• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 How this survey was made
 General soil map
 Descriptions of the soils
 Use and management of the soils...
 Use of the soils for woodland
 Use of the soils for wildlife
 Engineering uses of the soils
 Formation and classification of...
 Physical and chemical analyses...
 General nature of the county
 Literature cited
 Glossary
 Guide to mapping units
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Maps






Title: Soil survey of Holmes County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025715/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Holmes County, Florida
Physical Description: i, 61 p., 23 fold. leaves of plates : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Sullivan, Julius L
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: [1975]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Holmes County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Holmes County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 59.
Statement of Responsibility: by Julius L. Sullivan ... et al., United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025715
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001882661
oclc - 03035376
notis - AJV7767
lccn - 75602746 //r882
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    How to use this soil survey
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    How this survey was made
        Page 1
    General soil map
        Page 2
        Dothan-Ardilla association
            Page 2
        Fuquay-Dothan association
            Page 3
        Troup-Fuquay association
            Page 3
        Pantego-Stilson association
            Page 3
        Bibb association
            Page 4
    Descriptions of the soils
        Page 4
        Albany series
            Page 5
        Angie series
            Page 6
        Ardilla series
            Page 7
        Bibb series
            Page 7
        Bonifay series
            Page 8
        Chipley series
            Page 9
        Dothan series
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Faceville series
            Page 12
        Fuquay series
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Gritney series
            Page 15
        Kenansville series
            Page 16
        Lakeland series
            Page 16
        Leefield series
            Page 17
        Lucy series
            Page 18
        Maxton series
            Page 18
        Orangeburg series
            Page 19
        Pansey series
            Page 20
        Pantego series
            Page 21
        Plummer series
            Page 22
        Stilson series
            Page 23
        Tifton series
            Page 24
        Troup series
            Page 24
            Page 25
    Use and management of the soils for cultivated crops and pasture
        Page 26
        Capability grouping
            Page 26
        Predicted yields
            Page 27
    Use of the soils for woodland
        Page 28
    Use of the soils for wildlife
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Engineering uses of the soils
        Page 32
        Engineering classification systems
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
        Soil properties significant to engineering
            Page 50
        Soil test data
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Engineering interpretations of the soils
            Page 52
    Formation and classification of the soils
        Page 52
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 52
            Parent material
                Page 52
            Climate
                Page 52
            Plant and animal life
                Page 52
            Relief
                Page 52
            Time
                Page 53
        Classification of the soils
            Page 53
    Physical and chemical analyses of soils
        Page 54
        Laboratory methods
            Page 54
            Page 55
    General nature of the county
        Page 56
        Physiography and drainage
            Page 56
        Water supply and natural resources
            Page 57
        Climate
            Page 57
            Page 58
    Literature cited
        Page 59
    Glossary
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 62
    General soil map
        Page 63
    Index to map sheets
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Maps
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text



SOIL SURVEY OF


Holmes County, Florida


United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations
















HOW TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY


T HIS SOIL SURVEY contains infor-
mation that can be applied in man-
aging farms and woodlands; in selecting
sites for roads, ponds, buildings, and other
structures; and in judging the suitability
of tracts of land for farming, industry, or
recreation.

Locating Soils
All of the soils of Holmes County are
shown on the detailed map at the back of
this publication. This map consists of
many sheets made from aerial photo-
graphs. Each sheet is numbered to corre-
spond with a number on the Index to Map
Sheets.
On each sheet of the detailed map, soil
areas are outlined and are identified by
symbols. All areas marked with the same
symbol are the same kind of soil. The soil
symbol is inside the area if there is enough
room; otherwise, it is outside and a
pointer shows where the symbol belongs.

Finding and Using Information
The "Guide to Mapping Units" at the
back of this survey can be used to find
information. This guide lists all the soils
of the county in alphabetic order by map
symbol and gives the capability classifica-
tion of each. It also shows the page where
each soil is described and the page for the
woodland suitability group in which the
soil has been placed.
Individual colored maps showing the
relative suitability or degree of limitation
of soils for many specific purposes can be
developed by using the soil map and the
information in the text. Translucent ma-
terial can be used as an overlay over the
soil map and colored to show soils that


have the same limitation or suitability.
For example, soils that have a slight lim-
itation for a given use can be colored
green, those with a moderate limitation
can be colored yellow, and those with a
severe limitation can be colored red.
Farmers and those who work with
farmers can learn about use and manage-
ment of the soils from the soil descriptions
and from the explanation of the capability
units and the woodland groups.
Foresters and others can refer to the
section "Use of the Soils for Woodland,"
where the soils of the county are grouped
according to their suitability for trees.
Game managers, sportsmen, and others
can find information about soils and wild-
life in the section "Use of the Soils for
Wildlife."
Community planners and others can
read about soil properties that affect the
choice of sites for dwellings, industrial
buildings and for recreation areas in the
section "Use of the Soils for Recreational
Development."
Engineers and builders can find, under
"Engineering Uses of the Soils," tables
that contain test data, estimates of soil
properties, and information about soil
features that affect engineering practices.
Scientists and others can read about how
the soils formed and how they are classi-
fied in the section "Formation and Classi-
fication of the Soils."
Newcomers in Holmes County may be
especially interested in the section "Gen-
eral Soil Map," where broad patterns of
soils are described. They may also be
interested in the information about the
county given at the beginning of the
publication and in the section "General
Nature of the County."


Major fieldwork for this soil survey was done in the period 1963-1971. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1971. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in the publi-
cation refer to conditions in the county in 1971. This survey was made cooperatively by
the Soil Conservation Service and the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Holmes Creek Soil and
Water Conservation District.
Copies of the soil map in this publication can be made by commercial photographers,
or they can be purchased on individual order from the Cartographic Division, Soil
Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250.


Cover: General farming in area that is dominantly the
Dothan-Ardilla soil association. At left-center are gently
sloping Dothan soils, which are generally suited to culti-
vated crops if erosion is controlled. The dominant trees are
slash pines.













Contents


How this survey was made-----_______
General soil map ---- ________ _-
1. Dothan-Ardilla association ..
2. Fuquay-Dothan association _..
3. Troup-Fuquay association-- -_
4. Pantego-Stilson association ...
5. Bibb association-----------__
Descriptions of the soils ------____
Albany series ________________
Angle series_-----________________
Ardilla series --- ________
Bibb series------------- .--__.____
Bonifay series -------_____ _
Chipley series---------__-_ ..____
Dothan series -__----- __ _____
Faceville series -------------____ __
Fuquay series_----------_---____
Gritney series_ -----------
Kenansville series ---- -____
Lakeland series -----------_ ----__
Leefield series -------- _____
Lucy series --- ____________
Maxton series -----__________
Orangeburg series -------------- -__
Pansey series ---------_ ______
Pantego series -----------_-___-__
Plummer series -----_______
Stilson series.. ______ ________
Tifton series_ --- __________
Troup series.-- -- __________


Use and management of the soils for
cultivated crops and pasture _--_
Capability grouping
Predicted yields -------------
Use of the soils for woodland-------..-
Use of the soils for wildlife_ ----
Engineering uses of the soils-----
Engineering classification systems. ---
Soil properties significant to engineer-
ing--- ---------------_ --------__
mg
Soil test data --------------
Engineering interpretations of the
soils___ ----_______
Formation and classification of the soils.
Factors of soil formation --_____
Parent material-___------
Climate-------------
Plant and animal life -----
Relief ---------
Time ..--------.----__ -_____..
Classification of the soils -------
Physical and chemical analyses of soils_
Laboratory methods--------
General nature of the county ----
Physiography and drainage ________
Water supply and natural resources -
Climate--------_________
Literature cited--____ ______
Glossary-----------____-____________
Guide to mapping units-- .-_ Following


Issued June 1975













SOIL SURVEY OF HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA
BY JULIUS L. SULLIVAN
HERBERT H. WEEKS, ERNEST M. DUFFEE, BUSTER P. THOMAS, HAROLD C. AMMONS, AND M. L. HARRELL, SOIL
CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE, IN COOPERATION WITH
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS


HOLMES COUNTY is in the northwestern part of
Florida (fig. 1). It has a total land area of 483
square miles, or 309,120 acres. Bonifay, the county seat, is
in the southeast corner of the county.
Most of the soils in the county are nearly level, gently
sloping, or sloping. These are sandy or loamy soils, and
generally, they are suited to farming. The climate is favor-
able for most crops because of the long growing season and
the mild winters.
Farming is the major source of income in the county.
Peanuts, corn, soybeans, watermelons, vegetables, pasture
grasses, and small grain are the principal crops. Pulpwood
and sawtimber are valuable products of the forest, which
covers a large part of the county.


