• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to soil mapping units
 Summary of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 Soil map for general planning
 Soil maps for detailed plannin...
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Illustrations
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Hernando County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025716/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Hernando County, Florida
Physical Description: x, 152, 41 p., 3 fold. leaves of plates : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Hyde, Adam G
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: [1977]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Hernando County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Hernando County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 77.
Statement of Responsibility: by Adam G. Hyde ... et al. ; United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025716
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001174341
notis - AFS4537
oclc - 03513486
lccn - 77603867

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Index to soil mapping units
        Page v
    Summary of Tables
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
        Page x
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Climate
            Page 1
        History and development
            Page 2
        Physiography, relief, and drainage
            Page 2
        Water resources
            Page 3
        Farming
            Page 3
        Transportation
            Page 3
        Recreation
            Page 3
    How this survey was made
        Page 3
    Soil map for general planning
        Page 4
        Excessively drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to sloping soils of the upland ridge
            Page 4
            Candler-Tavares-Paola association
                Page 4
            Arredondo-Sparr-Kendrick association
                Page 5
            Candler-Lake association
                Page 5
            Masaryk association
                Page 6
        Somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained, nearly level to strongly sloping soils of the uplands and flatwoods
            Page 6
            Nobleton-Blichton-Flemington association
                Page 6
            EauGallie-Wabasso-Basinger association
                Page 7
            Myakka-Basinger association
                Page 7
            Paisley-Floridana-Wabasso association
                Page 7
        Poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly level soils in swamps, tidal marshes, and river flood plains
            Page 8
            Okeelanto-Aripeka-Terra Ceia association
                Page 8
            Homosassa-Weekiwachee-Lacoochee association
                Page 8
            Floridana-Basinger association
                Page 9
    Soil maps for detailed planning
        Page 9
        Soil descriptions
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 24a
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 39
        Crops and pasture
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Yields per acre
                Page 41
            Capability classes and subclasses
                Page 42
                Page 43
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 44
        Engineering
            Page 44
            Building site development
                Page 45
            Sanitary site development
                Page 45
            Water management
                Page 46
            Construction materials
                Page 47
        Recreation
            Page 48
            Page 49
        Wildlife management habit
            Page 50
            Wildlife management practices
                Page 50
    Soil properties
        Page 50
        Engineering properties
            Page 50
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 51
        Soil and water features
            Page 52
        Test data
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Physical and chemical analyses of selected soils
                Page 53
                Page 54
            Engineering test data
                Page 55
    Classification of the soils
        Page 55
        Soil series and morphology
            Page 55
            Adamsville series
                Page 55
            Anclote series
                Page 56
            Aripeka series
                Page 56
            Arredondo series
                Page 57
            Astatula series
                Page 57
            Basinger series
                Page 58
            Blichton series
                Page 58
            Candler series
                Page 59
            Delray series
                Page 59
            EauGallie series
                Page 60
            Electra variant
                Page 60
            Flemington series
                Page 61
            Floridana series
                Page 61
            Floridana variant
                Page 62
            Homosassa series
                Page 62
            Kanapaha series
                Page 63
            Kendrick series
                Page 63
            Lacoochee series
                Page 64
            Lake series
                Page 64
            Lauderhill series
                Page 65
            Masaryk series
                Page 65
            Micanopy series
                Page 66
            Myakka series
                Page 66
            Nobleton series
                Page 67
            Okeelanta series
                Page 67
            Paisley series
                Page 68
            Paola series
                Page 68
            Pineda series
                Page 69
            Pomello series
                Page 70
            Pompano series
                Page 70
            Sparr series
                Page 71
            Tavares series
                Page 71
            Terra Ceia series
                Page 72
            Wabasso series
                Page 72
            Wauchula series
                Page 73
            Weekiwachee series
                Page 73
            Williston series
                Page 74
            Williston Variant
                Page 75
        Classification
            Page 75
    Formation of the soils
        Page 76
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 76
            Parent material
                Page 76
            Climate
                Page 76
            Plants and animals
                Page 76
            relief
                Page 76
            Time
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
                Page 80
            Processes of soil formation
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
                Page 80
    Reference
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Glossary
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Illustrations
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Tables
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
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        Page 149
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        Page 151
        Page 152
    General soil map
        Unnumbered ( 166 )
    Index to map sheets
        Index 1
        Index 2
    Map
        Unnumbered ( 169 )
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Full Text



SOIL SURVEY OF

Hernando County, Florida
M

























United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Soil Science Department






HOW TO Uf


Locate your area of interest on
S the "Index to Map Shees'" (thne
S last page of this publication).

Kokomo
__I I ____,
--- + Kkm


I I..
Note the number of the map
---_- i* sheet and turn to that sheet.






Locate your area of interest
3* on the map sheet.
151C
1. ... 3\1A\\
S56B 27C
j 56B 131B
I134A 148B

-"I ~ 1 *

-4 1 -- -





List the mapping unit symbols
that are in your area. Symb o.
Symbols

151\ ic, 27C

134A 56B56B
27C 131B
134A
56B 1311B14

134A -- T 48B 151C







HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Mapping Units"
5. which lists the name of each mapping unit and the .
page where that mapping unit is described._ .






.- ---. -- -_-
... --- -- ----'. .. ..


~----. -"










See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6. Contents) for location of additional data --- -----.
on a specific soil use.


















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.






























This is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort
of the United States Department of Agriculture and agencies of the States,
usually the Agricultural E.xperiment Stations. In some surveys, other Federal
and local agencies also contribute. The Soil Conservation Service has leader-
ship for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with
Department of Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to
all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in the period 1972-75.
Soil names and descriptions were approved in 1975. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in the publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1975.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Agricultural
Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department; and the Hernando County
Board of Commissioners. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the
Gulf Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission, but any enlarge-
ment of these maps could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping and
result in erroneous interpretations. Enlarged maps do not show small areas of
contrasting soils that could have been shown at a larger mapping scale.









Cover: This is the USDA Beef Cattle Research Station at Chinsegut
Hill. The dominant soil is Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This soil produces good pasture when it is well managed.










Contents

Page Page
Index to soil mapping units.......................................... v Soil and water features............................................ 52
Sum m ary of tables ............................. .......................... vi T est data ......................... ............... ......................... 53
Foreword............................................................................ ix Physical and chemical analyses of selected soils 53
General nature of the county ............................... 1 Engineering test data ............................................. 55
Clim ate ......................... ....................................... 1 Classification of the soils........................................... 55
SHistory and development ........................................ 2 Soil series and morphology.......................................... 55
Physiography, relief, and drainage .......................... 2 Adamsville series ........................................... 55
W after resources .................................... .................. 3 A nclote series ............................................................ 56
F arm ing .......................................................................... 3 A ripeka series........................................................... 56
Transportation ............................... .................... 3 Arredondo series ........................... ........... .... 57
Recreation .......................................... 3 Astatula series ....................... ................................... 57
H ow this survey w as m ade............................................ 3 Basinger series .......................................................... 58
Soil m ap for general planning .................................... 4 Blichton series............................................................ 58
Excessively drained to somewhat poorly drained, Candler series......................... .......... ....... 59
nearly level to sloping soils of the upland Delray series ............................... .......... .. 59
ridge ......................... ...................................... .... 4 E auGallie series ............................... ................. 60
1. Candler-Tavares-Paola association ................ 4 Electra Variant......................... ........... ...... 60
2. Arredondo-Sparr-Kendrick association .......... 5 Flemington series...................................................... 61
3. Candler-Lake association .................................. 5 Floridana series ........................................................ 61
4. M asaryk association........................................ 6 Floridana Variant.............................. ................... 62
Somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained, Homosassa series ....................... ....... ........... 62
nearly level to strongly sloping soils of the Kanapaha series ........................................................ 63
uplands and flatw oods......................................... 6 K endrick series.......................................................... 63
5. Nobleton-Blichton-Flemington association .... 6 Lacoochee series........................................................ 64
6. EauGallie-Wabasso-Basinger association ...... 7 Lake series ............................... ........ 64
7. Myakka-Basinger association............................ 7 Lauderhill series............................................ 65
8. Paisley-Floridana-Wabasso association .......... 7 Masaryk series ................................. ........... 65
Poorly drained and very poorly drained, nearly Micanopy series ........................................................ 66
level soils in swamps, tidal marshes, and Myakka series ............................................................ 66
river flood plains ............................................... 8 N obleton series.......................................................... 67
9. Okeelanta-Aripeka-Terra Ceia association .... 8 Okeelanta series ......................................... 67
10. Homosassa-Weekiwachee-Lacoochee Paisley series.............................................................. 68
association ............................................ ....... 8 Paola series ................................................................ 68
11. Floridana-Basinger association ........................ 9 Pineda series ............................... ................ 69
Soil maps for detailed planning .................................. 9 Pomello series .................................... ....... 70
Soil descriptions ............................................... 10 Pompano series................................ ........... 70
Use and m anagem ent of the soils ............................ 39 Sam sula series............................................................ 70
C rops and pasture ............................ .............. 39 Sparr series ................................................................ 71
Yields per acre ................................................. .. 41 Tavares series ........................................ 71
Capability classes and subclasses .......................... 42 Terra Ceia series ...................... ...... ...... 72
Woodland management and productivity ................ 42 Wabasso series .............................. .......... 72
Windbreaks and environmental plantings............ 44 Wauchula series ..................... ........ ............ 73
E engineering .................................................................... 44 W eekiw achee series ................................................. 73
Building site development ............................... 45 Williston series ......................... .................... 74
Sanitary facilities ...................................................... 45 W illiston V ariant ..................... ........ ............... 75
Water management ...................................... 46 Classification ........................................ ................ 75
Construction materials ........................................ 47 Formation of the soils..................................... ...... 76
Recreation ................................................... 48 Factors of soil formation .......................... ........... 76
W wildlife habitat................................... ................ 48 Parent m aterial....................................... ........... 76
W wildlife management practices .............................. 50 Climate ..................................... ................ 76
Soil properties .................................................................. 50 P plants and anim als .................................................... 76
E engineering properties ... ..... .......... ........... 50 R elief ................................................. ..................... 76
Physical and chemical properties .............................. 51 Time .......................... ........ 77
Issued July 1977




Ill








Contents-Continued
Page Page
Processes of soil formation........................................ 77 Illustrations ................................................................ 82
References............................................... ................... 77
G lossary .................................................. 77 T ab les ................................................................................... 89



























































iv










Index to Soil Mapping Units

Page Page
1- Adam sville fine sand .................................................. 10 28- Kanapaha fine sand ................................................. 24
2-Anclote fine sand .................................................. 11 29-Kendrick fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......... 25
3-Arents-Urban land complex................................... 11 30-Lacoochee fine sandy loam.................................. 25
4-Aripeka fine sand................................................. 11 31-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... .. 26
5-Aripeka-Okeelanta-Lauderhill association ............ 12 32-Masaryk very fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.... 26
6-Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 13 33-Micanopy loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes 27
7-Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............ 13 34-Micanopy loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 27
8-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes................ 14 35-Myakka fine sand .................................. ........... 28
9-Basinger fine sand ............................................... 14 36-Nobleton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 28
10-Basinger fine sand, depressional.......................... 15 37-Okeelanta-Terra Ceia association .......................... 29
11-Blichton loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.. 15 38-Paisley fine sand...................................................... 30
12-Blichton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.. 16 39-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes .................. 30
13-Blichton loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.. 16 40-Pineda fine sand........................... .................. 31
14- Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 17 41- Pits .............................................. ........................ 31
15-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .............. 18 42-Pits-Dumps complex .............................................. 31
16-Candler-Urban land complex .................................. 18 43-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 31
17- Delray fine sand ........................ ................... 19 44- Pompano fine sand ............................................... 32
18-EauGallie fine sand ............................................. 19 45-Quartzipsamments, shaped, 0 to 5 percent
19- Electra Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes 20 slopes .................................................... ............... 33
20-Flemington fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 46-Samsula muck ............................................................ 33
slopes .............. ................................... 20 47-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .............. 34
21-Flemington fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent 48-Sparr fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .............. 34
slopes ................................................... ................ 21 49- Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........... 35
22-Flemington fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent 50-Udalfic Arents-Urban land complex............... 35
slopes ................................................... 21 51-Wabasso fine sand .................................................... 36
23-Floridana fine sand ............................................. 22 52-Wauchula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........ 36
24-Floridana-Basinger association, occasionally 53-Weekiwachee muck .................................................. 37
flooded .................................................. 22 54-Weekiwachee-Homosassa association.................... 37
25-Floridana Variant loamy fine sand...................... 23 55-Williston loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes 38
26-Homosassa mucky fine sandy loam ..................... 23 56-Williston Variant loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
27- H ydraquents .............................. ...................24 percent slopes ......................... ............................. 39

























v










Summary of Tables

Page
Acreage and Proportionate Extent of the Soils (Table 4)............................ 92
Acres. Percent.
Building Site Development (Table 8)........................... .................. 99
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial
buildings. Local roads and streets.
Capability Classes and Subclasses (Table 6) ...................................... ........ 95
Class. Total acreage. Major management con-
cerns-Erosion (e), Wetness (w), Soil problem (s).
Chemical Properties of Selected Soils (Table 18) ............................................ 143
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases-Calcium, Mag-
nesium, Sodium, Potassium, Sum, Extr. acidity,
CEC. Base sat. Elect. cond. pH-Water, Calcium
chloride, Potassium chloride. Organic carbon.
Citrate-dithionite extr.-Aluminum, Iron.
Classification of the Soils (Table 21) ............................... .............. .... 152
Soil name. Family or higher taxonomic class.
Clay Mineralogy of Selected Soils (Table 19) ....................... .................... 147
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay
minerals-Montmorillonite, 14 angstrom intergrade,
Kaolinite, Gibbsite, Quartz, X-ray amorphous.
Construction Materials (Table 11) ................................... .................. 114
Roadfill. Sand. Topsoil.
Engineering Properties and Classifications (Table 14) .............................. 126
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified,
AASHTO. Fragments greater than 3 inches. Per-
centage passing sieve. number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid
limit. Plasticity index.
Engineering Test Data (Table 20) ................................................................... 149
Parent material. FDOT Report No. Depth. Moisture-
density data-Maximum dry density, Optimum
moisture content. Mechanical analysis-Percentage
passing sieve-4, 10, 40, 200, Percentage smaller
than-0.05 mm, 0.02 mm, 0.005 mm, 0.002 mm.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Classifica-
tion--AASHTO, Unified.
Freeze Data (Table 2)....................................................... .... ................... 90
Freeze threshold temperature. Mean date of last
spring occurrence. Mean date of first fall occur-
rence. Mean number of days between dates. Years of
record, spring. Number of occurrences in spring.
Years of record, fall. Number of occurrences in fall,






vi









Summary of Tables-Continued
Page
Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils (Table 15) .................................. 132
Depth. Permeability. Available water capacity. Soil
reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell potential. Risk of
corrosion- Uncoated steel, Concrete. Erosion fac-
tors-K, T. Wind erodibility group.
Physical Properites of Selected Soils (Table 17).............................................. 139
Depth. Horizon. Particle size distribu-
tion-Sand-VC, C, M, F, VF, Total, Silt, Clay.
Hydr. cond. (sat.). Bulk density field moist. Water
content-1/10 bar, 1/3 bar, 15 bar.
Recreational Development (Table 12) ............................................................. 118
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and
trails.
Sanitary Facilites (Table 9) ....................................... 104
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill.
Daily cover for landfill.
Soil and W ater Features (Table 16)............................................................... 136
Hydrologic group. Flooding-Frequency, Duration,
Months. High water table-Depth, Kind, Months.
Bedrock-Depth, Hardness. Subsidence-Initial,
Total.
Soil Potentials and Restrictive Features by Soil Associations (Table 3).... 91
Soil association. Percent of county. Community
development. Citrus. Improved pasture. Woodland.
Temperature and Precipitation Data (Table 1) ........................................... 90
Month. Temperature-Monthly normal mean, Nor-
mal daily maximum, Normal daily minimum,
Mean number of days with temperature-90 deg. F
or higher, 32 deg. F or lower. Precipitation-Normal
total, Maximum total, Minimum total, Mean
number of days with rainfall of-0.10 inch or more,
0.50 inch or more.
W ater Management (Table 10) ................................... ........................... 109
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embank-
ments, dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated
ponds. Features affecting-Drainage, Irrigation,
Terraces and diversions.
W wildlife Habitat Potentials (Table 13)............................................................. 122
Potential for habitat elements-Grain and seed
crops, Grasses and legumes, Wild herbaceous plants,
Hardwood trees, Coniferous plants, Wetland plants,
Shallow water areas. Potential as habitat
for-Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland
wildlife.




vii








Summary of Tables-Continued
Page
Woodland Management and Productivity (Table 7) ....................................... 96
Ordination symbol. Management concerns-Erosion
hazard, Equipment limitation, Seedling mortality,
Plant competition. Potential productivi-
ty-Important trees, Site index. Trees to plant.
Yields Per Acre of Crops and Pasture (Table 5) ........................................ 93
Oranges. Grapefruit. Corn. Soybeans. Watermelons.
Bahiagrass. Grass-clover.















































viii















Foreword


The Soil Survey of Hernando County, Florida contains much information
useful in any land-planning program. Of prime importance are the predictions
of soil behavior for selected land uses. Also highlighted are limitations or
hazards to land uses that are inherent in the soil, improvements needed to
overcome these limitations, and the impact that selected land uses will have on
the environment.
This soil survey has been prepared for many different users. Farmers,
ranchers, foresters, and agronomists can use it to determine the potential of
the soil and the management practices required for food and fiber production.
Planners, community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and homebuyers
can use it to plan land use, select sites for construction, develop soil resources,
or identify any special practices that may be needed to insure proper per-
formance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation,
wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the soil sur-
vey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Many people assume that soils are all more or less alike. They are
unaware that great differences in soil properties can occur even within short
distances. Soils may be seasonally wet or subject to flooding. They may be
shallow to bedrock. They may be too unstable to be used as a foundation for
buildings or roads. Very clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to septic tank ab-
sorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or
underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map; the lo-
cation of each kind of soil is shown on detailed soil maps. Each kind of soil in
the survey area is described, and much information is given about each soil for
specific uses. Additional information or assistance in using this publication can
be obtained from the local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
We believe that this soil survey can help bring us a better environment
and a better life. Its widespread use can greatly assist us in the conservation,
development, and productive use of our soil, water, and other resources.







State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service




ix














TALLAHASSEE
JACKSONVILLE








BROOKSVILLE
ORLANDO










FORT MYERS



MIAMI
_yt '--











State Agricultural Experiment Station at Tallahassee

Location of Hernando County in Florida.






X










SOIL SURVEY OF HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA


By Adam G. Hyde, Lloyd Law, Jr., Robert L. Weatherspoon, Melvin D. Cheyney,
and Joseph J. Eckenrode, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in
cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agri-
cultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department


HERNANDO COUNTY is on the Gulf of Mexico near Climate
the middle of Florida (see map on facing page). It is bor-
dered on the north by Citrus County, on the east by The climate of Hernando County is characterized by
Sumter County, on the south by Pasco County, and on the long, warm, and relatively humid summers and mild, dry
umter C y, on te s b P C a o e i T winters. Rainfall is heaviest from June through Sep-
west by the Gulf of Mexico The Withlacoochee River member; about 55 percent of the annual total falls during
separates Hemando and Sumter Counties.
separates Hernando and Sumter Counties. this period in an average year. The other 45 percent is
The land area of the county is 312,320 acres, or 494 more or less evenly distributed throughout the remainder
square miles. About 45,123 acres, or 70.5 square miles, are of the year. Summarized climatic data (13, 14), based on
state or federally owned. Most of the federally owned records collected at the Beef Cattle Research Station,
land is in the Chassahowitzka and Chinsegut National Chinsegut Hill, are shown in table 1.
Wildlife Refuges. Most of the state-owned land is in the The Gulf of Mexico and the numerous inland lakes have
Withlacoochee State Forest. a moderating effect on both summer and winter tempera-
The county is about 18 miles long; it is 38 miles wide at tures. Summer temperatures are fairly uniform from year
its widest part. Brooksville, the county seat, is in about to year and show little day-to-day variation. Although af-
the center of the county. Approximate distances by air ternoon temperatures reach 90 degrees F or higher with
great regularity during the warmest months, tempera-
from Brooksville to principal cities in the State are shown tures of 100 degrees F or higher seldom occur. Winter
on the map on the facing page. temperatures display considerable day-to-day variation,
The mining of limestone is the largest single largely because of periodic invasions of cold, dry air
nonagricultural industry in the county. Six limestone masses from the north.
mines produce more than one-half million tons of rock an- Frost or freezing temperatures in the colder sections of
nually. This rock is used in road construction throughout the county occur at least once every winter and on an
the State as well as for plastering, soil conditioning, and average of four times a year. Temperatures as low as 20
gravel for roofing, concrete, and other uses. Other indus- degrees F are rare. Winter cold spells are usually short
tries include lumber, electronic manufacturing, chemicals, and seldom last more than 2 or 3 days. Freeze data shown
in table 2 were taken at the Beef Cattle Research Sta-
dairy and poultry products and processing, and explo- table2 were taken at the Beef Cattle Research Sta-
si lives tion, Chinsegut Hill, and are representative for the area.
Most summer rainfall comes from afternoon or early
evening local thundershowers. During June, July, August,
General nature of the county and September, measurable rainfall can be expected on
about half the days. Summer showers are sometimes
Soil is intimately associated with its environment. The heavy, with 2 or 3 inches of rain falling in an hour or two.
interaction of all soil forming factors determines the Daylong rains in summer are rare and are almost always
character of the soil and its overall behavior for a given associated with a tropical storm. Winter and spring rains
are usually associated with large-scale continental
use. In this section, other environmental and cultural fac- developments and are of longer duration. Some
weather developments and are of longer duration. Some
tors that affect the use and management of soils in Her- last for 24 hours or longer. The long-duration rains are
nando County are discussed. The factors discussed are cli- usually not so intense as the thundershower type rains,
mate; history and development; physiography, relief, and but occasionally they do release relatively large amounts
drainage; water resources; farming; transportation; and of rainfall over large areas. A 24-hour rainfall of 7 inches
recreation. or more falls about 1 year in 10.



1










SOIL SURVEY OF HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA


By Adam G. Hyde, Lloyd Law, Jr., Robert L. Weatherspoon, Melvin D. Cheyney,
and Joseph J. Eckenrode, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in
cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agri-
cultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department


HERNANDO COUNTY is on the Gulf of Mexico near Climate
the middle of Florida (see map on facing page). It is bor-
dered on the north by Citrus County, on the east by The climate of Hernando County is characterized by
Sumter County, on the south by Pasco County, and on the long, warm, and relatively humid summers and mild, dry
umter C y, on te s b P C a o e i T winters. Rainfall is heaviest from June through Sep-
west by the Gulf of Mexico The Withlacoochee River member; about 55 percent of the annual total falls during
separates Hemando and Sumter Counties.
separates Hernando and Sumter Counties. this period in an average year. The other 45 percent is
The land area of the county is 312,320 acres, or 494 more or less evenly distributed throughout the remainder
square miles. About 45,123 acres, or 70.5 square miles, are of the year. Summarized climatic data (13, 14), based on
state or federally owned. Most of the federally owned records collected at the Beef Cattle Research Station,
land is in the Chassahowitzka and Chinsegut National Chinsegut Hill, are shown in table 1.
Wildlife Refuges. Most of the state-owned land is in the The Gulf of Mexico and the numerous inland lakes have
Withlacoochee State Forest. a moderating effect on both summer and winter tempera-
The county is about 18 miles long; it is 38 miles wide at tures. Summer temperatures are fairly uniform from year
its widest part. Brooksville, the county seat, is in about to year and show little day-to-day variation. Although af-
the center of the county. Approximate distances by air ternoon temperatures reach 90 degrees F or higher with
great regularity during the warmest months, tempera-
from Brooksville to principal cities in the State are shown tures of 100 degrees F or higher seldom occur. Winter
on the map on the facing page. temperatures display considerable day-to-day variation,
The mining of limestone is the largest single largely because of periodic invasions of cold, dry air
nonagricultural industry in the county. Six limestone masses from the north.
mines produce more than one-half million tons of rock an- Frost or freezing temperatures in the colder sections of
nually. This rock is used in road construction throughout the county occur at least once every winter and on an
the State as well as for plastering, soil conditioning, and average of four times a year. Temperatures as low as 20
gravel for roofing, concrete, and other uses. Other indus- degrees F are rare. Winter cold spells are usually short
tries include lumber, electronic manufacturing, chemicals, and seldom last more than 2 or 3 days. Freeze data shown
in table 2 were taken at the Beef Cattle Research Sta-
dairy and poultry products and processing, and explo- table2 were taken at the Beef Cattle Research Sta-
si lives tion, Chinsegut Hill, and are representative for the area.
Most summer rainfall comes from afternoon or early
evening local thundershowers. During June, July, August,
General nature of the county and September, measurable rainfall can be expected on
about half the days. Summer showers are sometimes
Soil is intimately associated with its environment. The heavy, with 2 or 3 inches of rain falling in an hour or two.
interaction of all soil forming factors determines the Daylong rains in summer are rare and are almost always
character of the soil and its overall behavior for a given associated with a tropical storm. Winter and spring rains
are usually associated with large-scale continental
use. In this section, other environmental and cultural fac- developments and are of longer duration. Some
weather developments and are of longer duration. Some
tors that affect the use and management of soils in Her- last for 24 hours or longer. The long-duration rains are
nando County are discussed. The factors discussed are cli- usually not so intense as the thundershower type rains,
mate; history and development; physiography, relief, and but occasionally they do release relatively large amounts
drainage; water resources; farming; transportation; and of rainfall over large areas. A 24-hour rainfall of 7 inches
recreation. or more falls about 1 year in 10.



1








2 SOIL SURVEY

Hail is observed at irregular intervals in thun- The original name of the present town of Brooksville
dershowers. The individual pieces of hail are usually small when it was settled by the white men was Melendez.
and seldom cause much damage. Snow is very rare in the Pierceville was established in the early 1850's just 2 miles
area, and when it falls, it melts as it hits the ground. south of Melendez. In 1870 the two towns merged and
Tropical storms can affect the area at any time during became Brooksville.
the period from early June through mid-November. These There were at least three military forts in Hernando
storms diminish in intensity quite rapidly as they move County: Fort Cross, Fort Dade, and Fort Taylor.
inland. The chance of winds reaching hurricane force (74
mi/h or greater) in Hernando County in any given year is Physiography, relief, and drainage
about one in 100. However, copious rains associated with
these storms may cause considerable damage to crops and Hernando County can be divided into four general
fields, parts based on physiography. These are the coastal
Extended periods of dry weather or droughts can occur swamps, the Gulf Coastal lowlands, Brooksville Ridge,
in any season, but they are most common in spring and and Tsola Apopka Plain (15).
fall. By definition, a drought occurs when the soil does The coastal swamp area parallels the Gulf Coast and
not have enough available water for plants to maintain extends inland 4 to 6 miles. This area includes both the
normal growth. Consequently, within a normal year there tidal marshes and Chassahowitzka and Withlacoochee
are periods when rainfall does not supply as much water Swamps. Elevations range from sea level in the tidal
as is needed by most crops. Therefore, supplementary ir- marsh to about 10 feet in the swamp areas. The soils of
rigation is needed in most years for maximum crop the tidal marshes and in the swamps are very poorly
production. Droughts or dry periods in April and May, drained organic and mineral soils, and the marshes are
although generally of shorter duration than those in the subject to daily flooding by normal tides. The natural
fall, tend to be intensified by higher temperatures. vegetation is predominantly mixed hardwoods. A large
Prevailing winds in the area are generally southerly in portion of the coastal swamp area is underlain by
spring and summer and northerly in fall and winter. limestone. Little development has taken place in this area,
Windspeeds during the day usually range between 8 and but a few places along the coast have been developed for
15 mi/h, but nearly always drop below 8 mi/h at night, urban uses.
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands lies between the coastal
History and development swamp and Brooksville Ridge. This area is not continuous
JAMES H. JONES, County Historian, Hernando County, prepared this throughout the length of the county and ranges from less
section, than a mile to about 2 miles in width. Elevations are
Hernando County was established by the Territorial mostly between about 10 and 50 feet above sea level. The
Hernando County was established by the Territorial
Legislature on February 24, 1843. It was severed from area consists mostly of pine and palmetto flatwoods with
Legislature on February 24, 1843. It was severed from
Alachua County, which had been established on December numerous small ponds in lesser areas of broad, grassy
29, 1824, and from Hillsborough County. When it was sloughs. The soils are predominantly nearly level, wet,
first established, it embraced an area that included what and sandy. The sandy subsoil is weakly cemented with or-
are now Pasco and Citrus Counties. These counties ganic matter.
separated from Hernando County on June 2, 1887. The Brooksville Ridge occupies most of the county. It
The county was named in honor of Hernando DeSoto extends easterly from about U.S. Highway 19 to U.S.
when it was established, and the following year the name Highway 301. The Brooksville Ridge can be divided into
was changed to Benton in honor of Senator Thomas Hart two parts. The rolling, deep, sandy ridges on the western
Benton of Missouri. Benton was the sponsor of the and eastern edges are dominated by deep, sandy soils
Armed Occupation Act. After six years, the name was with numerous depressions and sinks. Elevations range
changed back to Hernando. from about 75 to 100 feet in the western part and from
The earliest inhabitants of the area around Brooksville about 50 to 100 feet in the eastern part. Natural vegeta-
appear to have been a band of Eufaula Creek Indians, tion on these deep, sandy soils is mostly turkey oak,
and they called this territory Chokko Chatee. bluejack oak, post oak, scrub live oak, scattered longleaf
The Treaty of 1823 at Moultrie Creek near St. Au- pine, and an understory of pineland three-awn. In places
gustine provided for a band of Seminole Indians to move there are small ponds with sandy bottoms. The central
into this area, and in 1824 Chief Black Dirt and his band part of the Brooksville Ridge ranges in elevation from
of Seminoles moved in. about 100 feet to more than 200 feet. This rolling area
Settlers did not come into this area until the passage of consists of poorly drained to well drained, sandy to clayey
the Armed Occupation Act of 1842. With the homestead soils. Natural vegetation consists of pine and hardwoods.
provision in the Act of 1842, they streamed in from all Much of this area is cleared and used for crops and
over the southeast. pastures.
The Armed Occupation Act provided that 160 acres of The Tsola Apopka Plain is in the eastern part of the
land would be given to any settler who would move into county, generally east of U.S. Highway 301. Elevations on
the area and cultivate as much as 5 acres, this plain range from about 75 to 85 feet above sea level.








2 SOIL SURVEY

Hail is observed at irregular intervals in thun- The original name of the present town of Brooksville
dershowers. The individual pieces of hail are usually small when it was settled by the white men was Melendez.
and seldom cause much damage. Snow is very rare in the Pierceville was established in the early 1850's just 2 miles
area, and when it falls, it melts as it hits the ground. south of Melendez. In 1870 the two towns merged and
Tropical storms can affect the area at any time during became Brooksville.
the period from early June through mid-November. These There were at least three military forts in Hernando
storms diminish in intensity quite rapidly as they move County: Fort Cross, Fort Dade, and Fort Taylor.
inland. The chance of winds reaching hurricane force (74
mi/h or greater) in Hernando County in any given year is Physiography, relief, and drainage
about one in 100. However, copious rains associated with
these storms may cause considerable damage to crops and Hernando County can be divided into four general
fields, parts based on physiography. These are the coastal
Extended periods of dry weather or droughts can occur swamps, the Gulf Coastal lowlands, Brooksville Ridge,
in any season, but they are most common in spring and and Tsola Apopka Plain (15).
fall. By definition, a drought occurs when the soil does The coastal swamp area parallels the Gulf Coast and
not have enough available water for plants to maintain extends inland 4 to 6 miles. This area includes both the
normal growth. Consequently, within a normal year there tidal marshes and Chassahowitzka and Withlacoochee
are periods when rainfall does not supply as much water Swamps. Elevations range from sea level in the tidal
as is needed by most crops. Therefore, supplementary ir- marsh to about 10 feet in the swamp areas. The soils of
rigation is needed in most years for maximum crop the tidal marshes and in the swamps are very poorly
production. Droughts or dry periods in April and May, drained organic and mineral soils, and the marshes are
although generally of shorter duration than those in the subject to daily flooding by normal tides. The natural
fall, tend to be intensified by higher temperatures. vegetation is predominantly mixed hardwoods. A large
Prevailing winds in the area are generally southerly in portion of the coastal swamp area is underlain by
spring and summer and northerly in fall and winter. limestone. Little development has taken place in this area,
Windspeeds during the day usually range between 8 and but a few places along the coast have been developed for
15 mi/h, but nearly always drop below 8 mi/h at night, urban uses.
The Gulf Coastal Lowlands lies between the coastal
History and development swamp and Brooksville Ridge. This area is not continuous
JAMES H. JONES, County Historian, Hernando County, prepared this throughout the length of the county and ranges from less
section, than a mile to about 2 miles in width. Elevations are
Hernando County was established by the Territorial mostly between about 10 and 50 feet above sea level. The
Hernando County was established by the Territorial
Legislature on February 24, 1843. It was severed from area consists mostly of pine and palmetto flatwoods with
Legislature on February 24, 1843. It was severed from
Alachua County, which had been established on December numerous small ponds in lesser areas of broad, grassy
29, 1824, and from Hillsborough County. When it was sloughs. The soils are predominantly nearly level, wet,
first established, it embraced an area that included what and sandy. The sandy subsoil is weakly cemented with or-
are now Pasco and Citrus Counties. These counties ganic matter.
separated from Hernando County on June 2, 1887. The Brooksville Ridge occupies most of the county. It
The county was named in honor of Hernando DeSoto extends easterly from about U.S. Highway 19 to U.S.
when it was established, and the following year the name Highway 301. The Brooksville Ridge can be divided into
was changed to Benton in honor of Senator Thomas Hart two parts. The rolling, deep, sandy ridges on the western
Benton of Missouri. Benton was the sponsor of the and eastern edges are dominated by deep, sandy soils
Armed Occupation Act. After six years, the name was with numerous depressions and sinks. Elevations range
changed back to Hernando. from about 75 to 100 feet in the western part and from
The earliest inhabitants of the area around Brooksville about 50 to 100 feet in the eastern part. Natural vegeta-
appear to have been a band of Eufaula Creek Indians, tion on these deep, sandy soils is mostly turkey oak,
and they called this territory Chokko Chatee. bluejack oak, post oak, scrub live oak, scattered longleaf
The Treaty of 1823 at Moultrie Creek near St. Au- pine, and an understory of pineland three-awn. In places
gustine provided for a band of Seminole Indians to move there are small ponds with sandy bottoms. The central
into this area, and in 1824 Chief Black Dirt and his band part of the Brooksville Ridge ranges in elevation from
of Seminoles moved in. about 100 feet to more than 200 feet. This rolling area
Settlers did not come into this area until the passage of consists of poorly drained to well drained, sandy to clayey
the Armed Occupation Act of 1842. With the homestead soils. Natural vegetation consists of pine and hardwoods.
provision in the Act of 1842, they streamed in from all Much of this area is cleared and used for crops and
over the southeast. pastures.
The Armed Occupation Act provided that 160 acres of The Tsola Apopka Plain is in the eastern part of the
land would be given to any settler who would move into county, generally east of U.S. Highway 301. Elevations on
the area and cultivate as much as 5 acres, this plain range from about 75 to 85 feet above sea level.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

This area consists mostly of pine and palmetto flatwoods According to the 1969-70 census, farm production in-
and numerous ponds and depressions and broad grassy come makes up about 48 percent of the total income of
sloughs. The soils are predominantly nearly level, wet, the county. Poultry and livestock are the leading income
and sandy and have a loamy subsoil or a sandy subsoil producers. In 1975 there were about 6,900 acres of citrus
weakly cemented with organic matter. Most of this area in the county; more than 85 percent of this acreage was
has remained in natural vegetation and is used primarily in orange trees. The rest was in grapefruit, tangerine, and
for woodland and wildlife, other citrus trees.
There is no well defined surface drainage system in
Hernando County with the exception of the Transportation
Withlacoochee River in the eastern part and the
Weekiwachee River in the western part. Most of the Most of Hernando County is served by good transpor-
county is drained through numerous sinks, closed depres- station facilities. Several county, state, and federal
sions, lakes, and grassy prairies, highways provide ready access between population cen-
ters within the county and between the county and the
Water resources rest of the state. Several trucking firms that have facili-
The Withlacooch, L e ties for handling interstate trade serve the county. Rail
The Withlacoochee, Little Withlacoochee, and and bus services are available. Scheduled airline services
Weekiwachee Rivers are the major permanent streams are not available.e in Heando County, but airline service
and surface drainage systems in the county. There are are not available in Heando County but airline service
numerous small streams and creeks along the coast. is readily available at the Tampa International Airport.
There are several fresh water springs in Hernando The Brooksville airport is used mainly by private planes
County. The most noted is Weekiwachee Springs, a very for pleasure, charters, and the like.
popular tourist attraction about 12 miles west of Brook-
sville. It boils up from a depth of about 145 feet into a Recreation
basin about 130 feet in diameter. The temperature is A variety of recreational activities are available in Her-
about 78 degrees F, and the rated flow is 176 cubic feet nando County. Fishing, hunting, swimming, boating, water
per second. The caverns that supply it doubtless ramify skiing, canoeing, and horseback riding are popular. A
through the Ocala Limestone, although the orifice sknumber fcanoeng and playgrounds with up-to-date facili-
presumably penetrates the Suwannee Limestone (5). The number of and pulayounds with up-to-date facili-
spring feeds the Weekiwachee River, which flows into the ties are available for public use A number of areas have
Gulf of Mexico about 12 miles away. The Floridian been set aside for camping in the Withlacoochee State
Aquifer is the primary source of all underground water in Forest, but the main camping and recreational area is
central Florida. The shallow aquifers that overlie the located at Silver Lake in the Croom Wildlife Management
Floridian Aquifer, including the surficial sands and the Area. There are picnic facilities at McKethan Lake just
upper region of the Hawthorn Formation, are secondary north of Brooksville, and one part of the Croom Wildlife
sources. There are about 129 freshwater lakes scattered Management Area has been set aside for bicycling.
throughout the county. The largest of these is Bystre
Lake, a lake of about 307 acres.
The water supply for the towns, communities, and in- this survey as made
dividual homes within the county is from wells. The wells Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
are dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer and soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
then cased to the limestone. Depth of the wells varies, can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
but averages about 80 to 100 feet.
but averages about 80 to 100 feet. ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
mig something about and perhaps identify some they had
Fanever seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
Farming has always been important to the economy of and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
Hernando County. Farming is diversified largely because pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
of the variety of suitable soils. Although the land-use pat- the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
terns are changing, farmers have been able to increase dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
yields both by improved management and by slightly in- sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
creasing the farmed acreage. tends from the surface down into the parent material,
The most common farm crops grown in the county are which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
corn and soybeans. Special crops such as citrus and action of plant roots.
watermelons are also grown extensively. Other commonly The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
grown vegetables are squash, eggplant, okra, cantaloupes, profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
snapbeans, and cucumbers, but these are not grown on a with others in counties nearby and in places more distant.
large commercial basis. A large acreage is in improved Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the
pasture grasses. soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

This area consists mostly of pine and palmetto flatwoods According to the 1969-70 census, farm production in-
and numerous ponds and depressions and broad grassy come makes up about 48 percent of the total income of
sloughs. The soils are predominantly nearly level, wet, the county. Poultry and livestock are the leading income
and sandy and have a loamy subsoil or a sandy subsoil producers. In 1975 there were about 6,900 acres of citrus
weakly cemented with organic matter. Most of this area in the county; more than 85 percent of this acreage was
has remained in natural vegetation and is used primarily in orange trees. The rest was in grapefruit, tangerine, and
for woodland and wildlife, other citrus trees.
There is no well defined surface drainage system in
Hernando County with the exception of the Transportation
Withlacoochee River in the eastern part and the
Weekiwachee River in the western part. Most of the Most of Hernando County is served by good transpor-
county is drained through numerous sinks, closed depres- station facilities. Several county, state, and federal
sions, lakes, and grassy prairies, highways provide ready access between population cen-
ters within the county and between the county and the
Water resources rest of the state. Several trucking firms that have facili-
The Withlacooch, L e ties for handling interstate trade serve the county. Rail
The Withlacoochee, Little Withlacoochee, and and bus services are available. Scheduled airline services
Weekiwachee Rivers are the major permanent streams are not available.e in Heando County, but airline service
and surface drainage systems in the county. There are are not available in Heando County but airline service
numerous small streams and creeks along the coast. is readily available at the Tampa International Airport.
There are several fresh water springs in Hernando The Brooksville airport is used mainly by private planes
County. The most noted is Weekiwachee Springs, a very for pleasure, charters, and the like.
popular tourist attraction about 12 miles west of Brook-
sville. It boils up from a depth of about 145 feet into a Recreation
basin about 130 feet in diameter. The temperature is A variety of recreational activities are available in Her-
about 78 degrees F, and the rated flow is 176 cubic feet nando County. Fishing, hunting, swimming, boating, water
per second. The caverns that supply it doubtless ramify skiing, canoeing, and horseback riding are popular. A
through the Ocala Limestone, although the orifice sknumber fcanoeng and playgrounds with up-to-date facili-
presumably penetrates the Suwannee Limestone (5). The number of and pulayounds with up-to-date facili-
spring feeds the Weekiwachee River, which flows into the ties are available for public use A number of areas have
Gulf of Mexico about 12 miles away. The Floridian been set aside for camping in the Withlacoochee State
Aquifer is the primary source of all underground water in Forest, but the main camping and recreational area is
central Florida. The shallow aquifers that overlie the located at Silver Lake in the Croom Wildlife Management
Floridian Aquifer, including the surficial sands and the Area. There are picnic facilities at McKethan Lake just
upper region of the Hawthorn Formation, are secondary north of Brooksville, and one part of the Croom Wildlife
sources. There are about 129 freshwater lakes scattered Management Area has been set aside for bicycling.
throughout the county. The largest of these is Bystre
Lake, a lake of about 307 acres.
The water supply for the towns, communities, and in- this survey as made
dividual homes within the county is from wells. The wells Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
are dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer and soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
then cased to the limestone. Depth of the wells varies, can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
but averages about 80 to 100 feet.
but averages about 80 to 100 feet. ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
mig something about and perhaps identify some they had
Fanever seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
Farming has always been important to the economy of and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
Hernando County. Farming is diversified largely because pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
of the variety of suitable soils. Although the land-use pat- the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
terns are changing, farmers have been able to increase dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
yields both by improved management and by slightly in- sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
creasing the farmed acreage. tends from the surface down into the parent material,
The most common farm crops grown in the county are which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
corn and soybeans. Special crops such as citrus and action of plant roots.
watermelons are also grown extensively. Other commonly The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
grown vegetables are squash, eggplant, okra, cantaloupes, profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
snapbeans, and cucumbers, but these are not grown on a with others in counties nearby and in places more distant.
large commercial basis. A large acreage is in improved Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the
pasture grasses. soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

This area consists mostly of pine and palmetto flatwoods According to the 1969-70 census, farm production in-
and numerous ponds and depressions and broad grassy come makes up about 48 percent of the total income of
sloughs. The soils are predominantly nearly level, wet, the county. Poultry and livestock are the leading income
and sandy and have a loamy subsoil or a sandy subsoil producers. In 1975 there were about 6,900 acres of citrus
weakly cemented with organic matter. Most of this area in the county; more than 85 percent of this acreage was
has remained in natural vegetation and is used primarily in orange trees. The rest was in grapefruit, tangerine, and
for woodland and wildlife, other citrus trees.
There is no well defined surface drainage system in
Hernando County with the exception of the Transportation
Withlacoochee River in the eastern part and the
Weekiwachee River in the western part. Most of the Most of Hernando County is served by good transpor-
county is drained through numerous sinks, closed depres- station facilities. Several county, state, and federal
sions, lakes, and grassy prairies, highways provide ready access between population cen-
ters within the county and between the county and the
Water resources rest of the state. Several trucking firms that have facili-
The Withlacooch, L e ties for handling interstate trade serve the county. Rail
The Withlacoochee, Little Withlacoochee, and and bus services are available. Scheduled airline services
Weekiwachee Rivers are the major permanent streams are not available.e in Heando County, but airline service
and surface drainage systems in the county. There are are not available in Heando County but airline service
numerous small streams and creeks along the coast. is readily available at the Tampa International Airport.
There are several fresh water springs in Hernando The Brooksville airport is used mainly by private planes
County. The most noted is Weekiwachee Springs, a very for pleasure, charters, and the like.
popular tourist attraction about 12 miles west of Brook-
sville. It boils up from a depth of about 145 feet into a Recreation
basin about 130 feet in diameter. The temperature is A variety of recreational activities are available in Her-
about 78 degrees F, and the rated flow is 176 cubic feet nando County. Fishing, hunting, swimming, boating, water
per second. The caverns that supply it doubtless ramify skiing, canoeing, and horseback riding are popular. A
through the Ocala Limestone, although the orifice sknumber fcanoeng and playgrounds with up-to-date facili-
presumably penetrates the Suwannee Limestone (5). The number of and pulayounds with up-to-date facili-
spring feeds the Weekiwachee River, which flows into the ties are available for public use A number of areas have
Gulf of Mexico about 12 miles away. The Floridian been set aside for camping in the Withlacoochee State
Aquifer is the primary source of all underground water in Forest, but the main camping and recreational area is
central Florida. The shallow aquifers that overlie the located at Silver Lake in the Croom Wildlife Management
Floridian Aquifer, including the surficial sands and the Area. There are picnic facilities at McKethan Lake just
upper region of the Hawthorn Formation, are secondary north of Brooksville, and one part of the Croom Wildlife
sources. There are about 129 freshwater lakes scattered Management Area has been set aside for bicycling.
throughout the county. The largest of these is Bystre
Lake, a lake of about 307 acres.
The water supply for the towns, communities, and in- this survey as made
dividual homes within the county is from wells. The wells Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
are dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer and soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
then cased to the limestone. Depth of the wells varies, can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
but averages about 80 to 100 feet.
but averages about 80 to 100 feet. ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
mig something about and perhaps identify some they had
Fanever seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
Farming has always been important to the economy of and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
Hernando County. Farming is diversified largely because pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
of the variety of suitable soils. Although the land-use pat- the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
terns are changing, farmers have been able to increase dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
yields both by improved management and by slightly in- sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
creasing the farmed acreage. tends from the surface down into the parent material,
The most common farm crops grown in the county are which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
corn and soybeans. Special crops such as citrus and action of plant roots.
watermelons are also grown extensively. Other commonly The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
grown vegetables are squash, eggplant, okra, cantaloupes, profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
snapbeans, and cucumbers, but these are not grown on a with others in counties nearby and in places more distant.
large commercial basis. A large acreage is in improved Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the
pasture grasses. soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

This area consists mostly of pine and palmetto flatwoods According to the 1969-70 census, farm production in-
and numerous ponds and depressions and broad grassy come makes up about 48 percent of the total income of
sloughs. The soils are predominantly nearly level, wet, the county. Poultry and livestock are the leading income
and sandy and have a loamy subsoil or a sandy subsoil producers. In 1975 there were about 6,900 acres of citrus
weakly cemented with organic matter. Most of this area in the county; more than 85 percent of this acreage was
has remained in natural vegetation and is used primarily in orange trees. The rest was in grapefruit, tangerine, and
for woodland and wildlife, other citrus trees.
There is no well defined surface drainage system in
Hernando County with the exception of the Transportation
Withlacoochee River in the eastern part and the
Weekiwachee River in the western part. Most of the Most of Hernando County is served by good transpor-
county is drained through numerous sinks, closed depres- station facilities. Several county, state, and federal
sions, lakes, and grassy prairies, highways provide ready access between population cen-
ters within the county and between the county and the
Water resources rest of the state. Several trucking firms that have facili-
The Withlacooch, L e ties for handling interstate trade serve the county. Rail
The Withlacoochee, Little Withlacoochee, and and bus services are available. Scheduled airline services
Weekiwachee Rivers are the major permanent streams are not available.e in Heando County, but airline service
and surface drainage systems in the county. There are are not available in Heando County but airline service
numerous small streams and creeks along the coast. is readily available at the Tampa International Airport.
There are several fresh water springs in Hernando The Brooksville airport is used mainly by private planes
County. The most noted is Weekiwachee Springs, a very for pleasure, charters, and the like.
popular tourist attraction about 12 miles west of Brook-
sville. It boils up from a depth of about 145 feet into a Recreation
basin about 130 feet in diameter. The temperature is A variety of recreational activities are available in Her-
about 78 degrees F, and the rated flow is 176 cubic feet nando County. Fishing, hunting, swimming, boating, water
per second. The caverns that supply it doubtless ramify skiing, canoeing, and horseback riding are popular. A
through the Ocala Limestone, although the orifice sknumber fcanoeng and playgrounds with up-to-date facili-
presumably penetrates the Suwannee Limestone (5). The number of and pulayounds with up-to-date facili-
spring feeds the Weekiwachee River, which flows into the ties are available for public use A number of areas have
Gulf of Mexico about 12 miles away. The Floridian been set aside for camping in the Withlacoochee State
Aquifer is the primary source of all underground water in Forest, but the main camping and recreational area is
central Florida. The shallow aquifers that overlie the located at Silver Lake in the Croom Wildlife Management
Floridian Aquifer, including the surficial sands and the Area. There are picnic facilities at McKethan Lake just
upper region of the Hawthorn Formation, are secondary north of Brooksville, and one part of the Croom Wildlife
sources. There are about 129 freshwater lakes scattered Management Area has been set aside for bicycling.
throughout the county. The largest of these is Bystre
Lake, a lake of about 307 acres.
The water supply for the towns, communities, and in- this survey as made
dividual homes within the county is from wells. The wells Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
are dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer and soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
then cased to the limestone. Depth of the wells varies, can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
but averages about 80 to 100 feet.
but averages about 80 to 100 feet. ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
mig something about and perhaps identify some they had
Fanever seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
Farming has always been important to the economy of and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
Hernando County. Farming is diversified largely because pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
of the variety of suitable soils. Although the land-use pat- the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
terns are changing, farmers have been able to increase dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
yields both by improved management and by slightly in- sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
creasing the farmed acreage. tends from the surface down into the parent material,
The most common farm crops grown in the county are which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
corn and soybeans. Special crops such as citrus and action of plant roots.
watermelons are also grown extensively. Other commonly The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
grown vegetables are squash, eggplant, okra, cantaloupes, profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
snapbeans, and cucumbers, but these are not grown on a with others in counties nearby and in places more distant.
large commercial basis. A large acreage is in improved Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the
pasture grasses. soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 3

This area consists mostly of pine and palmetto flatwoods According to the 1969-70 census, farm production in-
and numerous ponds and depressions and broad grassy come makes up about 48 percent of the total income of
sloughs. The soils are predominantly nearly level, wet, the county. Poultry and livestock are the leading income
and sandy and have a loamy subsoil or a sandy subsoil producers. In 1975 there were about 6,900 acres of citrus
weakly cemented with organic matter. Most of this area in the county; more than 85 percent of this acreage was
has remained in natural vegetation and is used primarily in orange trees. The rest was in grapefruit, tangerine, and
for woodland and wildlife, other citrus trees.
There is no well defined surface drainage system in
Hernando County with the exception of the Transportation
Withlacoochee River in the eastern part and the
Weekiwachee River in the western part. Most of the Most of Hernando County is served by good transpor-
county is drained through numerous sinks, closed depres- station facilities. Several county, state, and federal
sions, lakes, and grassy prairies, highways provide ready access between population cen-
ters within the county and between the county and the
Water resources rest of the state. Several trucking firms that have facili-
The Withlacooch, L e ties for handling interstate trade serve the county. Rail
The Withlacoochee, Little Withlacoochee, and and bus services are available. Scheduled airline services
Weekiwachee Rivers are the major permanent streams are not available.e in Heando County, but airline service
and surface drainage systems in the county. There are are not available in Heando County but airline service
numerous small streams and creeks along the coast. is readily available at the Tampa International Airport.
There are several fresh water springs in Hernando The Brooksville airport is used mainly by private planes
County. The most noted is Weekiwachee Springs, a very for pleasure, charters, and the like.
popular tourist attraction about 12 miles west of Brook-
sville. It boils up from a depth of about 145 feet into a Recreation
basin about 130 feet in diameter. The temperature is A variety of recreational activities are available in Her-
about 78 degrees F, and the rated flow is 176 cubic feet nando County. Fishing, hunting, swimming, boating, water
per second. The caverns that supply it doubtless ramify skiing, canoeing, and horseback riding are popular. A
through the Ocala Limestone, although the orifice sknumber fcanoeng and playgrounds with up-to-date facili-
presumably penetrates the Suwannee Limestone (5). The number of and pulayounds with up-to-date facili-
spring feeds the Weekiwachee River, which flows into the ties are available for public use A number of areas have
Gulf of Mexico about 12 miles away. The Floridian been set aside for camping in the Withlacoochee State
Aquifer is the primary source of all underground water in Forest, but the main camping and recreational area is
central Florida. The shallow aquifers that overlie the located at Silver Lake in the Croom Wildlife Management
Floridian Aquifer, including the surficial sands and the Area. There are picnic facilities at McKethan Lake just
upper region of the Hawthorn Formation, are secondary north of Brooksville, and one part of the Croom Wildlife
sources. There are about 129 freshwater lakes scattered Management Area has been set aside for bicycling.
throughout the county. The largest of these is Bystre
Lake, a lake of about 307 acres.
The water supply for the towns, communities, and in- this survey as made
dividual homes within the county is from wells. The wells Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
are dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer and soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
then cased to the limestone. Depth of the wells varies, can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
but averages about 80 to 100 feet.
but averages about 80 to 100 feet. ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
mig something about and perhaps identify some they had
Fanever seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
Farming has always been important to the economy of and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
Hernando County. Farming is diversified largely because pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
of the variety of suitable soils. Although the land-use pat- the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
terns are changing, farmers have been able to increase dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
yields both by improved management and by slightly in- sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
creasing the farmed acreage. tends from the surface down into the parent material,
The most common farm crops grown in the county are which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
corn and soybeans. Special crops such as citrus and action of plant roots.
watermelons are also grown extensively. Other commonly The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
grown vegetables are squash, eggplant, okra, cantaloupes, profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
snapbeans, and cucumbers, but these are not grown on a with others in counties nearby and in places more distant.
large commercial basis. A large acreage is in improved Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the
pasture grasses. soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures.








