. Capa- bluestems, palmetto, gallberry, myrtle, briers, and
ability unit VIs-2; woodland group 4sl. wiregrass; 2.5 miles east of State Road 315, 150 feet
CwA-Candler clay, overwash, 0 to 2 percent slopes. east of Gores Landing Road, NE/4SE/Y sec. 6, T. 14
This is- a nearly level, well drained soil that generally S., R. 24 E.
occurs as small areas along the lower parts of slopes
and in slight depressions in the uplands of the south- A1-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand;
western part of the survey area. It has a profile simi- moderate medium granular str ; very frial;
common fine and few medium roots; very strongly
lar to the one described as representative of the series, acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
but the upper 10 to 20 inches is mixed clayey mine A2-6 to 30 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) loamy sand; few
wash from the mining of phosphate. The water table medium faint white (10YR 8/1) mottles in the
lower 10 inches; single grained; loose; few fine
is at a depth of more than 72 inches. and medium roots; strongly add; abrupt wavy
Available water capacity is high in the clayey ma- boundary.
trial, very low in the sandy material to a depth of B21tg-30 to 33 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam;
about 78 inches, and low below. Permeability is slow common fine distinct strong brown and few fine
Prominent red mottles; moderate fine subangular
in the clayey material, very rapid in the sandy ma- blocky structure; firm, sticky and plastic; few ine
trial to a depth of about 78 inches, and rapid below, roots; few root channels; few thin discontinuous








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 27

clay films on ped faces; very strongly acid; clear gallberry, and native grasses. Capability unit IIIw-3;
wavy boundary. woodland group 2w2.
B22tg-33 to 64 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; common woodland group 2w2.
fine and medium prominent red (10YR 4/8) and
common medium distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR Electra Series
6/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm, sticky and plastic; few fine roots; The Electra series consists of nearly level to gently
few root channels; few fine faint gray pockets of sloping, somewhat poorly drained sandy soils that
sandy clay loam; distinct clay films on ped faces; formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine sedi-
few slickensides; very strongly acid; clear wavy ments. These soils occur in the flatwoods and in the
boundary.
B23tg-64 to 78 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) and light gray sandy areas of the uplands. The water table fluctuates
(10YR 7/1) sandy clay; few fine distinct yellowish between 24 and 40 inches for cumulative periods of 4
brown, few fine faint very pale brown, few medium months during most years, but recedes to a depth of
distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), and few me- more than 40 inches during drier periods.
dium prominent red (10R 4/8) mottles; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; firm, sticky In a representative profile the surface layer is gray
and plastic; few fine roots; few root channels; sand about 4 inches thick. Next, in sequence down-
few faint discontinuous clay films on ped faces; ward, is 13 inches of light gray sand; 24 inches of
few slickensides; very strongly acid; clear wavy white sand streaked with grayish brown; 4 inches of
boundary.
Cg-78 to 92 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay; common black, weakly cemented sand that is well coated with
fine prominent red and few medium prominent organic matter; 5 inches of dark reddish brown,
yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; massive; firm, weakly cemented sand that is mottled with black and
sticky and plastic; few fine roots and root chan- dark brown and is well coated with organic matter; 4
nels; large pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1) inches of brown sand; and 6 inches of mottled light
very strongly acid. brownish gray and pale brown sandy clay loam. Below
the sandy clay loam is 12 inches of mottled gray light
The solum is 60 inches or more thick. snd clay.
The Al horizon is black (10YR 2/1, N 2/0), very dark san
gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), Available water capacity is very low to low in the
dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), or gray (N 5/ 10YR upper 41 inches, medium from 41 to 50 inches, low
5/1). It is 4 to 8 inches thick. If black or very dark gray, from 50 to 54 inches, and medium below. Permeability
it is less than 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray (N is very rapid in the upper 41 inches, moderate from 41
5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1) or light gray (N 7/0; 10YR 7/1,
7/2; 2.5Y 7/2) and in places is mottled with brown, red, or to 50 Inches, rapid from 50 to 54 inches, and moder-
yellow. It is 16 to 32 inches thick. Reaction is very strongly ately slow below. Natural fertility is low. Organic-
acid to strongly acid. matter content is very low.
The B1tg is gray (N 5/0, 6/1; 10YR 5/1, 6/1) sandy Electra soils are not suited to general farm crops
clay loam 1 inch to 3 inches thick. In some pedons this hori-
zon does not occur. The B22tg and B23tg horizons and, if and are poorly suited to improved pasture.
it occurs, the B24tg horizon are gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR Representative profile of Electra sand, 0 to 5 per-
5/1, 6/1) or dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) sandy clay or cent slopes, about 6 miles north of Fort McCoy on
clay mottled with yellow, brown, and red. Total thickness State Road 315, 1.4 miles west on graded road (Sugar
of these horizons is 33 to 45 inches or more. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid. Road) and about 100 feet south, NE/4NEI/4 sec. 21,
The Cg horizon is gray (N 5/0; N 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1) T. 12 S., R. 23 E.
or light gray (N 7/0, 10YR 7/1) sandy clay mottled with A to 4 inches; gray (YR 5/1) sand; weak fine granu-
gray, brown, yellow, and red. In places it has pockets of A 0 to4 chess; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; weak fine ganu-
sand, fine sand, or loamy sand. Reaction ranges from very lar structure; very friable; common fine and me-
strongly acid to medium acid. dium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy bound-
Eaton soils are closely associated with Eureka, Martel, 1ary.4 t
and Lynne soils. They have a thicker A horizon than Eu- A21-4 to 17 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few fine
reka and Martel soils. They have higher base saturation distinct grayish brown streaks along root chan-
than Lynne soils and do not have the Bh horizon charac- nels; single grained; loose; common fine and me-
teristic of those soils. dium roots; clean sand grains; very strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
Ea-Eaton loamy sand. This is a poorly drained soil A22-17 to 41 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few fine
that occurs in broad areas of the flatwoods. Slopes are distinct thin streaks of grayish brown along root
that occurs in broad areas of the flatwoods. Slopes are channels; single grained; loose; few fine and me-
0 to 2 percent. The water table is within a depth of 10 dium roots; clean sand grains; very strongly acid;
inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. abrupt wavy boundary.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, B21h-41 to 45 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; few medium
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, faint dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) streaks;
of a similar soil, where the surface layer is fine sand weak medium subangular blocky structure; weakly
and a few small areas of a poorly drained, strongly cemented; few fine roots; sand grains well coated
acid soil that has a fine sand surface layer 20 to 40 with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear
inches deep over a sandy clay subsoil Also included wavy boundary.
chess deep over a sandy clay subsoil. Also included B22h-45 to 50 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
are small areas of Eureka, Martel, and Lynne soils. In- sand; few medium faint black (5YR 2/1) and few
clouded soils make up about 15 percent of any one medium faint dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) streaks;
mapped area. weak medium subangular blocky structure; weakly
cemented; few fine roots; sand grains well coated
The natural vegetation is dominantly a forest of with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear
slash pine and loblolly pine. In some areas the forest wavy boundary.
is a mixture of pine, oak, and gum. The understory is A'2-50 to 54 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
waxmyrtle, scattered bluestems and saw-palmetto, grained; loose; few roots; very strongly acid;
p 0, clear wavy boundary.








28 SOIL SURVEY

B'21tg-54 to 60 inches; mottled light brownish gray (2.5Y Eureka Series
6/2) and very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sandy clay
loam; few fine prominent yellowish red and com- The Eureka series consists of nearly level, poorly
mon fine and medium faint gray (10YR 6/1) mot-
es; weak fine subangular blocky structure; fri- drained to very poorly drained soils that formed in
able; few discontinuous clay films on faces of thick beds of clayey marine sediments. These soils oc-
peds; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary, cur as low, broad areas of the flatwoods. The water
B'22tg-60 to 72 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) light sandy clay; table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to more
few fine and medium prominent red (10R 4/8), than 6 months during most years. Depressed areas are
few fine prominent yellowish red, and few fine and covered with water for more than 4 months annually.
medium distinct light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)with water for more than 4 months annually.
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky struc- In a representative profile the surface layer is very
ture; firm; distinct discontinuous clay films on dark gray loamy fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
faces of peds; very strongly acid. subsurface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand
The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Reaction ranges about 8 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of
from extremely acid to strongly acid in all horizons. 81 inches. The upper 56 inches is gray, firm sandy clay
The A horizon is 30 to 50 inches thick. The Al horizon mottled with brown and red, and the lower 12 inches
is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) or gray (N 5/, 6/0; 10YRy clay mixed with fine lenses
5/1, 6/1) sand. It is 2 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon mottled gray, firm sandy clay mixed with fine lenses
light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) or white (10YR 8/1, 8/2) sand. of sandy loam and loamy sand.
It is 28 to 45 inches thick. Most of the sand grains in the Available water capacity is medium in the upper 13
A2 horizon are clean. inches and high below. Permeability is moderately
In some pedons a 1- to 2-inch transitional layer occurs rapid in the upper 13 inches and slow to very slow
between the A2 and B2h horizons. The B2h horizon is blackNatural fertility is medium. Organic-matter
(N 2/0, 5YR 2/1, 10YR 2/1), very dark gray (5YR 3/1), below. Natural fertility is medium. Organic-matter
dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3), dark brown content of the surface layer is moderately low.
(7.5 YR 3/2), or very dark brown (10YR 2/2) sand or fine Under natural conditions, Eureka soils are poorly
sand. It is 7 to 18 inches thick. suited to cultivated crops. Water control is needed be-
The B3 horizon, if it occurs, is dark brown (10YR fore the soils can be successfully cultivated, and crops
3/3, 4/3, 7.5YR 4/2, 4/4) or dark yellowish brown (10YR
4/4) sand or fine sand. It is 0 to 5 inches thick, are limited to those that can tolerate slightly wet
The A'2 horizon is light gray (10YR 7/2), pale brown conditions. The soils are well suited to improved
(10YR 6/3), very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4), or brown pasture.
(10YR 5/3) sand. It is 3 to 10 inches thick. Representative profile of Eureka loamy fine sand, in
Depth to the B'tg horizon is generally 40 to 70 inches, an undisturbed area where the plant cover is loblolly
but ranges to 80 inches. It is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light pine, bluestems, palmetto, myrtle, scattered live oak,
brownish, gray (2.5Y 6/2, 0Y 6/2), very pale brown briers, and wiregrass; 150 feet east of State Road 315
(10YR 7/3, 7/4, 8/3), pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4), or pale
brown (10YR 6/3) and is mottled with gray, yellow, red, and 11/ miles north of its intersection with State Road
or brown. The B'tg horizon is dominantly sandy clay loam, 40, NE1/4NE1/ sec. 33, T. 14 S., R. 23 E.
but in a few pedons ranges to sandy loam or sandy clay.
It is 12 to 20 inches or more thick. Al-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) loamy fine sand;
The B'3g horizon, if it occurs, is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR moderate medium and coarse granular structure;
5/1, 6/1) or light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay mottled with friable; few fine and medium roots; very strongly
colors of higher chroma. acid; clear wavy boundary.
colors of highe A A2-5 to 13 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine
Electra soils are associated with Astatula, Candler, Lynne, sand; moderate medium granular structure; few
Placid, and Pomona soils. They are more poorly drained fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt
than Astatula and Candler soils and are better drained wavy boundary.
than Placid soils. They also differ from Astatula, Candler, B21tg-13 to 17 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay; few
and Placid soils in having a Bh horizon and from Placid fine distinct strong brown and few fine prominent
soils in having an A2 horizon. red mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm, sticky and plastic; few fine roots;
EcB-Electra sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a few distinct clay films along ped faces and clay
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly flows along few root channels; very strongly acid;
drained soil that occurs as small and large areas in the clear wavy boundary.
B22tg-17 to 28 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; few fine
flatwoods and the sandy uplands. The water table fluc- and medium prominent red (10R 4/8) and few fine
tuates between 25 to 40 inches for cumulative periods distinct strong brown mottles; moderate medium
of 4 months during most years, but recedes to a depth subangular blocky structure; firm, sticky and
of more than 40 inches during drier periods. plastic; few fine roots; distinct clay films on ped
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, faces and few clay flows along root channels; few
wi is sol mappg are small areas, slickensides; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
of a similar soil, where the texture is fine sand and a boundary.
few small areas of a soil having a slope of 5 to 8 per- B23tg-28 to 69 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay; few
cent. Also included are small areas of Astatula, Cand- fine and medium prominent red (10R 4/8) and
L Pl and Pomona soils. Included soils common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR
ler, Lynne, Placid, and Pomona soils. Included soils 5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
make up about 20 percent of any one mapped area. structure; firm, sticky and plastic; very few fine
The natural vegetation is chiefly sand live oak, long- roots; distinct clay films on ped faces; slicken-
leaf pine, sand pine, myrtle, saw-palmetto, and native sides; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
leaf pine, sand pine, myrtle, saw-palmetto, and native B3g-69 to 81 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; common
grasses. Scattered slash pine grow in some areas. Most medium prominent red (10R 4/8) and few fine and
areas are still in natural vegetation. Only a few small medium strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; few
areas are cleared and are in pasture or citrus. Capa- fine faint light brownish gra lenses of sandy
ty unit VIs-3; woodland group 4. bloam and loamy sand; weak medium stifew finelar
ability unit VIs-3; woodland group 4s1. blocky structure; firm, sticky and plastic; few fine








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 29

roots; few discontinuous clay films along ped Fellowship Series
faces; slickensides; very strongly acid.
The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Reaction is very The Fellowship series consists of gently sloping to
strongly acid to strongly acid in all horizons, sloping, poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds
The A horizon is loamy fine sand. It is centered on 5 to of clayey marine sediments. These soils occur in the
14 inches in thickness, but ranges to 20 inches, upland as broad undulating areas interspersed with
The Al or Ap horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), very sinkholes and rock outcrop. The water table is perched
dark gray (N /0, 10YR 3/), and dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR in the surface layer and the upper part of the subsoil.
4/1). It is to 7 inches thick. If black or very dark gray It is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 month to
it is less than 6 inches thick. The Ap horizon is dark gray
or grayish brown when crushed and rubbed. 4 months during wet seasons. Wet slopes are the result
The A2 horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1, N 4/0), gray of hillside seepage.
(N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish brown (10YR 5/2, In a representative profile the surface layer is about
2.5Y 5/2), or light brownish gray (10YR 6/2, 2.5Y 6/2) 18 inches thick. The upper 11 inches is black loamy
and in places has few to common mottles in shades of gray, r i i
yellow, and brown. It is 3 to 9 inches thick. There is an and and the lower 7 inches is dark gray sandy loam.
abrupt textural change between the A2 and B2tg horizons. The subsoil extends to a depth of 42 inches. The upper
The B2tg is gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1), dark gray (10YR 7 inches is mottled gray sandy clay loam, the next 7
4/1, N 4/0), or light gray (10YR 6/1, 2.5Y 7/2) and is mot- inches is mottled gray sandy clay, and the lower 10
ed with yellow, brown, and red. It is sandy clay or clay inches is mottled gray clay. The underlying material
and is 40 to 58 inches thick to a depth of 83 inches is clay. The upper 20 inches is
The B3g horizon is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 6/1) or light gray mottled with pale yellow, and the lower 21
gray (N 5/0, 6/.0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1) and is mottled with gray,
yellow, brown, and red. It is sandy clay or clay. Some inches is light greenish gray mottled with yellowish
pedons have fine lenses and pockets of coarser textured brown and gray.
material. Available water capacity is low to medium in the
Eureka soils are closely associated with Eaton, Lynne, upper 11 inches, medium from 11 to about 18 inches,
Martel, and Paisley soils. They have a thinner A horizon
than Eaton soils. They do not have the Bh horizon charac- and high below. Natural fertility is medium. Perme-
teristic of Lynne soils. They are of mixed mineralogy ability is moderately rapid in the upper 11 inches, mod-
and have an A2 horizon, whereas Martel soils are of mont- erate from 11 to 18 inches, slow from 18 to 25 inches,
morillonitic mineralogy and have no A2 horizon. They are and very slow below. Organic-matter content of the
more acid than Paisley soils. surface layer is medium.
surface layer is medium.
Er-Eureka loamy fine sand. This is a poorly Fellowship soils are moderately well suited to cul-
drained soil that occurs as small and large areas in the tivated crops commonly grown in the area. They are
flatwoods. It has the profile described as representa- well suited to improved pasture of locally grown
tive of the series. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The water grasses and legumes.
table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months Representative profile of Fellowship loamy sand, 2
during most years. Runoff is very slow. to 5 percent slopes, in an undisturbed wooded area 1.7
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of miles north of Flemington at intersection of State
Eaton, Paisley, and Martel soils and small areas, of a Road 321 and Dungarvin Road, 0.1 mile east of inter-
similar soil, where the upper 2 to 5 inches of the sub- section and 200 feet south, NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 22, T.
soil is very pale brown and pale brown sandy clay. 12 S., R. 20 E.
Also included are small areas of a similar soil having A11-0 to 11 inches; black (N 2/0) loamy sand; moder-
a surface layer of fine sandy loam. Included soils make ate medium and coarse granular structure; very
up about 15 percent of any one mapped area. friable; common fine and medium roots; about 17
percent gravel or weathered and leached phos-
Most areas are still in a forest of slash pine and lob- phatic rock fragments less than 3 inches in diam-
lolly pine and an understory of waxmyrtle, bluestems, eter; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
palmetto, briers, gallberry, and native grasses. A few A12-11 to 18 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy loam;
areas are cleared weak medium granular and weak fine subangular
areas are cleared and are in improved pasture. Capa- blocky structure; very friable; few fine and me-
bility unit IIw-6; woodland group 2w2. dium roots; about 6 percent gravel or weathered
Es-Eureka loamy fine sand, pounded. This is a very and leached phosphatic rock fragments less than
poorly drained soil in small depressions in the flat- wavy boundary. very strongly acid; clear
woods. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. This soil is similar to B21tg-18 to 25 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam
Eureka loamy fine sand, but the water table is within common fine distinct yellowish brown mottles;
a depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months during moderate medium angular and subangular
amost years and the surf is for more than 46 m s d g blocky structure; firm, slightly plastic and sticky,
most years and the surface is pounded for more than 4 hard; few fine roots; discontinuous clay films
months annually. along ped faces; about 15 percent gravel or
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas weathered and leached phosphatic rock fragments
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas less than 3 inches in diameter; very strongly
of Martel, Eaton, and other Eureka soils. Also in- acid; gradual wavy boundary.
eluded are spots, of a similar soil, where the surface B22tg-25 to 32 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; few
layer is sandy loam. Included soils make up less than to common fine distinct yellowish brown mottles;
15 percent of any one mapped area. moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
Most5 p erent arny oe sti d are. firm, plastic and sticky, hard; very few fine roots;
Most areas are still in a natural vegetation of cy- prominent clay films along ped faces; about 11 per-
press, slash pine, gum, and water-tolerant grasses. cent gravel or weathered and leached phosphatic
capability ut VIIw-1; woodland group 2w3rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter; very
Capability unit VIIw ; woodland group 2w3. strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.







30 SOIL SURVEY

B23tg-32 to 42 inches; gray (N 6/0) clay; few medium and small areas of Flemington, Blichton, and Mican-
prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and few opy soils. Also included are some areas of a similar
mottles; moderate angular and subangular blocky soil that is, by volume, less than 5 percent gravel or
structure; firm, very sticky and plastic, hard; rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter and
fine and medium roots; clay films along ped faces; small areas where the soil is more than 20 percent
few slickensides; about 5 percent gravel or weath- gravel or rock fragments. Rock outcrop and sinkholes,
ered and leached phosphatic rock fragments less
than 2 inches in diameter; very strongly acid; both of which occur in many areas, are identified by
clear wavy boundary, spot symbols on the soil map. Included soils make up
IIClg-42 to 62 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) clay; about 15 percent of any one mapped area.
common fine distinct pale yellow mottles; massive; The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine,
very firm, very sticky and plastic, hard; few loblolly pine
partly decayed roots; common slickensides; loblolly pine, sweetgum, magnolia, hickory, oak, and
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, holly and an understory of native shrubs and grasses.
IIC2g-62 to 83 inches; light greenish gray (5GY 7/1) Only a few areas are cleared. Most of these are in im-
clay; common fine distinct yellowish brown mot- proved pasture. Capability unit IIIw-2; woodland
ties; few fine gray streaks in some root channels; rou 2wl
massive; very firm, very sticky and plastic, hard; group 2w1.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. FeC-Fellowship loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Ss i l t g This is a sloping, poorly drained soil on short, sharp-
The solum is less than 60 inches thick, generally rang- breaking slopes and long hillsides of thle upland. It has
ing from about 42 to 58 inches. Reaction ranges from very breaking slopes and long hlsides of the up It has
strongly acid to medium acid in all horizons. Iron pebbles a profile that is similar to the one described as repre-
and gravel or fragments of leached phosphatic rock less sentative of the series, but the surface layer is 1 inch
than 3 inches in diameter are, by volume, 5 to 20 percent to 3 inches thinner and the subsoil is slightly thinner.
T of horizon is less than inches thick. The Al or Surface runoff is rapid, and the hazard of erosion is
The A horizon is less than 20 inches thick. The Al or
All horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), very dark gray severe. The soil ranges, by volume, from 5 to 20 percent
(N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), or very dark grayish brown (10YR gravel or rock fragments less than 3 inches in diam-
3/2 and is 10 to 14 inches thick. The A12 horizon is dark eter. Wetness is caused by hillside seepage and the
gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) or gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1) slowly permeable material, which severely restricts
sandy loam and is 0 to 7 inches thick. slowly permeable material, which severely restricts
The Btg horizon is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1, gray internal drainage. The water table is perched in the
(N 5/0, 6/0; 5Y 5/1, 6/1; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), or light surface layer and the upper part of the subsoil. It is
gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) and has few to common mottles in within 10 inches of the surface for about 1 month to 4
various shades of yellow, brown, and red. The upper 20 months during wt riods
inches of the Btg horizon is, by weighted average, 35 to months during wet periods.
45 percent clay and less than 20 percent silt. The B21tg Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
horizon is sandy clay loam or sandy clay 3 to 7 inches a similar soil that is eroded; small areas of Flemington,
thick. The B22tg horizon is sandy clay or clay 7 to 18 Blichton, and Micanopy soils; and areas of a similar
inches thick. The B23tg horizon is sandy clay or clay 10 soil that is more than 35 percent gravel or phosphatic
to 16 inches thick.
A Big horizon is in some pedons. It is sandy loam and rock fragments. Also included are a few areas, of a
has the same color range as the Btg horizon. The B3g hori- similar soil, where the slope is 8 to 12 percent. Gullies
zon, if it occurs, is gray (N 5/1, 6/0, 5Y 5/1, 6/1, 10YR have formed in a few cleared areas, and rock outcrop
5/1, 6/1) or light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) sandy clay or and sinkholes occur in many areas. The gullies, the
clay. It is 6 to 13 inches thick.
The IICg horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; 5Y 6/1; rock outcrop, and the sinkholes are identified by spot
N 5/0, 6/0), light gray (5Y 7/1, 7/2), olive gray (5Y symbols on the soil map. Included soils make up about
5/2), light olive gray (5Y 6/2), or light greenish gray 20 percent of any one mapped area.
(5GY 7/1). It has a few mottles. The texture is clay; the Most areas are still in a natural vegetation of slash
clay content averages more than 50 percent.
Fellowship soils are closely associated with Blichton, pine, loblolly pine, sweetgum, magnolia, and hickory
Flemington, Micanopy, and Zuber soils. They have a and an understory of mainly waxmyrtle and native
thicker Al horizon than those soils. They do not have the grasses. Most cleared areas are in improved pasture.
A2 horizon characteristic of Blichton soils and are finer Capability unit IVw-5; woodland group 2wl.
textured in the Btg horizon. They are more poorly drained
than Micanopy and Zuber soils.
FeB-Fellowship loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Fellowship Variant
This is a gently sloping, poorly drained soil that occurs The Fellowship variant consists of gently sloping to
as small areas in the upland. It has the profile described strongly sloping, poorly drained soils that formed in
as representative of the series. The upper 42 inches is, thick beds of clayey marine sediments. These soils are
by volume, about 5 percent hard pebbles and gravel or in the undulating uplands. They are interspersed with
fragments of leached phosphatic rock less than 3 sinkholes and rock outcrop. In at least the upper 20
inches in diameter. The water table is perched in the inches of the subsoil, they are, by volume, more than
surface layer and the upper part of the subsoil. It is 35 percent pebbles and gravel or fragments of leached
within 10 inches of the surface for about 1 month to 4 phosphatic rock less than 3 inches in diameter. The
months during wet periods. Surface runoff is medium, water table is perched in the surface layer and the
and the hazard of erosion is moderate. upper part of the subsoil. It is within 10 inches of the
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small surface for 1 month to 4 months during wet periods.
areas, of a similar soil, where the slope is 0 to 2 percent; Wet slopes are the result of hillside seepage.
a few areas, also of a similar soil, where it is 5 to 8 In a representative profile the surface layer is black
percent; a few small areas of moderately eroded soil; gravelly loamy sand about 14 inches thick. The subsoil








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 31

extends to a depth of 43 inches. The upper 6 inches is The B21tg horizon is very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR
dark gray gravelly sandy clay loam, the next 16 inches 3/1) or dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) gravelly sandy loam
or gravelly sandy clay. It is 6 to 8 inches thick. The B22tg
is gray gravelly sandy clay, and the lower 7 inches is horizon is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) to gray (N 5/0,
gray sandy clay or clay that is less than 10 percent 10YR 5/1, 5Y 5/1) gravelly sandy clay or gravelly clay.
rock fragments. The underlying material to a depth It is 15 to 18 inches thick. The B3g horizon is dark gray
of 70 inches is greenish gray clay. (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) or gray (N 5/5, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1;
A i e grees gra5y y. Y 5/1, 6/1) sandy clay or clay 6 to 8 inches thick. In some
Available water capacity is very low in the upper pedons this horizon does not occur.
14 inches, low from 14 to 36 inches, and medium to The Cg horizon is gray (N 6/0, 10YR 6/1, 5Y 6/1) to
high below. Natural fertility is medium. Permeability light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; 5Y 7/1, 7/2) clay.
is moderately rapid in the upper 14 inches, moderately The Fellowship variant is very closely associated with
other Fellowship soils, but the upper 20 inches of the Btg
slow between 14 and 20 inches, and very slow below, horizon is, by volume, 35 percent or more gravel or leached
Organic-matter content in the surface layer is low to phosphatic rock fragments. The variant is also associated
moderate. with Blichton and Flemington soils. It has a thicker Al
The Fellowship variant is only fairly well suited to horizon than Flemington soils and has more gravel or
leached rock fragments in the Btg horizon. It also differs
certain cultivated crops. It is moderately well suited to from Flemington soils in not having an A2 horizon. It has
improved pasture of locally grown grasses and legumes, a finer textured Btg horizon than Blichton soils and con-
Representative profile of Fellowship gravelly loamy tains more gravel or rock fragments.
sand, gravelly subsoil variant, 5 to 8 percent slopes, FgB-Fellowship gravelly loamy sand, gravelly sub-
approximately 2.3 miles west of Anthony on northeast soil variant, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This is a gently slop-
side of intersection of Anthony-Martin Road with ing, poorly drained soil that occurs as small and large
U.S. Highways 301 and 441, SWI/4SWI/4 sec. 6, T. 14 areas of the upland. Surface runoff is medium, and the
S., R. 22 E. hazard of erosion is moderate. The water table is
Al-0 to 14 inches; black (N 2/0) gravelly loamy sand; perched in the surface layer and the upper part of the
moderate medium granular structure; very fri- subsoil. It is within 10 inches of the surface for about
able; few fine roots; about 45 percent pebbles and 1 month to 4 months during wet periods.
gravel or leached phosphatic rock fragments less Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
than 3 inches in daimeter; few fragments moreaid of a similar soil, where the sandy surface layer is more
clear wavy boundary, than 20 inches thick and areas, also of a similar soil,
B21tg-14 to 20 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) gravelly where the surface layer and the subsoil are less than
sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky 35 percent gravel. Also included are small areas of
structure; firm; few fine roots; few faint clay Flemington and Blichton soils and small areas of a
flows along faces of peds; about 45 percent gravel or Flemington and Bchton soils and small areas of a
leached phosphatic rock fragments and pebbles similar soil that has a slope of 0 to 2 or 5 to 8 percent.
less than 3 inches in diameter, few fragments Sinkholes and rock outcrop, both of which occur in
more than 3 inches in diameter; very strongly many areas, are identified by spot symbols on the
acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22tg-20 to 36 inches; gray (N 5/0) gravelly sandy soil map. Included soils make up about 15 percent of
clay or clay; moderate medium subangular blocky any one mapped area.

structure; firm; few fine roots; few discontinuous The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, lob-
clay flows on faces of peds; few slickenslides; lolly pine, sweetgum, hickory, magnolia, and holly.
about 40 percent gravel or leached phosphatic Few areas are cleared. Most of these are in improved
rock fragments and pebbles less than 3 inches in Few areas are cleared. Most of these are in improved
diameter in the upper part, decreasing to about 36 pasture. Capability unit IVw-4; woodland group 2wl.
percent in the lower 6 inches; very strongly acid; FgC-Fellowship gravelly loamy sand, gravelly
clear wavy boundary, subsoil variant, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is a sloping
Bew36 to 43 inches; faint gray (N 5/0) sand few clay or claydis to strongly sloping, poorly drained soil that occurs as
few fine faint greenish gray and few common dis-
tinct pale yellow (5Y 7/4) mottles; weak medium small and large areas on sharp-breaking slopes and
subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; long, wet hillsides of the upland. It has the profile
slickensides; less than 10 percent gravel or rock described as representative of the variant. Wetness is
boundary. very strongly acid; clear ireguar caused by hillside seepage and the slowly permeable
Cg-43 to 70 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) or greenish material, which severely restricts internal drainage.
gray (5GY 6/1) clay; few fine prominent yellow- The water table is perched in the surface layer and the
ish red mottles; massive; very firm; few fine upper part of the subsoil. It is within 10 inches of the
white concretions; slickensides; very strongly acid. surface for 1 month to 4 months during wet periods.
The solum is less than 60 inches thick, generally rang- Surface runoff is rapid, and the hazard of erosion is
ing from 38 to 48 inches. Reaction ranges from very
strongly acid to medium acid in all horizons. The A hori- severe.
zon and at least the upper 20 inches of the Btg horizon Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
are, by volume, 35 to about 60 percent iron concretions, of similar soils, where the sandy surface layer is more
phosphatic pebbles, and leached phosphatic rock frag- than 20 inches thick or the surface layer and the sub-
ments less than 3 inches in diameter. In many pedons, soil are less than 35 percent gravel. Also included are
however, the solum is more than 35 percent gravel or s are less than percent gravel. Also included are
fragments. Many pedons have a few rock fragments and small areas of Flemington and Blichton soils, small
boulders 6 to 30 inches in diameter at the surface and be- areas of a similar soil that has a slope of 2 to 5 percent,
low. Limestone is below a depth of 60 inches. areas of a similar soil that is eroded, and a few small
The Al horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1) or very
dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1) gravelly loamy fine sand. areas where limestone is within a depth of 52 to 60
It is less than 20 inches thick, generally ranging from 11 inches. Sinkholes and rock outcrop, both of which occur
to 14 inches, in many areas, are identified by spot symbols on the








32 SOIL SURVEY

soil map. Included soils make up about 20 percent of few medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR
any one mapped area. 5/8) mottles; massive, some moderate subangu-
Most areas are still in a natural vegetation of slash lar blocky structure; firm, sticky and plastic,
ost areas are still in a natural vegetation of slash hard; few discontinuous distinct clay films along
pine, loblolly pine, sweetgum, hickory, and magnolia structure breaks; few small quartz pebbles; very
and an understory of native shrubs and grasses. Some few fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual irreg-
areas are in improved pasture. Capability unit VIw-1; 53 ularoundaryght gray (Y 7/1) clay; prominent
w ag-oop to 75 inches; light gray (5Y 71:1) clay; prominent
woodland group 2wl. strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and dark brown
(7.5YR 4/4) mottles; few coarse mottles and firm
Flemington Series concretions of red (2.SYR 4/8); massive; firm,
ington Series sticky and plastic; few fine roots; very strongly
The Flemington series consists of nearly level to acid.
gently sloping, poorly drained soils that formed in The solum is 50 to about 78 inches thick. It is 0 to
about 5 percent gravel or fragments of leached phosphatic
thick beds of fine textured marine sediments. These limestone less than 3 inches in diameter. The content of
soils occur as small and large areas in the upland. The plinthite ranges from 0 to 5 percent in the Btg and Cg
subsurface layer and the upper part of the subsoil are horizons.
saturated with a perched water table for 1 month to The Al or Ap horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1),
very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), dark gray (N 4/0,
4 months during most years. Wet slopes are the result 10YR 4/1) to gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1). It is 4 to 6 inches
of hillside seepage. thick. If black or very dark gray, it is less than 6 inches
In a representative profile the surface layer is very thick. The A2 horizon is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1),
dark gray loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The subsur- gray (N 5/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), or light brownish gray
(10YR 6/2). It is 4 to 10 inches thick. Reaction in the A
face layer is gray loamy sand about 4 inches thick. The horizon ranges from extremely acid to medium acid.
subsoil, between depths of 9 and 53 inches, is clay. A Big horizon occurs in some pedons. It is dark gray
The upper 18 inches is dark gray mottled with strong (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1),
brown, and the lower 26 inches is mottled gray. The or light gryish brown (10YR 6/2) sandy clay loam 2
underlying material to a depth of 75 inches is mottled The B2tg horizon is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1),
light gray clay. gray (N 5/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), or light brownish gray
Available water capacity is low to medium in the (10YR 6/2, 2.5Y 6/2) clay. It has few to many mottles
upper 9 inches, medium from 9 to 27 inches, medium in shades of yellow, brown, and red. It is 43 to 64 inches
thick. The upper 20 inches of the Btg horizon is, by
to high from 27 to 53 inches, and high below. Perme- weighted average, about 60 to 75 percent clay. The B23tg
ability is moderately rapid to rapid in the upper 9 horizon in some pedons has fine lenses and pockets of
inches, slow between 9 and 53 inches, and very slow coarser textured material. Reaction of the Btg horizon
below. Natural fertility is medium, and organic-matter rages from extremely acid to strongly alicid.
The Cg horizon is gray (N 5/0; 10YT 5/1, 6/1), light
content is low to medium, gray (10YR 7/1; SY 7/1, 7/2), or light greenish gray
If well managed, Flemington soils are moderately (5GY 7/1, 5G 7/1) clay. It ranges from extremely acid
well suited to cultivated crops commonly grown in the to strongly acid.
area. They are well suited to improved pasture of Flemington soils are closely associated with Blichton,
Fellowship, Micanopy, Lochloosa, Kanapaha, Martel, and
locally grown grasses and legumes. Zuber soils. They have a thinner A horizon and a finer
Representative profile of Flemington loamy sand, 0 textured Btg horizon than Blichton and Kanapaha soils.
to 2 percent slopes, in a wooded area about 2.25 miles They differ from Fellowship and Martel soils in having
northwest of intersection of U.S. Highway 27 and a thinner Al horizon and in having an A2 horizon They
a are more poorly drained than Micanopy, Zuber, and Loch-
State Highway 326 and 400 feet north of U.S. High- loosa soils and have a thinner A horizon and a finer tex-
way 27, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 36, T. 13 S., R. 19 E. tured Bt horizon than Lochloosa soils.
A1-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) loamy sand; FmA-Flemington loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
moderate medium granular structure; many fine This is a nearly level, poorly drained soil that occurs
and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual as small areas in the upland. It has the profile described
wavy boundary.
A2-5 to 9 inches; gray (N 5/0) loamy sand; weak me- as representative of the series. The water table is in
dium granular structure; very friable; many fine the subsurface layer and the upper part; of the subsoil.
and medium roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy It is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 month to 4
boundary. months during most years. During extremely wet per-
B21tg-9 to 27 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) clay; common months dur most y Durin t
fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; iods, the surface may be covered with water for brief
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; periods because surface runoff and the infiltration rate
firm, sticky and plastic, hard; thin distinct clay are slow (fig. 3).
films on faces of peds; few slickensides along Included with this soil in mapping are areas, of a
structure breaks; few fine and medium roots;
few root channels; very strongly acid; gradual similar soil, where the subsoil is more than 5 percent
wavy boundary. plinthite and small areas of a poorly drained soil that
B22tg-27 to 41 inches; gray (N 5/0) clay; common fine has a fine sand surface layer and a sandy clay loam
distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; mod- or sandy clay subsoil. Also included are small areas of
crate medium angular and subangular blocky
structure; firm, sticky and plastic, hard; thin Blichton, Fellowship, Kanapaha, and Micanopy soils
distinct clay films on faces of peds; few slicken- and small areas where the slope is more than 2 percent.
sides; few roots in upper part and very few in The rock outcrop and sinkholes that occur in some
lower part; very strongly acid; gradual irregu- areas are identified by spot symbols on the soil map.
lar boundary.
B23tg-41 to 53 inches; gray (N 5/0) clay; common fine Included soils make up about 15 percent of any one
and medium faint light gray (10YR 7/1) and mapped area.