How This Survey Was Made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
soil are in Holmhnes County, where they are located, and how
they can be used. The soil scientists went into the county
knowing they were likely to find many soils they had al-
ready seen and perhaps some they had not. They observed
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the size and
speed of streams; the kinds of native plants or crops; the
kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They dug
many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the sequence
of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it extends from the
surface down into the parent material that has not been
changed much by leaching or by the action of plant roots.
The soil scientists made comparisons among the profiles
they studied, and they compared these profiles with those
in counties nearby and in places more distant. They classi-
fied and named the soils according to nationwide, uniform
procedures. The soil series and the soil phase are the cate-
gories of soil classification most used in a local survey.
Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil series.
Except for different texture in the surface layer, all the
soils of one series have major horizons that are similar in
thickness, arrangement, and other important characteris-
tics. Each soil series is named for a town or other geo-
graphic feature near the place where a soil of that series
was first observed and mapped. Bibb and Dothan, for ex-
ample, are the names of two soil series. All the soils in the
United States having the same series name are essentially
alike in those characteristics that affect their behavior in
the undisturbed landscape.


I [ Ste. Airi, urt Eperimce..nt Sti, on
Figure 1.-Location of Holmes County in Florida.


Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer and in slope, stoniness,, or some other characteristic
that affects use of the soils by man. On the basis of such
differences, a soil series is divided into phases. The name of
a soil phase indicates a feature that affects management.
For example, Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, is
one of several phases within the Dothan series.
After a guide for. classifying and naming the soils had
been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries
of the individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo-
graphs show woodland, buildings, field borders, trees, and
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately.
The soil map at the back of this publication was prepared
from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping units.
On most maps detailed enough to be useful in planning the
management of farms and fields, a mapping unit is nearly
equivalent to a soil phase. It is not exactly equivalent, be-
1







SOIL SURVEY


cause it is not practical to show on such a map all the small,
scattered bits of soil of some other kind that have been
seen within an area that is dominantly of a recognized
soil phase.
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different
series, or of different phases within one series. Two such
kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil map of
Holmes County: soil complexes and soil associations.
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils so
intricately mixed or so small in size that they cannot be
shown separately on the soil map. Each area of a complex
contains some of each of the two or more dominant soils,
and the pattern and relative proportions are about the
same in all areas. The soil complex is named for the domi-
nant soil. Dothan complex is an example.
A soil association is made up of adjacent soils that oc-
cur as areas large enough to be shown individually on the
soil map but are shown as one unit because the time and
effort in delineating them separately cannot be justified.
There is a considerable degree of uniformity in pattern
and relative extent of the dominant soils, but the soils may
differ greatly one from another. The soil association is
named for the dominant soils. Bibb association is an
example.
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists take
soil samples needed for laboratory measurements and for
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kind of
soil in other places are also assembled. Data on yields of
crops under defined practices are assembled from farm
records and from field or plot experiments on the same
kind of soil. Yields under defined management are esti-
mated for all the soils.
Soil scientists observe how soils behave when used as a
growing place for native and cultivated plants and as ma-
terial for structures, foundations for structures, or cover-
ing for structures. They relate this behavior to properties
of the soils. For example, they observe that absorption
fields for onsite disposal of sewage fail on a given kind of
soil, and they relate this to the slow permeability of the
soil or its high water table. They see that streets, road
pavements, and foundations for houses are cracked on a
named kind of soil and they relate this failure to the high
shrink-swell potential of the soil material. Thus, they use
observation and knowledge of soil properties, together
with available research data, to predict limitations or
suitability of soils for present and potential uses.
After data have been collected and tested for the key, or
benchmark, soils in a survey area, the soil scientists set up
trial groups of soils. They test these groups by further
study and by consultation with farmers, agronomists, en-
gineers, and others. They then adjust the groups according
to the results of their studies and consultation. Thus, the
groups that are finally evolved reflect up-to-date knowl-
edge of the soils and their behavior under current methods
of use and management.


General Soil Map
The general soil map at the back of this survey shows,
in color, the soil associations in Holmes County. A soil
association is a landscape that has a distinctive propor-
tional pattern of soils. It normally consists of two or more
major soils and at least one minor soil, and it is named for


the major soils. The soils in one association may occur in
another, but in a different pattern.
A map showing soil associations is useful to people who
want a general idea of the soils in a county, who want to
compare different parts of a county, or who want to know
the location of large tracts that are suitable for a certain
kind of land use. Such a map is a useful general guide in
managing a watershed, a wooded tract, or a wildlife area,
or in planning engineering works, recreational facilities,
and community developments. It is not a suitable map for
planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
ing the exact location of a road, building, or similar struc-
ture, because the soils in any one association ordinarily
differ in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, and other char-
acteristics that affect their management.
The five soil associations in Holmes County are dis-
cussed in the following pages.
1. Dothan-Ardilla association
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well-drained and some-
what poorly drained soils that have thin layers of sandy
material over a loamy subsoil; on ridges and side slopes
This association consists mainly of broad upland ridges
that have long, gently sloping sides and of nearly level
areas at lower elevations between the ridges. The drainage
is in a well-defined system of branches and creeks that flow
in a southerly direction. Slopes generally are less than 8
percent except in a few small areas mainly 'adjacent to
streams.
This association makes up about 33 percent of the survey
area. About 44 percent of it is Dothan soils, and 12 percent
is Ardilla soils. The remaining 44 percent is minor soils.
Dothan soils are mainly nearly level and gently sloping
and are on broad upland ridges that have long, gently
sloping sides. Some areas are strongly sloping. These soils
are well drained. They have a surface layer of dark gray-
ish-brown loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The upper 5
inches of the subsoil is yellowish-brown sandy loam. The
lower part is sandy clay loam that is yellowish brown to a
depth of 40 inches. It becomes mottled as depth increases.
The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.
Ardilla soils are nearly level and occur at lower eleva-
tions than Dothan soils. They are somewhat poorly
drained. They have a surface layer of very dark gray
loamy sand about 5 inches thick and a loamy sand sub-
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The upper 7 inches of
the subsoil is light yellowish-brown sandy loam. The lower
part is yellowish-brown sandy clay loam that is mottled in
shades of brown, yellow, red, and gray. The subsoil be-
comes more highly mottled as depth increases. In wet sea-
sons the water table is at a depth of about 15 to 20 inches
for 2 to 6 months in most years.
The minor soils are mainly well-drained Fuquav, Grit-
ney, Tifton, Faceville, Orangeburg, Troup, and Bonifay
soils on upland ridges and poorly drained Bibb and Pansey
soils, very poorly drained Pantego soils, and moderately
well drained Stilson soils on stream bottoms, in depres-
sions, and in other low places between the ridges.
Most areas of the Dothan soils are cultivated. These
soils generally are suited to cultivated crops and are well
suited to improved pasture grasses. If cultivated, the gently
sloping and sloping Dothan soils need erosion control prac-
tices. The Dothan soils support good stands of pine. The