4 SOIL SURVEY

After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the ing a site for a road or building or other structure; the
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photographs kinds of soils in any one soil association ordinarily differ
show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads, and other from place to place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or
details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. The other characteristics that affect their management.
soil map at the back of this publication was prepared The soil associations in the survey area vary widely in
from aerial photographs. their potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the ex-
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil mapping tent of each soil association and gives general ratings of
units. Some mapping units are made up of one kind of the potential of each, in relation to the other soil associa-
soil, others are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and tions, for each major land use. Adverse soil properties
a few have little or no soil material at all. Mapping units that pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings
are discussed in the section "Soil maps for detailed of soil potential are based on the assumption that prac-
planning." tices in common use in the county are used to overcome
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of overcom-
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for en- ing such soil limitations and the probability of soil
gineering tests. The soils are field tested, and their in- problems persisting after such practices are used. The lo-
terpretations are modified as necessary during the course cation of existing transportation systems or other kinds
of the survey. New interpretations are added to meet of facilities is not considered.
local needs, mainly through field observations of different Each association is rated for community development,
kinds of soil in different uses under different levels of citrus, improved pasture and woodland.
management. Also, data are assembled from other
sources, such as test results, records, field experience, and Excessively drained to somewhat poorly
information available from state and local specialists. For drained, nearly level to sloping soils of the
example, data on crop yields under defined practices are upland ridge
assembled from farm records and from field or plot ex-
periments on the same kinds of soil. The four soil associations in this group consist of exces-
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils sively drained, well drained, and moderately well drained,
have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated nearly level to sloping soils on uplands. Some are sandy
on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and throughout, some have sandy material 40 to 80 inches
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed in- thick over loamy material, and others have sandy material
formation then needs to be organized so that it is readily 20 to 40 inches thick over loamy material. These associa-
useful to different groups of users, among them farmers, tions are generally between U.S. Highways 19 and 301.
managers of rangeland and woodland, engineers, planners,
developers and builders, homebuyers, and those seeking 1. Candler-Tavares-Paola association
recreation. Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
Soil map for general planning some have thin lamellae of loamy sand and sandy loam
at a depth of 48 to 80 inches
The general soil map at the back of this publication This association is made up of broad, rolling sandhill
shows, in color, the soil associations for broad land-use areas interspersed with small ponds, wet swampy areas,
planning described in this survey. Each soil association is and a few sinks (fig. 1). Many areas of this association
a unique natural landscape that has a distinct pattern of contain a few sand-bottom lakes ranging from about 5 to
soils and of relief and drainage features. An association 200 acres in size. There are two areas of this association
typically consists of one or more soils of major extent and in the county. The larger is about 4 to 8 miles wide. It is
some soils of minor extent. It is named for the major along and generally east of U.S. Highway 19 and extends
soils. The kinds of soil in one association can occur in from Pasco County to Citrus County. The smaller area is
other soil associations, but in a different pattern, between Interstate Highway 75 and the Richloam Wil-
The map provides a broad perspective of the soils and dlife Management Area. It is 3 to 4 miles wide and ex-
landscapes in the survey area. It provides a basis for tends from Pasco County to Sumter County.
comparing the potential of large areas for general kinds This association in most places consists of broad, nearly
of land use. Areas that are generally suitable for certain level to sloping, deep, sandy soils that are intermixed
kinds of farming or other land uses can be identified on with steeper soils in a few relatively small, sharp-break-
the map. Likewise, areas of soils having properties that ing steeper areas. The natural vegetation is bluejack,
are distinctly unfavorable for certain land uses can be post, and turkey oaks and scattered longleaf and slash
located, pines with a sparse understory of native grasses and an-
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the nual forbs. In areas of Paola soils, the natural vegetation
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for is sand pine, scrub live oak, scattered turkey and bluejack








4 SOIL SURVEY

After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the ing a site for a road or building or other structure; the
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photographs kinds of soils in any one soil association ordinarily differ
show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads, and other from place to place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or
details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. The other characteristics that affect their management.
soil map at the back of this publication was prepared The soil associations in the survey area vary widely in
from aerial photographs. their potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the ex-
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil mapping tent of each soil association and gives general ratings of
units. Some mapping units are made up of one kind of the potential of each, in relation to the other soil associa-
soil, others are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and tions, for each major land use. Adverse soil properties
a few have little or no soil material at all. Mapping units that pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings
are discussed in the section "Soil maps for detailed of soil potential are based on the assumption that prac-
planning." tices in common use in the county are used to overcome
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of overcom-
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for en- ing such soil limitations and the probability of soil
gineering tests. The soils are field tested, and their in- problems persisting after such practices are used. The lo-
terpretations are modified as necessary during the course cation of existing transportation systems or other kinds
of the survey. New interpretations are added to meet of facilities is not considered.
local needs, mainly through field observations of different Each association is rated for community development,
kinds of soil in different uses under different levels of citrus, improved pasture and woodland.
management. Also, data are assembled from other
sources, such as test results, records, field experience, and Excessively drained to somewhat poorly
information available from state and local specialists. For drained, nearly level to sloping soils of the
example, data on crop yields under defined practices are upland ridge
assembled from farm records and from field or plot ex-
periments on the same kinds of soil. The four soil associations in this group consist of exces-
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils sively drained, well drained, and moderately well drained,
have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated nearly level to sloping soils on uplands. Some are sandy
on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and throughout, some have sandy material 40 to 80 inches
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed in- thick over loamy material, and others have sandy material
formation then needs to be organized so that it is readily 20 to 40 inches thick over loamy material. These associa-
useful to different groups of users, among them farmers, tions are generally between U.S. Highways 19 and 301.
managers of rangeland and woodland, engineers, planners,
developers and builders, homebuyers, and those seeking 1. Candler-Tavares-Paola association
recreation. Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
Soil map for general planning some have thin lamellae of loamy sand and sandy loam
at a depth of 48 to 80 inches
The general soil map at the back of this publication This association is made up of broad, rolling sandhill
shows, in color, the soil associations for broad land-use areas interspersed with small ponds, wet swampy areas,
planning described in this survey. Each soil association is and a few sinks (fig. 1). Many areas of this association
a unique natural landscape that has a distinct pattern of contain a few sand-bottom lakes ranging from about 5 to
soils and of relief and drainage features. An association 200 acres in size. There are two areas of this association
typically consists of one or more soils of major extent and in the county. The larger is about 4 to 8 miles wide. It is
some soils of minor extent. It is named for the major along and generally east of U.S. Highway 19 and extends
soils. The kinds of soil in one association can occur in from Pasco County to Citrus County. The smaller area is
other soil associations, but in a different pattern, between Interstate Highway 75 and the Richloam Wil-
The map provides a broad perspective of the soils and dlife Management Area. It is 3 to 4 miles wide and ex-
landscapes in the survey area. It provides a basis for tends from Pasco County to Sumter County.
comparing the potential of large areas for general kinds This association in most places consists of broad, nearly
of land use. Areas that are generally suitable for certain level to sloping, deep, sandy soils that are intermixed
kinds of farming or other land uses can be identified on with steeper soils in a few relatively small, sharp-break-
the map. Likewise, areas of soils having properties that ing steeper areas. The natural vegetation is bluejack,
are distinctly unfavorable for certain land uses can be post, and turkey oaks and scattered longleaf and slash
located, pines with a sparse understory of native grasses and an-
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the nual forbs. In areas of Paola soils, the natural vegetation
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for is sand pine, scrub live oak, scattered turkey and bluejack








4 SOIL SURVEY

After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the ing a site for a road or building or other structure; the
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photographs kinds of soils in any one soil association ordinarily differ
show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads, and other from place to place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or
details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. The other characteristics that affect their management.
soil map at the back of this publication was prepared The soil associations in the survey area vary widely in
from aerial photographs. their potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the ex-
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil mapping tent of each soil association and gives general ratings of
units. Some mapping units are made up of one kind of the potential of each, in relation to the other soil associa-
soil, others are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and tions, for each major land use. Adverse soil properties
a few have little or no soil material at all. Mapping units that pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings
are discussed in the section "Soil maps for detailed of soil potential are based on the assumption that prac-
planning." tices in common use in the county are used to overcome
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of overcom-
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for en- ing such soil limitations and the probability of soil
gineering tests. The soils are field tested, and their in- problems persisting after such practices are used. The lo-
terpretations are modified as necessary during the course cation of existing transportation systems or other kinds
of the survey. New interpretations are added to meet of facilities is not considered.
local needs, mainly through field observations of different Each association is rated for community development,
kinds of soil in different uses under different levels of citrus, improved pasture and woodland.
management. Also, data are assembled from other
sources, such as test results, records, field experience, and Excessively drained to somewhat poorly
information available from state and local specialists. For drained, nearly level to sloping soils of the
example, data on crop yields under defined practices are upland ridge
assembled from farm records and from field or plot ex-
periments on the same kinds of soil. The four soil associations in this group consist of exces-
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils sively drained, well drained, and moderately well drained,
have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated nearly level to sloping soils on uplands. Some are sandy
on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and throughout, some have sandy material 40 to 80 inches
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed in- thick over loamy material, and others have sandy material
formation then needs to be organized so that it is readily 20 to 40 inches thick over loamy material. These associa-
useful to different groups of users, among them farmers, tions are generally between U.S. Highways 19 and 301.
managers of rangeland and woodland, engineers, planners,
developers and builders, homebuyers, and those seeking 1. Candler-Tavares-Paola association
recreation. Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
Soil map for general planning some have thin lamellae of loamy sand and sandy loam
at a depth of 48 to 80 inches
The general soil map at the back of this publication This association is made up of broad, rolling sandhill
shows, in color, the soil associations for broad land-use areas interspersed with small ponds, wet swampy areas,
planning described in this survey. Each soil association is and a few sinks (fig. 1). Many areas of this association
a unique natural landscape that has a distinct pattern of contain a few sand-bottom lakes ranging from about 5 to
soils and of relief and drainage features. An association 200 acres in size. There are two areas of this association
typically consists of one or more soils of major extent and in the county. The larger is about 4 to 8 miles wide. It is
some soils of minor extent. It is named for the major along and generally east of U.S. Highway 19 and extends
soils. The kinds of soil in one association can occur in from Pasco County to Citrus County. The smaller area is
other soil associations, but in a different pattern, between Interstate Highway 75 and the Richloam Wil-
The map provides a broad perspective of the soils and dlife Management Area. It is 3 to 4 miles wide and ex-
landscapes in the survey area. It provides a basis for tends from Pasco County to Sumter County.
comparing the potential of large areas for general kinds This association in most places consists of broad, nearly
of land use. Areas that are generally suitable for certain level to sloping, deep, sandy soils that are intermixed
kinds of farming or other land uses can be identified on with steeper soils in a few relatively small, sharp-break-
the map. Likewise, areas of soils having properties that ing steeper areas. The natural vegetation is bluejack,
are distinctly unfavorable for certain land uses can be post, and turkey oaks and scattered longleaf and slash
located, pines with a sparse understory of native grasses and an-
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the nual forbs. In areas of Paola soils, the natural vegetation
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for is sand pine, scrub live oak, scattered turkey and bluejack








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

oaks, and an understory of scattered sawpalmetto, creep- This association makes up about 51,900 acres, or about
ing dodder, rosemary, cacti, mosses, and lichens. In the 16 percent of the county. It is about 34 percent Arredon-
more poorly drained areas, the natural vegetation is slash do soils, about 25 percent Sparr soils, about 15 percent
and longleaf pines, inkberry, and oak. The wet, swampy Kendrick soils, and about 26 percent soils of minor extent.
areas are mostly bay, gum, cypress, and water-tolerant Arredondo soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
grasses and sedges. layer is very dark gray fine sand. The underlying layers
This association makes up about 90,150 acres, or about are yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and very pale
29 percent of the land area of the county. It is about 80 brown to about 54 inches. Between depths of 54 and 62
percent Candler soils, about 6 percent Tavares soils, inches is reddish yellow fine sand. Below, to a depth of 69
about 3 percent Paola soils, and about 11 percent minor inches, is strong brown loamy fine sand. Next is yellowish
soils. brown sandy clay to a depth of about 80 inches. Below
Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, they that is mixed yellowish red and strong brown sandy clay
are brownish and yellowish fine sand to a depth of about loam.
48 inches; lamellae of very pale brown fine sand and Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
brown loamy fine sand 1/16 to 1/8 inch thick extend to a surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer
depth of 80 inches or more. is brown, yellowish brown, and very pale brown fine sand
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically, to a depth of about 61 inches. Below is light yellowish
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. Next is brown fine sandy loam and light brownish gray sandy
very pale brown and light yellowish brown fine sand to a clay loam.
depth of about 48 inches. Below is white fine sand to a Kendrick soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
depth of 80 inches or more. layer is dark grayish brown fine sand, and the subsurface
Paola soils are excessively drained. Typically, they have layer is yellowish brown and brownish yellow fine sand to
a surface layer of gray fine sand and a subsurface layer a depth of about 26 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown
of white fine sand. These layers extend to a depth of 26 fine sandy loam to a depth of 34 inches and yellowish
inches. Between depths of 26 and 64 inches is brownish brown sandy clay to a depth of about 45 inches. Below
yellow fine sand with tongues of white fine sand. The that is mottled sandy clay and sandy clay loam.
outer edges of the tongues are stained with yellowish red. Minor soils in this association are Blichton, Candler,
Below a depth of 64 inches is very pale brown and white Kanapaha, Myakka, Tavares, and Wauchula soils.
fine sand. Most of this association is in improved pasture or citrus
Minor soils in this association are Adamsville, Basinger, (fig. 2). Most of the remaining areas are still in natural
Myakka, Pompano, and Sparr soils. Basinger and Myakka vegetation. A few areas have been subdivided and are
soils are the most common; they are in the low, wet areas, used for residential areas. A few areas are in crops.
Most of this association is still in natural vegetation. Wooded areas provide cover and a fair supply of food for
Large areas are in residential and urban developments, wildlife.
Most other areas are in citrus or improved pastures.
3. Candler-Lake association
2. Arredondo-Sparr-Kendrick association
2. A dndSa Knd k ass atn Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that are
Nearly level to sloping, well drained and somewhat sandy throughout; some have thin lamellae of loamy
poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 20 to sand and sandy loam at a depth of 48 to 80 inches
more than 40 inches over loamy material This association is made up of broad sandhill areas on
This association is made up of well drained and uplands. There is only one area of this association in the
somewhat poorly drained soils in upland areas. These soils county. It is almost entirely in the Croom Wildlife
are interspersed with a few small sinkholes and relatively Management Area. It is 1 to 5 miles wide and extends
small areas of poorly drained soils. Small lakes and ponds from 1 mile south of Nobleton to about one-half mile
are common in this association. This association is in south of Florida Highway 50.
several widely scattered areas dominantly in the central This association consists of broad areas of nearly level
part of the county. Individual areas of this association are to sloping, deep, sandy soils that are intermixed with a
very irregularly shaped. The largest area is 1 to 6 miles few relatively small, sharp-breaking, steeper slopes.
wide and extends from Pasco County to Citrus County. There are only a few wet areas in this association. The
The towns of Istachatta, Nobleton, and Spring Lake are natural vegetation is bluejack, post, turkey, and laurel
in this association, oaks; a few live oaks; and scattered longleaf and slash
The topography is nearly level to sloping with a few pines with a sparse understory of native grasses and an-
narrow, steep hillsides. Small sinks and depressions are nual forbs (fig. 3).
scattered throughout most of these areas. The natural This association makes up about 21,350 acres, or about
vegetation is slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines; live, laurel, 7 percent of the land area of the county. It is about 67
and water oaks; magnolia; hickory; dogwood; and an un- percent Candler soils, about 23 percent Lake soils, and
derstory of native grasses and annual forbs. about 10 percent soils of minor extent.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

oaks, and an understory of scattered sawpalmetto, creep- This association makes up about 51,900 acres, or about
ing dodder, rosemary, cacti, mosses, and lichens. In the 16 percent of the county. It is about 34 percent Arredon-
more poorly drained areas, the natural vegetation is slash do soils, about 25 percent Sparr soils, about 15 percent
and longleaf pines, inkberry, and oak. The wet, swampy Kendrick soils, and about 26 percent soils of minor extent.
areas are mostly bay, gum, cypress, and water-tolerant Arredondo soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
grasses and sedges. layer is very dark gray fine sand. The underlying layers
This association makes up about 90,150 acres, or about are yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and very pale
29 percent of the land area of the county. It is about 80 brown to about 54 inches. Between depths of 54 and 62
percent Candler soils, about 6 percent Tavares soils, inches is reddish yellow fine sand. Below, to a depth of 69
about 3 percent Paola soils, and about 11 percent minor inches, is strong brown loamy fine sand. Next is yellowish
soils. brown sandy clay to a depth of about 80 inches. Below
Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, they that is mixed yellowish red and strong brown sandy clay
are brownish and yellowish fine sand to a depth of about loam.
48 inches; lamellae of very pale brown fine sand and Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
brown loamy fine sand 1/16 to 1/8 inch thick extend to a surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer
depth of 80 inches or more. is brown, yellowish brown, and very pale brown fine sand
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically, to a depth of about 61 inches. Below is light yellowish
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. Next is brown fine sandy loam and light brownish gray sandy
very pale brown and light yellowish brown fine sand to a clay loam.
depth of about 48 inches. Below is white fine sand to a Kendrick soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
depth of 80 inches or more. layer is dark grayish brown fine sand, and the subsurface
Paola soils are excessively drained. Typically, they have layer is yellowish brown and brownish yellow fine sand to
a surface layer of gray fine sand and a subsurface layer a depth of about 26 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown
of white fine sand. These layers extend to a depth of 26 fine sandy loam to a depth of 34 inches and yellowish
inches. Between depths of 26 and 64 inches is brownish brown sandy clay to a depth of about 45 inches. Below
yellow fine sand with tongues of white fine sand. The that is mottled sandy clay and sandy clay loam.
outer edges of the tongues are stained with yellowish red. Minor soils in this association are Blichton, Candler,
Below a depth of 64 inches is very pale brown and white Kanapaha, Myakka, Tavares, and Wauchula soils.
fine sand. Most of this association is in improved pasture or citrus
Minor soils in this association are Adamsville, Basinger, (fig. 2). Most of the remaining areas are still in natural
Myakka, Pompano, and Sparr soils. Basinger and Myakka vegetation. A few areas have been subdivided and are
soils are the most common; they are in the low, wet areas, used for residential areas. A few areas are in crops.
Most of this association is still in natural vegetation. Wooded areas provide cover and a fair supply of food for
Large areas are in residential and urban developments, wildlife.
Most other areas are in citrus or improved pastures.
3. Candler-Lake association
2. Arredondo-Sparr-Kendrick association
2. A dndSa Knd k ass atn Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that are
Nearly level to sloping, well drained and somewhat sandy throughout; some have thin lamellae of loamy
poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 20 to sand and sandy loam at a depth of 48 to 80 inches
more than 40 inches over loamy material This association is made up of broad sandhill areas on
This association is made up of well drained and uplands. There is only one area of this association in the
somewhat poorly drained soils in upland areas. These soils county. It is almost entirely in the Croom Wildlife
are interspersed with a few small sinkholes and relatively Management Area. It is 1 to 5 miles wide and extends
small areas of poorly drained soils. Small lakes and ponds from 1 mile south of Nobleton to about one-half mile
are common in this association. This association is in south of Florida Highway 50.
several widely scattered areas dominantly in the central This association consists of broad areas of nearly level
part of the county. Individual areas of this association are to sloping, deep, sandy soils that are intermixed with a
very irregularly shaped. The largest area is 1 to 6 miles few relatively small, sharp-breaking, steeper slopes.
wide and extends from Pasco County to Citrus County. There are only a few wet areas in this association. The
The towns of Istachatta, Nobleton, and Spring Lake are natural vegetation is bluejack, post, turkey, and laurel
in this association, oaks; a few live oaks; and scattered longleaf and slash
The topography is nearly level to sloping with a few pines with a sparse understory of native grasses and an-
narrow, steep hillsides. Small sinks and depressions are nual forbs (fig. 3).
scattered throughout most of these areas. The natural This association makes up about 21,350 acres, or about
vegetation is slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines; live, laurel, 7 percent of the land area of the county. It is about 67
and water oaks; magnolia; hickory; dogwood; and an un- percent Candler soils, about 23 percent Lake soils, and
derstory of native grasses and annual forbs. about 10 percent soils of minor extent.








6 SOIL SURVEY

Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, they between depths of 40 and 80 inches, and some are sandy
are brownish and yellowish fine sand to a depth of about throughout. These associations are widely scattered
48 inches; lamellae of very pale brown fine sand and throughout the county. One is west of U.S. Highway 19,
brown loamy fine sand 1/16 to 1/8 inch thick extend to a one is a strip that extends from Citrus County through
depth of 80 inches or more. Brooksville to Pasco County, and the others are mostly in
Lake soils are also excessively drained. Typically, the the Richloam Wildlife Management Area.
surface layer is dark brown fine sand. Below is yellowish
brown, strong brown, and reddish yellow fine sand to a 5. Nobleton-Blichton-Flemington association
depth of 80 inches or more. Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat poorly
Minor soils in this association are Arredondo and Ken- Nearly level to strongly sloi somewhat poorly
drick soils drained and poorly drained fine sandy loams to sands
Less than 40 inches thick over loamy and clayey material
Most of this association is in natural vegetation. A few
areas are used for residential areas or campgrounds. Most This association is made up of large to small areas of
other areas are improved pasture. nearly level to strongly sloping soils on uplands. These
soils are interspersed in many places with sinkholes. The
4. Masaryk association slopes vary from small, sharp-breaking, wet areas to long,
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained seepy hillsides. The slopes are wet because of hillside
soils that are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches over seepage. During wet seasons, many of the nearly level
loamy material soils at the bases of the slopes are subject to ponding
This association is made up of relatively flat areas in- because of the high rate of runoff on the slopes and the
terspersed with only a few grassy ponds and sinkholes. lack of drainage outlets (fig. 4). Most of this association is
terspersedin a strip about 5 to 8 miles wide in the center of the
There is only one area of this association in the county. It n a strip about 5 to 8 miles wide in the center of the
is triangular, about one-half mile wide at one end and county, and it extends from Pasco County to Citrus Coun-
about 5 miles wide at the other. It begins about 2 miles ty. Brooksville is in about the center of this association.
north of the Brooksville Airport and extends southward Small areas of well drained and very poorly drained soils
to Pasco County. Masaryktown is in this association. are in this association.
Native vegetation consists dominantly of bluejack, post, The natural vegetation is slash, loblolly, and longleaf
and live oak; a few scattered turkey oaks; longleaf and pines; laurel, live, and water oaks; and sweetgum, hickory,
slash pines; and an understory of native grasses, perenni- magnolia, dogwood, ironwood, and scattered redcedar. The
al legumes, and annual weeds. understory is chiefly waxmyrtle, inkberry, American
This association makes up about 5,580 acres, or about 2 beautyberry, huckleberry, deer tongue, scattered sawpal-
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 85 per- mettos, and native grasses.
cent Masaryk soils and about 15 percent minor soils. This association makes up about 69,950 acres, or about
Masaryk soils are moderately well drained. Typically, 22 percent of the survey area. It is about 23 percent
the surface layer is dark gray very fine sand. The subsur- Nobleton soils, about 19 percent Blichton soils, and about
face layer is pale brown, very pale brown, and white very 15 percent Flemington soils. About 43 percent of this as-
fine sand to a depth of about 70 inches. The upper part of sociation is minor soils.
the subsoil is mixed light brownish gray and yellowish Nobleton soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
brown very fine sandy loam, and the lower part to a the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 7
depth of about 90 inches is grayish brown very fine sandy inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown and very pale
loam. brown fine sand to a depth of 26 inches. The subsoil is
Minor soils in this association are Candler, Kendrick, reddish yellow sandy clay loam to a depth of about 37
and Nobleton soils. inches. Between depths of 37 and 60 inches is mottled yel-
Most of this association is in improved pastures, and lowish red, strong brown, brown, and gray sandy clay.
the association contains many egg farms. Some areas are Below a depth of 60 inches is light gray sandy clay loam.
in residential and urban developments. Blichton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand; the subsurface
Somewhat poorly drained to very poorly layer is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of
drained, nearly level to strongly sloping soils 23 inches and gray loamy fine sand to a depth of about 28
of the uplands and flatwoods inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a depth of
49 inches, gray sandy clay to a depth of 63 inches, and
The four soil associations in this group consist of light gray clay below.
somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very poorly Flemington soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
drained, nearly level to strongly sloping soils of the face layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam about 5
rolling uplands and the flatwoods. Some of the soils are inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 66 inches;
clayey or loamy and have sandy material less than 40 it is gray, light brownish gray, and light gray clay. Below
inches thick, some are sandy and have loamy material this the underlying material is light gray clay.








6 SOIL SURVEY

Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, they between depths of 40 and 80 inches, and some are sandy
are brownish and yellowish fine sand to a depth of about throughout. These associations are widely scattered
48 inches; lamellae of very pale brown fine sand and throughout the county. One is west of U.S. Highway 19,
brown loamy fine sand 1/16 to 1/8 inch thick extend to a one is a strip that extends from Citrus County through
depth of 80 inches or more. Brooksville to Pasco County, and the others are mostly in
Lake soils are also excessively drained. Typically, the the Richloam Wildlife Management Area.
surface layer is dark brown fine sand. Below is yellowish
brown, strong brown, and reddish yellow fine sand to a 5. Nobleton-Blichton-Flemington association
depth of 80 inches or more. Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat poorly
Minor soils in this association are Arredondo and Ken- Nearly level to strongly sloi somewhat poorly
drick soils drained and poorly drained fine sandy loams to sands
Less than 40 inches thick over loamy and clayey material
Most of this association is in natural vegetation. A few
areas are used for residential areas or campgrounds. Most This association is made up of large to small areas of
other areas are improved pasture. nearly level to strongly sloping soils on uplands. These
soils are interspersed in many places with sinkholes. The
4. Masaryk association slopes vary from small, sharp-breaking, wet areas to long,
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained seepy hillsides. The slopes are wet because of hillside
soils that are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches over seepage. During wet seasons, many of the nearly level
loamy material soils at the bases of the slopes are subject to ponding
This association is made up of relatively flat areas in- because of the high rate of runoff on the slopes and the
terspersed with only a few grassy ponds and sinkholes. lack of drainage outlets (fig. 4). Most of this association is
terspersedin a strip about 5 to 8 miles wide in the center of the
There is only one area of this association in the county. It n a strip about 5 to 8 miles wide in the center of the
is triangular, about one-half mile wide at one end and county, and it extends from Pasco County to Citrus Coun-
about 5 miles wide at the other. It begins about 2 miles ty. Brooksville is in about the center of this association.
north of the Brooksville Airport and extends southward Small areas of well drained and very poorly drained soils
to Pasco County. Masaryktown is in this association. are in this association.
Native vegetation consists dominantly of bluejack, post, The natural vegetation is slash, loblolly, and longleaf
and live oak; a few scattered turkey oaks; longleaf and pines; laurel, live, and water oaks; and sweetgum, hickory,
slash pines; and an understory of native grasses, perenni- magnolia, dogwood, ironwood, and scattered redcedar. The
al legumes, and annual weeds. understory is chiefly waxmyrtle, inkberry, American
This association makes up about 5,580 acres, or about 2 beautyberry, huckleberry, deer tongue, scattered sawpal-
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 85 per- mettos, and native grasses.
cent Masaryk soils and about 15 percent minor soils. This association makes up about 69,950 acres, or about
Masaryk soils are moderately well drained. Typically, 22 percent of the survey area. It is about 23 percent
the surface layer is dark gray very fine sand. The subsur- Nobleton soils, about 19 percent Blichton soils, and about
face layer is pale brown, very pale brown, and white very 15 percent Flemington soils. About 43 percent of this as-
fine sand to a depth of about 70 inches. The upper part of sociation is minor soils.
the subsoil is mixed light brownish gray and yellowish Nobleton soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
brown very fine sandy loam, and the lower part to a the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 7
depth of about 90 inches is grayish brown very fine sandy inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown and very pale
loam. brown fine sand to a depth of 26 inches. The subsoil is
Minor soils in this association are Candler, Kendrick, reddish yellow sandy clay loam to a depth of about 37
and Nobleton soils. inches. Between depths of 37 and 60 inches is mottled yel-
Most of this association is in improved pastures, and lowish red, strong brown, brown, and gray sandy clay.
the association contains many egg farms. Some areas are Below a depth of 60 inches is light gray sandy clay loam.
in residential and urban developments. Blichton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand; the subsurface
Somewhat poorly drained to very poorly layer is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of
drained, nearly level to strongly sloping soils 23 inches and gray loamy fine sand to a depth of about 28
of the uplands and flatwoods inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a depth of
49 inches, gray sandy clay to a depth of 63 inches, and
The four soil associations in this group consist of light gray clay below.
somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very poorly Flemington soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
drained, nearly level to strongly sloping soils of the face layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam about 5
rolling uplands and the flatwoods. Some of the soils are inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 66 inches;
clayey or loamy and have sandy material less than 40 it is gray, light brownish gray, and light gray clay. Below
inches thick, some are sandy and have loamy material this the underlying material is light gray clay.








6 SOIL SURVEY

Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, they between depths of 40 and 80 inches, and some are sandy
are brownish and yellowish fine sand to a depth of about throughout. These associations are widely scattered
48 inches; lamellae of very pale brown fine sand and throughout the county. One is west of U.S. Highway 19,
brown loamy fine sand 1/16 to 1/8 inch thick extend to a one is a strip that extends from Citrus County through
depth of 80 inches or more. Brooksville to Pasco County, and the others are mostly in
Lake soils are also excessively drained. Typically, the the Richloam Wildlife Management Area.
surface layer is dark brown fine sand. Below is yellowish
brown, strong brown, and reddish yellow fine sand to a 5. Nobleton-Blichton-Flemington association
depth of 80 inches or more. Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat poorly
Minor soils in this association are Arredondo and Ken- Nearly level to strongly sloi somewhat poorly
drick soils drained and poorly drained fine sandy loams to sands
Less than 40 inches thick over loamy and clayey material
Most of this association is in natural vegetation. A few
areas are used for residential areas or campgrounds. Most This association is made up of large to small areas of
other areas are improved pasture. nearly level to strongly sloping soils on uplands. These
soils are interspersed in many places with sinkholes. The
4. Masaryk association slopes vary from small, sharp-breaking, wet areas to long,
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained seepy hillsides. The slopes are wet because of hillside
soils that are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches over seepage. During wet seasons, many of the nearly level
loamy material soils at the bases of the slopes are subject to ponding
This association is made up of relatively flat areas in- because of the high rate of runoff on the slopes and the
terspersed with only a few grassy ponds and sinkholes. lack of drainage outlets (fig. 4). Most of this association is
terspersedin a strip about 5 to 8 miles wide in the center of the
There is only one area of this association in the county. It n a strip about 5 to 8 miles wide in the center of the
is triangular, about one-half mile wide at one end and county, and it extends from Pasco County to Citrus Coun-
about 5 miles wide at the other. It begins about 2 miles ty. Brooksville is in about the center of this association.
north of the Brooksville Airport and extends southward Small areas of well drained and very poorly drained soils
to Pasco County. Masaryktown is in this association. are in this association.
Native vegetation consists dominantly of bluejack, post, The natural vegetation is slash, loblolly, and longleaf
and live oak; a few scattered turkey oaks; longleaf and pines; laurel, live, and water oaks; and sweetgum, hickory,
slash pines; and an understory of native grasses, perenni- magnolia, dogwood, ironwood, and scattered redcedar. The
al legumes, and annual weeds. understory is chiefly waxmyrtle, inkberry, American
This association makes up about 5,580 acres, or about 2 beautyberry, huckleberry, deer tongue, scattered sawpal-
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 85 per- mettos, and native grasses.
cent Masaryk soils and about 15 percent minor soils. This association makes up about 69,950 acres, or about
Masaryk soils are moderately well drained. Typically, 22 percent of the survey area. It is about 23 percent
the surface layer is dark gray very fine sand. The subsur- Nobleton soils, about 19 percent Blichton soils, and about
face layer is pale brown, very pale brown, and white very 15 percent Flemington soils. About 43 percent of this as-
fine sand to a depth of about 70 inches. The upper part of sociation is minor soils.
the subsoil is mixed light brownish gray and yellowish Nobleton soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
brown very fine sandy loam, and the lower part to a the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 7
depth of about 90 inches is grayish brown very fine sandy inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown and very pale
loam. brown fine sand to a depth of 26 inches. The subsoil is
Minor soils in this association are Candler, Kendrick, reddish yellow sandy clay loam to a depth of about 37
and Nobleton soils. inches. Between depths of 37 and 60 inches is mottled yel-
Most of this association is in improved pastures, and lowish red, strong brown, brown, and gray sandy clay.
the association contains many egg farms. Some areas are Below a depth of 60 inches is light gray sandy clay loam.
in residential and urban developments. Blichton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand; the subsurface
Somewhat poorly drained to very poorly layer is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of
drained, nearly level to strongly sloping soils 23 inches and gray loamy fine sand to a depth of about 28
of the uplands and flatwoods inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a depth of
49 inches, gray sandy clay to a depth of 63 inches, and
The four soil associations in this group consist of light gray clay below.
somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very poorly Flemington soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
drained, nearly level to strongly sloping soils of the face layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam about 5
rolling uplands and the flatwoods. Some of the soils are inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 66 inches;
clayey or loamy and have sandy material less than 40 it is gray, light brownish gray, and light gray clay. Below
inches thick, some are sandy and have loamy material this the underlying material is light gray clay.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

Minor soils in this association are Arredondo, Basinger, Minor soils in this association are Anclote, Delray,
Floridana Variant, Kendrick, Kanapaha, Micanopy, Sparr, Floridana, Myakka, and Wauchula soils. The Floridana soil
Wauchula, Williston, and Williston Variant soils. Micanopy is the most significant of the minor soils.
and Wauchula soils make up about one-half of the area of
minor soils and are mostly in level or gently sloping 7. Myakka-Basinger association
areas. Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils; some have
Most of this association is in improved pasture. Some weakly cemented layers at a depth of less than 30 inches
areas are in crops and citrus. Much of it is still in natural T a
vegetation. A few areas are in residential development. This association is made up of nearly level pine and
Wooded areas provide food and cover for wildlife. saw-palmetto flatwoods interspersed with small, grassy,
wet depressions and cypress and hardwood swamps.
6. EauGallie-Wabasso-Basinger association Some of the depressional areas are connected by narrow,
wet drainageways. This association is in the western part
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils; some have a of the county in a transitional zone between Chas-
weakly cemented layer at a depth of less than 30 inches sahowitzka and Weekiwachee Swamps and the sandhill
over loamy material; others are sandy throughout uplands. It ranges from about one-half mile to 2 miles
This association is made up of nearly level pine and wide and extends nearly the entire length of the county
sawpalmetto flatwoods interspersed with small, grassy, generally parallel to and west of U.S. Highway 19.
wet depressions, cypress ponds, and swamps. Some of the The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pines, saw-
depressional areas are connected by narrow, wet palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, runner oak, and native
drainageways. This association is in the eastern part of grasses in the broad flatwoods areas. The grassy depres-
the county. It is entirely in the Richloam Wildlife sions are covered mostly with maidencane and St. John-
Management Area and borders both Sumter and Pasco swort, and the swampy areas are in cypress, bay, and
Counties. gum trees.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine, saw- This association makes up about 9,500 acres, or about 3
palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, runner oak, and native percent of the county. It is about 55 percent Myakka
grasses in the broad, poorly drained, flatwoods areas. The soils, about 35 percent Basinger soils, and about 10 per-
vegetation in the depressions is mostly maidencane and cent soils of minor extent.
St. Johnswort. The vegetation in the swamps is chiefly Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
cypress, bay, and gum trees. layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsur-
This association makes up about 9,500 acres, or about 3 face layer is light gray fine sand. Between depths of 25
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent EauGallie and 42 inches is dark colored, weakly cemented fine sand.
soils, about 18 percent Wabasso soils, about 15 percent Below a depth of 42 inches is light brownish gray and
Basinger soils, and about 27 percent minor soils. light gray fine sand.
EauGallie soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur- Most areas of the Basinger soils are in depressions and
face layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The are covered with standing water for periods of 6 to 9
subsurface layer is gray and grayish brown fine sand. months or more in most years. They are sandy to a depth
Between depths of 17 and 26 inches is dark colored, of more than 80 inches. Typically, the surface layer is
weakly cemented fine sand. Below, to a depth of 72 black and the subsurface layer is light gray. Between
inches, is brown, very pale brown, and grayish brown fine depths of 25 and 36 inches is mixed dark brown and gray
ches is brow very pale brown, and grayish brown fine fine sand. Below a depth of 36 inches is light gray fine
sand. Below a depth of 72 inches is light brownish gray sand.
fine sandy loam. Minor soils in this association are Adamsville, Anclote,
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface and Tavares soils.
layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsur-
layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsur Most of this association is still in natural vegetation.
face layer is gray fine sand. Between depths of 21 and 34 Some areas are in residential development. The wooded
inches is dark colored, weakly cemented fine sand. Below areas provide food and good cover for wildlife, especially
this is a layer of pale brown fine sand about 4 inches birds and small animals.
thick. Below a depth of 38 inches is light brownish gray
sandy loam and grayish brown sandy clay loam and sandy 8. Paisley-Floridana-Wabasso association
loam.
Most areas of the Basinger soils are covered with Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
standing water for periods of 6 to 9 months or more in sandy soils; some have a clayey subsoil within a depth of
most years. They are sandy to a depth of more than 80 20 inches; others are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches
inches. Typically, the surface layer is black and the sub- and loamy below
surface is light gray. Between depths of 25 and 36 inches This association is made up of nearly level flatwoods,
is mixed dark brown and gray fine sand. Below a depth of oak hammocks, small sloughs, depressions, and scattered
36 inches is light gray fine sand. intermittent ponds. Most of this association is in the








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

Minor soils in this association are Arredondo, Basinger, Minor soils in this association are Anclote, Delray,
Floridana Variant, Kendrick, Kanapaha, Micanopy, Sparr, Floridana, Myakka, and Wauchula soils. The Floridana soil
Wauchula, Williston, and Williston Variant soils. Micanopy is the most significant of the minor soils.
and Wauchula soils make up about one-half of the area of
minor soils and are mostly in level or gently sloping 7. Myakka-Basinger association
areas. Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils; some have
Most of this association is in improved pasture. Some weakly cemented layers at a depth of less than 30 inches
areas are in crops and citrus. Much of it is still in natural T a
vegetation. A few areas are in residential development. This association is made up of nearly level pine and
Wooded areas provide food and cover for wildlife. saw-palmetto flatwoods interspersed with small, grassy,
wet depressions and cypress and hardwood swamps.
6. EauGallie-Wabasso-Basinger association Some of the depressional areas are connected by narrow,
wet drainageways. This association is in the western part
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils; some have a of the county in a transitional zone between Chas-
weakly cemented layer at a depth of less than 30 inches sahowitzka and Weekiwachee Swamps and the sandhill
over loamy material; others are sandy throughout uplands. It ranges from about one-half mile to 2 miles
This association is made up of nearly level pine and wide and extends nearly the entire length of the county
sawpalmetto flatwoods interspersed with small, grassy, generally parallel to and west of U.S. Highway 19.
wet depressions, cypress ponds, and swamps. Some of the The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pines, saw-
depressional areas are connected by narrow, wet palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, runner oak, and native
drainageways. This association is in the eastern part of grasses in the broad flatwoods areas. The grassy depres-
the county. It is entirely in the Richloam Wildlife sions are covered mostly with maidencane and St. John-
Management Area and borders both Sumter and Pasco swort, and the swampy areas are in cypress, bay, and
Counties. gum trees.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine, saw- This association makes up about 9,500 acres, or about 3
palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, runner oak, and native percent of the county. It is about 55 percent Myakka
grasses in the broad, poorly drained, flatwoods areas. The soils, about 35 percent Basinger soils, and about 10 per-
vegetation in the depressions is mostly maidencane and cent soils of minor extent.
St. Johnswort. The vegetation in the swamps is chiefly Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
cypress, bay, and gum trees. layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsur-
This association makes up about 9,500 acres, or about 3 face layer is light gray fine sand. Between depths of 25
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent EauGallie and 42 inches is dark colored, weakly cemented fine sand.
soils, about 18 percent Wabasso soils, about 15 percent Below a depth of 42 inches is light brownish gray and
Basinger soils, and about 27 percent minor soils. light gray fine sand.
EauGallie soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur- Most areas of the Basinger soils are in depressions and
face layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The are covered with standing water for periods of 6 to 9
subsurface layer is gray and grayish brown fine sand. months or more in most years. They are sandy to a depth
Between depths of 17 and 26 inches is dark colored, of more than 80 inches. Typically, the surface layer is
weakly cemented fine sand. Below, to a depth of 72 black and the subsurface layer is light gray. Between
inches, is brown, very pale brown, and grayish brown fine depths of 25 and 36 inches is mixed dark brown and gray
ches is brow very pale brown, and grayish brown fine fine sand. Below a depth of 36 inches is light gray fine
sand. Below a depth of 72 inches is light brownish gray sand.
fine sandy loam. Minor soils in this association are Adamsville, Anclote,
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface and Tavares soils.
layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsur-
layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsur Most of this association is still in natural vegetation.
face layer is gray fine sand. Between depths of 21 and 34 Some areas are in residential development. The wooded
inches is dark colored, weakly cemented fine sand. Below areas provide food and good cover for wildlife, especially
this is a layer of pale brown fine sand about 4 inches birds and small animals.
thick. Below a depth of 38 inches is light brownish gray
sandy loam and grayish brown sandy clay loam and sandy 8. Paisley-Floridana-Wabasso association
loam.
Most areas of the Basinger soils are covered with Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
standing water for periods of 6 to 9 months or more in sandy soils; some have a clayey subsoil within a depth of
most years. They are sandy to a depth of more than 80 20 inches; others are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches
inches. Typically, the surface layer is black and the sub- and loamy below
surface is light gray. Between depths of 25 and 36 inches This association is made up of nearly level flatwoods,
is mixed dark brown and gray fine sand. Below a depth of oak hammocks, small sloughs, depressions, and scattered
36 inches is light gray fine sand. intermittent ponds. Most of this association is in the








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

Minor soils in this association are Arredondo, Basinger, Minor soils in this association are Anclote, Delray,
Floridana Variant, Kendrick, Kanapaha, Micanopy, Sparr, Floridana, Myakka, and Wauchula soils. The Floridana soil
Wauchula, Williston, and Williston Variant soils. Micanopy is the most significant of the minor soils.
and Wauchula soils make up about one-half of the area of
minor soils and are mostly in level or gently sloping 7. Myakka-Basinger association
areas. Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils; some have
Most of this association is in improved pasture. Some weakly cemented layers at a depth of less than 30 inches
areas are in crops and citrus. Much of it is still in natural T a
vegetation. A few areas are in residential development. This association is made up of nearly level pine and
Wooded areas provide food and cover for wildlife. saw-palmetto flatwoods interspersed with small, grassy,
wet depressions and cypress and hardwood swamps.
6. EauGallie-Wabasso-Basinger association Some of the depressional areas are connected by narrow,
wet drainageways. This association is in the western part
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils; some have a of the county in a transitional zone between Chas-
weakly cemented layer at a depth of less than 30 inches sahowitzka and Weekiwachee Swamps and the sandhill
over loamy material; others are sandy throughout uplands. It ranges from about one-half mile to 2 miles
This association is made up of nearly level pine and wide and extends nearly the entire length of the county
sawpalmetto flatwoods interspersed with small, grassy, generally parallel to and west of U.S. Highway 19.
wet depressions, cypress ponds, and swamps. Some of the The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pines, saw-
depressional areas are connected by narrow, wet palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, runner oak, and native
drainageways. This association is in the eastern part of grasses in the broad flatwoods areas. The grassy depres-
the county. It is entirely in the Richloam Wildlife sions are covered mostly with maidencane and St. John-
Management Area and borders both Sumter and Pasco swort, and the swampy areas are in cypress, bay, and
Counties. gum trees.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine, saw- This association makes up about 9,500 acres, or about 3
palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, runner oak, and native percent of the county. It is about 55 percent Myakka
grasses in the broad, poorly drained, flatwoods areas. The soils, about 35 percent Basinger soils, and about 10 per-
vegetation in the depressions is mostly maidencane and cent soils of minor extent.
St. Johnswort. The vegetation in the swamps is chiefly Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
cypress, bay, and gum trees. layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsur-
This association makes up about 9,500 acres, or about 3 face layer is light gray fine sand. Between depths of 25
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent EauGallie and 42 inches is dark colored, weakly cemented fine sand.
soils, about 18 percent Wabasso soils, about 15 percent Below a depth of 42 inches is light brownish gray and
Basinger soils, and about 27 percent minor soils. light gray fine sand.
EauGallie soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur- Most areas of the Basinger soils are in depressions and
face layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The are covered with standing water for periods of 6 to 9
subsurface layer is gray and grayish brown fine sand. months or more in most years. They are sandy to a depth
Between depths of 17 and 26 inches is dark colored, of more than 80 inches. Typically, the surface layer is
weakly cemented fine sand. Below, to a depth of 72 black and the subsurface layer is light gray. Between
inches, is brown, very pale brown, and grayish brown fine depths of 25 and 36 inches is mixed dark brown and gray
ches is brow very pale brown, and grayish brown fine fine sand. Below a depth of 36 inches is light gray fine
sand. Below a depth of 72 inches is light brownish gray sand.
fine sandy loam. Minor soils in this association are Adamsville, Anclote,
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface and Tavares soils.
layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsur-
layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsur Most of this association is still in natural vegetation.
face layer is gray fine sand. Between depths of 21 and 34 Some areas are in residential development. The wooded
inches is dark colored, weakly cemented fine sand. Below areas provide food and good cover for wildlife, especially
this is a layer of pale brown fine sand about 4 inches birds and small animals.
thick. Below a depth of 38 inches is light brownish gray
sandy loam and grayish brown sandy clay loam and sandy 8. Paisley-Floridana-Wabasso association
loam.
Most areas of the Basinger soils are covered with Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
standing water for periods of 6 to 9 months or more in sandy soils; some have a clayey subsoil within a depth of
most years. They are sandy to a depth of more than 80 20 inches; others are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches
inches. Typically, the surface layer is black and the sub- and loamy below
surface is light gray. Between depths of 25 and 36 inches This association is made up of nearly level flatwoods,
is mixed dark brown and gray fine sand. Below a depth of oak hammocks, small sloughs, depressions, and scattered
36 inches is light gray fine sand. intermittent ponds. Most of this association is in the








8 SOIL SURVEY

Richloam Wildlife Management Area. Some parts extend sociation, except for the Aripeka soils and some minor
a little to the west of U.S. Highway 301. The natural soils, is covered with water except during extended dry
vegetation consists of slash and longleaf pines, cabbage periods.
palms, live oak hammocks, and sweetgum, with an un- The natural vegetation is a forest of sweetbay, sweet-
derstory of inkberry, pineland three-awn, and saw-pal- gum, cypress, various pines, cabbage palm, water oaks,
metto, and various native grasses, vines, and sedges (fig. hickory, magnolia, and cedar with an understory of
5). The depressions consist mostly of cypress, cattails, and maidencane, cattails, sawgrass, royal and cinnamon ferns,
dense stands of maidencane and sawgrass. saw-palmetto, goat vine, muscadine vine, inkberries, and
This association makes up about 7,160 acres, or slightly various aquatic plants.
more than 2 percent of the land area in the county. It is This association makes up about 33,580 acres, or about
about 35 percent Paisley soils, about 35 percent Floridana 11 percent of the land area in the county. It is about 30
soils, about 15 percent Wabasso soils, and about 15 per- percent Okeelanta soils, about 10 percent Aripeka soils,
cent minor soils, about 10 percent Terra Ceia soils, and about 50 percent
Paisley soils are poorly drained. Typically, they have a minor soils.
surface layer of very dark gray fine sand and a subsur- Okeelanta soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
face layer of grayish brown fine sand. Gray clayey surface layer is black and very dark gray muck to a depth
material is within a depth of 20 inches. of about 27 inches. Below is light gray fine sand.
Floridana soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they Aripeka soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
have a thick, dark-colored, sandy surface layer and a the surface layer is dark gray fine sand, and the subsur-
loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. face layer is grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil is yel-
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. They have a black or lowish brown and dark brown fine sand. Cobbly fine
very dark gray, sandy surface layer; a dark colored, sandy loam is within a depth of 10 to 20 inches. White
weakly cemented, sandy layer within a depth of 30 inches; soft and hard limestone is within a depth of 40 inches.
and loamy material within a depth of 40 inches. Terra Ceia soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
Minor soils in this association are Basinger, Delray, they are black or dark reddish brown muck to a depth of
EauGallie, and Wauchula soils. 51 inches or more.
Large areas of this association are still in natural Minor soils in this association are Anclote, Basinger,
vegetation, but most of the original pines have been har- Delray, EauGallie, Floridana, Lauderhill, Myakka, and
vested and the soils now support second-growth timber. Wabasso soils. The Lauderhill soil is the most extensive
Most areas outside of the Richloam Wildlife Management of the minor soils.
Area have been planted to improved pastures. The Most of this association is still in natural vegetation.
wooded areas provide good cover and food for native Some areas along Florida Highway 595 have been filled
birds and animals, and used for residential development.