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 33





























Figure 3.-An area of Flemington loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, covered with water after a period of high rainfall.


The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, lob- native grasses. Most areas are still in forest, but many
lolly pine, oak, sweetgum, and hickory and an under- have been cleared and are in improved pasture. Capa-
story of chiefly waxmyrtle and native grasses. Most ability unit IIIw-2; woodland group 2wl.
areas are still in native vegetation. Most cleared areas
are in improved pasture. Capability unit IHw-5; wood- Gainesville Series
land group 2wl.
FmB-Flemington loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. The Gainesville series consists of nearly level to
This is a gently sloping, poorly drained soil that occurs sloping, well drained soils that formed in thick beds
as small and large areas of the upland. The hazard of of sandy marine sediments. These soils occur in broad,
erosion is moderate because the infiltration rate is slow undulating areas of the upland. They commonly have
and surface runoff is medium. The subsurface layer a uniform texture of loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches
and the upper part of the subsoil are saturated with a or more. The water table is at a depth of more than
perched water table for 1 month to 4 months during 72 inches.
most years. In a representative profile the surface layer is loamy
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of sand about 10 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is very
Fellowship, Blichton, Lochloosa, Micanopy, and Kan- dark grayish brown, and the lower 5 inches is dark
apaha soils; small areas, of a similar soil, where the brown. The underlying material to a depth of more
surface layer is fine sand and the subsoil is sandy clay than 90 inches is loamy sand. The upper 13 inches is
loam or sandy clay; and small areas where the subsoil brown, and the lower 67 inches is strong brown.
is more than 5 percent plinthite. Also included are Available water capacity is low. Organic-matter con-
small areas of a similar soil that has a slope of 0 to 2 tent is low. Natural fertility is medium. Permeability
or 5 to 8 percent. The rock outcrop and sinkholes that is rapid to a depth of more than 80 inches.
occur in some areas are identified by spot symbols on Gainesville soils are moderately well suited to most
the soil map. Included soils make up about 20 percent general farm crops. They are well suited to improved
of any one mapped area. pasture of deep-rooting grasses and commonly grown
The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly legumes.
pine, live oak, water oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, Representative profile of Gainesville loamy sand, 0
and magnolia and an understory of waxmyrtle and to 5 percent slopes, in an undisturbed area about one-







34 SOIL SURVEY

half mile east of Lake Weir Avenue and one-quarter leaf pine, and loblolly pine. Most areas are cleared and
mile northeast of Bible Baptist Church, NWI/4SW1/ are used for crops and improved pasture. Capability
sec. 28, T. 15 S., R. 22 E. unit IIIs-1; woodland group 3sl.
All-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR GaC-Gainesville loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
3/2) loamy sand; moderate medium granular This is a sloping, well drained soil that generally occurs
structure; very friable; common fine and medium as small areas on sharp-breaking slopes in the upland.
roots; common fine and medium pores; few fine Surface runoff is slow, and the erosion hazard is slight.
and medium weathered phosphatic and ironstone The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.
nodules; very strongly acid; clear smooth bound-
ary. Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
A12-5 to 10 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) loamy areas of Arredondo, Hague, and Kendrick soils and
sand; common medium distinct yellowish brown areas of a well drained soil that is fine sand to a depth
(10YR 5/4) splotches; weak medium granular of 80 inches or more. Also included are a few spots.
structure; very friable; common fine and medium
and few large roots; many coated sand grains; of a similar soil, where the slope is 0 to 5 or 8 to 12 per-
common fine pores; few fine and medium weath- cent. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of
ered phosphatic and ironstone nodules; strongly any one mapped area.
acid; clear smooth boundary. The natural vegetation is magnolia, live oak. water
1- eak medium granular structure; very friable; oak, slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine and an
common fine and medium and few large roots; understory of shrubs and native grasses. Most areas
many coated sand grains; few medium root have been cleared and are in improved pasture. Capa-
channels filled with dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) ability unit IVs-2; woodland group 3sl.
material from above horizon; common fine pores;
few fine and medium weathered phosphatic and
ironstone nodules; medium acid; clear wavy Hague Series
boundary.
C2-23 to 90 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy The Hague series consists of gently sloping to slop-
sand; moderate medium granular structure; very
friable; many coated sand grains; few fine roots ng, well drained soils that formed in thick beds o
few fine root channels and pores; few fine to sandy and loamy deposits influenced by phosphatic
medium weathered phosphatic and ironstone material. They occur as small areas in the upland. The
nodules; medium acid. water table is at a depth of more than 60 inches.
The soil is 80 inches or more thick. Reaction ranges In a representative profile the surface layer is mixed
from very strongly acid to medium acid in all horizons, very dark grayish brown and dark grayish brown
The silt and clay content ranges from 10 to 15 percent sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand
between depths of 10 and 40 inches. The content of weath- 1 n thi Th r in i light el-
ered phosphatic and ironstone nodules 4 to 20 millimeters about chess tck he upper 9
in size is, by volume, about 1 to 3 percent. These nodules lowish brown, and the lower 7 inches reddish yellow.
generally occur at the surface and throughout the profile. The subsoil extends to a depth of 74 inches. It is. in
The A horizon is loamy sand 5 to 10 inches thick. It sequence downward. 3 inches of strong brown sandy
ranges from very dark gray (10YR 3/1), very dark gray-lam, 13 inches of yellowish red sandy clay loam 9
ish brown (10YR 3/2), dark gray (10YR 4/1), and dark loam, 13 inches of yellowish red sandy cla loam. 9
brown (7.5YR 4/2) to dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2). inches of yellowish red sandy loam. and 25 inches of
The C horizon is dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), strong brown loamy sand. The underlying material to
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8), brown (7.5YR a depth of 82 inches is strong brown loamy sand.
5/4, 10YR 4/3), dark brown (7.5YR 4/4), strong brown Available water capacity is low in the upper 24
(7.5YR 5/6, 5/8), or yellowish red (5YR 5/6, 5/8, 4/6,
4/8) loamy sand or loamy fine sand. inches and medium below. Permeability is rapid in the
Gainesville soils are closely associated with Arredondo, upper 24 inches and moderate to moderately rapid be-
Hague, Kendrick, and Zuber soils. They are loamy sand to low. Natural fertility is low in the upper 24 inches and
a depth of more than 80 inches, whereas Arredondo soils medium below. Organic-matter content is low
are sandy loam or sandy clay loam below a depth of 40 to medium below. Organic-matter content is low.
80 inches, Hague and Kendrick soils are sandy loam and Hague soils are well suited to most general farm
sandy clay loam below a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and crops and improved pasture of deep-rooting grasses
Zuber soils are loamy fine sand to a depth of less than 20 and locally grown legumes.
inches and are sandy clay below. Representative profile of Hague sand, 2 to 5 percent
GaB-Gainesville loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, slopes, in an area of planted pine 400 feet east of Bible
This is a nearly level to gently sloping, well drained Baptist Church on east side of Lake Weir Avenue.
soil that occurs as small and large areas in the upland. NW1/SWI/ sec. 28, T. 15 S., R. 22 E.
It has the profile described as representative of the A1-0 to 8 inches; mixed very dark grayish brown. (10YR
series. The water table is at a depth of more than 72 3/2) and dark grayish brown (10YR 4 2) sand;
inches. moderate medium coarse granular structure;
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,very friable; few fine and medium roots: few fine
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, uncoated quartz grains; strongly acid: abrupt
of a similar soil, where the texture is fine sand to a smooth boundary.
depth of more than 80 inches and a few spots, also of A21-8 to 17 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6 41
a similar soil, where the slope is 5 to 8 percent. Also sand mixed with dark grayish brown (10YR 4 2)
in root channels; weak medium granular struc-
included are small areas of Arredondo, Hague, Ken- ure; very friable; few fine ad medium roots;
drick, and Zuber soils. Included soils make up less than medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
15 percent of any one mapped area. A22-17 to 24 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6 8) sand:
The natural vegetation is magnolia, maple, live oak, feak medium mranulam rutur; edium id frilea
water oak, laurel oak, dogwood, holly, slash pine, long- smooth boundary.






I








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 35
B21t---24 to 27 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy as representative of the series. The water table is at
loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; fri- a depth of more than 72 inches.
able; few fine roots; common fine pores and few
fine root channels; few discontinuous clay flows Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
along ped faces; medium acid; clear smooth of Kendrick, Gainesville, Arredondo, and Zuber soils;
boundary, a few areas, of a similar soil, where the base saturation
B22t-27 to 40 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) sandy is less than 35 percent within a depth of 72 inches; and
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; few fine roots; few fine pores a few areas, also of a similar soil, where the surface
and root channels; few discontinuous clay flows layer is fine sand and loamy fine sand. Also included
on ped faces; medium acid; gradual wavy bound- are a small acreage where the slope is 0 to 2 percent
ary. and a few areas where the subsoil is within a depth of
B23t-40 to 49 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) sandy 20 inches. Moderately eroded spots occur in a few
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; few fine roots; few pores and areas. Sinkholes that occur in some areas are identified
root channels; discontinuous clay flows on ped by spot symbols on the soil map. Included soils make
faces; medium acid; clear smooth boundary. up less than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
B31-49 to 62 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, lob-
ianle; feak fine suots ular block s ted ctumi; lolly pine, longleaf pine and a growth of hardwoods
smooth boundary, that includes oak, dogwood, hickory, magnolia, and
B32-62 to 74 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy sweetgum. Most areas are cleared and are used for
sand; massive, some weak fine subangular blocky crops and improved pasture. Capability unit IIe-2;
structure; very friable; few pores; medium acid; woodland group 2o1.
diffuse boundary.
C-74 to 82 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy HaC-Hague sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is a
sand; massive; very friable; few pebbles 1 to % sloping, well drained soil that occurs as small areas in
inch in diameter; medium acid. the upland. It has a profile similar to that described as
The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Few to common representative of the series, but the surface and sub-
small phosphatic pebbles occur throughout the solum in surface layers combined are about 2 to 4 inches thinner.
some pedons. Surface runoff is medium, and the hazard of erosion is
The A horizon is sand. It ranges from very strongly moderate. A few rills and shallow gullies have formed.
acid to medium acid. The Al or Ap horizon is very dark The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.
gray (10YR 3/1), dark gray (10YR 4/1), very dark gray- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
ish brown (10YR 3/2), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2),uded with this soil in mapping are small areas
or dark brown (7.5YR 3/2, 4/2). It is 5 to 10 inches of Kendrick, Zuber, and Gainesville soils; spots where
thick. The A2 horizon is dark brown (10YR 4/3, 7.5YR the soil is less than 60 inches deep over bedrock; and
4/4), brown (10YR 5/3, 7.5YR 5/4), light yellowish a few areas of a similar soil that has a slope of 8 to 12
brown (10YR 6/4), dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4),
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8), yellowish brown percent. Also included are small areas, of a similar
(10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8), and reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6, soil, where the surface layer is fine sand and loamy
6/8) to strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8). It is 15 to 30 fine sand and spots of a moderately eroded soil. Rock
inches thick. outcrop and sinkholes, both of which occur in some
The B2t horizon is strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8) to areas, are identified by a spot symbol on the soil map.
yellowish red (5YR 5/6, 5/8, 4/6, 4/8) sandy loam or Included soils make up about 15 percent of any one
sandy clay loam. It is 18 to 40 inches thick. Reaction Included soils make up about 15 percent of any one
ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid. The clay mapped area.
content of the Bt horizon is centered on 18 to 25 percent, The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, lob-
but ranges from about 18 to 30 percent. The silt content lolly pine, longleaf pine, oak, dogwood, hickory, and
is about 2 to 15 percent.wis magnolia. Most areas are cleared and are used for
The B3 horizon is yellowish brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8),
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8), or yellowish red (5YR improved pasture. Some cleared areas are used for
4/8, 5/6, 5/8) sandy loam, loamy sand, or loamy fine crops. Capability unit IIIe-1; woodland group 2ol.
sand. The thickness ranges from about 12 to 36 inches. HgB--Hague-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid. slopes. This mapping unit is about 60 to 70 percent a
The C horizon is at a depth below 60 inches. It is strong well drained Hague sand and 30 to 40 percent Urban
brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8) or yellowish brown (10YR 5/6,
5/8) loamy sand or loamy fine sand. Reaction ranges from land. The percentage differs from one mapped area to
strongly acid to slightly acid. another. Hague sand is in open areas, such as parks,
Hague soils are closely associated with Arredondo, playgrounds, and vacant lots. Urban land is covered
Gainesville, Kendrick, Lochloosa, and Zuber soils. Their with sidewalks, streets, houses, driveways, industrial
A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick, whereas that of Arred- buildings, parking lots, and other structures.
ondo soils is more than 40 inches thick. They have a sandy
clay loam or sandy loam Bt horizon, whereas Gainesville About 15 to 30 percent of the open area has been
soils have no Bt horizon and are sandy to a depth of 80 modified by the cutting, grading, and spreading of the
inches or more. They have a base saturation of 35 percent soil material in preparing sites for buildings, streets,
or more in the Bt horizon, whereas Kendrick soils have a and septic tanks. The soil material excavated is spread
base saturation of less than 35 percent. They are better
drained than Lochloosa soils. They are of siliceous mineral- over adjacent areas. It is mostly 1 inch to 12 inches
ogy and have an A horizon that is more than 20 inches thick. It is sandy and loamy.
thick, whereas Zuber soils are of mixed mineralogy and Included in this unit in mapping are Kendrick, Ar-
have an A horizon that is less than 20 inches thick. redondo, and Zuber soils, all of which are similar to the
HaB-Hague sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This is a Hague sand. These included soils make up about 15
gently sloping, well drained soil that occurs generally percent of some open areas. Also included are small
as small areas in the upland. It has the profile described areas, of a similar soil, where the slope is 5 to 8 percent.








36 SOIL SURVEY

This mapping unit is well suited to lawn grasses and Reaction in the Bg horizon ranges from slightly acid to
ornamental plants. The water table is at a depth of moderately alkaline. The Btg horizon is gray (N 5/0,
more than 72 inches. Not assigned to a capability unit 6/0; O10YR 5/1, 6/1) or light gray (N 7/0, 10YR 7/1)
more than 72 inches. Not assigned to a capability unit mottled with shades of yellow and brown. It is sandy loam
or woodland group. or sandy clay loam 11 to 23 inches thick.
The B3g horizon, if it occurs, is gray (N 5/0, 6/0;
10YR 5/1, 6/1) mottled with shades of yellow and brown.
Holopaw Series It is sandy loam or is sandy clay loam that has lenses and
pockets of sandy loam and loamy sand. It is 3 to 7 inches
The Holopaw series consists of nearly level, poorly thick.
drained soils that formed in thick beds of stratified The Cg horizon either is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1,
6/1) sandy clay loam that has pockets and lenses of
sandy and loamy marine deposits. These soils occur on coarser textured material or is stratified sandy clay loam,
low-lying flats and in shallow depressions in the flat- sandy loam, and loamy sand.
woods. The water table is within 10 inches of the sur- Holopaw soils are associated with Anclote, Paisley, and
face for 2 to 6 months annually. Water is on the sur- Pomona soils. They have a thicker, finer textured A hori-
zon than Paisley soils. Also, they have a loamy Btg horizon
face for short periods during wet seasons. Many depres- and are siliceous, whereas Paisley soils have a clayey Btg
sions are covered with water for 2 to 6 months during horizon and are montmorillonitic. They do not have the
most years. thick, black Al horizon characteristic of Anclote soils.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark They differ from Pomona soils in having no Bh horizon
gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer and in having a higher base saturation.
extends to a depth of 59 inches. The upper 7 inches is Ho-Holopaw sand. This is a poorly drained soil
grayish brown sand, the next 28 inches is gray sand, that occurs as small and large areas on broad flats and
and the lower 19 inches is gray sand mottled with light in shallow depressions of the flatwoods. Slopes are 0
gray. The subsoil, between depths of 59 to 72 inches, to 2 percent. The water table is within 10 inches of the
is mottled gray light sandy clay loam. surface for 2 to 6 months annually. Water is on the
Available water capacity is very low to low in the surface for short periods during wet seasons. Many
upper 59 inches and medium below. Permeability is depressions are covered with water for 2 to 6 months
rapid in the upper 59 inches and moderately rapid during most years.
below. Natural fertility is low in the upper 59 inches Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
of sandy material and medium in the loamy material of similar soils, where the surface layer is fine sand and
below. Organic-matter content is low. loamy sand or the sandy clay loam subsoil is at a depth
Holopaw soils are poorly suited to general farm of 20 to 40 inches. Also included are small areas of
crops. If water is controlled, however, they are well Paisley, Anclote, and Pomona soils. Included soils make
suited to commonly grown special crops and to im- up less than 20 percent of any one mapped area.
proved pasture. The natural vegetation is a forest of either slash pine
Representative profile of Holopaw sand, in an un- and loblolly pine or swamp hardwoods, including oak,
disturbed area where the plant cover is cabbage palm, gum, maple, and palm. The understory is chiefly wax-
gum, bluestems, palmetto, and scattered loblolly pine; myrtle, bluestems, palmetto, cabbage palm, and native
0.3 mile west of Cabbage Landing on Oklawaha River, grasses. Most areas are still in woodland. A few cleared
about 1 mile northeast of Gores Landing, NEI/4NE1 areas are in improved pasture. Capability unit IVw-3;
sec. 5, T.14 S., R. 24 E. woodland group 3w2.
Al-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak J
medium granular structure; very friable; many Jumper Series
fine and medium and few large roots; medium
acid; abrupt wavy boundary. The Jumper series consists of nearly level to gently
A21-5 to 12 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand, sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
single grained; loose; common fine and medium thick beds of loamy marine sediments. These soils are
roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. in the flatwoods and along gentle slopes of the sandy
A22-12 to 40 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; neu- uplands. The water table fluctuates between approxi-
tral; gradual wavy boundary. mately 30 and 60 inches for 2 to 4 months during most
A23dium40 to 59 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few me- years. For brief periods of about 2 weeks to 2 months,
dium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; it is within a depth of 30 inches.
single grained; loose; few fine roots; neutral;
clear wavy boundary. In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
Btg-59 to 72 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) light sandy clay gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown mottles; layer is about 23 inches of very pale brown sand mot-
weak medium subangular blocky structure; fri- tIed with dark gray and light gray in the upper 9
able; few roots; few thin discontinuous clay tied with dark gray and ght gray in the upper
films on ped faces; moderately alkaline. inches and with white, gray, and yellow in the lower
Thickness of the solum is generally 62 to 85 inches. 13 inches. The subsoil is between depths of 29 and
The A horizon ranges from strongly acid to neutral. It 80 inches. It is, in sequence downward, 6 inches of
is 42 to 70 inches thick. The Al horizon is black (N 2/0, yellowish brown sandy clay loam mottled with light
grYR 2/1), very dark gray (N i /0, 5 o YR /1thi and dark gray and strong brown, 18 inches of pale brown sandy
gray_(N 4/0, 10YR 4/1). It is 5 or 6 inches thick. The A2 clay loam mottled with yellowish red and gray, 16
horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, clay loam mottled with yellowish red and gray, 16
7/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), and light brownish inches of gray and yellowish brown sandy clay loam
gray (10YR 6/2). In places it has mottles in shades of that is mottled with red and is about 12 percent plinth-
gray, yellow, and brown. It is 37 to 64 inches thick. ite, and 11 inches of mottled red, yellowish red, and








36 SOIL SURVEY

This mapping unit is well suited to lawn grasses and Reaction in the Bg horizon ranges from slightly acid to
ornamental plants. The water table is at a depth of moderately alkaline. The Btg horizon is gray (N 5/0,
more than 72 inches. Not assigned to a capability unit 6/0; O10YR 5/1, 6/1) or light gray (N 7/0, 10YR 7/1)
more than 72 inches. Not assigned to a capability unit mottled with shades of yellow and brown. It is sandy loam
or woodland group. or sandy clay loam 11 to 23 inches thick.
The B3g horizon, if it occurs, is gray (N 5/0, 6/0;
10YR 5/1, 6/1) mottled with shades of yellow and brown.
Holopaw Series It is sandy loam or is sandy clay loam that has lenses and
pockets of sandy loam and loamy sand. It is 3 to 7 inches
The Holopaw series consists of nearly level, poorly thick.
drained soils that formed in thick beds of stratified The Cg horizon either is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1,
6/1) sandy clay loam that has pockets and lenses of
sandy and loamy marine deposits. These soils occur on coarser textured material or is stratified sandy clay loam,
low-lying flats and in shallow depressions in the flat- sandy loam, and loamy sand.
woods. The water table is within 10 inches of the sur- Holopaw soils are associated with Anclote, Paisley, and
face for 2 to 6 months annually. Water is on the sur- Pomona soils. They have a thicker, finer textured A hori-
zon than Paisley soils. Also, they have a loamy Btg horizon
face for short periods during wet seasons. Many depres- and are siliceous, whereas Paisley soils have a clayey Btg
sions are covered with water for 2 to 6 months during horizon and are montmorillonitic. They do not have the
most years. thick, black Al horizon characteristic of Anclote soils.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark They differ from Pomona soils in having no Bh horizon
gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer and in having a higher base saturation.
extends to a depth of 59 inches. The upper 7 inches is Ho-Holopaw sand. This is a poorly drained soil
grayish brown sand, the next 28 inches is gray sand, that occurs as small and large areas on broad flats and
and the lower 19 inches is gray sand mottled with light in shallow depressions of the flatwoods. Slopes are 0
gray. The subsoil, between depths of 59 to 72 inches, to 2 percent. The water table is within 10 inches of the
is mottled gray light sandy clay loam. surface for 2 to 6 months annually. Water is on the
Available water capacity is very low to low in the surface for short periods during wet seasons. Many
upper 59 inches and medium below. Permeability is depressions are covered with water for 2 to 6 months
rapid in the upper 59 inches and moderately rapid during most years.
below. Natural fertility is low in the upper 59 inches Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
of sandy material and medium in the loamy material of similar soils, where the surface layer is fine sand and
below. Organic-matter content is low. loamy sand or the sandy clay loam subsoil is at a depth
Holopaw soils are poorly suited to general farm of 20 to 40 inches. Also included are small areas of
crops. If water is controlled, however, they are well Paisley, Anclote, and Pomona soils. Included soils make
suited to commonly grown special crops and to im- up less than 20 percent of any one mapped area.
proved pasture. The natural vegetation is a forest of either slash pine
Representative profile of Holopaw sand, in an un- and loblolly pine or swamp hardwoods, including oak,
disturbed area where the plant cover is cabbage palm, gum, maple, and palm. The understory is chiefly wax-
gum, bluestems, palmetto, and scattered loblolly pine; myrtle, bluestems, palmetto, cabbage palm, and native
0.3 mile west of Cabbage Landing on Oklawaha River, grasses. Most areas are still in woodland. A few cleared
about 1 mile northeast of Gores Landing, NEI/4NE1 areas are in improved pasture. Capability unit IVw-3;
sec. 5, T.14 S., R. 24 E. woodland group 3w2.
Al-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak J
medium granular structure; very friable; many Jumper Series
fine and medium and few large roots; medium
acid; abrupt wavy boundary. The Jumper series consists of nearly level to gently
A21-5 to 12 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand, sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
single grained; loose; common fine and medium thick beds of loamy marine sediments. These soils are
roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. in the flatwoods and along gentle slopes of the sandy
A22-12 to 40 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; neu- uplands. The water table fluctuates between approxi-
tral; gradual wavy boundary. mately 30 and 60 inches for 2 to 4 months during most
A23dium40 to 59 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few me- years. For brief periods of about 2 weeks to 2 months,
dium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; it is within a depth of 30 inches.
single grained; loose; few fine roots; neutral;
clear wavy boundary. In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
Btg-59 to 72 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) light sandy clay gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown mottles; layer is about 23 inches of very pale brown sand mot-
weak medium subangular blocky structure; fri- tIed with dark gray and light gray in the upper 9
able; few roots; few thin discontinuous clay tied with dark gray and ght gray in the upper
films on ped faces; moderately alkaline. inches and with white, gray, and yellow in the lower
Thickness of the solum is generally 62 to 85 inches. 13 inches. The subsoil is between depths of 29 and
The A horizon ranges from strongly acid to neutral. It 80 inches. It is, in sequence downward, 6 inches of
is 42 to 70 inches thick. The Al horizon is black (N 2/0, yellowish brown sandy clay loam mottled with light
grYR 2/1), very dark gray (N i /0, 5 o YR /1thi and dark gray and strong brown, 18 inches of pale brown sandy
gray_(N 4/0, 10YR 4/1). It is 5 or 6 inches thick. The A2 clay loam mottled with yellowish red and gray, 16
horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, clay loam mottled with yellowish red and gray, 16
7/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), and light brownish inches of gray and yellowish brown sandy clay loam
gray (10YR 6/2). In places it has mottles in shades of that is mottled with red and is about 12 percent plinth-
gray, yellow, and brown. It is 37 to 64 inches thick. ite, and 11 inches of mottled red, yellowish red, and








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 37

gray sandy clay loam that has lenses of sandy clay, The Al or Ap horizon is very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR
sandy loam, and loamy sand and is about 15 percent 3/1), dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), dark grayish brown
(10YR 4/2), or gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1) fine sand. It is
plinthite. 5 to 8 inches thick. If very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR
Available water capacity is very low in the upper 3/1), it is less than 6 inches thick.
29 inches and medium below. Permeability is rapid in The A2 horizon is light brownish gray (10YR 6/2),
very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4, 8/3, 8/4), pale brown
the upper 29 inches and moderate below. Natural fer- (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), brown-
tility is low in the upper 29 inches and medium below. ish yellow (10YR 6/6), or yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
Organic-matter content is low. fine sand. It has few to common mottles in shades of gray,
brown, and yellow. Thickness is 17 to 31 inches.
Jumper soils are moderately well suited to general The B21t and B22t horizons are pale brown (10YR
farm crops. They are well suited to the deep-rooting 6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4, 2.5Y 6/4), very
improved pasture grasses and legumes grown in the pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4), brownish yellow (10YR
area.6/6, 6/8), or yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8)
mottled with shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red. The
Representative profile of Jumper fine sand, 0 to 5 B21t horizon is sandy loam or sandy clay loam, and the
percent slopes, in an area presently in slash pine, oak, B22t horizon is sandy clay loam. The B21t horizon is 6 to
briers, scattered bluestems and palmetto, and wire- 9 inches thick, and the B22t horizon is 15 to 21 inches
thick. In some pedons the B22t horizon is the same color
grass; 2 miles east of Fort McCoy and one-half mile as the B23t horizon.
south of State Road 316, NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 13, T. 13 S., The B23t horizon is mottled with shades of gray, yel-
R. 23 E. low, and brown or is mottled gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1). It is
sandy clay loam and is 14 to 16 inches thick.
Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (1.0YR 4/1) fine sand; weak The B3g horizon is dominantly gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1),
fine granular structure; few fine roots; very light gray (10YR 7/1), or light brownish gray (10YR
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. 6/2) and has common to many mottles in shades of yel-
A21-6 to 15 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; low, brown, and red. In some pedons it has no matrix color
few fine and medium splotches of dark gray and is mottled in shades of red, gray, yellow, and brown.
(10YR 4/1); few fine faint light gray mottles; sin- It is sandy clay loam that in places has lenses of coarser
gle grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; few and finer textured material. It is 9 to 14 inches thick.
fine carbon particles; few fine slightly firm yel- The C horizon, if it occurs, ranges from sandy clay
lowish red (5YR 5/8) concretions of iron; very loam that has pockets of finer and coarser textured mate-
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. rial to stratified loamy sand, sandy loam, sandy clay
A22-15 to 29 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; loam, and clay.
few fine faint white, gray, and yellow mottles; Jumper soils are closely associated with Apopka, Sparr,
single grained; loose; few medium and fine roots; and Lynne soils. They have a thinner A horizon than
few fine carbon particles; few fine slightly firm Apopka soils and are more poorly drained. They have a
yellowish red (5YR 5/8) concretions of iron; thinner A horizon than Sparr soils. They are better
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. drained than Lynne soils and do not have the Bh horizon
B21t-29 to 35 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy characteristic of those soils.
clay loam; few fine and medium distinct light
gray (loYR 7/1), few medium distinct strong JuB-Jumper fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
brown (7.5YR 5/8), and few fine prominent red is a nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky struc- drained soil that occurs as small areas in the flatwoods
ture; friable; few fine roots; few fine carbon and along gentle slopes of the sandy uplands. The
particles; sand grains coated and bridged with
clay; few fine slightly firm yellowish red (5YR water table fluctuates between approximately 30 and
5/8) bodies; very strongly acid; gradual wavy 60 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. For
boundary. brief periods of about 2 weeks to 2 months, it is within
B22t-35 to 53 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sandy clay a depth of 30 inches.
loam; few fine and medium yellowish red (5YR Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas
5/8) and common fine and medium gray (10YR
6/1) mottles; moderate medium subangular of a similar soil that has a loamy sand surface layer,
blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; few small areas of a similar soil that has a sandy clay sub-
fine carbon particles; discontinuous clay films soil or is less than 5 percent plinthite within a depth
along faces of peds; few fine slightly firm red of 60 inches, and small areas of a somewhat poorly
(10R 5/8) bodies; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary. drained soil that has a sandy surface layer less than 20
B23t-53 to 69 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) and yellowish inches thick. Also included are small areas of Apopka,
brown (10YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; common Sparr, and Lynne soils and a few small areas where the
medium prominent red (O1R 4/8) and few fine slope is 5 to 8 percent. Included soils make up about
faint gray mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; slightly compact; few 15 percent of any one mapped area.
fine carbon particles; few discontinuous clay films The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, long-
on faces of peds; about 12 percent plinthite; very leaf pine, water oak, live oak, and post oak and an
strongly acid; clear wavy), yellowish understory of chiefly waxmyrtle, briers, and scattered
B3g-69 to 80 inches; mottled red (10YR 4/8), yellowish
red (SYR 5/8), and gray (10YR 6/1) sandy palmetto and native grasses. Most areas are still in
clay loam; lenses of sandy clay, sandy loam, and natural vegetation or are in planted pine. Capability
loamy sand; massive; friable; about 15 percent unit IIw-1; woodland group 3wl.
plinthite; very strongly acid.
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is Kanapaha Series
very strongly acid to strongly acid in all horizons. Plinth-
ite occurs within a depth of 28 to 57 inches. The content The Kanapaha series consists of nearly level to
of plinthite ranges from 5 to 15 percent.
The A horizon is dominantly 22 to 37 inches thick, but gently sloping, poorly drained soils that formed in
ranges from 20 to 40 inches. thick beds of sandy and loamy deposits influenced by








38 SOIL SURVEY

phosphatic material. These soils occur as small areas B3g-70 to 82 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam;
in the upland. few medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
6/8) and few medium prominent yellowish red
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface (5YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium subangular
for periods of 1 month to 3 months during most years, blocky structure; friable; 4 percent plinthite;
During dry periods it recedes to a depth of more than very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
40 inches. Cg-82 to 88 inches; gray (O10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam
mixed with medium and large strata and bodies
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray of sandy loam and loamy sand; few medium dis-
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is tinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and few fine
light gray fine sand about 41 inches thick. The subsoil prominent yellowish red (Yt plintimottles;
is between depths of 48 to 82 inches. The upper 7 strongly acid.
inches is mottled gray fine sandy loam, the next 15 The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is very
inches is mottled gray sandy clay that is about 3 per- strongly acid to strongly acid in all horizons. The solum
cent plinthite, and the lower 12 inches is mottled gray is about 1 to 5 percent, by volume, phosphatic and iron-
sandy clay loam that is about 4 percent plinthite. The stone nodules less than three-quarters of an inch in diam-
underlying material to a depth of 88 inches is mottled eter. In some pedons it is less than 5 percent gravel or
underlying material to a depth of 88 inches is mottled fragments of siliceous rock and leached phosphatic lime-
gray sandy clay loam that has lenses of sandy loam stone less than 3 inches in diameter.
and loamy sand and is about 3 percent plinthite. The A horizon is fine sand. The Al or Ap horizon is very
dark gray (1OYR 3/1), dark gray (10YR 4/1), gray
Available water capacity is low to very low in the (1YR 5/1, 6/1), or grayish brkrown (1R 5/2). It is 4
upper 48 inches and medium below. Permeability is to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1,
rapid in the upper 48 inches, moderate from 48 to 55 6/1), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), light gray (10YR
inches,. moderately slow from 55 to 82 inches, and 7/1, 7/2), or white (10YR 8/1) and in places is mottled
with gray, yellow, and brown. It is 36 to 64 inches thick.
moderate below. Natural fertility is low in the upper The B2tg and B3g horizons are 0 to 5 percent plinthite.
48 inches of sandy material and medium in the finer The B21tg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
textured material below. Organic-matter content is or light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottled with shades
low. of yellow, brown, and red. It is fine sandy loam, sandy
loam, or sandy clay loam and is 4 to 8 inches thick. The
Kanapaha soils are moderately well suited to com- B22tg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
only grown cultivated crops. They are well suited to mottled with shades of yellow, brown, and red. It is sandy
improved pasture of locally grown grasses and legumes. clay loam or sandy clay and is 12 to 18 inches thick. The
upper 20 inches of the Btg horizon is, by weighted aver-
Representative profile of Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 age, 20 to 35 percent clay. n y w
percent slopes, in a citrus grove about 3 miles south- The B3g horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
west of Ocala, one-half mile west of intersection of or dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) mottled with shades of
State Road 475 and Buffington Road, and 600 feet west yellow, brown, and red. It is sandy loam or sandy clay
loam and is 8 to 14 inches thick.
of Southwest 7th Avenue, SW14NE1/4 sec. 6, T. 15 S., The Cg horizon is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) or
R. 22 E. (Catalina de Jesus Hijuelas Grant): gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1). It is sandy loam or
Ap-0 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak me- sandy clay loam and in many pedons has lenses of finer
dium granular structure; very friable; common and coarser textured material.
fine roots; common uncoated sand grains; few Kanapaha soils are closely associated with Arredondo,
fine phosphatic and ironstone nodules; strongly Blichton, Flemington, Kendrick, and Sparr soils. They
f acid; clear wavy bondar n have an A horizon more than 40 inches thick, whereas in
A217 to 40 inches ay a Blichton and Kendrick soils the A horizon is 20 to 40
A21-7 to 40 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; inches thick and in Flemington soils it is less than 20
few medium faint white (10YR 8/1) splotches inches thick. Kanapaha soils are more poorly drained than
and few medium and large krotovinas of gray Arredondo, Kendrick, and Sparr soils.
(10YR 5/1) in upper part; few medium distinct Arredondo, Kendck, and Sparr soils.
light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles in Ka--Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
lower part; single grained; loose; few fine roots; This is a nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained
many uncoated sand grains ; f ew fine phosphatic soil that occurs as small areas in the upland. The water
acid; clear wavy boundary, table is within about 10 inches of the surface for per-
A22-40 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; iods of 1 month to 3 months during most years.
single grained; loose; few fine roots; few fine Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
phosphatic nodules; common medium slightly firm areas of a similar soil that is more than 5 percent
strong brown concretions; some uncoated sand areas of a similar soil that is more than 5 percent
grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. plinthite within a depth of 60 inches and a few small
B2tg-48 to 55 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sandy areas where the subsurface layer and the upper 20
loam; few fine and medium distinct yellowish inches of the subsoil are, by volume, 5 to more than 35
brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium sub-
angular blocky structure; very friable; clay percent rock fragments one-quarter inch to 3 inches
bridging between sand grains; few fine weathered in size. Also included are spots of Arredondo, Blichton,
phosphatic nodules and concretions of iron; few and Sparr soils and a few small areas, of a similar soil,
fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy bound- where the slope is 5 to 8 percent. The rock outcrop and
B22tg-55 to 70 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; few sinkholes that occur in some areas are identified by
fine and medium prominent red (10YR 4/8) and spot symbols on the soil map. Included soils make up
few fine distinct yellowish brown mottles; moder- less than 25 percent of any one mapped area.
ate medium subangular blocky structure; fri- The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly
able; very few fine roots; discontiuous patches he natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly
able; very few fine roots; discontinuous patches of pine, sweetgum, oak, and waxmyrtle. Most areas are
clay films along root channels and on faces of sweetgum, oak, and waxmyrtle. Most areas are
peds; 3 percent plinthite; very strongly acid; still in forest. Most cleared areas are in improved pas-
clear wavy boundary, ture. Capability unit IIw-7; woodland group 3wl.