SOIL SURVEY


cause it is not practical to show on such a map all the small,
scattered bits of soil of some other kind that have been
seen within an area that is dominantly of a recognized
soil phase.
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different
series, or of different phases within one series. Two such
kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil map of
Holmes County: soil complexes and soil associations.
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils so
intricately mixed or so small in size that they cannot be
shown separately on the soil map. Each area of a complex
contains some of each of the two or more dominant soils,
and the pattern and relative proportions are about the
same in all areas. The soil complex is named for the domi-
nant soil. Dothan complex is an example.
A soil association is made up of adjacent soils that oc-
cur as areas large enough to be shown individually on the
soil map but are shown as one unit because the time and
effort in delineating them separately cannot be justified.
There is a considerable degree of uniformity in pattern
and relative extent of the dominant soils, but the soils may
differ greatly one from another. The soil association is
named for the dominant soils. Bibb association is an
example.
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists take
soil samples needed for laboratory measurements and for
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kind of
soil in other places are also assembled. Data on yields of
crops under defined practices are assembled from farm
records and from field or plot experiments on the same
kind of soil. Yields under defined management are esti-
mated for all the soils.
Soil scientists observe how soils behave when used as a
growing place for native and cultivated plants and as ma-
terial for structures, foundations for structures, or cover-
ing for structures. They relate this behavior to properties
of the soils. For example, they observe that absorption
fields for onsite disposal of sewage fail on a given kind of
soil, and they relate this to the slow permeability of the
soil or its high water table. They see that streets, road
pavements, and foundations for houses are cracked on a
named kind of soil and they relate this failure to the high
shrink-swell potential of the soil material. Thus, they use
observation and knowledge of soil properties, together
with available research data, to predict limitations or
suitability of soils for present and potential uses.
After data have been collected and tested for the key, or
benchmark, soils in a survey area, the soil scientists set up
trial groups of soils. They test these groups by further
study and by consultation with farmers, agronomists, en-
gineers, and others. They then adjust the groups according
to the results of their studies and consultation. Thus, the
groups that are finally evolved reflect up-to-date knowl-
edge of the soils and their behavior under current methods
of use and management.


General Soil Map
The general soil map at the back of this survey shows,
in color, the soil associations in Holmes County. A soil
association is a landscape that has a distinctive propor-
tional pattern of soils. It normally consists of two or more
major soils and at least one minor soil, and it is named for


the major soils. The soils in one association may occur in
another, but in a different pattern.
A map showing soil associations is useful to people who
want a general idea of the soils in a county, who want to
compare different parts of a county, or who want to know
the location of large tracts that are suitable for a certain
kind of land use. Such a map is a useful general guide in
managing a watershed, a wooded tract, or a wildlife area,
or in planning engineering works, recreational facilities,
and community developments. It is not a suitable map for
planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
ing the exact location of a road, building, or similar struc-
ture, because the soils in any one association ordinarily
differ in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, and other char-
acteristics that affect their management.
The five soil associations in Holmes County are dis-
cussed in the following pages.
1. Dothan-Ardilla association
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well-drained and some-
what poorly drained soils that have thin layers of sandy
material over a loamy subsoil; on ridges and side slopes
This association consists mainly of broad upland ridges
that have long, gently sloping sides and of nearly level
areas at lower elevations between the ridges. The drainage
is in a well-defined system of branches and creeks that flow
in a southerly direction. Slopes generally are less than 8
percent except in a few small areas mainly 'adjacent to
streams.
This association makes up about 33 percent of the survey
area. About 44 percent of it is Dothan soils, and 12 percent
is Ardilla soils. The remaining 44 percent is minor soils.
Dothan soils are mainly nearly level and gently sloping
and are on broad upland ridges that have long, gently
sloping sides. Some areas are strongly sloping. These soils
are well drained. They have a surface layer of dark gray-
ish-brown loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The upper 5
inches of the subsoil is yellowish-brown sandy loam. The
lower part is sandy clay loam that is yellowish brown to a
depth of 40 inches. It becomes mottled as depth increases.
The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.
Ardilla soils are nearly level and occur at lower eleva-
tions than Dothan soils. They are somewhat poorly
drained. They have a surface layer of very dark gray
loamy sand about 5 inches thick and a loamy sand sub-
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The upper 7 inches of
the subsoil is light yellowish-brown sandy loam. The lower
part is yellowish-brown sandy clay loam that is mottled in
shades of brown, yellow, red, and gray. The subsoil be-
comes more highly mottled as depth increases. In wet sea-
sons the water table is at a depth of about 15 to 20 inches
for 2 to 6 months in most years.
The minor soils are mainly well-drained Fuquav, Grit-
ney, Tifton, Faceville, Orangeburg, Troup, and Bonifay
soils on upland ridges and poorly drained Bibb and Pansey
soils, very poorly drained Pantego soils, and moderately
well drained Stilson soils on stream bottoms, in depres-
sions, and in other low places between the ridges.
Most areas of the Dothan soils are cultivated. These
soils generally are suited to cultivated crops and are well
suited to improved pasture grasses. If cultivated, the gently
sloping and sloping Dothan soils need erosion control prac-
tices. The Dothan soils support good stands of pine. The







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


Ardilla soils are mainly used for pine production. They
are suited to cultivated crops and improved pasture
grasses, but some water-control practices are needed. Most
of the minor soils that are well drained are suited or well
suited to cultivated crops and pasture, but if these soils are
cultivated dome of them need erosion control practices. The
minor soils that are moderately well drained are used
mainly for, pasture and woodland but are suited to row
crops if they are properly drained. The minor soils that
are poorly Idrained and very poorly drained and are on
small stream bottoms or in depressions generally support a
dense stand of water-tolerant trees, such as cypress and
gum, many shrubs and vines, and in some places a few
pines. I
Most of this soil association is in owner-operated farms.
Most farm range from 10 to 140 acres in size. Farm prod-
ucts include corn, peanuts, vegetables, watermelons, cattle,
and hogs. Many families that maintain homes in this asso-
ciation derive their income from nonfarm sources.
2. Fuquay-Dothan association
Nearly level to sloping, well-drained soils that have thick
or thin layers of sandy material over a loamy subsoil; on
ridges and side slopes
This association consists of nearly level and gently slop-
ing, broad uppland ridges and sloping sides of ridges. The
drainage isn a well-defined pattern and is made up of
many small streams and creeks along which are narrow,
wet bottom lands. Some low, nearly level and gently slop-
ing areas are adjacent to the bottom lands.
This association makes up about 27 percent of the survey
area. About 33 percent of it is Fuquay soils, and 21 percent
is Dothan soils. The remaining 46 percent is minor soils.
Fuquay soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are well
drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-brown
loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
yellowish-brown and brownish-yellow loamy sand about
27 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is brownish-
yellow sandy loam and sandy clay loam about 24 inches
thick. It has few to common mottles in shades of red, yel-
low, and brown. The lower part of the subsoil is mottled
sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of about 88 inches.
The water table is at a depth of more than 88 inches.
Dothan soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are well
drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-brown
loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
yellowish-brown sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
upper 5 inches of the subsoil is yellowish-brown sandy
loam. The lower part is sandy clay loam that is yellowish
brown and mottled to a depth of 52 inches, but below this
it is entirely mottled. The water table is at a depth of more
than 72 inches.
About half the acreage of minor soils is the well-drained
Bonifay, Gritney, Lucy, Orangeburg, and Troup soils.
These soils are on ridges and side slopes. The other half
is the very poorly drained Pantego soils, the poorly drained
Bibb soils, lthe somewhat poorly drained Ardilla soils, and
the moderately well drained Stilson soils. These soils are
on bottom lands and in low areas adjacent to bottom lands.
Fuquay and Dothan soils generally are suited to culti-
vated crops and well suited to improved pasture grasses.
They support good stands of pine. The minor soils that
are poorly drained and very poorly drained generally have