Poorly drained and very poorly drained, 10. Homosassa-Weekiwachee-Lacoochee association
nearly level soils in swamps, tidal marshes, Nearly level, very poorly drained organic and mineral
and river flood plains soils and poorly drained, thin, sandy soils over
limestone; subject to frequent tidal flooding
The three soil associations in this group consist of
broad expanses of organic soils, freshwater swamps, and This association is made up of soils in saltwater
tidal marshes. They are made up of nearly level, organic marshes. It is on the west side of the county adjacent to
and mineral soils subject to flooding and standing water. the Gulf of Mexico. It is about 1/4 mile to 3 miles wide
They are located along the coast, in Chassahowitzka and and extends the entire length of the county. The natural
Weekiwachee Swamps, and along the Withlacoochee and vegetation consists mostly of salt-tolerant grasses and
Little Withlacoochee Rivers. shrubs such as needlegrass rush, seashore saltgrass,
marshhay cordgrass, big cordgrass, smooth cordgrass, and
9. Okeelanta-Aripeka-Terra Ceia association red mangrove. There are a very few scattered cabbage
palms and small hammocks of cabbage palm and cedar.
Nearly level, very poorly drained and somewhat poorly palms and small hammocks ocabbage palm and cedar.
drained soils; some have organic material 16 to w4 inches This association makes up 12,625 acres, or about 4 per-
thick over sandy material a some have organic materi- cent of the land area in the county. It is 41 percent
thick over sandy material and some have organic materi- Homosassa soils, 32 percent Weekiwachee souls, 9 percent
al more than 52 inches thick; others have loamy material Homosassa soils, 32 percent Weekiwachee soils, 9 percent
20 to 30 inches thick over limestone Lacoochee soils, and 18 percent minor soils.
Homosassa soils have a thick black surface layer and
This association is made up of nearly level, freshwater are underlain with white soft and hard limestone at a
hardwood and cypress swamps. It is west of U. S. depth of 20 to 40 inches. They are very poorly drained.
Highway 19 in Chassahowitzka and Weekiwachee Weekiwachee soils have a thick black muck surface
Swamps. This association is about 1 to 4 miles wide and layer and are underlain with limestone at a depth of 20 to
extends the entire length of the county. Most of this as- 40 inches. They are very poorly drained.








8 SOIL SURVEY

Richloam Wildlife Management Area. Some parts extend sociation, except for the Aripeka soils and some minor
a little to the west of U.S. Highway 301. The natural soils, is covered with water except during extended dry
vegetation consists of slash and longleaf pines, cabbage periods.
palms, live oak hammocks, and sweetgum, with an un- The natural vegetation is a forest of sweetbay, sweet-
derstory of inkberry, pineland three-awn, and saw-pal- gum, cypress, various pines, cabbage palm, water oaks,
metto, and various native grasses, vines, and sedges (fig. hickory, magnolia, and cedar with an understory of
5). The depressions consist mostly of cypress, cattails, and maidencane, cattails, sawgrass, royal and cinnamon ferns,
dense stands of maidencane and sawgrass. saw-palmetto, goat vine, muscadine vine, inkberries, and
This association makes up about 7,160 acres, or slightly various aquatic plants.
more than 2 percent of the land area in the county. It is This association makes up about 33,580 acres, or about
about 35 percent Paisley soils, about 35 percent Floridana 11 percent of the land area in the county. It is about 30
soils, about 15 percent Wabasso soils, and about 15 per- percent Okeelanta soils, about 10 percent Aripeka soils,
cent minor soils, about 10 percent Terra Ceia soils, and about 50 percent
Paisley soils are poorly drained. Typically, they have a minor soils.
surface layer of very dark gray fine sand and a subsur- Okeelanta soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
face layer of grayish brown fine sand. Gray clayey surface layer is black and very dark gray muck to a depth
material is within a depth of 20 inches. of about 27 inches. Below is light gray fine sand.
Floridana soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they Aripeka soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
have a thick, dark-colored, sandy surface layer and a the surface layer is dark gray fine sand, and the subsur-
loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. face layer is grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil is yel-
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. They have a black or lowish brown and dark brown fine sand. Cobbly fine
very dark gray, sandy surface layer; a dark colored, sandy loam is within a depth of 10 to 20 inches. White
weakly cemented, sandy layer within a depth of 30 inches; soft and hard limestone is within a depth of 40 inches.
and loamy material within a depth of 40 inches. Terra Ceia soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
Minor soils in this association are Basinger, Delray, they are black or dark reddish brown muck to a depth of
EauGallie, and Wauchula soils. 51 inches or more.
Large areas of this association are still in natural Minor soils in this association are Anclote, Basinger,
vegetation, but most of the original pines have been har- Delray, EauGallie, Floridana, Lauderhill, Myakka, and
vested and the soils now support second-growth timber. Wabasso soils. The Lauderhill soil is the most extensive
Most areas outside of the Richloam Wildlife Management of the minor soils.
Area have been planted to improved pastures. The Most of this association is still in natural vegetation.
wooded areas provide good cover and food for native Some areas along Florida Highway 595 have been filled
birds and animals, and used for residential development.

Poorly drained and very poorly drained, 10. Homosassa-Weekiwachee-Lacoochee association
nearly level soils in swamps, tidal marshes, Nearly level, very poorly drained organic and mineral
and river flood plains soils and poorly drained, thin, sandy soils over
limestone; subject to frequent tidal flooding
The three soil associations in this group consist of
broad expanses of organic soils, freshwater swamps, and This association is made up of soils in saltwater
tidal marshes. They are made up of nearly level, organic marshes. It is on the west side of the county adjacent to
and mineral soils subject to flooding and standing water. the Gulf of Mexico. It is about 1/4 mile to 3 miles wide
They are located along the coast, in Chassahowitzka and and extends the entire length of the county. The natural
Weekiwachee Swamps, and along the Withlacoochee and vegetation consists mostly of salt-tolerant grasses and
Little Withlacoochee Rivers. shrubs such as needlegrass rush, seashore saltgrass,
marshhay cordgrass, big cordgrass, smooth cordgrass, and
9. Okeelanta-Aripeka-Terra Ceia association red mangrove. There are a very few scattered cabbage
palms and small hammocks of cabbage palm and cedar.
Nearly level, very poorly drained and somewhat poorly palms and small hammocks ocabbage palm and cedar.
drained soils; some have organic material 16 to w4 inches This association makes up 12,625 acres, or about 4 per-
thick over sandy material a some have organic materi- cent of the land area in the county. It is 41 percent
thick over sandy material and some have organic materi- Homosassa soils, 32 percent Weekiwachee souls, 9 percent
al more than 52 inches thick; others have loamy material Homosassa soils, 32 percent Weekiwachee soils, 9 percent
20 to 30 inches thick over limestone Lacoochee soils, and 18 percent minor soils.
Homosassa soils have a thick black surface layer and
This association is made up of nearly level, freshwater are underlain with white soft and hard limestone at a
hardwood and cypress swamps. It is west of U. S. depth of 20 to 40 inches. They are very poorly drained.
Highway 19 in Chassahowitzka and Weekiwachee Weekiwachee soils have a thick black muck surface
Swamps. This association is about 1 to 4 miles wide and layer and are underlain with limestone at a depth of 20 to
extends the entire length of the county. Most of this as- 40 inches. They are very poorly drained.








8 SOIL SURVEY

Richloam Wildlife Management Area. Some parts extend sociation, except for the Aripeka soils and some minor
a little to the west of U.S. Highway 301. The natural soils, is covered with water except during extended dry
vegetation consists of slash and longleaf pines, cabbage periods.
palms, live oak hammocks, and sweetgum, with an un- The natural vegetation is a forest of sweetbay, sweet-
derstory of inkberry, pineland three-awn, and saw-pal- gum, cypress, various pines, cabbage palm, water oaks,
metto, and various native grasses, vines, and sedges (fig. hickory, magnolia, and cedar with an understory of
5). The depressions consist mostly of cypress, cattails, and maidencane, cattails, sawgrass, royal and cinnamon ferns,
dense stands of maidencane and sawgrass. saw-palmetto, goat vine, muscadine vine, inkberries, and
This association makes up about 7,160 acres, or slightly various aquatic plants.
more than 2 percent of the land area in the county. It is This association makes up about 33,580 acres, or about
about 35 percent Paisley soils, about 35 percent Floridana 11 percent of the land area in the county. It is about 30
soils, about 15 percent Wabasso soils, and about 15 per- percent Okeelanta soils, about 10 percent Aripeka soils,
cent minor soils, about 10 percent Terra Ceia soils, and about 50 percent
Paisley soils are poorly drained. Typically, they have a minor soils.
surface layer of very dark gray fine sand and a subsur- Okeelanta soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
face layer of grayish brown fine sand. Gray clayey surface layer is black and very dark gray muck to a depth
material is within a depth of 20 inches. of about 27 inches. Below is light gray fine sand.
Floridana soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they Aripeka soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
have a thick, dark-colored, sandy surface layer and a the surface layer is dark gray fine sand, and the subsur-
loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. face layer is grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil is yel-
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. They have a black or lowish brown and dark brown fine sand. Cobbly fine
very dark gray, sandy surface layer; a dark colored, sandy loam is within a depth of 10 to 20 inches. White
weakly cemented, sandy layer within a depth of 30 inches; soft and hard limestone is within a depth of 40 inches.
and loamy material within a depth of 40 inches. Terra Ceia soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
Minor soils in this association are Basinger, Delray, they are black or dark reddish brown muck to a depth of
EauGallie, and Wauchula soils. 51 inches or more.
Large areas of this association are still in natural Minor soils in this association are Anclote, Basinger,
vegetation, but most of the original pines have been har- Delray, EauGallie, Floridana, Lauderhill, Myakka, and
vested and the soils now support second-growth timber. Wabasso soils. The Lauderhill soil is the most extensive
Most areas outside of the Richloam Wildlife Management of the minor soils.
Area have been planted to improved pastures. The Most of this association is still in natural vegetation.
wooded areas provide good cover and food for native Some areas along Florida Highway 595 have been filled
birds and animals, and used for residential development.

Poorly drained and very poorly drained, 10. Homosassa-Weekiwachee-Lacoochee association
nearly level soils in swamps, tidal marshes, Nearly level, very poorly drained organic and mineral
and river flood plains soils and poorly drained, thin, sandy soils over
limestone; subject to frequent tidal flooding
The three soil associations in this group consist of
broad expanses of organic soils, freshwater swamps, and This association is made up of soils in saltwater
tidal marshes. They are made up of nearly level, organic marshes. It is on the west side of the county adjacent to
and mineral soils subject to flooding and standing water. the Gulf of Mexico. It is about 1/4 mile to 3 miles wide
They are located along the coast, in Chassahowitzka and and extends the entire length of the county. The natural
Weekiwachee Swamps, and along the Withlacoochee and vegetation consists mostly of salt-tolerant grasses and
Little Withlacoochee Rivers. shrubs such as needlegrass rush, seashore saltgrass,
marshhay cordgrass, big cordgrass, smooth cordgrass, and
9. Okeelanta-Aripeka-Terra Ceia association red mangrove. There are a very few scattered cabbage
palms and small hammocks of cabbage palm and cedar.
Nearly level, very poorly drained and somewhat poorly palms and small hammocks ocabbage palm and cedar.
drained soils; some have organic material 16 to w4 inches This association makes up 12,625 acres, or about 4 per-
thick over sandy material a some have organic materi- cent of the land area in the county. It is 41 percent
thick over sandy material and some have organic materi- Homosassa soils, 32 percent Weekiwachee souls, 9 percent
al more than 52 inches thick; others have loamy material Homosassa soils, 32 percent Weekiwachee soils, 9 percent
20 to 30 inches thick over limestone Lacoochee soils, and 18 percent minor soils.
Homosassa soils have a thick black surface layer and
This association is made up of nearly level, freshwater are underlain with white soft and hard limestone at a
hardwood and cypress swamps. It is west of U. S. depth of 20 to 40 inches. They are very poorly drained.
Highway 19 in Chassahowitzka and Weekiwachee Weekiwachee soils have a thick black muck surface
Swamps. This association is about 1 to 4 miles wide and layer and are underlain with limestone at a depth of 20 to
extends the entire length of the county. Most of this as- 40 inches. They are very poorly drained.







HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

Lacoochee soils have a surface layer of light gray fine each map unit, or soil, is given in the section "Use and
sandy loam carbonatic overburden and a sandy subsoil. management of the soils."
The soft and hard limestone is at a depth of about 7 to 20 Preceding the name of each map unit is the symbol that
inches. Lacoochee soils are poorly drained, identifies the soil on the detailed soil maps. Each soil
Aripeka soils are the dominant minor soils. description includes general facts about the soil and a
This association is still in natural vegetation. It is too brief description of the soil profile. In each description,
wet, too salty, and has too high a sulfur content for most the principal hazards and limitations are indicated, and
uses. Waterfowl such as cranes and herons are common, the management concerns and practices needed are
and ducks are common in winter, discussed.
The map units on the detailed soil maps represent an
11. Floridana-Basinger association area on the landscape made up mostly of the soil or soils
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained for which the unit is named. Most of the delineations
soils; some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and shown on the detailed soil map are phases of soil series.
loamy below; others are sandy throughout Soils that have a profile that is almost alike make up a
soil series. Except for allowable differences in texture of
This association is made up of low, first river bottoms the surface layer or of the underlying substratum, all the
that are flooded frequently. It is interspersed with shal- ss of a eries he or horizons that a mla
low river channels. It is along the boundary between Her- composition, thickness, and arrangement in the profile. A
nando and Sumter Counties and is adjacent to thecomposition, thickness, and arrangement in the profile. A
nando and Su er C and nthe Little Withlcooche e soil series commonly is named for a town or geographic
Withlacoochee River and the Little Withlacoochee River. feature near the place where a soil of that series was
The natural vegetation is dense vegetation consisting of first observed and mapped. The Nobleton series, for ex-
water oaks, cypress, sweetgum, hickory, cutgrass ample, as named for the town of Nobleton in Hernando
maidencane, sawgrass, swamp primrose, buttonbush, County.
smartweed, sedges, and other water tolerant plants. Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
This association makes up about 1,025 acres, or less layer or in the underlying substratum and in slope, ero-
than 1 percent of the land area in the county. It is about sion, stoniness, salinity, wetness, or other characteristics
55 percent Floridana soils, about 30 percent Basinger that affect their use. On the basis of such differences, a
soils, and about 15 percent minor soils, soil series is divided into phases. The name of a soil phase
Floridana soils are very poorly drained. They have a commonly indicates a feature that affects use or manage-
thick, dark colored surface layer and a loamy subsoil at a meant. e N f s t 5 r
depth of 20 to 40 inches, ment. For example, Nobleton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
dept of 20 to 40 i slopes, is one of several phases within the Nobleton se-
Basinger soils are poorly drained. They are sandy to a es
depth of more than 80 inches. Typically, the surface layer e
Some map units are made up of two or more dominant
is black'and the subsurface layer is light gray. Between S map units are called soil complexes,
kinds of soil. Such map units are called soil complexes,
depths of 25 and 36 inches is mixed dark brown and gray soil associations, and undifferentiated groups.
fine sand. Below a depth of 36 inches is light gray fine A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils
sand.
sand that are so intricately mixed or so small in size that they
Minor soils in this association are Anclote, Delray, and cannot be shown separately on the soil map. Each area in-
cannot be shown separately on the soil map. Each area in-
Okeelanta soils. Delray soils are the most extensive. The eludes some of each of the two or more dominant soils,
area near the town of Nobleton is mostly Okeelanta and the pattern and proportion are somewhat similar in
mu.' all areas. Candler-Urban land complex is an example.
This association is still in natural vegetation. Except l aas aan ad cope is an example.
A soil association is made up of soils that are geo-
when flooded, some of it is used for range or native g
graphically associated and are shown as one unit on the
pasture. It is too wet for pine trees. Waterfowl such as a e ui i
cranes and herons are common, and ducks are common in map because it is not practical to separate them. A soil
cranes and herons are common, and ducks are common in .
winter, association has considerable regularity in geographic pat-
tern and in the kinds of soil that are a part of it. The ex-
tent of the soils can differ appreciably from one delinea-
Soil maps for detailed planning tion to another; nevertheless, interpretations can be made
for use and management of the soils. Aripeka-Okeelanta-
The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the Lauderhill association is an example.
back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
survey area. They are described in this section. The soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped as
descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in one unit because there is little value in separating them.
determining the potential of a soil and in managing it for The pattern and proportion of the soils are not uniform.
food and fiber production; in planning land use and An area shown on the map has at least one of the domi-
developing soil resources; and in enhancing, protecting, nant (named) soils or may have all of them. No undif-
and preserving the environment. More information for ferentiated groups are in this survey area.







HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

Lacoochee soils have a surface layer of light gray fine each map unit, or soil, is given in the section "Use and
sandy loam carbonatic overburden and a sandy subsoil. management of the soils."
The soft and hard limestone is at a depth of about 7 to 20 Preceding the name of each map unit is the symbol that
inches. Lacoochee soils are poorly drained, identifies the soil on the detailed soil maps. Each soil
Aripeka soils are the dominant minor soils. description includes general facts about the soil and a
This association is still in natural vegetation. It is too brief description of the soil profile. In each description,
wet, too salty, and has too high a sulfur content for most the principal hazards and limitations are indicated, and
uses. Waterfowl such as cranes and herons are common, the management concerns and practices needed are
and ducks are common in winter, discussed.
The map units on the detailed soil maps represent an
11. Floridana-Basinger association area on the landscape made up mostly of the soil or soils
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained for which the unit is named. Most of the delineations
soils; some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and shown on the detailed soil map are phases of soil series.
loamy below; others are sandy throughout Soils that have a profile that is almost alike make up a
soil series. Except for allowable differences in texture of
This association is made up of low, first river bottoms the surface layer or of the underlying substratum, all the
that are flooded frequently. It is interspersed with shal- ss of a eries he or horizons that a mla
low river channels. It is along the boundary between Her- composition, thickness, and arrangement in the profile. A
nando and Sumter Counties and is adjacent to thecomposition, thickness, and arrangement in the profile. A
nando and Su er C and nthe Little Withlcooche e soil series commonly is named for a town or geographic
Withlacoochee River and the Little Withlacoochee River. feature near the place where a soil of that series was
The natural vegetation is dense vegetation consisting of first observed and mapped. The Nobleton series, for ex-
water oaks, cypress, sweetgum, hickory, cutgrass ample, as named for the town of Nobleton in Hernando
maidencane, sawgrass, swamp primrose, buttonbush, County.
smartweed, sedges, and other water tolerant plants. Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
This association makes up about 1,025 acres, or less layer or in the underlying substratum and in slope, ero-
than 1 percent of the land area in the county. It is about sion, stoniness, salinity, wetness, or other characteristics
55 percent Floridana soils, about 30 percent Basinger that affect their use. On the basis of such differences, a
soils, and about 15 percent minor soils, soil series is divided into phases. The name of a soil phase
Floridana soils are very poorly drained. They have a commonly indicates a feature that affects use or manage-
thick, dark colored surface layer and a loamy subsoil at a meant. e N f s t 5 r
depth of 20 to 40 inches, ment. For example, Nobleton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
dept of 20 to 40 i slopes, is one of several phases within the Nobleton se-
Basinger soils are poorly drained. They are sandy to a es
depth of more than 80 inches. Typically, the surface layer e
Some map units are made up of two or more dominant
is black'and the subsurface layer is light gray. Between S map units are called soil complexes,
kinds of soil. Such map units are called soil complexes,
depths of 25 and 36 inches is mixed dark brown and gray soil associations, and undifferentiated groups.
fine sand. Below a depth of 36 inches is light gray fine A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils
sand.
sand that are so intricately mixed or so small in size that they
Minor soils in this association are Anclote, Delray, and cannot be shown separately on the soil map. Each area in-
cannot be shown separately on the soil map. Each area in-
Okeelanta soils. Delray soils are the most extensive. The eludes some of each of the two or more dominant soils,
area near the town of Nobleton is mostly Okeelanta and the pattern and proportion are somewhat similar in
mu.' all areas. Candler-Urban land complex is an example.
This association is still in natural vegetation. Except l aas aan ad cope is an example.
A soil association is made up of soils that are geo-
when flooded, some of it is used for range or native g
graphically associated and are shown as one unit on the
pasture. It is too wet for pine trees. Waterfowl such as a e ui i
cranes and herons are common, and ducks are common in map because it is not practical to separate them. A soil
cranes and herons are common, and ducks are common in .
winter, association has considerable regularity in geographic pat-
tern and in the kinds of soil that are a part of it. The ex-
tent of the soils can differ appreciably from one delinea-
Soil maps for detailed planning tion to another; nevertheless, interpretations can be made
for use and management of the soils. Aripeka-Okeelanta-
The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the Lauderhill association is an example.
back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
survey area. They are described in this section. The soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped as
descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in one unit because there is little value in separating them.
determining the potential of a soil and in managing it for The pattern and proportion of the soils are not uniform.
food and fiber production; in planning land use and An area shown on the map has at least one of the domi-
developing soil resources; and in enhancing, protecting, nant (named) soils or may have all of them. No undif-
and preserving the environment. More information for ferentiated groups are in this survey area.








10 SOIL SURVEY

Most map units include small, scattered areas of soils Soil descriptions
other than those that appear in the name of the map unit.
Some of these soils have properties that differ substan- 1-Adamsville fine sand. This is a somewhat poorly
tially from those of the dominant soil or soils and thus drained soil on low, broad flats that are less than 2 feet
could significantly affect use and management of the map higher than the adjacent sloughs. Slopes are generally
unit. These soils are described in the description of each less than 2 percent.
map unit. Some of the more unusual or strongly contrast- Typically the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
ing soils that are included are identified by a special sym- about 3 inches thick. The underlying layers extend to a
bol on the soil map. depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 7 inches is very
Most mapped areas include places that have little or no pale brown fine sand, and the next 10 inches is light gray
soil material and support little or no vegetation. Such fine sand. Below is white fine sand.
places are called miscellaneous areas; they are delineated Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
on the soil map and given descriptive names. Pits is an Basinger, Pompano, and Tavares soils. Included soils
example. Some of these areas are too small to be generally make up less than 10 percent of any mapped
delineated and are identified by a special symbol on the area.
soil map. In most years, under natural conditions, the water table
The acreage and proportionate extent of each map unit is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months but rises
are given in table 4, and additional information on proper- to within 20 inches of the surface for less than 2 weeks
ties, limitations, capabilities, and potentials for many soil during very wet seasons. It recedes to a depth of more
uses is given for each kind of soil in other tables in this than 40 inches during dry periods. This soil has low
survey. (See "Summary of tables.") Many of the terms available water capacity. Natural fertility is low. Permea-
used in describing soils are defined in the Glossary. ability is rapid.
The potential of a soil is the ability of that soil to A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation:
produce, yield, or support the given structure or activity slash pine, laurel and water oaks, and an understory of
at a cost expressed in economic, social, or environmental saw-palmetto and pineland three-awn.
units of value. The criteria used for rating soil potential In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
include the relative difficulty or cost of overcoming soil cultivated crops because of periodic wetness. The number
limitations, the continuing limitations after practices in of adapted crops is very limited unless intensive water
general use in overcoming the limitations are installed, control measures are used. The potential for crops is
and the suitability of the soil relative to other soils in medium if a water control system is installed to remove
Hernando County. excess water in wet seasons and provide subsurface ir-
A five-class system of soil potential is used. The classes rigation in dry seasons. Soil improving crops and the
are defined as follows: residues of all other crops should be plowed under. Fertil-
Very high potential. Soil limitations are minor or are izer and lime should be added according to the need of
relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the in-
tended use is excellent. Soils rated with very high poten- The potential for citrus trees on this soil is high if a
tial are the best in the county for the particular use. ater control sste is install to r e e s
High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but practices
Highneessary to overcntial. Some sotheil limitations arexist, but practices from the soil rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet. The trees
necessary to overcome the limitations are available at should be planted on beds. A cover close-growing
reasonable cost. Performance for the intended use is should be planted on beds. A cover of close-growing
good. vegetation should be maintained between the trees to
goedium potential. Soil limitations exist and can be protect the soil from blowing in dry weather and from
overcome with recommended practices; limitations, how- washing during heavy rains. The trees require regular ap-
ever, are mostly of a continuing nature and require prac- plications of fertilizer, and highest yields require irriga-
tices that have to be maintained or that are more difficult tion in seasons of low rainfall. Citrus should not be grown
or costly than average. Performance for the intended use in areas subject to frequent freezing temperatures. The
ranges from fair to good. potential for improved pasture grasses on this soil is
Low potential. Serious soil limitations exist, and they medium. A simple water control system is needed to
are difficult to overcome. Practices necessary to overcome remove excess surface water in times of heavy rainfall.
the limitations are relatively costly compared to those The soils also require regular fertilization. Grazing should
required for soils of higher potential. Necessary practices be carefully controlled to maintain healthy plants for
can involve environmental values and considerations. Per- highest yields.
formance for the intended use is poor or unreliable. This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash
Very low potential. Very serious soil limitations exist, pines. The low fertility of the sand keeps this soil from
and they are most difficult to overcome. Initial cost of being more productive. Slash pines are better suited for
practices and maintenance cost are very high compared to planting than other trees.
those of soils with high potential. Environmental values This soil has high potential for septic tank absorption
are usually depreciated. Performance for the intended use fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
is inadequate or below acceptable standards. buildings, and local roads and streets if proper water con-








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

trol measures are used. With surface stabilization, the soil impervious material is needed for trench type sanitary
has high potential for playgrounds. Potential is medium landfills and sewage lagoon areas. Side slopes need to be
for trench type sanitary landfills if the trench is sealed or shored when the soil is used for shallow excavations.
lined with impervious material and medium for shallow Playgrounds require surface stabilization. Capability sub-
excavations if the side slopes are shored and proper class VIIw.
water control measures are used. The soil has low poten- 3-Arents-Urban land complex. This complex is in the
tial for sewage lagoon areas even if the areas are sealed western part of the county near the Gulf of Mexico. In-
and lined with impervious material and proper water con- dividual areas range from about 20 to 400 acres in size.
trol measures are used. Capability subclass IIIw. About 30 to 50 percent of the acreage is Arents, and 15 to
2-Anclote fine sand. This is a very poorly drained soil 25 percent is Urban land or areas covered by houses,
in depressional areas. Slopes are usually concave and less streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and other
than 2 percent, structures. The remainder of the acreage is canals leading
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 7 to the Gulf.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is very dark gray fine Arents consist of soil materials dug from canals in tidal
sand about 7 inches thick. Below that is fine sand. The areas and reworked and shaped for building sites. They
upper 6 inches of it is grayish brown, the next 10 inches consist dominantly of mineral material and fragments of
is light brownish gray, and the next layer is gray to a hard and soft limestone, but parts of the former muck
depth of 80 inches or more. layers are mixed throughout the soil. Arents do not have
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of an orderly sequence of soil layers but are a variable mix-
Basinger soils, depressional, and Delray, Floridana, and ture of lenses, streaks, and pockets within short distances.
Pompano soils. Also included are similar soils that have a Depth of the fill material ranges from about 40 to 60
thin surface layer of muck. Included soils make up about inches. Beneath the fill material in most places is a layer
15 percent of any mapped area. of compressed muck, which in turn is underlain by
In most years, under natural conditions, the water table limestone.
is above the surface for 3 to 6 months during wet seasons Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and recedes to a depth of more than 20 inches during dry Udalfic Arents-Urban land complex. These included soils
seasons. This soil has medium available water capacity to make up about 25 percent of any mapped area.
a depth of about 14 inches and low available water capaci- The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches
ty below this depth. Permeability is rapid throughout. In- throughout the year. Permeability is variable. Natural
eternal drainage, however, is slow because it is impeded by fertility is low.
a shallow water table. Natural fertility and organic Present land use precludes the use of this soil for cul-
matter content are high to a depth of about 14 inches and tivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture. The soil is
low below this depth. poorly suited to lawn grasses and shrubs unless topsoil is
Natural vegetation consists of cypress, cabbage palms, spread over the surface to make a suitable root zone.
bay, and pond pine. Grasses include maidencane, giant Areas of this soil not covered by urban structures have
cutgrass, low panicums, sand cordgrass, and other high potential for septic tank absorption fields and shal-
perennial grasses. low excavations if proper water control measures are
Under natural conditions, this soil is unsuitable for used. The soil has high potential for dwellings without
crops. The water table, which is above the surface most basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
of the year, severely restricts plant growth. Adequate and streets if the area and structural strength of footings
water control systems are difficult to establish because in and foundations are increased. Potential for playgrounds
most places suitable outlets are not available. If a water is very high if the surface is stabilized. Potential is medi-
control system can be installed, however, the potential for um for trench type sanitary landfills and low for sewage
production of good quality pastures is medium. lagoons, even if proper water control measures are used
This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pines, and the areas are sealed and lined with impervious
A good water control system designed for the removal of material. Capability subclass VIs.
excess surface water is needed before trees can be 4-Aripeka fine sand. This mapping unit consists of
planted, nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils on low ridges
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption adjacent to saltwater marsh. This soil formed in marine
fields, trench type sanitary landfills, sewage lagoon areas, sandy and loamy sediments and is underlain by limestone
dwellings without basements, small commercial buildings, at a depth of 23 to 40 inches except in solution holes,
local roads and streets, and playgrounds and very low where thickness ranges to 45 inches or more. Slopes are
potential for shallow excavations even if proper water dominantly less than 1 percent.
control measures are installed. Fill material is needed for Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without base- about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, brown fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsoil is 16
and playgrounds. Mounding is needed in some areas used inches thick. The upper 5 inches is yellowish brown fine
for septic tank absorption fields. Sealing or lining with sand; the next 3 inches is dark brown fine sand; the next








12 SOIL SURVEY

2 inches is dark yellowish brown cobbly sandy clay loam; inches is grayish brown fine sand, the next 5 inches is
and the lower 6 inches is strong brown cobbly fine sandy yellowish brown fine sand, and the lower 3 inches is dark
loam. Below is about 8 inches of soft limestone above brown fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 21
hard limestone. inches. The upper 2 inches is dark brown cobbly sandy
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that clay loam, and the lower 6 inches is strong brown cobbly
have 2 to 5 inches of carbonatic material on the surface. fine sandy loam. Below is soft limestone.
Also included are small areas of Wabasso soils and soils in Aripeka soils have low available water capacity in the
which the limestone is above a depth of 20 inches. In- surface layer and medium available water capacity in the
cluded soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid. The water table
area. is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months and at a
The water table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 to depth of 30 to 60 inches for 6 months or more during
6 months and at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for 6 months most years.
or more during most years. During severe storms, this The very poorly drained Okeelanta soils make up about
soil may be very briefly flooded by storm tides. Aripeka 23 percent of the association. Typically, Okeelanta soils
soils have low available water capacity in the surface are muck to a depth of about 37 inches. The upper 9
layer and medium available water capacity in the subsoil. inches is black, and the lower 28 inches is dark reddish
Natural fertility is low. Permeability is moderately rapid. brown. The next layer is dark gray fine sand to a depth
Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines, of 60 inches or more.
live oak, southern redcedar, cabbage palm, and an un- Okeelanta soils have rapid permeability throughout.
dergrowth dominantly of saw-palmetto, pineland three- Available water capacity is very high in the muck layers
awn, yaupon, and a few scattered inkberry and American and low in the mineral layers. Natural fertility and or-
beautyberry. ganic matter content are very high. The water table is
Aripeka soils have medium potential for cultivated above the surface much of the year and is within a depth
crops because of the shallow root zone and the flooding of 10 inches except during periods of extreme drought.
hazard. They have high potential for improved pasture The very poorly drained Lauderhill soils make up about
grasses, but should be protected from occasional flooding 18 percent of the association. Typically, Lauderhill soils
by storm tides, are muck to a depth of about 26 inches. The upper 9
This soil has medium potential for the production of inches is black, and the lower 17 inches is dark brown.
pines. The main management concerns are seedling mor- Below is hard limestone. Fractures in the limestone are
tality and plant competition. Slash pine is better suited to filled with very soft limestone.
planting than other trees. Lauderhill soils have rapid permeability throughout.
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption Available water capacity, natural fertility, and organic
fields, shallow excavations, and local roads and streets if matter content are very high. The water table is above
proper water control measures are used, areas are pro- the surface much of the year and is within a depth of 10
tected from tidal flooding, and special equipment is used. inches except during periods of extreme drought.
With proper water control and flood control, potential is Minor soils make up about 35 percent of the association.
medium for dwellings without basements, small commer- The most extensive ones are Terra Ceia muck; rocky soils
cial buildings, and playgrounds. In addition, the surface that have only a thin sandy, loamy, or mucky surface
needs to be stabilized for playgrounds. The soil has very layer overlying limestone; and deep, poorly drained, sandy
low potential for trench type sanitary landfills and shal- soils.
low lagoon areas even with flood protection, sealing and Most areas of this association are still in natural
lining with impervious material, and use of special equip- vegetation of sweetgum, baldcypress, cabbage palm,
ment. Water control is also necessary for trench sanitary sweetbay, various water-tolerant oaks, hickory, magnolia,
landfills. Capability subclass IVw. cedar, several pine species, and an understory of saw-pal-
5-Aripeka-Okeelanta-Lauderhill association. This metto, dogfennel, various paspalums and panicums, cat-
association consists of somewhat poorly drained and very tails, sawgrass, goat vine, muscadine vines, gallberries,
poorly drained soils in a regular and repeating pattern, and pokeweed.
The landscape is a broad swamp interspersed with low Aripeka soils have medium potential for cultivated
ridges. The Aripeka soils are on the low ridges, and the crops, and Okeelanta and Lauderhill soils have high
Okeelanta and Lauderhill soils are in the swamp. The potential for some specialized crops if a water control
mapped areas are mostly long and very broad. This as- system is installed. All the soils have high potential for
sociation makes up a large part of the Chassahowitzka improved pasture grasses if a water control system regu-
Swamp. Individual areas of each soil range from 5 to 150 lates the water table on Okeelanta and Lauderhill soils.
acres. Aripeka soils have medium potential for the production of
The somewhat poorly drained Aripeka soils make up pines, but Okeelanta and Lauderhill soils are not suitable
about 24 percent of the association. Typically, Aripeka for production of pine trees. The potential for wetland
soils have a surface layer about 13 inches thick. The and woodland wildlife is high. Shallow water areas are
upper 3 inches is very dark gray fine sand, the next 2 easily developed; food and cover are abundant.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 13

The organic Okeelanta and Lauderhill soils make up thirds of the time. Soil improving crops and all crop
most of this association. These soils have very low poten- residues should be left on the land or plowed under. All
tial for dwellings without basements, small commercial crops need frequent fertilizing and liming.
buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds even if This soil has high potential for citrus trees in places
the organic material is removed, the excavation is relatively free from freezing temperatures. A good
backfilled with suitable soil material, and proper water ground cover of close-growing plants is needed between
control measures are used. Potential is very low for the trees to protect the soil from blowing. Good yields of
trench sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon areas even if fruit can usually be obtained without irrigation, but
the areas are sealed ot lined with impervious materials, where water for irrigation is readily available, increased
In addition, proper water control is necessary for trench yields make irrigation feasible.
sanitary landfills, and use of special equipment is necessa- The potential of this soil is medium for improved
ry in sewage lagoon areas. Potential is very low for septic pasture grasses if deep-rooting grasses such as Coastal
tank absorption fields even if the organic material is bermudagrass and bahiagrass are planted. Yields are oc-
removed and areas are backfilled with suitable material, casionally restricted by extreme droughts. Grazing should
the absorption field is mounded, and proper water control be controlled to maintain vigorous plants for highest
measures are used. Even with water control and use of yields.
special equipment, potential is low for shallow excava- .Potential productivity of slash and longleaf pines on
tions. Aripeka soils in capability subclass IVw; Okeelanta this soil is medium.
and Lauderhill soils in capability subclass IIIw.
and Lauderhill soils in capability subclass p1w. This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
6-Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is tion fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads
a nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil on the and streets even if no corrective measures are taken. It
and streets even if no correctie measures are taken. It
uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand also has high potential for trench sanitary landfills if the
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 46 areas are sealed or lined with impervious material; high
inches thick. The upper 6 inches is light yellowishbrown potential for shallow excavations if side slopes are shored;
fine sand, the next 27 inches is brownish yellow fine sand and high potential for small commercial buildings if ero-
iane salo, 1e nt inches is very pale brown fine sand. sion is controlled. With land shaping and sealing or lining
ad the lower 13 inches is very pale brow fine and The with impervious materials, the soil has high potential for
upper 8 inches of the subsoil is reddish yellow fine sand,
the next 7 inches is strong brown loamy fine sand, the sewage lagoon areas. With land shaping and surface sta-
the next 7 inches is strong brown loamy fine sand, the bilization, it has high potential for playgrounds. Capability
next 11 inches is yellowish brown sandy clay, and below subclass IIIs.
that to a depth of 99 inches is mixed yellowish red and
strong brown sandy clay loam. 7-Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that a sloping, well drained soil on uplands. Slopes are smooth
have plinthite content of more than 5 percent. Also in- to concave.
cluded are small areas of Candler, Kendrick, Lake, and Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
Sparr soils. Included soils make up about 18 percent of fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
any one mapped area. about 49 inches thick. In sequence from the top, the upper 6
This soil has low available water capacity in the surface inches is yellowish brown fine sand, the next 26 inches is
and subsurface layers and medium to high available water brownish yellow fine sand, and the lower 17 inches is very
capacity in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sur- pale brown fine sand. The upper 3 inches of the subsoil is
face and subsurface layers and moderate or moderately strong brown loamy fine sand. The next 20 inches is strong
rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. brown sandy clay loam and sandy clay over reddish yellow
Most areas of this soil are cleared and planted to loamy sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
pasture grasses or citrus trees. The natural vegetation in Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
the remaining areas consists of loblolly, slash, and lon- have plinthite content of more than 5 percent and similar
gleaf pines; live, laurel, and water oaks; magnolia; soils that have slopes of less than 5 percent or more than
hickory; dogwood; and an understory of bluestem, dwarf 8 percent. Also included are small areas of Candler, Ken-
huckleberry, smilax, yellow jasmine, paspalum, pineland drick, Lake, and Sparr soils. In some small areas the soil
three-awn, and other native grasses and weeds. is moderately eroded. Included soils make up about 20
This soil 'has severe limitations for cultivated crops percent of any mapped area.
mainly because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of This soil has low available water capacity in the surface
plant nutrients. The potential is medium if good practices and subsurface layers and medium to high available water
are used and irrigation water is applied in dry seasons capacity in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sur-
where it is available. The soil requires special soil improv- face and subsurface layers and moderate or moderately
ing measures when it is cultivated. Cultivated crops rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
should be planted on the contour in alternating strips Some areas of this soil have been cleared and are
with close-growing crops. The cropping sequence should mostly in pasture or citrus. Natural vegetation in wooded
keep the soil under close-growing vegetation at least two- areas consists of slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines; live,








14 SOIL SURVEY

laurel, and water oaks; hickory; magnolia; and dogwood This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because
and an understory of bluestem, dwarf huckleberry, of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. It is
smilax, yellow jasmine, paspalum, pineland three-awn, and not suitable for most commonly cultivated crops. The
other native grasses and weeds, potential for improved pasture grasses is low even if good
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated management practices are used. Grasses such as pan-
crops, mainly because of droughtiness, rapid leaching of golagrass and bahiagrass are better adapted than others.
plant nutrients, and steepness of slope. The potential is Clovers are not adapted to this soil.
high if good management practices are used. Erosion con- This soil has medium potential for citrus, but yields are
trol measures such as contour stripcropping and cropping low unless irrigation is used.
sequences that keep this soil covered with close-growing, The potential of this soil is very low for commercial
soil-improving crops at least three-fourths of the time are production of pine trees. Sand pines are the best trees to
needed. plant. Seedling mortality and mobility of equipment are
The potential for citrus trees on this soil is high in the major management concerns for commercial tree
places that are relatively free from freezing tempera- production.
tures. Good yields can be attained in many years without This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
irrigation, but for best yields, irrigation should be used basements and local roads and streets even if no cor-
where water is readily available. rective measures are taken. Potential is very high for
The potential of this soil for improved pasture grasses septic tank absorption fields even though excessive
is high if deep-rooting grasses such as Coastal bermu- permeability can cause pollution of ground water. With
dagrass and bahiagrass are planted, fertilized, and limed, erosion control and land shaping, potential is high for
Yields are occasionally restricted by extended droughts. small commercial buildings. This soil has high potential
Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigorous plants for trench sanitary landfills if the areas are sealed or
for higher yields. lined with impervious material and high potential for
Potential productivity of slash and longleaf pines on shallow excavations if the side slopes are shored. This soil
this soil is medium, has medium potential for playgrounds, but land shaping
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp- and surface stabilization are necessary. This soil has low
tion fields and local roads and streets even if no cor- potential for sewage lagoon areas, but land shaping and
rective measures are taken. It also has high potential for sealing or lining with impervious material are necessary.
trench sanitary landfills if the areas are shaped and Capability subclass VIs.
sealed or lined with impervious material; high potential 9-Basinger fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly
for shallow excavations if side slopes are shored; and high level soil in poorly defined drainageways and sloughs in
potential for dwellings without basements if the structure the flatwoods. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
is designed to fit the slope. Potential is high for small Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3
commercial buildings if erosion is controlled, buildings are inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray
designed to fit the slope, and the land is shaped. Potential fine sand to a depth of about 8 inches. The subsoil is
is high for playgrounds if the land is shaped and the sur- grayish brown fine sand that has discontinuous lenses of
face is stabilized. Potential is medium for sewage lagoons dark reddish brown and dark brown. The next layer, ex-
if the land is shaped and sealed or lined with impervious tending to a depth of about 40 inches,, is light gray fine
material. Capability subclass IVs. sand. To a depth of 80 inches or more is white fine sand.
8-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This is a Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soil in the differ by having a surface layer 10 tt 13 inches thick.
sandhill area of the county. Slopes are smooth to concave. Also included are small areas of Anclote, Myakka, and
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4 Pompano soils. Included soils make up about 15 percent of
inches thick. The underlying material is brownish yellow any mapped area.
fine sand to a depth of 24 inches over yellow fine sand to This soil has a water table at a depth of less than 10
a depth of 85 inches or more. inches for 2 to 6 months annually and at a depth of 10 to
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 30 inches for periods of more than 6 months in most
Candler, Paola, and Tavares soils. Included soils make up years. This soil has very rapid permeability throughout.
about 10 percent of any mapped area. The available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility
The water table is below a depth of 72 inches. Astatula is low.
soils have very low available water capacity and very low A large part of this soil is in natural vegetation of open
natural fertility. Permeability is very rapid throughout forest of longleaf and slash pine. The understory consists
the soil. of waxmyrtle, St. Johnswort, pineland three-awn, and
Few areas of this soil have been cleared. Native saw-palmetto.
vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub live oak, scattered Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe
turkey oak, and longleaf pine and an understory of rose- limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness and
mary, pineland three-awn, bluestem, paspalum, saw-pal- poor soil quality. The number of adapted crops is limited
metto, and cacti. unless very intensive management practices are followed.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

However, with good water control measures and soil im- This soil is covered with standing water for periods of
proving measures, this soil has medium potential for a 6 to 9 months or more in most years (fig. 6). Natural fer-
number of vegetable crops. A water control system is utility is low, and response to fertilization is moderate. The
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to internal drainage is naturally slow, and response to artifi-
provide water through subsurface irrigation in dry cial drainage is rapid. This soil has low available water
seasons. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of capacity.
the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added according to A large acreage is in natural vegetation of bay, cypress,
the need of the crops. pop ash, cabbage palm, and water oaks. Other areas are
This soil in its natural condition is poorly suited to covered with maidencane, St. Johnswort, water lilies,
citrus trees. It has low potential for trees, and then only pickerelweed, and other plants that tolerate wetness.
after a carefully designed water control system that will Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for
maintain the water table below a depth of about 4 feet cultivated crops or improved pastures. The potential for
has been installed. Trees should be planted in beds, and a crops or pasture is very low because the lack of suitable
vegetative cover should be maintained between the trees. drainage outlets makes an adequate drainage system dif-
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. ficult to establish. In their native state, these soils pro-
The soil has high potential for improved pasture vide watering places and feeding grounds for many kinds
The soil has high potential for improved pasture of wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
grasses. Pangolagrassof wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white This soil has low potential for pine trees. A good water
clovers grow well when they are well managed. A water control system to remove surface water is necessary if
control system that will remove excess surface water the potential is to be realized. Pond pine is better suited
after heavy rains is needed. Regular applications of fertil- to planting than other trees.
izer and lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
to prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants, fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
This soil has low potential for longleaf and slash pines, buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds even if
A water control system to remove excess surface water is proper water control measures are used and fill material
necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized, is added. In addition, absorption fields need to be
Seedling mortality and equipment limitations are the mounded, and the surfaces of playgrounds need to be sta-
main management concerns. Slash pines are better suited bilized. Potential is very low for trench sanitary landfills
to planting than other trees. and sewage lagoons even if standing water on the surface
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp- and the water table are controlled and special equipment
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial is used. Potential for shallow excavations is very low even
buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds if if standing water on the surface and the water table are
proper water control measures are used. In addition, controlled and side slopes are shored. Capability subclass
mounding is needed for absorption fields, and surface sta- VIIw.
bilization is needed for playgrounds. Potential is low for 11-Blichton loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon areas if proper water This is a nearly level, poorly drained soil in small areas on
control measures are used and the areas are sealed or the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.
lined with impervious material. The soil has low potential Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy
for shallow excavations if proper water control measures fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
are used and side slopes are shored. Capability subclass about 19 inches thick. The upper 14 inches is dark grayish
IVw. brown loamy fine sand, and the lower 5 inches is gray
10-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This is a poorly loamy fine sand. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a
drained soil in depressional areas in the flatwoods. It also depth of about 49 inches and gray sandy clay to a depth
of about 63 inches. Below that is light gray clay.
is along the edges of lakes. Slopes are smooth to concave of about 63 inches. Below that is light gray clay.
and ran from 0 to 2 entIncluded with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
S have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Also included are similar
Typically, the surface layer is black fme sand about 7 soils in which plinthite makes up less than 5 percent of
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand the subsoil. Small areas of Flemington, Kanapaha,
about 18 inches thick. The subsoil is mixed dark brown Nobleton, and Wauchula soils were included in mapping.
and gray fine sand about 11 inches thick. To a depth of 80 Included soils make up about 16 percent of any mapped
inches or more is light gray fine sand. area.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of In most years, under natural conditions, the water table
Anclote, Delray, Floridana, and Pompano soils. Also in- is at a depth of less than 10 inches for cumulative periods
cluded are similar soils that have a thin organic surface of 1 to 4 months. In drier seasons it recedes to a depth of
layer and similar soils that have a black surface layer 10 more than 40 inches. The available water capacity is low
to 14 inches thick. Many areas mapped as this soil in the in the surface layers and medium to very high in the sub-
Richloam Wildlife Management Area have a 10- to 14-inch soil. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the
thick black surface layer. Included soils make up about 25 surface and subsurface layers and moderate to moderate-
percent of any mapped area. ly slow in the subsoil.