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 39

Kendrick Series films along ped faces and in pore spaces; few fine
phosphatic pebbles and ironstone nodules less
The Kendrick series consists of nearly level to slop- than % of an inch in diameter; strongly acid;
ing, well drained soils that formed in thick beds of clear irregular boundary.
loamy deposits influenced by phosphatic material. B24t-62 to 70 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
light sandy clay; common medium faint yellowish
These soils occur as broad areas of the uplands. The brown (10YR 5/6) and few fine distinct gray
water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. (1OYR 5/1) mottles; moderate medium and fine
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark subangular blocky structure; friable; very few
grayish brown loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The roots; few fine pordes few fine phosphatic pebbles
and ironstone nodules less than 3,4 of an inch in
subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy sand about diameter; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
19 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 79 B3-70 to 79 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy
inches. It is, in sequence downward, 19 inches of yel- clay loam; common fine and medium distinct gray
lowish brown sandy clay loam, 17 inches of yellowish (10YR 5/1) mottles; weak fine subangular
brown sandy clay loam mottled with dark yellowish blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid;
brown sandy clay loam mottled with dark yellowish clear wavy boundary.
brown, 8 inches of dark yellowish brown light sandy C-79 to 83 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam
clay mottled with yellowish brown and gray, and 9 with large lenses of sandy loam; streaked with
inches of yellowish brown sandy clay loam mottled common large distinct yellowish brown (10YR
with gray. The underlying material to a depth of 83 5/6) and common medium distinct gray (10YR
6/1) mottles; massive; friable; very strongly
inches is mottled gray sandy clay loam that has large acid.
lenses of sandy loam.
Available water capacity is low in the upper 26 The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Reaction is very
strongly to strongly acid in all horizons. A few leached
inches and medium to high below. Permeability is rapid phosphatic pebbles and ironstone nodules less than three-
in the upper 26 inches and moderate from 26 to 83 quarters of an inch in size occur throughout the solum
inches. Natural fertility is low in the upper 26 inches in many pedons.
of loamy sand and medium in the sandy clay loam and The A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick. It is dominantly
loamy sand, but ranges to sand.
light sandy clay below. Organic-matter content is low. The Al or Ap horizon is very dark gray (10YR 3/1),
Kendrick soils are well suited to most general farm very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), dark gray (10YR
crops and improved pasture of the locally grown deep- 4/1), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), or grayish brown
rooting grasses and legumes. (10YR 5/2). It is 4 to 8 inches thick. If very dark gray
rooting grasses and legumes. 10YR 3/1) or very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), it
Representative profile of Kendrick loamy sand, 2 is less than 6 inches thick.
to 5 percent slopes, in a bahiagrass pasture one-quarter The A3 horizon is pale brown (10YR 6/3), brown
mile east of Shady Road, 21/2 miles south of State High- (10YR 5/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), or yel-
way 200, SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 1, T. 15 S., R. 21 E. lowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8). It is 16 to 32 inches
thick.
Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) The B1 horizon, if it occurs is brownish yellow (10YR
loamy sand; moderate medium granular struc- 6/6, 6/8), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8), or
ture; very friable; many fine roots; few weath- strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy loam. It is 3 to 5 inches
ered phosphatic pebbles and ironstone nodules thick.
less than % of an inch in diameter; strongly The B2t horizon is brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8),
acid; abrupt smooth boundary, yellowish brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8), strong brown (7.SYR
A31-7 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loamy 5/6, 5/8), or dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4). In some
sand; weak medium granular structure; very fri- pedons it has few to common mottles in shades of yellow
able; common fine roots; few weathered phos- and brown. It is 32 to 45 inches thick. The B21t and B22t
phatic pebbles and ironstone nodules less than 3/4 horizons are sandy clay loam. The B23t and B24t horizons
of an inch in diameter; strongly acid; clear range from sandy clay loam to light sandy clay. They are
wavy boundary, mottled with gray in some pedons.
A32-20 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loamy The B3 horizon is yellow (10YR 8/8, 7/8), yellowish
sand; moderate medium granular structure; very brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6), dark yellowish brown (10YR
friable; common fine roots; few weathered phos- 4/4), or strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8). It is dominantly
phatic pebbles and ironstone nodules less than sandy clay loam, but ranges to light sandy clay. It is 9 to
3/4 of an inch in diameter; strongly acid; clear 20 inches thick. Some pedons have a few fine lenses and
wavy boundary, pockets of sandy loam.
B21t-26 to 32 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) The C horizon is mottled gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), brown-
sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky ish yellow (10YR 6/6), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4,
structure; friable; common fine roots; common 5/6), or strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8). The texture is
fine pores; clay bridging between sand grains; sandy clay loam. Many pedons have pockets and lenses of
few fine phosphatic pebbles and ironstone nodules coarser or finer textured material.
less than /4 of an inch in diameter; strongly Kendrick soils are closely associated with Arredondo,
acid; clear wavy boundary. Blichton, Gainesville, Hague, Kanapaha, Lochloosa, Sparr,
B22t-32 to 45 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy and Zuber soils. They have a thinner A horizon than Ar-
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky redondo soils and are better drained than Blichton and
structure; friable; few fine roots; common fine Lochloosa soils. They have a sandy A horizon 20 to 40
pores; faint discontinuous clay films on ped faces inches deep over a loamy or clayey B horizon, whereas
and pore spaces; few fine phosphatic pebbles and Gainesville soils are loamy sand to a depth of more than
ironstone nodules less than 3 of an inch in diam- 80 inches and have no B horizon. They have a base satura-
eter; strongly acid; clear irregular boundary. tion of less than 35 percent, whereas Hague soils have a
B23t-45 to 62 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy base saturation of more than 35 percent. Also in contrast
clay loam; few medium faint dark yellowish with Hague soils, their Bt horizon does not decrease in
brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; moderate medium clay content within a depth of 60 inches. They are better
subangular blocky structure; friable; very few drained than Kanapaha and Sparr soils and have a
roots; common fine pores; discontinuous clay thinner A horizon. They have an A horizon that is 20 to







40 SOIL SURVEY

40 inches thick, whereas Zuber soils have one that is less of deep-rooting grasses and legumes. Capability unit
than 20 inches thick. IIIe-1; woodland group 2ol.
KeA-Kendrick loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
This is a nearly level, well drained soil that occurs as Lochloosa Series
small areas in the uplands. The water table is at a
depth of more than 72 inches. Runoff is slow, and the The Lochloosa series consists of nearly level to slop-
hazard of erosion is slight. ing, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, thick beds of loamy marine deposits influenced by
of a similar soil, where the subsoil is more than 5 per- phosphatic material. These soils occur as small and
cent soft plinthite and small areas where the subsoil large areas in the uplands. The water table fluctuates
is sandy clay throughout. Also included are small areas between 30 and 60 inches for periods of 1 month to 4
of Hague, Arredondo, Zuber, Lochloosa, and Gaines- months during most years. For brief periods of about
ville soils and a few areas of a similar soil that has a 1 week to 3 weeks, it rises to within about 15 inches
slope of 2 to 5 percent. Included soils make up about 12 of the surface. It recedes to a depth of more than 60
percent of any one mapped area. inches during dry periods. Wet slopes are the result of
The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, lob- hillside seepage.
lolly pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, water oak, In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
dogwood, hickory, and magnolia and an understory of gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
native grasses. Most areas are cleared and are used for layer is fine sand about 21 inches thick. The upper 10
crops and improved pasture. Capability unit IIs-1; inches is mottled very pale brown, and the lower 11
woodland group 2ol. inches is pale brown mottled with light gray and very
KeB-Kendrick loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, pale brown. The subsoil is between depths of 28 and
This is a gently sloping, well drained soil that occurs 69 inches. It is, in sequence downward, 4 inches of light
as small and large areas in the uplands. It has the pro- yellowish brown fine sandy loam mottled with light
file described as representative of the series. The water brownish gray, 3 inches of yellowish brown sandy clay
table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. Surface run- loam mottled with yellowish red, dusky red, and gray,
off is medium, and the hazard of erosion is moderate. 22 inches of mottled gray sandy clay loam, and 12
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, inches of mottled gray sandy clay that has lenses of
of a similar soil, where the subsoil is more than 5 per- sandy loam. The underlying material to a depth of 75
cent plinthite and small areas where the subsoil is inches is mottled gray sandy clay loam that has lenses
sandy clay throughout. Also included are small areas and pockets of sandy loam and loamy sand.
of Hague, Arredondo, Zuber, Lochloosa, and Gaines- Available water capacity is low in the upper 28
ville soils; a few areas of a similar soil that has a slope inches, medium from 28 to 57 inches, and medium to
of 0 to 2 or 5 to 8 percent; and a few spots of a moder- high from 57 to 69 inches. Permeability is rapid in the
ately eroded soil. Rock outcrop and sinkholes, which upper 28 inches, moderately rapid from 28 to 32
occur in places, are identified by spot symbols on the inches, and moderate below. Natural fertility is low in
soil map. Included soils make up about 15 percent of the fine sand and medium in the sandy loam and sandy
any one mapped area. clay loam. Organic-matter content is generally low.
The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly Lochloosa soils respond well to fertilization and lime
pine, and longleaf pine and a growth of hardwoods, and are well suited to most locally grown general farm
including oak, dogwood, hickory, magnolia, and sweet- crops. They are also well suited to improved pasture
gum. Most areas are cleared and are used for crops of the deep-rooting grasses and legumes grown in the
and improved pasture. Capability unit IIe-2; woodland area.
group 2ol. Representative profile of Lochloosa fine sand, 0 to 2
KeC-Kendrick loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. percent slopes, in an old field about 0.8 mile south of
This is a well drained, sloping soil that occurs as small Fellowship, 200 feet east of paved road, NWNE4
areas in the uplands. The water table is at a depth of sec. 34, T. 14 S., R. 20 E.
more than 72 inches. Surface runoff is medium, and the Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
hazard of erosion is moderate. fine and medium granular structure; very friable;
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas common fine roots; few fine and medium phos-
where the subsoil is more than 5 percent plinthite, a hatic pebbles and nodules of ironstone; few fine
few areas where the texture between depths of 20 and boundary.
40 inches is sandy clay, and spots of Arredondo, Hague, A21-7 to 17 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
Lochloosa, and Zuber soils. Also included are a few sand; weak fine and medium granular structure;
very friable; few fine roots; few fine charcoal
areas, of a similar soil, where the slope is 2 to 5 or 8 to chips; friable fine and me roots; fee cdium phosphatic pebbles
12 percent and spots of moderately eroded soil. The and nodules of ironstone; strongly acid; clear
rock outcrop, shallow gullies, and sinkholes that occur wavy boundary.
in places are identified by spot symbols on the soil A22-17 to 28 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
map. Included soils make up about 20 percent of any common fine and medium light gray (10YR 7/1,
one mapped area. 7/2) and few fine faint very pale brown mottles;
Tone mapd aa. weak fine and medium granular structure; very
The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, lob- friable; few fine roots; few fine and medium
lolly pine, longleaf pine, oak, dogwood, and hickory. phosphatic pebbles and nodules of ironstone; few
Most areas are cleared and charcoal chips; strongly acid; clear wavy bound-
Most areas are cleared and are in improved pasture ary.







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 41
B21t-28 to 32 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) 7/1) sandy loam or sandy clay loam. In places the sandy
fine sandy loam; few fine faint light brownish loam or sandy clay loam is mixed with few to common
gray mottles; weak fine and medium subangular lenses and pockets of coarser and finer textured material.
blocky structure; very friable; few fine roots; Lochloosa soils are closely associated with Blichton,
few fine and medium phosphatic pebbles and Flemington, Hague, Kendrick, Micanopy, and Sparr soils.
nodules of ironstone; strongly acid; clear wavy They are better drained than Blichton soils. They have a
boundary. thicker A horizon than Flemington soils and are better
B22t-32 to 35 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy drained. They are somewhat poorly drained, whereas
clay loam; few fine prominent yellowish red, com- Hague and Kendrick soils are well drained. They have a
mon fine prominent dusky red, and common thicker A horizon and a coarser textured Bt horizon than
medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) mottles; mod- Micanopy soils. They have a thinner A horizon than
erate medium subangular blocky structure; fri- Sparr soils.
able; few fine roots; small patches of clay films
on ped faces and clay flows along root channels; LoA-Lochloosa fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
few firm dark red concretions; few fine and me- This is a nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soil
dium phosphatic pebbles; very strongly acid; that occurs as small areas in the uplands. It has the
B23tg-35 t 5 ince gry (YR 6/1) sandy clay profile described as representative of the series. The
B23tg-35 to 57 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
loam; few medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR water table fluctuates between 30 and 60 inches for 1
5/8), few fine prominent red (2.5YR 4/8), and month to 4 months during most years. For brief periods
few medium prominent dark red (10R 3/6) mot- of about 1 week to 3 weeks, it rises to within about 15
tles; moderate medium subangular blocky struc- inches of the surface. It recedes to a depth of more
ture; friable; few roots; small patches of clay
films along ped faces and root channels; about than 60 inches during drier periods.
3 percent plinthite; few dark brown concretions Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
and phosphatic pebbles; very strongly acid; of a similar soil, where the subsoil is sandy clay; a few
B3g-a57 a gray YR 5/1) sandy clay with areas, also of a similar soil, where the upper 60 inches
few lenses of sandy loam; common medium dis- is more than 5 percent plinthite; and small areas of
tinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak Arredondo, Blichton, Kendrick, Micanopy, and Sparr
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; soils. Also included are spots where the soil is 5 to 20
few fine nodules of ironstone; about 2 percent percent weathered rock fragments less than 3 inches
plinthite; very strongly acid; gradua wavy in diameter and a few areas of a similar soil that has a
boundary.
Cg-69 to 75 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam slope of 2 to 5 percent. The rock outcrop and sinkholes
with common lenses and pockets of sandy loam that occur in some areas are identified by spot symbols
and loamy sand; common medium and coarse on the soil map. Included soils make up about 15 per-
prominent yellowish red (5YR 4/8) mottles;
massive; friable; very strongly acid. cent of any one mapped area.
The solum is 60 inches or more thick. It is, by volume, The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, lob-
0 to 5 percent weathered phosphatic pebbles, nodules or lolly pine, and a growth of hardwoods, including oak,
ironstone, and gravel or fragments of siliceous rock less dogwood, hickory, magnolia, and sweetgum. The under-
than 3 inches in diameter. Reaction is very strongly acid story is chiefly waxmyrtle and native grasses. Most
to stroAly acidp i al horizonsgray (YR 3/1), areas are cleared and are in cultivated crops and im-
dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1), proved pasture of the deep-rooting grasses and legumes
or grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand. It is 5 to 8 inches grown in the area. Capability unit IIw-1; woodland
thick. If very dark gray (10YR 3/1), the Al horizon is group 2o1.
less than 6 inches thick. LoB-Lochloosa fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
The A2 horizon is brown (10YR 5/3), pale brown
(10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), brownish This is a somewhat poorly drained soil that occurs as
yellow (1.0YR 6/6), very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4), small and large areas of the uplands. Surface runoff
or yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand mottled with is medium, and the hazard of erosion is moderate. The
gray, light gray, pale brown, very pale brown, and yellow- water table fluctuates between 30 and 60 inches for
ish brown. Thickness ranges from 16 to 32 inches.
The B2t and B3 horizons are 0 to 5 percent plinthite. month to 3 months during most years. For periods
The B21t horizon is pale brown (10YR 6/3), light yellow- of about 1 week to 3 weeks, it is within about 15 inches
ish brown (10YR 6/4), brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), of the surface. It recedes to a depth of more than 60
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/8), brown (10YR 5/3), inches during drier periods.
or very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4) and has grayish Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
and yellowish mottles. It is sandy loam or fine sandy loam Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
and is 4 to 7 inches thick. of a similar soil, where the subsoil is sandy clay; small
The matrix of the B22t horizon has the same color range areas where the soil is more than 5 percent plinthite;
and mottling as the B21t horizon, but also has few to and small areas of Arredondo, Kendrick, Blichton, Mi-
common reddish mottles. This horizon is dominantly canopy, and Sparr soils. Also included are small areas
sandy clay loam, but in places is sandy loam. It is 3 to 7 canopyand Sparr soils. Also included are small areas
inches th ck, where the subsoil is 5 to 20 percent weathered phos-
The B23tg and B3g horizons are dominantly gray (N phatic rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter
5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), but range to light brownish and a few small areas of a similar soil that has a slope
gray (10YR 6/2) and are mottled with shades of yellow, of 0 to 2 or 5 to 8 percent. The rock outcrop and sink-
brown, and red. The B23tg horizon is dominantly sandy
clay loam, but in places is sandy loam. The B3g horizon holes that occur in some areas are identified by spot
is sandy clay loam or sandy clay and in some pedons symbols on the soil map. Included soils make up about
has few fine lenses and pockets of sandy loam and loamy 15 percent of any one mapped area.
sand. The B23tg horizon is 20 to 36 inches thick, and the The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly
B3g is 12 to 18 inches thick.
The Cg horizon is mottled dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR pine, oak, dogwood, hickory, magnolia, and sweetgum
4/1), gray (N 5/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1) or light gray (10YR and an understory of native shrubs and grasses. Most







42 SOIL SURVEY

areas are cleared and are in cultivated crops and im- Lynne soils have limitations that severely restrict
proved pasture. Capability unit IIw-1; woodland their use for general farm crops. If high level manage-
group 2o1. ment is used and water is controlled, they are suited
LoC-Lochloosa fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This to commonly grown special crops. If well managed,
is a sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil that occurs they are well suited to improved pasture of commonly
as small areas in the uplands. It has a profile similar to grown grasses.and legumes.
the one described as representative of the series, but Representative profile of Lynne sand, in an undis-
it is slightly shallower over the underlying material turbed area where the plant cover is longleaf pine,
and the surface layer is 1 inch to 3 inches thinner. Sur- palmetto, gallberry, and wiregrass; about 11/ miles
face runoff is medium, and the hazard of erosion is east and 11/2 miles south of junction of graded road
moderate. The water table fluctuates between 30 and (Sugar Road) with State Road 318, about 4 miles east
60 inches for 1 month to 3 months during most years. of Citra, NW1/SW1/4 sec. 29, T. 12 S., R. 23 E.
For brief periods of about 1 week to 3 weeks, it is with- A1-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sand, very dark
in about 15 inches of the surface. Wetness is caused gray (N 3/0) crushed; weak fine granular struc-
by hillside seepage. ture; very friable; many fine, medium, and large
y hillside see roots; common clean sand grains; very strongly
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of a acid; clear wavy boundary.
similar soil that is more than 5 percent plinthite and A21-6 to 13 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
small areas of Kendrick, Micanopy, Blichton, and Sparr sand; single grained; loose; many fine, medium,
soils. Also included are a few small areas, of a similar and large roots; many clean sand grains; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
soil, where the slope is 2 to 5 percent and spots of A22-13 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few
moderately eroded soil. The rock outcrop and sink- fine faint streaks of gray; single grained; loose,
holes that occur in some areas are identified by spot many fine, medium, and large roots; many clean
symbols on the soil map. Included soils make up about sand grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
20 percent of any one mapped area. B21h-20 to 24 inches; black (N 2/0) loamy sand; weak
The natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine, fine subangular blocky structure parting to mod-
oak, dogwood, hickory, and sweetgum. Although many rate medium granular structure; weakly ce-
mented; common fine and medium roots; many
areas are still in native vegetation, the largest acreage sand grains coated with organic matter; ex-
is cleared and is in improved pasture of the deep-rooting tremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
grasses and legumes grown in the area. Capability B22h-24 to 31 inches; mixed black (5YBR 2/1) and dark
unit IIIe-3; woodland group 2ol. reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2) loamy sand; weak
subangular blocky structure parting to moderate
medium granular structure; weakly cemented;
Lynne Series few fine roots; many sand grains coated with
organic matter; extremely acid; clear wavy
boundary.
The Lynne series consists of nearly level, poorly A'2-31 to 33 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
drained soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy sand; few medium faint gray (10YR 6/1) streaks;
and loamy or clayey marine sediments. These soils single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly
occur as broad areas of the flatwoods. During most B'21tg id g dchs gray 1YR 5/1) sandy lay
years the water table is within 10 inches of the surface loam; few fine faint light grayish brown, few fine
for 1 month to 3 months and fluctuates between 10 distinct yellowish brown, and few fine prominent
and 40 inches for 3 to 6 months. During dry periods dark reddish brown mottles; weak fine subangular
blocky structure; friable; few faint clay films
it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inchesalong faces of peds; very strongly acid; clear
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark wavy boundary.
gray sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer B'22tg-38 to 67 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; few
is sand about 14 inches thick. It is light brownish gray medium prominent red (10R 4/6), few fine
in the upper 7 inches and light gray in the lower 7 tint brownish yellow mottles; medium subangu-
inches. Next, in sequence downward, is 4 inches of lar blocky structure; firm, sticky and plastic;
black, weakly cemented loamy sand that is well coated very few roots; few discontinuous cay films
with organic matter; 7 inches of mixed black and dark along faces of peds; very strongly acid.
reddish brown, weakly cemented loamy sand that is The solum is 50 inches or more thick. Reaction ranges
also well coated with organic matter; 2 inches of dark from extremely acid to strongly acid in all horizons.
also well coated with organic matter; 2 inches of dark The A horizon ranges from 12 to 29 inches in thickness.
grayish brown sand mottled with gray; and 5 inches The Al horizon is black (N 2/, YR 2/1), very dark
of mottled gray sandy clay loam. Below this to a depth gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), dark gray (N 4/0), or dark
of 67 inches is mottled gray sandy clay. grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand. It is 4 to 6 inches thick.
SAvailable water capacity is low i The A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray
Available water capacity is low in the upper 20 (10YR 7/1, 7/2), or light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
inches, medium from 20 to 31 inches, low from 31 to sand or fine sand. It is dominantly 8 to 16 inches thick,
33 inches, and medium to high below. Permeability but in a few pedons is 16 to 23 inches thick.
is rapid in the upper 20 inches, moderate from 20 to 31 In most pedons a 1- to 2-inch transitional layer of very
dark gray (10YR 3/1), very dark grayish brown (10YR
inches, rapid from 31 to 33 inches, moderately slow 3/2), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), and dark brown (7.5YR
/2),dark grayish brown (10Y 42) dan dars brown (SYR
to moderate from 33 to 43 inches, and slow below. Na- 4/2) to brown (7.5YR 5/2) sand occurs between the base of
tural fertility is low in the upper 38 inches of sandy the A2 horizon and the upper part of the B2h horizon. Many
soil and medium in the sandy clay. Organic-matter of the sand grains are uncoated.
content is low. rThe B2h horizon is black (N 2/0, SYR 2/1, 10YR 2/1), dark
reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3), dark brown (7.5YR 3/2),







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 43

or very dark brown (10YR 2/2) sand or loamy sand 8 to 14 Available water capacity is high in the upper 19
ncheon is dark gray (YR 4/1), dark grayish inches and medium to high below. Permeability is
The A2 horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish
brown (10YR 4/2), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish brown moderate in the upper 19 inches and very slow from
(10YR 5/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), light gray 19 to 72 inches. Natural fertility and organic-matter
(10YR 7/1, 7/2; 5Y 7/1, 7/2), very pale brown (10YR 7/3), content are high in the upper 19 inches.
pale brown (10YR 6/3), brown (10YR 5/3), or pale yellow Martel soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. If
(5Y 7/3) sand or fine sand mottled in places with shades ofequately drained and otherwise controlled,
gray, yellow, and brown. It is 2 to 4 inches thick, water is adequately drained and otherwise controlled,
The B'tg horizon occurs at a depth of 22 to 40 inches. It they are well suited to the improved pasture grasses
is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, and legumes grown in the area.
7/2; 2.5Y 7/2), or light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) mottled Representative profile of Martel sandy clay loam, in
with shades of yellow, brown, and red. The B'21tg horizon a c s p o f ile no o S e 1
is sandy clay loam or sandy clay. It is 4 to 10 inches thick. a cypress pond one-half mile north of State Road 316
The B'22tg horizon is sandy clay. Depth to sandy clay is and 21/2 miles west of Fort McCoy, NWINW1/ sec.
less than 39 inches. The upper 20 inches of the B'2tg horizon 16, T. 13 S., R. 23 E.
is, by weighted average, 35 percent or more clay. All--0 to 14 inches; black (N 2/0) sandy clay loam; mod-
In some pedons a B'3g horizon occurs. It has the same11-0 t inces;mblack N 2 sanr c ;
color range as the B'2tg horizon. It is sandy clay that in erate medium granular structure; friable; common
places has pockets and lenses of coarser textured material, ry strongly acid gradual wavy
Lynne soils are closely associated with Eaton, Electra, A12--14 to 1 inches v dark gra N / sand cla
Eureka, Jumper, and Pomona soils. They differ from Eaton loam; few medium faint dark gray (N 4/0) and
soils in having a Bh horizon. They are more poorly drained few fine distinct light yellowish brown mottles;
than Electra soils and are not so deep over a Bh horizon. strong medium granular structure; friable; few
They are more poorly drained than Jumper soils and also fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
differ from those soils in having a Bh horizon. They differ B21tg-19 to 36 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sandy clay;
from Electra soils in having a Bh horizon and in having a few fine prominent yellowish red and strong
thicker, coarser textured A horizon. Depth to the B'tg hori- brown mottles; moderate medium subangular
zon is less than 40 inches, whereas in Pomona soils it is blocky structure; firm, sticky and plastic; few fine
more than 40 inches. roots; few fine pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1)
Ly-Lynne sand. This is a poorly drained soil that sand; few faint discontinuous clay films on faces
occurs as small and large areas in the broad flatwoods. of peds; very strongly acid; gradual wavy bound-
ou aary.
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The water table is within 10 B22tg-36 to 57 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) clay; few fine
inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months during most prominent yellowish red and strong brown mot-
years. During dry periods it recedes to a depth of more tles; moderate medium subangular blocky and
than 40 inches. weak fine angular structure; very firm, sticky and
plastic; few fine lenses and pockets of light gray
Included with this soil in mapping are areas, of a (10YR 7/1) sand; few faint discontinuous clay
similar soil, where the surface layer is fine sand. Also films on faces of peds; few fine and medium roots;
included are small areas of Eaton, Electra, Eureka, very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
and Pomona soils. Included soils make up about 15 per- Cg-57 to 72 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; few medium
peprominent yellowish red (5YR 4/6) and few fine
cent of any one mapped area. distinct brownish yellow mottles; massive; very
The natural vegetation is a forest of longleaf pine firm, sticky and plastic; few fine and medium
and slash pine and an understory of chiefly saw- roots; few fine pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1)
palmetto, waxmyrtle, gallberry, and native grasses, sand; very strongly acid.
Most areas are still in forest. A few areas, however, The solum is 48 to 65 inches thick. Reaction is very
are a in restrongly acid to strongly acid in all horizons.
are cleared and are in improved pasture. Capability The A horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1) or very dark
unit IIIw-9; woodland group 3wl. gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1) safidy clay loam. It ranges from
12 to 20 inches in thickness. The A12 horizon has yellowish
mottles in many pedons.
Martel Series The B2tg horizon is very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1),
dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), or gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1,
The Martel series consists of nearly level, very poorly 6/1) and has few to common mottles in shades of yellow,
drained soils that formed in thick beds of clayey ma- brown, and red. It is sandy clay or clay and is 36 to 43
inediments. These soils occur in slight depressions inches thick. The B3g horizon, if it occurs, is dark gray
rine sediments. These soils occur in slight depressions (N 4/0, 10YR 5/1) or gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
in broad areas of the flatwoods, on grassy prairies of sandy clay 4 to 8 inches thick. Few fine pockets of light
the uplands, and on the flood plain of the Oklawaha gray (10YR 7/1) sand occur in the Btg and B3g'horizons]
River and Silver Run. The water table is within 10 "n some pedons.
i ir The Cg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1) or
inches of the surface for 6 to 12 months during most light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay or clay that in places is
years. Most areas are covered with water for 6 months mottled. In places it has few to common lenses and poc-
or more during most years. Areas on the flood plain kets of coarser textured material.
are subject to flooding. Martel soils are closely associated with Bluff, Eaton,
Eureka, Flemington, and Paisley soils. They are more acid
In a representative profile the surface layer is sandy than Bluff soils. They differ from Eaton soils in having a
clay loam about 19 inches thick. The upper 14 inches thinner A horizon and a thick, black Al horizon. They are
is black, and the lower 5 inches is very dark gray and more poorly drained than Eureka soils and have a thicker,
has few light yellowish brown and dark gray mottles. darker colored A horizon. They have a thicker dark colored
as few light yellowish brown and dark gray mottles. Al horizon than Flemington soils and are more poorly
The subsoil, between depths of 19 and 57 inches, is drained. They are more acid than Paisley soils and also
mottled dark gray. The upper 17 inches is sandy clay, differ from those soils in having a dark colored A horizon
and the lower 21 inches is clay. The underlying mate- that is more than 10 inches thick.
rial to a depth of 72 inches is mottled gray sandy clay. Ma-Martel sandy clay loam. This is a very poorly







44 SOIL SURVEY

drained soil in depressions and ponds in broad areas medium granular structure; friable; common
of the flatwoods, on grassy prairies in the rolling clayey roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is dark
brown (10YR 4/3); extremely acid; abrupt wavy
uplands, and on the flood plain of the Oklawaha River boundary.
and Silver Run. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The water Al-0 to 16 inches; black (N 2/0) sand; weak medium
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to 12 granular structure; friable; few roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
months during most years. Most areas are covered with A21-16 strongly 9 inches; dark gray bo(10YR 4/1) sand; few
water for 6 months or more. Areas on the flood plain fine and medium very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and
are subject to flooding. grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; single grained;
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas loose; few roots; very strongly acid; gradual
of Eureka, Eaton, and Flemington soils. Also included A22-9wavy boundary. ish brown (10YR 52) sand;
are a few areas where the surface layer is sandy clay single grained; loose; very few roots; very
and spots where 6 to 30 inches of well decomposed strongly acid; clear and wavy boundary.
organic material overlies sandy clay loam and sandy B21tg-31 to 48 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam;
clay. Included soils make up about 15 percent of any weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm; few
one mapped area roots; few fine discontinuous clay films on pod
one mapped area. faces; few fine and medium pockets of coarser
The natural vegetation is chiefly cypress and water- textured material; very strongly acid; clear wavy
tolerant grasses. Scattered pond pine and gum occur boundary.
in some areas. Most areas are still in natural vegeta- B22tg-48 to 62 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; moderate
in some area areas are still in natural vegeta- medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few
tion. A few areas are in improved pasture. Capability fine discontinuous clay films on pod faces; few fine
unit Vw-1; woodland group 2w3. pockets of coarser textured material; very strongly
acid.
Martel Variant The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Reaction ranges
artl Variant from extremely acid to strongly acid in all horizons.
Th Mrt vria c is o nrl l vr The Oa horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), well decom-
The Martel variant consists of nearly level, very posed sapric material. The fiber content is less than 10 per-
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of loamy cent after rubbing. Before rubbing, it is mostly less than
marine sediments. These soils occur as small ponded 10 percent, but in a few pedons ranges to 20 percent. The
areas and large swamps within broad areas of the Oa horizon is 6 to 15 inches thick.
The Al horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1) or very dark
flatwoods. They are covered with water for 8 months gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1). It is dominantly sand, but in
or more during most years. The water table is within places is loamy sand. It is 10 to 22 inches thick. The A2
10 inches of the surface, except during extended dry horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light brownish gray
periods. (10YR 6/2), dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), or grayish
brown (10YR 5/2) sand. It is 10 to 20 inches thick.
In a representative profile a layer of black, well de- The Btg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
composed muck about 11 inches thick is at the surface. sandy clay loam or sandy clay. It extends to a depth of
The mineral surface layer is black sand about 16 inches more than 60 inches.
thick. The mineral subsurface layer, to a depth of 31
inches, is sand. The upper 3 inches is dark gray, and Micanopy Series
the lower 12 inches is grayish brown. The subsoil is 31 The Micanopy series consists of gently sloping to
inches thick. The upper 17 inches is gray heavy sandy sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
clay loam, and the lower 14 inches is gray sandy clay. thick beds of clayey deposits influenced by phosphatic
Available water capacity is high in the organic and material. These soils occur as small areas in the up-
mineral surface layers, low in the subsurface layer, and lands. The water table is perched between depths of
medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the approximately 20 and 60 inches for periods of 2 to 5
organic and mineral surface layers and the subsurface months during most years.
layer and moderately slow to slow in the subsoil. Na- It recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during
tural fertility is medium in the organic and mineral drier months. Wet slopes are the result of hillside
surface layers, low in the subsurface layer, and medium seepage.
in the subsoil. Organic-matter content is high in the In a representative profile the surface layer is very
organic and mineral surface layers and low in the dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsur-
subsurface layer and the subsoil. face layer is brown loamy fine sand about 10 inches
Unless drained, these Martel soils are not suited to thick. The subsoil is more than 53 inches thick. It is, in
cultivated crops or improved pasture. If water is ade- sequence downward, 5 inches of yellowish brown sandy
quately drained and otherwise controlled, they are well clay loam, 6 inches of mottled yellowish brown sandy
suited to locally grown special crops and improved clay, 27 inches of mottled gray sandy clay, 4 inches of
pasture. mottled gray clay, and 11 inches of gray sandy clay
The Martel variant in this survey area is mapped mottled with strong brown and dark red.
only with Pamlico soils. Available water capacity is low in the upper 15
Representative profile of the Martel variant, in an inches, medium from 15 to 20 inches, high from 20 to
area of Pamlico-Martel association in a large cypress 57 inches, and medium from 57 to 68 inches. Perme-
swamp on the south side of graded road about 4 miles ability is rapid in the upper 15 inches, moderate from
northwest of Fort MCoy, SE/4SEl/4 sec. 29, T. 12 S., 15 to 20 inches, and slow below. Natural fertility is
R.28E. low in the upper 15 inches and medium between 15
Oa-ll inches to 0; black (N 2/0) well decomposed muck; and 68 inches. Organic-matter content is generally
30 percent fibers, about 8 percent rubbed; weak low.







44 SOIL SURVEY

drained soil in depressions and ponds in broad areas medium granular structure; friable; common
of the flatwoods, on grassy prairies in the rolling clayey roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is dark
brown (10YR 4/3); extremely acid; abrupt wavy
uplands, and on the flood plain of the Oklawaha River boundary.
and Silver Run. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The water Al-0 to 16 inches; black (N 2/0) sand; weak medium
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to 12 granular structure; friable; few roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
months during most years. Most areas are covered with A21-16 strongly 9 inches; dark gray bo(10YR 4/1) sand; few
water for 6 months or more. Areas on the flood plain fine and medium very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and
are subject to flooding. grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; single grained;
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas loose; few roots; very strongly acid; gradual
of Eureka, Eaton, and Flemington soils. Also included A22-9wavy boundary. ish brown (10YR 52) sand;
are a few areas where the surface layer is sandy clay single grained; loose; very few roots; very
and spots where 6 to 30 inches of well decomposed strongly acid; clear and wavy boundary.
organic material overlies sandy clay loam and sandy B21tg-31 to 48 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam;
clay. Included soils make up about 15 percent of any weak fine subangular blocky structure; firm; few
one mapped area roots; few fine discontinuous clay films on pod
one mapped area. faces; few fine and medium pockets of coarser
The natural vegetation is chiefly cypress and water- textured material; very strongly acid; clear wavy
tolerant grasses. Scattered pond pine and gum occur boundary.
in some areas. Most areas are still in natural vegeta- B22tg-48 to 62 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; moderate
in some area areas are still in natural vegeta- medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few
tion. A few areas are in improved pasture. Capability fine discontinuous clay films on pod faces; few fine
unit Vw-1; woodland group 2w3. pockets of coarser textured material; very strongly
acid.
Martel Variant The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Reaction ranges
artl Variant from extremely acid to strongly acid in all horizons.
Th Mrt vria c is o nrl l vr The Oa horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), well decom-
The Martel variant consists of nearly level, very posed sapric material. The fiber content is less than 10 per-
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of loamy cent after rubbing. Before rubbing, it is mostly less than
marine sediments. These soils occur as small ponded 10 percent, but in a few pedons ranges to 20 percent. The
areas and large swamps within broad areas of the Oa horizon is 6 to 15 inches thick.
The Al horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1) or very dark
flatwoods. They are covered with water for 8 months gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1). It is dominantly sand, but in
or more during most years. The water table is within places is loamy sand. It is 10 to 22 inches thick. The A2
10 inches of the surface, except during extended dry horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light brownish gray
periods. (10YR 6/2), dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), or grayish
brown (10YR 5/2) sand. It is 10 to 20 inches thick.
In a representative profile a layer of black, well de- The Btg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
composed muck about 11 inches thick is at the surface. sandy clay loam or sandy clay. It extends to a depth of
The mineral surface layer is black sand about 16 inches more than 60 inches.
thick. The mineral subsurface layer, to a depth of 31
inches, is sand. The upper 3 inches is dark gray, and Micanopy Series
the lower 12 inches is grayish brown. The subsoil is 31 The Micanopy series consists of gently sloping to
inches thick. The upper 17 inches is gray heavy sandy sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
clay loam, and the lower 14 inches is gray sandy clay. thick beds of clayey deposits influenced by phosphatic
Available water capacity is high in the organic and material. These soils occur as small areas in the up-
mineral surface layers, low in the subsurface layer, and lands. The water table is perched between depths of
medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the approximately 20 and 60 inches for periods of 2 to 5
organic and mineral surface layers and the subsurface months during most years.
layer and moderately slow to slow in the subsoil. Na- It recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during
tural fertility is medium in the organic and mineral drier months. Wet slopes are the result of hillside
surface layers, low in the subsurface layer, and medium seepage.
in the subsoil. Organic-matter content is high in the In a representative profile the surface layer is very
organic and mineral surface layers and low in the dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsur-
subsurface layer and the subsoil. face layer is brown loamy fine sand about 10 inches
Unless drained, these Martel soils are not suited to thick. The subsoil is more than 53 inches thick. It is, in
cultivated crops or improved pasture. If water is ade- sequence downward, 5 inches of yellowish brown sandy
quately drained and otherwise controlled, they are well clay loam, 6 inches of mottled yellowish brown sandy
suited to locally grown special crops and improved clay, 27 inches of mottled gray sandy clay, 4 inches of
pasture. mottled gray clay, and 11 inches of gray sandy clay
The Martel variant in this survey area is mapped mottled with strong brown and dark red.
only with Pamlico soils. Available water capacity is low in the upper 15
Representative profile of the Martel variant, in an inches, medium from 15 to 20 inches, high from 20 to
area of Pamlico-Martel association in a large cypress 57 inches, and medium from 57 to 68 inches. Perme-
swamp on the south side of graded road about 4 miles ability is rapid in the upper 15 inches, moderate from
northwest of Fort MCoy, SE/4SEl/4 sec. 29, T. 12 S., 15 to 20 inches, and slow below. Natural fertility is
R.28E. low in the upper 15 inches and medium between 15
Oa-ll inches to 0; black (N 2/0) well decomposed muck; and 68 inches. Organic-matter content is generally
30 percent fibers, about 8 percent rubbed; weak low.