a dense stand of gum and cypress trees; the rest support
good stands of pine; but those that are moderately well
drained and somewhat poorly drained under natural con-
ditions are suited to cultivated crops and pasture after they
have been properly drained. The soils on the wet bottoms
along streams and in depressions are not cultivated.
Most of this association is in woodland that is privately
owned, but a small acreage is in owner-operated farms.
Many family homes are maintained in this association, but
most income is derived from nonfarm sources.
3. Troup-Fuquay association
Nearly level to sloping, well-drained soils that have thick
to extremely thick layers of sandy material over a loamy
subsoil; on ridges and side slopes
This association consists mainly of broad, nearly level
and gently sloping upland ridges and long, sloping sides
of ridges. Nearly level areas between the ridges consist
mainly of long, narrow, small stream bottoms.
This association makes up about 8 percent of the survey
area. About 34 percent of it is Troup soils, and 20 percent
is Fuquay soils. The remaining 46 percent is minor soils.
Troup soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are well
drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-brown
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown,
yellowish-brown, and yellowish-red sand that extends to
a depth of about 58 inches. The upper 8 inches of the sub-
soil is red sandy loam that has few reddish-yellow streaks.
Below this, the subsoil is red sandy clay loam that has
few yellowish-brown mottles and extends to a depth of 83
inches. The water table is at a depth of more than 83
inches.
Fuquay soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are
well drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-
brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is yellowish-brown and brownish-yellow loamy sand
about 27 inches thick. The upper 24 inches of the subsoil
is brownish-yellow sandy loam and sandy clay loam that
has few to common mottles in shades of red, yellow, and
brown. The lower part of the subsoil is mottled sandy clay
loam that extends to a depth of about 88 inches. The water
table is at a depth of more than 88 inches.
Among the minor soils are the well-drained Orange-
burg, Lucy, Bonifay, Fuquay, and Faceville soils and the
excessively drained Lakeland soils. These soils are on up-
land ridges and sides of ridges. Other minor soils are the
poorly drained Bibb soils, the somewhat poorly drained
Albany and Ardilla soils, and the moderately well drained
Chipley and Stilson soils. These soils are on small stream
bottoms and in low-lying areas between upland ridges.
Most of this soil association is woodland. The Troup
soils support natural stands of mainly scrubby oaks and a
few longleaf and slash pines. They are moderately suited
to cultivated crops and are suited to improved pasture
grasses. The Fuquay soils are mainly in pine trees, but
they are suited to cultivated crops and are well suited to
improved pasture grasses.
Most of the association is owned by paper companies,
but some of the acreage is owned by private individuals.
Very few families maintain homes in this soil association.
4. Pantego-Stilson association
Nearly level and gently sloping, very poorly drained and
moderately well drained soils that have moderately thick







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


Ardilla soils are mainly used for pine production. They
are suited to cultivated crops and improved pasture
grasses, but some water-control practices are needed. Most
of the minor soils that are well drained are suited or well
suited to cultivated crops and pasture, but if these soils are
cultivated dome of them need erosion control practices. The
minor soils that are moderately well drained are used
mainly for, pasture and woodland but are suited to row
crops if they are properly drained. The minor soils that
are poorly Idrained and very poorly drained and are on
small stream bottoms or in depressions generally support a
dense stand of water-tolerant trees, such as cypress and
gum, many shrubs and vines, and in some places a few
pines. I
Most of this soil association is in owner-operated farms.
Most farm range from 10 to 140 acres in size. Farm prod-
ucts include corn, peanuts, vegetables, watermelons, cattle,
and hogs. Many families that maintain homes in this asso-
ciation derive their income from nonfarm sources.
2. Fuquay-Dothan association
Nearly level to sloping, well-drained soils that have thick
or thin layers of sandy material over a loamy subsoil; on
ridges and side slopes
This association consists of nearly level and gently slop-
ing, broad uppland ridges and sloping sides of ridges. The
drainage isn a well-defined pattern and is made up of
many small streams and creeks along which are narrow,
wet bottom lands. Some low, nearly level and gently slop-
ing areas are adjacent to the bottom lands.
This association makes up about 27 percent of the survey
area. About 33 percent of it is Fuquay soils, and 21 percent
is Dothan soils. The remaining 46 percent is minor soils.
Fuquay soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are well
drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-brown
loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
yellowish-brown and brownish-yellow loamy sand about
27 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is brownish-
yellow sandy loam and sandy clay loam about 24 inches
thick. It has few to common mottles in shades of red, yel-
low, and brown. The lower part of the subsoil is mottled
sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of about 88 inches.
The water table is at a depth of more than 88 inches.
Dothan soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are well
drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-brown
loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
yellowish-brown sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
upper 5 inches of the subsoil is yellowish-brown sandy
loam. The lower part is sandy clay loam that is yellowish
brown and mottled to a depth of 52 inches, but below this
it is entirely mottled. The water table is at a depth of more
than 72 inches.
About half the acreage of minor soils is the well-drained
Bonifay, Gritney, Lucy, Orangeburg, and Troup soils.
These soils are on ridges and side slopes. The other half
is the very poorly drained Pantego soils, the poorly drained
Bibb soils, lthe somewhat poorly drained Ardilla soils, and
the moderately well drained Stilson soils. These soils are
on bottom lands and in low areas adjacent to bottom lands.
Fuquay and Dothan soils generally are suited to culti-
vated crops and well suited to improved pasture grasses.
They support good stands of pine. The minor soils that
are poorly drained and very poorly drained generally have


a dense stand of gum and cypress trees; the rest support
good stands of pine; but those that are moderately well
drained and somewhat poorly drained under natural con-
ditions are suited to cultivated crops and pasture after they
have been properly drained. The soils on the wet bottoms
along streams and in depressions are not cultivated.
Most of this association is in woodland that is privately
owned, but a small acreage is in owner-operated farms.
Many family homes are maintained in this association, but
most income is derived from nonfarm sources.
3. Troup-Fuquay association
Nearly level to sloping, well-drained soils that have thick
to extremely thick layers of sandy material over a loamy
subsoil; on ridges and side slopes
This association consists mainly of broad, nearly level
and gently sloping upland ridges and long, sloping sides
of ridges. Nearly level areas between the ridges consist
mainly of long, narrow, small stream bottoms.
This association makes up about 8 percent of the survey
area. About 34 percent of it is Troup soils, and 20 percent
is Fuquay soils. The remaining 46 percent is minor soils.
Troup soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are well
drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-brown
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown,
yellowish-brown, and yellowish-red sand that extends to
a depth of about 58 inches. The upper 8 inches of the sub-
soil is red sandy loam that has few reddish-yellow streaks.
Below this, the subsoil is red sandy clay loam that has
few yellowish-brown mottles and extends to a depth of 83
inches. The water table is at a depth of more than 83
inches.
Fuquay soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are
well drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-
brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is yellowish-brown and brownish-yellow loamy sand
about 27 inches thick. The upper 24 inches of the subsoil
is brownish-yellow sandy loam and sandy clay loam that
has few to common mottles in shades of red, yellow, and
brown. The lower part of the subsoil is mottled sandy clay
loam that extends to a depth of about 88 inches. The water
table is at a depth of more than 88 inches.
Among the minor soils are the well-drained Orange-
burg, Lucy, Bonifay, Fuquay, and Faceville soils and the
excessively drained Lakeland soils. These soils are on up-
land ridges and sides of ridges. Other minor soils are the
poorly drained Bibb soils, the somewhat poorly drained
Albany and Ardilla soils, and the moderately well drained
Chipley and Stilson soils. These soils are on small stream
bottoms and in low-lying areas between upland ridges.
Most of this soil association is woodland. The Troup
soils support natural stands of mainly scrubby oaks and a
few longleaf and slash pines. They are moderately suited
to cultivated crops and are suited to improved pasture
grasses. The Fuquay soils are mainly in pine trees, but
they are suited to cultivated crops and are well suited to
improved pasture grasses.
Most of the association is owned by paper companies,
but some of the acreage is owned by private individuals.
Very few families maintain homes in this soil association.
4. Pantego-Stilson association
Nearly level and gently sloping, very poorly drained and
moderately well drained soils that have moderately thick