16 SOIL SURVEY
The natural vegetation is dominantly slash, longleaf, ton, Wauchula, and Kanapaha soils. Included soils make
and loblolly pines and oaks, hickory, magnolia, sweetgum, up about 18 percent of any mapped area.
and pineland three-awn. The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for
This soil has high potential for the production of cul- cumulative periods of 1 to 4 months during most years. In
tivated crops if good management practices are used. A the drier season, it recedes to a depth of more than 40
water control system is needed to remove excess water. inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
Row crops need to be in a cropping sequence with close- moderate to moderately slow in the subsoil. The available
growing, soil-improving cover crops. The rotation should water capacity is low in the surface layer and medium to
include soil-improving crops three-fourths of the time. very high in the subsoil.
Crop residues and cover crops need to be plowed under. The natural vegetation is dominantly oaks, hickory,
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows, magnolia, sweetgum, pineland three-awn, and slash, lon-
and fertilizer and lime should be added according to the gleaf, and loblolly pines.
needs of the crop. The potential of this soil is medium for cultivated crops
This soil has medium potential for citrus trees. Areas if good management practices are used. Internal drainage
that are subject to frequent freezing are not suited. A or ditches used to intercept seepage water from adjacent
water control system should maintain the water table higher elevations and to remove excess internal water are
below a depth of 4 feet if citrus trees are grown. needed for good crop production. Erosion control mea-
The potential of this soil for improved pasture grasses sures and planting row crops on low beds are needed for
is high. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white maximum production.
clovers grow well when they are well managed. Water The potential for citrus trees on this soil is medium.
control measures are needed to remove excess surface Areas that are subject to frequent freezing temperatures
water after heavy rains. Regular application of fertilizer should not be used for citrus trees. A water control
and lime is needed, and grazing should be controlled to system should maintain the water table below a depth of
maintain vigor of the plants. 4 feet if citrus is grown.
This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pines. The potential for improved pasture grasses is high.
Best results are achieved if excess surface water is Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clovers
removed, grow well when they are well managed. Water control
This soil has medium potential for dwellings without measures are needed to remove excess surface water
basements and small commercial buildings if proper water after heavy rains. Heavy applications of fertilizer and
control measures are used, constant moisture content is lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
maintained, and footings and foundations are increased in maintain vigor of the plants.
size and strength. Potential is medium for septic tank ab- This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pines.
sorption fields if proper water control measures are used Best results are achieved when excess surface water is
and the soil is mounded. With surface stabilization and removed.
proper water control, the soil has medium potential for This soil has medium potential for dwellings without
playgrounds. With proper water control, potential is high basements and small commercial buildings if proper water
for trench sanitary landfills and shallow excavations, control measures are used, constant moisture content is
Potential for sewage lagoon areas is very high even if no maintained, and footings and foundations are increased in
special practices are used. Potential for local roads and size and strength. In addition, erosion must be controlled
streets is low when the unsuitable soil material is when the soil is used for small commercial buildings. With
removed and replaced and the water table is adequately adequate water control, potential is high for trench sani-
controlled. Capability subclass IIIw. tary landfills and shallow excavations. Potential is high
12-Blichton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, for sewage lagoon areas if the land is shaped. Potential is
This is a gently sloping, poorly drained soil that is com- medium for septic tank absorption fields if proper water
only in small areas on the uplands. Slopes are smooth to control measures are used and the soil is mounded. With
concave. land shaping, proper water control, and surface stabiliza-
Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand tion, the soil has medium potential for playgrounds.
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish Potential for local roads and streets is low even if the un-
brown loamy fine sand to a depth of about 22 inches. The suitable soil material is replaced and the water table is
upper 7 inches of the subsoil is grayish brown sandy loam adequately controlled. Capability subclass IIIw.
mottled with yellowish red and dark red. The remainder 13-Blichton loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
of the subsoil, extending to a depth of 60 inches or more, This is a sloping, poorly drained soil. Slopes are smooth to
is grayish brown sandy clay loam that has plinthite con- concave.
tent of about 6 percent and that is distinctly mottled with Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine
dark red and yellowish red. sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 16
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that inches thick. The upper 9 inches is gray loamy fine sand,
have plinthite content of less than 5 percent in the sub- and the lower 7 inches is light brownish gray loamy fine
soil. Also included are small areas of Nobleton, Fleming- sand. The upper 3 inches of the subsoil is light brownish








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

gray fine sandy loam. Next, to a depth of about 55 inches, Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
is gray sandy clay loam. Below is a layer of red, yellow, sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
gray, and brown, mottled sandy clay. sand to a depth of'about 48 inches. The upper 5 inches is
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that brown, the next 11 inches is light yellowish brown, and
are severely eroded. Also included are similar soils that the next 28 inches is brownish yellow. Below a depth of
have slopes of less than 5 percent or more than 8 percent. 48 inches is very pale brown fine sand containing lamellae
Small areas of Nobleton, Wauchula, and Flemington soils of brown loamy fine sand about 1/16 to 1/8 inch thick and
are also included. Included soils make up about 18 percent 1 to 4 inches long.
of any mapped area. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil is saturated during wet seasons. The available Arredondo, Astatula, Lake, and Tavares soils. Also in-
water capacity is low in the surface layer and medium to cluded are similar soils that have slopes of more than 5
very high in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Permea- percent. Included soils make up about 5 percent of any
ability is rapid in the surface layer and moderate to mapped area.
moderately slow in the subsoil. This soil has very low available water capacity in the
The native vegetation is dominantly slash, longleaf, and upper 48 inches and low available water capacity below
loblolly pines; oaks; hickory; magnolia; sweetgum; and that depth. Permeability is very rapid in the upper 48
pineland three-awn. The potential of this soil for cul- inches of the profile and rapid below. Natural fertility is
tivated crops is low because of the hazard of erosion and low. The water table is below a depth of 80 inches.
wetness. Crops respond fairly well to good management. Few areas of this soil have been cleared. Native
Intensive erosion control measures are needed, and drains vegetation consists of bluejack, post, and turkey oaks; and
should be installed to remove excess water. Row crops scattered longleaf and slash pines; and a sparse understo-
should be planted on beds, and rows should be planted on ry of indiangrass, chalky bluestem, pineland three-awn,
the contour in alternating strips with cover crops. panicum, and annual forbs.
Where this soil is relatively free from freezing tem- The potential of this soil for cultivated crops is low
peratures, it has medium potential for citrus trees. because of poor soil quality. Intensive soil management
Orange and grapefruit trees produce well if water control practices are required when the soil is cultivated.
is adequate. Water seeping from soils on high elevations Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients reduce
should be intercepted, and the water table should be the variety of adapted crops and potential yields of crops
lowered by tile or open drains. Trees should be planted on that are adapted. A suitable cropping sequence keeps the
beds on the contour. soil in close-growing crops at least three-fourths of the
This soil has high potential for improved pastures. Pan- time. Soil-improving crops and all crop residue are left on
golagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clovers produce well the ground or plowed under. Only a few crops produce
when they are well managed. They require fertilization good yields without irrigation. Irrigation of these crops is
and liming and controlled grazing for best yields. A good usually feasible where irrigation water is readily availa-
ground cover is also needed. This soil has high potential ble.
for longleaf and slash pines. The potential for citrus trees on this soil is medium in
This soil has medium potential for dwellings without places relatively free from freezing temperatures. A good
basements and small commercial buildings, but the ground cover of close-growing plants is needed between
moisture content must be evenly maintained, footings and the trees to protect the soil from blowing. Good yields can
foundations increased in size and strength, water con- be obtained in some years without irrigation, but a well
trolled, and buildings designed for the soil slope. In addi- designed irrigation system to maintain optimum moisture
tion, erosion must be controlled when the soil is used for conditions is needed to assure best yields.
small commercial buildings. With proper water control, The potential for improved pasture grasses is low.
potential is medium for septic tank absorption fields and Deep rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and
trench sanitary landfills. Mounding is also needed for sep- bahiagrass are well adapted, but yields are reduced by
tic tank absorption fields, and land shaping is also needed periodic droughtiness. Regular fertilization and liming are
for trench sanitary landfills. The soil has high potential needed. Grazing needs to be controlled to permit plants to
for sewage lagoon areas and shallow excavations if the recover from grazing and to maintain vigor.
land is shaped and if proper water control measures are The potential for commercial production of pine trees is
also used in shallow excavations. Potential for local roads low. The major concerns because of the sandy nature of
and streets is low even if the unsuitable soil material is the soil are the establishment of seedlings and the move-
replaced and if the water table is controlled. Potential for ment of equipment. Sand pine and slash pine are better
playgrounds is low even with land shaping, surface sta- suited to planting than other trees.
bilization, and proper water control. Capability subclass This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
IVw. basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
14-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a and streets even if no corrective measures are taken.
nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil in Potential is very high for septic tank absorption fields,
very large to small areas on uplands. but excessive permeability can cause pollution of ground








18 SOIL SURVEY

water. This soil has high potential for trench sanitary major management concerns for commercial tree produc-
landfills if the area is sealed or lined with impervious tion.
material. It has low potential for sewage lagoon areas if This soil has very high potential for local roads and
the area is sealed or lined with impervious material and if streets even if no corrective measures are taken. It has
the land is shaped. Potential for playgrounds is medium if high potential for septic tank absorption fields, but exces-
the land is shaped and the surface is stabilized. Potential sive permeability can cause pollution of ground water.
is high for shallow excavations if the side slopes are Potential for dwellings without basements is high, but
shored. Capability subclass IVs. buildings need to be designed to fit the slope. This soil
15-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is has high potential for trench sanitary landfills if the land
an excessively drained, sloping soil on side slopes in sand- is shaped and if areas are sealed or lined with impervious
hill areas on uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave, material and high potential for small commercial buildings
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand if the land is shaped and buildings are designed to fit the
about 6 inches thick. The fine sand subsurface layer ex- slope. Potential is medium for shallow excavations and
tends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The upper 21 playgrounds if the land is shaped; in addition, side slopes
inches is yellowish brown; the next 33 inches is brownish need to be shored for shallow excavations and the surface
yellow; the next 12 inches is very pale brown; and the needs to be stabilized for playgrounds. Potential is low
lower part, between depths of 72 to 80 inches or more, is for sewage lagoons even if areas are sealed or lined with
pale brown fine sand that has lamellae of strong brown impervious material and the land is shaped. Capability
loamy fine sand about 1/16 to 1/8 inch wide and 1 to 4 subclass VIs.
inches long. 16-Candler-Urban land complex. This complex is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of nearly level to gently sloping. It was formerly Candler
Astatula, Tavares, and Arredondo soils. Also included are fine sand, but much of it has been altered for use as
Candler soils that have slopes of less than 5 percent or 8 building sites or covered with pavement or buildings (fig.
to 12 percent. An area of severely eroded soils is also in- 7). Most areas that are not covered with pavement and
cluded in this mapping unit. This area is about 200 acres buildings are in lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds and
in size and is just south of the Hernando-Citrus County generally are so small and intermixed with Urban land
line and about 1 mile southwest of U.S. Highway 19. Spe- that it is impractical to map them separately. The com-
cial blowout symbols are used on the soil map to show plex is near Spring Hill.
this area. Included soils make up less than 10 percent of About 45 to 65 percent of the land is Candler fine sand.
any mapped area. The rest is mostly Candler fine sand, but it has been re-
The water table is normally below a depth of 80 inches. worked and reshaped. Typically, the soil has a surface
This soil has very low available water capacity in the layer of gray sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
upper 72 inches and low available water capacity below layer consists of various layers of pale brown, brown, and
that depth. Permeability is very rapid in the upper 72 light yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of about 60
inches of the soil and rapid below. Natural fertility is low. inches. Between depths of 60 and 80 inches is very pale
Few areas of this soil have been cleared. Native brown fine sand that has lamellae of dark yellowish
vegetation consists of bluejack, post, and turkey oaks; brown sandy loam and loamy fine sand that are 1/16 inch
scattered longleaf and slash pines; and a sparse understo- to 1 inch thick and about 4 inches long.
ry of indiangrass, chalky bluestem, pineland three-awn, The water table is below a depth of 80 inches. Candler
hairy panicum, and annual forbs. soil has very low available water capacity. Permeability is
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because very rapid in the upper 60 inches and rapid below. It is
of droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and very low in natural fertility and organic matter content.
strong slopes. It is not suitable for the most common cul- Twenty to 45 percent of the land area is covered with
tivated crops. houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and
The potential for citrus trees is medium. Good yields of other related structures.
fruit can be obtained some years without irrigation. For Included in mapping are small areas of other sandy
best yields, irrigation is used wherever water is available, soils, mostly Paola fine sand.
The potential for improved pasture grasses is low even The soil that is not covered with manmade objects is
if good management practices are used. Grasses such as mostly in lawn grasses and shrubs. Regular watering and
Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are better adapted applications of fertilizer are needed for good lawns. Tur-
than others. Clovers are not suited. Yields are reduced by key and bluejack oaks are common in this unit. A few
periodic droughts. Regular fertilizing and liming are scattered longleaf pine trees are also in this unit.
needed. Grazing should be greatly restricted to permit These soils in areas not covered by urban structures
plants to maintain vigorous growth for highest yields and have very high potential for dwellings without basements,
to provide good ground cover, small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
The potential of this soil is low for commercial produc- even if no corrective measures are taken. Potential is also
tion of pine trees. Sand pines are the best trees to plant. high for septic tank absorption fields, but excessive
Seedling mortality and mobility of equipment are the permeability can cause pollution of ground water in areas








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 19

of septic tank absorption fields. This soil has high poten- Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 per-
tial for trench sanitary landfills and shallow excavations if cent.
areas are sealed or lined with impervious material. Side Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
slopes must also be shored in shallow excavations. Poten- inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 12 inches
tial for playgrounds is medium if the land is shaped and thick. The upper 6 inches is gray fine sand, and the lower
the surface is stabilized. Potential is low for sewage 6 inches is grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil is weakly
lagoon areas even if the land is shaped. Capability sub- cemented fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The
class IVs. upper 3 inches is black, and the next 6 inches is dark red-
17-Delray fine sand. This is a very poorly drained, dish brown. To a depth of 36 inches is brown fine sand,
nearly level soil in depressions in the southwestern part and between depths of 36 and 48 inches is very pale
of the county. Slopes are less than 1 percent. brown fine sand. The next 24 inches is grayish brown fine
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 13 sand. At a depth of about 72 inches is light brownish gray
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth fine sandy loam.
of 55 inches. The upper 14 inches is dark gray, the next 8 Included with this soil in mapping are EauGallie soils
inches is dark grayish brown, and the lower 20 inches is that are underlain by soft limestone at a depth of about
light brownish gray. The subsoil between depths of 55 60 to 90 inches. EauGallie soils underlain by limestone are
and 75 inches is grayish brown sandy clay loam; below a generally west of U.S. Highway 19. Also included are
depth of 75 inches, it is gray sandy clay loam mottled small areas of Basinger, Myakka, Paisley, and Wabasso
with light olive brown. soils. Limestone boulders occur at random throughout
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of areas of this soil, but make up a very small percentage of
Floridana and Anclote soils. Included soils make up about the mapping unit. Included soils make up about 18 per-
15 percent of any mapped area. cent of any mapped area.
Most areas of Delray soils are covered with standing In most years, under natural conditions, the water table
water for 6 months or more in most years. Delray soils is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and
have medium available water capacity and medium natu- within a depth of 40 inches for more than 6 months. Eau-
ral fertility. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and Gallie soils have very low or low available water capacity
moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. in the sandy layers and moderate available water capacity
Natural vegetation is cypress, cattails, and dense stands in the loamy substratum. Natural fertility is low. Permea-
of maidencane and sawgrass. ability is moderate to moderately rapid in the weakly ce-
Under natural conditions, this soil is unsuitable for mented subsoil and loamy substratum and rapid in the
crops or improved pasture grasses. A water table above other layers.
e s e m h of te yr s y r p A large part of the acreage of this soil is in natural
the surface much of the year severely restricts plant
the, e mh of te yr s l r t p vegetation-an open forest consisting of longleaf pine,
growth. An adequate water control system is difficult to vegetation-an n ferst consisting of lonleaf pine,
slash pine, and an understory of saw-palmetto, inkberry,
establish because in most places suitable outlets are not wa le, and piland three-aw-p
available. Where a system can be installed, the soil has waxmyrtle, and pineland three-awn.
available. Where a system can be installed, the soil has These soils have very severe limitations for cultivated
medium potential for production of improved pasture crops because of wetness and poor soil quality. Adapted
grasses. crops are limited unless very intensive management prac-
The potential for pine trees is low. A good water con- tices are followed. The soils have medium potential for a
trol system designed to remove excess surface water is number of vegetable crops. A water control system is
needed before trees can be planted. needed to remove excess water in the wetter seasons and
This soil has medium potential for sewage lagoon areas provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons.
if proper water control measures are used and standing Crop residues and soil improving crops should be plowed
water is controlled. Potential is low for septic tank ab- under. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the
sorption fields, even if fill material is added, proper water rows.
control measures are used, and areas are mounded. It is The potential for citrus trees on this soil is low, and
low for trench sanitary landfills, even if proper water then only after a carefully designed water control system
control measures are used and standing water is con- that maintains the water table below a depth of 4 feet
trolled, and it is low for dwellings without basements, has been installed. Trees should be planted on beds and a
small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and vegetative cover maintained between the trees; areas
playgrounds, even if fill material is added and proper subject to freezing temperatures in winter are not suita-
water control measures are used. Local roads and streets ble for citrus trees.
also need increased structural strength in foundations, The potential for improved pasture grasses on this soil
and playgrounds also need surface stabilization. Potential is medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
is low for shallow excavations, even if proper water con- clover grow well when well managed. Water control mea-
trol measures are used, standing water is controlled, and sures are needed to remove excess surface water after
side slopes are shored. Capability subclass VIIw. heavy rains. Regular application of fertilizer and lime are
18-EauGallie fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent over-
drained soil in large areas on low ridges in the flatwoods. grazing and weakening of the plants.








20 SOIL SURVEY

The potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pines are The potential for improved pasture grasses is low even
better for planting than other trees. The main manage- though good management practices are used. Grasses
ment problems are equipment limitations during periods such as bahiagrass are better adapted than others.
of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant competi- Clovers are not suited. Yields are reduced by periodic
tion. For best results, a simple water control system to droughts. Regular fertilizing and liming are needed. Graz-
remove excess surface water should be installed, ing should be greatly restricted to permit plants to main-
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp- tain vigorous growth for highest yields and to provide
tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base- good ground cover.
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, The potential of this soil is low for commercial produc-
and playgrounds if proper water control measures are tion of pine trees. Sand pines are the best trees to plant.
used. In addition, mounding is needed for septic tank ab- Seedling mortality, mobility of equipment, and plant com-
sorption fields, sealing or lining with impervious material petition are the major management problems for commer-
is needed for sewage lagoon areas, and surface stabiliza- cial tree production.
tion is needed for playgrounds. Even with proper water With proper water control, this soil has high potential
control and sealing or lining with impervious material, for trench sanitary landfills, dwellings without basements,
potential is low for trench sanitary landfills. The soil has small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
low potential for shallow excavations even if the side Potential is medium for septic tank absorption fields,
slopes are shored and proper water control measures are shallow excavations, sewage lagoon areas, and
used. Capability subclass IVw. playgrounds. Proper water control measures are necessa-
19-Electra Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. ry for all of these uses. In addition, mounding is needed
This is a nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly for septic tank absorption fields, land shaping and sealing
drained soil on ridges on uplands. Slopes are smooth to or lining with impervious materials are needed for
concave.
c v sewage lagoon areas, shoring of side slopes is needed for
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 5 inches sewage lagoon areas, shoring of side slopesis needed for
thick. The upper 3 inches is dark gray, and the lower 2 shalow excavatons, abilization are needed for playgrounds. Capability surface sta
inches is gray. The subsurface layer is white fine sand VIs on are needed for playgrounds. Capability subclass
about 19 inches thick. The subsoil is weakly cemented, mi f m,
dark reddish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of 26 20-Flemigton fine sandy loam, to 2 percent
inches and weakly cemented, dark reddish brown fine slopes. This is a nearly level, poorly drained zoil on the
sand to a depth of 30 inches. Next is dark yellowish uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.
brown fine sand to a depth of 44 inches and brown fine Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand to a depth of 53 inches. The substratum extends sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is gray clay
below a depth of 80 inches. The upper 20 inches of the to a depth of 13 inches and light brownish gray clay: to a
substratum is light brownish gray sandy clay loam, and depth of 36 inches. Below that, the subsoil is light gray
the lower 7 inches is grayish brown sandy clay loam. clay to a depth of 81 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
similar soils in which the subsoil is weakly developed. have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Also included are similar
Also included are small areas of Blichton, Myakka, Pomel- soils that have a dark colored surface layer 7 to 12 inches
lo, and Wauchula soils. Included soils make up about 12 thick. Small areas of Blichton, Nobleton, Micanopy, and
percent of any mapped area. Paisley soils are also included. Included soils make up
In most years, under natural conditions, the water table about 15 percent of any mapped area.
is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for cumulative periods of In most years, under natural conditions, the water table
4 months and recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches is perched in the A horizon. The upper part of the Bt
during drier periods. This soil has very low available horizon is saturated for 1 to 4 months during wet seasons.
water capacity in the surface layer and low to medium Flemington soils have medium available water capacity in
available water capacity below. Permeability ranges from the surface layer and medium to high available water
rapid to moderate. Natural fertility is low. capacity in the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate.
Natural vegetation consists of sand live oak, scattered Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and very slow
longleaf, slash, and sand pines, and an understory of pine- in the subsoil.
land three-awn, saw-palmetto, runner oak, blueberry, The native vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, indiangrass, low pines, hickory, sweetgum, southern magnolia, and laurel
panicums, and numerous forbs. and water oaks in the overstory. The understory consists
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because of flowering dogwood, American hornbeam, hop horn-
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. It is beam, southern redcedar, American holly, American beau-
not suitable for most commonly cultivated crops, tyberry, huckleberry, and deertongue.
The potential for citrus trees is medium. Good yields of This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
fruit can be obtained some years without irrigation, but because of wetness. The very slowly permeable subsoil
for best yields irrigation should be used wherever water makes a water control system difficult to establish and
is available, maintain. With adequate water control, however, the soil








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 21

has medium potential for cultivated crops. Excess water The native vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
on the surface and in the soil needs to be removed pines, hickory, sweetgum, southern magnolia, and laurel
quickly. Seedbeds should be well prepared, and rows and water oaks in the overstory. The understory consists
should be bedded. Fertilizer and lime applied according to of flowering dogwood, American hornbeam, hop horn-
the needs of the crops are needed for highest yields, beam, southern redcedar, American holly, American beau-
The potential for citrus trees on this soil is low. A tyberry, huckleberry, and deertongue.
water control system that maintains the water table at a This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
depth of about 4 feet is needed. Bedding of the land and because of wetness. The very slowly permeable subsoil
planting the trees on the beds help provide good surface makes a water control system difficult to establish and
drainage. Areas subject to freezing temperatures are not maintain. With adequate water control, however, the soil
suitable for citrus. has medium potential for cultivated crops. Excess water
This soil has high potential for improved pasture on the surface and in the soil needs to be removed
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white quickly. Seedbeds should be well prepared, and rows
clovers grow well when properly managed. Water control should be bedded. Fertilizer and lime applied according to
measures are needed to remove excess water after heavy the needs of the crops are needed for highest yields.
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are The potential for citrus trees on this soil is low. A
needed, and grazing should be controlled to maintain water control system that maintains the water table at a
vigor of the plants. depth of about 4 feet is needed. Bedding of the land and
The potential of this soil for pine trees is high. Excess planting the trees on the beds help provide good surface
water needs to be removed from the surface for best drainage. Areas subject to freezing temperatures should
results. The movement of heavy equipment during rainy not be planted to citrus.
seasons can be a concern. This soil has high potential for improved pasture
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
fields, dwellings without basements, and small commercial clovers grow well when properly managed. Water control
buildings. Water control is necessary for all these uses; measures are needed to remove excess surface water
mounding is also needed for septic tank absorption fields, after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
and constant soil moisture content and increased size and lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
maintain vigor of the plants.
strength of footings and foundations are also needed for o o t o o i t i Excess
dwellings without basements and small commercial The potential of this soil for pine trees is high. Excess
dwellings without basements and small commercial
ingsPotential is for s water needs to be removed from the surface for best
buildings. Potential is high for trench sanitary landfills results. The movement of heavy equipment during rainy
and shallow excavations if proper water control measures sess e a concern.
seasons can be a concern.
are used and very high for sewage lagoon areas, even if This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills
corrective measures are not taken. With proper water and shallow excavations if proper water control measures
control, potential is medium for playgrounds. Potential is are used and high potential for sewage lagoon areas if the
very low for local roads and streets, even if poor soil land is shaped. Potential is low for septic tank absorption
material is replaced and proper water control measures fields, dwellings without basements, and small commercial
are used. Capability subclass IIIw. buildings. Water control is necessary for all these uses;
21-Flemington fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent mounding is also needed for septic tank absorption fields,
slopes. This is a gently sloping, poorly drained soil on the and constant soil moisture content and increased the size
uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave. and strength of footings and foundations are also needed
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sandy loam for dwellings without basements and small commercial
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray clay to a buildings. With proper water control and land shaping,
depth of 9 inches, gray clay to a depth of 37 inches, and potential is medium for playgrounds. Potential is very low
light gray clay to a depth of 80 inches or more. for local roads and streets even if poor soil material is
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that replaced and proper water control measures are used.
have a dark surface layer more than 6 inches thick and Capability subclass IIIw.
similar soils that have slope of less than 2 percent. Also 22-Flemington fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent
included are small areas of Blichton, Nobleton, Micanopy, slopes. This is a strongly sloping, poorly drained soil on
and Paisley soils. Included soils make up about 12 percent the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.
of any mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
This soil has a perched water table above the Bt sandy loam about 3 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of
horizon. The upper part of the Bt horizon is saturated for 9 inches is dark gray clay. Below this to a depth of 80
1 to 4 months during wet seasons. This soil has medium inches or more is light gray clay.
available water capacity in the surface layer and medi- Included with this soil in mapping are severely eroded
um to high available water capacity in the subsoil. Natu- spots and a few shallow gullies. A few soils that have a
ral fertility is moderate. Permeability is rapid in the sur- thick, black surface layer are included. Also included are
face layer and very slow in the subsoil. small areas of Blichton, Nobleton, Micanopy, and Paisley








22 SOIL SURVEY

soils and few areas of similar soils that have slopes of less gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 65 inches; it has a few
than 8 percent or more than 12 percent. Included soils pockets of sandy loam. To a depth of 80 inches or more, it
make up about 20 percent of any mapped area. is light gray sandy clay loam.
Under natural conditions this soil is saturated for 1 to 4 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
months during most years. Seepage water comes to the Anclote, Delray, and Okeelanta soils. Also included are
surface during wet seasons. This soil has medium availa- similar soils that have yellowish layers above the subsoil.
ble water capacity in the surface layer and medium to Included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped
high available water capacity in the subsoil. Natural fer- area.
utility is moderate. Permeability is rapid in the surface Water stands on this soil for more than 6 months in
layer and very slow in the subsoil. most years. It has medium available water capacity and
The native vegetation consists of slash and longleaf medium natural fertility. Permeability is rapid in the sur-
pines, hickory, sweetgum, southern magnolia, and laurel face layer and moderate in the subsoil.
and water oaks in the overstory. The understory consists Natural vegetation consists of cypress, cattails, and
of flowering dogwood, American hornbeam, hop horn- dense stands of maidencane and sawgrass.
beam, southern redcedar, American holly, American beau- Under natural conditions, this soil is unsuitable for
tyberry, huckleberry, and deertongue. crops. The water table, which is above the surface most
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because of of the year, severely restricts plant growth. Adequate
wetness and steepness of slope, water control systems are difficult to establish because in
The potential of this soil for citrus trees is low. Water most places suitable outlets are not available. If a water
control to remove excess internal water and to retard control system can be installed, however, the potential
surface runoff is difficult to maintain. A good cover of production of good quality pasture is medium.
close growing crops is needed between the trees to pro- This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pines.
tect the soil from erosion. The trees require regular appli- A good water control system designed for the removal of
cations of fertilizer and lime. excess water is needed before trees can be planted.
The potential of this soil for improved pasture grasses This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
is medium. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers grow fields, even if proper water control measures are used, fill
well for grazing, but they must be fairly well distributed material is added, and areas are mounded. Potential is low
to prevent overgrazing. Regular applications of plant for trench sanitary landfills, sewage lagoon areas, and
nutrients are needed for best yields and a good ground shallow excavations, even if proper water control mea-
cover. sures are used and standing water is controlled; in addi-
The potential for pine trees on this soil is high. Plant tion, areas used for sewage lagoons need to be sealed or
competition and movement of heavy equipment are the lined with impervious material and the side slopes of shal-
main management concerns. low excavations need to be shored. Even if proper water
This soil has medium potential for trench sanitary land- control measures are used and fill material is added,
fills, sewage lagoons, and shallow excavations if the land potential is low for dwellings without basements, small
is shaped. Proper water control is also needed for trench commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and
sanitary landfills and shallow excavations. Potential is low playgrounds. Surface stabilization is needed in areas used
for septic tank absorption fields, even if the land is for playgrounds. Capability subclass VIIw.
shaped, proper water control measures are used, and the 24-Floridana-Basinger association, occasionally
area is mounded. Potential is low for playgrounds, and flooded. This association consists of poorly drained and
there are no known practical measures to overcome the very poorly drained soils in regular and repeating pat-
limitations. Potential is low for dwellings without base- terns along streams and rivers in the eastern part of the
ments and small commercial buildings, even if constant county. The Floridana soils are in the lowest places, and
moisture content is maintained, footings and foundations the Basinger soils are slightly higher. The areas are
are increased in size and strength, water is controlled, mostly long and narrow and generally adjacent to the
and buildings are designed to fit the slope. Erosion con- Withlacoochee River. Individual areas of each soil range
trol is needed where small commercial buildings are con- from 5 to 25 acres.
structed. Even with land shaping, replacement of poor The very poorly drained Floridana soils make up about
soil material, and proper water control, potential is very 55 percent of the association. Typically, the surface layer
low for local roads and streets. Capability subclass VIw. is very dark gray loamy fine sand about 14 inches thick.
23-Floridana fine sand. This is a nearly level, very The subsurface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand that
poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are smooth to extends to a depth of 24 inches. Beneath the subsurface
concave and are less than 2 percent. layer is grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 30
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 16 inches inches and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches
thick. The upper 9 inches is black, and the lower 7 inches or more.
is very dark gray. The subsurface layer is about 11 inches Floridana soils have rapid permeability in the surface
thick. The upper 6 inches is grayish brown fine sand, and layer and moderate permeability in the subsoil The
the lower 5 inches is light gray fine sand. The subsoil is available water capacity and natural fertility are medium.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 23
The organic matter content is high. The water table is at Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils in
a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months during which the surface and subsurface layers are less than 20
most years, and the soil is frequently flooded. inches thick. Also included are similar soils in which
The poorly drained Basinger soils make up about 30 plinthite content in the subsoil is more than 5 percent.
percent of the association. Typically, the surface layer is Small areas of Blichton and Kanapaha soils were also in-
black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer cluded. Included soils make up about 10 percent of any
is light brownish gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. mapped area.
Beneath this to a depth of 24 inches is grayish brown fine In most years, under natural conditions, the water table
sand intermixed with very dark grayish brown fine sand. is above the surface for 6 months or more. Floridana
Light gray and white fine sand extend to a depth of 80 Variant soils have medium available water capacity and
inches or more. medium natural fertility. Permeability is rapid in the sur-
Basinger soils have very rapid permeability. Available face layer, moderate to moderately rapid in the upper
water capacity is very low. Natural fertility and organic part of the subsoil, and slow below.
matter content are low. The natural vegetation in some places is blackgum,
Minor soils make up about 15 percent of the association. cypress, red maple, water oak, willow, pond and slash
Delray soils are the most extensive, pines, and an understory of fedder bush, waxmyrtle, and
Most of this association remains in dense vegetation inkberry. In other areas it is dense stands of maidencane.
consisting of water oaks, cypress, sweetgum, hickory, cut- Under natural conditions, this soil is unsuitable for
grass maidencane, sawgrass, swamp primrose, button- crops. The water table, which is above the surface most
bush, smartweed, sedges, and other water-tolerant plants. of the year, severely restricts plant growth. Adequate
This association in its native state is not suitable for water control systems are difficult to establish because in
cultivated crops or improved pasture. The susceptibility most places suitable outlets are not available. If a water
to flooding severely restricts its use. If the hazard of control system can be installed, however, the potential
flooding can be removed, the soils have low potential for production of good quality pasture is medium.
cultivated crops and medium potential for improved This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pines.
pasture grasses. A good water control system designed for the removal of
The areas of Floridana soils in this association have excess water is needed before trees can be planted.
high potential for pine trees, but the areas of Basinger This soil has low potential for dwellings without base-
soils have low potential. A water control system that ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets,
reduces the hazard of flooding and removes excess sur- playgrounds, and septic tank absorption fields even if
face water is needed before trees can be planted. proper water control measures are used and fill material
These soils have low potential for septic tank absorp- is added; mounding is needed for septic tank absorption
tion fields, trench sanitary landfills, sewage lagoons, shal- fields, and surface stabilization is also needed for
low excavations, dwellings without basements, small com- playgrounds. Potential is low for trench sanitary landfills
mercial buildings, local roads and streets, and and sewage lagoons even if standing water and the water
playgrounds, even if areas are protected from flood table are controlled. Potential is very low for shallow ex-
waters and proper water control measures are used. In cavations even if side slopes are shored and proper water
addition, mounding is needed for septic tank absorption control measures are used. Capability subclass VIIw.
fields; sealing or lining with impervious material is 26-Homosassa mucky fine sandy loam. This is a
needed for sewage lagoon areas; shoring of side slopes is very poorly drained soil in tidal marshes. It is underlain
needed for shallow excavations; and adding fill material is by limestone between depths of 20 and 40 inches.
needed for dwellings without basements, small commer- Typically, the surface layer is 15 inches thick. The
cial buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds, upper 2 inches is black mucky fine sandy loam, the next 6
Capability subclass VIw. inches is very dark gray mucky fine sandy loam, and the
25-Floridana Variant loamy fine sand. This is a lower 7 inches is very dark gray loamy fine sand. Below
nearly level, very poorly drained soil in depressions and that is 12 inches of dark grayish brown loamy fine sand.
along poorly defined drainageways. Slopes are smooth to Between depths of 27 and 33 inches is white soft
concave and are less than 2 percent, limestone containing fragments of hard limestone. Below
Typically, the surface layer is about 15 inches thick. a depth of 33 inches is hard limestone.
The upper 8 inches is black loamy fine sand, and the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
lower 7 inches is very dark gray fine sand. The subsur- Lacoochee and Weekiwachee soils. Included soils make up
face layer is about 7 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is about 25 percent of any mapped area.
dark grayish brown fine sand, and the lower 4 inches is The water table fluctuates with the tide. The soil is
light gray fine sand. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy flooded daily during normal high tides. The available
clay loam to a depth of about 42 inches and fine sandy water capacity is very high in the surface layer and medi-
loam with pockets of loamy sand to a depth of about 59 um below. Permeability is moderately rapid throughout
inches. Below that is gray sandy clay. the soil.








24 SOIL SURVEY

Native vegetation consists predominantly of junkus and Typically, the surface layer is about 13 inches thick.
seashore saltgrass, needlegrass rush, smooth cordgrass, The upper 7 inches is dark gray fine sand, and the lower
sawgrass, and marshhay cordgrass. 6 inches is grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer
The soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, pasture is about 37 inches thick. The upper 20 inches is gray fine
grasses, or woodland. The potential for these uses is very sand, and the lower 17 inches is light gray fine sand. The
low because of the daily flood hazard, high salt content, subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 56
and high sulfur content. inches and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 65 inches
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption or more.
fields, shallow excavations, dwellings without basements, Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets differ from Kanapaha fine sand by having a brownish,
even if the areas are protected from tidal flooding and stained subsurface layer. Also included are small areas of
proper water control measures are used. In addition, Blichton, Nobleton, and Sparr soils. Included soils make
mounding is needed for septic tank absorption fields, spe- up less than 12 percent of any mapped area.
cial equipment is needed for shallow excavations, special In most years, under natural conditions, the water table
equipment and sealing or lining with impervious material is at a depth of less than 10 inches for cumulative periods
are needed for trench sanitary landfills, and surface sta- of 1 to 3 months and between depths of 10 and 40 inches
bilization is needed for playgrounds. Capability subclass for 3 to 4 months. In drier seasons it recedes to a depth
VIIIw. of more than 40 inches. Kanapaha soils have low available
27-Hydraquents. This is a nearly level, poorly drained water capacity in the surface and subsurface layers and
residue of calcium carbonate and clay washed from medium available water capacity in the subsoil. Natural
limestone aggregates. This residue has been deposited fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer
mostly in large excavated areas, pits, and holding basins and moderate to moderately slow in the subsoil.
as much as 25 feet deep and surrounded by dikes (fig. 8). The natural vegetation is a forest of oaks, sweetgum,
In places, however, it is in low areas or natural maple, magnolia, hickory, slash, longleaf, and loblolly
drainageways where the material has overflowed and set- pines, and an understory of several bluestem species, lon-
tied out. In poorly defined drainageways it is underlain gleaf uniola, hairy panicum, several three-awn species,
at shallower depths by wet mineral soils. It has a chalky and numerous forbs.
appearance. This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because
Reaction is moderately alkaline throughout the profile. of wetness and poor soil quality. The number of crops is
limited unless very intensive management practices are
Texture is silty clay or clay throughout. Thickness ranges fllmted.unless very ntensve management practices are
from 2 to 25 feet. followed. With good water control measures and soil im-
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that proving measures, a number of crops can be grown. A
have texture of silt or silt loam. Included soils make up water control system is needed to remove excess water in
about 10 percent of any mapped area. wet seasons and provide water through subsurface irriga-
This unit is saturated all year. Water is on the surface tion in dry seasons. Crop residues and soil improving
at times and is controlled by the mining operations. Aban- crops should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation
at times and is controlled by the mining operations. Aban- should include bedding in rows. Fertilizer and lime are
doned areas have a water table at various depths below aded according to the need of the crop.
added according to the need of the crop.
the surface. This unit has very slow permeability The potential for citrus trees on this soil is low. Areas
throughout. The available water capacity is high, and in which the temperature frequently reaches the freezing
natural fertility is moderate. point should be avoided. A carefully designed water con-
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, improved trol system should maintain the water table below a
pasture grasses, or woodland. The potential for these uses depth of about 4 feet. Trees should be planted on beds,
is very low. The dominant vegetation is. cattails, which and a vegetative crop should be maintained between the
provide good cover for wetland wildlife, trees. Fertilizer and lime are applied as needed.
This soil has very low potential for septic tank absorp- This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. There clover grow well when they are well managed. Water con-
are no practical measures to overcome the adverse soil trol measures are needed to remove excess surface water
properties for these uses. Potential is very low for after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
sewage lagoon areas even if special equipment and proper lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
water control measures are used. Potential is low for prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
trench sanitary landfill, even if proper water control mea- This soil has medium potential for pine trees. The
sures are used. It is low for shallow excavations, even major management concerns are mobility of equipment
with use of special equipment and proper water control, during periods of high rainfall and plant competition.
Capability subclass VIIIw. Seedling mortality is usually high. Slash pines are better
28-Kanapaha fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly suited for planting than other trees. A simple water con-
drained soil in low positions on uplands. Slopes are trol system should be installed to remove excess surface
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 5 percent. water.







U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Soil Conservation Service
Brooksville, Florida 33512

Soil Survey of Hernando County, Florida


ERRATUM

Page 25, paragraph 2, column 2, contains an error. The following corrected
paragraph should be inserted in the description of Kendrick fine sand, 0 to
5 percent slopes:

"This soil has a very high potential for dwellings without basements,
trench sanitary landfills, shallow excavations and small commercial buildings
even if no corrective measures are taken. It has a high potential for local
roads and streets with surface stabilization. With land shaping, and surface
stabilization the potential is high for active playgrounds. This soil also
has a high potential for septic tank absorption fields. With land shaping
and sealing or lining with impervious materials, the soil has a high potential
for sewage lagoon areas. Capability subclass lie."







HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 25

This soil has medium potential for dwellings with base- controlled grazing to maintain vigorous plants for highest
ments and high potential for trench sanitary landfills and yields and good ground cover.
shallow excavations if proper water control measures are The potential for pine trees is high. Moderate seedling
used. Potential is medium for small commercial buildings mortality, equipment limitation, and plant competition are
and local roads and streets if proper water control mea- the main management concerns. Slash pine and loblolly
sures are used and the structural strength of foundations pine are better suited to planting than other trees.
is increased. It is medium for playgrounds if the surface This soil has medium potential for dwellings with base-
is stabilized and proper water control measures are used. ments and high potential for trench sanitary landfills and
Potential is low for septic tank absorption fields, even if shallow excavations if proper water control measures are
proper water control measures are used and areas are used. Potential is medium for small commercial buildings
mounded. It is high for trench sanitary landfills if proper and local roads and streets if proper water control mea-
water control measures are used. Capability subclass sures are used and the structural strength of foundations
IIIw. is increased, and medium for playgrounds if the surface is
29-Kendrick fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is stabilized and proper water control measures are used.
a well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil in large Potential is low for septic tank absorption fields if proper
to small areas on uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave, water control measures are used and areas are mounded,
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine and high for trench sanitary landfills if proper water con-
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine trol measures are used. Capability subclass IIe.
sand about 24 inches thick. The upper 7 inches is yel- 30-Lacoochee fine sandy loam. This is a nearly level,
lowish brown, and the lower 17 inches is brownish yellow, poorly drained soil in low, broad, tidal marsh areas. Slopes
The subsoil is at a depth of 28 inches. The upper 6 inches are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
is yellowish brown fine sandy loam, the next 11 inches is Typically, the surface layer is light gray fine sandy
yellowish brown sandy clay, and the next 18 inches is loam about 6 inches thick. It is high in carbonates. The
mottled strong brown, dark red, and light gray sandy subsurface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand about
clay. Below a depth of about 63 inches, the subsoil is mot- 2 inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish brown loamy fine
tied strong brown, dark red, and light gray sandy clay sand to a depth of about 15 inches. Below this is white
loam that has a few pockets of dark gray sandy loam. limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
Arredondo, Blichton, and Nobleton soils. Also included are do not have a highly calcareous surface layer. Also in-
small areas of Kendrick soils that have slopes of 5 to 8 cluded are similar soils in which limestone is below a
percent. Included soils make up about 15 percent of any depth of 20 inches. The underlying limestone has cracks
mapped area. and solution holes, and in many places the soil has a
In most years, under natural conditions, the water table loamy subsoil. Also included are small areas of Aripeka
is below a depth of 72 inches. Kendrick soils have low and Homasassa soils. Included soils make up about 30
available water capacity in the surface and subsurface percent of any mapped area.
layers and medium available water capacity in the subsoil. The water table fluctuates with the tide, and the soil is
Natural fertility is moderate. Permeability is rapid above frequently flooded during normal high tides. The available
the subsoil and moderate in the subsoil. water capacity is high in the surface layer and medium
The natural vegetation is a forest of longleaf, loblolly, below. Permeability is moderate in the surface layer and
and slash pines, magnolia, dogwood, laurel, live and water moderately rapid below.
oaks, and an understory of bluestem species, indiangrass, The natural vegetation is seashore saltgrass,
hairy panicum, and annual forbs. needlegrass rush, and Gulf cordgrass. Vegetation is
This soil has moderate potential for the production of sparse in many places.
cultivated crops. The main limitations are the hazards of This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, pasture
erosion and droughtiness. Moderate erosion control mea- grasses, or woodland in its native state. The potential for
sures are needed in more sloping areas. A cropping these uses is very low because of the daily flood hazard,
sequence that includes cover crops on the land at least high salt content, and high sulfur content.
half of the time is needed. Crop residues and soil improv- This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
ing crops should be plowed under. Fertilizer and lime fields, even if areas are protected from tidal flooding and
should be added according to the need of the crop. are mounded and proper water control measures are
This soil has very high potential for citrus trees except used. It has low potential for shallow excavations if areas
in areas that are subject to frequent freezing. A good are protected from tidal flooding, proper water control
ground cover is needed between the trees to protect the measures are used, and special equipment is used. This
soil from blowing and from water erosion. Fertilizer and soil has low potential for dwellings without basements,
lime are needed for high yields. small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets if
The potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. areas are protected from tidal flooding, proper water con-
The best grasses to plant are pangolagrass and improved trol measures are used, and footings and foundations are
bahiagrass. They require fertilizing, occasional liming, and enlarged and strengthened. Potential is very low for








26 SOIL SURVEY

trench sanitary landfills, sewage lagoon areas, and the areas are sealed and lined with impervious material.
playgrounds, even if areas are protected from tidal flood- It is high for shallow excavations if the side slopes are
ing and proper water control measures are used. In addi- shored, and it is high for playgrounds if the land is
tion, special equipment and sealing or lining with impervi- shaped and the surface is stabilized. Even with land shap-
ous material is needed for trench sanitary landfills, and ing, potential is low for sewage lagoon areas. Capability
the surface needs to be stabilized for playgrounds. Capa- subclass IVs.
ability subclass VIIIw. 32-Masaryk very fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
31-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is an This is a nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well
excessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil drained soil on broad ridges around Masaryktown. Slopes
along ridgetops and low hillsides in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.
are smooth to concave. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray very fine sand
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 67
about 8 inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand inches thick. The upper 10 inches is pale brown very fine
to a depth of 82 inches or more. The upper 26 inches is sand, the next 11 inches is very pale brown very fine
yellowish brown, the next 9 inches is strong brown, and sand, and the lower 46 inches is white very fine sand. To
the lower 39 inches is reddish yellow, a depth of 74 inches the subsoil is mixed light brownish
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of gray and yellowish brown very fine sandy loam, and to a
Candler and Arredondo soils. Included soils make up less depth of about 90 inches it is grayish brown very fine
than 15 percent of any mapped area. sandy loam.
Lake soils have very low available water capacity in all Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
layers. Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. Also included
is low, and response to fertilizers is moderate. are small areas of Kendrick and Sparr soils. Included soils
Native vegetation consists of bluejack, blackjack, tur- make up about 18 percent of any mapped area.
key, and live oaks; scattered longleaf pines; and an un- This soil has a perched water table at a depth of 40 to
derstory of scattered saw-palmetto, pineland three-awn, 60 inches for 1 to 2 months and at a depth of 60 to 72
bluestem, and paspalum. inches for 2 to 4 months in most years. It has low availa-
The potential of this soil for cultivated crops is low ble water capacity in the surface and subsurface layers
because of poor soil quality. Intensive soil management and medium available water capacity in the subsoil. Natu-
practices are required when the soil is cultivated, ral fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients reduce and subsurface layers and moderately slow or moderate
the variety of crops. Soil improving crops and all crop in the subsoil.
residues should be left in the ground or plowed under. Native vegetation consists dominantly of blackjack,
Only a few crops produce good yields without irrigation, post, and live oaks; a few scattered turkey oaks, longleaf
Irrigation of these crops is usually feasible where water and slash pines; and an understory of pineland three-awn,
is readily available. creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, hairy and low
The potential for growing trees on this soil is medium panicums, brownseed paspalum, knotroot bristlegrass,
in places relatively free from freezing. A good ground perennial legumes, and annual weeds.
cover of close-growing plants is needed between the trees This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
to protect the soil from blowing or washing. Good yields mainly because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of
of oranges and grapefruit can be obtained in some years plant nutrients. The potential is medium if good practices
without irrigation, but a well designed irrigation system are used and irrigation water is applied in dry seasons
to maintain optimum moisture conditions is needed to as- where it is available. Special soil-improving measures are
sure best yields. needed when the soil is cultivated. Cultivated crops
The potential for production of improved pasture should be planted on the contour in alternating strips
grasses is low. Deep-rooting plants such as Coastal with close-growing crops. Cropping sequences should
bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted, but yields keep the soil under close-growing vegetation at least two-
are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular fertilizing and thirds of the time. Soil-improving crops and all crop
liming are needed. Grazing should be controlled to permit residues should be left on the land or plowed under. All
plants to recover from grazing and to maintain vigor, crops need frequent fertilizing and liming.
The potential for pine trees on this soil is medium. This soil has high potential for citrus trees where it is
Slash pine is the best tree to plant, relatively free from freezing temperatures. A good
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without ground cover of close-growing plants is needed between
basements and local roads and streets even if no cor- the trees to protect the soil from blowing. Good yields of
rective measures are taken, very high potential for septic fruit can usually be obtained without irrigation, but
tank absorption fields although the excessive permeability where water for irrigation is readily available, increased
rate can cause pollution of ground water, and very high yields make irrigation feasible.
potential for small commercial buildings if erosion is con- The potential of this soil is medium for improved
trolled. Potential is high for trench sanitary landfills if pasture grasses if deep-rooting grasses such as Coastal








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 27

bermudagrass and bahiagrass are planted. Yields are oc- This soil has very high potential for citrus trees if
casionally restricted by extreme droughts. Grazing should proper water control is established. The trees should be
be controlled to maintain vigorous plants for highest planted in beds for best results. Areas subject to freezing
yields. temperatures should not be used for citrus trees.
Potential productivity of slash and longleaf pines on The potential for improved pasture grasses is high.
this soil is medium. Bahiagrasses and white clovers grow well when properly
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without managed. Water control measures are needed to remove
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular applica-
and streets even if no corrective measures are taken. tions of fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing should
Potential is high for septic tank absorption fields if be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
proper water control measures are taken and high poten- The potential for pine trees on this soil is high. Slash
tial for playgrounds if the land is shaped and the surface pines are the better suited to planting than other trees.
is stabilized. If the areas are sealed or lined with impervi- This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills
ous material and proper water control measures are used, and medium potential for shallow excavations if proper
potential is medium for trench sanitary landfills and water control measures are used. Potential is medium for
sewage lagoon areas. In addition, land shaping is needed dwellings without basements and small commercial
in areas used for sewage lagoons. Potential is also medi- buildings if footings and foundations are enlarged, struc-
um for shallow excavations if proper water control mea- tural strength is increased, proper water control mea-
sures are used and side slopes are shored. Capability sub- sures are used, and constant soil moisture content is
class IIIs. maintained. With surface stabilization and proper water
33-Micanopy loamy fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, control, potential is medium for playgrounds. Potential is
This is a nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soil on the low for septic tank absorption fields, even if proper water
uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave control measures are used and the size of the absorption
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy field is increased. It is low for local roads and streets,
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is even if unsuitable soil material is replaced and proper
loamy fine sand to a depth of 17 inches. The upper 9 water control measures are used. Potential is very high
inches is dark gray, and the lower 3 inches is pale brown. for sewage lagoon areas, even if no corrective measures
The subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a depth bi ,
of 21 inches, yellowish brown sandy clay to a depth of are taken. Capability subclass IIw.
about 25 inches, and gray sandy clay mottled in shades of 34-Micanopy loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
red, yellow, and brown to a depth of more than 65 inches. This is a gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil on
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.
have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Also included are similar Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches thick. The
soils in which plinthite content in the subsoil is more than upper 4 inches is black loamy fine sand, and the lower 4
5 percent. Small areas of Blichton, Flemington, Kendrick, inches is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The subsurface
and Nobleton soils were included in mapping. Included layer is brown loamy fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
soils make up about 12 percent of any mapped area. subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of
In most years, under natural conditions, the water table 18 inches and yellowish brown sandy clay to a depth of 25
is at a depth of 20 to 30 inches for 1 to 3 months and inches. Below this to a depth of 55 inches is gray sandy
below a depth of 60 inches during drier periods. Micanopy clay. Below a depth of 55 inches is mixed gray, brown,
soils have low available water capacity in the surface yellow, and red sandy clay.
layer and medium to high available water capacity in the Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils in
subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate. Permeability is which plinthite content in the subsoil is more than 5 per-
rapid in the surface layer and slow in the subsoil. cent. Also included are small areas of Blichton, Fleming-
The natural vegetation is a forest of loblolly, slash, and ton, Kendrick, and Nobleton soils. Included soils make up
longleaf pines and magnolia, hickory, dogwood, and laurel, about 12 percent of any mapped area.
live, and water oaks. The understory is creeping This soil has a water table at depth of 20 to 30 inches
bluestem, chalky bluestem, indiangrass, toothachegrass, for 1 to 3 months during most years. In drier periods, it
pineland three-awn, saw-palmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, recedes below a depth of 60 inches. This soil has low
and numerous annual forbs. available water capacity in the surface layer and medium
This soil has high potential for the production of cul- to high available water capacity in the subsoil. Natural
tivated crops if good management practices are used. A fertility is moderate. Permeability is rapid in the surface
water control system is needed to remove excess water, and subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil.
Good management includes cropping sequences that in- The natural vegetation is a forest of loblolly, slash, and
clude close growing crops at least half of the time. Cover longleaf pines, magnolia, hickory, dogwood, and laurel, live
crops and soil improving crops should be plowed under, and water oaks, and an understory of creeping bluestem,
Proper seedbed preparation includes bedding of the rows chalky bluestem, indiangrass, toothachegrass, pineland
and fertilizer and lime added according to the needs of three-awn, saw-palmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, and nu-
the crops. merous annual forbs.








28 SOIL SURVEY

This soil has high potential for the production of cul- more than 40 inches during very dry seasons. Myakka
tivated crops if good management practices are used. A soils have medium available water capacity in the subsoil
water control system is needed to remove excess water, but very low available water capacity in the other layers.
Good management includes cropping sequences that in- Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and substratum
clude close-growing crops at least half of the time. Cover and moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil. These
crops and soil-improving crops should be plowed under, soils have slow internal drainage and slow runoff. Natural
Proper seedbed preparation includes bedding of the rows fertility is low.
and fertilizer and lime added according to the needs of The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pines with
the crops. an understory of saw-palmetto, runner oak, inkberry,
This soil has very high potential for citrus trees if waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland three-awn, and scat-
proper water control is established. The trees should be tered fetter bushes. Most areas remain in forest.
planted in beds for best results. Areas subject to freezing These soils have very severe limitations for cultivated
temperatures should not be used for citrus trees, crops because of wetness and poor soil quality. The
The potential for improved pasture grasses is high. adapted crops are limited unless very intensive manage-
Bahiagrasses and white clovers grow well when properly ment practices are followed. The soils have medium
managed. Water control measures are needed to remove potential for a number of vegetable crops. A water con-
excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular applica- trol system is needed to remove excess water in the
tions of fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing should wetter seasons and provide water for subsurface irriga-
be controlled to maintain plant vigor. tion in dry seasons. Crop residues and soil-improving
The potential for pine trees on this soil is high. Slash crops should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation
pines are better suited to planting than other trees. should include bedding of the rows.
This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills The potential for citrus trees is low, and then only after
and medium potential for shallow excavations if proper a carefully designed water control system has been in-
water control measures are used. Potential is medium for stalled to maintain the water table below a depth of 4
dwellings without basements and small commercial feet. Trees should be planted on beds and a vegetative
buildings if footings and foundations are enlarged, struc- cover maintained between the trees. Areas subject to
tural strength is increased, proper water control mea- freezing should not be used for citrus trees.
sures are used, and constant soil moisture content is The potential of this soil for improved pasture grasses
maintained. With land shaping, surface stabilization, and is medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
proper water control, potential is medium for clover grow well when well managed. Water control mea-
playgrounds. Potential is low for septic tank absorption sures are needed to remove excess surface water after
fields, even if proper water control measures are used heavy rains. Regular application of fertilizer and lime are
and the size of the absorption field is increased. It is low needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent over-
for local roads and streets even if unsuitable soil material grazing and weakening of the plants.
is replaced and proper water control measures are used. The potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pines are
Potential is high for sewage lagoon areas if the land is better suited to planting than other trees. The main
shaped. Capability subclass IIw. management concerns are equipment limitations during
35-Myakka fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
drained soil in broad areas in the flatwoods. Slopes are competition. For best results, a central water control
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. system to remove excess surface water should be in-
Typically the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 stalled.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
about 20 inches thick. The subsoil is weakly cemented fine tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base-
sand about 17 inches thick (fig. 9). The upper 4 inches is ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets,
very dark grayish brown, the next 5 inches is very dark and playgrounds, if proper water control measures are
gray, and the lower 8 inches is dark reddish brown. The used. In addition, mounding is needed for septic tank ab-
next layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of sorption fields, sealing or lining with impervious material
about 50 inches and light gray fine sand below, is needed for sewage lagoon areas, and surface stabiliza-
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that tion is needed for playgrounds. Potential is low for trench
differ from Myakka fine sand by having a black surface sanitary landfills, even if proper water control measures
layer more than 8 inches thick. Also included are small are used and the areas are sealed or lined with impervi-
areas of Adamsville, Basinger, EauGallie, and Pompano ous material. It is also low for shallow excavations, even
soils. Limestone boulders, 2 to 6 feet in diameter, are in if the side slopes are shored and proper water control
some areas of this soil at a depth of about 60 to 100 measures are used. Capability subclass IIIw.
inches. Included soils make up about 16 percent of any 36-Nobleton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
mapped area. a nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for soil on broad areas in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to
1 to 4 months in most years and recedes to a depth of concave.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 29

Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine' poor soil material is replaced and proper water control
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about measures are used, potential is low for local roads and
26 inches thick. The upper 15 inches is brown fine sand, streets. Capability subclass IIw.
and the lower 11 inches is very pale brown fine sand. The 37-Okeelanta-Terra Ceia association. This associa-
subsoil is 52 inches thick. The top 4 inches is reddish yel- tion consists of very poorly drained soils in regular and
low sandy clay loam; the next 23 inches is mottled yel- repeating patterns. The landscape is a broad, low swamp
lowish red, strong brown, brown, and gray sandy clay; area which is interspersed with a few low ridges. The
and the next 20 inches is light gray sandy clay loam. Okeelanta soils are around the edges of the mapping unit,
Below this, to a depth of about 85 inches, is grayish where the organic material is thinner. This association
brown sandy clay loam. makes up a large part of Weekiwachee and Chassahowitz-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of ka Swamps. Mapped areas are mostly long and very
Blichton, Kendrick, and Micanopy soils. Included soils broad, and individual areas of each soil range from about
make up about 10 percent of any mapped area. 25 to 300 acres.
This soil has a perched water table at a depth of 20 to Okeelanta soils make up about 60 percent of this as-
40 inches for 1 to 4 months during the summer rainy sociation. Typically, they have layers of black and very
season in most years. This soil has rapid permeability in dark gray muck to a depth of about 27 inches. Below the
the surface and subsurface layers and moderate to muck is light gray fine sand.
moderately slow permeability in the subsoil. Available Okeelanta soils have a water table at or near the sur-
water capacity is low in the surface layer and medium to face except during extended dry periods. They have rapid
high in the subsoil. permeability, very high available water capacity, very
The natural vegetation is a forest of live, laurel, and high organic matter content, and moderate natural fertili-
water oaks, slash and longleaf pines; hickory; magnolia; ty.
and sweetgum. Understory vegetation is waxmyrtle, Terra Ceia soils make up as much as about 30 percent
briers, and native grasses including bluestems, pineland of the association. Typically, Terra Ceia soils are black
three-awn, toothachegrass, panicums, and lopsided indian- and dark grayish brown muck to a depth of 65 inches or
grass. more.
This soil has high potential for the production of cul- Terra Ceia soils have a water table on or above the
tivated crops if good management practices are used. A surface except during extended dry periods. Runoff is
water control system is needed to remove excess water, slow. Internal drainage and permeability are rapid. These
Good management includes cropping sequences that in- soils have very high available water capacity, very high
clude close-growing crops at least half of the time. Cover organic matter content, and moderate natural fertility.
crops and soil-improving crops should be plowed under. Minor soils make up about 10 percent of the association.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows Anclote soils are the most extensive of the minor soils.
and fertilizer and lime added according to the needs of Also included are small areas of Myakka, Basinger, Del-
the crops. ray, and Tavares soils. These soils, with the exception of
This soil has very high potential for citrus trees if Delray soils, are on low ridges scattered throughout the
proper water control is established. The trees should be association.
planted in beds for best results. Areas subject to freezing This association is still in natural vegetation, which con-
temperatures should not be used for citrus trees. sists mostly of sweetgum, cypress, longleaf pine, cabbage
The potential for improved pasture grasses is high. palm, water oaks, and an understory of maidencane, saw-
Bahiagrasses and white clovers grow well when properly grass, royal, cinnamon ferns, and various aquatic plants.
managed. Water control measures are needed to remove Okeelanta and Terra Ceia soils are not suitable for cul-
excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular applica- tivation in their native state. When a water control
tions of fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing should system is installed, however, they have high potential for
be controlled to maintain plant vigor, some specialized crops and improved pasture grasses.
The potential for pine trees on this soil is high. Slash These soils are not suitable for production of citrus trees
pines are better suited to planting than other trees. or pine trees. The potential for habitat for wetland and
This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills woodland wildlife is high; shallow water areas are easily
and shallow excavations if proper water control measures developed, and there is an abundance of food and cover.
are used, and high potential for sewage lagoon areas if These soils have very low potential for dwellings
the land is shaped. The soil has high potential for septic without basements, small commercial buildings, local
tank absorption fields if proper water control measures roads and streets, and playgrounds if the organic material
are used and the area of the field is larger than normal, is removed, the area is backfilled with suitable soil
Potential is medium for dwellings without basements and material, and proper water control measures are used.
for small commercial buildings if proper water control Potential is very low for trench sanitary landfills and
measures are used and the footings and foundations are sewage lagoon areas, even if the areas are sealed or lined
larger than normal. Potential for playgrounds is medium with impervious material. In addition, proper water con-
if the land is shaped and the surface is stabilized. Even if trol measures are needed for trench sanitary landfills and








30 SOIL SURVEY

special equipment is needed for sewage lagoon areas. for septic tank absorption fields, even if proper water
Potential is very low for septic tank absorption fields, control measures are used and areas are mounded. Even
even if the organic material is removed, areas are if unsuitable soil material is replaced and proper water
backfilled with suitable material, the absorption field is control measures are used, potential is very low for local
mounded, and proper water control measures are used. roads and streets. Potential is very high for sewage
Even with use of proper water control measures and spe- lagoons, even if no corrective measures are taken. Capa-
cial equipment, potential is low for shallow excavations, ability subclass Vw.
Capability subclass IIIw. 39-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This is an
38-Paisley fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly excessively drained, nearly level to sloping soil on high
drained soil in low, broad areas of the Coastal Plain. ridges and hillsides in the sandhill areas of the county.
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 1 per- Slopes are smooth to concave.
cent. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand to a
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish depth of about 26 inches. The subsoil is brownish yellow
brown fine sand to a depth of 13 inches. About 10 percent fine sand with a few tongues of white fine sand from the
of the subsurface layer is cobbles and boulders. The sub- subsurface layer mixed in. Very pale brown fine sand ex-
soil is about 55 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is dark tends to a depth of 80 inches, and white fine sand extends
grayish brown sandy clay loam, the next 22 inches is gray to a depth of 99 inches or more.
sandy clay, and the lower 29 inches is light gray sandy Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
clay loam. Below to a depth of about 95 inches is mixed Astatula, Candler, and Tavares soils. In most places in-
light gray and gray clay. cluded soils make up less than 10 percent of any mapped
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of area.
very poorly drained soils that have a weak, organic, The water table is below a depth of 72 inches. Paola
stained layer 2 to 3 inches thick over the sandy clay sub- soils have very low available water capacity and very low
soil. Included soils make up less than 10 percent of any natural fertility. Permeability is very rapid throughout
mapped area. the profile.
This soil has a water table at a depth of less than 10 Few areas of this soil have been cleared. The native
inches for 2 to 6 months and above the surface for less vegetation consists of sand pine, scrub live oak, scattered
than 1 month during most years. It has low available turkey and bluejack oaks, and an undergrowth of scat-
water capacity in the surface layer and high available tered saw-palmetto, creeping dodder, rosemary, cacti,
water capacity in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the mosses, and lichens.
surface layer and slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is This soil has very low potential for cultivated crops
low, but response to fertilizer is good. because of extreme droughtiness and rapid leaching of
Natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf pines, plant nutrients. It is not suitable for most normally cul-
live oaks, sweetgum, and an understory of inkberry, pine- tivated crops. The potential for improved pasture grasses
land three-awn, cabbage palm, hairy panicum, low is very low, even if good management practices are used.
panicums, grapevines, and sedges. Grasses such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass are better
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for adapted than others. Clovers are not suited.
cultivated crops. The high water table restricts root This soil has low potential for citrus, and yields are low
development. Cobbles and boulders on the surface and in even if irrigation is used.
the soil damage equipment and interfere with its use. The potential of this soil is very low for commercial
This soil has high potential for improved pasture production of pine trees. Sand pines are the best trees to
grasses if cobbles and boulders are not so numerous that plant. Seedling mortality and mobility of equipment are
they restrict use of equipment. Coastal bermudagrass, the major management concerns for commercial tree
bahiagrasses, and clovers grow well with proper manage- production.
ment. A water control system is necessary if the potential This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
productivity is to be realized, tion fields, although excessive permeability can cause pol-
This soil has very high potential for slash and loblolly lution of ground water. Potential is also high for
pines. During the wet season operation of equipment on dwellings without basements, small conunercial buildings,
this soil is difficult. Seedling mortality and plant competi- and local roads and streets even if no corrective measures
tion are severe, are taken. This soil has high potential for trench sanitary
This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills landfills and shallow excavations if areas are sealed or
and shallow excavations and medium potential for lined with impervious material. In addition, side slopes
playgrounds if proper water control measures are used. need to be shored in areas used for shallow excavations.
Potential is low for dwellings without basements and With land shaping and surface stabilization, potential for
small commercial buildings, even if proper water control playgrounds is medium. Potential is low for sewage
measures are used and structural strength and size of lagoon areas, even if the land is shaped. Capability sub-
footings and foundations are increased. Potential is low class VIs.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

40-Pineda fine sand. This is a poorly drained soil in This soil has medium potential for pine trees. The
nearly level areas of the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 major management concerns are plant competition and
to 2 percent. mobility of equipment during periods of high rainfall.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 14 inches Seedling mortality is usually high. Slash pines are better
thick. The upper 4 inches is black, and the lower 10 inches suited to planting than other trees. A simple water con-
is dark gray. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 21 trol system should be installed to remove excess surface
inches thick. The upper 3 inches is pale brown and has water.
yellowish brown mottles, the next 6 inches is yellowish This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
brown and has strong brown mottles, the next 8 inches is fields, even if proper water control measures are used, fill
brownish yellow and has yellowish brown mottles, and the material is added, and the areas are mounded. Potential is
next 4 inches is very pale brown. The subsoil extends to a also low for dwellings without basements, small commer-
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 4 inches is cial buildings, and playgrounds, even if proper water con-
greenish gray fine sandy loam and has olive mottles and trol measures are used and fill material is added. Poten-
tongues of white and very pale brown fine sand, the next tial is low for local roads and streets, even if proper
11 inches is greenish gray sandy clay loam and has light water control measures are used, fill material is added,
olive brown and olive yellow mottles, the next 12 inches is and the structural strength of foundations is increased.
greenish gray sandy loam, and the lower 18 inches is light Even with use of proper water control measures, poten-
greenish gray fine sandy loam. tial is low for trench sanitary landfills, and even with use
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of of proper water control measures and sealing or lining
Wabasso soils. Included soils make up less than 15 per- with impervious material, potential is low for sewage
cent of any mapped area. lagoon areas. Potential is very low for shallow excava-
This soil has a water table at a depth of less than 10 tions even if proper water control measures are used and
inches during most years. It has low available water side slopes are shored. Capability subclass IIIw.
capacity to a depth of about 35 inches and medium availa- 41-Pits. Pits consist of excavations from which soil
ble water capacity below. Permeability is rapid to a depth and geologic material have been removed primarily for
of about 35 inches and moderately rapid below. Natural use in road construction or foundations. Included with
fertility is low, but plants respond well to fertilizer. pits are waste materials, mostly mixtures of sand and
Natural vegetation on Pineda fine sand consists of slash sandy loam piled or scattered around the edges of the
pine, cypress, live oak, waxmyrtle, cabbage palm, pineland pits. Pits, locally called borrow pits, are mostly small, but
three-awn, and sand cordgrass. there are a few large ones. Many of the pits have been
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because abandoned.
of wetness and poor soil quality. The number of crops is Pits have little orno value or potential for farming,
limited unless very intensive management practices are trees, or urban uses. Not placed in a capability subclass.
limited unless very intensive management practices are 42--Pits-Dumps complex. This complex consists of pits
followed. With good water control measures and soil-im- 4-Pits-Dmps comle. This ome oni o i
from which limestone has been or is being removed and
proving measures, a number of crops can be grown. A dumps where the limestone has been piled (fig. 10). It in-
water control system is needed to remove excess water in ludes wexsed limestone ready for mining and piles of
cludes exposed limestone ready for mining and piles of
wet seasons and provide water through subsurface irriga- topsoil that has been saved for future use in revegetating
tion in dry seasons. Crop residues and soil improving the area after mining operations have ceased. Individual
crops should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation areas of pits and dumps are impractical to map separately
should include bedding in rows. Fertilizer and lime are on the soil map. Most areas mapped as Pits-Dumps com-
applied according to need of the crop. plex are still actively being mined. A few areas have been
The potential for citrus trees on this soil is low. Areas abandoned and are of little use as farmland. These areas
where the temperature frequently reaches the freezing have high potential for wildlife habitat and for their
point should not be used for citrus trees. A carefully esthetic values-if they are reshaped and revegetated to
designed water control system should maintain the water conform with existing landscapes. Many of the pits con-
table below a depth of about 4 feet. Trees should be tain water. Such areas are mapped separately on the soil
planted on beds and a vegetative crop maintained map as water, and they have high potential for fish if
between the trees. Ferilizer and lime are applied as they are stocked and managed properly.
needed. Pits and dumps have little or no value or potential for
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture farming, trees, or urban uses. Not placed in a capability
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white subclass.
clover grow well when they are well managed. Water con- 43-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a
trol measures are needed to remove excess water from nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
the surface after heavy rains. Regular applications of fer- soil on low ridges in the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to
tilizer and lime are needed, and grazing should be con- concave.
trolled to prevent overgrazing and weakening of the Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
plants. about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to








32 SOIL SURVEY

a depth of 31 inches. The upper 2 inches is light brownish Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 7
gray, and the lower 26 inches is white. The subsoil is fine inches thick. The next layer is light brownish gray fine
sand coated with organic material and is about 21 inches sand about 9 inches thick. Below it is light gray fine sand
thick. The upper 3 inches is very dark gray, and the lower that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
18 inches is dark brown. Below this, to a depth of 80 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
inches or more, is yellowish brown fine sand. Adamsville, Anclote, and Basinger soils. In most places in-
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that cluded soils make up less than 10 percent of any mapped
have loamy layers beneath the subsoil. Also included are area.
small areas of Basinger ahd Myakka soils. Included soils In most years, under natural conditions, the water table
make up about 5 percent of any mapped area. is at a depth of less than 10 inches for periods of 2 to 6
The water table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to months. Even in the drier months, it is within a depth of
4 months and at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 8 months 30 inches for nine months or more. The available water
during most years. Available water capacity is very low capacity is very low. Natural fertility is low, and permea-
except in the subsoil, where it is medium. Natural fertili- ability is very rapid.
ty is low. Permeability is very rapid in the surface layer A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation:
and moderately rapid in the subsoil. slash pines, cypress, cabbage palm, oaks, magnolia, and
The natural vegetation on Pomello fine sand consists of hickory. Understory plants are creeping bluestem, lop-
dwarf and sand live oaks, saw-palmetto, longleaf and sided indiangrass, blue maidencane, Florida paspalum,
slash pines, pineland three-awn, inkberry, waxmyrtle, pineland three-awn, low panicums, grassleaf goldaster,
runner oak, fetter bush, creeping bluestem, broomsedge inkberry, and saw-palmetto.
bluestem, splitbeard bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe
switchgrass, panicum, and paspalums. limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness and
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because poor soil quality. The number of adapted crops is limited
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. It is unless very intensive management practices are followed.
not suitable for most commonly cultivated crops. However, with good water control and soil-improving
The potential for citrus trees is medium. Good yields of measures, this soil has medium potential for a number of
fruit can be obtained some years without irrigation, but vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
for best yields irrigation should be used wherever water remove excess water in wet seasons and provide water
is available. through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Seedbed
The potential for improved pasture grasses is low, even preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer
though good management practices are used. Grasses and lime should be added according to the need of the
such as bahiagrass are better adapted than others, crops.
Clovers are not suited. Yields are reduced by periodic This soil in its natural condition is poorly suited to
droughts. Regular fertilizing and liming are needed. Graz- citrus trees. It has low potential for trees, and then only
ing should be greatly restricted to permit plants to main- after a carefully designed water control system has been
tain vigorous growth for highest yields and to provide installed to maintain the water table below a depth of
good ground cover, about 4 feet. Trees should be planted on beds and a
The potential of this soil is low for commercial produc- vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular
tion of pine trees. Sand pines are better for planting than applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
other trees. Seedling mortality, mobility of equipment, Potential is high for improved pasture grasses on this
and plant competition are the major management soil. Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass and white
problems for commercial tree production, clovers grow well when they are well managed. A water
This soil has high potential for septic tank absorption control system that removes excess surface water after
fields and local roads and streets if proper water control heavy rains is needed. Regular applications of fertilizer
measures are used. Potential is very high for dwellings and lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to
without basements, even if no corrective measures are prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
taken. It is very high for small commercial buildings if This soil has low potential for longleaf and slash pines.
the land is shaped. Even with use of proper water control A water control system to remove excess surface water is
measures and with sealing or lining with impervious necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized.
material, potential for trench sanitary landfill and sewage Seedling mortality and equipment limitations are the
lagoon areas is low. Potential for playgrounds is medium main management concerns. Slash pines are the best
if the land is shaped and the surface is stabilized. It is trees to plant.
low for sewage lagoon areas, even if proper water control This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
measures are used and the areas are sealed or lined with tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
impervious material. Capability subclass VIs. buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds if
44-Pompano fine sand. This is a poorly drained, deep, proper water control measures are used. In addition,
sandy soil on broad, low flats and in poorly defined mounding is needed for absorption fields, and surface sta-
drainageways. Slopes are generally less than 1 percent. bilization is needed for playgrounds. Potential is low for








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 33

sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon areas, even if proper playgrounds if the land is shaped and the surface is sta-
water control measures are used and the areas are sealed bilized. With use of proper water control methods and
or lined with impervious material. Even with use of with sealing or lining with impervious materials, potential
proper water control measures and with shoring of side is medium for trench sanitary landfills. If proper water
slopes, potential is low for shallow excavations. Capability control methods are used and if side slopes are shored,
subclass IVw. potential is medium for shallow excavations. Potential is
45-Quartzipsamments, shaped, 0 to 5 percent slopes, low for sewage lagoon areas, even if proper water control
This soil consists of nearly level to gently sloping, measures are used and areas are sealed or lined with im-
moderately well drained, sandy soils that have been re- pervious material. Not placed in a capability subclass.
worked and shaped by earthmoving equipment. Most 46-Samsula muck. This is a very poorly drained,
areas are around former sloughs and shallow ponds that nearly level, organic soil in low depressional areas. Slopes
have been deepened to form lakes or provide suitable are less than 2 percent.
building sites; other areas were low and have been filled Typically, the surface layer is muck about 25 inches
in. thick. The upper 4 inches is very dark brown, the next 13
Quartzipsamments, shaped, are associated with Anclote, inches is black, and the next 8 inches is very dark gray.
Basinger, Candler, Floridana, Myakka, Pomello, and Beneath the muck is fine sand to a depth of 65 inches or
Tavares soils, which have been mixed by man during more. The upper 3 inches is very dark gray, and the next
movement and have no definite horizonation. Any one 37 inches is grayish brown and has very dark grayish
area can have material from one or several of these soils, brown mottles.
Quartzipsamments, shaped, do not have an orderly Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils in
sequence of layers, but are a variable mixture of lenses, which the organic material is less than 16 inches thick.
streaks, and pockets within short distances. An individual Also included are small areas where the organic material
area can be black, grayish, yellowish, brownish, or white, is 52 inches deep or more. Included soils make up about
or a mixture of several of these colors. Seldom are two 10 percent of any mapped area.
areas alike. This soil has a water table at or near the surface for 6
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral to 12 months. Under natural conditions it will be covered
throughout the soil. Filled areas range from about 2 to 5 with water for very long periods. This soil has very high
feet in thickness. A few limestone pebbles are in the fill available water capacity in the root zone. Permeability is
in places. Excavated areas and fill commonly occur rapid throughout. The natural fertility is moderate, and
together, and excavated material has been used as fill. the organic matter content is very high.
Some areas have been excavated below the normal sur- The native vegetation is mostly loblolly bay and scat-
face and contain no fill material, but have been reworked tered cypress, maple, gum, and pine trees and a ground
and shaped in place. cover of greenbriers, ferns, and other aquatic plants.
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for cul-
have the overburden but differ from Quartzipsamments, tivated crops, but with an adequate water control system,
shaped, in that they have buried soils with weakly ce- it has high potential for some crops and improved pasture
mented horizons and horizons of sandy loam or sandy clay grasses. A well designed and maintained water control
loam. Also included are similar soils that differ only by system is needed. The system should provide for remov-
having fragments of weakly cemented sand or sandy loam ing excess water when crops are on the land and for
and sandy clay loam in the fill. Included soils make up keeping the soil saturated at other times. Fertilizers that
about 20 percent of any mapped area. contain phosphates, potash, and minor elements are
Drainage is variable, but the soil is dominantly needed. Heavy applications of lime are needed.
moderately well drained. The water table is normally When the water is properly controlled, this soil has
below a depth of 40 inches in most places. Available high potential for improved pasture grasses and clover. A
water capacity is very low. Permeability is very rapid. water control system should maintain the water table
Natural fertility and organic matter content are low. near the surface to prevent excessive oxidation of the or-
The existing vegetation consists of various scattered ganic horizons. Fertilizers high in potash, phosphates, and
weeds, minor elements are needed. Grazing should be controlled
These soils are poorly suited to most plants and require to permit maximum yields.
special treatment for lawn grasses and ornamental plants. This soil is not suitable for citrus trees or pine trees.
Smoothing and shaping have made the areas moderately This soil has very low potential for dwellings without
well suited to building sites, roadways, recreational areas, basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
and related uses. streets, and playgrounds if the organic material is
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without removed, the areas are backfilled with suitable soil
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads material, and proper water control measures are used.
and streets, even if no corrective measures are taken. Potential is very low for trench sanitary landfills, even if
Potential is high for septic tank absorption fields if the areas are sealed or lined with impervious materials
proper water control measures are used and high for and proper water control measures are used. Potential is








34 SOIL SURVEY

very low for sewage lagoon areas, even if the areas are when they are well managed. In some areas, a simple
sealed or lined with imperious material and special water control system is required for best yields. Regular
equipment is used. Potential is very low for septic tank applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing
absorption fields, even if the organic material is removed, should be controlled to maintain vigor of the plants. The
areas are backfilled with suitable material, the absorption potential is medium for longleaf and slash pines. The main
field is mounded, and proper water control measures are management concerns are the mobility of equipment,
used. Potential is low for shallow excavations, even where seedling mortality, and plant competition. Slash pine is
proper water control measures and special equipment are better suited to planting than other species.
used. Capability subclass IVw. This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills,
47-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a shallow excavations, dwellings without basements, and
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained small commercial buildings if proper water control mea-
soil on seasonally wet, sandy areas on uplands. Slopes are sures are used. It has high potential for playgrounds if
smooth to concave. the land is shaped and the surface is stabilized. Potential
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand is medium for septic tank absorption fields if proper
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 56 water control measures are used and if the area of the
inches thick. The upper 4 inches is brown fine sand, the field is increased. It is medium for sewage lagoon areas if
next 21 inches is yellowish brown fine sand, and the lower proper water control measures are used, if the land is
31 inches is very pale brown fine sand. The subsoil is shaped, and if the area is sealed or lined with impervious
light yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about materials. Potential is medium for local roads and streets
64 inches and light brownish gray sandy clay loam to a if proper water control measures are used and if struc-
depth of about 80 inches. tural strength is increased. Capability subclass IIIs.
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils in 48-Sparr fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is a
which plinthite content in the subsoil is more than 5 per- sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil. Slopes are smooth
cent. Also included are small areas of Arredondo, to concave.
Kanapaha, Nobleton, and Tavares soils. Included soils Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
make up about 15 percent of any mapped area. sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 49
This soil has a water table perched on the loamy inches thick. The upper 6 inches is brown fine sand, the
materials for 1 to 4 months during most years. This soil yellowish brown fine sand, the next 13
has low available water capacity in the surface and sub- inches is ih yellowish brown fine sand, the e
surface layers and medium to high available water capaci- chess brown fe sand he er
ty in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is 20 inches is very pale brown fine sand. The upper 3
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate ches of th of abou inces is ish brown sandy loam
in the subsoil. To a depth of about 69 inches is grayish brown sandy clay
The native vegetation consists of oaks, hickory, mag- loam. Below is a layer of light gray sandy clay loam.
nolia, sweetgum, and slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines. Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
Some areas have an understory of inkberry, waxmyrtle, are severely eroded. Also included are similar soils that
scattered saw-palmetto, and pineland three-awn. have slopes of less than 5 percent or of more than 8 per-
The potential of this soil for most cultivated crops is cent. Also included are small areas of Arredondo,
low mainly because of droughtiness or poor soil quality. Kanapaha, Nobleton, and Tavares soils. Included soils
However, with good water control measures and soil-im- make up about 15 percent of any mapped area.
proving measures, a number of fruit and vegetable crops In most years, under natural conditions, the water table
can be grown. For best yields, crops need to be irrigated is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. The
during dry periods. Row crops should be used in sequence water table is usually perched on the loamy layers. Sparr
with close growing, soil-improving crops. The soil improv- soils have low available water capacity in the surface and
ing crops should be on the land three-fourths of the time. subsurface layers and medium to high available water
All crop residues and soil-improving crops should be capacity in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Permea-
plowed under. Seedbed preparation should include ability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime need to be added moderate in the subsoil.
according to the need of the crop. Native vegetation consists of oaks, hickory, magnolia,
This soil has very high potential for citrus trees. sweetgum, and slash, longleaf, and loblolly pines. Some
Management should include a water control system that areas have an understory of inkberry, waxmyrtle, scat-
maintains a water table below a depth of about 4 feet. A tered saw-palmetto, and pineland three-awn.
cover of close growing vegetation should be maintained This soil has low potential for cultivated crops because
between the trees to protect the soil from blowing in dry of droughtiness and the hazard of erosion. Erosion control
weather and from washing during heavy rains. Trees measures consist of contour stripcropping and a cropping
require regular application of fertilizer and lime. sequence that keeps the soil covered with close-growing,
The potential for improved pasture grasses is high. soil-improving crops for at least three-fourths of the time.
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clovers grow well Irrigation water should be applied in dry periods.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

The potential for citrus trees on this soil is high. Water This soil has low potential for most cultivated crops.
control systems that maintain good drainage to a depth of Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
about 4 feet are needed. Planting the trees on beds helps the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of adapted
provide good surface drainage. Close-growing vegetation crops. Soil management should include row crops on the
should be maintained between the trees to protect the contour and alternate strips of close-growing crops.
soil from blowing in dry weather and from washing dur- Cropping sequences should include close-growing crops at
ing rains, least two-thirds of the time. All crops should be fertilized
The potential for improved pasture grasses is high. and limed. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clovers grow well should be left on the ground or plowed under. Irrigation
when they are well managed. Some areas may require of high-value crops is usually feasible where irrigation
simple drainage for best yields. Regular applications of water is readily available.
fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing should be con- The potential for citrus trees on this soil is high in
trolled to maintain vigor of the plants. places relatively free from freezing temperatures. A good
This soil has medium potential for slash and longleaf ground cover of close-growing vegetation is needed
pine trees. The main management concerns are the move- between the trees. Areas of citrus can normally be grown
ment of equipment, seedling mortality, and plant competi- without irrigation, but irrigation to maintain optimum
tion. Slash pine is better for planting than other species. yields is usually feasible where irrigation water is readily
This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills available. Fertilizing and liming are needed.
and shallow excavations if proper water control methods The potential for pasture grasses is medium. Pan-
are used and the land is shaped. Potential is high for golagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, and bahiagrasses are
dwellings without basements if proper water control well adapted. They produce good yields when they are
methods are used. It is high for small commercial fertilized and limed, and controlled grazing is needed to
buildings if the buildings are designed to fit the slope, maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields.
erosion is controlled, proper water control methods, are The potential for pine trees is medium. Equipment
used, and the land is sha ped. Potential is u for limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
used, and the land is shaped. Potential is medium for the main management concerns. Slash pines are better for
playgrounds if the land is shaped and the surface ise, t planting than other trees.
bilized. If proper water control measures are used, the This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
land is shaped, and the area of the field is increased, basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
potential is medium for septic tank absorption fields. If and streets, even if no corrective measures are taken.
proper water control measures are used, the land is Potential is high for septic tank absorption fields if
shaped, and the area is sealed or lined with impervious proper water control measures are used and high for
material, potential is medium for sewage lagoon areas. playgrounds if the land is shaped and the surface is sta-
Also, if proper water control measures are used and the bilized. Potential is medium for trench sanitary landfills if
strength of foundations is increased, potential is medium proper water control measures are used, and medium for
for local roads and streets. Capability subclass IVs. shallow excavations if the side slopes are shored and
49-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a proper water control measures are used. Potential is low
moderately well drained soil on low ridges and knolls for sewage lagoon areas, even if proper water control
throughout the county. measures are used, the land is shaped, and the areas are
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sealed or lined with impervious materials. Capability sub-
sand about 4 inches thick. The next 4 inches is brown fine class IIIs.
sand. Below this is 13 inches of very pale brown fine sand 50-Udalfic Arents-Urban land complex. This complex
over 21 inches of light yellowish brown fine sand. Below is in the western part of the county near the Gulf of Mex-
this to a depth of 48 inches is very pale brown fine sand, ico. Individual areas range from about 40 to 300 acres in
and to a depth of 80 inches or more is white fine sand. size. About 30 to 50 percent of each area is Udalfic
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Arents, and 15 to 25 percent is Urban land-areas
Adamsville, Astatula, and Candler soils. Also included are covered by houses, streets, highways, buildings, parking
small areas of Sparr soils. Included soils make up about lots, and the like. The remainder of the area is canals
10 percent of any mapped area. leading to the Gulf.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water table Udalfic Arents consist of soil materials dug from canals
is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches except during very dry through areas of former Aripeka, Homosassa, and
periods. This soil has very low available water capacity. Lacoochee soils. The material dug from the canals has
Natural fertility is low. Permeability is very rapid. been reworked and shaped into building sites. Udalfic
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf Arents consist of mineral material and fragments of hard
pines, blackjack, turkey, and post oaks; and an understory and soft limestone. Part of the former loamy layers is
of pineland three-awn, creeping bluestem, lopsided indian- mixed throughout the soil. Arents do not have an orderly
grass, hairy panicum, low panicums, purple lovegrass, and sequence of soil layers, but are a variable mixture of len-
broomsedge bluestem. ses, streaks, and pockets within short distances. Depth to








36 SOIL SURVEY

the fill material ranges from about 40 to 60 inches, subsoil. The subsoil and the loamy substratum have
Beneath the fill material in most places is a layer of the moderate permeability. Natural fertility is low.
former soil, which in turn is underlain by limestone. The native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas pines and scattered cabbage palms and an understory of
of Arents-Urban land complex. Also included are a few saw-palmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, creeping bluestem, in-
areas of sanitary landfills. These areas are scattered diangrass, little bluestem, Florida paspalum, pineland
throughout the county and are labeled as sanitary land- three-awn, panicums, deertongue, grassleaf goldaster,
fills on the soil map. Sanitary landfills consist of alternat- huckleberry, and runner oak.
ing layers of refuse and soil material. Most areas of sani- This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
tary landfills are between 5 and 20 acres in size. because of wetness and poor soil quality. Adapted crops
The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches are limited unless very intensive management practices
throughout the year. Permeability is variable. Natural are followed. The soil has medium potential for a number
fertility is low. of vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
Present land use precludes the use of this soil for cul- remove excess water in the wetter seasons and provide
tivated crops, pasture, citrus, or woodland. It is poorly water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop
suited to lawn grasses and shrubs unless topsoil is spread residues and soil-improving crops should be plowed under.
over the surface to make a suitable root zone. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Areas of this soil not covered by urban structures have The potential for citrus trees on this soil is low, and
very high potential for dwellings without basements, then only after a carefully designed water control system
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets, that maintains the water table below a depth of 4 feet
even if no corrective measures are taken. Potential- is has been installed. Trees should be planted in beds and a
high for septic tank absorption fields, trench sanitary vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Areas
landfills, and shallow excavations if proper water control subject to freezing temperatures should not be used for
measures are used. It is high for sewage lagoon areas if citrus trees.
the areas are sealed or lined with impervious materials The potential for improved pasture grasses on this soil
and high for playgrounds if the surface is stabilized. is medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
Capabiity subclass Vl. is medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
Capability subclass VIs.
51-Wabasso fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly clovers grow well when well managed. Water control
51-Wabasso fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly measures are needed to remove excess surface water
drained soil in broad areas in the flatwoods. Slopes are measures are needed to remove excess surface water
less than 2 percent after heavy rains. Regular application of fertilizer and
lesslime is needed, and grazing should be controlled to
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3 lime is needed, and grazing should be controlled to
inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 18 inches of prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
gray fine sand. The subsoil is weakly cemented fine sand The potential for trees is medium. lash pies are
to a depth of about 34 inches. The upper 3 inches is black, better suited to planting than other trees. The main
the next 6 inches is dark reddish brown, and the lower 4 management concerns are equipment limitations during
inches is dark brown. Below is pale brown fine sand to a periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
depth of about,38 inches. The upper 7 inches of the sub- competition. For best results, a simple water control
stratum is light brownish gray sandy loam, the next 20 system to remove excess surface water needs to be in-
inches is grayish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower 15 stalled.
inches is grayish brown sandy loam. This soil has medium potential for dwellings without
Included with this soil in mapping are Wabasso soils basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
that are underlain by soft limestone and boulders at a and streets if proper water control measures are used.
depth of about 40 to 66 inches. Most of the Wabasso soils With proper water control and mounding, potential is
west of U.S. Highway 19 have the underlying limestone medium for septic tank absorption fields; with proper
layer. Also included are small areas of EauGallie and water control and sealing or lining with impervious
Paisley soils. West of U.S. Highway 19, the Aripeka soils material, potential is medium for sewage lagoon areas.
are commonly included in mapping. Limestone boulders Potential is medium for playgrounds if proper water con-
occur at random throughout this soil but account for a trol and surface stabilization measures are used. Potential
very small percentage of the total acreage. Included soils is low for trench sanitary landfills, even if proper water
make up about 20 percent of any mapped area. control measures are used and the areas are sealed or
In most years, under natural conditions, the water table lined with impervious material. It is low for shallow ex-
is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months. It cavations, even if the side slopes are shored and proper
is at a depth of less than 10 inches for less than 60 days water control measures are used. Capability subclass
in wet seasons and at a depth of more than 40 inches dur- IIIw.
ing very dry seasons. Wabasso soils have very low or low 52-Wauchula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
available water capacity in the sandy layers and medium a nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained soil on
available water capacity in the loamy substratum, broad, low areas in the flatwoods and on hillsides in the
Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers except for the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches thick. The management concerns are equipment limitations during
upper 3 inches is black, and the lower 5 inches is dark periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
gray. Texture is fine sand. The subsurface layer is about competition. For best results, a simple water control
16 inches thick, and consists of light brownish gray fine system to remove excess surface water is needed.
sand. The subsoil is weakly cemented fine sand to a depth This soil has medium potential for dwellings without
of 34 inches. The upper 4 inches is very dark gray, and basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
the lower 3 inches is dark reddish brown. The next 3 and streets if proper water control methods are used.
inches is brown fine sand. Below is pale brown fine sand With proper water control and mounding, potential is
to a depth of 38 inches. The substratum is gray fine medium for septic tank absorption fields; with proper
sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The next 31 inches is water control and sealing or lining with impervious
gray sandy clay loam, and the lower 6 inches is light material, potential is medium for sewage lagoon areas.
brownish gray sandy clay loam. Potential is medium for playgrounds if proper water con-
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that trol and surface stabilization measures are used. Potential
have slopes of more than 5 percent. These steeper slopes is low for trench sanitary landfills, even if proper water
are around the outer edges of the mapping unit in most control measures are used and the areas are sealed or
places. Also included are small areas of Blichton, Electra lined with impervious material. It is low for shallow ex-
Variant, Myakka, and Wabasso soils. Included soils make cavations, even if the side slopes are shored and proper
up about 20 percent of any mapped area. water control measures are used. Capability subclass
In most years, under natural conditions, the water table IIIw.
is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months each 53-Weekiwachee muck. This is a very poorly drained
year and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for the remainder organic soil in the tidal marsh.
of the year. During very dry periods, however, it drops Typically, the surface layer is black muck to a depth of
below a depth of 40 inches Wauchula soils have low 26 inches and very dark brown muck to a depth of 32
available water capacity in the sandy surface and subsur- inches. Beneath the muck is very dark gray fine sand
face layers and medium to high available water capacity about 4 inches thick. To a depth of about 45 inches is
below. Permeability is rapid in the sandy surface and sub- white soft limestone surrounding cobbles and boulders of
surface layers and moderate to rapid below. Natural fer- hard limestone. Below a depth of 45 inches is hard
utility is low. limestone that can be chipped but not dug with a spade.
Natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and an understory of saw-palmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, Lacoochee and Homosassa soils. Included soils make up
creeping bluestem, indiangrass, little bluestem, Florida about 25 percent of any mapped area.
paspalum, pineland three-awn, panicums, deertongue, The water table fluctuates with the tide. This soil is
grassleaf goldaster, huckleberry, and runner oak. flooded during normal high tides. Available water capaci-
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops ty is very high in the organic layers and medium below.
because of wetness and poor soil quality. Adapted crops Natural fertility is high, and permeability is moderately
are limited unless very intensive management practices rapid.
are followed. The soil has medium potential for a number Native vegetation consists dominantly of needlegrass
of vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to rush, seashore saltgrass, marshhay cordgrass, big
remove excess water in the wetter seasons and provide cordgrass, and smooth cordgrass.
water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, pasture
residues and soil-improving crops should be plowed under. grasses, or woodland. The potential for these uses is very
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. low because of daily flood hazard, high salt content, and
The potential for citrus trees on this soil is low, and high sulfur content.
then only after a carefully designed water control system This soil has very low potential for septic tank absorp-
that will maintain the water table below a depth of 4 feet tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
has been installed. Trees should be planted on beds and a buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds, even
vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Areas if areas are protected from tidal flooding, unsuitable
subject to freezing temperatures should not be used for material is replaced, and proper water control measures
citrus trees, are used. In addition, mounding is needed for septic tank
The potential for improved pasture grasses on this soil absorption fields. The potential is also very low for trench
is medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white sanitary landfill and sewage lagoons, even if the areas are
clovers grow well when well managed. Water control protected from tidal flooding and areas are sealed or lined
measures are needed to remove excess surface water with impervious material. It is very low for trench sanita-
after heavy rains. Regular application of fertilizer and ry landfills, even if proper water control measures are
lime is needed, and grazing should be controlled to used. Capability subclass VIIIw.
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants. 54-Weekiwachee-Homosassa association. This as-
The potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pines are sociation consists of nearly level, very poorly drained or-
better suited to planting than other trees. The main ganic soils in the tidal march along the Gulf Coast.