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 45

Micanopy soils are well suited to most general farm tied with shades of yellow, brown, and gray. It is domi-
crops and improved pasture of the locally grown deep- nantly sandy clay loam, but ranges to sandy clay. It is 5
rooting grasses and legumes. to 8 inches thick.
rooting grasses and legumesThe B22t horizon is pale brown (10YR 6/3), brown
Representative profile of Micanopy fine sand, 2 to (10YR 5/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), or yellow-
5 percent slopes, about 3 miles northwest of Blichton ish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6) mottled with gray. The texture
and one-half mile northeast of U.S. Highway 27, is sandy clay, and thickness is 4 to 8 inches. In some pedons
the B22t horizon does not occur.
NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 25, T. 13 S., R. 19 E. In some pedons a B1 horizon occurs. It is sandy loam
Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) fine sand; mod- and has the same color range as the B21t horizon.
rate medium and coarse granular structure; very The B2tg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
friable; common fine and few medium roots; very or light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottled with shades of
strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. red, brown, yellow, and gray. It is sandy clay or clay and
A2-5 to 15 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loamy fine sand; is 30 to 42 inches thick.
moderate medium granular structure; very friable; The B3tg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
common fine and few medium roots; common me- or light gray (1OYR 7/1) mottled with shades of gray,
dium faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) bodies of yellow, brown, and red. It is sandy clay. Some pedons have
stripped sand grains in upper 2 inches; strongly a few fine lenses of coarser textured material. The B3g
acid; abrupt wavy boundary, horizon is 10 to 16 inches thick.
B21t-15 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy The Cg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1; 5Y
clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky struc- 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1; 5Y 7/1, 7/2), and light olive
ture; friable; few fine and medium roots; clay gray (5Y 6/2) sandy clay or clay mottled with shades of
bridging between sand grains; very strongly acid; red, yellow, and brown.
clear wavy boundary. Micanopy soils are closely associated with Blichton,
B22t-20 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy Flemington, Fellowship, Lochloosa, and Zuber soils. They
clay; common fine distinct gray and few fine prom- are better drained than Blichton soils and have a thinner
inent yellowish red mottles; moderate medium sub- A horizon and a finer textured Bt horizon. They are better
angular blocky structure; friable; very few roots; drained than Flemington and Fellowship soils. Also, they
faint discontinuous clay films on faces of peds; do not have the thick, dark colored A horizon characteris-
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. tic of Fellowship soils. They have a thinner A horizon and
B23tg-26 to 45 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay; many a finer textured Bt horizon than Lochloosa soils and are
coarse distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mot- more poorly drained than Zuber soils.
ties with prominent dark red (2.5YR 3/6) centers; McB-Micanopy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
fmoerslght edsimkysuand lar tl ky lastiructre; This is a gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil
nent continuous clay films on faces of peds; very that occurs as small areas in the uplands. It has the
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. profile described as representative of the series. Sur-
B24tg-45 to 53 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay; face runoff is medium, and the hazard of erosion is
many medium and coarse prominent dark red moderate. The water table is perched between depths
(10YR 3/6) and few fine faint light gray and
strong brown mottles; weak medium subangular of approximately 20 and 60 inches for periods of 2 to
blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky and slightly 5 months during most years. It recedes to a depth of
plastic; discontinuous faint clay films on faces of more than 60 inches during dry periods.
wdav bwond sylensdes very strongly acid; clear Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
B25tg-53 to 57 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) clay; many of a similar soil, where the subsoil is more than 5 per-
coarse faint gray (5Y 6/1) and few fine promi- cent plinthite or is sandy clay loam. Also included are
nent red and strong brown mottles; weak medium small areas of Lochloosa, Flemington, and Zuber soils;
subangular blocky structure; extremely firm,r 20 inches of
sticky and plastic; few clay films; few slickensides; spots, of a similar soil, where the upper 20 inches of
very strongly acid; many stripped sand grains on the Bt horizon is, by volume, 5 to 35 percent rock frag-
prism faces; clear wavy boundary, ments less than 3 inches in diameter; and small areas,
B3g-57 to 68 inches; mixed gray (10YR 5/1 and 5Y 6/1) also of a similar soil, where the slope is 0 to 2 or 5 to 8
sadya cay; common finoae prmront dr ed 7.5Yt percent. The rock outcrop and sinkholes that occur in
tles; massive; very firm, sticky and plastic; few some areas are identified by spot symbols on the soil
slickensides; few small fragments of hard white map. Included soils make up about 20 percent of any
limestone; common clean sand grains; strongly one mapped area.
acid. The natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine,
The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Reaction is very water oak, laurel oak, white oak, sweetgum, and hick-
strongly acid to strongly acid in all horizons. Fine and
medium nodules of ironstone and gravel or fragments of ory and an understory of chiefly waxmyrtle and native
leached phosphatic rock less than 3 inches in diameter grasses. Most areas are cleared and are in improved
occur in many pedons, but are less than 5 percent of the pasture. Capability unit IIw-2; woodland group 2ol.
volume. McC-Micanopy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
The A horizon is dominantly fine sand, but ranges to
loamy fine sand. The A or Ap horizon is grayish brown is a sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil that occurs
(10YR 5/2), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), dark gray as small areas in the uplands. It has a profile similar
(N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), very dark gray (10YR 3/1, N 3/0), or to the one described as representative of the series,
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2). It is 4 to 8 inches but the surface layer is 1 inch to 3 inches thinner.
thick. If very dark gray or very dark grayish brown, it is
only 4 or 5 inches thick. The A2 horizon is brown (10YR Surface runoff is rapid, and the hazard of erosion is
5/3), pale brown (10YR 6/3), or light yellowish brown severe. Wetness is caused by hillside seepage. The
(10YR 6/4). It is 7 to 10 inches thick. water table fluctuates between 20 and 60 inches for 2
The content of plinthite ranges from 0 to 5 percent in to 5 months during most years. It recedes to a depth
the Btg horizon. The B21t horizon is brown (10YR 5/3), of more than 60 inches during dry periods.
pale brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), omor n chs m r erids
or yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6) and in places is mot- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas







46 SOIL SURVEY

where at least the upper 20 inches of the subsoil is 5 to dark brown (10YR 3/3). The Oa horizon is commonly 24
35 percent weathered rock fragments less than 3 inches to 38 inches thick.
percent The Oe horizon is black (N 2/0, 5YR 2/1, 10YR 2/1),
in diameter; small areas, of a similar soil, where the very dark gray (10YR 3/1), very dark grayish brown
subsoil is sandy clay loam; and areas of a similar soil (10YR 3/2), very dark brown (10YR 2/2), and dark brown
that is more than 5 percent plinthite. Also included (7.5YR 3/2, 10YR 3/3) to dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2,
are small areas of Lochloosa, Zuber, Flemington, and 3/2, 3/3). The fiber content ranges from about 35 to 70
percent before rubbing and from 10 to 35 percent after
Blichton soils; small areas of a similar soil that has a rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract is gray (10YR
slope of 2 to 5 percent; and small areas where the soil 7/1, 7/2), white (10YR 8/1, 8/2), and very pale brown
is eroded. The rock outcrop and sinkholes that occur (10YR 7/3). The Oe horizon is 26 to more than 60 inches
in some areas are identified by spot symbols on the thick.
The Oi horizon, if it occurs, is dark brown (10YR 3/3,
soil map. Included soils make up about 20 percent of 7.5YR 3/2) or dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2, 3/3). It is a
any one mapped area. fibric horizon that is about 70 to 80 percent fiber before
The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly rubbing and more than 60 percent fiber after rubbing. It is
pine, white oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, wax- ate undepth below 52 ineral material is 6 to 20 inches of
The underlying mineral material is 6 to 20 inches of
myrtle, and native grasses. Most areas are still in nat- sandy material over finer textured material or is sandy clay
ural vegetation. Most cleared areas are in improved loam over light sandy clay.
pasture. Capability unit IIIe-2; woodland group 2ol. Okeechobee soils are closely associated with Bluff, Terra
Ceia, and Tomoka soils. They are of organic origin, where-
as Bluff soils are of mineral origin. They have a hemic
Okeechobee Series horizon within a depth of 52 inches, whereas Terra Ceia
soils have sapric horizons to a depth of more than 52
The Okeechobee series consists of nearly level, very inches. They have organic horizons that, combined, are
poorly drained organic soils that formed largely in the more than 52 inches thick, whereas Tomoka soils have an
remains of nonwoody, fibrous hydrophytic plants. organic horizon that is 16 to 40 inches tck.
These soils are in freshwater marshes and swamps. Ok-Okeechobee muck. This is a very poorly drained
Under natural conditions, water is on the surface, organic soil that occurs as small and large areas in
except during extended dry periods. If water is con- the marshes and swamps along the Oklawaha River.
trolled, the depth of the water table is regulated accord- Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions,
ing to the needs of the crops. water is on the surface, except during extended dry
In a representative profile the upper 32 inches is periods. If water is controlled, the depth of the water
well decomposed, black muck. Between depths of 32 and table is regulated according to the needs of the crops.
65 inches is very dark brown mucky peat. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
Available water capacity is very high. Permeability of a very poorly drained, nonacid soil that has an or-
is rapid. Natural fertility is medium, and the content ganic surface layer less than 16 inches deep over a
of organic matter is very high. sandy soil, sandy clay loam, or sandy clay. Also in-
Under natural conditions, Okeechobee soils are not cluded are small areas of Anclote, Terra Ceia, Tomoka,
suited to cultivated crops or improved pasture. If water and Bluff soils. Included soils make up about 15 percent
is controlled, however, they are well suited to com- of any one mapped area.
only grown crops and improved pasture. The natural vegetation is either an aquatic plant
Representative profile of Okeechobee muck, in a cover of grasses, sedges, waterhyacinth, watercress,
cultivated area in the southern part of the Oklawaha and sawgrass or a swamp hardwood growth of white
Farms, 21/2 miles northwest of Moss Bluff, SWl/4NW1/4 bay, red maple, water tupelo, palm, and cypress. Most
sec. 21, T. 16 S., R. 24 E. areas are still in natural vegetation. Some are cleared
0 to 32 in ; w d o nc m and are used for special crops. Capability unit IIIw-8;
Oap-0 to 32 inches; well decomposed organic material not assigned to a woodland group.
(muck), black (N 2/0) unrubbed and rubbed; less not assigned to a woodland group.
than 10 percent fibers unrubbed and rubbed; mod-
erate medium granular structure; friable; few fine Paisley Series
roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is brown ley series
(10YR 5/3); slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Oel-32 to 65 inches; partly decomposed organic material The Paisley series consists of nearly level, poorly
(mucky peat), very dark brown (10YR 2/2) un- drained soils that formed in beds of clayey marine
rubbed and rubbed; estimated 65 percent fibers, sediments. These soils are in low-lying areas of the
25 percent rubbed; massive; friable; common fine fatwoods. The water table is with- in ches of the
roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is light gray flatwoods. The water table is within 10 ches of the
(10YR 7/2); neutral, surface for 2 to 6 months during most years.
Measured by the Hellige-Truog method, reaction ranges In a representative profile the surface layer is very
from medium acid to mildly alkaline in all horizons. The dark gray loamy fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
organic horizon ranges from 52 to more than 75 inches in subsurface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand
thickness. Fibers are dominantly of nonwoody plants, but about 5 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth
woody fibers occur in some pedons.
The Oa horizon is black (N 2/0, 5YR 2/1, 10YR 2/1) of 69 inches. The upper 17 inches is mottled dark gray
very dark brown (10YR 2/2), or dark reddish brown (5YR sandy clay, the next 19 inches is mottled gray sandy
2/2). The fiber content is less than 33 percent before rubb- clay, and the lower 24 inches is mottled gray sandy
iafn g. Th din many pit is less than 10 percent before and clay that has a few fine pockets of soft carbonatic nod-
after rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract is very ules The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches
pale brown (10YR 7/4), pale brown (10YR 6/3), light ules. The underlyig material to a depth of 80 inches
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), brown (10YR 5/3), yellowish is mottled gray and yellowish brown sandy clay that
brown (10YR 5/4), dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), and has many soft, white carbonatic nodules.







46 SOIL SURVEY

where at least the upper 20 inches of the subsoil is 5 to dark brown (10YR 3/3). The Oa horizon is commonly 24
35 percent weathered rock fragments less than 3 inches to 38 inches thick.
percent The Oe horizon is black (N 2/0, 5YR 2/1, 10YR 2/1),
in diameter; small areas, of a similar soil, where the very dark gray (10YR 3/1), very dark grayish brown
subsoil is sandy clay loam; and areas of a similar soil (10YR 3/2), very dark brown (10YR 2/2), and dark brown
that is more than 5 percent plinthite. Also included (7.5YR 3/2, 10YR 3/3) to dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2,
are small areas of Lochloosa, Zuber, Flemington, and 3/2, 3/3). The fiber content ranges from about 35 to 70
percent before rubbing and from 10 to 35 percent after
Blichton soils; small areas of a similar soil that has a rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract is gray (10YR
slope of 2 to 5 percent; and small areas where the soil 7/1, 7/2), white (10YR 8/1, 8/2), and very pale brown
is eroded. The rock outcrop and sinkholes that occur (10YR 7/3). The Oe horizon is 26 to more than 60 inches
in some areas are identified by spot symbols on the thick.
The Oi horizon, if it occurs, is dark brown (10YR 3/3,
soil map. Included soils make up about 20 percent of 7.5YR 3/2) or dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2, 3/3). It is a
any one mapped area. fibric horizon that is about 70 to 80 percent fiber before
The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly rubbing and more than 60 percent fiber after rubbing. It is
pine, white oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, wax- ate undepth below 52 ineral material is 6 to 20 inches of
The underlying mineral material is 6 to 20 inches of
myrtle, and native grasses. Most areas are still in nat- sandy material over finer textured material or is sandy clay
ural vegetation. Most cleared areas are in improved loam over light sandy clay.
pasture. Capability unit IIIe-2; woodland group 2ol. Okeechobee soils are closely associated with Bluff, Terra
Ceia, and Tomoka soils. They are of organic origin, where-
as Bluff soils are of mineral origin. They have a hemic
Okeechobee Series horizon within a depth of 52 inches, whereas Terra Ceia
soils have sapric horizons to a depth of more than 52
The Okeechobee series consists of nearly level, very inches. They have organic horizons that, combined, are
poorly drained organic soils that formed largely in the more than 52 inches thick, whereas Tomoka soils have an
remains of nonwoody, fibrous hydrophytic plants. organic horizon that is 16 to 40 inches tck.
These soils are in freshwater marshes and swamps. Ok-Okeechobee muck. This is a very poorly drained
Under natural conditions, water is on the surface, organic soil that occurs as small and large areas in
except during extended dry periods. If water is con- the marshes and swamps along the Oklawaha River.
trolled, the depth of the water table is regulated accord- Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions,
ing to the needs of the crops. water is on the surface, except during extended dry
In a representative profile the upper 32 inches is periods. If water is controlled, the depth of the water
well decomposed, black muck. Between depths of 32 and table is regulated according to the needs of the crops.
65 inches is very dark brown mucky peat. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
Available water capacity is very high. Permeability of a very poorly drained, nonacid soil that has an or-
is rapid. Natural fertility is medium, and the content ganic surface layer less than 16 inches deep over a
of organic matter is very high. sandy soil, sandy clay loam, or sandy clay. Also in-
Under natural conditions, Okeechobee soils are not cluded are small areas of Anclote, Terra Ceia, Tomoka,
suited to cultivated crops or improved pasture. If water and Bluff soils. Included soils make up about 15 percent
is controlled, however, they are well suited to com- of any one mapped area.
only grown crops and improved pasture. The natural vegetation is either an aquatic plant
Representative profile of Okeechobee muck, in a cover of grasses, sedges, waterhyacinth, watercress,
cultivated area in the southern part of the Oklawaha and sawgrass or a swamp hardwood growth of white
Farms, 21/2 miles northwest of Moss Bluff, SWl/4NW1/4 bay, red maple, water tupelo, palm, and cypress. Most
sec. 21, T. 16 S., R. 24 E. areas are still in natural vegetation. Some are cleared
0 to 32 in ; w d o nc m and are used for special crops. Capability unit IIIw-8;
Oap-0 to 32 inches; well decomposed organic material not assigned to a woodland group.
(muck), black (N 2/0) unrubbed and rubbed; less not assigned to a woodland group.
than 10 percent fibers unrubbed and rubbed; mod-
erate medium granular structure; friable; few fine Paisley Series
roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is brown ley series
(10YR 5/3); slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Oel-32 to 65 inches; partly decomposed organic material The Paisley series consists of nearly level, poorly
(mucky peat), very dark brown (10YR 2/2) un- drained soils that formed in beds of clayey marine
rubbed and rubbed; estimated 65 percent fibers, sediments. These soils are in low-lying areas of the
25 percent rubbed; massive; friable; common fine fatwoods. The water table is with- in ches of the
roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is light gray flatwoods. The water table is within 10 ches of the
(10YR 7/2); neutral, surface for 2 to 6 months during most years.
Measured by the Hellige-Truog method, reaction ranges In a representative profile the surface layer is very
from medium acid to mildly alkaline in all horizons. The dark gray loamy fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
organic horizon ranges from 52 to more than 75 inches in subsurface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand
thickness. Fibers are dominantly of nonwoody plants, but about 5 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth
woody fibers occur in some pedons.
The Oa horizon is black (N 2/0, 5YR 2/1, 10YR 2/1) of 69 inches. The upper 17 inches is mottled dark gray
very dark brown (10YR 2/2), or dark reddish brown (5YR sandy clay, the next 19 inches is mottled gray sandy
2/2). The fiber content is less than 33 percent before rubb- clay, and the lower 24 inches is mottled gray sandy
iafn g. Th din many pit is less than 10 percent before and clay that has a few fine pockets of soft carbonatic nod-
after rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract is very ules The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches
pale brown (10YR 7/4), pale brown (10YR 6/3), light ules. The underlyig material to a depth of 80 inches
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), brown (10YR 5/3), yellowish is mottled gray and yellowish brown sandy clay that
brown (10YR 5/4), dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), and has many soft, white carbonatic nodules.







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 47

Available water capacity is low in the upper 9 brown (10YR 5/2), or light brownish gray (10YR 6/2).
inches and high from 9 to 80 inches. Permeability is It is 2 to 12 inches thick.
The Btg and B3g horizons range from slightly acid to
rapid in the upper 9 inches and slow below. Natural moderately alkaline. The B2tg horizon is gray (N 5/0,
fertility is medium. Organic-matter content in the 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1; 5Y 5/1, 6/1), light gray (N 7/0, 10YR
surface layer is moderately low. 7/1), dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), or grayish brown
Under natural conditions, Paisley soils are poorly (2.5Y 5/2) sandy clay or clay mottled with shades of yel-
low, brown, and red. In some pedons it has a few fine lenses
suited to general farm crops. Water control is neces- of sandy material. It is 27 to 57 inches thick. A %- to
sary before they can be successfully cultivated, and 2%-inch transitional horizon of sandy clay loam having the
crops are limited to those that are tolerant to slightly same colors as the B2tg horizon occurs in some pedons.
wet conditions. Paisley soils are well suited to im- The B3g horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1;
wet conditions. Paisley sos are well suited to im- Y 5/1, 6/1) or light gray (N 7/0, 10YR 7/1) mottled with
proved pasture if water is controlled. shades of yellow, brown, and red. It is sandy clay or clay.
Representative profile of Paisley loamy fine sand, It ranges from 10 to 18 inches in thickness. In many pedons
in an undisturbed area where the plant cover is loblolly few to common nodules of soft, white (1.0YR 8/1, 8/2)
pine, palm, sweetgum, bluestem, palmetto, briers, and carbonatic material or semihard calcareous concretions
occur in the lower part of the B2tg horizon and in the B3g
wiregrass; one-half mile west of the Oklawaha River, horizon, commonly at a depth below 35 inches.
150 feet south of State Road 40, SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 3, The Cg horizon has the same color and texture ranges
T. 15 S., R. 23 E. as the B3 horizon. It has common or many, medium and
large pockets of soft, white (10YR 8/1, 8/2) carbonatic
Al-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) loamy fine sand, material.
black (N 2/0) crushed and rubbed; moderate me- Paisley soils are closely associated with Bluff, Martel,
dium granular structure; very friable; numerous Eureka, and Holopaw soils. They are better drained than
fine and few medium roots; medium acid; abrupt Bluff soils and are more alkaline than Martel soils. They
smooth boundary. also differ from Bluff and Martel soils in not having a
A2-4 to 9 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine thick, black A horizon. They are more alkaline than Eureka
sand; weak medium granular structure; very fri- soils. They have a thinner, finer textured A horizon and
able; common fine roots; medium acid; abrupt a finer textured Btg horizon than Holopaw soils.
wavy boundary. Pa-Paisley loamy fine sand. This is a poorly
B21tg-9 to 26 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sandy clay; few P fine sand This is a
fine distinct yellowish brown mottles; weak coarse drained soil that occurs as small and large areas in the
prismatic structure parting to moderate fine sub- flatwoods. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The water table
angular blocky structure; firm, sticky and plastic; is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months
few fine and medium roots; few thin distinct clay during most years.
films on faces of peds; discontinuous grayish
brown stripped sand grain coatings on some prism Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
faces; slightly acid in upper part, neutral in of a smiliar soil, where the surface layer is sandy loam
lower part; clear wavy boundary. and small areas of Bluff, Eaton, Eureka, and Holopaw
B22tg-26 to 45 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; common soils. Also included are small areas of a nonacid soil
fine distinct strong brown mottles; moderate fine
subangular blocky structure; firm, very sticky and where the surface and subsurface layers combined
plastic; few fine and medium roots; few thin dis- are less than 20 inches thick and the subsoil is 3 to 6
tinct clay films on faces of peds; neutral; clear inches of yellowish brown and gray sandy clay. In
wavyB2tg-4gray (Y 6/1) sandy clay; common some areas along the Withlacooche River, the surface
B23tg-45 to 57 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay; common
medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mot- layer is fine sand, the surface layer and the subsoil
tles; few fine distinct white pockets of carbonatic have a few hard calcareous rock fragments about 2
material and clean sand grains; moderate fine sub- to 50 millimeters in size, and a few limestone boulders
angular blocky structure; firm, very sticky and are at the surface. Included soils make up about 15 per-
plastic; few fine roots; continuous clay films on
faces of peds; mildly alkaline; clear wavy bound- cent of any one mapped area.
ary. The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, lob-
B3g-57 to 69 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay; common lolly pine, swamp white oak, gum, and maple and an
medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mot- understory of chiefly waxmyrtle, cabbage palm, blue-
tles; few fine and medium distinct white (10YR
8/1) carbonatic nodules; weak fine subangular stems, palmetto, and native grasses. Most areas are
blocky structure; firm, sticky and plastic; very still in native vegetation. A few, however, are cleared
few fine roots; few thin clay films on faces of peds and are in improved pasture. Capability unit IIIw-6;
and clay flows along root channels; mildly alka- woodland group Iwl.
line; clear wavy boundary.
Cg-69 to 80 inches; mottled gray (10YR 6/1, N 5/0) and
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy clay; common Pamlico Series
to many medium distinct white (10YR 8/1) car-
bonatic nodules; few fine pockets of clean sand The Pamlico series consists of nearly level, very
grains; massive; firm, very sticky and plastic; poorly drained organic soils that formed largely in
mildly alkaline. nonwoody, fibrous hydrophytic plant remains mixed
The solum is 42 to 72 inches or more thick. In many with some aquatic woody material. These soils occur
places the soil is underlain by soft carbonatic material or as small pounded areas and as areas in large swamps
semihard lime material at a depth of 60 inches or more. dd
The A horizon is medium acid to slightly acid. The Al within the broad flatwoods. The surface is covered with
or Ap horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), very dark gray water for more than 8 months during most years. The
(N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), water table is within 10 inches of the surface, except
dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), or gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1). during extended dry periods.
It is 3 to 7 inches thick. If black, very dark gray, or verylethe ce ye about
dark grayish brown, it is less than 6 inches thick. The A2 In a representative profile the surface layer is about
horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish 31 inches of black, well decomposed muck that is less







48 SOIL SURVEY

than 10 percent fibers. The underlying material to a About 38 percent of this mapping unit is the Pamlico
depth of 49 inches is sand. The upper 5 inches is dark soil. The organic surface layer is underlain by 10 to
gray, and the lower 13 inches is light brownish gray. 35 inches of sand over sandy clay loam or sandy clay.
Below this to a depth of 60 inches or more is mottled In about 8 percent of the mapped areas, the sandy clay
gray sandy clay loam. loam or sandy clay is within a depth of 51 inches.
Available water capacity is very high in the upper About 32 percent of this mapping unit is the Martel
31 inches, low from 31 to 49 inches, and medium variant and similar soils. The Martel variant is de-
below. Permeability is rapid in the upper 49 inches scribed under the heading Martel Variant.
and slow to moderately slow below. Natural fertility About 15 percent of this mapping unit is a soil that
is medium. Organic-matter content is very high in the has a black, brown, or dark reddish brown, well decom-
highly decomposed organic layer and low in the under- posed organic layer 6 to 15 inches deep over 10 to 20
lying mineral layers. inches of black or very dark gray sand, loamy sand, or
Under natural conditions, Pamlico soils are not loamy fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 60 inches or
suited to cultivated crops or improved pasture. If water more is gray or dark gray sandy clay loam or sandy
is controlled, they are well suited to commonly grown clay.
special crops and to improved pasture. Included in this unit in mapping are areas where the
Representative profile of Pamlico muck, in an area muck is more than 50 inches deep over sandy material
of Pamlico-Martel association, in a large swamp about and sandy clay loam, some areas where the mucky peat
4 miles northwest of Fort McCoy and just south of and peat are 16 to 50 inches deep over sandy and loamy
graded road, SE1ASEI/ sec. 29, T. 12 S., R. 23 E. material, and spots where the soil is 16 to 30 inches of
Oa-0 to 31 inches; well decomposed organic material, well decomposed organic material over 3 to 10 inches
black (N 2/0) unrubbed and rubbed; less than 10 of sand over clayey material. Also included are some
percent fibers unrubbed and rubbed; moderate me- areas of Placid and Pompano soils and a few areas of
dium granular structure; friable; sodium pryo- slightly acid to moderately alkaline soil that has a
phosphate extract color is dark brown (10YR
4/3); very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. black loamy sand or sandy loam surface layer 10 to 15
IIC1-31 to 36 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sand; single inches deep over a sandy clay or clay subsoil. Included
grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy soils make up about 15 percent of the unit.
IIC2-36 tboun dary. ches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) This mapping unit is too wet for crops and improved
IIC2--36 to 49 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) th^ The ""t ^ to o et ^ ^ ^
sand; common fine and medium faint gray (10YR pasture. The natural vegetation is chiefly cypress,
5/1) mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly gum, and water-tolerant grasses. Capability unit
acid; clear wavy boundary. IIIw-8; not assigned to a woodland group.
IIIC3-49 to 60 inches; mottled gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1)
sandy clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky
structure; firm; very strongly acid. Pedro Series
The Oa horizon is well decomposed organic material. It
is black (N 2/0, 5YR 2/1, 10YR 2/1), very dark gray (N The Pedro series consists of nearly level to gently
3/0, 5YR 3/1, 10YR 3/1), very dark brown (10YR 2/2), or sloping, well drained soils that formed in thin beds of
dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2). The fiber content is sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils occur
less than 33 percent before rubbing and less than 10 per- as broad areas in the upland Th water table is at a
cent after rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract as broad areas n the upland. The water table s at a
color is pale brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown deuth of more than 60 inches.
(10YR 6/4), brown (10YR 5/3), yellowish brown (10YR In a representative profile the surface layer is gray
5/4), or dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, 3/4). Thickness fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
of this horizon is 16 to 44 inches. Measured by the Hellige- i pale brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The sub-
Truog method, reaction is extremely acid to very strongly is yellowish brown sandy clay loam about 3 inches
acid. soil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam about 3 inches
The IIC horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), dark gray (N thick. It is, by volume, 5 percent fragments of lime-
4/0, 10YR 4/1), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), or gray- stone less than 15 millimeters in size. White, partly
ish brown (10YR 5/2).The texture is sand. This horizon decomposed limestone is at a depth of 16 inches. It is
is 12 to 35 inches thick. Reaction ranges from extremely decomposed limestone is at a depth of 16 inches. It is
acid to strongly acid. soft enough to be cut with a spade and has a few frag-
The IIIC is dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), gray (N 5/0, ments of hard limestone. Hard limestone is at a depth
6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1) or is mottled with these colors. The of 25 inches.
texture is sandy clay loam or sandy clay. Reaction ranges Available water capacity is low to very low in the
from extremely acid to strongly acid.
The mean annual temperature of these soils is a few upper 13 inches and medium from 13 to 16 inches.
degrees warmer than is defined as the range for the Paml- Permeability is rapid in the upper 13 inches and mod-
ico series, but this difference does not alter use or manage- erately rapid from 13 to 16 inches. Natural fertility
meant. and organic-matter content are low.
PB--Pamlico-Martel association. This mapping unit Pedro soils are moderately well suited to improved
consists of very poorly drained organic and mineral pasture of the grasses commonly grown in the area.
soils. It occurs as small pounded areas and as areas in Representative profile of Pedro fine sand, in an area
large swamps within the broad flatwoods. Slopes are of Pedro-Arredondo complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, in
0 to 2 percent. These soils are commonly covered with a wooded area 500 feet east of State Road 335 and 32
water for 8 months or more during most years and are miles north of intersection of U.S. Highway 27 and
so densely vegetated that they cannot be mapped sepa- State Road 335, SW1/NW1/4 sec. 27, T. 12 S., R. 19 E.
rately. The water table is within 10 inches of the sur- A to 5 inches; gray (10 5/1) fine sand; weak fine
face, except during extended dry periods. granular structure; very friable; few fine and me-
face,~ ~ ~ ~ *xetdrn xedddypros granular structure; very friable: few fine and me-







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 49

dium roots; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. that is 40 to 80 inches of sand or fine sand over loamy
A2-5 to 13 inches; pale brown (1.0YR 6/3) fine sand; sand, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
fefing e cgan light sga sand aains in sreaks; Included in this unit in mapping is a soil that has a
medium acid; clear irregular boundary. dark gray or gray fine sand surface layer 4 to 8 inches
Bt-13 to 16 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy thick, a pale brown or very pale brown sandy subsur-
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky face layer 20 to 40 inches thick, and a yellowish brown
structure; friable; few fine roots; sand grains
coated and bridged with clay; few fragments of or strong brown sandy loam and sandy clay loam sub-
limestone less than 15 millimeters in diameter and soil 25 to 34 inches thick. The subsoil is underlain by
about 5 percent by volume; mildly alkaline; abrupt soft limestone. Also included are spots where a dark
R- irch h (YR 8/1) partly decomposed gray sandy surface layer and a pale brown sandy sub-
IIRl-16 to 25 inches; white (10YR 8/1) partly decomposed
limestone soft enough to be cut with a spade; few surface layer combined are 16 to 22 inches deep over
fine and medium fragments of hard limestone; a yellowish brown or strong brown sandy clay subsoil
strongly alkaline. that extends to a depth of 60 inches or more. A few
IIR2-25 inches+; hard limestone, spots of Candler, Sparr, and Lochloosa soils occur in
The soil is cyclic. The depth to soft, partly decomposed some areas. The extent of included soils varies, but
limestone is 6 to 20 inches, but within the pedon ranges to averages about 11 percent of the unit.
about 63 inches in solution holes. In some pedons, intru-
sions of hard limestone are at a depth of 6 inches and out- The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, long-
crops of rock are common. leaf pine, laurel oak, live oak, post oak, and dogwood
The A horizon ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid. and an understory of chiefly scattered palmetto, haw-
The Al or Ap horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1) or gray thorne, briers, and native grasses. Most areas have
(10YR 5/1) fine sand 3 to 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon
is very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4), pale brown (10YR been cleared and are used for crops and improved pas-
6/3), or light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand. Thick- ture. Capability unit IIs-1; woodland group 3sl.
ness is dominantly 4 to 12 inches, but within the pedon
ranges to about 44 inches in solution holes. The entire
range in thickness, or cycle, is 1 inch to 44 inches within Placid Series
the pedon.
The B horizon ranges from slightly acid to mildly alka- The Placid series consists of nearly level, very poorly
line. It is light yellowish brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8), brownish drained sandy soils that formed in thick beds of sandy
yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8), or strong brown (7.5YR 5/6,
5/8). The texture is sandy clay loam. The entire range in marine deposits. These soils are in small depressions
thickness, or cycle, is 0 to 24 inches. The B horizon is 3 and along poorly defined drainageways of the flat-
to 24 inches thick and meets the requirements for an argil- woods and in shallow depressions on sandy ridges. The
lic horizon in about 5 to 60 percent of the pedon. In 20 to water table is within 10 inches of the surface for more
35 percent of each pedon, it meets all requirements for an than 6 months during most years. Most depressions
argillic horizon except for thickness. In about 15 to 30 than 6 months during most years. Most depressions
percent, the B horizon does not occur and the sandy mate- are covered with water for 6 months or more annually.
rial is on the surface of the soft, partly decomposed lime- In a representative profile the surface layer is sand
stone. In some pedons it has few or common, fine and me- about 19 inches thick. The upper 12 inches is black,
dium fragments of soft and hard limestone.
Th IIR1 layer is white, partly decomposed limestone that the next 4 inches is very dark gray, and the lower 3
is soft enough to be cut with a spade and has fragments of inches is dark gray. Below this to a depth of 92 inches
hard limestone. It is commonly 4 to 54 inches thick. The is light gray sand mottled with gray and dark gray.
entire range in thickness, or cycle, is 0 to 54 inches. Below Available water capacity is high in the upper 19
the IIR1 layer is a IIR2 layer of hard limestone.
Pedro soils are associated with Arredondo, Candler, Ken- inches and low below. Permeability is rapid to a depth
drick, Lochloosa, and Sparr soils. They have a thin solum of more than 80 inches. Natural fertility and organic-
that is underlain by limestone, whereas Arredondo soils matter content are high in the upper 19 inches and low
have a continuous Bt horizon of sandy loam or sandy clay below.
loam between depths of 40 and 80 inches, Candler soils are r r P s r r
sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches, Kendrick and Under natural conditions, Placid soils are poorly
Lochloosa soils have an A horizon that is 20 to 40 inches suited to crops or improved pasture. Under good man-
deep over a continuous Bt horizon of sandy clay loam that agement and adequate water control, yields of com-
extends to a depth of 60 inches or more, and Sparr soils only grown special crops are high and pasture of
have a sandy A horizon that is 40 to 80 inches deep over and of
sandy clay loam. Pedro soils are better drained than Loch- locally grown grasses and legumes is of good quality.
loosa and Sparr soils. Representative profile of Placid sand, in a large
PeB--Pedro-Arredondo complex, 0 to 5 percent swamp 200 feet west of State Road 25, 0.8 mile north
slopes. This mapping unit consists of wel drained, of East Lake Weir, NWl/NE1/4 sec. 9, T. 17 S., R. 24 E.
nearly level to gently sloping soils of the upland. Sharp A11-0 to 3 inches; black (N 2/0) sand; moderate medium
breaks between areas of these soils commonly occur granular structure; very friable; common fine
breaks between areas of these soils commonly occur roots; about 15 percent organic matter; very
within very short distances. A few rock fragments strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
more than 3 inches in size and boulders occur in many A12-3 to 12 inches; black (N 2/0) sand; moderate medium
pedons. Large rock fragments and boulders also occur granular structure; very friable; many fine roots;
at the surface in many areas (fig. 4). The water table less than 15 percent organic matter; very strongly
at the surface in many areas (fig. 4). The water table acid; clear wavy boundary.
is at a depth of more than 60 inches. A13-12 to 16 inches; very dark gray (N 3/0) sand; few
About 50 percent of this mapping unit is a Pedro medium faint dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles; mod-
soil that has sandy surface and subsurface layers and erate medium granular structure; very friable;
a thin loamy subsoil underlain by partly decomposed, many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
soft limestone. About 39 percent is an Arredondo soiloundary.
soft limestone. About 39 percent is an Arredondo soil A14-16 to 19 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sand; common







50 SOIL SURVEY


































Figure 4.-Large mounds of boulders removed from the surface of an area of Pedro-Arredondo complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Boulders at the surface are a severe hazard to farm machinery.


medium faint gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; single thicker dark colored A horizon. They are also more poorly
grained; loose; few roots; very strongly acid; drained than Electra and Pomona soils and do not have
clear wavy boundary, the Bh horizon characteristic of those soils.
C-19 to 92 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few me- Pm-Placid sand. This is a very poorly drained soil
dium faint gray (10YR 6/1) and dark gray
(10YR 4/1) mottles; few fine distinct very dark in small depressions and along poorly defined drainage-
grayish brown and dark brown splotches in lower ways of the flatwoods and in shallow depressions on
few inches; single grained; loose; sand grains sandy ridges. It has the profile described as representa-
uncoated; very strongly acid. tive of the series. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. The water
Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid table is within 10 inches of the surface for more than
in all horizons. 6 months during most years. Most depressions are
The A horizon is 12 to 18 inches thick in most pedons, covered with water for 6 monts or ore annua
but ranges from 10 to 24 inches. The All, A12, and A13 covered with water for 6 months or more annually.
horizons are black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), very dark brown Surface water is usually 2 to 18 inches deep, but in
(10YR 2/2), very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), or very places is as deep as 18 to 30 inches during wet periods.
dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) sand. The A14 horizon is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) sand. In some pedons it does of Adamsville, Pompano, and Pomona soils; small
not occur. Organic-matter content is less than 20 percent.
The C horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), gray- areas where organic material is 10 to 24 inches deep
ish brown (10YR 5/2), light grayish brown (10YR 6/2), over sandy material; and some areas of a very poorly
or light gray (10YR 7/1) mottled with shades of gray and drained soil where a thick, dark colored surface layer
brown. In places the lower part has thin streaks and small is underlain by sandy clay loam at a depth below 40 to
splotches of very dark grayish brown (1yOYR 3/2), dark
grayish brown (10YR 4/2), and dark brown (10YR 4/3). 80 inches. Also included are small areas of a very poorly
The C horizon is sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand, the drained soil where a black or very dark gray sandy
sand grains of which are uncoated. It is 70 inches or more surface layer 24 to 32 inches thick is underlain by gray
thick sandy material to a depth of more than 80 inches. In-
Placid soils are closely associated with Adamsville,
Electra, Pomona, and Pompano soils. They are more poorly eluded soils make up about 20 percent of any one
drained than Adamsville and Pompano soils and have a mapped area.