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


Ardilla soils are mainly used for pine production. They
are suited to cultivated crops and improved pasture
grasses, but some water-control practices are needed. Most
of the minor soils that are well drained are suited or well
suited to cultivated crops and pasture, but if these soils are
cultivated dome of them need erosion control practices. The
minor soils that are moderately well drained are used
mainly for, pasture and woodland but are suited to row
crops if they are properly drained. The minor soils that
are poorly Idrained and very poorly drained and are on
small stream bottoms or in depressions generally support a
dense stand of water-tolerant trees, such as cypress and
gum, many shrubs and vines, and in some places a few
pines. I
Most of this soil association is in owner-operated farms.
Most farm range from 10 to 140 acres in size. Farm prod-
ucts include corn, peanuts, vegetables, watermelons, cattle,
and hogs. Many families that maintain homes in this asso-
ciation derive their income from nonfarm sources.
2. Fuquay-Dothan association
Nearly level to sloping, well-drained soils that have thick
or thin layers of sandy material over a loamy subsoil; on
ridges and side slopes
This association consists of nearly level and gently slop-
ing, broad uppland ridges and sloping sides of ridges. The
drainage isn a well-defined pattern and is made up of
many small streams and creeks along which are narrow,
wet bottom lands. Some low, nearly level and gently slop-
ing areas are adjacent to the bottom lands.
This association makes up about 27 percent of the survey
area. About 33 percent of it is Fuquay soils, and 21 percent
is Dothan soils. The remaining 46 percent is minor soils.
Fuquay soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are well
drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-brown
loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
yellowish-brown and brownish-yellow loamy sand about
27 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is brownish-
yellow sandy loam and sandy clay loam about 24 inches
thick. It has few to common mottles in shades of red, yel-
low, and brown. The lower part of the subsoil is mottled
sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of about 88 inches.
The water table is at a depth of more than 88 inches.
Dothan soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are well
drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-brown
loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
yellowish-brown sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
upper 5 inches of the subsoil is yellowish-brown sandy
loam. The lower part is sandy clay loam that is yellowish
brown and mottled to a depth of 52 inches, but below this
it is entirely mottled. The water table is at a depth of more
than 72 inches.
About half the acreage of minor soils is the well-drained
Bonifay, Gritney, Lucy, Orangeburg, and Troup soils.
These soils are on ridges and side slopes. The other half
is the very poorly drained Pantego soils, the poorly drained
Bibb soils, lthe somewhat poorly drained Ardilla soils, and
the moderately well drained Stilson soils. These soils are
on bottom lands and in low areas adjacent to bottom lands.
Fuquay and Dothan soils generally are suited to culti-
vated crops and well suited to improved pasture grasses.
They support good stands of pine. The minor soils that
are poorly drained and very poorly drained generally have


a dense stand of gum and cypress trees; the rest support
good stands of pine; but those that are moderately well
drained and somewhat poorly drained under natural con-
ditions are suited to cultivated crops and pasture after they
have been properly drained. The soils on the wet bottoms
along streams and in depressions are not cultivated.
Most of this association is in woodland that is privately
owned, but a small acreage is in owner-operated farms.
Many family homes are maintained in this association, but
most income is derived from nonfarm sources.
3. Troup-Fuquay association
Nearly level to sloping, well-drained soils that have thick
to extremely thick layers of sandy material over a loamy
subsoil; on ridges and side slopes
This association consists mainly of broad, nearly level
and gently sloping upland ridges and long, sloping sides
of ridges. Nearly level areas between the ridges consist
mainly of long, narrow, small stream bottoms.
This association makes up about 8 percent of the survey
area. About 34 percent of it is Troup soils, and 20 percent
is Fuquay soils. The remaining 46 percent is minor soils.
Troup soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are well
drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-brown
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown,
yellowish-brown, and yellowish-red sand that extends to
a depth of about 58 inches. The upper 8 inches of the sub-
soil is red sandy loam that has few reddish-yellow streaks.
Below this, the subsoil is red sandy clay loam that has
few yellowish-brown mottles and extends to a depth of 83
inches. The water table is at a depth of more than 83
inches.
Fuquay soils are on ridges and side slopes. They are
well drained. They have a surface layer of dark grayish-
brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is yellowish-brown and brownish-yellow loamy sand
about 27 inches thick. The upper 24 inches of the subsoil
is brownish-yellow sandy loam and sandy clay loam that
has few to common mottles in shades of red, yellow, and
brown. The lower part of the subsoil is mottled sandy clay
loam that extends to a depth of about 88 inches. The water
table is at a depth of more than 88 inches.
Among the minor soils are the well-drained Orange-
burg, Lucy, Bonifay, Fuquay, and Faceville soils and the
excessively drained Lakeland soils. These soils are on up-
land ridges and sides of ridges. Other minor soils are the
poorly drained Bibb soils, the somewhat poorly drained
Albany and Ardilla soils, and the moderately well drained
Chipley and Stilson soils. These soils are on small stream
bottoms and in low-lying areas between upland ridges.
Most of this soil association is woodland. The Troup
soils support natural stands of mainly scrubby oaks and a
few longleaf and slash pines. They are moderately suited
to cultivated crops and are suited to improved pasture
grasses. The Fuquay soils are mainly in pine trees, but
they are suited to cultivated crops and are well suited to
improved pasture grasses.
Most of the association is owned by paper companies,
but some of the acreage is owned by private individuals.
Very few families maintain homes in this soil association.
4. Pantego-Stilson association
Nearly level and gently sloping, very poorly drained and
moderately well drained soils that have moderately thick







SOIL SURVEY


or thick layers of sandy material over a loamy subsoil; in
depressed areas and on ridges
This association consists mainly of nearly level,
swampy, depressed areas and broad, low, gently sloping
upland ridges. Some of the depressions have poor outlets
and become ponded.
This association makes up about 19 percent of the sur-
vey area. About 32 percent is Pantego soils, and 23 per-
cent is Stilson soils. The remaining 45 percent is minor
soils.
Pantego soils are in nearly level, swampy, depressed
areas. They are very poorly drained. They have a surface
layer of loamy sand that is black in the upper part and
very dark gray in the lower part. It is about 13 inches
thick. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam that has few to
common mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and brown. It
extends to a depth of 62 inches. The water table is at a
depth of 0 to 15 inches for 9 to 12 months in most years.
Many areas are frequently ponded with shallow water.
Stilson soils are on broad, low, gently sloping upland
ridges between streams and low, swampy areas. They are
moderately well drained. They have a surface layer of
dark grayish-brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light yellowish-brown loamy sand
about 20 inches thick. The upper 20 inches of the subsoil
is brownish-yellow sandy loam and sandy clay loam. The
lower part is mottled sandy clay loam that extends to a
depth of 68 inches. The water table is at a depth of 30 to
40 inches for 1 to 2 months in wet seasons in most years.
Among the minor soils are the well-drained Fuquay,
Dothan, Troup, and Lucy soils and the excessively drained
Lakeland soils. These soils are on upland ridges. Other
minor soils are the poorly drained Bibb and Pansey soils,
the somewhat poorly drained Ardilla soils, and the mod-
erately well drained Angie soils. These soils are along
small stream bottoms, in depressions, and on broad, low
ridges.
Most of the association is woodland. Some areas of the
Stilson soils are used for improved pasture, and a few
small areas are cultivated. The Stilson soils are suited
to cultivated crops and improved pasture grasses, but
some water-control practices are needed. The Pantego soils
and the poorly drained minor soils generally are covered
by a dense stand of cypress, gum, and other water-tolerant
hardwoods.
Most of this association is privately owned. The main
farm products are corn, watermelon, cattle, and hogs. Few
families maintain homes in this association, and most in-
come is derived from woodland products, such as pulp-
wood and sawtimber. Many families derive their income
from nonfarm sources.
5. Bibb association
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are loamy through-
out; on flood plains
This association is on bottom lands and terraces of the
Choctawhatchee River, Holmes Creek, and Wrights Creek.
It consists of many long and narrow depressions that
parallel streams and terraces slightly above the streams.
The depressions generally have poor drainage outlets
and are ponded much of the time. The broad, low, nearly
level areas that are on the terraces at lower elevations are