38 SOIL SURVEY

Weekiwachee and Homosassa soils occur in a regular and 55-Williston loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
repeating pattern. Individual areas of each soil range This is a gently sloping, well drained soil in small areas on
from about 3 to 40 acres in size and are large enough to ridges in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.
map separately, but because of lack of accessibility and Typically, the surface layer is about 12 inches thick.
present and predicted use, they were not separated on The upper 6 inches is dark gray loamy fine sand, and the
the soil map. Homosassa soils generally are near the coast lower 6 inches is dark brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil
and streams, and Weekiwachee soils are generally further is dark yellowish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 18
inland where accumulations of organic material are inches and brown sandy clay to a depth of about 37
deeper. Areas of this association range from about 20 to inches. Below is soft limestone mixed with boulders of
360 acres in size. harder limestone.
Weekiwachee soils make up about 35 percent of this as- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
sociation. Typically, Weekiwachee soils are black muck to Kendrick, Micanopy, and Williston Variant soils and
a depth of about 32 inches. Below the muck is about 4 similar soils that have limestone below a depth of 40
inches of very dark gray fine sand over about 9 inches of inches. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of any
soft, white limestone. Hard limestone is below a depth of mapped area.
about 45 inches. In most years, under natural conditions, the water table
Weekiwachee soils are very poorly drained and under is at a depth of more than 72 inches. Williston soils have
natural conditions are flooded daily during normal high low available water capacity in the surface layer and high
tides. Permeability is moderately rapid. Available water available water capacity in the subsoil. Natural fertility is
capacity is very high in the organic layers and medium low. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
below. Weekiwachee soils have a high sulfur and salt con- moderately slow in the subsoil.
tent. The native vegetation consists of oaks, slash and lon-
Homosassa soils make up about 30 percent of the as- gleaf pines, cedar, sweetgum, scattered saw-palmetto, and
sociation. Typically, the surface layer is about 15 inches native weeds and grasses.
thick. The upper 2 inches is black mucky fine sand, the This soil has medium potential for production of cul-
next 6 inches is very dark gray mucky fine sandy loam, tivated crops if good management practices are used.
and the lower 7 inches is very dark gray loamy fine sand. Moderate erosion control practices are needed to reduce
Next is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of the risk of erosion. Clean-tilled crops should be planted on
about 27 inches. Soft limestone extends to a depth of 33 the contour in alternate strips with cover crops. Cropping
inches, and hard limestone is below that. sequences that include cover crops on the soil at least half
Under natural conditions, Homosassa soils are flooded of the time are needed. Cover crops and all crop residue
daily by normal high tides. The available water capacity is should be left on the soil or plowed under. Maximum
very high in the surface layer and medium below, yields require good seedbed preparation and application
Permeability is moderately rapid throughout the soil. of fertilizer and lime when needed.
The rest of the mapping unit is mostly shallow tidal The potential for citrus trees on this soil is very high in
pools and small tidal streams. A few small areas of places relatively free from freezing temperatures. A good
Lacoochee soils are also included, and they occur as small ground cover of close growing vegetation is needed
rocky ridges. between the trees to protect the soil from blowing and
This mapping unit is in natural vegetation: needlegrass water erosion. Fertilizer is needed for highest yields.
rush, seashore saltgrass, marshhay cordgrass, big The potential for improved pasture grasses is medium.
cordgrass, smooth cordgrass, and red mangrove. Improved pasture plants such as Coastal bermudagrass
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, pasture and bahiagrasses are well adapted. They require fertiliz-
grasses, or woodland. The potential for these uses is very ing and controlled grazing to maintain vigorous plants for
low because of daily flood hazard, high salt content, and highest yields and good ground cover.
high sulfur content. The potential for pine trees on this soil is high. Plant
The dominant soils in this association have very low competition is a management concern where pine trees
potential for septic tank absorption fields, dwellings are grown. Slash pines are better suited to this soil than
without basements, small commercial buildings, local other trees.
roads and streets, and playgrounds, even if areas are pro- This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
tected from tidal flooding, unsuitable material is replaced, tion fields if they are longer than normal size. It has
and proper water control measures are used. In addition, medium potential for trench sanitary landfills if the areas
mounding is needed in areas used for septic tank absorp- are sealed or lined with impervious materials and medium
tion fields. Potential is also very low for trench sanitary potential for dwellings without basements and small com-
landfills and sewage lagoons, even if areas are protected mercial buildings if footings and foundations are enlarged
from tidal flooding and are sealed or lined with impervi- and strengthened. Potential is high for shallow excava-
ous material. Proper water control measures are also tions if special equipment is used. It is high for
needed in areas used for trench sanitary landfills. Capa- playgrounds if the land is shaped and the surface is sta-
bility subclass VIIIw. bilized. Potential is low for sewage lagoon areas if







HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

land is shaped and areas are sealed or lined with impervi- Use and management of the soils
ous material. Capability subclass IIe.
56-Williston Variant loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent The soil survey is a detailed inventory and evaluation
slopes. This is a gently sloping, well drained soil on ridges of the most basic resource of the survey area-the soil. It
in the uplands. is useful in adjusting land use, including urbanization, to
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown the limitations and potentials of natural resources and the
loamy fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is red- environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related failures
dish brown sandy clay about 8 inches thick. Below this is in uses of the land.
white, soft and hard limestone. While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists, con-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of servationists, engineers, and others keep extensive notes
Kendrick, Micanopy, and Williston soils. Also included are about the nature of the soils and about unique aspects of
small areas with many to common stones on the surface behavior of the soils. These notes include data on erosion,
and in the profile (fig. 11). Included soils make up less drought damage to specific crops, yield estimates, flood-
than 10 percent of any mapped area. ing, the functioning of septic systems, and other factors
In most years, under natural conditions, the water table affecting the productivity, potential, and limitations of the
is below a depth of 72 inches. This soil has low available soils under various uses and management. In this way,
water capacity in the surface layer and high available field experience and measured data on soil properties and
water capacity in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. performance are used as a basis for predicting soil
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderately behavior.
slow in the subsoil. Information in this section is useful in planning use and
The natural vegetation is oaks, slash and longleaf pines, management of soils for crops and pasture and woodland,
cedar, sweetgum, scattered saw-palmetto, and native and as sites for buildings, highways and other transporta-
weeds and grasses. tion systems, sanitary facilities, parks and other recrea-
This soil has low potential for production of most cul- tion facilities, and wildlife habitat. From the data
tivated crops mainly because of the shallow root zone, presented, the potential of each soil for specified land
susceptibility to erosion, and, in a few places, the many uses can be determined, soil limitations to these land uses
stones on the surface. Where there are not too many can be determined, soil limitations to these land uses
stones on the surface. Where there are not too many
stones, a system of terraces and stabilized outlets is can be identified and costly failures in houses and other
needed to reduce the effects of erosion. Cover crops and structures, caused by unfavorable soil properties, can be
all crop residue should be left on the land or plowed avoided. A site where soil properties are favorable can be
under. Clean-tilled row crops should be grown on the con- selected, or practices that will overcome the soil limita-
tour and alternated with strips of close-growing cover tions can be planned.
crops. Maximum yields require good seedbed preparation Planners and others using the soil survey can evaluate
crops.and the use of fertilizer yields require good seededbed preparation the impact of specific land uses on the overall productivi-
and the use of fertilizer as needed.
The potential for citrus on this soil is medium in areas ty of the survey area or other broad planning area and on
relatively free from freezing temperatures. the environment. Productivity and the environment are
The potential for good pastures on this soil is medium, closely related to the nature of the soil. Plans should
Coastal bermudagrass and the improved bahiagrasses maintain or create a land-use pattern in harmony with the
grow well when they are well managed. Regular applica- natural soil.
tions of fertilizer are needed, and grazing should be con- Contractors can find information that is useful in locat-
trolled to maintain plant vigor. ing sources of sand, roadfill, and topsoil. Other informa-
This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash tion indicates the presence of bedrock, wetness, or very
pines. Slash pines are the best species to plant. firm soil horizons that cause difficulty in excavation.
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp- Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and many
tion fields if the areas are enlarged and special equipment other specialists also can find useful information in this
is used. Potential is medium for trench sanitary landfills soil survey. The safe disposal of wastes, for example, is
if the areas are sealed or lined with impervious material closely related to properties of the soil. Pavements, side-
and special equipment is used. With enlargement and walks, campsites, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and
strengthening of footings and foundations and use of spe- shrubs are influenced by the nature of the soil.
cial equipment, potential is medium for dwellings without
basements and small commercial buildings. Potential is Crops and pasture
high for shallow excavations if special equipment is used
and high for playgrounds if the land is shaped and the JOHN D. GRIFFIN, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
surface is stabilized. Potential is low for sewage lagoon prepare this section.
areas, even if special equipment is used, the land is The major management concerns in the use of soils for
shaped, and the lagoon is sealed or lined with impervious crops and pasture are described in this section. In addi-
material. It is low for local roads and streets, even if spe- tion, the crops or pasture plants best adapted to the soil,
cial equipment is used and poor soil material is removed including some not commonly grown in the survey area,
or replaced. Capability subclass IVs. are discussed; the system of land capability classification







HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

land is shaped and areas are sealed or lined with impervi- Use and management of the soils
ous material. Capability subclass IIe.
56-Williston Variant loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent The soil survey is a detailed inventory and evaluation
slopes. This is a gently sloping, well drained soil on ridges of the most basic resource of the survey area-the soil. It
in the uplands. is useful in adjusting land use, including urbanization, to
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown the limitations and potentials of natural resources and the
loamy fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is red- environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related failures
dish brown sandy clay about 8 inches thick. Below this is in uses of the land.
white, soft and hard limestone. While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists, con-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of servationists, engineers, and others keep extensive notes
Kendrick, Micanopy, and Williston soils. Also included are about the nature of the soils and about unique aspects of
small areas with many to common stones on the surface behavior of the soils. These notes include data on erosion,
and in the profile (fig. 11). Included soils make up less drought damage to specific crops, yield estimates, flood-
than 10 percent of any mapped area. ing, the functioning of septic systems, and other factors
In most years, under natural conditions, the water table affecting the productivity, potential, and limitations of the
is below a depth of 72 inches. This soil has low available soils under various uses and management. In this way,
water capacity in the surface layer and high available field experience and measured data on soil properties and
water capacity in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. performance are used as a basis for predicting soil
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and moderately behavior.
slow in the subsoil. Information in this section is useful in planning use and
The natural vegetation is oaks, slash and longleaf pines, management of soils for crops and pasture and woodland,
cedar, sweetgum, scattered saw-palmetto, and native and as sites for buildings, highways and other transporta-
weeds and grasses. tion systems, sanitary facilities, parks and other recrea-
This soil has low potential for production of most cul- tion facilities, and wildlife habitat. From the data
tivated crops mainly because of the shallow root zone, presented, the potential of each soil for specified land
susceptibility to erosion, and, in a few places, the many uses can be determined, soil limitations to these land uses
stones on the surface. Where there are not too many can be determined, soil limitations to these land uses
stones on the surface. Where there are not too many
stones, a system of terraces and stabilized outlets is can be identified and costly failures in houses and other
needed to reduce the effects of erosion. Cover crops and structures, caused by unfavorable soil properties, can be
all crop residue should be left on the land or plowed avoided. A site where soil properties are favorable can be
under. Clean-tilled row crops should be grown on the con- selected, or practices that will overcome the soil limita-
tour and alternated with strips of close-growing cover tions can be planned.
crops. Maximum yields require good seedbed preparation Planners and others using the soil survey can evaluate
crops.and the use of fertilizer yields require good seededbed preparation the impact of specific land uses on the overall productivi-
and the use of fertilizer as needed.
The potential for citrus on this soil is medium in areas ty of the survey area or other broad planning area and on
relatively free from freezing temperatures. the environment. Productivity and the environment are
The potential for good pastures on this soil is medium, closely related to the nature of the soil. Plans should
Coastal bermudagrass and the improved bahiagrasses maintain or create a land-use pattern in harmony with the
grow well when they are well managed. Regular applica- natural soil.
tions of fertilizer are needed, and grazing should be con- Contractors can find information that is useful in locat-
trolled to maintain plant vigor. ing sources of sand, roadfill, and topsoil. Other informa-
This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash tion indicates the presence of bedrock, wetness, or very
pines. Slash pines are the best species to plant. firm soil horizons that cause difficulty in excavation.
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp- Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and many
tion fields if the areas are enlarged and special equipment other specialists also can find useful information in this
is used. Potential is medium for trench sanitary landfills soil survey. The safe disposal of wastes, for example, is
if the areas are sealed or lined with impervious material closely related to properties of the soil. Pavements, side-
and special equipment is used. With enlargement and walks, campsites, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and
strengthening of footings and foundations and use of spe- shrubs are influenced by the nature of the soil.
cial equipment, potential is medium for dwellings without
basements and small commercial buildings. Potential is Crops and pasture
high for shallow excavations if special equipment is used
and high for playgrounds if the land is shaped and the JOHN D. GRIFFIN, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
surface is stabilized. Potential is low for sewage lagoon prepare this section.
areas, even if special equipment is used, the land is The major management concerns in the use of soils for
shaped, and the lagoon is sealed or lined with impervious crops and pasture are described in this section. In addi-
material. It is low for local roads and streets, even if spe- tion, the crops or pasture plants best adapted to the soil,
cial equipment is used and poor soil material is removed including some not commonly grown in the survey area,
or replaced. Capability subclass IVs. are discussed; the system of land capability classification








40 SOIL SURVEY

used by the Soil Conservation Service is explained; and slopes of less than 5 percent. Also, if irrigated, the Arre-
predicted yields of the main crops and pasture grasses dondo, Candler, Lake, and Sparr soils that have slopes of
are given for each soil. less than 5 percent are well suited to vegetables, small
This section provides information about the overall fruits, and watermelons. Crops can generally be planted
agricultural potential and needed practices in the survey and harvested earlier on all these soils than on the other
area for those in the agribusiness sector-equipment soils in the survey area.
dealers, drainage contractors, fertilizer companies, About 6,900 acres of citrus are grown in the county.
processing companies, planners, conservationists, and The largest producing area is around Spring Lake, mostly
others. For each kind of soil, information about manage- on well drained to somewhat poorly drained soils. In some
ment is presented in the section "Soil maps for detailed areas where the groves are on poorly drained soils, the
planning." When making plans for management systems root zone is restricted by the water table, which is near
for individual fields or farms, check the detailed informa- the surface during wet seasons. On these poorly drained
tion given in the description of each soil. soils, a properly developed water control system is
More than 47,000 acres in the survey area were used needed to keep the water table below a depth of 4 feet so
for crops and pasture in 1975, according to the Soil Con- the trees can develop a good root system. Drainage is not
servation Service "Now on the Land" report. Of this needed on the well drained soils, but irrigation is needed
total, 46,000 acres were used for permanent pasture, and during drought seasons for good production. A high level
1,000 acres were used for row crops, mainly watermelons of management is needed on all groves. Although many of
and soybeans, according to the Conservation Needs In- the soils in the survey area have soil properties that are
ventory (7). About 6,900 acres in the survey area are in moderately well suited to well suited to citrus crops, all
citrus groves, according to a 1975 study made by the areas are subject to freeze damage. All groves must be
County Tax Assessor. Of this, about 51 percent is early or adequately protected during these cold periods to be suc-
mid oranges; about 37 percent is late oranges; about 3 cessfully grown.
percent is grapefruit; about 9 percent is tangerines, 4 per- Improved pasture plays an important part in the farm
cent of which are murcott or honey tangerines, economy of the county. About 7 percent of Hernando
The soils in Hernando County can potentially produce County is planted to improved pasture. Approximately
half of the farm income is derived from livestock, prin-
more food. About 5,000 acres of potentially good cropland half thefarm income isderved from liesto prin
are currently used as woodland, and about 20,000 acres ia beefand da cattleeratons are
dominant in the county.
are used as pasture. In addition to the reserve productive On many farms the forage produced n pasture is sup-
capacity represented by this land, food production could plementedby annual forage rops-small grain in winter
also be increased by extending the latest crop production and millet and sorghum-sudan hybrids in summer. Hay is
technology to all cropland in the county. This soil survey fed during winter.
can greatly facilitate the application of such technology. The improved pasture in many parts of the survey area
Acreage in crops and pasture has gradually been in- has been greatly depleted by continued excessive use.
creasing as more and more land is cleared. It was esti- The amount of forage produced may be less than half of
mated that in 1967 there were about 78,000 acres of the potential production. Productivity of the improved
urban and built-up land in the county; this figure has pasture can be increased by fertilization and other
been growing at the rate of about 100 acres per year. management practices that are effective for specific kinds
Field crops suited to the soils and climate of the survey of soil and for specific pasture and hayland plants.
area include many that are not now commonly grown. Where climate and topography are about the same, dif-
Corn, watermelon, and to an increasing extent soybeans, ferences in the kind and amount of forage that pasture
are the row crops. Grain sorghum, beans, peanuts, can produce are related closely to the kind of soil. Effec-
potatoes, and similar crops can be grown if economic con- tive management is based on the relationship among soils,
editions are favorable. pasture plants, fertilization, and water. Table 5 shows
Ryegrass, rye, wheat, and oats are the common close- suitable pasture grasses and legume plants and estimated
growing winter crops. yields in normal years under a high level of management.
Special crops grown commercially in the survey area General management practices are not discussed in
are vegetables, citrus crops, and nursery plants. A small detail in this section, but are outlined briefly in each
acreage throughout the county is used for melon, straw- mapping unit description. Management practices for dif-
berries, eggplant, sweet corn, tomatoes, peppers, and ferent crops on different soils change as more and better
other vegetables and small fruits. In addition, large areas information is gained from experience of workers at ex-
can be adapted to other special crops such as blueberries, periment stations and from the experience of growers
grapes, and many vegetables. Oranges and grapefruit are and ranchers.
the most important tree fruits grown in the county. Erosion is a concern on about two-thirds of the
Deep soils that have good natural drainage and that cropland and pasture in Hernando County. Erosion can be
warm up early in. spring are especially well suited to a hazard on soils that have slopes of more than 2 percent.
many vegetables and small fruits. In the survey area, Loss of the surface soil to erosion is damaging for two
these are the Kendrick and Williston soils that have reasons:







HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

First, productivity is reduced as the surface soil is lost generally do not have a water table high enough to
and part of the subsoil is incorporated into the plow layer. damage crops in most years.
Loss of the surface soil is especially damaging on soils The design of surface and subsurface water control
that have a clayey subsoil and on soils that have a layer systems varies with the kind of soil. A combined surface
in or below the subsoil limiting the depth of the root zone. and subsurface system is needed in most areas of the
Erosion also reduces productivity on soils that tend to be poorly drained and very poorly drained soils used for in-
droughty, such as Arredondo soils. Secondly, soil erosion tensive row cropping. Drains need to be more closely
on farmland results in sedimentation. Control of erosion spaced in slowly permeable soils than in more permeable
minimizes sedimentation and increases the quality of soils. Finding adequate outlets for water control systems
water for municipal use, for recreation, and for fish and is difficult in many areas.
wildlife. Organic soils oxidize and subside when the water table
On many sloping fields, preparing a good seedbed and is lowered. In areas of organic soils, a water control
tillage are difficult in clayey areas because the original system is needed to keep the water table at the level
surface soil has been eroded away. Such areas are com- required by crops during the growing season and to raise
mon in areas of Flemington and Micanopy soils, it to the surface during other parts of the year to
Erosion control practices provide protective surface minimize oxidation or subsidence.
cover, reduce runoff, and increase water infiltration. The Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
cropping system that keeps vegetative cover on the soil seeds and in the infiltration rate of water into the soil.
for extended periods can hold soil erosion losses to Soils that have good tilth are granular and porous. Most
amounts that will not reduce the productive capacity of of the soils used for crops in Hernando County have a
the soils. On livestock farms that require pasture and hay, sandy surface texture and are low in content of organic
the legume and grass forage crops in the cropping system matter. Regular additions of crop residues, manure, and
reduce erosion on sloping lands, provide nitrogen, and im- other organic material help to improve soil structure and
prove soil tilth, to increase the available water capacity of these soils.
Slopes are so short and irregular that contour tillage or Fall plowing is generally not a good practice on these
terracing is not practical in some areas of sloping soils. In soils because about two-thirds of the cropland consists of
those areas, cropping systems that provide substantial sloping soils that are subject to damaging erosion if they
vegetative cover are required to control erosion unless are plowed in fall. On some of the more clayey soils, tilth
minimum tillage is practiced. Minimizing tillage and leav- is a concern because soils often stay wet until late in
ing crop residues on the surface help to increase infiltra- spring. If they are plowed when wet, they tend to be
tion and reduce the hazards of runoff and erosion. These cloddy in the clayey spots when they dry, and good seed-
practices can be adapted to most soils in the survey area. beds are difficult to prepare. Fall plowing generally
Terraces and diversions reduce the length of slope and results in good tilth in the spring on these soils.
thus reduce runoff and erosion. They are most practical
on deep, well drained soils that have regular slopes. Other Yields per acre
soils that have more irregular slopes are less suitable for
terraces and diversions. Some soils are not suitable for The average yields per acre that can be expected of the
terracing because their clayey subsoil would be exposed principal crops under a high level of management are
in terrace channels, they are too sandy, or they have shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be higher
limestone at a depth of less than 40 inches. Contouring or lower than those indicated in the table because of
and contour stripcropping are good erosion control prac- variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. Absence
tices used in the survey area. They are better adapted to of an estimated yield indicates that the crop is not suited
soils that have smooth, uniform slopes. to or not commonly grown on the soil.
Soil blowing is a hazard in many areas of deep, sandy The estimated yields were based mainly on the ex-
soils. Soil blowing can damage these soils in a few hours perience and records of farmers, conservationists, and ex-
if winds are strong and the soils are dry and bare of sur- tension agents. Results of field trials and demonstrations
face cover. In such areas, maintaining a vegetative cover and available yield data from nearby counties were also
minimizes soil blowing. Windbreaks of adapted shrubs considered.
and trees are effective in reducing soil blowing. The yields were estimated assuming that the latest soil
Water control is a major management need on about and crop management practices were used. Hay and
two-thirds of the acreage used for crops and pasture in pasture yields were estimated for the most productive
the survey area. Some soils, such as the very poorly varieties of grasses and legumes climatically suited to the
drained Anclote, Delray, Floridana, and Terra Ceia soils, area and the soil. A few farmers may be obtaining
are naturally so wet that the production of crops is average yields higher than those shown in table 5.
generally not possible in their native state. Crops grown The management needed to achieve the indicated yields
on somewhat poorly drained soils, such as Adamsville of the various crops depends on the kind of soil and the
soils, are damaged by the high water table in many years. crop. Such management provides drainage, erosion con-
Moderately well drained soils, such as Tavares soils, trol, and protection from flooding; the proper planting








42 SOIL SURVEY

and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
appropriate tillage practices, including time of tillage and limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
seedbed preparation and tilling when soil moisture is Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
favorable; control of weeds, plant diseases, and harmful generally unsuitable for cultivation.
insects; favorable soil reaction and optimum levels of Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for them unsuitable for cultivation.
each crop; effective use of crop residues, barnyard Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
manure, and green-manure crops; harvesting crops with nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production.
the smallest possible loss; and timeliness of all fieldwork. CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of one class; they are designated by adding a small letter, e,
the soils for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The
to increase as new production technology is developed, letter e shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of unless close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows
other soils, however, is not likely to change. that water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
the survey area, but estimated yields are not included corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
because the acreage of these crops is small. The local of- limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
fices of the Soil Conservation Service and the Coopera- and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
tive Extension Service can provide information about the shows that the chief limitation is climate that is too cold
management concerns and productivity of the soils for or too dry.
these crops. In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
Capability classes and subclasses subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in class
Capability classes and subclasses show, in a general V are subject to little or no erosion, though they have
way, the suitility of soils for most kinds of field crs other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, range-
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. land, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
The soils are classed according to their limitations when land, woodland, wldlfe habitat, or recreateon.
he soils are classed according to their limitations when The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
they are used for field crops, the risk of damage when class is indicated in table 6. All soils in the survey area
they are used, and the way they respond to treatment. except Pits, Dumps, Urban land, and other miscellaneous
The grouping does not take into account major and areas are included. Some of the soils that are well suited
generally expensive landforming that would change slope, to crops and pasture, for example, soils in capability class
depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not take II, may be in low-intensity use. Data in this table can be
into consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation used to determine the farming potential of such soils.
projects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticul- The capability subclass is identified in the description
tural crops, or other crops that require special manage- of each soil mapping unit in the section "Soil maps for
ment. Capability classification is not a substitute for in- detailed planning."
terpretations designed to show suitability and limitations
of groups of soils for rangeland, for forest trees, or for Woodland management and productivity
engineering purposes.
In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped at LOUIE P. HEARD, environmental specialist, Soil Conservation Service,
two levels: capability class and subclass. These levels are helped prepare this section.
defined in the following paragraphs. A survey area may This section contains information about the relationship
not have soils of all classes. between soils and trees. It informs landowners and opera-
CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are tors of the capability of soils to produce trees and sug-
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The nu- gests suitable management.
merals indicate progressively greater limitations and nar- The 1968 Conservation Needs Inventory (7) shows that
rower choices for practical use; they are defined as fol- about 170,000 acres of commercial forests and 39,000
lows: acres of noncommercial forests are in Hernando County.
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. This is about 70 percent of the total area of the county.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the Not all of this forest is in private ownership.
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation The early growth and settlement of Hernando County
practices. was closely related to the production of wood products.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the Turpentine and lumber were manufactured from the vir-
choice of plants, or that require special conservation prac- gin pine forests on the flatwoods and rolling hills of the
tices, or both. county. Cypress and hardwoods were harvested in vast
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce quantities from the coastal and river swamps. Sawmill
the choice of plants, or that require very careful manage- towns, such as Centralia in northwest Hernando County,
ment, or both. were settled with the establishment of a company saw-







HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

mill. Stores, schools, and dwellings flourished and were Most of the woodland of the county is understocked
abandoned with the final cutting of the virgin forest. The and in need of stand improvement. Tree farming is a good
cutover forests were left to regenerate and grow as best land use in many areas. Idle land can be profitably used
they could, to grow desirable trees. Pines can grow on a variety of
Between 1936 and 1939, the U.S. Department of soils, and they require a minimum of care.
Agriculture purchased cutover, burned-over timber lands To profit most from good woodland, a forest owner
in Hernando County and three adjoining counties to be should use proper cutting practices. Proper practices vary
used as a demonstration unit to promote proper land use. with the condition of the woodland. Landowners should
Approximately 37,000 acres in Hernando County were in- seek the advice of local soil conservationists, the Soil Con-
cluded in the Withlacoochee Land Use Project. servation Service, or a representative of the Florida Divi-
The Withlacoochee Land Use Project was first sion of Forestry.
managed by the Soil Conservation Service and later by Table 7 contains information useful to woodland owners
the Forest Service to carry out programs and practices in or forest managers planning use of soils for wood crops.
timber and wildlife management. Mapping unit symbols for soils suitable for wood crops
In 1958, the State of Florida purchased the property are listed, and the ordination (woodland suitability) sym-
and designated it as the Withlacoochee State Forest. The bol for each soil is given. All soils bearing the same or-
forest was managed by the State Division of Forestry, dination symbol require the same general kinds of
which used the multiple use concept of timber manage- woodland management and have about the same potential
ment, wildlife management, and forest related recreation productivity.
management. The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, in-
Companies continue to harvest timber from the coastal dicates the potential productivity of the soils for impor-
and river swamps, the Annutteliga Hammock, and the tant trees. The number 1 indicates very high productivity;
pine flatwoods in the Richloam area. They produce 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low. The
lumber, veneer, and pulpwood. While on a lesser scale second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the major
than in the past, Hernando County's forest lands continue kind of soil limitation. The letter x indicates stoniness or
to be productive. rockiness; w, excessive water in or on the soil; t, toxic
A well-managed stand of trees helps to prevent soil substances in the soil; d, restricted root depth; c, clay in
deterioration and helps to conserve soil and water
the upper part of the soil; s, sandy texture; f high con-
resources. One of the primary functions of good trees is the uer art of the soil; sandy texture; f, high con-
to protect the soil. Trees slow the fall of raindrops and tent of coarse fragments in the soil profile; and r, steep
allow the soil to absorb more moisture. Erosion is not an slopes. The letter o indicates insignificant limitations or
important factor in most of the county, but the ability of restrictions. If a soil has more than one imitation priori-
tree cover to allow more moisture to enter the soil is im- ty in placing the soil into a limitation class is in the fol-
portant to ground water supplies. Properly managed lowing order: x, w, t, d, c, s, f, and r.
forests are an important part of the direct and indirect In table 7 the soils are also rated for a number of fac-
economy of the county. Practices to be considered in tors to be considered in management. Slight, moderate,
achieving proper management are defined briefly in the and severe are used to indicate the degree of major soil
following paragraphs. limitations.
Trees and ground cover are destroyed by uncontrolled Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss
wildfires. Trees not killed are slowed in growth and may of soil in well-managed woodland. The risk is slight if the
be scarred, which allows the entry of insects and diseases. expected soil loss is small, moderate if some measures are
This is particularly true in stands predominantly of hard- needed to control erosion during logging and road con-
woods. Fire lessens the ability of the soil to absorb water struction, and severe if intensive management or special
and consume litter that contributes organic matter to the equipment and methods are needed to prevent excessive
soil. loss of soil.
Countywide fire protection is furnished by the State Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the charac-
Division of Forestry. Individual landowners, however, teristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use of the
should observe all rules of fire protection. Firebreaks equipment generally needed in woodland management or
should be constructed and maintained around and through harvesting. A rating of slight indicates that use of equip-
all woodlands. These firebreaks can slow or stop a fire ment is not limited to a particular kind of equipment or
under normal conditions. Prescribed burning should also time of year; moderate indicates a short seasonal limita-
be practiced with the advice and assistance of the Divison tion or a need for some modification in management or
of Forestry. equipment; severe indicates a seasonal limitation, a need
Management of water in woodlands is not a significant for special equipment or management, or a hazard in the
concern in most of the county. In the western part of the use of equipment.
county, where there are coastal and river swamps, species Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree that the
indigenous to wet soils occur. Minimum drainage may be soil affects expected mortality of planted tree seedlings
required on pine flatwoods if extensive clearcutting and when plant competition is not a limiting factor. Seedlings
replanting take place. from good planting stock that are properly planted during








42 SOIL SURVEY

and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
appropriate tillage practices, including time of tillage and limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
seedbed preparation and tilling when soil moisture is Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
favorable; control of weeds, plant diseases, and harmful generally unsuitable for cultivation.
insects; favorable soil reaction and optimum levels of Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for them unsuitable for cultivation.
each crop; effective use of crop residues, barnyard Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
manure, and green-manure crops; harvesting crops with nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production.
the smallest possible loss; and timeliness of all fieldwork. CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of one class; they are designated by adding a small letter, e,
the soils for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The
to increase as new production technology is developed, letter e shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of unless close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows
other soils, however, is not likely to change. that water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
the survey area, but estimated yields are not included corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
because the acreage of these crops is small. The local of- limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
fices of the Soil Conservation Service and the Coopera- and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
tive Extension Service can provide information about the shows that the chief limitation is climate that is too cold
management concerns and productivity of the soils for or too dry.
these crops. In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
Capability classes and subclasses subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in class
Capability classes and subclasses show, in a general V are subject to little or no erosion, though they have
way, the suitility of soils for most kinds of field crs other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, range-
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. land, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
The soils are classed according to their limitations when land, woodland, wldlfe habitat, or recreateon.
he soils are classed according to their limitations when The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
they are used for field crops, the risk of damage when class is indicated in table 6. All soils in the survey area
they are used, and the way they respond to treatment. except Pits, Dumps, Urban land, and other miscellaneous
The grouping does not take into account major and areas are included. Some of the soils that are well suited
generally expensive landforming that would change slope, to crops and pasture, for example, soils in capability class
depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not take II, may be in low-intensity use. Data in this table can be
into consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation used to determine the farming potential of such soils.
projects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticul- The capability subclass is identified in the description
tural crops, or other crops that require special manage- of each soil mapping unit in the section "Soil maps for
ment. Capability classification is not a substitute for in- detailed planning."
terpretations designed to show suitability and limitations
of groups of soils for rangeland, for forest trees, or for Woodland management and productivity
engineering purposes.
In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped at LOUIE P. HEARD, environmental specialist, Soil Conservation Service,
two levels: capability class and subclass. These levels are helped prepare this section.
defined in the following paragraphs. A survey area may This section contains information about the relationship
not have soils of all classes. between soils and trees. It informs landowners and opera-
CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are tors of the capability of soils to produce trees and sug-
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The nu- gests suitable management.
merals indicate progressively greater limitations and nar- The 1968 Conservation Needs Inventory (7) shows that
rower choices for practical use; they are defined as fol- about 170,000 acres of commercial forests and 39,000
lows: acres of noncommercial forests are in Hernando County.
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. This is about 70 percent of the total area of the county.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the Not all of this forest is in private ownership.
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation The early growth and settlement of Hernando County
practices. was closely related to the production of wood products.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the Turpentine and lumber were manufactured from the vir-
choice of plants, or that require special conservation prac- gin pine forests on the flatwoods and rolling hills of the
tices, or both. county. Cypress and hardwoods were harvested in vast
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce quantities from the coastal and river swamps. Sawmill
the choice of plants, or that require very careful manage- towns, such as Centralia in northwest Hernando County,
ment, or both. were settled with the establishment of a company saw-







HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

mill. Stores, schools, and dwellings flourished and were Most of the woodland of the county is understocked
abandoned with the final cutting of the virgin forest. The and in need of stand improvement. Tree farming is a good
cutover forests were left to regenerate and grow as best land use in many areas. Idle land can be profitably used
they could, to grow desirable trees. Pines can grow on a variety of
Between 1936 and 1939, the U.S. Department of soils, and they require a minimum of care.
Agriculture purchased cutover, burned-over timber lands To profit most from good woodland, a forest owner
in Hernando County and three adjoining counties to be should use proper cutting practices. Proper practices vary
used as a demonstration unit to promote proper land use. with the condition of the woodland. Landowners should
Approximately 37,000 acres in Hernando County were in- seek the advice of local soil conservationists, the Soil Con-
cluded in the Withlacoochee Land Use Project. servation Service, or a representative of the Florida Divi-
The Withlacoochee Land Use Project was first sion of Forestry.
managed by the Soil Conservation Service and later by Table 7 contains information useful to woodland owners
the Forest Service to carry out programs and practices in or forest managers planning use of soils for wood crops.
timber and wildlife management. Mapping unit symbols for soils suitable for wood crops
In 1958, the State of Florida purchased the property are listed, and the ordination (woodland suitability) sym-
and designated it as the Withlacoochee State Forest. The bol for each soil is given. All soils bearing the same or-
forest was managed by the State Division of Forestry, dination symbol require the same general kinds of
which used the multiple use concept of timber manage- woodland management and have about the same potential
ment, wildlife management, and forest related recreation productivity.
management. The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, in-
Companies continue to harvest timber from the coastal dicates the potential productivity of the soils for impor-
and river swamps, the Annutteliga Hammock, and the tant trees. The number 1 indicates very high productivity;
pine flatwoods in the Richloam area. They produce 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low. The
lumber, veneer, and pulpwood. While on a lesser scale second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the major
than in the past, Hernando County's forest lands continue kind of soil limitation. The letter x indicates stoniness or
to be productive. rockiness; w, excessive water in or on the soil; t, toxic
A well-managed stand of trees helps to prevent soil substances in the soil; d, restricted root depth; c, clay in
deterioration and helps to conserve soil and water
the upper part of the soil; s, sandy texture; f high con-
resources. One of the primary functions of good trees is the uer art of the soil; sandy texture; f, high con-
to protect the soil. Trees slow the fall of raindrops and tent of coarse fragments in the soil profile; and r, steep
allow the soil to absorb more moisture. Erosion is not an slopes. The letter o indicates insignificant limitations or
important factor in most of the county, but the ability of restrictions. If a soil has more than one imitation priori-
tree cover to allow more moisture to enter the soil is im- ty in placing the soil into a limitation class is in the fol-
portant to ground water supplies. Properly managed lowing order: x, w, t, d, c, s, f, and r.
forests are an important part of the direct and indirect In table 7 the soils are also rated for a number of fac-
economy of the county. Practices to be considered in tors to be considered in management. Slight, moderate,
achieving proper management are defined briefly in the and severe are used to indicate the degree of major soil
following paragraphs. limitations.
Trees and ground cover are destroyed by uncontrolled Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss
wildfires. Trees not killed are slowed in growth and may of soil in well-managed woodland. The risk is slight if the
be scarred, which allows the entry of insects and diseases. expected soil loss is small, moderate if some measures are
This is particularly true in stands predominantly of hard- needed to control erosion during logging and road con-
woods. Fire lessens the ability of the soil to absorb water struction, and severe if intensive management or special
and consume litter that contributes organic matter to the equipment and methods are needed to prevent excessive
soil. loss of soil.
Countywide fire protection is furnished by the State Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the charac-
Division of Forestry. Individual landowners, however, teristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use of the
should observe all rules of fire protection. Firebreaks equipment generally needed in woodland management or
should be constructed and maintained around and through harvesting. A rating of slight indicates that use of equip-
all woodlands. These firebreaks can slow or stop a fire ment is not limited to a particular kind of equipment or
under normal conditions. Prescribed burning should also time of year; moderate indicates a short seasonal limita-
be practiced with the advice and assistance of the Divison tion or a need for some modification in management or
of Forestry. equipment; severe indicates a seasonal limitation, a need
Management of water in woodlands is not a significant for special equipment or management, or a hazard in the
concern in most of the county. In the western part of the use of equipment.
county, where there are coastal and river swamps, species Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree that the
indigenous to wet soils occur. Minimum drainage may be soil affects expected mortality of planted tree seedlings
required on pine flatwoods if extensive clearcutting and when plant competition is not a limiting factor. Seedlings
replanting take place. from good planting stock that are properly planted during







44 SOIL SURVEY

a period of sufficient rainfall are rated. A rating of slight The ratings in the engineering tables are based on test
indicates that the expected mortality of the planted data and estimated data in the "Soil properties" section.
seedlings is less than 25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 per- The ratings were determined jointly by soil scientists and
cent; and severe, more than 50 percent, engineers of the Soil Conservation Service using known
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to relationships between the soil properties and the behavior
which undesirable plants are expected to invade or grow of soils in various engineering uses.
if openings are made in the tree canopy. The invading Among the soil properties and site conditions identified
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings by by a soil survey and used in determining the ratings in
impeding or preventing their growth. A rating of slight this section were grain-size distribution, liquid limit,
indicates little or no competition from other plants; plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness
moderate indicates that plant competition is expected to of bedrock that is within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil
hinder the development of a fully stocked stand of desira- wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope,
ble trees; severe means that plant competition is expected likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure or aggrega-
to prevent the establishment of a desirable stand unless tion, in-place soil density, and geologic origin of the soil
the site is intensively prepared, weeded, or otherwise material. Where pertinent, data about kinds of clay
managed for the control of undesirable plants, minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
The potential productivity of merchantable or impor- the kind of absorbed cations were also considered.
tant trees on a soil is expressed as a site index (4, 8, 11). On the basis of information assembled about soil pro-
This index is the average height, in feet, that dominant perties, ranges of values can be estimated for erodibility,
and codominant trees of a given species attain in a permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available
specified number of years. The site index applies to fully water capacity, shear strength, compressibility, slope sta-
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Important trees ability, and other factors of expected soil behavior in en-
are those that woodland managers generally favor in in- gineering uses. As appropriate, these values can be ap-
termediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected on plied to each major horizon of each soil or to the entire
the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and marketability, profile.
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for commer- These factors of soil behavior affect construction and
cial wood production and that are suited to the soils. maintenance of roads, airport runways, pipelines, founda-
tions for small buildings, ponds and small dams, irrigation
Windbreaks and environmental plantings projects, drainage systems, sewage and refuse disposal
Windbreaks are established to protect livestock, systems, and other engineering works. The ranges of
buildings, and yards from winds. Windbreaks also hck, values can be used to: (1) select potential residential, con-
buildings, and yards from winds. Windbreaks also help recreational uses; (2) make
protect fruit trees and gardens, and they furnish habitat mercial, industrial, and recreational uses; (2) make
for wildlife. Several rows of low- and high-growing broad- preliminary estimates pertinent to construction in a par-
forwidfe. Several rows of low-and high-growing broad- evaluate alternative routes for roads,
leaved and coniferous species provide the most protection. ticuar area; (3) evaluate alternative routes for rads,
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right streets, ways, pipelines, and underground cables(4)
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals evaluate alternative sites for location of sanitary landfills,
across the field, the interval depending on erodibility of onsite sewage disposal systems, and other waste disposal
the soil. They protect cropland and crops from wind and facilities; (5) plan detailed onsite investigations of soils
provide food and cover for wildlife. and geology; (6) find sources of sand, clay, and topsoil; (7)
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen plan farm drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants, terraces, and other structures for soil and water conser-
mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. A vation; (8) relate performance of structures already built
healthy planting stock of suitable species planted properly to the properties of the kinds of soil on which they are
on a well-prepared site and maintained in good condition built so that performance of similar structures on the
can insure a high degree of plant survival. same or a similar soil in other locations can be predicted;
Additional information about planning windbreaks and and (9) predict the trafficability of soils for cross-country
screens and the planting and care of trees can be ob- movement of vehicles and construction equipment.
trained from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service, Data presented in this section are useful for land-use
the Cooperative Extension Service, or from nurserymen, planning and for choosing alternative practices or
general designs that will overcome unfavorable soil pro-
Engineering perties and minimize soil-related failures. Limitations to
the use of these data, however, should be well understood.
This section provides information about the use of soils First, the data are generally not presented for soil
for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction material, material below a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Also, because of the
and water management. Among those who can benefit scale of the detailed map in this soil survey, small areas
from this section are engineers, landowners, community of soils that differ from the dominant soil may be in-
planners, town and city managers, land developers, buil- cluded in mapping. Thus, these data do not eliminate the
ders, contractors, and farmers and ranchers. need for onsite investigations, testing, and analysis by