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 51

The natural vegetation is cypress, bay, and gum, or below. Permeability is rapid in the upper 26 inches,
water-tolerant grasses. Almost all areas are still in moderate from 26 to 39 inches, rapid from 39 to 51
native vegetation. A few small areas are in pasture. inches, and moderately slow below. Natural fertility
Capability unit nIIw-4; woodland group 4wl. and organic-matter content are low.
Pn-Placid-Pompano-Pomona complex. This map- Pomona soils are poorly suited to general farm crops.
ing unit consists of poorly drained and very poorly If water is controlled, they are moderately well suited
drained soils. It is on broad flats adjacent to large to locally grown special crops. They are moderately
ponds and swamps in the flatwoods and in shallow well suited to improved pasture.
depressions of the sandy uplands. It is mostly on the Representative profile of Pomona sand, in an undis-
broad flats in the northeastern part of the survey area turbed area where the plant cover is slash pine, long-
and in the poorly drained and very poorly drained areas leaf pine, palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and native
adjacent to the swamps. It is 37 percent Placid soils, grasses; 6 miles north of Fort McCoy, 1.6 miles west
31 percent Pompano soils, and 26 percent Pomona soils, of State Road 315 and north of graded road (Sugar
Pomona soils are slightly higher on the landscape than Road), NWl/NW1/4 sec. 21, T. 12 S., R. 23 E.
Placid and Pompano soils. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. A1-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface fine granular structure; very friable; common fine
for about 4 to 8 months during most years. Slight roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
depressions, mostly in the southwestern part of the A21-5 to 12 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common me-
dium faint dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles; single
survey area, are covered with water for 3 to 6 months grained; loose; common fine roots; many clean
during most years. sand grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy
Included in this unit in mapping are areas of Lynne boundary.
soils and small areas of a poorly drained soil where a A22-12 to 26 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few fine
and medium faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sandy surface layer is underlain by sandy loam and mottles; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
sandy clay loam at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. Also many clean sand grains; very strongly acid;
included are areas of a poorly drained sandy soil hav- abrupt wavy boundary.
ing a weakly cemented layer at a depth below 30 inches. B21h-26 to 29 inches; mixed very dark gray (SYR 3/1)
and dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) sand; weak
Included soils make up 10 percent or less of this unit. moderate medium granular structure; weakly
The natural vegetation on the broad flats is slash cemented; few fine roots; sand grains coated with
pine, longleaf pine, and pond pine and an understory organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy
of saw-palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and native 22h29ches; very dark gray (YR 3/1) sand;
grasses. In the depressions it is commonly water- few fine faint dark reddish brown mottles; weak
tolerant grasses. All of this unit is still in natural vege- medium subangular blocky structure parting to
station. Capability unit IVw-2; woodland group 4wl. moderate medium granular structure; weakly ce-
mented; few roots; sand grains coated with or-
ganic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Pomona Series B23h-36 to 39 inches; mixed dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) dark
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and dark reddish
The Pomona series consists of nearly level, poorly brown (5YR 3/2) sand; weak medium granular
drained soils that formed in beds of sandy and loamy structure; very friable; few roots; very strongly
marine deposits. These soils occur as broad areas of acid; clear wavy boundary.
marine deposits. These soils occur as broad areas of A'2-39 to 51 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
the flatwoods and as areas adjacent to wet depressions grained; loose; few roots; very strongly acid;
on sandy ridges. During most years the water table is clear wavy boundary.
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 month to 3 months B'21tg-51 to 58 inches; gray (10 YR 6/1) sandy clay loam;
and fluctuates between 10 and 40 inches for 6 months few fine and medium faint yellow (10YR 7/6)
and few medium prominent yellowish red (SYR
or more. During dry seasons it recedes to a depth of 4/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
more than 40 inches. structure; friable; few faint discontinuous clay
In a representative profile the surface layer is very films along faces of peds; very strongly acid; clear
dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface wavy boundary.
dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface B'22tg-58 to 72 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) light sandy clay;
layer is 21 inches of sand. The upper 7 inches is gray few fine distinct light yellowish brown and few
mottled with dark gray, and the lower 14 inches is fine prominent yellowish red mottles; moderate
light gray mottled with light brownish gray. Below to medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few
this, in sequence downward, is 3 inches of mixed very distinct clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid.
dark gray and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented The solum is 60 or more inches thick. Reaction ranges
sand that is well coatedfrom extremely acid to strongly acid in all horizons. Depth
sand that is well coated with organic matter; 7 inches to the Bt horizon ranges from 40 to 80 inches.
of very dark gray, weakly cemented sand that is also The A horizon is 19 to 29 inches thick. The Al horizon
well coated with organic matter; 3 inches of mixed is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR
dark brown and dark grayish brown sand mottled with 3/1), or dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) sand 4 to 6 inches
thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray
dark reddish brown; 12 inches of brown sand; 7 inches (10YR 7/1, 7/2), or white (10YR 8/1, 8/2) sand mottled
of mottled gray sandy clay loam; and 14 inches of in some pedons with shades of gray, yellow, and brown.
mottled gray sandy clay. Vertical streaks of dark gray occur in the upper part of
Available water capacity is low to very low in the this horizon in some pedons. This horizon is 15 to 23
inches thick.
upper 26 inches, medium from 26 to 39 inches, low to A c to 2-inch transitional layer occurs between the A-2
very low from 39 to 51 inches, and medium to high and the B2h horizons in some pedons. It is dominantly very







52 SOIL SURVEY

dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), dark grayish brown within 10 inches of the surface for cumulative periods
(10YR 3/2), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), dark gray of 2 to more than 6 months during most years. Depres-
(10YR 4/1), black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), or very dark gray sons are covered with water for more than 4 months
(10YR 3/1). The texture is sand. Many of the sand grains sons are covered with water for more than 4 months
are uncoated. during most years.
The B2h horizon is black (N 2/0, 5YR 2/1, 10YR 2/1), In a representative profile the surface layer is sand
very dark gray (5YR 3/1), dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, about 5 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is black, and
3/2, 3/3) dark brown (7.5YR 3/2), or very dark brownunderlying mate-
(10YR 2/2) sand or fine sand. It is 10 to 18 inches thick. the lower 2 inches is dark gray. The underlying mate-
The B23h horizon is dark brown (10YR 3/3, 4/3; 7.5YR rial to a depth of more than 80 inches is sand. The
3/2, 4/2, 4/4), dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), and dark upper 7 inches is gray mottled with grayish brown, the
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand or fine sand that in places next 62 inches is white, and the lower 6 inches is
is mottled. It is 3 to 8 inches thick.
The A'2 horizon is brown (10YR 5/3), pale brown white streaked with dark grayish brown.
(10YR 6/3), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), light brownish Available water capacity is very low. Permeability
gray (10YR 6/2), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), or light gray is very rapid. Natural fertility and organic-matter con-
(10YR 7/1, 7/2). In places these colors are mixed. This tent are low.
horizon is sand. It ranges from 8 to 24 inches in thickness. Pompano soils are poorly suited to general farm
The B'tg horizon is sandy clay loam, light sandy clay, or Pompano soils are poorly suited to general farm
sandy loam mottled with shades of yellow, brown, and red. crops. If water is controlled, they are moderately well
The B'21tg horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1) or light gray suited to locally grown special crops. They are moder-
(10YR 7/1, 7/2) and is 5 to 12 inches thick. The B'22tg ately well suited to improved pasture of the grasses
horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), or light gray and legumes grown in the area.
(10YR 7/1, 7/2; 5YR 7/1, 7/2) and is 5 to 15 inches thick. and legumes grown the area.
A few pedons have a B'lg horizon that is 3 to 5 inches Representative profile of Pompano sand, in an undis-
thick. The texture is sandy loam. The color is similar to turbed area where the plant cover is slash pine, gall-
that of the B'2tg horizon, berry, myrtle, and wiregrass; about 1 mile southeast
The B'3 horizon, if it occurs, is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10R f Oklawaha and 200 feet east of State Road 25,
5/1, 6/1) or light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) sandy clay mottled of
with shades of yellow, brown, and red. SE1/4SEI/ sec. 4, T. 17 S., R. 24 E.
Pomona soils are closely associated with Adamsville,
Electra, Holopaw, Lynne, Placid, and Pompano soils. They A11-0 to 3 inches; black (N 2/0) sand; weak medium
are more poorly drained than Adamsville soils, and they granular structure; very friable; many fine and
have a Bh horizon, which does not occur in those soils, medium roots; less than 10 percent organic mat-
They are more poorly drained than Electra soils and are ter; many clean sand grains; very strongly acid;
shallower over a Bh horizon. They differ from Lynne soils abrupt wavy boundary.
in not having a B't horizon within a depth of 40 inches. A12-3 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single
They are more acid and have a lower base saturation than grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
Holopaw soils, and they have a Bh horizon, which does many clean sand grains; very strongly acid; clear
not occur in those soils. They differ from Placid and Pom- wavy boundary.
pano soils in having a Bh horizon. Also, they are better C1-5 to 12 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; few fine faint
drained than Placid soils, grayish brown mottles; single grained; loose; com-
mon fine and medium roots; water table at 10
Po-Pomona sand. This is a poorly drained soil that inches; many clean sand grains; very strongly
occurs as small and large areas in the flatwoods and acid; clear wavy boundary.
as small areas adjacent to wet depressions on sandy grained; loose; few roots in upper part; many
ridges. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. During most years clean sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual
the water table is within 10 inches of the surface for wavy boundary.
1 month to 3 months and fluctuates between 10 and 40 C3-74 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few to com-
inches for 6 months or more During dry periods it mon medium distinct dark grayish brown (10YR
inches for 6 months or more. During dry periods it 4/2) streaks; single grained; loose; many clean
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches. sand grains; very strongly acidl.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, The texture is sand to a depth of more than 80 inches.
of a similar soil, where the surface layer is fine sand The content of silt and clay is less than 5 percent between
or a weakly cemented layer is at a depth of 30 to 40 depths of 10 and 40 inches. Reaction ranges from very
inches. Also included are small areas of Electra, Lynne, strongly acid to slightly acid in all horizons. Most pedons,
Pompano, and Placid soils. Included soils make up however, are very strongly acid or strongly acid in the
Pompano, upper 40 inches.
about 20 percent of any one mapped area. The Al horizon is black (N 2/0), very dark gray (N 3/0,
The natural vegetation is a forest of longleaf pine 10YR 3/1), and dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) to gray (N
and slash pine and an understory of saw-palmetto, 5/0, 10YR 5/1). Many sand grains are stripped of coatings
waxmyrtle, gallberry, runner oak, and native grasses. and appear as clean quartz grains. The Al horizon is 3 to
Most areas are still in natural vegetation. A few areas The C horizon ranges from gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1) and
are cleared and are in improved pasture. Capability light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) to white (10YR 8/1) and in
unit IVw-2; woodland group 3wl. some pedons has a few mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
and brown. Many sand grains are clean. The C horizon
is more than 75 inches thick.
Pompano Series Pompano soils are associated with Adamsville, Anclote,
Astatula, Candler, Pomona, and Placid soils. They are
The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly more poorly drained than Adamsville, Astatula, and Cand-
e pompano series consists oler soils. They do not have the Bh horizon characteristic
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy ma- of Pomona soils. They are poorly drained, whereas Anclote
rine deposits. These soils occur as small areas on and Placid soils are very poorly drained, and they do not
broad flats, in depressions and sloughs of the flatwoods, have the thick Al horizon characteristic of those soils.
and in depressions in sandy ridges. The water table is Pp-Pompano sand. This is a poorly drained soil







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 53

that occurs as small areas in the flatwoods. It has the below. Natural fertility is low in the upper 48 inches
profile described as representative of the series. Slopes of sandy material and medium in the sandy clay loam
are 0 to 2 percent. The water table is within 10 inches below. Organic-matter content is low.
of the surface for 2 to 6 months during most years. It Sparr soils are moderately well suited to general
is within 30 inches of the surface for cumulative per- farm. crops. They are well suited to the deep-rooting
iods of more than 6 months. grasses grown in the area.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas, Representative profile of Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 per-
of a similar soil, where the texture is fine sand. Also cent slopes, in an old field approximately 4.1 miles
included are small areas of Pomona and Placid soils, south of Ocala, one-fourth mile west of U.S Highway
spots where sandy clay loam is at a depth of 40 to 80 441, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 4, T. 16 S., R. 22 E.
inches, and a few small areas of a similar soil that has Apl-O to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; mod-
a slope of 2 to 5 percent. Included soils make up about rate medium and coarse granular structure; very
15 percent of any one mapped area. friable; many fine and few medium roots; very
The natural vegetation is slash pine, gallberry, strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
myrtle, and native grasses. Capability unit IVw3 Ap2-5 to 8 inches; mixed dark gray (10YR 4/1), grayish
myrtle, and native grasses. Capability unit IVw-3; brown (10YR 5/2), and pale brown (10YR 6/3)
woodland group 4wl. fine sand; weak medium granular structure; very
Pr-Pompano sand, ponded. This is a very poorly friable; many fine and few medium roots; strongly
drained soil in shallow depressions and sloughs of the acid; clear wavy boundary.
A2-8 to 39 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand;
flatwoods and sandy ridges. It is similar to Pompano common fine distinct light gray mottles; few me
sand, but the water table is within 10 inches of the dium and large grayish brown (10YR 5/2) kroto-
surface for more than 6 months during most years. The vinas; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
surface is covered with water for more than 4 months strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
annually Slo o red 0 to err rentn 4 m A3-39 to 48 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
annually. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent sand; few fine faint yellowish brown and common
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small fine distinct light gray mottles; single grained;
areas, of a similar soil, where the dark colored surface loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
layer is 5 to 10 inches thick or the texture is fine sand. boundary.
B21t--48 to 56 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy
Also included are spots of Anclote, Pomona, and Placid loam; few fine distinct gray and common medium
soils. Included soils make up about 20 percent of any prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; weak
one mapped area. subangular blocky structure; friable; very few
The natural vegetation is commonly water-tolerant roots; few fine pores; about 3 percent plinthite;
clay bridging between sand grains; strongly acid;
grasses and, in some areas, a sparse growth of cypress, clear wav bound sand grains; strongly acid;
gum, and bay. Most areas are still in native vegetation. B22tg-56 to 72 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; common
Capability unit VIIw-2; woodland group 4wl. fine and medium prominent yellowish red (5YR
5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; very few roots; few fine
Sparr Series pores; clay films on faces of peds; about 2 per-
cent plinthite; very strongly acid; clear wavy
The Sparr series consists of nearly level to sloping, boundary.
somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in thick B3g-72 to 99 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam with
beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils lenses of sandy loam; common distinct strong
brown (7.5YR 5/4) and few fine distinct pale
occur as broad areas of the flatwoods and as areas on brown mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
broad ridges of the uplands. The water table fluctuates structure; friable; very strongly acid.
between 30 and 60 inches for 1 month to 4 months dur- The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is very
ing most years. For brief periods it is at a depth of strongly acid or strongly acid in all horizons. A few iron-
about 20 to 30 inches. During dry periods it is at a stone and leached phosphatic nodules less than three-
depth of more than 60 inches. quarters of an inch in diameter are in some pedons.
The A horizon is 40 to 80 inches thick. The texture is
In a representative profile the surface layer is fine fine sand. The Al or Ap horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1),
sand about 8 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is dark dark grayish brown (1,0YR 4/2), gray (10YR 5/1), or
gray, and the lower 3 inches is mixed dark gray, gray- grayish brown (10YR 5/2). It is 4 to 8 inches thick. The
ish brown, and pale brown. The subsurface layer is A2 horizon is grayish brown (10YR 5/2), light brownish
gray (10YR 6/2), very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4), or
about 31 inches of very pale brown fine sand mottled pale brown (10YR 6/3) mottled with shades of gray, yel-
with gray. It is underlain by 9 inches of yellowish low, and brown. It is 30 to 60 inches thick. The A3 horizon
brown fine sand mottled with light gray. The subsoil is yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8) or light yellowish
is between depths of 48 and 99 inches. The upper 8 brown (10YR 6/4). It is 6 to 12 inches thick. Gray mottles
in the A3 horizon and the lower part of the A2 horizon
inches is yellowish brown sandy loam that has yellow- indicate wetness.
ish red and gray mottles and is about 3 percent plinth- The Bt horizon is 0 to 5 percent plinthite. The upper 20
ite, the next 16 inches is mottled gray sandy clay that inches of this horizon is, by weighted average, 15 to 35
is about 2 percent plinthite, and the lower 27 inches percent clay.
The B21t horizon is very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4),
is mottled gray sandy clay loam that has lenses of pale brown (10YR 6/3), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4,
sandy loam. 5/6), or light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottled with
Available water capacity is low in the upper 48 shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red. The gray mottles
inches, medium from 48 to 56 inches, high from 56 to indicate wetness. The texture is sandy clay loam. Thick-
72 inches, and medium from 72 to 99 inches. Prme- ness is 4 to 10 inches.
ab inches, and medium from 72 to 99 inches. Perme- The B22tg horizon is light gray (10YR 7/1) or gray
ability is rapid in the upper 48 inches and moderate (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1) and has common to many







54 SOIL SURVEY

mottles in shades of red, brown, and yellow. The texture Most cleared areas are in improved pasture. Capa-
is sandy clay loam, light sandy clay, or sandy loam. Thick- ability unit IVs-3; woodland group 3sl.
ness is 12 to 20 inches.
The B23tg and B24tg horizons, if they occur, are sandy SuB-Sparr-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
clay loam or light sandy clay 4 to 10 inches thick, slopes. This mapping unit is about 55 to 70 percent
Some pedons have a 3- to 4-inch B1 horizon of loamy somewhat poorly drained Sparr sand and 30 to 45 per-
sand or sandy loam. The colors are similar to those of the cent Urban land. The percentage varies. Sparr sand is
B21t horizon.
The B3g horizon is light gray (10YR 7/1) or gray in open areas, such as parks, playgrounds, and vacant
(10YR 5/1, 6/1) sandy clay loam or sandy loam 8 to 30 lots. Urban land is covered with sidewalks, streets,
inches thick, houses, driveways, industrial buildings, parking lots,
In some pedons a Cg horizon occurs at a depth of 72 and other structures.
inches or more. It is light gray (10YR 7/1) or gray (10YR
6/1, 5/1). The texture is sandy loam or sandy clay loam About 20 to 30 percent of the open area has been
or is mixed sandy loam, sandy clay loam, and loamy sand. modified by the cutting, grading, and spreading of soil
Sparr soils are closely associated with Apopka, Arre- material in preparing sites for buildings, streets, and
dondo, Blichton, Jumper, Kanapaha, Kendrick, and Loch- septic tanks. The soil material excavated is spread
loosa soils. They are more poorly drained than Apopka
and Arredondo soils. They are better drained than Blichton over adjacent areas. In most places it is 1 inch to 12
soils and have a thicker A horizon. They have a thicker inches thick. It is sandy.
A horizon than Jumper soils and are better drained than Included in this unit in mapping are Lochloosa and
Kanapaha soils. They are more poorly drained than Ken- Micanony soils, both of which are similar to the Sparr
drick soils and have a thicker A horizon. Their A horizon
is more than 40 inches thick, whereas that in Lochloosa sand. These included soils make up about 20 percent
soils is 20 to 40 inches thick, of some open areas. Also included are small areas of a
SpB-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is similar soil that has a slope of 5 to8 percent.
a nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly This mapping unit is well suited to lavm grasses and
drained soil that occurs as small and large areas in the ornamental plants. Generally, the wate table is at a
flatwoods and uplands. It has the profile described as depth of 20 to 30 mches for 3 to 6 weeks during wet
representative of the series. The water table fluctuates seasons. It fluctuates between 30 and 60 inches for 1
representative of the series. The water table fluctuates month to 4 months. Durinz dry periods it recedes to a
between 30 and 60 inches for 1 month to 4 months month to 4 more than Dur60 inches. Not assignt reedds to a capa-
during most years. For brief periods it is at a depth of ability unit ore thwoodlan 60 ches Not to a group.
about 20 to 30 inches. During dry periods it is at a bty ut or woodland group.
depth of more than 60 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, Tavares Series
of a similar soil, where the content of plinthite is more
than 5 percent within a depth of 60 inches. Also in- The Tavares series consists of nearly level to gently
cluded are small areas of Arredondo, Jumper, Blich- sloping, moderately well drained soils that formed in
ton, and Apopka soils and small areas of a similar soil thick beds of sandy marine deposits. These soils occur
that has a slope of 5 to 8 percent. Included soils make in the broad sandy flatwoods and along lower slopes of
up about 15 percent of any one mapped area. the sandy uplands. The water table fluctuates between
The natural vegetation is live oak, water oak, post 40 and 60 inches for cumulative periods of 6 months
oak, sweetgum, slash pine, and longleaf pine and an or more during most years. During wet periods it may
understory of waxmyrtle and native grasses. Most rise to within 30 to 40 inches of the surface for pe-
areas are still in native vegetation. Many, however, riods of less than 60 days. During drought periods it
are cleared and are used for cultivated crops and im- recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches.
proved pasture. Capability unit IIIs-3; woodland In a representative profile the surface layer is sand
group 3sl about 6 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is dark gray,
SpC-Sparr fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is and the lower 3 inches is gray. The underlying mate-
a sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil that occurs as rial to a depth of 85 inches is sand. It is pale brown
small areas on seepy hillsides in the uplands. The haz- between depths of 6 and 33 inches, pale brown mottled
ard of erosion is slight. Wet slopes are the result of with yellowish red between 33 and 42: inches, very
hillside seepage. During most years the water table pale brown mottled with yellowish red and light gray
fluctuates between 30 and 60 inches for 1 month to 3 between 42 and 53 inches, light gray mottled with
months. For brief periods of about 3 to 6 weeks, it is very pale brown and yellowish red between 53 and 63
at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. During dry periods it is inches, white mottled with yellowish brown between
at a depth of more than 60 inches. 63 and 67 inches, and white mottled with gray be-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, tween 67 and 85 inches.
of a similar soil, where the content of plinthite is more Available water capacity is very low throughout.
than 5 percent within a depth of 60 inches. Also in- Permeability is very rapid throughout. Natural fer-
cluded are small areas of Arredondo, Jumper, Blich- utility and organic-matter content are low.
ton, and Apopka soils and small areas of a similar soil Tavares soils are moderately well suited to general
that has a slope of 0 to 5 percent. Included soils make farm crops. They are well suited to improved pasture
up about 20 percent of any one mapped area. of the deep-rooting grasses grown in the area.
The natural vegetation is live oak, water oak, post Representative profile of Tavares sand, in an undis-
oak, sweetgum, slash pine, and longleaf pine and an turbed area where the plant cover is slash pine, live
understory of chiefly waxmyrtle and native grasses, oak, turkey oak, and wiregrass; 1.6 miles south of







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 55

State Road 316 at Eureka and 200 feet west of Daisy the deep sandy uplands. The water table fluctuates
Road, NE/NE1/ sec. 20, T. 13, S., R. 24 E. between 40 and 60 inches for cumulative periods of 6
All-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak months or more during most years. During wet pe-
medium granular structure; very friable; many riods it may rise to within 30 to 40 inches of the sur-
fine and few medium roots; common uncoated sand face for periods of less than 60 days. It recedes to a
grains; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary, deuth of more than 60 inches during drought periods.
A12-3 to 6 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; weak fine gran- Included with this soil in mapping are a fw mall
ular structure; loose; many fine and few medium Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
roots; common uncoated sand grains; strongly areas, of a similar soil, where the slope is 5 to 8 per-
acid; clear wavy boundary, cent. Also included are small areas of Adamsville,
C1-6 to 33 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few fine Candler, Apopka, and Pompano soils. Included soils
and medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) m
stripped sand grains; few coarse krotovinas of make up about 15 percent of any one mapped area.
gray (10YR 5/1); loose, single grained; common The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, longleaf
fine and few medium roots; many uncoated sand pine, turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, live oak, and-
grains; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. water oak and native grasses. Most areas are still in
C2-33 to 42 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few nai vegetate M t lr ara ar imrv
fine prominent yellowish red mottles; loose; single native vegetation. Most cleared areas are in improved
grained; few fine and medium roots; many un- pasture. Capability unit IIIs-2; woodland group 3sl.
coated sand grains; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
C3-42 to 53 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4) Terra Ceia Series
sand; common fine and medium prominent yellow-
ish red (5YR 5/8) and few medium distinct light The Terra Ceia series consists of nearly level, very
gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; loose; single grained; poorly drained organic soils that formed largely in
few roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly nonwoody, fibrous hydrophytic plant remains. These
acid; clear wavy boundary.
C4-53 to 63 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; common soils are in freshwater marshes and swamps. Under
coarse distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3) and natural conditions, water is on the surface, except
common fine prominent yellowish red mottles; during extended dry periods. In areas where water is
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains; controlled, the level of the water table is regulated
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C5-63 to 67 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few fine prom- according to the needs of the crops.
inent yellowish brown mottles; single grained; In a representative profile the upper 61 inches is
loose; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; black muck. Below this to a depth of 68 inches is dark
clear wavy boundary. reddish brown mucky peat.
C6-67 to 85 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; common reddish brown mucky peat.
coarse faint gray (10YR 6/1) mottles; single Available water capacity is very high. Permeability
grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains, is rapid. Natural fertility is medium, and organic-
The texture is sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. matter content is very high.
Many of the sand grains are clean. The 10- to 40-inch con- Under natural conditions, Terra Ceia soils are not
trol section is less than 5 percent silt and clay. Reaction is suited to cultivated crops or improved pasture. If
very strongly acid to strongly acid in all horizons. water is controlled, however, they are well suited to
The A horizon is very dark gray (10YR 3/1), dark gray c
(10YR 4/1), gray (10YR 5/1), or grayish brown (10YR commonly grown cultivated crops and to improved
5/2). It is 4 to 8 inches thick. If very dark gray, it is less pasture.
than 6 inches thick. Representative profile of Terra Ceia muck, in a
The upper 40 to 55 inches of the C horizon is light gray marsh along the west bank of the Oklawaha River,
brown (1YR 5/2), very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 8/3, 7/4 approximately 0.6 mile north of State Road 42,
8/4), pale brown (10YR 6/3), yellow (10YR 7/6, 8/6), SE1/NE1/ sec. 19, T. 17 S., R. 25 E.
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4), and light yellowish brown Oal-0 to 22 inches; black (N 2/0) well decomposed or-
(10YR 6/4). The low chromas are the colors of uncoated ganic material (muck); less than 10 percent
sand grains. The lower part of the C horizon is light fibers unrubbed and rubbed; moderate medium
brownish gray (10YR 6/2), gray (10YR 6/1), light gray granular structure; friable; few roots; sodium
(10YR 7/1) and white (10YR 8/1). pyrophosphate extract color is yellowish brown
In many pedons few to common gray streaks of stripped (10YR 5/4); slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary
sand grains and few mottles in shades of yellow, brown, Oa2-32 to 61 inches; black (1rOYR 2/1) well decomposed
and red occur within a depth of about 40 inches. The mot- organic material (muck); 25 percent fibers, less
tles do not indicate wetness. Few to common mottles in than 10 percent rubbed; moderate medium granu-
shades of gray, yellow, and brown occur below a depth lar structure; friable; few roots; sodium pyro-
of 40 inches. These mottles do indicate wetness, phosphate extract color is light yellowish brown
Tavares soils are closely associated with Adamsville, (1.OYR 6/4); neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Apopka, Astatula, Candler, and Pompano soils. They are Oe-61 to 68 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) partly
better drained than Adamsville soils, which have a water decomposed organic material (mucky peat); 60
table that is generally at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. They percent fibers, 25 percent rubbed; massive; sodium
are more poorly drained than Apopka soils and also differ pyrophosphate extract color is white (10YR 8/1,
from those soils in not having a Bt horizon at a depth of 8/2); neutral.
40 to 80 inches. They are better drained than Pompano
soils, which have a water table that is commonly within Measured by the Hellige-Truog method, reaction ranges
a depth of 10 inches, from medium acid to mildly alkaline. The thickness of the
organic material ranges from 52 to more than 75 inches.
TaB-Tavares sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a The Oa horizon ranges from black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1),
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained very dark gray (N 3/0, 5YR 3/1, 10YR 3/1), very dark
sandy soil that occurs as small and large areas in the brown (10YR 2/2), very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2),
sboad soiandflat woods asnd allog th la wer spes on te and dark brown (7.SYR 3/2, 10YR 3/3) to dark reddish
broad sandy flatwoods and along the lower slopes of brown (SYR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3). The fiber content is less than







56 SOIL SURVEY

33 percent before rubbing and less than 10 percent after Under natural conditions, these Terra Ceia soils are
rubbing. Fibers are dominantly from nonwoody plants, but not suited to crops and improved pasture. If water is
in some pedons the fiber content from woody plants is controlled, however, they are well suited to commonly
about 5 to 20 percent before rubbing. The sodium pyro-are well suited to commonly
phosphate extract is very pale brown (10YR 7/4), pale grown crops and to improved pasture.
brown (10YR 6/3), brown (10YR 5/3), light yellowish Representative profile of Terra Ceia muck, acid vari-
brown (10YR 6/4), dark brown (10YR 4/3), and yellowish ant, in a large cypress swamp about 4 miles northwest
thckn (10R 5/4). The O horizon is more than 52 inches of Fort McCoy and 31/2 miles west of State Road 315,
Some pedons have a dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 32, T. 12 S., R. 23 E.
3/3), black (N 2/0, 5YR 2/1, 10YR 2/1), dark brown Oal-0 to 15 inches; well decomposed organic material,
(7.5YR 3/2, 10YR 3/3), very dark brown (10YR 2/2), or black (N 2/0) unrubbed and rubbed; less than 10
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), less well decomposed percent fibers unrubbed and rubbed; moderate
Oe horizon below a depth of 52 inches. The fiber content medium granular structure; friable; many fine
ranges from 33 to 65 percent before rubbing and from 10 roots few medium and large partly decomposed
to 35 percent after rubbing. Fibers of nonwoody plants limbs; sodium pyrophosphate extract color is yel-
are dominant, but those of woody plants occur in some lowish brown (10YR 5/4); very strongly acid;
pedons. The sodium pyrophosphate extract is commonly diffuse wavy boundary.
light gray (10YR 7/2), white (10YR 8/1), or very pale Oa2-15 to inch; dark ddish brown (5YR 3/2) well
brown (10YR 7/3). to 36 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) well
The underlie mr i c n decomposed organic material, very dark gray
he un erlying mineral material is commonly sandy. (5YR 3/1) rubbed; less than 10 percent fibers un-
Terra Ceia soils are closely associated with Anclote, rubbed and rubbed; weak medium granular struc-
Bluff, Okeechobee, and Tomoka soils. They are of organic ture; friable; common fine roots; sodium pyro-
origin, whereas Anclote and Bluff soils are of mineral phosphate extract color is light yellowish brown
origin. They have organic horizons that, combined, are (10YR 6/4); very strongly acid; gradual wavy
more than 52 inches thick, whereas Tomoka soils have an boundary.
organic horizon that is 16 to 40 inches thick. They have Oa3-36 to 65 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) well
sapric horizons to a depth of more than 52 inches, whereas decomposed organic material, (SYR 2/2) rubbed;
Okeechobee soils have a hemic horizon within a depth of less than 10 percent fibers unrubbed and rubbed;
52 inches. massive; few fine roots; sodium pyrophosphate
Tc-Terra Ceia muck. This is a very poorly drained strt l is pale brown (10Y 6/3); very
organic soil that occurs as small and large areas in the Measured by the Hellige-Truog method, reaction ranges
swamps and marshes adjacent to the Okalwaha River. r Measured by the tellige-Truog method, reaction ranges
swamps and marshes adjacent to the Okalwaha River. from extremely acid to strongly acid in all horizons. The
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions, thickness of the organic material ranges from 52 to more
water is on the surface, except during extended dry than 80 inches. Fibers of both woody and nonwoody plants
periods. In areas where water is controlled, the level occur in most pedons, but those of nonwoody plants are
of the water table is regulated according to the needs moe a nhrizon is more than 52 inches thick. The Oal
of the crops, horizon is black (N 2/0), very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas 3/1), or very dark brown (10YR 2/2). It is 6 to 24 inches
of a very poorly drained, nonacid soil that has an thick. The Oa2 and Oa3 horizons are very dark gray (N
organic layer less than 16 inches deep over sandy ma- 3/2, YveR 3, rk rwn(10YR 2 o d ar k ra dish brown 1
trial. Also included are small areas of Anclote, Okee- (5YR 3/2, 3/3).
chobee, Tomoka, and Bluff soils. Included soils make The fiber content to a depth of more than 52 inches is
up about 25 percent of any one mapped area. less than 33 percent before rubbing and less than 10 per-
cent after rubbing. The sodium pyrophosphate extract to
The natural vegetation is either an aquatic plant a depth of at least 52 inches is very pale brown (10YR
cover of grasses, waterhyacinths, and sawgrass or a 7/4), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), brown (10YR
swamp hardwood growth of bay, maple, gum, cypress, 5/3), dark brown (10YR 4/3), and yellowish brown
and palm. Most areas are still in natural vegetation. (10YR 5/4).
Capabili unit IIIw-8; not assigned to a woodland An Oe horizon of organic material that is not so well
Capability nit Iw-8; not assigned to a woodland decomposed occurs below a depth of 52 inches in some
group. pedons. The fiber content is more than 40 percent before
rubbing and about 10 to 40 percent after rubbing.
The underlying mineral material is sand or loamy sand
Terra Ceia Variant over sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
The Terra Ceia variant is associated with Okeechobee,
The Terra Ceia variant consists of nearly level, very Tomoka, and other Terra Ceia soils. It is more acid than
poorly drained organic soils that formed largely in other Terra Ceia soils. It has a thicker Oa horizon than
nonwoody, fibrous hydrophytic plant remains mixed Okeechobee soils and is more acid. It has organic horizons
nonwoody, fibrous hydrophytic plant remains mixed that, combined, are more than 52 inches thick, whereas
with aquatic woody material. These soils are in cy- Tomoka soils have an organic horizon that is 16 to 40
press ponds, large swamps, and marshes in the flat- inches deep over a sandy mineral horizon.
woods. Under natural conditions, water is on the sur- Te-Terra Ceia muck, acid variant. This is a very
face, except during extended dry periods. In areas poorly drained organic soil in large isolated cypress
where water is controlled, the level of the water table ponds, large swamps, and marshes in the flatwoods.
is regulated according to the needs of the crops. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions,
In a representative profile the soil is muck to a depth water is on the surface, except during extended dry
of more than 65 inches. The upper 15 inches is black, periods. In areas where water is controlled, the level
and the lower 50 inches is dark reddish brown. of the water table is regulated according to the needs
Available water capacity is very high. Permeability of the crops.
is rapid. Natural fertility is medium. Organic-matter Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
content is very high. of an acid, well decomposed muck that is less than 52