frequently flooded for several days. The terraces at higher
elevations are seldom flooded.
This association makes up about 13 percent of the survey
area. About 45 percent is Bibb soils. The remaining 55
percent is minor soils.
Bibb soils are on nearly level bottom lands along streams.
They are poorly drained. They have a surface layer of
very dark gray sandy loam, about 10 inches thick, that
grades to dark gray in the lower part. The subsoil is gray
sandy loam that has a few yellowish-brown and light-gray
mottles and extends to a depth of 60 inches. The water
table is within a depth of 15 inches of the surface for
6 to 12 months each year. Some minor, unclassified, very
poorly drained soils that are shallowly ponded most of the
time are associated with these Bibb soils. Also associated
are some better drained soils at higher elevations; these
soils have a subsoil of sandy clay loam that has thin lenses
of coarser textured soil material. This part of the asso-
ciation corresponds with the Bibb association of soils
mapped in the detailed part of the survey.
Among the minor soils are the well-drained Kenansville,
Maxton, Troup, Dothan, and Fuquay soils and the exces-
sively drained Lakeland soils. These soils are on the ter-
races at higher elevations and on adjacent uplands that
finger in and out of some parts of the association. Other
minor soils are the moderately well drained Angie and
Stilson soils, the somewhat poorly drained Ardilla and
Albany soils, and the poorly drained Pansey soils. These
soils are on broad, nearly level to gently sloping, low
ridges that finger in and out of some parts of the associa-
tion.
Nearly all of this association is woodland. A few small
areas of minor soils adjacent to the uplands are cleared and
used for pasture. The Bibb soils are unsuited to cultivated
crops, but they support good stands of cypress, gum,
poplar, and some pine trees.
Much of this land is owned by private individuals, but
a large acreage is owned by paper companies. Very few
families maintain homes in this association.


Descriptions of the Soils
In this section the soils of Holmes County are described.
Each soil series is described in detail, and then, briefly,
the mapping units in that series. Unless it is specifically
mentioned otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is
stated about the soil series holds true for the mapping
units in that series. Thus, to get full information about
any one mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the
description of the mapping. unit and the description of
the soil series to which it belongs.
An important part of the description of each soil series
is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers from
the surface downward to rock or other underlving mate-
rial. Each series contains two descriptions of this profile.
The first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman.
The second is much more detailed and is for those who need
to make thorough and precise studies of soils. The profile
described in the soil series is representative for mapping
units in that series. If a given mapping unit has a profile
in some ways different from the one described in the series,
these differences are stated in the description of the map-
ping unit, or they are apparent in the name of the map-







SOIL SURVEY


or thick layers of sandy material over a loamy subsoil; in
depressed areas and on ridges
This association consists mainly of nearly level,
swampy, depressed areas and broad, low, gently sloping
upland ridges. Some of the depressions have poor outlets
and become ponded.
This association makes up about 19 percent of the sur-
vey area. About 32 percent is Pantego soils, and 23 per-
cent is Stilson soils. The remaining 45 percent is minor
soils.
Pantego soils are in nearly level, swampy, depressed
areas. They are very poorly drained. They have a surface
layer of loamy sand that is black in the upper part and
very dark gray in the lower part. It is about 13 inches
thick. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam that has few to
common mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and brown. It
extends to a depth of 62 inches. The water table is at a
depth of 0 to 15 inches for 9 to 12 months in most years.
Many areas are frequently ponded with shallow water.
Stilson soils are on broad, low, gently sloping upland
ridges between streams and low, swampy areas. They are
moderately well drained. They have a surface layer of
dark grayish-brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light yellowish-brown loamy sand
about 20 inches thick. The upper 20 inches of the subsoil
is brownish-yellow sandy loam and sandy clay loam. The
lower part is mottled sandy clay loam that extends to a
depth of 68 inches. The water table is at a depth of 30 to
40 inches for 1 to 2 months in wet seasons in most years.
Among the minor soils are the well-drained Fuquay,
Dothan, Troup, and Lucy soils and the excessively drained
Lakeland soils. These soils are on upland ridges. Other
minor soils are the poorly drained Bibb and Pansey soils,
the somewhat poorly drained Ardilla soils, and the mod-
erately well drained Angie soils. These soils are along
small stream bottoms, in depressions, and on broad, low
ridges.
Most of the association is woodland. Some areas of the
Stilson soils are used for improved pasture, and a few
small areas are cultivated. The Stilson soils are suited
to cultivated crops and improved pasture grasses, but
some water-control practices are needed. The Pantego soils
and the poorly drained minor soils generally are covered
by a dense stand of cypress, gum, and other water-tolerant
hardwoods.
Most of this association is privately owned. The main
farm products are corn, watermelon, cattle, and hogs. Few
families maintain homes in this association, and most in-
come is derived from woodland products, such as pulp-
wood and sawtimber. Many families derive their income
from nonfarm sources.
5. Bibb association
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are loamy through-
out; on flood plains
This association is on bottom lands and terraces of the
Choctawhatchee River, Holmes Creek, and Wrights Creek.
It consists of many long and narrow depressions that
parallel streams and terraces slightly above the streams.
The depressions generally have poor drainage outlets
and are ponded much of the time. The broad, low, nearly
level areas that are on the terraces at lower elevations are


frequently flooded for several days. The terraces at higher
elevations are seldom flooded.
This association makes up about 13 percent of the survey
area. About 45 percent is Bibb soils. The remaining 55
percent is minor soils.
Bibb soils are on nearly level bottom lands along streams.
They are poorly drained. They have a surface layer of
very dark gray sandy loam, about 10 inches thick, that
grades to dark gray in the lower part. The subsoil is gray
sandy loam that has a few yellowish-brown and light-gray
mottles and extends to a depth of 60 inches. The water
table is within a depth of 15 inches of the surface for
6 to 12 months each year. Some minor, unclassified, very
poorly drained soils that are shallowly ponded most of the
time are associated with these Bibb soils. Also associated
are some better drained soils at higher elevations; these
soils have a subsoil of sandy clay loam that has thin lenses
of coarser textured soil material. This part of the asso-
ciation corresponds with the Bibb association of soils
mapped in the detailed part of the survey.
Among the minor soils are the well-drained Kenansville,
Maxton, Troup, Dothan, and Fuquay soils and the exces-
sively drained Lakeland soils. These soils are on the ter-
races at higher elevations and on adjacent uplands that
finger in and out of some parts of the association. Other
minor soils are the moderately well drained Angie and
Stilson soils, the somewhat poorly drained Ardilla and
Albany soils, and the poorly drained Pansey soils. These
soils are on broad, nearly level to gently sloping, low
ridges that finger in and out of some parts of the associa-
tion.
Nearly all of this association is woodland. A few small
areas of minor soils adjacent to the uplands are cleared and
used for pasture. The Bibb soils are unsuited to cultivated
crops, but they support good stands of cypress, gum,
poplar, and some pine trees.
Much of this land is owned by private individuals, but
a large acreage is owned by paper companies. Very few
families maintain homes in this association.