44 SOIL SURVEY

a period of sufficient rainfall are rated. A rating of slight The ratings in the engineering tables are based on test
indicates that the expected mortality of the planted data and estimated data in the "Soil properties" section.
seedlings is less than 25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 per- The ratings were determined jointly by soil scientists and
cent; and severe, more than 50 percent, engineers of the Soil Conservation Service using known
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to relationships between the soil properties and the behavior
which undesirable plants are expected to invade or grow of soils in various engineering uses.
if openings are made in the tree canopy. The invading Among the soil properties and site conditions identified
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings by by a soil survey and used in determining the ratings in
impeding or preventing their growth. A rating of slight this section were grain-size distribution, liquid limit,
indicates little or no competition from other plants; plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness
moderate indicates that plant competition is expected to of bedrock that is within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil
hinder the development of a fully stocked stand of desira- wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope,
ble trees; severe means that plant competition is expected likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure or aggrega-
to prevent the establishment of a desirable stand unless tion, in-place soil density, and geologic origin of the soil
the site is intensively prepared, weeded, or otherwise material. Where pertinent, data about kinds of clay
managed for the control of undesirable plants, minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
The potential productivity of merchantable or impor- the kind of absorbed cations were also considered.
tant trees on a soil is expressed as a site index (4, 8, 11). On the basis of information assembled about soil pro-
This index is the average height, in feet, that dominant perties, ranges of values can be estimated for erodibility,
and codominant trees of a given species attain in a permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available
specified number of years. The site index applies to fully water capacity, shear strength, compressibility, slope sta-
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Important trees ability, and other factors of expected soil behavior in en-
are those that woodland managers generally favor in in- gineering uses. As appropriate, these values can be ap-
termediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected on plied to each major horizon of each soil or to the entire
the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and marketability, profile.
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for commer- These factors of soil behavior affect construction and
cial wood production and that are suited to the soils. maintenance of roads, airport runways, pipelines, founda-
tions for small buildings, ponds and small dams, irrigation
Windbreaks and environmental plantings projects, drainage systems, sewage and refuse disposal
Windbreaks are established to protect livestock, systems, and other engineering works. The ranges of
buildings, and yards from winds. Windbreaks also hck, values can be used to: (1) select potential residential, con-
buildings, and yards from winds. Windbreaks also help recreational uses; (2) make
protect fruit trees and gardens, and they furnish habitat mercial, industrial, and recreational uses; (2) make
for wildlife. Several rows of low- and high-growing broad- preliminary estimates pertinent to construction in a par-
forwidfe. Several rows of low-and high-growing broad- evaluate alternative routes for roads,
leaved and coniferous species provide the most protection. ticuar area; (3) evaluate alternative routes for rads,
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right streets, ways, pipelines, and underground cables(4)
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals evaluate alternative sites for location of sanitary landfills,
across the field, the interval depending on erodibility of onsite sewage disposal systems, and other waste disposal
the soil. They protect cropland and crops from wind and facilities; (5) plan detailed onsite investigations of soils
provide food and cover for wildlife. and geology; (6) find sources of sand, clay, and topsoil; (7)
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen plan farm drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants, terraces, and other structures for soil and water conser-
mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. A vation; (8) relate performance of structures already built
healthy planting stock of suitable species planted properly to the properties of the kinds of soil on which they are
on a well-prepared site and maintained in good condition built so that performance of similar structures on the
can insure a high degree of plant survival. same or a similar soil in other locations can be predicted;
Additional information about planning windbreaks and and (9) predict the trafficability of soils for cross-country
screens and the planting and care of trees can be ob- movement of vehicles and construction equipment.
trained from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service, Data presented in this section are useful for land-use
the Cooperative Extension Service, or from nurserymen, planning and for choosing alternative practices or
general designs that will overcome unfavorable soil pro-
Engineering perties and minimize soil-related failures. Limitations to
the use of these data, however, should be well understood.
This section provides information about the use of soils First, the data are generally not presented for soil
for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction material, material below a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Also, because of the
and water management. Among those who can benefit scale of the detailed map in this soil survey, small areas
from this section are engineers, landowners, community of soils that differ from the dominant soil may be in-
planners, town and city managers, land developers, buil- cluded in mapping. Thus, these data do not eliminate the
ders, contractors, and farmers and ranchers. need for onsite investigations, testing, and analysis by








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

personnel having expertise in the specific use contem- potential frost action, soil wetness, and depth to a
plated. seasonal high water table were also considered. Soil wet-
The information is presented mainly in tables. Table 8 ness and depth to a seasonal high water table indicate
shows, for each kind of soil, the degree and kind of limita- potential difficulty in providing adequate drainage for
tions for building site development; table 9, for sanitary basements, lawns, and gardens. Depth to bedrock, slope,
facilities; and table 10, for water management. Table 11 and large stones in or on the soil are also important con-
shows the suitability of each kind of soil as a source of siderations in the choice of sites for these structures and
construction materials, were considered in determining the ratings. Susceptibility
The information in the tables, along with the soil map, to flooding is a serious limitation.
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this sur- Local roads and streets referred to in table 8 have an
vey can be used to make additional interpretations and to all-weather surface that can carry light to medium traffic
construct interpretive maps for specific uses of land. all year. They consist of a subgrade of the underlying soil
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a spe- material; a base of gravel, crushed rock fragments, or soil
cial meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are material stabilized with lime or cement; and a flexible or
defined in the Glossary. rigid surface, commonly asphalt or concrete. The roads
are graded with soil material at hand, and most cuts and
Building site development fills are less than 6 feet deep.
The degree and kind of soil limitations that affect shal- The load supporting capacity and the stability of the
low excavations, dwellings with and without basements, soil as well as the quantity and workability of fill material
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets available are important in design and construction of
are indicated in table 8. A slight limitation indicates that roads and streets. The classifications of the soil and the
soil properties are favorable for the specified use; any soil texture, density, shrink-swell potential, and potential
limitation is minor and easily overcome. A moderate frost action are indicators of the traffic supporting capaci-
limitation indicates that soil.properties and site features ty used in making the ratings. Soil wetness, flooding,
are unfavorable for the specified use, but the limitations slope, depth to hard rock or very compact layers, and con-
can be overcome or minimized by special planning and tent of large stones affect stability and ease of excava-
design. A severe limitation indicates one or more soil pro- tion.
perties or site features are so unfavorable or difficult to
overcome that a major increase in construction effort, Santary facilities
special design, or intensive maintenance is required. For Favorable soil properties and site features are needed
some soils rated severe, such costly measures may not be for proper functioning of septic tank absorption fields,
feasible, sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The nature of the
Shallow excavations are used for pipelines, sewerlines, soil is important in selecting sites for these facilities and
telephone and power transmission lines, basements, open in identifying limiting soil properties and site features to
ditches, and cemeteries. Such digging or trenching is in- be considered in design and installation. Also, those soil
fluenced by the soil wetness of a high seasonal water properties that affect ease of excavation or installation of
table; the texture and consistence of soils; the tendency these facilities will be of interest to contractors and local
of soils to cave in or slough; and the presence of very officials. Table 9 shows the degree and kind of limitations
firm, dense soil layers, bedrock, or large stones. In addi- of each soil for such uses and for use of the soil as daily
tion, excavations are affected by slope of the soil and the cover for landfills. It is important to observe local or-
probability of flooding. Ratings do not apply to soil dinances and regulations.
horizons below a depth of 6 feet unless otherwise noted. If the degree of soil limitation is expressed as slight,
In the soil series descriptions, the consistence of each soils are generally favorable for the specified use and
soil horizon is defined, and the presence of very firm or limitations are minor and easily overcome; if moderate,
extremely firm horizons, usually difficult to excavate, is soil properties or site features are unfavorable for the
indicated. specified use, but limitations can be overcome by special
Dwellings and small commercial buildings referred to planning and design; and if severe, soil properties or site
in table 8 are built on undisturbed soil and have founda- features are so unfavorable or difficult to overcome that
tion loads of a dwelling no more than three stories high. major soil reclamation, special designs, or intensive main-
Separate ratings are made for small commercial buildings tenance is required.
without basements and for dwellings with and without Septic tank absorption fields are subsurface systems of
basements. For such structures, soils should be suffi- tile or perforated pipe that distribute effluent from a sep-
ciently stable that cracking or subsidence from settling or tic tank into the natural soil. Only the soil horizons
shear failure of the foundation does not occur. These between depths of 18 and 72 inches are evaluated for this
ratings were determined from estimates of the shear use. The soil properties and site features considered are
strength, compressibility, and shrink-swell potential of the those that affect the absorption of the effluent and those
soil (fig. 12). Soil texture, plasticity and in-place density, that affect the construction of the system.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

personnel having expertise in the specific use contem- potential frost action, soil wetness, and depth to a
plated. seasonal high water table were also considered. Soil wet-
The information is presented mainly in tables. Table 8 ness and depth to a seasonal high water table indicate
shows, for each kind of soil, the degree and kind of limita- potential difficulty in providing adequate drainage for
tions for building site development; table 9, for sanitary basements, lawns, and gardens. Depth to bedrock, slope,
facilities; and table 10, for water management. Table 11 and large stones in or on the soil are also important con-
shows the suitability of each kind of soil as a source of siderations in the choice of sites for these structures and
construction materials, were considered in determining the ratings. Susceptibility
The information in the tables, along with the soil map, to flooding is a serious limitation.
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this sur- Local roads and streets referred to in table 8 have an
vey can be used to make additional interpretations and to all-weather surface that can carry light to medium traffic
construct interpretive maps for specific uses of land. all year. They consist of a subgrade of the underlying soil
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a spe- material; a base of gravel, crushed rock fragments, or soil
cial meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are material stabilized with lime or cement; and a flexible or
defined in the Glossary. rigid surface, commonly asphalt or concrete. The roads
are graded with soil material at hand, and most cuts and
Building site development fills are less than 6 feet deep.
The degree and kind of soil limitations that affect shal- The load supporting capacity and the stability of the
low excavations, dwellings with and without basements, soil as well as the quantity and workability of fill material
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets available are important in design and construction of
are indicated in table 8. A slight limitation indicates that roads and streets. The classifications of the soil and the
soil properties are favorable for the specified use; any soil texture, density, shrink-swell potential, and potential
limitation is minor and easily overcome. A moderate frost action are indicators of the traffic supporting capaci-
limitation indicates that soil.properties and site features ty used in making the ratings. Soil wetness, flooding,
are unfavorable for the specified use, but the limitations slope, depth to hard rock or very compact layers, and con-
can be overcome or minimized by special planning and tent of large stones affect stability and ease of excava-
design. A severe limitation indicates one or more soil pro- tion.
perties or site features are so unfavorable or difficult to
overcome that a major increase in construction effort, Santary facilities
special design, or intensive maintenance is required. For Favorable soil properties and site features are needed
some soils rated severe, such costly measures may not be for proper functioning of septic tank absorption fields,
feasible, sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The nature of the
Shallow excavations are used for pipelines, sewerlines, soil is important in selecting sites for these facilities and
telephone and power transmission lines, basements, open in identifying limiting soil properties and site features to
ditches, and cemeteries. Such digging or trenching is in- be considered in design and installation. Also, those soil
fluenced by the soil wetness of a high seasonal water properties that affect ease of excavation or installation of
table; the texture and consistence of soils; the tendency these facilities will be of interest to contractors and local
of soils to cave in or slough; and the presence of very officials. Table 9 shows the degree and kind of limitations
firm, dense soil layers, bedrock, or large stones. In addi- of each soil for such uses and for use of the soil as daily
tion, excavations are affected by slope of the soil and the cover for landfills. It is important to observe local or-
probability of flooding. Ratings do not apply to soil dinances and regulations.
horizons below a depth of 6 feet unless otherwise noted. If the degree of soil limitation is expressed as slight,
In the soil series descriptions, the consistence of each soils are generally favorable for the specified use and
soil horizon is defined, and the presence of very firm or limitations are minor and easily overcome; if moderate,
extremely firm horizons, usually difficult to excavate, is soil properties or site features are unfavorable for the
indicated. specified use, but limitations can be overcome by special
Dwellings and small commercial buildings referred to planning and design; and if severe, soil properties or site
in table 8 are built on undisturbed soil and have founda- features are so unfavorable or difficult to overcome that
tion loads of a dwelling no more than three stories high. major soil reclamation, special designs, or intensive main-
Separate ratings are made for small commercial buildings tenance is required.
without basements and for dwellings with and without Septic tank absorption fields are subsurface systems of
basements. For such structures, soils should be suffi- tile or perforated pipe that distribute effluent from a sep-
ciently stable that cracking or subsidence from settling or tic tank into the natural soil. Only the soil horizons
shear failure of the foundation does not occur. These between depths of 18 and 72 inches are evaluated for this
ratings were determined from estimates of the shear use. The soil properties and site features considered are
strength, compressibility, and shrink-swell potential of the those that affect the absorption of the effluent and those
soil (fig. 12). Soil texture, plasticity and in-place density, that affect the construction of the system.








46 SOIL SURVEY
Properties and features that affect absorption of the Unless otherwise stated, the limitations in table 8 apply
effluent are permeability, depth to seasonal high water only to the soil material within a depth of about 6 feet. If
table, depth to bedrock, and susceptibility to flooding, the trench is deeper, a limitation of slight or moderate
Stones, boulders, and shallowness to bedrock interfere may not be valid. Site investigation is needed before a
with installation. Excessive slope may cause lateral site is selected.
seepage and surfacing of the effluent. Also, soil erosion In the area type of sanitary landfill, refuse is placed on
and soil slippage are hazards if absorption fields are in- the surface of the soil and covered daily with topsoil. The
stalled on sloping soils. limitations caused by soil texture, depth to bedrock, and
In some soils, loose sand or fractured bedrock is less content of stones do not apply to this type of landfill. Soil
than 4 feet below the tile lines. In these soils the absorp- wetness, however, can be a limitation because of difficulty
tion field does not adequately filter the effluent, and in operating equipment.
ground water in the area may be contaminated. Daily cover for landfill should be soil that is easy to
On many of the soils that have moderate or severe excavate and spread over the compacted fill in wet and
limitations for use as septic tank absorption fields, a dry periods. Soils that are loamy or silty and free of
system to lower the seasonal water table could be in- stones or boulders are better than other soils. Clayey
stalled or the size of the absorption field could be in- soils may be sticky and difficult to spread; sandy soils
creased so that performance is satisfactory, may be subject to soil blowing.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to hold The soils selected for final cover of landfills should be
sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid and suitable for growing plants. Of all the horizons, the A
liquid wastes. Lagoons have a nearly level floor and cut horizon in most soils has the best workability, more or-
slopes or embankments of compacted soil material. Aero- ganic matter, and the best potential for growing plants.
bic lagoons generally are designed to hold sewage within Thus, for either the area- or trench-type landfill, stockpil-
a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly impervious soil material for ing material from the A horizon for use as the surface
the lagoon floor and sides is required to minimize seepage layer of the final cover is desirable.
and contamination of ground water. Soils that are very Where it is necessary to bring in soil material for daily
high in content of organic matter and those that have or final cover, thickness of suitable soil material available
cobbles, stones, or boulders are not suitable. Unless the and depth to a seasonal high water table in soils sur-
soil has very slow permeability, contamination of ground rounding the sites should be evaluated. Other factors to
water is a hazard where the seasonal high water table is be evaluated are those that affect reclamation of the bor-
above the level of the lagoon floor: In soils where the row areas. These factors include slope, erodibility, and
water table is seasonally high, seepage of ground water potential for plant growth.
into the lagoon can seriously reduce the lagoon's capacity
for liquid waste. Slope, depth to bedrock, and susceptibili- Water management
ty to flooding also affect the suitability of sites for
sewage lagoons or the cost of construction. Shear Many soil properties and site features that affect water
strength and permeability of compacted soils affect the management practices have been identified in this soil
performance of embankments. survey. In table 10 the degree of soil limitation and soil
Sanitary landfill refers to a method of disposing of and site features that affect use are indicated for each
solid waste by placing refuse in successive layers either kind of soil. This information is significant in planning, in-
in excavated trenches or on the surface of the soil. The stalling, and maintaining water control structures.
waste is spread, compacted, and covered daily with thin Soil and site limitations are expressed as slight,
layers of soil. Landfill areas are subject to heavy vehicu- moderate, and severe. Slight means that the soil proper-
lar traffic. Risk of polluting ground water and trafficabili- ties and site features are generally favorable for the
ty affect the suitability of a soil for this use. The best specified use and that any limitation is minor and easily
soils have a loamy or silty texture, have moderate to slow overcome. Moderate means that some soil properties or
permeability, are deep to a seasonal water table, and are site features are unfavorable for the specified use but can
not subject to flooding. Clayey soils are likely to be sticky be overcome or modified by special planning and design.
and difficult to spread. Sandy soils generally have rapid Severe means that the soil properties and site features
permeability, which might allow noxious liquids to con- are so unfavorable and so difficult to correct or overcome
taminate ground water. Soil wetness may be a limitation that major soil reclamation, special design, or intensive
because operating heavy equipment on a wet soil is dif- maintenance is required.
ficult. Seepage into the refuse increases the risk of pollu- Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or em-
tion of ground water: bankment. Soils best suited to this use have a low
In the trench type of landfill, ease of excavation also seepage potential, which is determined by permeability
affects the suitability of a soil for this purpose, so the soil and the depth to fractured or permeable bedrock or other
must be deep to bedrock and free of large stones and permeable material.
boulders. Where the seasonal water table is high, water Embankments, dikes, and levees require soil material
seeps into trenches and causes problems in filling, that is resistant to seepage, erosion, and piping and has








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

favorable stability, shrink-swell potential, shear strength, Many soils have horizons of contrasting suitability within
and compaction characteristics. Large stones and organic their profile. The estimated engineering properties in
matter in a soil downgrade the suitability of a soil for use table 11 provide specific information about the nature of
in embankments, dikes, and levees, each horizon. This information can help determine the
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are bodies of water made suitability of each horizon for roadfill.
by excavating a pit or dugout into a ground-water Soils rated good are coarse grained. They have low
aquifer. Excluded are ponds that are fed by surface ru- shrink-swell potential, low potential frost action, and few
noff and embankment ponds that impound water 3 feet or cobbles and stones. They are at least moderately well
more above the original surface. Ratings in table 10 are drained and have slopes of 15 percent or less. Soils rated
for ponds that are properly designed, located, and con- fair have a plasticity index of less than 15 and have other
structed. Soil properties and site features that affect limiting features, such as moderate shrink-swell potential,
aquifer-fed ponds are depth to a permanent water table, moderately steep slopes, wetness, or many stones. If the
permeability of the aquifer, quality of the water, and ease thickness of suitable material is less than 3 feet, the en-
of excavation, tire soil is rated poor.
Drainage of soil is affected by such soil properties as Sand is used in great quantities in many kinds of con-
permeability, texture, depth to bedrock, hardpan, or other struction. The ratings in table 11 provide guidance as to
layers that affect the rate of water movement, depth to where to look for probable sources and are based on the
the water table, slope, stability of ditchbanks, susceptibili- probability that soils in a given area contain sizable quan-
ty to flooding, salinity and alkalinity, and availability of titles of sand. A soil rated good or fair has a layer of
outlets for drainage, suitable material at least 3 feet thick, the top of which is
.Irrigation is affected by such features as slope, suscep- within a depth of 6 feet. Coarse fragments of soft
tibility to flooding, hazards of water erosion and soil bedrock material are not considered. Fine-grained soils
blowing, texture, presence of salts and alkali, depth of are not suitable sources of sand.
root zone, rate of water intake at the surface, permeabili- The ratings do not take into account depth to the water
ty of the soil below the surface layer, available water table or other factors that affect excavation of the
capacity, need for drainage, and depth to the water table. material. Descriptions of grain size, kinds of minerals,
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a com- reaction, and stratification are given in the soil series
bination of channels and ridges constructed across a slope descriptions and in table 14.
to intercept runoff. They allow water to soak into the soil Topsoil is used in areas where vegetation is to be
or flow slowly to an outlet. Features that affect suitabili- established and maintained. Suitability is affected mainly
ty of a soil for terraces are uniformity and steepness of by the ease of working and spreading the soil material in
slope; depth to bedrock, hardpan, or other unfavorable preparing a seedbed and by the ability of the soil material
material; large stones; permeability; ease of establishing to support plantlife. Also considered is the damage that
vegetation; and resistance to water erosion, soil blowing, can result at the area from which the topsoil is taken
soil slipping, and piping. The ease of excavation is influenced by the thickness of
suitable material, wetness, slopes, and amount of stones.
Construction materials The ability of the soil to support plantlife is determined
by texture, structure, and the amount of soluble salts or
The suitability of each soil as a source of roadfill, sand, toxic substances. Organic matter in the Al or Ap horizon
and topsoil is indicated in table 11 by ratings of good, fair, greatly increases the absorption and retention of moisture
or poor. The texture, thickness, and organic-matter con- and nutrients. Therefore, the soil material from these
tent of each soil horizon are important factors in rating horizons should be carefully preserved for later use.
soils for use as construction materials. Each soil is evalu- Soils rated good have at least 16 inches of friable loamy
ated to the depth observed, generally about 6 feet. material at their surface. They are free of stones and cob-
Roadfill is soil material used in embankments for bles and have gentle slopes. They are low in soluble salts
roads. Soils are evaluated as a source of roadfill for low that can limit or prevent plant growth. They are naturally
embankments, which generally are less than 6 feet high fertile or respond well to fertilizer. They are not so wet
and less exacting in design than high embankments. The that excavation is difficult during most of the year.
ratings reflect the ease of excavating and working the Soils rated fair are loose sandy soils or firm loamy or
material and the expected performance of the material clayey soils in which the suitable material is only 8 to 16
where it has been compacted and adequately drained. The inches thick or soils that have appreciable amounts of
performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or ce- stones or soluble salt.
ment is not considered in the ratings, but information Soils rated poor are very sandy soils and very firm
about some of the soil properties that influence such per- clayey soils; soils with suitable layers less than 8 inches
formance is given in the descriptions of the soil series, thick; soils having large amounts of stones or soluble salt;
The ratings apply to the soil material between the A steep soils; and poorly drained soils.
horizon and a depth of 5 to 6 feet. It is assumed that soil Although a rating of good is not based entirely on high
horizons will be mixed during excavation and spreading. content of organic matter, a surface horizon is generally








48 SOIL SURVEY

preferred for topsoil because of its organic-matter con- Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
tent. This horizon is designated as Al or Ap in the soil se- foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
ries descriptions. The absorption and retention of wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
moisture and nutrients for plant growth are greatly in- surface is free of stones or boulders, is firm after rains,
creased by organic matter, and is not dusty when dry. If shaping is required to ob-
tain a uniform grade, the depth of the soil over bedrock
Recreation or hardpan should be enough to allow necessary grading.
Paths and trails for walking, horseback riding,
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 12 ac- bicycling, and other uses should require little or no
cording to limitations that affect their suitability for cutting and filling. The best soils for this use are those
recreation uses. The ratings are based on such restrictive that are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when
soil features as flooding, wetness, slope, and texture of dry, and are not subject to flooding more than once dur-
the surface layer. Not considered in these ratings, but im- ing the annual period of use. They should have moderate
portant in evaluating a site, are location and accessibility slopes and have few or no stones or boulders on the sur-
of the area, size and shape of the area and its scenic face.
quality, the ability of the soil to support vegetation, ac-
cess to water, potential water impoundment sites availa- Wildlife habitat
ble, and either access to public sewerlines or capacity of
the soil to absorb septic tank effluent. Soils subject to JOHN F. VANCE, JR., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
flooding are limited, in varying degree, for recreation use
by the duration and intensity of flooding and the season Wildlife is a valuable resource in Hernando County.
when flooding occurs. Onsite assessment of height, dura- Although the available habitat has been reduced
tion, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential in somewhat by urbanization, large acreages of improved
planning recreation facilities, pasture, citrus groves, and forest land interspersed over
The degree of the limitation of the soils is expressed as the county still provide habitat to support abundant wil-
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that the soil pro- dlife populations.
perties are generally favorable and that the limitations The principal game species in the survey area are
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that the white-tailed deer, gray squirrel, fox squirrel, rabbits,
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, bobwhite quail, mourning dove, turkey, and waterfowl
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil Black bear range through the hardwood and swamp
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be off- forests of the county but are few m number and e not
legal game. Wild hogs are also present and are considered
set only by costly soil reclamation, special design, inten- lgal game. Wild hogs are also present and are consider
sive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of game animals in the Richloam Wildlife Management Area
these measures. Gray fox, red fox, bobcat, and raccoon are hunted on the
these measures. Groom Wildlife Management Area.
The information in table 12 can be supplemented by in- rions of three State wildlife management areas
formation in other parts of this survey. Especially helpful citrus, room, and Richloam) and the Chassahowitzka
are interpretations for septic tank absorption fields given National Wildlife Refuge are found in Hernando County.
in table 9 and interpretations for dwellings without base- These areas support good wildlife populations and are
ments and for local roads and streets given in table 8. good indicators of the value of wildlife resources in the
Camp areas require such site preparation as shaping county.
and leveling for tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads The wide variety of habitats in the area commonly sup-
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facili- port many other species of wildlife; among these are
ties and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy opossum, otter, armadillo, skunk, and numerous resident
foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils for and migratory birds. Six species on the U.S. Fish and
this use have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to Wildlife Service threatened species list are in the area.
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or These species are the southern bald eagle, brown pelican,
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but remains red-cockaded woodpecker, Florida sandhill crane, Amer-
firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes and stones ican alligator, and Florida panther.
or boulders can greatly increase the cost of constructing Wading birds, such as egrets, ibis, limpkins, and herons
camping sites, are abundant on the wet soil areas of the survey area.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most These birds are dependent on foods such as snails, small
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking fish, frogs, and insects in shallow water areas. They nest
areas. The best soils for use as picnic areas are firm when in bushes and trees over water.
wet, are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding Wood ducks and Florida mallards are resident wild
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or stones ducks in the survey area. Migratory wild ducks are also
or boulders that will increase the cost of shaping sites or present during the winter months, especially in the Chas-
of building access roads and parking areas, sohowitzka Refuge along the coast. The primary migrato-








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 49

ry species hunted are American widgeon, pintail, lesser Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
scaup, ringneck, and green-winged teal. and herbaceous legumes that are planted for wildlife food
Numerous kinds of saltwater game fish occur in the and cover. Examples are bahiagrass, lovegrass,
coastal waters. The most common freshwater game fish switchgrass, annual lespedeza, pangolagrass, clover,
are black crappie, largemouth bass, redbreast sunfish, trefoil, and hairy indigo. Major soil properties that affect
shellcrackers, bluegill bream, warmouth, and channel cat- the growth of grasses and legumes are depth of the root
fish. Most of the freshwater fishing takes place in the zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capaci-
Withlacoochee River and in the small natural lakes and ty, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard, and slope.
ponds scattered over the survey area. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also considera-
Soils directly affect the kind and amount of vegetation tions.
that is available to wildlife as food and cover, and they af- Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
feet the construction of water impoundments. The kind established grasses and forbs, including weeds, that pro-
and abundance of wildlife that populate an area depend vide food and cover for wildlife. Examples are bluestem,
largely on the amount and distribution of food, cover, and indiangrass, goldenrod, beggarweed, pokeweed, par-
water. If any one of these elements is missing, in- tridgepea, deer vetch, and grama. Major soil properties
adequate, or inaccessible, wildlife either are scarce or do that affect the growth of these plants are depth of the
not inhabit the area. root zone, texture of the surface layer, available water
If the soils have the potential, wildlife habitat can be capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil
created or improved by planting appropriate vegetation, temperature and soil moisture are also considerations.
by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by helping the Hardwood trees and the associated woody understory
natural establishment of desirable plants, provide cover for wildlife and produce nuts or other fruit,
In table 13, the soils in the survey area are rated ac- buds, catkins, twigs, bark, or foliage that wildlife eat. Ex-
cording to their potential to support the main kinds of amples of native plants are oak, magnolia, cherry, sweet-
wildlife habitat in the area. This information can be used gum, maple, hawthorn, dogwood, persimmon, sassafras,
in planning for parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, sumac, hickory, cabbage palm, beautyberry, blackberry,
and other developments for wildlife; selecting areas that grape, inkberry, saw-palmetto, viburnum, huckleberry,
are suitable for wildlife; selecting soils that are suitable bayberry, and briers. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs
for creating, improving, or maintaining specific elements that are commercially available and suitable for planting
of wildlife habitat; and determining the intensity of on soils rated good are Russian-olive, autumn-olive, and
management needed for each element of the habitat, crabapple. Major soil properties that affect growth of
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
very poor. A rating of good means that the element of available water capacity, and wetness.
wildlife habitat or the kind of habitat is easily created, Coniferous plants are cone-bearing trees, shrubs, or
improved, or maintained. Few or no limitations affect ground cover plants that furnish habitat or supply food in
management, and satisfactory results can be expected if the form of browse, seeds, or fruitlike cones. Examples
the soil is used for the designated purpose. A rating of are pine, cedar, and cypress. Soil properties that have a
fair means that the element of wildlife habitat or kind of major effect on the growth of coniferous plants are depth
habitat can be created, improved, or maintained in most of the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
places. Moderately intensive management is required for Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild her-
satisfactory results. A rating of poor means that limita- baceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites, exclusive
tions are severe for the designated element or kind of of submerged or floating aquatics. They produce food or
wildlife habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or cover for wildlife that use wetland as habitat. Examples
maintained in most places, but management is difficult of wetland plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice,
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor means that saltgrass, and cordgrass and cattails, rushes, sedges, and
restrictions for the element of wildlife habitat or kind of reeds. Major soil properties affecting wetland plants are
wildlife are very severe, and that unsatisfactory results texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
can be expected. Wildlife habitat is impractical or even slope, and surface stoniness.
impossible to create, improve, or maintain on soils having Shallow water areas are bodies of water that have an
such a rating. average depth of less than 5 feet and that are useful to
The elements of wildlife habitat are briefly described in wildlife. They can be naturally wet areas, or they can be
the following paragraphs, created by dams or levees or by water-control devices in
Grain and seed crops are seed-producing annuals used marshes or streams. Examples are coastal marshes,
by wildlife. Examples are corn, sorghum, millet, rye, cow- waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds. Major soil properties
peas, soybeans, and sunflowers. The major soil properties affecting shallow water areas are depth to bedrock, wet-
that affect the growth of grain and seed crops are depth ness, surface stoniness, slope, and permeability. The
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available availability of a dependable water supply is important if
water capacity, wetness, slope, surface stoniness, and water areas are to be developed.
flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also The kinds of wildlife habitat are briefly described in
considerations. the following paragraphs.








50 SOIL SURVEY

Openland habitat consists of cropland, pasture, servation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for all
meadows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses, soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for
herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and many soil series not tested are available from nearby sur-
seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous vey areas.
plants. The kinds of wildlife attracted to these areas in- The available field and laboratory data are summarized
clude bobwhite quail, meadowlark, field sparrow, cotton- in tables. The tables give the estimated range of en-
tail rabbit, red fox, and doves. gineering properties, the engineering classification, and
Woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or the physical and chemical properties of each major
conifers, or a mixture of both, and associated grasses, horizon of each soil in the survey area. They also present
legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to pertinent soil and water features, engineering test data,
these areas include wild turkey, woodcock, thrushes, and data obtained from physical and chemical laboratory
vireos, woodpeckers, squirrels, grey fox, raccoon, deer, analyses of soils.
and black bear.
Wetland habitat consists of open, marshy or swampy, Engineering properties
shallow-water areas where water-tolerant plants grow.
Some of the wildlife attracted to such areas are ducks, Table 14 gives estimates of engineering properties and
geese, herons, shore birds, rails, kingfishers, alligators, classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the
and otters. survey area.
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons
Wildlife management practices of contrasting properties. Table 14 gives information for
Wildlife habitat management thrives on disturbances, each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile.
such as controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivation, Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each horizon
water level manipulation, mowing, and sometimes the use is indicated More information about the range in depth
of pesticides. Each species of wildlife occupies a niche in a and about other properties in each horizon is given for
vegetative type; therefore, management for a particular ea s series in the section l series and morpholo-
species involves an attempt to keep the vegetative com- gy.
munity in the stage or stages that favor that species. Texture is described in table 14 in the standard terms
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms
plant diversity in an area. A wide range in the intersper- are defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and
sion of vegetative types or age classes is generally more clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
favorable to wildlife. Increasing dominance by a few plant diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil material that is 7 to
species is generally accompanied by a corresponding 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 per-
decrease in numbers of wildlife. cent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other particles
coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for
example, "gravelly loam." Other texture terms are
Soil properties defined in the Glossary.
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils for
Extensive data about soil properties are summarized on engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification System
the following pages. The two main sources of these data (Unified) (2) and the system adopted by the American
are the many thousands of soil borings made during the Association of State Highway and Transportation Offi-
course of the survey and the laboratory analyses of cials (AASHTO) (1).
selected soil samples from typical profiles. The Unified system classifies soils according to proper-
In making soil borings during field mapping, soil ties that affect their use as construction material. Soils
scientists can identify several important soil properties. are classified according to grain-size distribution of the
They note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter, plasticity index,
presence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in liquid limit, and organic-matter content. Soils are grouped
the profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil into 15 classes-eight classes of coarse-grained soils,
material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six
gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL,
natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils,
soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place identified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two
under the existing soil moisture conditions. They record classes have a dual classification symbol, for example, CL-
the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of ML.
the soil, and identify any free carbonates. The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those
Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory properties that affect their use in highway construction
to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to and maintenance. In this system a mineral soil is clas-
determine all major properties of key soils, especially pro- sified in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1
perties that cannot be estimated accurately by field ob- through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid








50 SOIL SURVEY

Openland habitat consists of cropland, pasture, servation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for all
meadows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses, soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for
herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and many soil series not tested are available from nearby sur-
seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous vey areas.
plants. The kinds of wildlife attracted to these areas in- The available field and laboratory data are summarized
clude bobwhite quail, meadowlark, field sparrow, cotton- in tables. The tables give the estimated range of en-
tail rabbit, red fox, and doves. gineering properties, the engineering classification, and
Woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or the physical and chemical properties of each major
conifers, or a mixture of both, and associated grasses, horizon of each soil in the survey area. They also present
legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to pertinent soil and water features, engineering test data,
these areas include wild turkey, woodcock, thrushes, and data obtained from physical and chemical laboratory
vireos, woodpeckers, squirrels, grey fox, raccoon, deer, analyses of soils.
and black bear.
Wetland habitat consists of open, marshy or swampy, Engineering properties
shallow-water areas where water-tolerant plants grow.
Some of the wildlife attracted to such areas are ducks, Table 14 gives estimates of engineering properties and
geese, herons, shore birds, rails, kingfishers, alligators, classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the
and otters. survey area.
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons
Wildlife management practices of contrasting properties. Table 14 gives information for
Wildlife habitat management thrives on disturbances, each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile.
such as controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivation, Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each horizon
water level manipulation, mowing, and sometimes the use is indicated More information about the range in depth
of pesticides. Each species of wildlife occupies a niche in a and about other properties in each horizon is given for
vegetative type; therefore, management for a particular ea s series in the section l series and morpholo-
species involves an attempt to keep the vegetative com- gy.
munity in the stage or stages that favor that species. Texture is described in table 14 in the standard terms
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms
plant diversity in an area. A wide range in the intersper- are defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and
sion of vegetative types or age classes is generally more clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
favorable to wildlife. Increasing dominance by a few plant diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil material that is 7 to
species is generally accompanied by a corresponding 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 per-
decrease in numbers of wildlife. cent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other particles
coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for
example, "gravelly loam." Other texture terms are
Soil properties defined in the Glossary.
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils for
Extensive data about soil properties are summarized on engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification System
the following pages. The two main sources of these data (Unified) (2) and the system adopted by the American
are the many thousands of soil borings made during the Association of State Highway and Transportation Offi-
course of the survey and the laboratory analyses of cials (AASHTO) (1).
selected soil samples from typical profiles. The Unified system classifies soils according to proper-
In making soil borings during field mapping, soil ties that affect their use as construction material. Soils
scientists can identify several important soil properties. are classified according to grain-size distribution of the
They note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter, plasticity index,
presence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in liquid limit, and organic-matter content. Soils are grouped
the profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil into 15 classes-eight classes of coarse-grained soils,
material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six
gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL,
natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils,
soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place identified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two
under the existing soil moisture conditions. They record classes have a dual classification symbol, for example, CL-
the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of ML.
the soil, and identify any free carbonates. The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those
Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory properties that affect their use in highway construction
to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to and maintenance. In this system a mineral soil is clas-
determine all major properties of key soils, especially pro- sified in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1
perties that cannot be estimated accurately by field ob- through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid








50 SOIL SURVEY

Openland habitat consists of cropland, pasture, servation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for all
meadows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses, soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for
herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and many soil series not tested are available from nearby sur-
seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous vey areas.
plants. The kinds of wildlife attracted to these areas in- The available field and laboratory data are summarized
clude bobwhite quail, meadowlark, field sparrow, cotton- in tables. The tables give the estimated range of en-
tail rabbit, red fox, and doves. gineering properties, the engineering classification, and
Woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or the physical and chemical properties of each major
conifers, or a mixture of both, and associated grasses, horizon of each soil in the survey area. They also present
legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to pertinent soil and water features, engineering test data,
these areas include wild turkey, woodcock, thrushes, and data obtained from physical and chemical laboratory
vireos, woodpeckers, squirrels, grey fox, raccoon, deer, analyses of soils.
and black bear.
Wetland habitat consists of open, marshy or swampy, Engineering properties
shallow-water areas where water-tolerant plants grow.
Some of the wildlife attracted to such areas are ducks, Table 14 gives estimates of engineering properties and
geese, herons, shore birds, rails, kingfishers, alligators, classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the
and otters. survey area.
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons
Wildlife management practices of contrasting properties. Table 14 gives information for
Wildlife habitat management thrives on disturbances, each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile.
such as controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivation, Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each horizon
water level manipulation, mowing, and sometimes the use is indicated More information about the range in depth
of pesticides. Each species of wildlife occupies a niche in a and about other properties in each horizon is given for
vegetative type; therefore, management for a particular ea s series in the section l series and morpholo-
species involves an attempt to keep the vegetative com- gy.
munity in the stage or stages that favor that species. Texture is described in table 14 in the standard terms
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms
plant diversity in an area. A wide range in the intersper- are defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and
sion of vegetative types or age classes is generally more clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
favorable to wildlife. Increasing dominance by a few plant diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil material that is 7 to
species is generally accompanied by a corresponding 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 per-
decrease in numbers of wildlife. cent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other particles
coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for
example, "gravelly loam." Other texture terms are
Soil properties defined in the Glossary.
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils for
Extensive data about soil properties are summarized on engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification System
the following pages. The two main sources of these data (Unified) (2) and the system adopted by the American
are the many thousands of soil borings made during the Association of State Highway and Transportation Offi-
course of the survey and the laboratory analyses of cials (AASHTO) (1).
selected soil samples from typical profiles. The Unified system classifies soils according to proper-
In making soil borings during field mapping, soil ties that affect their use as construction material. Soils
scientists can identify several important soil properties. are classified according to grain-size distribution of the
They note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter, plasticity index,
presence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in liquid limit, and organic-matter content. Soils are grouped
the profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil into 15 classes-eight classes of coarse-grained soils,
material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six
gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL,
natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils,
soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place identified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two
under the existing soil moisture conditions. They record classes have a dual classification symbol, for example, CL-
the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of ML.
the soil, and identify any free carbonates. The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those
Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory properties that affect their use in highway construction
to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to and maintenance. In this system a mineral soil is clas-
determine all major properties of key soils, especially pro- sified in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1
perties that cannot be estimated accurately by field ob- through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid








50 SOIL SURVEY

Openland habitat consists of cropland, pasture, servation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for all
meadows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses, soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for
herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and many soil series not tested are available from nearby sur-
seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous vey areas.
plants. The kinds of wildlife attracted to these areas in- The available field and laboratory data are summarized
clude bobwhite quail, meadowlark, field sparrow, cotton- in tables. The tables give the estimated range of en-
tail rabbit, red fox, and doves. gineering properties, the engineering classification, and
Woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or the physical and chemical properties of each major
conifers, or a mixture of both, and associated grasses, horizon of each soil in the survey area. They also present
legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to pertinent soil and water features, engineering test data,
these areas include wild turkey, woodcock, thrushes, and data obtained from physical and chemical laboratory
vireos, woodpeckers, squirrels, grey fox, raccoon, deer, analyses of soils.
and black bear.
Wetland habitat consists of open, marshy or swampy, Engineering properties
shallow-water areas where water-tolerant plants grow.
Some of the wildlife attracted to such areas are ducks, Table 14 gives estimates of engineering properties and
geese, herons, shore birds, rails, kingfishers, alligators, classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the
and otters. survey area.
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons
Wildlife management practices of contrasting properties. Table 14 gives information for
Wildlife habitat management thrives on disturbances, each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile.
such as controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivation, Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each horizon
water level manipulation, mowing, and sometimes the use is indicated More information about the range in depth
of pesticides. Each species of wildlife occupies a niche in a and about other properties in each horizon is given for
vegetative type; therefore, management for a particular ea s series in the section l series and morpholo-
species involves an attempt to keep the vegetative com- gy.
munity in the stage or stages that favor that species. Texture is described in table 14 in the standard terms
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms
plant diversity in an area. A wide range in the intersper- are defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and
sion of vegetative types or age classes is generally more clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
favorable to wildlife. Increasing dominance by a few plant diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil material that is 7 to
species is generally accompanied by a corresponding 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 per-
decrease in numbers of wildlife. cent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other particles
coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for
example, "gravelly loam." Other texture terms are
Soil properties defined in the Glossary.
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils for
Extensive data about soil properties are summarized on engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification System
the following pages. The two main sources of these data (Unified) (2) and the system adopted by the American
are the many thousands of soil borings made during the Association of State Highway and Transportation Offi-
course of the survey and the laboratory analyses of cials (AASHTO) (1).
selected soil samples from typical profiles. The Unified system classifies soils according to proper-
In making soil borings during field mapping, soil ties that affect their use as construction material. Soils
scientists can identify several important soil properties. are classified according to grain-size distribution of the
They note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter, plasticity index,
presence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in liquid limit, and organic-matter content. Soils are grouped
the profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil into 15 classes-eight classes of coarse-grained soils,
material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six
gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL,
natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils,
soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place identified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two
under the existing soil moisture conditions. They record classes have a dual classification symbol, for example, CL-
the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of ML.
the soil, and identify any free carbonates. The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those
Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory properties that affect their use in highway construction
to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to and maintenance. In this system a mineral soil is clas-
determine all major properties of key soils, especially pro- sified in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1
perties that cannot be estimated accurately by field ob- through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

limit, and plasticity index. Soils in group A-1 are coarse soil is an important factor to be considered in planning
grained and low in content of fines. At the other extreme, and designing drainage systems, in evaluating the poten-
in group A-7, are fine-grained soils. Highly organic soils tial of soils for septic tank systems and other waste
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspec- disposal systems, and in many other aspects of land use
tion. and management.
When laboratory data are available, the A-i, A-2, and Available water capacity is rated on the basis of soil
A-7 groups are further classified as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b, characteristics that influence the ability of the soil to hold
A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As an addi- water and make it available to plants. Important charac-
tional refinement, the desirability of soils as subgrade teristics are content of organic matter, soil texture, and
material can be indicated by a group index number. These soil structure. Shallow-rooted plants are not likely to use
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to the available water from the deeper soil horizons. Availa-
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification ble water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
for soils tested in the survey area, with group index num- plants or crops to be grown and in the design of irrigation
bers in parentheses, is given in table 20. The estimated systems.
classification, without group index numbers, is given in Soil reaction is expressed as range in pH values. The
table 14. Also in table 14 the percentage, by weight, of range in pH of each major horizon is based on many field
rock fragments more than 3 inches in diameter is esti- checks. For many soils, the values have been verified by
mated for each major horizon. These estimates are deter- laboratory analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting
mined mainly by observing volume percentage in the field the crops, ornamental plants, or other plants to be grown;
and then converting that, by formula, to weight percent- in evaluating soil amendments for fertility and stabiliza-
age. tion; and in evaluating the corrosivity of soils.
Percentage of the soil material less than 3 inches in Salinity is expressed as the electrical conductivity of
diameter that passes each of four sieves (U.S. standard) the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at 25
is estimated for each major horizon. The estimates are degrees C. Estimates are based on field and laboratory
based on tests of soils that were sampled in the survey measurements at representative sites of the nonirrigated
based on tests of soils that were sampled in the survey soils. The salinity of individual irrigated fields is affected
area and in nearby areas and on field estimates from by the quality of the irrigation water and by the frequen-
many borings made during the survey, cy of water application. Hence, the salinity of individual
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of fields can differ greatly from the value given in table 15.
water on the strength and consistence of soil. These in- Salinity affects the suitability of a soil for crop produc-
dexes are used in both the Unified and AASHTO soil tion, its stability when used as a construction material,
classification systems. They are also used as indicators in and its potential to corrode metal and concrete.
making general predictions of soil behavior. Range in Shrink-swell potential depends mainly on the amount
liquid limit and plasticity index are estimated on the basis and kind of clay in the soil. Laboratory measurements of
of test data from the survey area or from nearby areas the swelling of undisturbed clods were made for many
and on observations of the many soil borings made during soils. For others the swelling was estimated on the basis
the survey. of the kind and amount of clay in the soil and on mea-
In some surveys, the estimates are rounded to the surements of similar soils. The size of the load and the
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and magnitude of the change in soil moisture content also in-
Atterburg limits extend a marginal amount across clas- fluence the swelling of soils. Shrinking and swelling of
sification boundaries (1 or 2 percent), the classification in some soils can cause damage to building foundations,
the marginal zone is omitted in table 14. basement walls, roads, and other structures unless special
designs are used. A high shrink-swell potential indicates
Physical and chemical properties that special design and added expense may be required if
the planned use of the soil will not tolerate large volume
Table 15 shows estimated values for several soil charac- changes.
teristics and features that affect behavior of soils in en- Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
gineering uses. These estimates are given for each major chemical action that dissolves or weakens uncoated steel
horizon, at the depths indicated, in the typical pedon of or concrete. The rate of corrosion of uncoated steel is re-
each soil. The estimates are based on field observations lated to soil moisture, particle-size distribution, total acidi-
and on test data for these and similar soils. ty, and electrical conductivity of the soil material. The
Permeability is estimated on the basis of known rela- rate of corrosion of concrete is based mainly on the
tionships among the soil characteristics observed in the sulfate content, texture, and acidity of the soil. Protective
field-particularly soil structure, porosity, and gradation measures for steel or more resistant concrete help to
or texture-that influence the downward movement of avoid or minimize damage resulting from the corrosion.
water in the soil. The estimates are for vertical water Uncoated steel intersecting soil boundaries or soil
movement when the soil is saturated. Not considered in horizons is more susceptible to corrosion than an installa-
the estimates is lateral seepage or such transient soil fea- tion that is entirely within one kind of soil or within one
tures as plowpans and surface crusts. Permeability of the soil horizon.