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 57

inches deep over mucky peat and small areas of an horizon is 16 to 40 inches thick. Measured by the Hellige-
acid muck that is less than 16 inches deep over sand, Truog method, reaction ranges from strongly acid to
slightly acid.
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. Also included are The IIC1 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish
small areas of Tomoka and Okeechobee soils. Included brown (10YR 5/2), light grayish brown (10YR 6/2), or
soils make up about 12 percent of any one mapped light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) sand, fine sand, or loamy sand.
It is 6 to 24 inches thick. Reaction is strongly acid to
area. medium acid.
This soil is still in natural vegetation of either The IIC2 horizon is very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1),
aquatic plants, including grasses, sedges, and water- dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), or gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1)
hyacinths, and cypress and titi or a swamp hardwood sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam. Reaction
growth of bay, maple, gum, and cypress. Capability is medium acid to slightly acid.
Reaction in these soils is not within the range defined for
unit IIIw-8; not assigned to a woodland group, the Tomoka series, but this difference does not alter use
or management.
omo S ie Tomoka soils are closely associated with Anclote, Bluff,
Tomoka Series Okeechobee, and Terra Ceia soils. They are of organic
e Tomoa sries c sis f n l v origin, whereas Anclote soils are of mineral origin. They
The Tomoka series consists of nearly level, very are organic in the upper 16 to 40 inches and mineral below,
poorly drained organic soils that formed in nonwoody, whereas Anclote soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches
fibrous hydrophytic plant remains. These soils are in or more, Okeechobee soils are organic to a depth of more
freshwater marshes and swamps. Under natural con- than 52 inches, and Terra Ceia soils are well decomposed
editions, water is on the surface, except during ex- organic material to a depth of more than 52 inches.
tended dry periods. In areas where water is controlled, To-Tomoka muck. This is a very poorly drained
the level of the water table is regulated according to organic soil that occurs as small and large areas in the
the needs of the crops. marshes and swamps along the Oklawaha River.
In a representative profile the upper 32 inches is Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions,
black muck that is less than 5 percent fibers. Between the water table is at the surface, except during ex-
depths of 32 and 43 inches is gray sand. Below this to tended dry periods. In areas where water is controlled,
a depth of 60 inches is dark gray sandy clay loam. the level of the water table is regulated according to
Available water capacity is very high in the upper the needs of the crops.
32 inches, low from 32 to 43 inches, and medium be- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
low. Permeability is rapid in the upper 43 inches and where the organic layer is less than 16 inches thick, a
moderate to moderately rapid below. Natural fertility few small areas where 16 to 40 inches of muck overlies
is medium. Organic-matter content is very high in the sandy clay or clay, and small areas where the upper 12
organic layer and low in the underlying mineral to 20 inches is muck and the next 10 to 24 inches is
layers. mucky peat that is underlain by sandy material. Also
Under natural conditions, Tomoka soils are not included are small areas of Anclote, Terra Ceia, Okee-
suited to cultivated crops and improved pasture. If chobee, and Bluff soils. Included soils make up about
water is controlled, however, they are well suited to 20 percent of any one mapped area.
certain cultivated crops and to improved pasture. The natural vegetation is mostly aquatic grasses,
Representative profile of Tomoka muck, in a culti- sedges, waterhyacinths, and sawgrass. In some areas
vated area of the Oklawaha Farm, just south of old it is a swamp hardwood growth of white bay, red
river bed in southern part of the farm, 2 miles north- maple, gum, palm, and cypress. Many areas are culti-
west of Moss Bluff, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 16, T. 16 S., R. vated. The rest is still in native vegetation. Capability
24 E. unit mw-8; not assigned to a woodland group.
Oap-0 to 32 inches; well decomposed organic material
(muck), black (N 2/0) unrubbed and rubbed; less
than 5 percent fibers unrubbed and rubbed; mod- Udalfic Arents
rate medium granular structure; friable; common
fine roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is dark Udalfic Arents consist of well drained, heterogene-
yellowish brown (10YR 3/4); strongly acid; abrupt ous, unconsolidated soil material excavated from mine
wavy boundary.
IC1--32 to 43 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common pits and piled adjacent to the pits during mining and
medium faint streaks of dark gray (10YR 4/1); of similar soil material that has been shaped and is
single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly used mainly for crops and improved pasture.
acid; clear wavy boundary.
IIC2-43 to 60 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sandy clay loam; A representative profile of Udalfic Arents, 0 to 5
weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm, percent slopes, to a depth of 14 inches is mixed mate-
slightly sticky and plastic; slightly acid. rial that is about 56 percent light yellowish brown
The Oa horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), very dark and strong brown sandy clay loam, 34 percent light
brown (10YR 2/2), very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), yellowish brown sandy clay, and 10 percent hard lime-
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), or dark reddish stone fragments less than 3 inches in diameter. Below
brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2). The fiber content before rubbing this, to a depth of 33 inches, is mixed material that is
is commonly less than 10 percent, but ranges to 33 percent. t a depots s d material tat
After rubbing, it is less than 10 percent. Fibers of herbace- about 60 percent yellowish brown sandy loam and
ous plants are dominant, but a few fibers of woody plants sandy clay loam, 33 percent sandy clay, and 7 percent
occur in some pedons. The sodium pyrophosphate extract hard limestone fragments less than 3 inches in diam-
is pale brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR
i/4), yellowish brown (1OYR 5/4), dark brown (10YR 4/3 eter. Between depths of 33 and 65 inches is fine sand,
3/3), and dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, 3/4). The Oa which is the original soil material. The upper 6 inches







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 57

inches deep over mucky peat and small areas of an horizon is 16 to 40 inches thick. Measured by the Hellige-
acid muck that is less than 16 inches deep over sand, Truog method, reaction ranges from strongly acid to
slightly acid.
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. Also included are The IIC1 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish
small areas of Tomoka and Okeechobee soils. Included brown (10YR 5/2), light grayish brown (10YR 6/2), or
soils make up about 12 percent of any one mapped light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2) sand, fine sand, or loamy sand.
It is 6 to 24 inches thick. Reaction is strongly acid to
area. medium acid.
This soil is still in natural vegetation of either The IIC2 horizon is very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1),
aquatic plants, including grasses, sedges, and water- dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1), or gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1)
hyacinths, and cypress and titi or a swamp hardwood sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam. Reaction
growth of bay, maple, gum, and cypress. Capability is medium acid to slightly acid.
Reaction in these soils is not within the range defined for
unit IIIw-8; not assigned to a woodland group, the Tomoka series, but this difference does not alter use
or management.
omo S ie Tomoka soils are closely associated with Anclote, Bluff,
Tomoka Series Okeechobee, and Terra Ceia soils. They are of organic
e Tomoa sries c sis f n l v origin, whereas Anclote soils are of mineral origin. They
The Tomoka series consists of nearly level, very are organic in the upper 16 to 40 inches and mineral below,
poorly drained organic soils that formed in nonwoody, whereas Anclote soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches
fibrous hydrophytic plant remains. These soils are in or more, Okeechobee soils are organic to a depth of more
freshwater marshes and swamps. Under natural con- than 52 inches, and Terra Ceia soils are well decomposed
editions, water is on the surface, except during ex- organic material to a depth of more than 52 inches.
tended dry periods. In areas where water is controlled, To-Tomoka muck. This is a very poorly drained
the level of the water table is regulated according to organic soil that occurs as small and large areas in the
the needs of the crops. marshes and swamps along the Oklawaha River.
In a representative profile the upper 32 inches is Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. Under natural conditions,
black muck that is less than 5 percent fibers. Between the water table is at the surface, except during ex-
depths of 32 and 43 inches is gray sand. Below this to tended dry periods. In areas where water is controlled,
a depth of 60 inches is dark gray sandy clay loam. the level of the water table is regulated according to
Available water capacity is very high in the upper the needs of the crops.
32 inches, low from 32 to 43 inches, and medium be- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
low. Permeability is rapid in the upper 43 inches and where the organic layer is less than 16 inches thick, a
moderate to moderately rapid below. Natural fertility few small areas where 16 to 40 inches of muck overlies
is medium. Organic-matter content is very high in the sandy clay or clay, and small areas where the upper 12
organic layer and low in the underlying mineral to 20 inches is muck and the next 10 to 24 inches is
layers. mucky peat that is underlain by sandy material. Also
Under natural conditions, Tomoka soils are not included are small areas of Anclote, Terra Ceia, Okee-
suited to cultivated crops and improved pasture. If chobee, and Bluff soils. Included soils make up about
water is controlled, however, they are well suited to 20 percent of any one mapped area.
certain cultivated crops and to improved pasture. The natural vegetation is mostly aquatic grasses,
Representative profile of Tomoka muck, in a culti- sedges, waterhyacinths, and sawgrass. In some areas
vated area of the Oklawaha Farm, just south of old it is a swamp hardwood growth of white bay, red
river bed in southern part of the farm, 2 miles north- maple, gum, palm, and cypress. Many areas are culti-
west of Moss Bluff, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 16, T. 16 S., R. vated. The rest is still in native vegetation. Capability
24 E. unit mw-8; not assigned to a woodland group.
Oap-0 to 32 inches; well decomposed organic material
(muck), black (N 2/0) unrubbed and rubbed; less
than 5 percent fibers unrubbed and rubbed; mod- Udalfic Arents
rate medium granular structure; friable; common
fine roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is dark Udalfic Arents consist of well drained, heterogene-
yellowish brown (10YR 3/4); strongly acid; abrupt ous, unconsolidated soil material excavated from mine
wavy boundary.
IC1--32 to 43 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common pits and piled adjacent to the pits during mining and
medium faint streaks of dark gray (10YR 4/1); of similar soil material that has been shaped and is
single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly used mainly for crops and improved pasture.
acid; clear wavy boundary.
IIC2-43 to 60 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sandy clay loam; A representative profile of Udalfic Arents, 0 to 5
weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm, percent slopes, to a depth of 14 inches is mixed mate-
slightly sticky and plastic; slightly acid. rial that is about 56 percent light yellowish brown
The Oa horizon is black (N 2/0, 10YR 2/1), very dark and strong brown sandy clay loam, 34 percent light
brown (10YR 2/2), very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), yellowish brown sandy clay, and 10 percent hard lime-
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), or dark reddish stone fragments less than 3 inches in diameter. Below
brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2). The fiber content before rubbing this, to a depth of 33 inches, is mixed material that is
is commonly less than 10 percent, but ranges to 33 percent. t a depots s d material tat
After rubbing, it is less than 10 percent. Fibers of herbace- about 60 percent yellowish brown sandy loam and
ous plants are dominant, but a few fibers of woody plants sandy clay loam, 33 percent sandy clay, and 7 percent
occur in some pedons. The sodium pyrophosphate extract hard limestone fragments less than 3 inches in diam-
is pale brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR
i/4), yellowish brown (1OYR 5/4), dark brown (10YR 4/3 eter. Between depths of 33 and 65 inches is fine sand,
3/3), and dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, 3/4). The Oa which is the original soil material. The upper 6 inches







58 SOIL SURVEY

is dark grayish brown, the next 4 inches is pale brown, ments more than 3 inches in diameter is 0 to 5 percent.
and the lower 23 inches is light yellowish brown. The rock fragments are hard carbonatic material or weath-
Available water capacity and pemeability vary, ered, leached limestone.
Available water capacity and permeability vary, The original soil material below the unconsolidated mate-
but available water capacity is mostly low or medium rial varies, ranging from several feet of sand to loamy
and permeability mostly moderate to rapid in the sand over loamy and clayey soil.
unconsolidated material. Where the slope is 0 to 5 per- UaA-Udalfic Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
cent, permeability is rapid in the sandy material be- mapping unit is mixed material that has been
low the unconsolidated material. Natural fertility is smoothed and shaped. This material was piled adja-
low to medium. Organic-matter content is generally cent to surface mines during mining. It was later
low. spread over the,surface of adjacent soils and then
Udalfic Arents that are piled adjacent to the mine shaped or leveled. It is commonly about 24 to 48 inches
pits are unsuitable for crops, improved pasture, and thick, but in places is more than 60 inches thick. In a
forestry. Udalfic Arents that have been shaped are few areas it is about 1 to 5 percent hard limestone
used mostly for special crops and improved pasture, fragments. The soils buried under this material have
Representative profile of Udalfic Arents, 0 to 5 per- retained their original properties. In about 55 percent
cent slopes, 2 miles north of Ocala and 250 feet west of the delineated areas, they can be identified. These
of U.S. Highways 441 and 301, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 36, areas are about 60 percent Fellowship, Hague, Ken-
T. 14 S., R. 21 E. drick, and Zuber soils and 40 percent Arredondo and
C1-0 to 14 inches; mixed soil material; about 56 percent Candler soils. The water table is below a depth of 72
of the matrix is light yellowish brown (10YR inches.
6/4) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy clay Included in this unit in mapping are a few areas of
loam, and 34 percent of the mixed material is light fill material that is mostly sandy soil and small areas
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) sandy clay; massive;
friable and some firm; about 10 percent hard where only about 12 to 24 inches of mixed material
limestone fragments less than 3 inches in diam- overlies uniform soil material. Also included are a few
eter; neutral; gradual irregular boundary, small areas where organic and inorganic refuse has
C2-14 to 33 inches; mixed soil material; about 60 percent been placed in old mines. This refuse has been mixed
of the mixed material is yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) sandy loam and sandy clay loam, and 33 per- with fill material and is also used as cover material.
cent is sandy clay; few medium streaks and clumps In a few spots the water table is within 20 to 72 inches
of dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4); massive; of the surface. Included areas make up about 15 per-
friable and some firm; about 7 percent hard lime- cent of the unit.
stone fragments less than 3 inches in diameter;
neutral; clear irregular boundary. This mapping unit is used mostly for special truck
Ab-33 to 38 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine crops or improved pasture. Capability unit VIs-4; not
sand; single grained; loose; thin streaks of sandy assigned to a woodland group.
loam; about 4 percent hard limestone fragments A representative profile of Udafic Aents, 15 to 60
less than 3 inches in diameter; slightly acid; clear A representative profile of Udalfic Arents, 15 to 60
wavy boundary, percent slopes, to a depth of 90 inches is mixed mate-
A21b-38 to 42 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; rial that is about 55 percent dark brown and yellowish
single grained; loose; few fine faint light gray brown sandy loam and sandy clay loam, 28 percent
clean sand streaks; medium acid; clear wavy dark yellowish brown sandy clay having thin streaks
boundary.
A22b-42 to 65 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) of strong brown, 15 percent hard limestone fragments
fine sand; few fine faint pale brown mottles; single less than 3 inches in diameter, and 2 percent hard
grained; loose; strongly acid. limestone fragments more than 3 inches in diameter.
Udalfic Arents are associated with Arredondo, Candler, Between depths of 90 and 180 inches is yellowish
Fellowship, Hague, Kendrick, and Zuber soils. They are brown, light yellowish brown, and dark yellowish
mixed and have no definite horizons, whereas those soils brown sandy, loamy, and clayey soil material that is
have a sandy A horizon and a loamy or clayey Bt horizon. brown sandy, loamy, and clayey soil material that is
Reaction is strongly acid to neutral. The unconsolidated about 25 percent hard limestone fragments less than
soil material is mainly very pale brown (10YR 7/4), pale 3 inches in diameter and about 2 percent hard lime-
brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), stone fragments more than 3 inches in diameter.
yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6), dark brown (10YR 3/3,
4/3), brown (10 YR 5/3), dark yellowish brown (10YR Representative profile of Udalfic Arents, 15 to 60
3/4, 4/4), and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8). In some percent slopes, one-half mile south of Lowell and one-
areas it has a few thin streaks of gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR half mile east of State Road 25A, T. 13 S., R. 21 E.
5/1, 6/1). (John Broward Grant) :
The matrix is a mixture of sandy loam, sandy clay loam,
and sandy clay or a mixture of sandy, loamy, and clayey C1-0 to 90 inches; mixed soil material; about 55 percent
soil material. The loamy material is dominant in most of the matrix is dark brown (10YR 4/3) and yel-
areas, ranging from about 40 to 60 percent of the matrix. lowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy loam and sandy
The unconsolidated material is 2 to 5 feet thick. The sandy clay loam, and 28 percent of the mixed material
loam, sandy clay loam, and sandy clay appear to be frag- is dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy clay
ments of argillic horizons. These fragments are scattered with thin streaks of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6);
throughout the soil and are mixed with material from massive; friable and some firm; about 15 percent
other horizons, hard limestone fragments less than 3 inches in
Thin, discontinuous clay films are in the fragments of diameter, 2 percent more than 3 inches in diam-
argillic horizons that are sandy clay. Clay bridging be- eter; slightly acid; gradual irregular boundary.
tween sand grains is evident in the fragments of argillic C2-90 to 180 inches; mixed soil material; yellowish brown
horizons that are sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The con- (10YR 5/4) and light yellowish brown (10YR
tent of rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter is, 6/4) sandy, loamy, and clayey material; massive;
by volume, about 5 to 15 percent. The content .f rock frag- friable; about 25 percent hard limestone fragments







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 59

less than 3 inches in diameter, 2 percent more Wacahoota soils are only moderately well suited to
than 3 inches in diameter; slightly acid. the crops commonly grown in the area. They are well
The unconsolidated material is 7 to 20 feet thick. The suited to improved pasture of locally grown grasses
content of rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter and legumes.
is, by volume, about 10 to 35 percent. Representative profile of Wacahoota loamy sand, 5
UaF-Udalfic Arents, 15 to 60 percent slopes. This to 8 percent slopes, in a bahiagrass pasture three-
mapping unit is well drained mixed soil material and quarters of a mile west of Interstate Highway 75 and
unconsolidated material that has been excavated from 300 feet south of State Road 320, NW1/4NW/4 sec. 14,
and piled adjacent to mine pits. These materials re- T. 12 S., R. 20 E.
main in the position in which they were deposited. Ap-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand;
Areas are generally small. The water table is at a moderate medium granular structure; very friable;
depth of more than 72 inches. common fine roots; about 2 percent gravel; strongly
Included in this unit in mapping are a few small acid; clear wavy boundary.
areas of Udalfic Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. In a few A2-5 to 29 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) loamy sand; weak
areas of Udalfic Arents, to 5 percent slopes. In a ew fine granular structure; friable; few fine roots;
areas the mixed soil material is dominantly pale about 18 percent weathered phosphatic limestone
brownish sandy material. Included soils make up less gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
than 12 percent of any one mapped area. B21tg-29 to 38 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam;
Weeds, shrubs, and grasses have become established moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
Weeds, shrubs, and grasses have become established friable; few fine roots; thin discontinuous clay
in some areas. In some of the older areas, some trees films on faces of peds; about 23 percent gravel;
have reseeded naturally. Many areas are bare or have very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
sparse vegetation. Capability unit VIIIs-1; not as- B22tg-38 to 61 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam;
few fine distinct light gray and very pale brown
signed to a woodland group. mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; few roots; thin discontinuous clay
Urban Land films on faces of peds; about 14 percent gravel;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Ur-Urban land is more than 70 percent covered B3g-61 to 78 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam;
few fine distinct brownish yellow and greenish
with shopping centers, parking lots, large buildings, gray mottles; weak fine subangular blocky struc-
streets, sidewalks, and other structures. Observation ture; firm; about 11 percent gravel; very strongly
of the soil is impossible. Arredondo, Candler, Hague, acid.
Kendrick, Sparr, and Blichton soils are in open areas, The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Except in a limed
such as parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds. They have Ap horizon, reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
medium acid. Th6 solum is, by volume, 5 to 25 percent
been altered by cutting, ditching, and shaping, and gravel or weathered rock fragments less than 3 inches in
the surface is covered with 5 to 12 inches of sandy fill diameter and 0 to 5 percent ironstone nodules less than
material. The open areas are too small to be mapped three-quarters of an inch in diameter.
separately. Included in mapping are small areas where The A horizon is loamy sand. The Al or Ap horizon is
only 60 to 70 percent of the surface is covered with very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR
only 60 to 70 percent of the surface is covered with 4/1), or gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1). It is 4 to 6 inches thick.
urban structures. Included areas make up about 20 If very dark gray, it is less than 6 inches thick. The A2
percent of this unit. Not assigned to a capability unit horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish brown (10YR
or woodland group. 6/2), or light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2). It is 20 to 32 inches
thick.
The B2tg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
Wacahoota Series or dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) and in most pedons is
mottled with shades of yellow, brown, and red. It is com-
The Wacahoota series consists of sloping, poorly only sandy clay loam, but in some pedons it is sandy clay
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and and the clay content is about 37 percent. This horizon is
0 to 5 percent plinthite.
loamy marine deposits. These soils occur as small and Some pedons have a 3- to 5-inch Big horizon of sandy
large areas on wet slopes in the uplands. They are loam that has the same color range as the B2tg horizon.
saturated with a water table that, as a result of hill- The B3g horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0, 10YR 5/1, 6/1) or
side seepage, is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 light gray (10YR 7/1) mottled with shades of yellow,
month to 4 months during most years. brown, and red. It is sandy clay loam that in a few pedons
month to 4 months during most years, has a few lenses of sandy loam. It is 10 inches or more
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark thick.
gray loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface The Cg horizon, if it occurs, is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1) or
layer is gray loamy sand about 24 inches thick. It is, light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay loam.
Wacahoota soils are closely associated with Blichton,
by volume, about 18 percent weathered phosphatic Boardman, Fellowship, and Flemington soils. Their solum
limestone gravel. The subsoil to a depth of 78 inches is is 5 to 25 percent, by volume, rock fragments or gravel
mottled gray sandy clay loam. The upper 32 inches is, whereas that of Blichton soils is less than 5 percent. Their
by volume, about 14 percent rock fragments less than A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick, whereas that of Board-
man soils is less than 20 inches thick. They contain more
3 inches in diameter, and the lower 17 inches is 10 rock fragments or gravel than Fellowship soils and have
percent, a thicker, lighter colored A horizon and a coarser textured
Available water capacity is low in the upper 29 Btg horizon. They contain more rock fragments or gravel
inches and low to medium below. Permeability is throughout the solum than Flemington soils and have a
thicker A horizon and a coarser textured Btg horizon.
rapid in the upper 29 inches of sandy soil and moder-
ate below. Natural fertility and organic-matter con- WaC-Wacahoota loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
tent are low. This is a sloping, poorly drained soil that occurs as







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 59

less than 3 inches in diameter, 2 percent more Wacahoota soils are only moderately well suited to
than 3 inches in diameter; slightly acid. the crops commonly grown in the area. They are well
The unconsolidated material is 7 to 20 feet thick. The suited to improved pasture of locally grown grasses
content of rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter and legumes.
is, by volume, about 10 to 35 percent. Representative profile of Wacahoota loamy sand, 5
UaF-Udalfic Arents, 15 to 60 percent slopes. This to 8 percent slopes, in a bahiagrass pasture three-
mapping unit is well drained mixed soil material and quarters of a mile west of Interstate Highway 75 and
unconsolidated material that has been excavated from 300 feet south of State Road 320, NW1/4NW/4 sec. 14,
and piled adjacent to mine pits. These materials re- T. 12 S., R. 20 E.
main in the position in which they were deposited. Ap-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand;
Areas are generally small. The water table is at a moderate medium granular structure; very friable;
depth of more than 72 inches. common fine roots; about 2 percent gravel; strongly
Included in this unit in mapping are a few small acid; clear wavy boundary.
areas of Udalfic Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. In a few A2-5 to 29 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) loamy sand; weak
areas of Udalfic Arents, to 5 percent slopes. In a ew fine granular structure; friable; few fine roots;
areas the mixed soil material is dominantly pale about 18 percent weathered phosphatic limestone
brownish sandy material. Included soils make up less gravel; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
than 12 percent of any one mapped area. B21tg-29 to 38 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam;
Weeds, shrubs, and grasses have become established moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
Weeds, shrubs, and grasses have become established friable; few fine roots; thin discontinuous clay
in some areas. In some of the older areas, some trees films on faces of peds; about 23 percent gravel;
have reseeded naturally. Many areas are bare or have very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
sparse vegetation. Capability unit VIIIs-1; not as- B22tg-38 to 61 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam;
few fine distinct light gray and very pale brown
signed to a woodland group. mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; few roots; thin discontinuous clay
Urban Land films on faces of peds; about 14 percent gravel;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Ur-Urban land is more than 70 percent covered B3g-61 to 78 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam;
few fine distinct brownish yellow and greenish
with shopping centers, parking lots, large buildings, gray mottles; weak fine subangular blocky struc-
streets, sidewalks, and other structures. Observation ture; firm; about 11 percent gravel; very strongly
of the soil is impossible. Arredondo, Candler, Hague, acid.
Kendrick, Sparr, and Blichton soils are in open areas, The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Except in a limed
such as parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds. They have Ap horizon, reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
medium acid. Th6 solum is, by volume, 5 to 25 percent
been altered by cutting, ditching, and shaping, and gravel or weathered rock fragments less than 3 inches in
the surface is covered with 5 to 12 inches of sandy fill diameter and 0 to 5 percent ironstone nodules less than
material. The open areas are too small to be mapped three-quarters of an inch in diameter.
separately. Included in mapping are small areas where The A horizon is loamy sand. The Al or Ap horizon is
only 60 to 70 percent of the surface is covered with very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR
only 60 to 70 percent of the surface is covered with 4/1), or gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1). It is 4 to 6 inches thick.
urban structures. Included areas make up about 20 If very dark gray, it is less than 6 inches thick. The A2
percent of this unit. Not assigned to a capability unit horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish brown (10YR
or woodland group. 6/2), or light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2). It is 20 to 32 inches
thick.
The B2tg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
Wacahoota Series or dark gray (N 4/0, 10YR 4/1) and in most pedons is
mottled with shades of yellow, brown, and red. It is com-
The Wacahoota series consists of sloping, poorly only sandy clay loam, but in some pedons it is sandy clay
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and and the clay content is about 37 percent. This horizon is
0 to 5 percent plinthite.
loamy marine deposits. These soils occur as small and Some pedons have a 3- to 5-inch Big horizon of sandy
large areas on wet slopes in the uplands. They are loam that has the same color range as the B2tg horizon.
saturated with a water table that, as a result of hill- The B3g horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0, 10YR 5/1, 6/1) or
side seepage, is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 light gray (10YR 7/1) mottled with shades of yellow,
month to 4 months during most years. brown, and red. It is sandy clay loam that in a few pedons
month to 4 months during most years, has a few lenses of sandy loam. It is 10 inches or more
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark thick.
gray loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface The Cg horizon, if it occurs, is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1) or
layer is gray loamy sand about 24 inches thick. It is, light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay loam.
Wacahoota soils are closely associated with Blichton,
by volume, about 18 percent weathered phosphatic Boardman, Fellowship, and Flemington soils. Their solum
limestone gravel. The subsoil to a depth of 78 inches is is 5 to 25 percent, by volume, rock fragments or gravel
mottled gray sandy clay loam. The upper 32 inches is, whereas that of Blichton soils is less than 5 percent. Their
by volume, about 14 percent rock fragments less than A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick, whereas that of Board-
man soils is less than 20 inches thick. They contain more
3 inches in diameter, and the lower 17 inches is 10 rock fragments or gravel than Fellowship soils and have
percent, a thicker, lighter colored A horizon and a coarser textured
Available water capacity is low in the upper 29 Btg horizon. They contain more rock fragments or gravel
inches and low to medium below. Permeability is throughout the solum than Flemington soils and have a
thicker A horizon and a coarser textured Btg horizon.
rapid in the upper 29 inches of sandy soil and moder-
ate below. Natural fertility and organic-matter con- WaC-Wacahoota loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
tent are low. This is a sloping, poorly drained soil that occurs as







60 SOIL SURVEY

small, sharp-breaking areas or large areas on long miles northwest of Blichton, SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 25, T.
slopes in the uplands. It is saturated with a water 13 S., R. 19 E.
table that, as a result of hillside seepage, is within 10 A1-0 to 5 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) gravelly sand; weak
inches of the surface for 1 month to 4 months during medium granular structure; very friable; many
most years. Surface runoff is medium, fine roots; about 25 percent hard pebbles and
Included with this soil in mapping are a few spots gravel or rock fragments less than 3 inches in
of Blichton, Boardman, Fellowship, and Flemington some erac; aboders on the surface; very
soils and a few small areas where the soil is 25 to more A2-5 to 31 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) gravelly sand;
than 35 percent gravel or rock fragments less than 3 common medium faint light gray (10YR 7/1) and
inches in diameter. Also included are spots of a soil common medium faint gray (10IR 6/1) mottles;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; about 35 to
similar to Wacahoota loamy sand and some areas of a 40 percent hard pebbles and gravel or rock frag-
Blichton soil, both of which have slopes of 2 to 5 or 8 ments less than 3 inches in diameter; very strongly
to 12 percent. The rock outcrop and sinkholes that acid; clear wavy boundary.
occur in some areas are identified by spot symbols on B21tg-31 to 36 inches; gray (N 5/0) gravelly sandy loam;
the soil map. Included soils make up less than 20 per- weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
few fine roots; about 45 percent hard pebbles and
cent of any one mapped area. gravel or leached rock fragments less than 3 inches
The natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine, in diameter, a few more than 3 inches in diameter;
longleaf pine, water oak, laurel oak, dogwood, sweet- 2 percent yellowish red (5YR 4/6) plinthic nod-
gum, and hickory and an understory of waxmyrtle and ules; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
native grasses. Most areas are still in forest. Most B22tg-36 to 63 inches; gray (N 5/0) gravelly sandy clay
native grasses. Most areas are still in forest. Most loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown mottles;
cleared areas are in improved pasture. Capability unit moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
IVw-1; woodland group 2wl. firm; few fine roots; few thin discontinuous clay
films on ped faces; about 50 percent hard pebbles
and gravel or rock fragments less than 3 inches
Wacahoota Variant in diameter, a few more than 3 inches in diam-
eter; about 2 percent yellowish red (5YR 4/6)
The Wacahoota variant consists of gently sloping soft plinthic nodules; very strongly acid; clear
to sloping, poorly drained soils that formed in thick wavy boundary.
beds of loamy deposits influenced by phosphatic mate- B3g-63 to 72 inches; gray (N 5/0) gravelly sandy clay
rial. Ths sis occur as a ar in h plnd loam; common fine and medium distinct light yel-
rial. These soils occur as small areas in the uplands, lowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; weak medium
At least the upper 20 inches of the subsoil is, by vol- subangular blocky structure; firm; few thin clay
ume, more than 35 percent hard iron concretions, films on ped faces; about 35 percent gravel or
phosphatic pebbles, gravel or siliceous rock fragments, leached phosphatic rock fragments less than 3
and leached phosphatic rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter; 2 percent yellowish red (5YR
and leached phosphatic rock fragments less than 3 4/6) soft plinthic nodules; very strongly acid;
inches in diameter. The water table is within 10 inches clear wavy boundary.
of the surface for periods of 1 month to 4 months dur- Cg-72 to 78 inches; gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam or light
ing most years. During day periods it recedes to a sandy clay; few medium faint light gray (5Y
depth of more than 40 inches. 7/1), few fine prominent yellowish red, and com-
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray mon fine distinct yellow mottles; massive; i;
few fine slightly firm strong brown concretions;
gravelly sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface about 5 percent gravel or leached phosphatic rock
layer is light gray gravelly sand about 26 inches thick. fragments less than 3 inches in diameter; very
The subsoil extends to a depth of 72 inches. The upper strongly acid.
5 inches is gray gravelly sandy loam, the next 27 The solum is 60 inches or more thick. The A and Bg hori-
inches is mottled gray gravelly sandy clay loam, and zons are 0 to 1.0 percent rock fragments more than 3
the lower 9 inches is mottled gray gravelly sandy clay inches in diameter. In some pedons they are more than 35
loam. The underlying material to a depth of 78 inches pec Arorizon s gravelly sand. Reaction ranges from
is mottled gray sandy clay loam or light sandy clay very strongly acid to medium acid. The Al or Ap horizon
that is less than 5 percent gravel or leached phos- is very dark gray (N 3/0, 10YR 3/1), dark gray (N 4/0,
phatic rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter. 10YR 4/1), or gray (N 5/0, 10YR 5/1). It is 15 to 25 per-
cent gravel or rock fragments less than 3 inches in diam-
Available water capacity is very low in the upper 31 eter. Thickness is 4 to 6 inches. The A2 horizon is gray
inches, low to very low from 31 to 72 inches, and me- (10YR 6/1), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), or light gray
dium below. Natural fertility is low in the upper 31 (10 YR 7/1, 7/2). It is 22 to 32 inches thick.
inches and medium below. Permeability is rapid in the The Btg horizon is very strongly acid to strongly acid.
upper 31 inches, moderately rapid from 31 to 36 The content of plinthite ranges from 0 to 5 percent. The
B21tg horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1), or gray (N 5/0,
inches, moderate from 36 to 72 inches, and moder- 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1) gravelly sandy loam 4 to 6 inches
ately slow below. Organic-matter content is generally thick. The B22tg horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1,
low. 6/1) gravelly sandy loam or gravelly sandy clay loam mot-
These Wacahoota soils are poorly suited to most with shades of yellow, brown, and red. It is 23 to 29
general farm crops. They are moderately well suited The B3g horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1)
to improved pasture and the special crops grown in the gravelly sandy loam or gravelly sandy clay loam that in
area. places is mottled with shades of yellow, brown, and red.
Representative profile of Wacahoota gravelly sand, It is 8 inches or more thick. Reaction is very strongly acid
gravelly subsoil variant, 2 to 5 percent slopes, approxi- The Cg horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1) sandy clay loam
mately 0.2 mile east of U.S. Highway 27 and 3.6 or light sandy clay. In some pedons it has lenses of coarser







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 61

textured material. Reaction is very strongly acid or In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
strongly acid. grayish brown loamy sand about 7 inches thick. Be-
The Wacahoota variant is very closely associated with grayish brown loamy sand about 7 inches thick. Be-
other Wacahoota soils. It is also associated with Fellow- low this is yellowish brown loamy sand about 8 inches
ship, Flemington, and Kanapaha soils. It is, by volume, thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 77 inches. It is,
more than 35 percent hard pebbles and gravel in at least in sequence downward, 5 inches of dark yellowish
the upper 20 inches of the Btg horizon, whereas the associ- brown sandy clay loam, 34 inches of dark yellowish
ated soils are less than 35 percent pebbles and gravel. It
has a thicker A horizon and a coarser textured Btg hori- brown sandy clay, 16 inches of yellowish brown sandy
zon than Flemington and Fellowship soils and a thinner clay mottled with light gray and strong brown, and 7
A horizon than Kanapaha soils. inches of yellowish brown clay mottled with gray and
WgB-Wacahoota gravelly sand, gravelly subsoil yellowish red. The underlying material to a depth of
variant, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This is a gently sloping, 82 inches is light gray clay mottled with light yellow-
poorly drained soil that occurs as small areas in the ish brown, strong brown, and white.
uplands. It has the profile described as representative Available water capacity is low in the upper 15
of the variant. The water table is within 10 inches of inches and medium to high below. Permeability is
the surface for 1 month to 4 months during most rapid in the upper 15 inches, moderate from 15 to 20
years. During dry periods it recedes to a depth of inches, and moderately slow below. Natural fertility is
more than 40 inches. Surface runoff is medium. low in the upper 15 inches and medium below.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, Organic-matter content is low.
of a similar soil, where the subsoil is more than 5 per- Zuber soils are well suited to most general farm
cent plinthite or at least the upper 20 inches of the crops and improved pasture of deep-rooting grasses
subsoil is less than 35 percent pebbles and gravel. Also and commonly grown legumes.
included are small areas of Fellowship and Kanapaha Representative profile of Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5
soils and small areas of a similar soil that has a slope percent slopes, in an improved pasture about one-half
of 5 to 8 percent. Sinkholes and rock outcrop, both of mile west of State Road 475A, 2.5 miles south of State
which occur in many areas, are identified by spot sym- Road 200, NE1/4 sec. 2, T. 16 S., R. 21 E.
bols on the soil map. Included soils make up about 20 Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loamy
percent of any one mapped area. sand; moderate medium granular structure; fri-
The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, able; common fine and medium roots; medium
loblolly pine, sweetgum, dogwood, hickory, oak, and acid; clear smooth boundary.
waxmyrtle and native grasses. Most areas are still in A3-7 to 15 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loamy
sand; moderate medium granular structure; fri-
forest. Most cleared areas are used for improved pas- able; few fine roots; medium acid; clear wavy
ture. Capability unit IVw-4; woodland group 2wl. boundary.
WgC-Wacahoota gravelly sand, gravelly subsoil B21t-15 to 20 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
variant, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is a sloping, poorly sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; few dis-
drained soil that occurs as small areas on wet hillsides tinct discontinuous clay films on faces of peds and
of the uplands. Surface runoff is medium, and the haz- in pores; strong clay bridging between sand
ard of erosion is moderate. Wetness is caused by hill- grains; few fine weathered phosphatic pebbles and
side seepage and slow internal drainage. The water onsdar nodules; medium a; clear wavy
table is within about 10 inches of the surface for pe- B22t-20 to 54 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
riods of 1 month to 4 months during most years. It sandy clay; moderate medium subangular blocky
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry structure; firm; few fine and medium roots; com-
eriods mon distinct clay films on ped faces; few fine
perio. weathered phosphatic pebbles and ironstone nod-
Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas ules; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
of a similar soil that is, by volume, more than 5 per- B23t-54 to 70 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy
cent plinthite. Also included are small areas of Fel- clay; few fine distinct light gray and strong brown
lowshi Fleminton and Kanaaha soils and small mottles; weak moderate subangular blocky struc-
lowship, Flemington, and Kanapaha soils and small ture; firm; discontinuous clay films on ped faces;
areas, of a similar soil, where the slope is 8 to 12 or 2 few thin flat fragments of limestone; few fine
to 5 percent. The sinkholes and rock outcrop that occur weathered phosphatic pebbles and ironstone nod-
in many areas are identified by spot symbols on the ules; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
soil map. Included soils make up about 20 percent of B3-70 to 77 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay;
common fine and medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1)
any one mapped area. and few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8)
Most areas are still in a natural vegetation of slash mottles; weak moderate subangular blocky struc-
pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, sweetgum, dogwood, ture; very firm; few faint clay films on ped faces
and hickory and an ndrstory of shrubs and rasses and in pores; few thin fat fragments of limestone;
and hickory and an understory of shrus an grasses.few fine weathered phosphatic pebbles and iron-
Capability unit VIw-1; woodland group 2wl. stone nodules; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
C-77 to 82 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) clay; common fine
Zuber Series distinct light yellowish brown, strong brown, and
white mottles; massive; very firm; medium acid.
The Zuber series consists of nearly level to sloping, The solum is 60 inches or more thick. Most pedons have
well drained soils that formed in thick beds of clayey weathered phosphatic pebbles and ironstone nodules that
marine deposits influenced by phosphatic material, are less than three-quarters of an inch in size and are less
These soils occur as small areas in the upland. The than 5 percent of the volume. In some pedons the solum is,
These sils occur as small areas in the upland. The by volume, less than 5 percent partly weathered fragments
water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. of phosphatic limestone rocks 2 to 3 inches in diameter.