Descriptions of the Soils
In this section the soils of Holmes County are described.
Each soil series is described in detail, and then, briefly,
the mapping units in that series. Unless it is specifically
mentioned otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is
stated about the soil series holds true for the mapping
units in that series. Thus, to get full information about
any one mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the
description of the mapping. unit and the description of
the soil series to which it belongs.
An important part of the description of each soil series
is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers from
the surface downward to rock or other underlving mate-
rial. Each series contains two descriptions of this profile.
The first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman.
The second is much more detailed and is for those who need
to make thorough and precise studies of soils. The profile
described in the soil series is representative for mapping
units in that series. If a given mapping unit has a profile
in some ways different from the one described in the series,
these differences are stated in the description of the map-
ping unit, or they are apparent in the name of the map-








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


ping unit. Color terms are for moist soil unless otherwise
stated. The description of each mapping unit contains sug-
gestions on how the soil can be managed.
Following the name of each mapping unit is a symbol
in parentheses. This symbol identifies the mapping unit
on the detailed soil map. Listed at the end of each descrip-
tion of a mapping unit is the capability unit and woodland
group in which the mapping unit has been placed. The
capability unit and woodland group in which the soil has
been placed can be learned by referring to the "Guide to
Mapping Units" at the back of this survey.
The acreage and proportionate extent of each mapping
unit are shown in table 1. Many of the terms used in de-
scribing soils can be found in the Glossary, and more
detailed information about the terminology and methods
of soil mapping can be obtained from the Soil Survey
Manual (8).'

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of gently sloping, somewhat
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy
and loamy marine sediments. These soils are on low upland
ridges.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-gray
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about
39 inches thick. The upper 16 inches of this layer is light
yellowish-brown sand, and the lower 23 inches is brownish-
yellow sand that has light-gray and yellow mottles. The
subsoil begins at a depth of about 45 inches. The upper
7 inches of the subsoil in brownish-yellow sandy loam that
has light-gray, yellow, and yellowish-brown mottles. The
lower part, extending to a depth of 65 inches, is sandy
clay loam that is mottled with yellow, brownish yellow,
light yellowish brown, yellowish brown, strong brown, very
pale brown, and light gray.
The available water capacity is very low in the upper
45 inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
rapid to a depth of about 45 inches, moderately rapid be-
tween depths of 45 and 52 inches, and moderate below a
depth of 52 inches. Natural fertility is low.

1 Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 59.


Representative profile of Albany sand, 0.5 mile east of
State Highway No. 79 and about 3.0 miles south of Boni-
fay in the NW1NW1/ sec. 18, T. 4 N., R. 14 W.:
A1-0 to 6 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single grained;
loose; common fine roots; few clean sand grains;
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
A21-6 to 22 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand;
few, medium, faint tongues of gray (10YR 5/1) ex-
tending along root channels; single grained; loose;
few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
A22-22 to 36 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; few,
fine, faint mottles of light gray; single grained; loose;
few fine roots; sand grains dominantly coated with
oxides: strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
A23-36 to 45 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; com-
mon, medium, faint mottles of light gray (10YR 7/2)
and yellow (10YR 7/8); single grained; loose; sand
grains dominantly coated with oxides; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
Blt-45 to 52 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy loam;
few, medium, distinct mottles of light gray (10YR
7/1), yellow (10YR 7/8), and yellowish brown (10YR
5/8); weak, medium, subangular blocky structure;
very friable; sand grains coated and bridged with
clay; strongly acid; gradual, wavy bounlary.
B2t-52 to 65 inches, sandy clay loam; mottled yellow (10YR
7/6), brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), light yellowish
brown (10YR 6/4), yellowish brown (10YR 5/8),
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), very pale brown (10YR
7/3). and light gray (10YR 7/1) ; weak, medium, sub-
angular blocky structure; friable; thin discontinuous
clay films on ped faces; very strongly acid.
The A horizon is sand or loamy sand and ranges from 40
to 60 inches in thickness. The Al or Ap horizon is very dark
gray to gray or grayish brown and ranges from 4 to 8 inches
in thickness. The A2 horizon is light yellowish brown to pale
brown in the upper part and yellowish brown to brownish yel-
low in the lower part. It has faint to distinct mottles in shades
of gray. yellow, or brown. It ranges from 36 to 53 inches in
thickness. The Bt horizon is sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
The Bit horizon is yellowish brown or brownish yellow to
yellow. It has faint to distinct mottles in shades of yellow,
brown, gray, and red. The B2t horizon is distinctly to promi-
nently mottled in shades of yellow, brown, gray, and red. Reac-
tion ranges from strongly acid to very strongly acid throughout.
The water table is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches for 1 to 2
months in most years.
Albany soils are associated with Ardilla, Chipley, Stilson,
and Troup soils. They do not have plinthite that is in the Bt
horizon of the Ardilla and Stilson soils. They are not so well


TABLE 1.--Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of soils


Area Extent


Albany sand---------
Angie fine sandy loam -----
Ardilla loamy sand_ ------------
Bibb association -------------------------
Bonifay sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes ---------
Chipley sand -._--___.__------------ _----
Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes -----
Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ----
Dothan complex ----------------------
Faceville sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes- -
Faceville sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes -- -
Fuquay loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes -. -
Gritney loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -
Gritney loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes -
Kenansville fine sand_ ---------------------
I


Acres
3, 140
1,680
24, 630
32, 370
10, 510
6, 620
4, 170
56, 000
12, 270
6, 500
3,070
1,460
45, 840
3,110
2,290
3,270


-I


Percent
1.0 Lakeland sand .--.--.---------------------
5 Leefield loamy sand ...------.. -------------
8. 0 Lucy loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes .------
10. 5 Maxton loamy fine sand ------..- ------------
3. 4 Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes_
2. 2 Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-_
1. 3 Pansey loamy sand .------------------------
18. 1 Pantego complex..-------------------------
4. 0 Plummer fine sand--- ..-------------------
2. 1 Stilson loamy sand, 1 to 3 percent slopes -----
1. 0 Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes -----
.5 Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .------
14. 8 Troup sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes----------
1. 0
.7 Total'1 -------------------------------
1. 1


1 Includes water areas that are less than 40 acres in size.


Area

Acres
6, 060
770
5, 890
880
5, 590
4, 270
6, 850
23, 150
1, 650
20, 620
1, 800
1,920
12, 740
309, 120


Extent

Percent
2.0
.2
1.9
.3
1.8
1.4
2.2
7. 5
.5
6.7
.6
.6
4. 1
100. 0


I-


i Includes water areas that are less than 40 acres in s ze.







SOIL SURVEY


drained as Chipley and Troup soils, and they have a Bt horizon,
but the Chipley soils do not.
Albany sand (Ab).-This is a somewhat poorly drained
soil on low upland ridges. It has slopes of 2 to 5 percent.
The water table is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches for 1 to 2
months in most years.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Ardilla loamy sand, Chipley sand, Leefield loamy sand,
Pansey loamy sand, and Stilson loamy sand. Also included
are some areas of Albany sand that have slopes of less than
2 percent and some areas of Albany soils that have a sur-
face layer of loamy sand.
Among the crops to which this soil is moderately suited
are corn, soybeans, and watermelons. The sandy surface
layer and subsurface layer are drought, and crops are
affected by lack of water during long dry periods. Among
the pasture and hay crops to which the soil is suited are
Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Liming and regular fertilizing are needed for all crops.
Erosion is the main hazard in cultivated fields. Cultivated
crops should be planted on the contour and in rotation with
close-growing, soil-improving crops.
Most of this soil is in native pine forest that has an
understory of native grasses and shrubs (fig. 2). Capability
unit IIIe-4; woodland suitability group 3w2.