52 SOIL SURVEY

Erosion factors (K and T) are factors used in an equa- because of contraction and swelling of clay fraction by
tion that predicts the amount of soil loss resulting from wetting and drying); moderately to highly erodible;
rainfall erosion of cropland. The soil erodibility factor K is generally require at least two practices to control soil
a measure of the rate at which a soil will erode. From the blowing.
equation, values are expressed as tons of soil lost per acre Group 5. Soils not suitable for cultivation because of
per unit of R (rainfall factor) from continuous fallow (3 wetness or stoniness; soil blowing not a concern.
years or more) on a 9 percent slope, 73 feet long. Thus, Soil blowing usually starts at some critical location,
the K factor reflects the rate that soil erodes when the such as on building sites, where the surface is exposed; in
factors affecting erosion are constant. The K factors areas of spoil material from excavations; on exposed
shown in table 16 range from 0.10 to 0.32. The lower the knolls; on tracks or paths made by machinery or animals;
K factor, the lower the erosion potential, and the higher and at covers or turnrows in cultivated areas, where the
the K factor, the higher the erosion potential, soil has been excessively pulverized. Soil blowing occurs
Soil properties that influence erodibility by water are when a wind of adequate velocity blows across an unpro-
those that affect infiltration rate, movement of water tected soil surface that is smooth, bare, loose, dry, and
through the soil, water storage capacity and those that finely granulated.
resist dispersion, splashing, abrasion, and transporting
forces from rainfall and runoff. Some of the soil proper- Soil and water features
ties that are most important are texture and organic
matter content of the surface layer, size and stability of Table 16 contains information helpful in planning land
structural aggregates in the surface layer, permeability of uses and engineering projects that are likely to be af-
the subsoil, and depth to slowly permeable layers. fected by soil and water features.
The soil-loss tolerance factor T, sometimes called per- Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
missile soil loss, is the maximum rate of soil erosion that from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
will permit a high level of crop productivity to be placed in one of four groups on the basis of the intake of
sustained economically and indefinitely. These rates are water after the soils have been wetted and have received
expressed in tons of soil loss per acre per year. Rates of 1 precipitation from long-duration storms.
through 5 tons are used, depending upon soil properties, The four hydrologic soil groups are:
soil depth, and prior erosion. Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low ru-
Wind erodibility grouping is the placement of soils hav- noff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly
ing similar wind erodibility potentials into groups. This is of deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
done by the use of the "wind erodibility equation," in gravels. These soils have a high rate of water transmis-
which the factors which influence soil blowing are used. sion.
Soil blowing is a dominant concern on many of the sandy Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
soils in the area during dry periods, primarily in March, thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
April, and May. Soils are placed in groups from 1 to 5. to deep, moderately well drained to well drained soils that
Low numbers indicate a high potential soil loss from soil have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse tex-
blowing. The organic soils in their wet natural state are ture. These soils have a moderate rate of water transmis-
not subject to soil blowing; if drained and cultivated, how- sion.
ever, they are. The most serious damage from soil blow- Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
ing is the separation and gradual removal of silt, clay, and thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils that have a
organic matter from the surface layer. Soil blowing, layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
besides causing severe damage to crops, can also cause soils that have moderately fine texture or fine texture.
traffic problems, fill drainage ditches, block roads, bury These soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
equipment, and create dust and health problems in re- Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
sidential areas. The wind erodibility groups are: runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
Group 1. Mostly soils that have single grained, dry, chiefly of clay soils that have a high shrink-swell poten-
cloddy structure in the surface layer; extremely erodible; tial, soils that have a permanent high water table, soils
vegetation difficult to establish; not suitable for cultiva- that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface,
tion. and soils that are shallow over nearly impervious materi-
Group 2. Mostly soils that have weak, dry, cloddy struc- al. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmis-
ture in the surface layer; very highly erodible; generally sion.
require a combination of practices Flooding is the temporary covering of soil with water
Group 3. Mostly soils that have moderately stable, dry from overflowing streams, with runoff from adjacent
cloddy structure in the surface layer; highly erodible; slopes, and by tides. Water standing for short periods
generally require at least two practices to control soil after rainfall and standing water in depressions, swamps,
blowing, and marshes for long periods is not considered flooding.
Group 4. Soils that have extremely variable, dry, cloddy Flooding is rated in general terms that describe the
structure in the surface layer (slacking and granulation frequency and duration of flooding and the time of year








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 53
when flooding is most likely. The ratings are based on Test data
evidence in the soil profile of the effects of flooding,
namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or, in places, clay Physical and chemical analyses of selected soils
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic- By M. A. GRANGER, visiting assistant professor, and V. W. CARLISLE
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of and R. E. CALDWELL, professors of soil science, Soil Science Depart-
distinctive soil horizons that form in soils of the area that ment, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
are not subject to flooding. The ratings are also based on Physical, chemical, and mineral properties of represen-
local information about floodwater levels in the area and tative pedons sampled in Hernando County are presented
the extent of flooding; and information that relates the in tables 17, 18, and 19. The analyses were conducted and
position of each soil on the landscape to historic floods, coordinated by the Soil Characterization Laboratory at
The generalized description of flood hazards is of value the University of Florida. Detailed profile descriptions of
in land-use planning and provides a valid basis for land- the soils analyzed are given in alphabetical order by se-
.ries name in the section "Classification of the Soils."
use restrictions. The soil data are less specific, however, Laboratory data and profile information for other soils in
than those provided by detailed engineering surveys that Hernando County as well as for other counties in Florida
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency are on file in the Soil Science Department, University of
levels. Florida.
High water table is the highest level of a saturated Soils were sampled from pits at carefully selected loca-
zone more than 6 inches thick for a continuous period of tions that represented typifying profiles. The samples
more than 2 weeks during most years. The depth to a were air-dried, crushed, and sieved through a 2-mm
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. Esti- screen. Most of the analytical methods used are outlined
mates are based mainly on the relationship between gray- in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1 (10).
ish colors or mottles in the soil and the depth to free Particle size distribution was determined by using a
modification of the Bouyoucos hydrometer procedure with
water observed in many borings made during the course sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. Hydrauic
sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. Hydraulic
of the soil survey. Indicated are the depth to the seasonal conductivity, bulk density, and water content were deter-
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched, mined on undisturbed core samples. Organic carbon was
artesian, or apparent; and the months of the year that the determined by a modification of the Walkley-Black wet
water table commonly is high. Only saturated zones above combustion method. Extractable bases were obtained by
a depth of 5 or 6 feet are indicated, leaching soils with ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
Information about the seasonal high water table helps Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined by
in assessing the need for specially designed foundations, flame photometry, and calcium and magnesium, by atomic
the need for specific kinds of drainage systems, and the absorption spectroscopy. Extractable acidity was deter-
need for footing drains to insure dry basements. Such in- mined by the barium chloride-triethanolamine method at
formation is also needed to decide whether or not con- pH 8.2. Cation exchange capacity is the sum of extracta-
struction of basements is feasible and to determine how ble bases and extractable acidity. Base saturation is the
ratio of extractable bases to cation exchange capacity ex-
septic tank absorption fields and other underground in- pressed in percent. The pH measurements were made
stallations will function. Also, a seasonal high water table with a glass electrode using a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a
affects ease of excavation. 0.01 M calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio;
Depth to bedrock is shown for all soils that are under- and 1 N potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution
lain by bedrock at a depth of 5 to 6 feet or less. For many ratio.
soils, the limited depth to bedrock is a part of the defini- Iron and aluminum were extracted from suspected
tion of the soil series. The depths shown are based on spodic horizons with dithionate citrate. In a few horizons
measurements made in many soil borings and on other carbon, iron, and aluminum were extracted with 0.1 M
observations during the soil mapping. The kind of bedrock sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of iron and alu-
and its hardness as related to ease of excavation is also minum was by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ex-
shown. Rippable bedrock can be excavated with a single- tracted carbon by the Walkley-Black wet combustion
method. Mineralogy of the clay fraction was ascertained
tooth ripping attachment on a 200-horsepower tractor, but by X-ray difrao o he c f reaction 18 angstrom, 14
hard bedrock generally requires blasting. by X-ray diffracton. Peak heights at 8 angstrom, 14
bedrener s b o s angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, 4.83 angstrom, and 4.31 angstrom
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of soils positions represent montmorillonite or interstratified ex-
containing semifluid layers. Initial subsidence generally pandible, vermiculite and (or) 14 angstrom intergrades,
results from drainage. Total subsidence is initial sub- kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz, respectively, which were
sidence plus the slow sinking that occurs over a period of measured, summed, and normalized to give percent of soil
several years as a result of the oxidation or compression minerals identified in the X-ray diffractograms. This per-
of organic material, centage is not an absolute quantity but a relative dis-








54 SOIL SURVEY

tribution of clay minerals in the clay fraction of the sam- Myakka soil and generally averages about 1.4 percent for
ples. The absolute percentage would require additional most soils. Organic carbon decreases with depth in most
knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, and crystal lattice soils except those with a spodic or Bh horizon in which
substitution, there is an accumulation greater than 1.0 percent. In its
Many of the soils are inherently sandy. With some ex- native form organic carbon seems to be the primary
ceptions, these soils are dominated by fine and very fine source of cation exchange capacity in the upper horizons
sands to a depth of more than 1 meter. The total silt con- of all Hernando County soils. It is directly responsible for
tent rarely is as high as 10 percent and is usually con- improving physical conditions, and nutrient and water re-
siderably less than 5 percent. Some soils such as Astatula, tention capacities, particularly in sandy soils. The lack of
Basinger, Candler, Lake, Myakka, Paola, and Tavares a significant quantity of clay in these upper horizons dic-
soils are sandy to a depth of 2 meters or more; however, states that proper agronomic uses of these soils include
textures of sandy clay loam are at a depth of less than 1 programs for the conservation and maintenance of this
meter in Wauchula soils. The Flemington soil is clayey vital component.
throughout except for the A horizon. The Aripeka soil is Soil reaction in calcium chloride is quite variable across
shallow, but in it as in the Paisley soil, clay content in- the county, with little predictive trends, but the sandy
creases with depth below a depth of about 33 cm. soils are consistently acid with a narrow range between
The textural implications are for a tendency toward horizons of the same soil. Soils such as Aripeka, Myakka,
droughtiness in sandy soils. Based on bulk densities and and Paisley soils range from extremely acid in their sur-
the moisture retained between 1/10 and 15 bars, these face horizons to neutral or mildly alkaline in subsoil
soils will hold no more than 5 centimeters of water availa- horizons. Wauchula, Floridana Variant, Electra Variant,
ble to plants in the upper 40 centimeters and as much as Basin and Tavares soils are consistently extremely
20 centimeters in the upper 1 meter; .
20 centimeters in the upper 1 meter: acid to strongly acid with less than 1 pH unit difference
The hydraulic conductivity in these soils is very high, between horony af the se s n many places. Cor
often in excess of 20 centimeters per hour. However, it between horizons of the same soil in many places. Cor-
falls to zero or near zero centimeters per hour in argillic relation between percent base saturation and pH is not
horizons of Arredondo, Blichton, and Nobleton soils and in always evident and is readily demonstrated by the sandy
the moderately well expressed spodic horizons of Electra Astatula, Candler, and Lake so ils.
Variant soils. Sodium pyrophosphate, extractable carbon, iron, and
Chemical properties are reported in table 18. Extracta- aluminum were determined for the Basinger, Electra
ble bases, cation exchange capacity, and base saturation Variant, Paola, and Wauchula soils to determine if they
indicated that most of these soils tend to have a low na- met certain chemical criteria for spodic horizons. The
tive nutrient status. Calcium and magnesium are the pri- Electra Variant and the Wauchula soils met the criteria.
mary bases with not more than traces of sodium and The mineralogy of the coarser fraction (larger than
potassium. Extractable acidity tends to be quite high in 0.002 mm) is invariably quartz in all the soils sampled.
most profiles. Specifically, Astatula, Basinger, Candler, There are no weatherable minerals and few heavy and
Masaryk, Paola, Sparr, and Tavares soils have extremely opaque minerals. Mineralogy of crystalline components of
low cation exchange capacities with little or no bases on the clay fraction (smaller than 0.002 mm) is reported in
these exchange complexes, and with the exception of table 18 for selected horizons of the soils sampled. In
Astatula, very low base status. Other soils have an inter- general the total mineralogical suite is composed of a 14
mediate cation exchange capacity. The Bh or spodic angstrom intergrade mineral, kaolinite, montmorillonite,
horizons of Electra Variant, Myakka, and Wauchula soils and quartz. Gibbsite is detected only in the lower horizon
have higher cation exchange capacities than their overly- of the Basinger soil.
ing horizons. A low base saturation is consistent with Bh Blichton, Flemington, Nobleton, and Wauchula soils
horizons. However, in Myakka soils the spodic or Bh have significant quantities of montmorillonite in the clay
horizon is rich in calcium and consequently has an fraction. The 14 angstrom intergrade mineral is in all the
unusually high base saturation. The high base saturation soils, generally decreasing with increasing depth, while
of Astatula soils does not necessarily imply a high level of kaolinite increases with depth. This trend between these
available nutrients, but should best be interpreted with two minerals suggests that kaolinite is the less stable
reference to its cation exchange capacity. Soils with low component and that most of these soils are at an ad-
cation exchange capacities require only small amounts of vanced stage of weathering. The montmorillonite seems
bases to significantly alter their base saturation. Con- to have been inherited and should be the least stable com-
sequently, for successful crop production, such soils ponent in the present environment; nevertheless, its
require small but frequent applications of fertilizers. The presence in Paisley, Flemington, Wauchula, and Blichton
Aripeka, Blichton, Flemington, and Paisley soils have both soils greatly influences the use and management of these
relatively high cation exchange capacities and base satu- soils. In other soils clay content is so low in the upper
ration. These are the more naturally fertile soils, horizons that the use and management are more in-
Organic carbon in surface horizons ranges from about fluenced by the total clay content than by clay mineralo-
0.5 percent in the Tavares soil to about 3.5 percent in the gy.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 53
when flooding is most likely. The ratings are based on Test data
evidence in the soil profile of the effects of flooding,
namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or, in places, clay Physical and chemical analyses of selected soils
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic- By M. A. GRANGER, visiting assistant professor, and V. W. CARLISLE
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of and R. E. CALDWELL, professors of soil science, Soil Science Depart-
distinctive soil horizons that form in soils of the area that ment, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
are not subject to flooding. The ratings are also based on Physical, chemical, and mineral properties of represen-
local information about floodwater levels in the area and tative pedons sampled in Hernando County are presented
the extent of flooding; and information that relates the in tables 17, 18, and 19. The analyses were conducted and
position of each soil on the landscape to historic floods, coordinated by the Soil Characterization Laboratory at
The generalized description of flood hazards is of value the University of Florida. Detailed profile descriptions of
in land-use planning and provides a valid basis for land- the soils analyzed are given in alphabetical order by se-
.ries name in the section "Classification of the Soils."
use restrictions. The soil data are less specific, however, Laboratory data and profile information for other soils in
than those provided by detailed engineering surveys that Hernando County as well as for other counties in Florida
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency are on file in the Soil Science Department, University of
levels. Florida.
High water table is the highest level of a saturated Soils were sampled from pits at carefully selected loca-
zone more than 6 inches thick for a continuous period of tions that represented typifying profiles. The samples
more than 2 weeks during most years. The depth to a were air-dried, crushed, and sieved through a 2-mm
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. Esti- screen. Most of the analytical methods used are outlined
mates are based mainly on the relationship between gray- in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1 (10).
ish colors or mottles in the soil and the depth to free Particle size distribution was determined by using a
modification of the Bouyoucos hydrometer procedure with
water observed in many borings made during the course sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. Hydrauic
sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. Hydraulic
of the soil survey. Indicated are the depth to the seasonal conductivity, bulk density, and water content were deter-
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched, mined on undisturbed core samples. Organic carbon was
artesian, or apparent; and the months of the year that the determined by a modification of the Walkley-Black wet
water table commonly is high. Only saturated zones above combustion method. Extractable bases were obtained by
a depth of 5 or 6 feet are indicated, leaching soils with ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
Information about the seasonal high water table helps Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined by
in assessing the need for specially designed foundations, flame photometry, and calcium and magnesium, by atomic
the need for specific kinds of drainage systems, and the absorption spectroscopy. Extractable acidity was deter-
need for footing drains to insure dry basements. Such in- mined by the barium chloride-triethanolamine method at
formation is also needed to decide whether or not con- pH 8.2. Cation exchange capacity is the sum of extracta-
struction of basements is feasible and to determine how ble bases and extractable acidity. Base saturation is the
ratio of extractable bases to cation exchange capacity ex-
septic tank absorption fields and other underground in- pressed in percent. The pH measurements were made
stallations will function. Also, a seasonal high water table with a glass electrode using a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a
affects ease of excavation. 0.01 M calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio;
Depth to bedrock is shown for all soils that are under- and 1 N potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution
lain by bedrock at a depth of 5 to 6 feet or less. For many ratio.
soils, the limited depth to bedrock is a part of the defini- Iron and aluminum were extracted from suspected
tion of the soil series. The depths shown are based on spodic horizons with dithionate citrate. In a few horizons
measurements made in many soil borings and on other carbon, iron, and aluminum were extracted with 0.1 M
observations during the soil mapping. The kind of bedrock sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of iron and alu-
and its hardness as related to ease of excavation is also minum was by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ex-
shown. Rippable bedrock can be excavated with a single- tracted carbon by the Walkley-Black wet combustion
method. Mineralogy of the clay fraction was ascertained
tooth ripping attachment on a 200-horsepower tractor, but by X-ray difrao o he c f reaction 18 angstrom, 14
hard bedrock generally requires blasting. by X-ray diffracton. Peak heights at 8 angstrom, 14
bedrener s b o s angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, 4.83 angstrom, and 4.31 angstrom
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of soils positions represent montmorillonite or interstratified ex-
containing semifluid layers. Initial subsidence generally pandible, vermiculite and (or) 14 angstrom intergrades,
results from drainage. Total subsidence is initial sub- kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz, respectively, which were
sidence plus the slow sinking that occurs over a period of measured, summed, and normalized to give percent of soil
several years as a result of the oxidation or compression minerals identified in the X-ray diffractograms. This per-
of organic material, centage is not an absolute quantity but a relative dis-








54 SOIL SURVEY

tribution of clay minerals in the clay fraction of the sam- Myakka soil and generally averages about 1.4 percent for
ples. The absolute percentage would require additional most soils. Organic carbon decreases with depth in most
knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, and crystal lattice soils except those with a spodic or Bh horizon in which
substitution, there is an accumulation greater than 1.0 percent. In its
Many of the soils are inherently sandy. With some ex- native form organic carbon seems to be the primary
ceptions, these soils are dominated by fine and very fine source of cation exchange capacity in the upper horizons
sands to a depth of more than 1 meter. The total silt con- of all Hernando County soils. It is directly responsible for
tent rarely is as high as 10 percent and is usually con- improving physical conditions, and nutrient and water re-
siderably less than 5 percent. Some soils such as Astatula, tention capacities, particularly in sandy soils. The lack of
Basinger, Candler, Lake, Myakka, Paola, and Tavares a significant quantity of clay in these upper horizons dic-
soils are sandy to a depth of 2 meters or more; however, states that proper agronomic uses of these soils include
textures of sandy clay loam are at a depth of less than 1 programs for the conservation and maintenance of this
meter in Wauchula soils. The Flemington soil is clayey vital component.
throughout except for the A horizon. The Aripeka soil is Soil reaction in calcium chloride is quite variable across
shallow, but in it as in the Paisley soil, clay content in- the county, with little predictive trends, but the sandy
creases with depth below a depth of about 33 cm. soils are consistently acid with a narrow range between
The textural implications are for a tendency toward horizons of the same soil. Soils such as Aripeka, Myakka,
droughtiness in sandy soils. Based on bulk densities and and Paisley soils range from extremely acid in their sur-
the moisture retained between 1/10 and 15 bars, these face horizons to neutral or mildly alkaline in subsoil
soils will hold no more than 5 centimeters of water availa- horizons. Wauchula, Floridana Variant, Electra Variant,
ble to plants in the upper 40 centimeters and as much as Basin and Tavares soils are consistently extremely
20 centimeters in the upper 1 meter; .
20 centimeters in the upper 1 meter: acid to strongly acid with less than 1 pH unit difference
The hydraulic conductivity in these soils is very high, between horony af the se s n many places. Cor
often in excess of 20 centimeters per hour. However, it between horizons of the same soil in many places. Cor-
falls to zero or near zero centimeters per hour in argillic relation between percent base saturation and pH is not
horizons of Arredondo, Blichton, and Nobleton soils and in always evident and is readily demonstrated by the sandy
the moderately well expressed spodic horizons of Electra Astatula, Candler, and Lake so ils.
Variant soils. Sodium pyrophosphate, extractable carbon, iron, and
Chemical properties are reported in table 18. Extracta- aluminum were determined for the Basinger, Electra
ble bases, cation exchange capacity, and base saturation Variant, Paola, and Wauchula soils to determine if they
indicated that most of these soils tend to have a low na- met certain chemical criteria for spodic horizons. The
tive nutrient status. Calcium and magnesium are the pri- Electra Variant and the Wauchula soils met the criteria.
mary bases with not more than traces of sodium and The mineralogy of the coarser fraction (larger than
potassium. Extractable acidity tends to be quite high in 0.002 mm) is invariably quartz in all the soils sampled.
most profiles. Specifically, Astatula, Basinger, Candler, There are no weatherable minerals and few heavy and
Masaryk, Paola, Sparr, and Tavares soils have extremely opaque minerals. Mineralogy of crystalline components of
low cation exchange capacities with little or no bases on the clay fraction (smaller than 0.002 mm) is reported in
these exchange complexes, and with the exception of table 18 for selected horizons of the soils sampled. In
Astatula, very low base status. Other soils have an inter- general the total mineralogical suite is composed of a 14
mediate cation exchange capacity. The Bh or spodic angstrom intergrade mineral, kaolinite, montmorillonite,
horizons of Electra Variant, Myakka, and Wauchula soils and quartz. Gibbsite is detected only in the lower horizon
have higher cation exchange capacities than their overly- of the Basinger soil.
ing horizons. A low base saturation is consistent with Bh Blichton, Flemington, Nobleton, and Wauchula soils
horizons. However, in Myakka soils the spodic or Bh have significant quantities of montmorillonite in the clay
horizon is rich in calcium and consequently has an fraction. The 14 angstrom intergrade mineral is in all the
unusually high base saturation. The high base saturation soils, generally decreasing with increasing depth, while
of Astatula soils does not necessarily imply a high level of kaolinite increases with depth. This trend between these
available nutrients, but should best be interpreted with two minerals suggests that kaolinite is the less stable
reference to its cation exchange capacity. Soils with low component and that most of these soils are at an ad-
cation exchange capacities require only small amounts of vanced stage of weathering. The montmorillonite seems
bases to significantly alter their base saturation. Con- to have been inherited and should be the least stable com-
sequently, for successful crop production, such soils ponent in the present environment; nevertheless, its
require small but frequent applications of fertilizers. The presence in Paisley, Flemington, Wauchula, and Blichton
Aripeka, Blichton, Flemington, and Paisley soils have both soils greatly influences the use and management of these
relatively high cation exchange capacities and base satu- soils. In other soils clay content is so low in the upper
ration. These are the more naturally fertile soils, horizons that the use and management are more in-
Organic carbon in surface horizons ranges from about fluenced by the total clay content than by clay mineralo-
0.5 percent in the Tavares soil to about 3.5 percent in the gy.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 55
Engineering test data ries. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
Table 20 contains engineering test data made by the typical of the soil series in the survey area, is described.
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation, The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon follow stan-
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major dards in the Soil Survey Manual(9). Unless otherwise
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to noted, colors described are for moist soil.
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The clas- Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
sifications given are based on data obtained by mechani- tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
cal analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits and Phases, or mapping units, of each soil series are described
plastic limits, in the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
The mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve Adamsville series
and hydrometer methods (3). In this method the various
grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the The Adamsville series is a member of the uncoated,
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2 hyperthermic family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It con-
mm in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in this sists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils that
method should not be used in naming textural classes of formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. These
soils, soils are on low, broad flats that are less than 2 feet
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in higher than the adjacent sloughs. Slopes are generally
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively less than 2 percent. In most years, under natural condi-
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive ef- tions, the water table rises to within 20 inches of the sur-
fort remains constant, the density of the compacted face for less than 2 weeks during very wet seasons but
material increases until the optimum moisture content is remains at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. It
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the periods.
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a Adamsville soils are geographically closely associated
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the with Anclote, Basinger, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. soils. Anclote soils are very poorly drained and are in
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of depressions or poorly defined drainageways. Basinger
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material. soils are poorly drained and have an A&Bh horizon.
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from Myakka soils are poorly drained and have spodic horizons
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a within a depth of 30 inches. Pompano soils are poorly
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased, drained and are in poorly defined drainageways and
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The depressions. Tavares soils are at slightly higher elevations
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil and do not have the mottles that are evidence of wetness
material changes from semisolid to plastic state; and the between depths of 20 and 40 inches, as Adamsville soils
liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil have.
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The Typical profile of Adamsville fine sand in a wooded
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the area approximately 50 yards west of U.S. Highway 19
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of and 1/4 mile south of Spring Hill sewer plant,
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 29, T. 23 S., R. 17 E.:
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table A1-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; single grained;
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples, loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy bounda-
ry.
C1-3 to 10 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common fine
Classification of the soils distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) streaks; single grained; loose;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
In this section, the soil series recognized in the survey C2-10 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; common fine
Si distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) streaks along root channels;
area are described, the current system of classifying soils single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
is defined, and the soils in the area are classified accord- C3-20 to 30 inches; white (IOYR 8/2) fine sand; few fine distinct strong
ing to the current system. brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
Soil series and morphology C4-30 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
medium acid.
In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey Total thickness of the A and C horizons is 80 inches or more. Reaction
area is described in detail. The descriptions are arranged ranges from strongly acid to neutral throughout the profile. Silt plus
in alphabetic order by series name. clay content is less than 5 percent in the 10- to 40-inch control section.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 1
or 2. Thickness is 3 to 8 inches.
formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1
compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other se- through 4. The upper part of the C horizon usually has chroma of 3 or 4,








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 55
Engineering test data ries. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
Table 20 contains engineering test data made by the typical of the soil series in the survey area, is described.
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation, The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon follow stan-
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major dards in the Soil Survey Manual(9). Unless otherwise
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to noted, colors described are for moist soil.
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The clas- Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
sifications given are based on data obtained by mechani- tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
cal analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits and Phases, or mapping units, of each soil series are described
plastic limits, in the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
The mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve Adamsville series
and hydrometer methods (3). In this method the various
grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the The Adamsville series is a member of the uncoated,
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2 hyperthermic family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It con-
mm in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in this sists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils that
method should not be used in naming textural classes of formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. These
soils, soils are on low, broad flats that are less than 2 feet
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in higher than the adjacent sloughs. Slopes are generally
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively less than 2 percent. In most years, under natural condi-
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive ef- tions, the water table rises to within 20 inches of the sur-
fort remains constant, the density of the compacted face for less than 2 weeks during very wet seasons but
material increases until the optimum moisture content is remains at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. It
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the periods.
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a Adamsville soils are geographically closely associated
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the with Anclote, Basinger, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. soils. Anclote soils are very poorly drained and are in
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of depressions or poorly defined drainageways. Basinger
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material. soils are poorly drained and have an A&Bh horizon.
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from Myakka soils are poorly drained and have spodic horizons
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a within a depth of 30 inches. Pompano soils are poorly
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased, drained and are in poorly defined drainageways and
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The depressions. Tavares soils are at slightly higher elevations
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil and do not have the mottles that are evidence of wetness
material changes from semisolid to plastic state; and the between depths of 20 and 40 inches, as Adamsville soils
liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil have.
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The Typical profile of Adamsville fine sand in a wooded
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the area approximately 50 yards west of U.S. Highway 19
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of and 1/4 mile south of Spring Hill sewer plant,
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 29, T. 23 S., R. 17 E.:
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table A1-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; single grained;
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples, loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy bounda-
ry.
C1-3 to 10 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common fine
Classification of the soils distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) streaks; single grained; loose;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
In this section, the soil series recognized in the survey C2-10 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; common fine
Si distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) streaks along root channels;
area are described, the current system of classifying soils single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
is defined, and the soils in the area are classified accord- C3-20 to 30 inches; white (IOYR 8/2) fine sand; few fine distinct strong
ing to the current system. brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
Soil series and morphology C4-30 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
medium acid.
In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey Total thickness of the A and C horizons is 80 inches or more. Reaction
area is described in detail. The descriptions are arranged ranges from strongly acid to neutral throughout the profile. Silt plus
in alphabetic order by series name. clay content is less than 5 percent in the 10- to 40-inch control section.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 1
or 2. Thickness is 3 to 8 inches.
formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1
compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other se- through 4. The upper part of the C horizon usually has chroma of 3 or 4,








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 55
Engineering test data ries. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
Table 20 contains engineering test data made by the typical of the soil series in the survey area, is described.
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation, The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon follow stan-
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major dards in the Soil Survey Manual(9). Unless otherwise
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to noted, colors described are for moist soil.
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The clas- Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
sifications given are based on data obtained by mechani- tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
cal analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits and Phases, or mapping units, of each soil series are described
plastic limits, in the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
The mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve Adamsville series
and hydrometer methods (3). In this method the various
grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the The Adamsville series is a member of the uncoated,
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2 hyperthermic family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It con-
mm in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in this sists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils that
method should not be used in naming textural classes of formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. These
soils, soils are on low, broad flats that are less than 2 feet
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in higher than the adjacent sloughs. Slopes are generally
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively less than 2 percent. In most years, under natural condi-
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive ef- tions, the water table rises to within 20 inches of the sur-
fort remains constant, the density of the compacted face for less than 2 weeks during very wet seasons but
material increases until the optimum moisture content is remains at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. It
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the periods.
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a Adamsville soils are geographically closely associated
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the with Anclote, Basinger, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. soils. Anclote soils are very poorly drained and are in
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of depressions or poorly defined drainageways. Basinger
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material. soils are poorly drained and have an A&Bh horizon.
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from Myakka soils are poorly drained and have spodic horizons
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a within a depth of 30 inches. Pompano soils are poorly
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased, drained and are in poorly defined drainageways and
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The depressions. Tavares soils are at slightly higher elevations
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil and do not have the mottles that are evidence of wetness
material changes from semisolid to plastic state; and the between depths of 20 and 40 inches, as Adamsville soils
liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil have.
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The Typical profile of Adamsville fine sand in a wooded
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the area approximately 50 yards west of U.S. Highway 19
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of and 1/4 mile south of Spring Hill sewer plant,
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 29, T. 23 S., R. 17 E.:
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table A1-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; single grained;
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples, loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy bounda-
ry.
C1-3 to 10 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common fine
Classification of the soils distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) streaks; single grained; loose;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
In this section, the soil series recognized in the survey C2-10 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; common fine
Si distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) streaks along root channels;
area are described, the current system of classifying soils single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
is defined, and the soils in the area are classified accord- C3-20 to 30 inches; white (IOYR 8/2) fine sand; few fine distinct strong
ing to the current system. brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
Soil series and morphology C4-30 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
medium acid.
In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey Total thickness of the A and C horizons is 80 inches or more. Reaction
area is described in detail. The descriptions are arranged ranges from strongly acid to neutral throughout the profile. Silt plus
in alphabetic order by series name. clay content is less than 5 percent in the 10- to 40-inch control section.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 1
or 2. Thickness is 3 to 8 inches.
formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1
compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other se- through 4. The upper part of the C horizon usually has chroma of 3 or 4,








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 55
Engineering test data ries. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
Table 20 contains engineering test data made by the typical of the soil series in the survey area, is described.
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation, The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon follow stan-
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major dards in the Soil Survey Manual(9). Unless otherwise
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to noted, colors described are for moist soil.
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The clas- Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
sifications given are based on data obtained by mechani- tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
cal analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits and Phases, or mapping units, of each soil series are described
plastic limits, in the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
The mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve Adamsville series
and hydrometer methods (3). In this method the various
grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the The Adamsville series is a member of the uncoated,
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2 hyperthermic family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It con-
mm in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in this sists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils that
method should not be used in naming textural classes of formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. These
soils, soils are on low, broad flats that are less than 2 feet
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in higher than the adjacent sloughs. Slopes are generally
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively less than 2 percent. In most years, under natural condi-
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive ef- tions, the water table rises to within 20 inches of the sur-
fort remains constant, the density of the compacted face for less than 2 weeks during very wet seasons but
material increases until the optimum moisture content is remains at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. It
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the periods.
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a Adamsville soils are geographically closely associated
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the with Anclote, Basinger, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. soils. Anclote soils are very poorly drained and are in
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of depressions or poorly defined drainageways. Basinger
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material. soils are poorly drained and have an A&Bh horizon.
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from Myakka soils are poorly drained and have spodic horizons
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a within a depth of 30 inches. Pompano soils are poorly
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased, drained and are in poorly defined drainageways and
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The depressions. Tavares soils are at slightly higher elevations
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil and do not have the mottles that are evidence of wetness
material changes from semisolid to plastic state; and the between depths of 20 and 40 inches, as Adamsville soils
liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil have.
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The Typical profile of Adamsville fine sand in a wooded
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the area approximately 50 yards west of U.S. Highway 19
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of and 1/4 mile south of Spring Hill sewer plant,
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 29, T. 23 S., R. 17 E.:
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table A1-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; single grained;
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples, loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy bounda-
ry.
C1-3 to 10 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; common fine
Classification of the soils distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) streaks; single grained; loose;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
In this section, the soil series recognized in the survey C2-10 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; common fine
Si distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) streaks along root channels;
area are described, the current system of classifying soils single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
is defined, and the soils in the area are classified accord- C3-20 to 30 inches; white (IOYR 8/2) fine sand; few fine distinct strong
ing to the current system. brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
Soil series and morphology C4-30 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grained; loose;
medium acid.
In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey Total thickness of the A and C horizons is 80 inches or more. Reaction
area is described in detail. The descriptions are arranged ranges from strongly acid to neutral throughout the profile. Silt plus
in alphabetic order by series name. clay content is less than 5 percent in the 10- to 40-inch control section.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 1
or 2. Thickness is 3 to 8 inches.
formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1
compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other se- through 4. The upper part of the C horizon usually has chroma of 3 or 4,









56 SOIL SURVEY

and the lower part usually has chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sand or be very briefly flooded with saltwater during severe
sand. The C horizon usually is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and storm tides, but not during normal high tides.
brown. Aripeka soils are geographically closely associated with

Anclote series Homosassa, Lacoochee, and Wabasso soils. Homosassa
soils are very poorly drained and occupy low areas in the
The Anclote series is a member of the sandy, siliceous, saltwater marsh. Locoochee soils do not have an argillic
hyperthermic family of Typic Haplaquolls. It consists of horizon, are poorly drained, and are on low knolls in the
low, nearly level, very poorly drained soils that formed in saltwater marsh. Wabasso soils are poorly drained, have a
sandy marine sediments. These soils are in low depres- spodic horizon, and occupy slightly lower positions than
sional areas. Slope is less than 2 percent. In most years, Aripeka soils.
under natural conditions, the water table is above the sur- Typical profile of Ariepka fine sand in a wooded area,
face for 3 to 6 months during wet seasons and below a 0.4 mile north of Hernando Beach Church, SE1/4SW1/4
depth of 20 inches during dry seasons. s 17
Anclote soils are geographically closely associated with se. 7, T. 23 S., R. 17 E.:
Basinger, Delray, Floridana, Okeelanta, Pineda, Pompano, Al-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (1OYR 4/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
and Terra Ceia soils. Basinger soils have an A&Bh structure; very friable; few fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy
horizon and do not have a mollic epipedon. Delray and boundary.
Floridana soils have an argillic horizon. Pineda soils are A2-3 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single grained;
Flodana soils have an argillic horizon. Pineda soils are loose; many fine and medium roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy
better drained than Anclote soils, occupy a slightly higher boundary.
position in the landscape, and have Bir and argillic B21-5 to 10 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; few fine
horizons. Okeelanta and Terra Ceia soils are organic. faint pale brown mottles; single grained; loose; few fine and medi-
Pompano soils are poorly drained and do not have a mollic um roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
epipedon. B22-10 to 13 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand; few fine faint
piped. yellowish red mottles; weak medium granular structure; very fria-
Typical profile of Anclote fine sand, in a grassy area ble; few medium and large roots; mildly alkaline; clear irregular
approximately 100 yards west of U.S. Highway 19 and 40 boundary.
yards south of Spring Hill entrance, NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 29, B23t-13 to 15 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) cobbly sandy
T. 23 S., R. 17 E.: clay loam; few fine faint yellowish brown mottles; friable; few medi-
um and large roots; about 20 percent cobbles; moderately alkaline;
All-0 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak medium granular gradual wavy boundary.
structure; very friable; many fine roots; slightly acid; clear smooth B24t-15 to 21 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) cobbly fine sandy loam;
boundary. weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few medium and
A12-7 to 14 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; common large roots; about 20 percent cobbles; moderately alkaline; clear ir-
coarse distinct dark gray (N 4/0) mottles; weak medium granular regular boundary.
structure; very friable; many fine roots; neutral; clear smooth boun- IICr-21 to 29 inches; white (10YR 8/1) soft limestone; massive; firm;
dary. about 35 percent hard limestone fragments; this layer has a solution
Clg-14 to 20 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single hole approximately 15 inches in diameter containing strong brown
grained; loose; common fine roots; neutral; gradual smooth bounda- (7.5YR 5/8) fine sandy loam and hard limestone fragments; most
ry. roots do not penetrate this layer but are turned at the upper boun-
C2g-20 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; single dary; moderately alkaline; calcareous; abrupt irregular boundary.
grained; loose; few fine roots; neutral; gradual smooth boundary. IIIR-29 inches; hard limestone that can be chipped but not dug with a
C3g-30 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; spade. This layer has a solution hole about 15 inches in diameter ex-
neutral, tending to a depth of about 45 inches below the surface. It is filled
Reaction ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline in all horizons. with fine sandy loam and hard limestone fragments
The A horizon has hue of 10YR and 7.5YR, value of 2 through 3, and Combined thickness of the A and B horizons typically is 20 to 25
chroma of 1 or less. It has mottles with hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, inches, but ranges from 20 to 30 inches except in solution holes where
and chroma of 2 or less. The A horizon is 10 to 20 inches thick. thiness ranges to 45 inches or more. Depth to the IIR horizon ranges
The C horizon has hue of IOYR and 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma horizon value
of 2 or less. Texture is fine sand or sand. Some profiles have mottles of through 6, and chroa of 2 or 3. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
yellow or brown. through 6, and chroma of 2 or 3. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
yellow or brownmildly alkaline. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6 inches.
r a s s The B21 and B22 horizons have hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 or
Aripeka series 5, and chroma of 3 through 8. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
The Aripeka series is a member of the fine-loamy, mildly alkaline. Thickness ranges from 3 to 10 inches.
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Aquic Hapludalfs. It The B23t and B24t horizons have colors similar to those of the B21
ilic h rtrmic f i i and B22 horizons. Texture is cobbly fine sandy loam or cobbly sandy
consists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained, sandy clay loam. Hard limestone cobbles 3 to 10 inches across make up 15 to 35
soils that formed in marine, sandy and loamy sediments percent of the volume of the B2t horizon. Clay content of the fine earth
over soft and hard limestone. These soils are on low part of the B2t horizon ranges from 10 to 30 percent. Reaction ranges
ridges adjacent to saltwater marshes. Slope is dominantly from neutral to moderately alkaline in the B2t horizon.
less than 1 percent. In most years, under natural condi- The IICr horizon is soft limestone in hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
the water table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 chroma of 1 or 2. Hard limestone fragments occur randomly throughout
tions, the water table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 the horizon and range from about 20 to 35 percent, by volume, of the
to 6 months and at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for 6 horizon. The number of solution holes ranges from none to about three
months or more. Under natural conditions these soils may in each pedon.









56 SOIL SURVEY

and the lower part usually has chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sand or be very briefly flooded with saltwater during severe
sand. The C horizon usually is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and storm tides, but not during normal high tides.
brown. Aripeka soils are geographically closely associated with

Anclote series Homosassa, Lacoochee, and Wabasso soils. Homosassa
soils are very poorly drained and occupy low areas in the
The Anclote series is a member of the sandy, siliceous, saltwater marsh. Locoochee soils do not have an argillic
hyperthermic family of Typic Haplaquolls. It consists of horizon, are poorly drained, and are on low knolls in the
low, nearly level, very poorly drained soils that formed in saltwater marsh. Wabasso soils are poorly drained, have a
sandy marine sediments. These soils are in low depres- spodic horizon, and occupy slightly lower positions than
sional areas. Slope is less than 2 percent. In most years, Aripeka soils.
under natural conditions, the water table is above the sur- Typical profile of Ariepka fine sand in a wooded area,
face for 3 to 6 months during wet seasons and below a 0.4 mile north of Hernando Beach Church, SE1/4SW1/4
depth of 20 inches during dry seasons. s 17
Anclote soils are geographically closely associated with se. 7, T. 23 S., R. 17 E.:
Basinger, Delray, Floridana, Okeelanta, Pineda, Pompano, Al-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (1OYR 4/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
and Terra Ceia soils. Basinger soils have an A&Bh structure; very friable; few fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy
horizon and do not have a mollic epipedon. Delray and boundary.
Floridana soils have an argillic horizon. Pineda soils are A2-3 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single grained;
Flodana soils have an argillic horizon. Pineda soils are loose; many fine and medium roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy
better drained than Anclote soils, occupy a slightly higher boundary.
position in the landscape, and have Bir and argillic B21-5 to 10 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; few fine
horizons. Okeelanta and Terra Ceia soils are organic. faint pale brown mottles; single grained; loose; few fine and medi-
Pompano soils are poorly drained and do not have a mollic um roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
epipedon. B22-10 to 13 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand; few fine faint
piped. yellowish red mottles; weak medium granular structure; very fria-
Typical profile of Anclote fine sand, in a grassy area ble; few medium and large roots; mildly alkaline; clear irregular
approximately 100 yards west of U.S. Highway 19 and 40 boundary.
yards south of Spring Hill entrance, NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 29, B23t-13 to 15 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) cobbly sandy
T. 23 S., R. 17 E.: clay loam; few fine faint yellowish brown mottles; friable; few medi-
um and large roots; about 20 percent cobbles; moderately alkaline;
All-0 to 7 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak medium granular gradual wavy boundary.
structure; very friable; many fine roots; slightly acid; clear smooth B24t-15 to 21 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) cobbly fine sandy loam;
boundary. weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few medium and
A12-7 to 14 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; common large roots; about 20 percent cobbles; moderately alkaline; clear ir-
coarse distinct dark gray (N 4/0) mottles; weak medium granular regular boundary.
structure; very friable; many fine roots; neutral; clear smooth boun- IICr-21 to 29 inches; white (10YR 8/1) soft limestone; massive; firm;
dary. about 35 percent hard limestone fragments; this layer has a solution
Clg-14 to 20 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single hole approximately 15 inches in diameter containing strong brown
grained; loose; common fine roots; neutral; gradual smooth bounda- (7.5YR 5/8) fine sandy loam and hard limestone fragments; most
ry. roots do not penetrate this layer but are turned at the upper boun-
C2g-20 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; single dary; moderately alkaline; calcareous; abrupt irregular boundary.
grained; loose; few fine roots; neutral; gradual smooth boundary. IIIR-29 inches; hard limestone that can be chipped but not dug with a
C3g-30 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; spade. This layer has a solution hole about 15 inches in diameter ex-
neutral, tending to a depth of about 45 inches below the surface. It is filled
Reaction ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline in all horizons. with fine sandy loam and hard limestone fragments
The A horizon has hue of 10YR and 7.5YR, value of 2 through 3, and Combined thickness of the A and B horizons typically is 20 to 25
chroma of 1 or less. It has mottles with hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, inches, but ranges from 20 to 30 inches except in solution holes where
and chroma of 2 or less. The A horizon is 10 to 20 inches thick. thiness ranges to 45 inches or more. Depth to the IIR horizon ranges
The C horizon has hue of IOYR and 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma horizon value
of 2 or less. Texture is fine sand or sand. Some profiles have mottles of through 6, and chroa of 2 or 3. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
yellow or brown. through 6, and chroma of 2 or 3. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
yellow or brownmildly alkaline. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6 inches.
r a s s The B21 and B22 horizons have hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 or
Aripeka series 5, and chroma of 3 through 8. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
The Aripeka series is a member of the fine-loamy, mildly alkaline. Thickness ranges from 3 to 10 inches.
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Aquic Hapludalfs. It The B23t and B24t horizons have colors similar to those of the B21
ilic h rtrmic f i i and B22 horizons. Texture is cobbly fine sandy loam or cobbly sandy
consists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained, sandy clay loam. Hard limestone cobbles 3 to 10 inches across make up 15 to 35
soils that formed in marine, sandy and loamy sediments percent of the volume of the B2t horizon. Clay content of the fine earth
over soft and hard limestone. These soils are on low part of the B2t horizon ranges from 10 to 30 percent. Reaction ranges
ridges adjacent to saltwater marshes. Slope is dominantly from neutral to moderately alkaline in the B2t horizon.
less than 1 percent. In most years, under natural condi- The IICr horizon is soft limestone in hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
the water table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 chroma of 1 or 2. Hard limestone fragments occur randomly throughout
tions, the water table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 the horizon and range from about 20 to 35 percent, by volume, of the
to 6 months and at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for 6 horizon. The number of solution holes ranges from none to about three
months or more. Under natural conditions these soils may in each pedon.








HERNANDO COUNTY, FLORIDA 57

Arredondo series horizon above in places, but usually has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 3 or 4. Thickness of the A2 horizon is 37 to 75 inches.
The Arredondo series is a member of the loamy, Total thickness of the A horizon is 40 to 79 inches.
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. The B1 horizon has hue of O1YR or 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and
It consists of nearly level to sloping, well drained, sandy chroma of 6 through 8. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand.
soils that formed in sandy and loamy materials. These The B21t horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
Sa o m y i- chroma of 6 through 8. Texture is loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam.
soils are on uplands. In most years, under natural condi- Thickness ranges from 3 to 10 inches.
tions, the water table is below a depth of 80 inches. The B22t and B23t horizons have hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 8 per- through 8, and chroma of 4 through 8. Texture is sandy clay loam or
cent. sandy clay. Thickness is 10 to 26 inches or more. Weighted clay content
Arredondo soils are geographically closely associated of the upper 20 inches of the argillic horizon is between 18 and 35 per-
with Candler Kendrick, Lake, and Sparr soils. Candler Some pedons have a B3 horizon. Where the B3 horizon is present,
and Lake soils occupy about the same position in the color is similar to that of the B2t horizon and texture ranges from sandy
landscape, but differ by not having an argillic horizon. loam to sandy clay loam.
Kendrick soils have an argillic horizon between depths of
20 to 40 inches and are generally on small knolls. Sparr Astatula series
soils are somewhat poorly drained and are on slightly The Astatula series is a member of the uncoated,
lower elevations or on side slopes. hyperthermic family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It con-
Typical profile of Arredondo fine sand from an area of sists of nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils
Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, in a pasture, that formed in thick beds of sandy marine, eolian, or flu-
1/4 mile west of Florida Highway 581 and 1/4 mile south vial sediments. These soils are in the upland, sandhill
of small blacktop road on Chinsegut Beef Cattle Research parts of the county. The water table is below a depth of
Center, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 36, T. 21 S., R. 19 E.: 72 inches throughout the year. Slopes are smooth to con-
Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; weak medium cave and range from 0 to 8 percent.
granular structure; very friable; many fine and few medium roots; Astatula soils are geographically closely associated with
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. Arredondo, Candler, Lake, Paola, and Tavares soils. Arre-
A21-8 to 14 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine sand; com-
mon medium distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) mottles; single dondo soils differ from Astatula soils by having coated
grained; loose; common uncoated sand grains; few charcoal frag- sand grains in the A2 horizon and by having an argillic
ments; common fine and few medium roots; medium acid; clear horizon. Candler soils have lamellae at depths of 60 to 80
wavy boundary. inches. Lake soils differ by having coated sand grains in
A22-14 to 41 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine sand; few fine inhes. ae soils ier hain coat sand grains in
faint very pale brown (10YR 7/3) uncoated sand grain mottles; sand the 10- to 40-inch control section. Paola soils have a B&A
grains are coated; single grained; loose; few charcoal fragments; horizon. All of these associated soils are on about the
many fine roots; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. same position in the landscape except Tavares soils.
A23-41 to 54 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand; common Tavares soils are at lower elevations and differ by having
medium distinct (7.5YR 5/8) strong brown coated sand grain mot-
tles; single grained; loose; common fine roots; many uncoated sand a water table between depths of 40 and 60 inches.
grains; few loamy sand lamellae; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. Typical profile of Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent
B1-54 to 62 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) fine sand; weak fine slopes, 0.3 mile south of Florida Highway 50 and 0.6 mile
granular structure; very friable; common fine roots; sand grains are west of power transmission line, SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 33, T.
well coated; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
B21t-62 to 69 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) loamy fine sand; weak 22 S., R. 18 E.:
medium granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; sand grains 01-1 inch to 0; discontinuous root mat; pine needles; partially decom-
are coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid; clear wavy bounda- posed organic material, leaves, stems.

B22t-69 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy clay; common Al-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) rubbed fine sand; single grated;
medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and many medium loose; many uncoated sand grains; many fine and common medium
prominent slightly brittle dark red (2.5YR 3/6) mottles; moderate roots; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few roots; sand grains C1-4 to 24 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine sand; few fine faint
are coated and bridged with clay; very strongly acid; gradual wavy yellowish brown mottles; single grained; loose; common fine char-
boundary. coal fragments; many uncoated sand grains; many fine and medium
B23t-80 to 99 inches; mixed yellowish red (5YR 5/6) and strong brown and few large roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
(7.5YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; common medium distinct slightly brit- C2-24 to 65 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single grained; loose;
tle red (2.5YR 4/6) and few fine faint very pale brown mottles; many uncoated sand grains; many fine and medium and few large
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; sand grains roots; strongly acid; gradual diffuse boundary.
are coated and bridged with clay; very strongly acid. C3-65 to 85 inches; yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sand; single grained; loose;
many uncoated sand grains; few fine roots; medium acid.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid throughout
the profile. A few weathered and leached phosphatic pebbles ranging in Sand thickness exceeds 80 inches. Soil reaction ranges from very
diameter from 2 to 20 millimeters are common in many pedons. strongly acid to medium acid throughout.
The thickness of the Al or Ap horizon ranges from 3 to 9 inches. The The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or
Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. 2. Thickness is 2 to 4 inches.
The upper part of the A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 3
and chroma of 3 through 6. Most sand grains are well coated with clay through 6. Some pedons are mottled with white or light gray, uncoated
and oxides. The lower part of the A2 horizon has the same colors as the sand grains. The C horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.




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