62 SOIL SURVEY

The lower part of the B2t horizon is 0 to 5 percent Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
plint horizon is strongly acid to medium acid. The Ap of a similar soil that is eroded; small areas, of a simi-
The A horizon is strongly acid to medium acid. The Ap
or Al horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish lar soil, where the surface layer and subsoil are, by
brown (10YR 4/2), or grayish brown (10YR 5/2). Thick- volume, more than 35 percent gravel or weathered
ness is 5 to 8 inches. The A3 horizon is pale brown (10YR rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter; spots,
6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6), or dark yel- also of a similar soil, where the subsoil is sandy clay
lowish brown (10YR 4/4) loamy sand or loamy fine sand
6 to 10 inches thick. loam throughout or the lower part of the subsoil is
A B1 horizon is in some pedons. It is light yellowish brown more than 5 percent plinthite; and small areas of
(10YR 6/4), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6), or dark Micanopy, Lochloosa, Kendrick, Flemington, and
yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy loam 2 to 5 inches Hague soils. Also included are spots of a similar soil
thick.
The B2t horizon is brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), yellow- that has a slope of 0 to 2 or 5 to 8 percent. The rock
ish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8), dark yellowish brown outcrou and sinkholes that are in some areas are iden-
(10YR 4/4), and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8). In some tified by spot symbols on the soil map. Included soils
pedons the B21t and B22t horizons have few mottles of make up about 20 percent of any one mapped area.
yellow, brown, and red. The B23t horizon has few to com-
mon mottles of gray, yellow, brown, and red. In a few The natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine,
pedons the matrix of the B23t horizon and the B24t hori- and a growth of hardwoods, including oak, sweetgum,
zon is gray. The B21t horizon is sandy clay loam or sandy hickory, dogwood, and magnolia. Most areas are
clay, and the B22t and B23t horizons are sandy clay or cleared and are used for cultivated crops or improved
clay. The B21t horizon is strongly acid to medium acid,
and the B22t and B23t horizons range from strongly acid pasture. Capability unit IIe-1; woodland group 2ol.
to slightly acid. The B21t horizon is 4 to 8 inches thick, ZuC-Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
the B22t horizon is 24 to 46 inches thick, and the B23t is a sloping, well drained soil that occurs as small
horizon is 16 to 20 inches thick. areas of the upland. It has a profile similar to that
The B3 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light yellowish
brown (10YR 6/4), and yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6) described as representative of the series, but it is
mottled with shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red. Tex- shallower over the underlying material and the sur-
ture is generally sandy clay or clay, but ranges to heavy face layer is 1 inch to 2 inches thinner. Surface runoff
sandy clay loam. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to is rapid, and the hazard of erosion is severe.
slightly acid. Thickness is 6 to 10 inches.
The C horizon is mottled gray (1OYR 5/1, 6/1) or light Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2). The texture is sandy clay or sandy of a similar soil, where the lower part of the subsoil is
clay loam that in some pedons has fine lenses of coarser more than 5 percent plinthite and small areas of a
textured material. well drained soil having a sandy cla loam subsoil
Zuber soils are closely associated with Fellowship, Flem- well drained soil having a sandy lay loam subsoil
ington, Gainesville, Hague, Kendrick, and Micanopy soils, within a depth of 20 inches. The clay content in this
They are better drained than Fellowship, Flemington, and included well drained soil decreases more than 20 per-
Micanopy soils. They are of mixed mineralogy, whereas cent from the depth of the maximum content to a
Fellowship and Flemington soils are of montmorillonitic depth within 60 inches. Also included are a few small
mineralogy. They have less than 20 inches of loamy sand
over a sandy clay Bt horizon, whereas Gainesville soils are areas where the surface layer and the subsoil, com-
loamy sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. They have bined, are less than 60 inches thick; spots of Micanopy,
a thinner A horizon and a finer textured Bt horizon than Lochloosa, Kendrick, and Flemington soils; and a few
Hague and Kendrick soils. small areas of a similar soil that is, by volume, more
ZuA-Zuber loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This than 35 percent gravel or rock fragments less than 3
is a nearly level, well drained soil that occurs as small inches in diameter. The rock outcrop and sinkholes
areas in the upland. The water table is at a depth of that are in some areas are identified by spot symbols
more than 72 inches. Surface runoff is slow, and the on the soil map. Included soils make up about 20 per-
hazard of erosion is slight. cent of any one mapped area.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly
of a similar soil, where the subsoil is dominantly pine, oak, dogwood, sweetgum, and hickory. Most
sandy clay loam and areas where the upper 60 inches areas are cleared and are in improved pasture. Capa-
is more than 5 percent plinthite. Also included are ability unit IIIe-2; woodland group 2ol.
small areas of Micanopy, Lochloosa, Kendrick, Hague,
and Flemington soils and a few small areas of a simi-
lar soil that has a slope of 2 to 5 percent. Included soils Use and Management of the Soils
make up about 15 percent of any one mapped area.
The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, This section defines the use and management of the
loblolly pine, laurel oak, live oak, water oak, white oak, soils in the Marion County Area for crops, pasture,
sweetgum, dogwood, hickory, and magnolia and an and citrus; woodland; wildlife; engineering; recrea-
understory of chiefly native grasses. Most areas have tional facilities; and building sites and sanitary facili-
been cleared for crops and pasture. Capability unit ties. It also explains the capability classification sys-
1-1; woodland group 2ol. tem and lists the estimated yields of the main crops.
ZuB-Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
is a gently sloping, well drained soil that occurs as Crops, Pasture, and Citrus
small areas in the upland. It has the profile described
as representative of the series. The water table is at a The pages that follow explain the capability classi-
depth of more than 72 inches. Surface runoff is me- fiction system used by the Soil Conservation Service,
dium, and the erosion hazard is moderate, in which the soils are grouped according to their suita-







62 SOIL SURVEY

The lower part of the B2t horizon is 0 to 5 percent Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
plint horizon is strongly acid to medium acid. The Ap of a similar soil that is eroded; small areas, of a simi-
The A horizon is strongly acid to medium acid. The Ap
or Al horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish lar soil, where the surface layer and subsoil are, by
brown (10YR 4/2), or grayish brown (10YR 5/2). Thick- volume, more than 35 percent gravel or weathered
ness is 5 to 8 inches. The A3 horizon is pale brown (10YR rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter; spots,
6/3), light yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6), or dark yel- also of a similar soil, where the subsoil is sandy clay
lowish brown (10YR 4/4) loamy sand or loamy fine sand
6 to 10 inches thick. loam throughout or the lower part of the subsoil is
A B1 horizon is in some pedons. It is light yellowish brown more than 5 percent plinthite; and small areas of
(10YR 6/4), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6), or dark Micanopy, Lochloosa, Kendrick, Flemington, and
yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy loam 2 to 5 inches Hague soils. Also included are spots of a similar soil
thick.
The B2t horizon is brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), yellow- that has a slope of 0 to 2 or 5 to 8 percent. The rock
ish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6, 5/8), dark yellowish brown outcrou and sinkholes that are in some areas are iden-
(10YR 4/4), and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8). In some tified by spot symbols on the soil map. Included soils
pedons the B21t and B22t horizons have few mottles of make up about 20 percent of any one mapped area.
yellow, brown, and red. The B23t horizon has few to com-
mon mottles of gray, yellow, brown, and red. In a few The natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine,
pedons the matrix of the B23t horizon and the B24t hori- and a growth of hardwoods, including oak, sweetgum,
zon is gray. The B21t horizon is sandy clay loam or sandy hickory, dogwood, and magnolia. Most areas are
clay, and the B22t and B23t horizons are sandy clay or cleared and are used for cultivated crops or improved
clay. The B21t horizon is strongly acid to medium acid,
and the B22t and B23t horizons range from strongly acid pasture. Capability unit IIe-1; woodland group 2ol.
to slightly acid. The B21t horizon is 4 to 8 inches thick, ZuC-Zuber loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
the B22t horizon is 24 to 46 inches thick, and the B23t is a sloping, well drained soil that occurs as small
horizon is 16 to 20 inches thick. areas of the upland. It has a profile similar to that
The B3 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light yellowish
brown (10YR 6/4), and yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6) described as representative of the series, but it is
mottled with shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red. Tex- shallower over the underlying material and the sur-
ture is generally sandy clay or clay, but ranges to heavy face layer is 1 inch to 2 inches thinner. Surface runoff
sandy clay loam. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to is rapid, and the hazard of erosion is severe.
slightly acid. Thickness is 6 to 10 inches.
The C horizon is mottled gray (1OYR 5/1, 6/1) or light Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,
gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2). The texture is sandy clay or sandy of a similar soil, where the lower part of the subsoil is
clay loam that in some pedons has fine lenses of coarser more than 5 percent plinthite and small areas of a
textured material. well drained soil having a sandy cla loam subsoil
Zuber soils are closely associated with Fellowship, Flem- well drained soil having a sandy lay loam subsoil
ington, Gainesville, Hague, Kendrick, and Micanopy soils, within a depth of 20 inches. The clay content in this
They are better drained than Fellowship, Flemington, and included well drained soil decreases more than 20 per-
Micanopy soils. They are of mixed mineralogy, whereas cent from the depth of the maximum content to a
Fellowship and Flemington soils are of montmorillonitic depth within 60 inches. Also included are a few small
mineralogy. They have less than 20 inches of loamy sand
over a sandy clay Bt horizon, whereas Gainesville soils are areas where the surface layer and the subsoil, com-
loamy sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. They have bined, are less than 60 inches thick; spots of Micanopy,
a thinner A horizon and a finer textured Bt horizon than Lochloosa, Kendrick, and Flemington soils; and a few
Hague and Kendrick soils. small areas of a similar soil that is, by volume, more
ZuA-Zuber loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This than 35 percent gravel or rock fragments less than 3
is a nearly level, well drained soil that occurs as small inches in diameter. The rock outcrop and sinkholes
areas in the upland. The water table is at a depth of that are in some areas are identified by spot symbols
more than 72 inches. Surface runoff is slow, and the on the soil map. Included soils make up about 20 per-
hazard of erosion is slight. cent of any one mapped area.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas, The natural vegetation is chiefly slash pine, loblolly
of a similar soil, where the subsoil is dominantly pine, oak, dogwood, sweetgum, and hickory. Most
sandy clay loam and areas where the upper 60 inches areas are cleared and are in improved pasture. Capa-
is more than 5 percent plinthite. Also included are ability unit IIIe-2; woodland group 2ol.
small areas of Micanopy, Lochloosa, Kendrick, Hague,
and Flemington soils and a few small areas of a simi-
lar soil that has a slope of 2 to 5 percent. Included soils Use and Management of the Soils
make up about 15 percent of any one mapped area.
The natural vegetation is a forest of slash pine, This section defines the use and management of the
loblolly pine, laurel oak, live oak, water oak, white oak, soils in the Marion County Area for crops, pasture,
sweetgum, dogwood, hickory, and magnolia and an and citrus; woodland; wildlife; engineering; recrea-
understory of chiefly native grasses. Most areas have tional facilities; and building sites and sanitary facili-
been cleared for crops and pasture. Capability unit ties. It also explains the capability classification sys-
1-1; woodland group 2ol. tem and lists the estimated yields of the main crops.
ZuB-Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
is a gently sloping, well drained soil that occurs as Crops, Pasture, and Citrus
small areas in the upland. It has the profile described
as representative of the series. The water table is at a The pages that follow explain the capability classi-
depth of more than 72 inches. Surface runoff is me- fiction system used by the Soil Conservation Service,
dium, and the erosion hazard is moderate, in which the soils are grouped according to their suita-







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 63

ability for most kinds of farming. They define the capa- drained, and poorly drained. In the poorly drained
ability grouping and suggest the management of the soils, the root zone is restricted by a water table that
soils by capability units. They also list estimated is near the surface during wet periods. Water control
yields of the major crops grown under a high level of is needed. The water table must be kept below a depth
management. of 3 feet so that the trees can have a good root system.
Although water is the major limitation on the No drainage is needed on the well drained soils, but
largest acreage in this survey area, soils that are se- irrigation is essential during drought periods. A high
verely limited by poor soil qualities are of almost equal level of management is required for all groves. Al-
extent. Soils on which the most severe hazard is ero- though much of the survey area is moderately well
sion are of lesser extent. suited or well suited to citrus, all groves must be pro-
In many soils the root zone of plants is affected by a tected from damaging cold.
high water table during wetperiods. It is also affected Management is not described in detail in this sur-
by droughtiness during dry periods because the soil vey, but is outlined briefly in each capability unit
cannot retain sufficient water when the water table description. Suggested management for different
recedes to a depth below the root zone. In these soils a crops on different kinds of soil can change as informa-
combined system of drainage and subsurface irriga- tion becomes available from experiment stations,
tion removes excess water during wet periods and sup- growers, and ranchers. Current information regarding
plies water during dry periods. Some soils that have a kinds of crops, improved varieties of plants, and man-
high water table have slopes of 5 to 12 percent. Al- agement can be obtained from a local representative
though wetness is the dominant limiting factor in of the Soil Conservation Service, the University of
these soils, the hazard of erosion is severe in areas Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, and the
where the surface is not protected by a good plant Agricultural Extension Service.
cover. It is severe because surface runoff is rapid Capability grouping
during rainfall. Capabty grouping
In the soils where the major limitation is poor soil Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the
qualities, the root zone is mostly sandy and the avail- suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The
able water capacity and the capacity to hold plant nu- soils are grouped according to their limitations when
trients are low to very low. Natural fertility in the used for field crops, the risk of damage when they are
root zone is also generally low. These properties can used, and the way they respond to treatment. The
be improved if a soil-improving cover crop, such as grouping does not take into account major and gen-
hairy indigo, is grown between crops and if all plant erally expensive landforming that would change slope,
residue is returned to the soil. The response to fertili- depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not
zation varies. Soil blowing occurs unless the soils are take into consideration possible but unlikely major
protected by an adequate plant cover or by reclamation projects; and does not apply to rice, cran-
windbreaks. berries, horticultural crops, or other crops requiring
Most soils in areas where erosion is the major limi- special management.
station are cleared and are used for cultivated crops or Those familiar with the capability classification can
improved pasture. Crop rotation and soil-improving infer from it much about the behavior of soils when
cover crops are needed to maintain fertility and mini- used for other purposes, but this classification is not a
mize erosion during rainfall. Improved pasture should substitute for interpretations designed to show suita-
be established and interplanted with a fast-growing ability and limitations of groups of soils for range, for
annual to provide maximum protection. forest trees, or for engineering.
About 140,000 acres in the uplands in the central In the capability system, all kinds of soil are
and western parts of the survey area is improved pas- grouped at three levels: the capability class, the sub-
ture. This acreage is poorly drained to well drained, class, and the unit. These levels are described in the
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass are the most following paragraphs.
widely grown pasture plants. Pangolagrass and white CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are des-
clover are grown less extensively. Most of the acreage ignated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The nu-
in the flatwoods is still in natural vegetation, but is merals indicate progressively greater limitations and
well suited to clover-grass pasture. A good system of narrower choices for practical use, defined as follows:
drainage and subsurface irrigation is needed to re- Class I soils have few limitations that restrict
move excess water during wet periods and supply wa- their use.
ter in the root zone during drought periods. Under Class II soils have moderate limitations that re-
good management and adequate water control, much duce the choice of plants or require moderate
of this acreage is also suited to a wide variety of vege- conservation practices.
table crops. Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce
About 14,000 acres, in three widely separated areas, the choice of plants, require special conserva-
is in citrus. The largest area is around Weirsdale, tion practices, or both.
where the groves are mostly on well drained to exces- Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
sively drained soils. Two smaller areas are around reduce the choice of plants, require very care-
McIntosh and Orange Lake and around Citra. In these ful management, or both.
areas the soils are well drained, somewhat poorly Class V soils are not likely to erode, but have







64 SOIL SURVEY

other limitations, impractical to remove, that houses and other buildings, streets, parking lots, and
limit their use largely to pasture or range, other structures.
woodland, or wildlife.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make CAPABILITY UNIT I-1
them generally unsuitable for cultivation and Zuber loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, the only
limit their use largely to pasture or range, soil in this unit, is a nearly level, well drained sandy
woodland, or wildlife. soil having a clayey subsoil. It occurs as small areas in
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that the uplands.
make them unsuitable for cultivation and re- This soil has a deep root zone. It is easy to keep in
strict their use largely to pasture or range, good tilth. Available water capacity is low in the
woodland, or wildlife, sandy layers and medium to high in the clayey subsoil.
Natural fertility is low in the sandy layers and me-
Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations dium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sandy
that preclude their use for commercial crop layers and moderately slow in the subsoil. Organic-
production and restrict their use to recreation, matter content is low. Rainfall is readily absorbed
wildlife, or water supply, or to esthetic and retained by the soil. Runoff during rainfall is
purposes. slow, and the hazard of erosion is slight.
CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within one This soil has few limitations and is well suited to a
class; they are designated by adding a small letter, wide variety of crops. Corn, peanuts, watermelons,
e, w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The tomatoes, and most other locally grown crops grow
letter e shows that the main limitation is risk of ero- well if the soil is kept in good tilth. Soil-improving
sion unless close-growing plant cover is maintained; cover crops, the return of all crop residue, adequate
w shows that water in or on the soil interferes with fertilization, and lime are required. No special erosion
plant growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness control is needed.
can be partly corrected by artificial drainage); s Citrus is well suited, but most groves are subject to
shows that the soil is limited mainly because it is frequent damaging cold. Cover crops between the
shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in only some trees, minimum tillage, and applications of fertilizer
parts of the United States, shows that the chief limi- are essential. Supplemental irrigation during drought
station is climate that is too cold to too dry. periods is beneficial.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils Improved pasture is also well suited. Bahiagrass,
of this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, improved bermudagrass, and hairy indigo grow well
at the most, only the subclasses indicated by w, s, and if they are properly established, fertilized, and man-
c because the soils in class V are subject to little or no aged. White clover is not well suited; if grown, it re-
erosion, though they have other limitations that re- quires supplemental irrigation.
strict their use largely to pasture or range, woodland, CAPABILITY UNIT nfe-
wildlife, or recreation.
wildlife, or recreation. Zuber loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, the only soil
CAPABILITY UNITS are soil groups within the sub- in this unit, is a gently sloping, well drained sandy soil
classes. The soils in one capability unit are enough having a clayey subsoil. It occurs as small areas in the
alike to be suited to the same crops and pasture plants, uplands.
to require similar management, and to have similar This soil has a deep root zone. It is easy to keep in
productivity and other responses to management. good tilth. Available water capacity is low in the
Thus, the capability unit is a convenient grouping for sandy layers and medium to high in the clayey sub-
making many statements about management of soils. soil. Natural fertility is low in the sandy layers and
Capability units are generally designated by adding medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
an Arabic numeral to the subclass symbol, for ex- sandy layers and moderately slow in the subsoiL
ample, IIe-2 or IVw-3. Thus, in one symbol, the Roman Organic-matter content is low. The soil responds well
numeral designates the capability class, or degree of to fertilization and lime. Runoff during rainfall is
limitation; the small letter indicates the subclass, or medium in unprotected areas, and the erosion hazard
kind of limitation, as defined in the foregoing para- is moderate.
graphs; and the Arabic numeral specifically identifies This soil is well suited to cultivated crops, but limi-
the capability unit within each subclass, stations are moderate. If well managed, such crops as
Management by capability units corn, peanuts, winter grain, tomatoes, watermelons,
cucumbers, okra, and cantaloupes grow well. Moderate
The following pages describe the capability units in erosion control measures are needed, including con-
the Marion County Area and suggest the use and man- tour cultivation, crop rotations, soil-improving cover
agement of the soils. crops, and the return of all crop residue. Adequate
A few mapping units are not assigned to capability seedbed preparation, adequate fertilization, and lime
units because they cannot be used for crops. These are required for maximum yields. Supplemental irri-
mapping units are Arredondo-Urban land complex, gation during drought periods is beneficial.
Blichton-Urban land complex, Hague-Urban land com- Citrus is well suited, but most groves must be pro-
plex, Sparr-Urban land complex, and Urban land. tected from damaging cold. A close-growing cover
Areas of these mapping units are partly covered with crop between the trees to protect the soil from erosion,







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 65

minimum tillage, and adequate fertilization are essen- periods, it is below 60 inches. The root zone is deep,
tial. All crop residue should be left on the soil or but the growth of roots, as well as the movement of
plowed under. Supplemental irrigation during water and air, is somewhat restricted by the water
drought periods is beneficial. table. In unprotected gently sloping areas the hazard
Improved pasture of bahiagrass, improved bermu- of erosion is moderate.
dagrass, and hairy indigo is also well suited. For The soils have moderate limitations, but are well
vigorous plants and the best yields, fertilization, lime, suited to most cultivated crops grown in the area.
and controlled grazing are required. White clover is Corn, tomatoes, pepper, and cabbage grow well. If
not well suited; if grown, it requires supplemental well managed, peanuts and watermelons also grow
irrigation, well. Although drainage is restricted in the lower part
of the subsoil, no special water control is needed for
CAPABILITY UNIT IIe-2 most crops. The soils retain plant nutrients and re-
In this unit are gently sloping, well drained sandy spond well to fertilization and lime. Crop residue man-
soils having a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 to 40 agement, soil-improving cover crops, adequate seedbed
inches. They occur as small to large areas in the preparation, lime, and fertilization are needed. Irriga-
uplands. tion during drought periods may be needed for some
Available water capacity is low in the sandy layers high-value crops. Where the slope is 2 to 5 percent,
and medium to high in the subsoil. Natural fertility moderate erosion control is needed.
also is low in the sandy layers and medium to high in If well managed, citrus is suited, but the groves
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers must be protected from damaging cold. Cover crops
and moderate or moderately rapid in the loamy sub- between the trees, minimum tillage, and adequate
soil. Organic-matter content is low. The root zone is amounts of lime and fertilizer are also needed.
well aerated and is more than 60 inches deep. The haz- Improved pasture of improved bahiagrass is also
ard of erosion is moderate in unprotected areas. well suited. Bermudagrass grows well if the pasture is
These soils have moderate limitations, but are well well managed. Good establishment, adequate amounts
suited to cultivated crops. General farm crops and of fertilizer and lime, and proper grazing are essen-
special crops grown in the area are highly productive tial. The soils are suited to all deep-rooting grasses
if well managed. The return of all crop residue, soil- and legumes grown in the area. They are not well
improving cover crops, lime, and adequate fertilization suited to white clover.
are needed. An adequate plant cover is essential dur-
ing periods when the hazard of erosion is critical. CAPABILITY UNIT IIw-2
Most crops can be grown without irrigation, but sup- Micanopy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, the only
plemental irrigation is beneficial during drought soil in this unit, is a somewhat poorly drained sandy
periods, soil having a clayey subsoil.
Citrus is well suited, but most groves must be pro- Available water capacity is low in the sandy layers
tected from damaging cold. Cover crops between the and medium to high in the subsoil. Permeability is
trees, minimum tillage, lime, fertilization, and irriga- rapid in the sandy layers and slow in the clayey sub-
tion are essential. soil. Natural fertility is low to medium. Organic-
Improved pasture is also well suited. Deep-rooting matter content is low.
grasses and legumes grow well if they are well man- The growth of roots is somewhat restricted below
aged. Good establishment, fertilization, lime, and con- a depth of about 30 inches in the slowly permeable,
trolled grazing are required. Deep-rooting grasses are poorly aerated clayey subsoil. The water table fluctu-
little affected by drought. Shallow-rooting pasture ates between 20 and 60 inches for 2 to 5 months during
plants are unsuited because little water is available in most years. It recedes to a depth of more than 60
the sandy layers during dry periods. White clover is inches during dry periods. The hazard of erosion is
not well suited; if grown, it requires supplemental moderate in unprotected areas.
irrigation. This soil has moderate limitations, but is suited to
most crops grown in the area. The growth of roots is
CAPABILITY UNIT Ilw-i somewhat restricted in the slowly permeable, poorly
In this unit are somewhat poorly drained, nearly aerated subsoil. No special water control is needed for
level to gently sloping sandy soils having a loamy sub- most crops. If well managed, most special crops and
soil within a depth of 20 to 40 inches. They are in the such farm crops as corn and peanuts grow well. Good
uplands and the flatwoods. management includes planting soil-improving cover
Available water capacity is very low or low in the crops, leaving all crop residue on the soil or plowing it
sandy layers and medium in the loamy subsoil. Also, under, and applying adequate amounts of fertilizer
natural fertility is very low or low in the sandy layers and lime. Moderate erosion control is required.
and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in If well managed, citrus is suited, but the groves are
the sandy layers and moderate or moderately rapid in subject to damaging cold. The growth of roots is some-
the subsoil. Organic-matter content is low. what restricted in the lower part of the subsoil by the
The water table fluctuates between 30 and 60 inches water table and poor aeration. Cover crops between
for periods of about 1 month to 4 months. During the trees, minimum tillage, and adequate amounts of
most years, it is within a depth of 15 to 30 inches for lime and fertilizer are essential.
periods of about 1 week to 2 months. During dry Improved pasture is well suited. If well managed,







66 SOIL SURVEY

bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass are of high adequate fertilization. Irrigation is needed during
quality. Good establishment, adequate fertilization, drought periods.
lime, and proper grazing are needed. White clover is Citrus is well suited, but extreme care must be taken
not well suited, to protect the groves from extremely cold tempera-
tures. Cover crops between the trees, minimum tillage,
CAPABILITY UNIT II-I and contour planting and cultivation minimize ero-
Kendrick loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, the only sion. Irrigation during drought periods is beneficial.
soil in this unit, is a nearly level, well drained sandy Improved pasture, of all deep-rooting grasses and
soil with a predominantly loamy subsoil. It occurs as legumes common to the area is also well suited. These
small areas in the uplands. pasture plants grow well if they are properly estab-
The root zone is well aerated and is more than 60 lished, fertilized, limed, and managed. Establishing a
inches deep. Available water capacity is low in the good sod as soon as possible after land preparation
sandy layers and medium to high in the loamy sub- helps to control erosion.
soil. Also, natural fertility is low in the sandy layers
and medium to high in the subsoil. Permeability is CAPABILITY UNIT me-2
rapid in the sandy layers and moderate in the subsoil. In this unit are well drained to somewhat poorly
Organic-matter content is low. There is no hazard of drained, sloping sandy soils with a clayey subsoil.
erosion because very little surface water runs off dur- They occur as small areas in the uplands.
ing rainfall. Available water capacity is low in the sandy layers
The soil has moderate limitations, but is well suited and medium to high in the subsoil. Permeability is
to cultivated crops.. Because the water-holding capac- rapid in the sandy layers and slow or moderately slow
ity in the subsoil is good, most crops can be grown in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low to medium. The
without irrigation. Irrigation is needed during soils respond well to fertilization. They can be kept in
drought periods, however, for good growth of high- good tilth.
value crops, such as watermelons, tomatoes, and pea- Although these soils have a deep root zone, the lower
nuts. Soil-improving cover crops, the return of all part of the subsoil is poorly aerated in some areas. In
crop residue to the soil, and adequate fertilization are these areas the water table fluctuates between 20 and
needed for all crops. 60 inches for 2 to 5 months during most years and
Citrus is well suited, but extreme care must be recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during dry
taken to protect the groves from damaging cold. Cover periods. The slope and a low infiltration rate result in
crops between the trees, minimum tillage, lime, ferti- rapid runoff and a severe erosion hazard in unpro-
lization, and irrigation during drought periods tected areas.
should be considered. These soils have severe limitations, but are well
Improved pasture is also well suited. Such improved suited to most general farm crops grown in the area.
pasture plants as improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, Corn and peanuts are the best crops. Intensive erosion
and hairy indigo grow well if they are properly estab- control is needed. Contour cultivation of row crops, a
lished, fertilized, limed, and managed. Improved pas- close-growing crop in the crop rotation at least two-
ture of deep-rooting grasses is little affected by thirds of the time, soil-improving cover crops, ade-
drought. A shallow-rooting plant, such as white clover, quate fertilization, and lime are essential. All crop
however, is not suited because little water is available residue should be left on the soil or plowed under. Irri-
in the sandy layers. gation of some high-value crops is required during
drought periods.
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIe-1 Citrus is well suited, but the groves must be pro-
In this unit are well drained, sloping sandy soils tected from damaging cold. Cover crops between the
with a loamy subsoil. They occur as small areas in the trees, minimum tillage, contour planting and cultiva-
uplands. tion, fertilization, and irrigation during drought pe-
The root zone is well aerated and is more than 60 riods are essential.
inches deep. Available water capacity is low in the Improved pasture of all deep-rooting grasses and
sandy layers and medium to high in the subsoil. Na- legumes common to the area is also well suited. These
tural fertility also is low in the sandy layers and me- pasture plants grow well if they are properly estab-
dium to high in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in lished, fertilized, limed, and managed. Establishing a
the sandy layers and moderate or moderately rapid in good sod as soon as possible after land preparation
the loamy subsoil. Organic-matter content is low. The helps to control erosion. White clover is not suited.
slope and a low infiltration rate result in medium run-
off and a moderate erosion hazard in unprotected CAPABILITY UNIT m-e
areas. Lochloosa fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, the only
These soils have severe limitations, but are moder- soil in this unit, is a somewhat poorly drained sandy
ately well suited to a variety of crops, including corn, soil that has a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 to 40
peanuts, tomatoes, and watermelons. Intensive erosion inches. It occurs as small areas in the uplands.
control and other management are needed, including Available water capacity is low in the sandy layers
contour cultivation of row crops grown in alternate and medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility also is
strips with close-growing crops, the return of all crop low in the sandy layers and medium in the subsoil.
residue to the soil, soil-improving crops, lime, and Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and moder-







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 67

ate in the loamy subsoil. Organic-matter content is the deep, well developed root system desirable for the
low. trees. Soil-improving measures are essential.
The water table fluctuates between 30 and 60 inches Improved pasture is moderately well suited. Most
for 1 month to 3 months during most years. It is at a grasses and deep-rooting legumes grown in the area
depth of about 15 inches for periods of about 1 week are of good quality for pasture if they are properly
to 3 weeks. The root zone is deep, but the growth of established, fertilized, limed, and grazed.
roots is somewhat restricted by the water table. Run-
off during rainfall is medium in unprotected areas, CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-2
and the hazard of erosion is moderate. In this unit are poorly drained, gently sloping sandy
This soil is moderately well suited to a variety of soils with a clayey subsoil. They occur as small areas
crops grown in the area, but is severely limited by the in the uplands.
erosion hazard and somewhat limited by the water Available water capacity is low to medium in the
table. The rise of capillary water from the water table, sandy layers and medium to high in the subsoil. Per-
however, supplements the little available water in the meability is rapid to moderately rapid in the sandy
sandy layers. Intensive erosion control is needed. Con- layers and slow or very slow in the subsoil. Natural
tour cultivation of row crops grown in alternate strips fertility is medium, and organic-matter content is low
with close-growing crops, the return of all crop resi- to medium.
due to the soil, soil-improving cover crops, adequate The water table is within 10 inches of the surface
fertilization, and lime are essential. Most crops can be for 1 month to 4 months during wet periods. The
grown without irrigation, but some high-value crops growth of roots is restricted by the slowly permeable
require irrigation during drought periods, or very slowly permeable, poorly aerated subsoil and
Citrus is well suited, but the groves must be pro- the water table. Runoff is medium during rainfall as a
tected from damaging cold. Cover crops between the result of a low infiltration rate. Erosion is a problem.
trees, minimum tillage, adequate fertilization, and The surface must be protected by a good plant cover.
lime are needed. These soils have severe limitations and are only
Improved pasture of bahiagrass and improved ber- moderately well suited to cultivated crops. Control of
mudagrass is also well suited. These plants grow well erosion and removal of excess water are needed. If
if properly established, fertilized, limed, and managed, well managed, the soils are suited to many special
Establishing a good sod as soon as possible after land crops, such as cabbage, tomatoes, watermelons, pep-
preparation helps to control erosion. White clover and pers, and cucumbers. Water control, contour cultiva-
other shallow-rooting pasture plants are not well tion, crop rotation, soil-improving cover crops, the
suited because little water is available in the root zone return of all crop residue to the soil, good seedbed
during dry periods, preparation, and adequate fertilization are required.
Citrus is not suited. If citrus is grown, extreme care
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-1 must be taken to protect the groves from damaging
Adamsville sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the only soil cold. The slowly permeable or very slowly permeable,
in this unit, is a somewhat poorly drained, nearly level poorly drained clayey subsoil restricts the growth of
to gently sloping soil that is sandy to a depth of 80 roots. Removal of excess water is beneficial, but a good
inches or more. tile drainage system is not feasible because the subsoil
Applied plant nutrients are readily leached from is clayey and slowly permeable or very slowly
this soil. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and permeable.
organic-matter content are low. Available water ca- Improved pasture of most grasses and legumes
pacity is low to very low, but the soil benefits from the grown in the area is well suited. If well managed,
rise of capillary water from the water table. Because these plants are of high quality for pasture. Clover-
the available water capacity is low to very low, the grass pasture is well suited if it is properly fertilized,
upper part of the root zone can be slightly drought limed, and managed.
during dry periods. During wet periods, however, it is
saturated with water. The water table fluctuates be- CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-3
tween 20 and 40 inches for 2 to 6 months during most Eaton loamy sand, the only soil in this unit, is a
years. During wet periods it can rise to within 10 to 20 nearly level, poorly drained sandy soil that has a
inches of the surface, and during dry periods it re- clayey subsoil within a depth of 20 to 40 inches. It oc-
cedes to a depth of more than 40 inches. curs as broad areas in the flatwoods.
This soil has severe limitations and is only moder- Available water capacity is low in the sandy layers
ately well suited to general farm crops. It is suited to and medium to high in the subsoil. Permeability is
most special crops if excess water is removed during rapid in the sandy layers and slow in the clayey sub-
wet periods and subsurface irrigation is used during soil. Natural fertility is medium, and organic-matter
dry periods. Intensive soil-improving measures are content is low.
needed, including the return of all crop residue to the Wetness is the chief limitation. Water moves readily
soil, soil-improving cover crops, adequate fertilization, through the sandy layers, but slowly through the
lime, and a good crop rotation. clayey subsoil. As a result, internal drainage is
Citrus is not suited unless bedding or some other severely restricted even in the sandy layers. The water
drainage method is used. Most groves require protec- table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
tion from damaging cold. The water table prevents months during most years.







68 SOIL SURVEY

This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. The water table is within 10 inches of the surface for
If well managed, it is well suited to many vegetable 1 month to 4 months during most years. The surface
crops grown in the area. Removal of excess water dur- may be briefly covered with water during extended
ing wet periods and subsurface irrigation during dry wet periods.
periods are essential. A close-growing, soil-improving Available water capacity is low to medium in the
crop should be grown at least two-thirds of the time. sandy layers and medium to high in the subsoil. Na-
All crop residue should be left on the soil or plowed tural fertility also is low to medium in the sandy
under. Fertilizer and lime should be added according layers and medium to high in the subsoil. Permeability
to the needs of the crop. is rapid in the sandy layers and moderate to slow in
Citrus is poorly suited because wetness severely the subsoil. Organic-matter content is low to medium.
restricts the growth of tree roots and the trees are These soils have severe limitations for cultivated
subject to damaging cold. crops. Water control is needed. In many areas, how-
Improved pasture of locally grown improved grasses ever, water control is hard to establish because drain-
and legumes is well suited. If well managed, the pas- age outlets are lacking. Corn can be grown in some
ture is of good quality. If clover is grown, a subirriga- areas, but the best crops are some special crops and
tion system is needed to assure successful growth dur- many of the vegetable crops. Soil-improving cover
ing dry periods. For healthy plants and the highest crops and the return of all crop residue to the soil are
yields, grazing should be carefully controlled. required.
Citrus is generally not suited unless intensively
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-4 managed. Keeping the water table below 3 feet at all
In this unit are nearly level, very poorly drained times is essential for good root growth. In many areas,
soils. They have a thick, black and very dark gray air drainage is poor and the trees are frequently dam-
sandy surface layer over grayish sandy underlying aged by freezing unless they are adequately protected.
layers that extend to a depth of more than 80 inches. Improved pasture is well suited. If well managed,
They occur in depressions, on low flats, and along improved bahiagrass and white clover grow well. The
poorly defined drainageways mostly in the flatwoods. removal of excess water after heavy rainfall, adequate
Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and organic- fertilization, and lime are essential Controlled grazing
matter content are high in the surface layer and low is needed to maintain plant vigor.
in the underlying layers. The soils respond well to
fertilization, but applied plant nutrients are rapidly CAPABILITY UNIT Imw-
leached through the sandy surface layer and under- In this unit are nearly level, poorly drained sandy
lying layers. soils with a clayey subsoil. They occur as small and
Wetness is the chief limitation. The water table is large areas in the flatwoods.
within 10 inches of the surface for more than 6 months A e w r c y is lw medium in the
each year, and most depressions are covered with wa- Available water capacity is low or medium in the
ter for 6 months or more. Well designed ditches to sandy layers and high in the subsoil. Permeability is
remove excess surface water and control structures to rapid to moderately rapid in the thin sandy layers and
regulate internal drainage are needed. Available water slow to very slow in the clayey subsoil. Natural fer-
capacity is medium to high in the surface layer. It is utility is medium, and organic-matter content is mod-
low or very low in the underlying layers, but these erately low.
layers are generally wet because of the high water Wetness and the depth to the clayey subsoil are the
table. chief limitations. The water table is within 10 inches
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated of the surface for 2 to 6 months during most years.
crops. If water is controlled, they are well suited to The slowly permeable subsoil makes water control
many locally grown vegetable crops. For economy of difficult. The soils are subject to waterlogging during
drainage, large uniform areas should be cropped. The wet periods even if a good drainage system is
rapid removal of excess water during rainy periods, established.
good seedbed preparation, crop rotation, the return of These soils have severe limitations for cultivated
all crop residue to the soil, soil-improving cover crops, crops. Drainage or other water-control measures are
and adequate fertilization are needed. needed before the soils can be cultivated, and crops
Citrus is not suited because the soil is excessively are limited to those that can tolerate slightly wet con-
wet and the groves are subject to damaging cold. editions. If adequately drained, the soils are suited to
Improved pasture is poorly suited unless the soil is such truck crops as cabbage, peppers, tomatoes, tur-
drained. If well managed, such plants as improved nips, strawberries, and beans. Surface drainage sys-
bahiagrass and white clover are well suited. For plant teams should be carefully installed and maintained.
vigor and the best yields, grazing should be controlled. Permeability in the shallow clayey subsoil is too slow
for effective subirrigation. Unless the rate of water
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-5 movement and the amount of water are carefully con-
In this unit are nearly level, poorly drained sandy trolled, puddles form. For the best yields, adequate
soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 to fertilization is needed. The soils require a moderate
40 inches or a clayey subsoil within a depth of 20 amount of lime if they are strongly acid and a lesser
inches. They occur as small areas in the uplands. amount if less acid.
The growth of roots is restricted by the water table. Citrus is not suited. The growth of roots is severely








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 69

restricted by the wet, slowly permeable subsoil. The suited to cultivated crops unless reclaimed from their
groves are highly susceptible to damaging cold. natural swampy or marshy conditions. After reclama-
Clover-grass pasture is well suited. It is of high tion there is a continuing subsidence as a result of
quality if properly fertilized, limed, and managed. Re- oxidation. This subsidence can be reduced if the water
moval of excess surface water during heavy rainfall is level is lowered just enough to permit healthy root
needed. Grazing should be rotated and controlled to growth during the cropping season and is raised after
permit good growth and to prevent puddling and the crops are harvested. If water is controlled, the
packing, soils are well suited to certain crops, especially most
vegetable crops. A drainage system of canals, lateral
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-7 drainage ditches, mole drains, and tile drains can be
In this unit are gently sloping, poorly drained sandy established. Control structures are required in the
soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 to main canals to keep the water at a proper level for
40 inches and nearly level to gently sloping sandy soils crops and to permit flooding when the soil is not
that have a loamy and clayey subsoil below a depth of cropped.
40 inches. These soils are high in nitrogen, but are low in other
Available water capacity is low to very low in the plant nutrients. They require frequent applications of
sandy layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural fer- fertilizer high in potash, phosphate, and minor ele-
tility also is low to very low in the sandy layers and ments. The acid soils require a large amount of lime.
medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the These soils are not suited to citrus and under natural
sandy layers and moderate or moderately slow in the conditions are not suited to improved pasture. Under
subsoil. Organic-matter content is low. good management and adequate water control, how-
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface ever, they are suited to pangolagrass and improved
during wet periods, and roots are restricted. In gently bahiagrass. Excess water must be drained off the sur-
sloping areas the hazard of erosion is moderate unless face. The water table must be kept within a few inches
the surface is protected, of the surface. Deep drainage causes rapid oxidation
These soils have severe limitations for cultivated of the soil. Adequate fertilization and lime are needed
crops. The number of suitable crops is limited. If for good yields. Controlled grazing is needed for maxi-
water and erosion are controlled, the soils are suited to mum yields.
some vegetable crops. If well managed, they are mod-
erately well suited to corn and peanuts. Contour cul- CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-9
tivation of row crops; close-growing, soil-improving Lynne sand, the only soil in this unit, is a nearly
cover crops; the return of all crop residue to the soil; level, poorly drained soil. It typically has weakly ce-
and the removal of excess water with tile drains or mented sandy layers that are between depths of 20
ditches are needed. and 31 inches and are underlain by a clayey sub-
Citrus is moderately well suited if a carefully de- soil. It occurs as broad areas in the flatwoods.
signed system of water control is installed. Subsurface Available water capacity is low in the noncemented
drains help control ground water and improve the root sandy layers, medium in the weakly cemented sandy
system of the trees. The water table should be below 3 layers, and medium to high in the subsoil. Permea-
feet at all times. In many areas, the air drainage is ability is rapid in the noncemented sandy layers, mod-
poor and the trees are frequently damaged by cold un- erate in the weakly cemented layers, and slow in the
less they are adequately protected. Cover crops be- clayey subsoil. Natural fertility and organic-matter
tween the trees, minimum tillage, and adequate ferti- content are low in the sandy layers. The growth of
lization are essential. roots is restricted by a fluctuating water table. The
Improved pasture is well suited (fig. 5). Most water table rises to within 10 inches of the surface
grasses and legumes, for example, improved bahia- during wet periods. During dry periods, it recedes to a
grass, bermudagrass, and clover, grow well if properly depth of more than 40 inches and the sandy layers are
established, fertilized, limed, and grazed, somewhat drought.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-8 If intensively managed, it is well suited to most vege-
In this unit are nearly level, very poorly drained table crops grown in the area. Removal of excess wa-
soils in freshwater marshes, ponds, and swamps. In ter during wet periods and subsurface irrigation dur-
many areas they have organic layers more than 50 ing dry periods are needed. Vegetable crops should be
inches thick, but in some areas they have an organic grown in rotation with close-growing, soil-improving
layer that is only 16 to 40 inches deep over mineral cover crops. All crop residue should be left on the soil
soil. In some areas organic and mineral soils are inter- or plowed under. Fertilizer and lime should be added
mixed. according to the needs of the crop.
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface. Citrus is poorly suited. The groves are subject to
It severely restricts roots. The surface is covered with freezing temperatures. The fluctuating water table,
water for 8 to 12 months during most years. The or- the restricted root zone, and the thick, highly leached
ganic layers have a very high available water capacity subsurface layer adversely affect tree growth.
and rapid permeability. They have medium natural If well managed, improved pasture of locally grown
fertility and a very high content of organic matter, grasses and legumes is well suited. A simple drainage
These soils have severe limitations. They are not system removes excess water during wet periods. Clo-







70 SOIL SURVEY































Figure 5.-Well managed pasture of improved bahiagrass on Blichton sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.

ver requires subirrigation during dry periods. For These soils have severe limitations and are only
healthy plants and high yields, grazing should be care- moderately well suited to most locally grown culti-
fully controlled, vated crops. Cultivation is difficult in the areas where
limestone is near the surface and limestone boulders
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIs-1 are on the surface. If it is feasible, the limestone
In this unit are well drained, nearly level to gently boulders should be removed. Watermelons and toma-
sloping soils in the uplands. They generally are sandy toes are the more successful special crops. Peanuts are
to a depth of more than 40 inches and loamy below. In also well suited. Irrigation is needed during drought
places they are loamy sand to a depth of more than 90 periods. High-value crops require supplemental irriga-
inches. On a small acreage, fragments of soft and hard tion. Planting soil-improving cover crops, leaving all
limestone are in the soil, limestone bedrock is at a crop residue on the soil or plowing it under, and apply-
depth of about 6 to 63 inches, and limestone boulders ing adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime are essen-
are on the surface. tial. Row crops should be planted in alternating strips
The root zone is well aerated and is more than 80 with close-growing crops.
inches deep. Organic-matter content is low. Natural Citrus is well suited, but intensive methods must be
fertility is low to medium. These soils have low or used to protect the groves from extreme cold. Cover
very low available water capacity and rapid permea- crops between the trees, minimum tillage, lime, ferti-
bility in the sandy layers and medium to high avail- lization, and irrigation during drought periods are
able water capacity and moderate permeability in the needed.
loamy layers. The soil that is underlain by limestone Improved pasture of most deep-rooting grasses and
has low to very low available water capacity and rapid legumes grown in the area is well suited. Shallow-
permeability in the sandy layers and medium available rooting legumes and grasses are not suited because the
water capacity and moderately rapid permeability in soils are drought. For a good plant cover and good
the loamy layer above the limestone. Soil blowing is yields, proper establishment, fertilization, lime, and
active, especially during dry periods, and the surface proper grazing are required. Care must be taken in
should be protected at all times (fig. 6). mowing in areas where rock outcrop and boulders are








MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 71
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIs-3
Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the only soil in
this unit, is a nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat
poorly drained soil that has a loamy and clayey sub-
soil below a depth of 40 inches. It occurs as small and
-- "- -......large areas in the flatwoods and uplands.
SNatural fertility and organic-matter content are
------ low. Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and
moderate in the subsoil. Available water capacity is
S low in the sandy layers and medium or high in the
subsoil.
The rapid leaching of plant nutrients through the
thick sandy layers is a limitation. The water table is
20 to 30 inches below the surface for only brief pe-
riods during most years, but does not seriously affect
the growth of roots in the upper 30 inches. It fluctu-
ates between 30 and 60 inches for about 1 month to 4
months, but recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches
during dry periods.
u fThis soil has serious limitations for cultivated crops.
Irrigation is needed during drought periods. High-
Figure 6.-Rye strips on Arredondo sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. value crops require supplemental irrigation. Soil im-
Rye strips protect the soil from soil blowing. provement is essential. Planting soil-improving cover
crops and leaving all crop residue on the soil or plow-
ing it under help in maintaining fertility and organic-
matter content.
on the surface. If it is feasible, the boulders should be Citrus is suited, but most groves must be protected
removed when the pasture is established. from extreme cold. Cover crops between the trees,
minimum tillage, adequate fertilization, and lime are
CAPABILITY UNIT IIII-2 needed. The roots of the citrus trees commonly extend
Tavares sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the only soil in into areas where moisture is available. As a result the
this unit, is a nearly level to gently sloping, moder- trees are not seriously affected by drought.
ately well. drained soil that is sandy to a depth of Improved pasture is well suited. Deep-rooting
more than 80 inches. grasses and legumes grow well if they are properly
Natural fertility and organic-matter content are established, limed, fertilized, and managed. A shallow-
low. Permeability is very rapid. Available water ca- rooting plant, such as white clover, is not suited. For
pacity is very low in all layers. The soil is favorably vigorous plants and maximum yields, controlled graz-
influenced, however, by a water table that fluctuates ing is needed.
between 40 and 60 inches during most periods. Soil
blowing is active in unprotected areas. CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-1
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. Wacahoota loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, the
It is of limited use for general farm crops because it is only soil in this unit, is a poorly drained soil that has a
drought and the leaching of plant nutrients is rapid. loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 to 40 inches. It oc-
During dry periods very little water is available to curs in the uplands as small, sharp-breaking areas or
plants because the water table is well below the root as large areas on long slopes.
zone. Irrigation is needed during these periods. Irri- Natural fertility is low in the sandy layers and me-
gation of high-value crops is generally feasible. Good dium in the loamy subsoil. Available water capacity is
soil-improving measures are needed, including the re- low in the sandy layers and low to medium in the sub-
turn of all crop residue to the soil, soil-improving soil. Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and
cover crops, and adequate amounts of fertilizer and moderate in the subsoil. Organic-matter content is
lime. low. The growth of roots is limited by seepage water
Citrus is well suited, but the groves must be pro- within 10 inches of the surface during wet periods.
tected from damaging cold. Cover crops between the Runoff during rainfall is medium on unprotected
trees, minimum tillage, adequate fertilization, and slopes, and the hazard of erosion is moderate.
lime are required. The trees generally are not seriously This soil has very severe limitations and is only
affected by drought because roots commonly extend moderately well suited to most cultivated crops. Con-
into areas where moisture is available. During periods trol of wetness and erosion is needed. Wetness is diffi-
of high rainfall some trees are damaged by a high wa- cult to control. Such crops as corn, peanuts, tomatoes,
ter table. and watermelons are moderately well suited if they
Improved pasture is well suited. Deep-rooting are well managed. Planting crops on the contour,
grasses and legumes grow well if they are properly planting soil-improving cover crops, and returning all
established, limed, fertilized, and managed. The pas- crop residue to the soil are essential.
ture is little affected by drought. Citrus is well suited, but extreme care must be







72 SOIL SURVEY

taken to protect the groves from damaging cold. The sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches and loamy in
water table must be at least 3 feet below the surface at the subsoil. They occur on broad flats and in depres-
all times. Minimum tillage and cover crops between sions and sloughs of the flatwoods and in depressions
the trees are required. in sandy ridges.
Improved pasture of grasses and legumes grown in The water table is within 10 inches of the surface
the area is well suited. Establishing sod as soon as for 2 to more than 6 months during most years. It re-
possible after land preparation helps in controlling stricts the growth of roots. Available water capacity is
erosion. Controlled grazing and regular applications low to very low in the sandy layers and medium in the
of fertilizer and lime are needed to maintain the plant subsoil. Permeability is very rapid in the sandy layers
cover, and moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility
is low in the sandy layers and medium in the subsoil.
CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-2 Organic-matter content is low.
In this unit are nearly level, poorly drained sandy These soils have very severe limitations for culti-
soils having a weakly cemented sandy layer that is at vated crops. They are poorly suited to general farm
a depth of 26 to 39 inches and is underlain by a layer crops, but are moderately well suited to a number of
of loose sand and a loamy and clayey subsoil. In some vegetable crops. Removal of excess water during wet
areas they are intricately mixed with poorly drained periods and subsurface irrigation during dry periods
and very poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth are needed. Close-growing, soil-improving cover crops
of 80 inches or more. They occur as broad areas in the should be grown in rotation with row crops. All crop
flatwoods and as areas in shallow depressions of the residue should be left on the surface or plowed under.
uplands. Fertilizer should be added according to the needs of
The root zone is adversely affected by a seasonal the crops.
high water table within 10 inches of the surface dur- Citrus is poorly suited. The high water table
ing wet periods. In depressions, the surface is covered severely restricts the growth of roots. Air drainage is
with water for brief periods. During dry periods the poor, and the groves are subject to frequent damaging
water table recedes to a depth below 40 inches. cold.
Available water capacity is mostly low to very low Improved pasture of locally grown grasses and leg-
in the sandy layers, but is high in the surface layer of umes is well suited to moderately well suited if it is
the very poorly drained soils. It is medium in the properly established, fertilized, limed, and managed.
weakly cemented sandy layer and medium to high in A simple drainage system that removes excess water
the loamy and clayey subsoil. Permeability is rapid to during wet periods is needed. Clover-grass pasture is
very rapid in the sandy layers, moderate in the weakly well suited if it is adequately fertilized and well man-
cemented sandy layer, and moderately slow in the sub- aged. Subirrigation is needed to assure good growth
soil. Natural fertility and organic-matter content are of clover during dry periods.
generally low, but the organic-matter content in the
surface layer of the very poorly drained soils is high. CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-4
Plant nutrients leach rapidly through the sandy layers. In this unit are gently sloping, poorly drained grav-
These soils have very severe limitations for culti- elly sandy soils with a clayey subsoil and gravelly
vated crops. If water is controlled and the soil very sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of
intensively managed, they are moderately well suited 20 to 40 inches. They are in the uplands. The sandy
to a number of vegetable crops. Rapid removal of ex- layers and at least the upper 20 inches of the subsoil
cess water during high rainfall and subirrigation dur- are, by volume, more than 35 percent gravel, pebbles,
ing dry periods are needed. Row crops should be ro- and rock fragments less than 3 inches in diameter.
tated with close-growing, soil improving crops. All Rock commonly crops out in places.
crop residue should be left on the soil or plowed under. Available water capacity is very low in the sandy
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the layers, low to very low in the gravelly part of the sub-
needs of the crops. soil, and medium to high in the nongravelly part. Per-
Citrus is poorly suited. Most areas are susceptible meability is rapid to moderately rapid in the sandy
to freezing temperatures. The thick, highly leached, layers and very slow or moderate in the subsoil. If it is
coarse textured layers, the fluctuating water table moderate in the subsoil, it is moderately slow in the
that restricts the growth of roots, and other poor soil underlying material. Natural fertility and organic-
qualities adversely affect the growth of citrus trees, matter content are low to medium.
Improved pasture of locally grown grasses and leg- Water movement through the subsoil is somewhat
umes is moderately well suited. A simple drainage restricted. After heavy rainfall the soils are quickly
system that removes excess water during wet periods, saturated and are excessively wet. The water table is
adequate fertilization, lime, and controlled grazing within 10 inches of the surface during wet periods.
are essential. Clover can be grown successfully if grass The hazard of erosion is moderate in unprotected
is grown as winter pasture. Irrigation is required dur- areas.
ing drought periods. These soils have severe limitations for cultivated
crops. The wetness and the large number of rock frag-
CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-3 ments and pebbles in the upper part of the soil and on
In this unit are nearly level, poorly drained soils the surface restrict the growth of roots and limit cul-
that are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches or are tivation. The best suited crops have a shallow root







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 73

zone. If crops are grown, intensive management can and permeability is mostly very rapid. In the layers
greatly increase the yields. The return of crop residue that have thin bands of loamy sand, however, available
to the soil, soil-improving cover crops, adequate ferti- water capacity is low and permeability is rapid. The
lization, lime, and a proper rotation system are needed, loose sandy surface is subject to soil blowing.
Citrus is poorly suited. Poor soil qualities restrict This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
the development of the deep root zone desirable for crops. Droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant
citrus trees. If groves are established, they require nutrients reduce the variety of suitable crops. Water-
intensive protection from damaging cold. Intensive melons are successfully grown. Tomatoes are also
soil improvement, including good water control, is also grown in many areas. Sprinkler irrigation of high-
required. value crops is needed during drought periods. The
Improved pasture is moderately well suited, but variety of crops that can be grown without irrigation
many areas have too many rock outcrops and rock is very limited. Intensive management is required if
fragments for safe mowing. If well managed, the soils the soil is cultivated. Planting row crops in alternating
produce good quality pasture. Proper establishment, strips with close-growing crops helps to prevent soil
lime, fertilization, and controlled grazing are essential. blowing. All crop residue should be left on the surface
or plowed under. Soil-improving cover crops and a
CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-5 liberal amount of fertilizer are necessary.
In this unit are poorly drained, sloping sandy soils Citrus is well suited, but the groves must be pro-
with a loamy and clayey subsoil. They occur on seepy tected from damaging cold. Cover crops between the
hillsides in the uplands. trees, minimum tillage, adequate applications of ferti-
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface lizer and lime, and irrigation during drought periods
during wet periods. The growth of roots is restricted are essential.
by the water table and a slowly to very slowly per- Improved pasture of a deep-rooting grass, such as
meable subsoil. Available water capacity is low to bahiagrass, and a deep-rooting legume, such as hairy
medium in the sandy layers, low to high in the loamy indigo, is well suited if it is carefully managed. Regu-
part of the subsoil, and medium to high in the clayey lar fertilization, lime, and controlled grazing are
part. Natural fertility is medium, and the soils re- required.
spond well to fertilization. Organic-matter content is
medium. Response to artificial drainage is slow. The CAPABILITY UNIT IV-2
slope and a slow infiltration rate cause rapid runoff In this unit are well drained soils that have sandy
and a severe erosion hazard on unprotected slopes. layers, more than 40 inches deep over loamy layers and
These soils have very severe limitations for culti- well drained soils that are loamy sand to a depth of
vated crops and are poorly suited to most general more than 90 inches. They are in the uplands. Slopes
farm crops. The slow removal of surface water is are mostly 5 to 8 percent, but on a small acreage are 8
needed to control erosion. Seepage water must be in- to 12 percent.
tercepted. If well managed, the soils are suited to These soils are somewhat drought during dry pe-
watermelons, tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, and some riods. Plant nutrients leach readily through the sandy
other vegetable crops. Contour cultivation, crop rota- layers. Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and
tions, soil-improving cover crops, the return of all moderate in the loamy layers. Available water capac-
crop residue to the soil, good seedbed preparation, and ity is low or very low in the sandy layers and medium
adequate fertilization are required, to high in the loamy layers. Natural fertility is low to
Citrus is generally not suited. The hazard of erosion medium. Organic-matter content is low. The soils are
is severe. The growth of tree roots is restricted. Estab- subject to erosion and soil blowing and must be pro,
fishing the required water control is difficult. If citrus tected by a good plant cover.
is grown, the groves must be protected from damaging These soils have very severe limitations for culti-
cold. Intensive management is needed. vated crops. They require special soil-improving meas-
Improved pasture of most grasses and legumes ures and erosion control if they are cultivated. The
grown in the area is suited. If well managed, it is of return of all crop residue to the soil, soil-improving
good quality. Establishing sod as soon as possible after cover crops, adequate fertilization, and a good con-
land preparation helps in controlling erosion. Con- servation cropping system are essential. Row crops
trolled grazing and regular applications of fertilizer should be planted on the contour in alternating strips
and lime are required to maintain the plant cover and with close-growing crops. Irrigation of high-value
to produce the highest yields, crops is needed during drought periods.
Citrus is well suited, but the groves must be pro-
CAPABILITY UNIT IV-1 tected from damaging cold. Cover crops between the
Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the only soil in trees, adequate applications of fertilizer and lime,
this unit, is a nearly level to gently sloping, excessively minimum tillage, and irrigation during drought pe-
drained soil. It is sand to a depth of more than 80 riods are required.
inches and has thin bands of loamy sand'within a Improved pasture of a deep-rooting grass, such as
depth of 60 to 80 inches. It occurs as small and large bahiagrass, is moderately well suited. Fertilization,
areas on ridges in the uplands. lime, and controlled grazing are needed. Yields are
Natural fertility is low. Organic-matter content is occasionally reduced by extended dry periods. Shallow-
very low. Available water capacity is mostly very low, rooting legumes and grasses are not suited.






74 SOIL SURVEY
CAPABILITY UNIT IVs-4 Improved pasture is poorly suited unless water is
Sparr fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, the only soil controlled. If intensively managed, clover-grass pas-
in this unit, is a sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil ture can be grown. Rapid removal of surface water is
with a loamy and clayey subsoil below a depth of 40 essential. Grazing should be controlled and rotated to
inches. It occurs as small areas on seepy hillsides in permit the growth of healthy plants and to prevent
the uplands. puddling or packing.
Natural fertility and organic-matter content are
low. Water and plant nutrients move freely through CAPABILITY UNIT VIw-1
the porous sandy layers. Permeability is rapid in the In this unit are poorly drained soils on seepy hill-
sandy layers and moderate in the subsoil. Available sides in the uplands. These are dominantly strongly
water capacity is low in the sandy layers and medium sloping sandy soils that have a clayey subsoil. Some
or high in the subsoil, are sloping gravelly sandy soils that have a clayey or
The water table fluctuates between 30 and 60 inches loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 to 40 inches. In the
for 1 month to 4 months during most years. It cor- gravelly soils, the sandy layers and at least the upper
only affects the soil favorably, but is within 30 20 inches of the subsoil are, by volume, more than 35
inches of the surface for only brief periods. Erosion percent gravel, pebbles, and rock fragments less than
and soil blowing are active in unprotected areas. The 3 inches in diameter. Rock commonly crops out in
management needed to improve the soil is also gen- places.
erally adequate to control erosion. Available water capacity is low in the sandy layers
This soil is moderately well suited to most crops of the nongravelly soils and mostly medium to high in
grown in the area. Irrigation of high-value crops is the subsoil. It is very low in the sandy layers of the
needed during dry periods, when the root zone is gravelly soils, low to very low in the gravelly part of
drought. The water table is below 60 inches during the subsoil, and medium to high in the nongravelly
these periods. Intensive soil-improving measures are part. Permeability is rapid to moderately rapid in the
required, including the return of all crop residue to sandy layers and ranges from moderate to very slow
the soil and adequate applications of fertilizer and in the subsoil. Natural fertility and organic-matter
lime. Cover crops help to control erosion. content are low to medium.
Citrus is well suited, but the groves must be pro- Wetness is the result of hillside seepage and a slow
tected from damaging cold. Cover crops between the infiltration rate in the subsoil. The water table is
trees, minimum tillage, adequate fertilization, and within 10 inches of the surface during wet periods.
lime are essential. The hazard of erosion is moderate, and effective ero-
Improved pasture is suited. Deep-rooting grasses sion control is difficult.
and legumes grow well if they are properly estab- These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or
lished, fertilized, limed, and grazed. They are little citrus. They should always be protected by permanent
affected by drought. A shallow-rooting plant, such as close-growing plant cover.
white clover, is not suited because the root zone is Improved pasture is moderately suited. Many areas
drought, have too many rock outcrops and rock fragments for
safe mowing. Proper management is needed to pro-
CAPABILITY UNIT Vw-I duce good quality pasture. Intensive management is
In this unit are nearly level, very poorly drained needed to control erosion. A good protective plant
soils. They are mostly clayey or sandy soils with a cover is required at all times. Sod must be established
clayey subsoil. In a few areas, however, they are sandy as soon as possible after land preparation.
throughout or have an organic surface layer over
sandy material. They occur mostly along the flood CAPABILITY UNIT VIs-I
plain of the Oklawaha River, in depressions in the Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the only soil in
flatwoods, or on grassy prairies in the uplands. this unit, is nearly level to gently sloping, excessively
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface drained, and drought. It is sand to a depth of more
for 6 months or more annually. It severely restricts than 80 inches.
the growth of roots. The soils are subject to flooding or Available water capacity is very low. Natural fer-
are covered with water for long periods during most utility is low. Permeability is very rapid. Water and air
years. Surface drainage and internal drainage are move freely through the soil, thus permitting the rapid
slow. Available water capacity is generally medium oxidation of organic matter and the rapid leaching of
to high. Permeability is generally moderately rapid to soluble plant nutrients. Soil blowing is active unless
slow in the surface layer and slow to very slow in the the surface is protected.
subsoil. It is mostly very rapid, however, in the soils This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because it
that are sandy throughout or have an organic surface is drought and has other unfavorable soil properties.
layer over sandy material. Natural fertility is medium Citrus is suited if the climate is favorable. Mini-
to high. Organic-matter content is moderately low to mum tillage and the intensive use of cover crops or
high. soil-improving grasses are needed. Sprinkler irriga-
These soils have severe limitations and are not tion insures the survival of young trees and the pro-
suited to cultivated crops or citrus. Even if a good ductivity of older trees.
water-control system is established, they are subject Improved pasture is poorly suited. Only a deep-
to waterlogging during wet periods, rooting grass, such as bahiagrass, can be grown. Fre-







MARION COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 75

quent applications of fertilizer and carefully controlled management is needed, including frequent applica-
grazing are required. tions of fertilizer and carefully controlled grazing.
CAPABILITY UNIT VIs-2 CAPABILITY UNIT VIs-4
In this unit are excessively drained soils that are Udalfic Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the only soils
mostly sand to a depth of more than 80 inches and in this unit, are well drained mixed soil material and
have thin bands of loamy sand within a depth of 60 to unconsolidated material that was originally removed
80 inches. Slopes are mostly 5 to 12 percent. In a few as overburden from surface mines and piled as spoil
areas they are 0 to 2 percent. In these areas 9 to 20 material. This material has been spread, shaped, or
inches of clayey overwash overlies the sand. This over- leveled to suit the desired use. Where spread over the
wash is the result of the processing of phosphatic surface of adjacent soils, it is about 24 to 48 inches
limestone. deep. The underlying soil is sandy in the upper layers
Organic-matter content is low where slopes are 5 to and loamy or clayey in the lower layers.
12 percent and medium where they are 0 to 2 percent. Natural fertility is low to medium. Available water
Available water capacity is very low in the sand that capacity varies, but is generally low to medium. Per-
has no bands of loamy sand, low in the sand that has meability also varies, but is mostly moderate to rapid
bands of loamy sand, and high in the clayey overwash. in the unconsolidated material. It is rapid in the sandy
Permeability is very rapid in the sand that has no layers below the unconsolidated material. Organic-
bands of loamy sand, rapid in the sand that has bands matter content is commonly low.
of loamy sand, and slow in the clayey overwash. Air Areas of this unit are generally not suited to gen-
and water move freely through these porous sandy eral farm crops. The soil material is mixed and con-
soils, and applied plant nutrients leach very rapidly. tains rock fragments in varying numbers. Some areas
Soil blowing is a serious hazard, and the sandy surface are used for special crops and are productive under a
must be protected at all times. The hazard of erosion high level of management.
is slight in unprotected areas where slopes are more Citrus is suited, but the groves require good man-
than 5 percent, agement and protection from damaging cold.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops because Suitability for improved pasture of deep-rooting
of the poor soil qualities, the slope, and the hazard of grasses and legumes varies. Most areas are moderately
erosion, well suited. Careful management is needed, including
Citrus is suited, but most groves must be protected proper establishment, careful grazing, and adequate
from damaging cold. Cover crops between the trees, fertilization.
minimum tillage, adequate amounts of fertilizer and CAPABILITY
lime, and irrigation during drought periods are CAPABILITY UNIT VIIw-1
needed. Eureka loamy fine sand, pounded, the only soil in this
Improved pasture of a deep-rooting grass, such as unit, is a nearly level, very poorly drained soil with a
bahiagrass, is moderately well suited if it is carefully clayey subsoil. It is in small depressions in the
managed. Proper establishment, careful grazing, and flatwoods.
adequate fertilization are required. The water table is within 10 inches of the surface
for 6 months or more annually, and the surface is
CAPABILITY UNIT VI-3 ponded or covered with water for more than 4 months.
Electra sand, to 5 percent slopes, the only soil in Permeability is moderately rapid in the sandy layers
Electra sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the only soil in and slow to very slow in the subsoil. Available water
this unit, is a nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat capacity is medium in the sandy layers and high inwater
poorly drained soil that typically has a weakly ce- pact y medum n the sandy layers and hgh subsoil.
mented sandy layer between depths of 41 and 50 This soil has very severe limitations and is not
inches and a loamy and clayey subsoil below. It is in This soil has very severe lmitations and is not
the flatwoods and the sandy uplandst s in suited to cultivated crops and citrus. A good water-
Nthefatur woods and the sandy uplands, control system is difficult to establish because most
Natural fertility is low. This soil is very porous, areas lack good water outlets and internal drainage is
very rapidly permeable, and highly leached in the slow.
upper sandy layers. The weakly cemented sandy layer Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
is moderately permeable, and the subsoil is moderately improved pasture. If intensively managed, it is mod-
slowly permeable. The soil is drought during dry erately well suited to pasture of improved bahiagrass
periods, but the water table rises to within 24 to 40 or grass and white clover. Removal of excess water,
inches of the surface during wet periods. Available fertilization, lime, and controlled grazing are needed.
water capacity is low to very low in the upper sandy
layers and medium in the weakly cemented sandy CAPABILITY UNIT VIIw-2
layer and the subsoil. Pompano sand, ponded, the only soil in this unit, is a
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops even if it nearly level, very poorly drained soil that is sandy to a
is intensively managed. The infertile, drought layers depth of more than 80 inches. It is in shallow depres-
extend below the normal root zone of most crops. sions and sloughs of the flatwoods and on sandy ridges.
Citrus is poorly suited. Improved pasture is also This soil is highly porous, and applied plant nu-
poorly suited. Only a deep-rooting, drought-resistant trients leach very rapidly. Available water capacity
grass, such as bahiagrass, can be grown. Intensive is very low. Permeability is very rapid. Natural fer-




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