Angie Series
The Angie series consists of moderately well drained,
gently sloping soils that formed in loamy marine deposits.
These soils are on low ridges between narrow drainage-
ways and depressions.
In a representative profile the surface layer is grayish-
brown fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 75 inches. In sequence from the top,
it is 20 inches of yellowish-brown clay loam; 14 inches
of brownish-yellow clay loam that has common, distinct,
yellowish-red, red, yellowish-brown, and light-gray mot-
tles; 29 inches of highly mottled clay loam; and 6 inches
of highly mottled loam.
The available water capacity is moderate in the sur-
face layer and high in the subsoil. Permeability is moder-
ate to a depth of about 6 inches and slow below this depth.
Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Angle fine sandy loam, approx-
imately 1.5 miles northwest of Westville and 0.25 mile
south of State Highway No. 181 in the NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 6,
T. 4N.,R. 16W.:
Ap-0 to 6 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sandy loam;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; many
fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary.
B1-6 to 9 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) clay loam;
moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable; common fine roots; thin patchy clay films on
ped faces; few dark stains along root channels;
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
B21t-9 to 12 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) clay loam;
moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure; fri-
able; common fine roots; clay films along ped faces;
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
B22t-12 to 26 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) clay loam;
few, fine, faint mottles of brownish yellow and yel-
lowish red; moderate, medium, angular blocky struc-
ture; firm; few fine roots; clay films on ped faces;
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.


Figure 2.-Slash pine, about 15 years old, planted on Albany sand.


B23t-26 to 40 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) clay loam;
common, medium, distinct mottles of yellowish red
(5YR 4/8), red (2.5YR 4/6), yellowish brown (10YR
5/8), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), and light
gray (10YR 7/2) ; moderate, medium, angular blocky
structure; firm; clay films on ped faces; strongly
acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B24t-40 to 69 inches, clay loam; mottled brownish yellow
(10YR 6/6), very pale brown (10YR 7/3), light gray
(10YR 7/2), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), pink (7.5YR
7/4), light reddish brown (2.5YR 6/4), yellowish
red (5YR 4/6), and red (10R 4/6) ; moderate, medium,
angular blocky structure; firm; clay films on ped
faces; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B3-69 to 75 inches, loam; mottled light gray (10YR 7/1), very
pale brown (10YR 7/4), brownish yellow (10YR 6/8),
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), yellowish red (5YR
5/8), and red (10R 4/8); weak, fine, subangular
blocky structure; friable; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is dark gray, dark grayish brown, or
grayish brown and ranges from 4 to 8 inches in thickness. Some
profiles have an A2 horizon that is brown or pale brown and
ranges from 3 to 7 inches in thickness. The B1 horizon is yel-
lowish brown, light yellowish brown, or light olive brown and
ranges from 2 to 6 inches in thickness. The B21t horizon is
yellowish brown, brownish yellow, or strong brown and has
brownish-yellow and yellowish-red mottles. The B22t horizon
is brownish yellow or yellowish brown and has mottles in
shades of red, brown, and gray. The B23t and B3 horizons are
distinctly to prominently mottled in shades of brown, yellow,
gray, and red. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid
throughout. The water table is at a depth of 30 to 60 inches
for 2 to 6 months in most years.
Angie soils are associated with Ardilla, Pansey, and Stilson
soils. They have more clay in the Bt horizons than Ardilla,
Pansey, and Stilson soils.
Angie fine sandy loam (An).-This soil is on low ridges
between narrow drainageways and depressions. It has
slopes of 2 to 5 percent and is moderately well drained.
The water table is at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for 2 to 6
months in most years.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Ardilla loamy sand, Stilson loamy sand, Fuquay loamy
sand, and Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Also
included are a few small areas of Pansey loamy sand that
are indicated on the detailed soil map by a wet-spot
symbol.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is moder-
ately suited are corn, soybeans, and watermelons. Among








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


the pasture and hay crops to which it is suited are Coastal
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Liming and regular fertilizing are needed. Erosion and
moderate wetness are the major limitations. Erosion can
be controlled by using contour cultivation, terraces, and
waterways and by including close-growing crops in the
rotation. Turning under crop residue helps to maintain the
organic-matter content.
Most of this soil is in native vegetation consisting of
pine forest and scattered hardwoods. Capability unit
IIIe-3; woodland suitability group 2w8.

Ardilla Series
The Ardilla series consists of nearly level, somewhat
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of loamy
marine deposits. These soils are along narrow drainage-
ways, around depressions, and on low ridges between small
streams.
In a representative profile the surface layer is very dark
gray loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is grayish-brown loamy sand 4 inches thick. The sub-
soil extends to a depth of 65 inches. In sequence from the
top, it is 7 inches of light yellowish-brown sandy loam; 20
inches of yellowish-brown sandy clay loam that has light
brownish-gray, strong-brown, and yellowish-red mottles;
12 inches of mottled yellowish-brown, light brownish-gray,
light-gray, strong-brown, yellowish-red, and red sandy
clay loam; and 17 inches of prominently mottled sandy
clay loam.
The available water capacity is low in the upper 9
inches, moderate between depths of 9 and 36 inches, and
low at a depth below 36 inches. Permeability is moderately
rapid to a depth of about 16 inches, moderate between
depths of 16 and 36 inches, and moderately slow at a depth
below 36 inches. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Ardilla loamy sand, approxi-
mately 3 miles east of Bonifay, 1 mile north of U.S. High-
way No. 90, and 100 feet west of a good motor road in the
NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 33, T. 5 N., R. 14 W.:
A1--0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; many
fine and medium roots; few small ironstone concre-
tions; few clean sand grains; strongly acid; clear,
smooth boundary.
A2-5 to 9 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loamy sand; few
tongues of very dark gray material extending down in
root channels and pores; weak, medium, granular
structure; very friable; common medium and fine
roots; few small ironstone concretions; strongly acid;
clear, smooth boundary.
Blt-9 to 16 inches, light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4) sandy
loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable; common fine roots; few small ironstone con-
cretions; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
B21t-16 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) sandy clay
loam; few, fine, distinct, light brownish-gray, strong-
brown, and yellowish-red mottles; weak, medium, sub-
angular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots;
few, thin, discontinuous clay films on ped faces;
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B22t-36 to 48 inches, sandy clay loam; mottled yellowish
brown (10YR 5/6), light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2),
light gray (N 7/0), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), yellow-
ish red (5YR 5/8), and red (2.5YR 4/8) ; moderate,
medium, subangular blocky structure; friable, except
about 45 percent of the volume is firm and brit-
tle; few fine roots; few, thin, discontinuous clay films


on ped faces; estimated 8 percent, by volume, is firm,
brittle plinthite; strongly acid; gradual, wavy bound-
ary.
B23t-48 to 65 inches, sandy clay loam; prominently mottled
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), brownish yellow (10YR
6/6), pale brown (10YR 6/3), light gray (N 7/0),
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), yellowish red (5YR 5/8),
and red (2.5YR 4/8) ; weak, medium, subangular
blocky structure; about 50 percent, by volume, is fri-
able and about 50 percent, by volume, is firm and
brittle; few, thin, discontinuous clay films on ped
faces; estimated 10 percent, by volume, is firm, brittle
plinthite; strongly acid.
The Ap or Al horizon is dark gray, very dark gray, very dark
grayish brown, or black. It ranges from 3 to 6 inches in thick-
ness. The A2 horizon is light brownish gray, grayish brown, or
gray and ranges from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The Bit hori-
zon is light yellowish brown, yellowish brown, or brownish
yellow and is 2 to 8 inches thick. The B21t horizon is yellowish
brown, brownish yellow, or light yellowish brown and has few
faint to distinct mottles of light brownish gray, strong brown,
or yellowish red. It ranges from 10 to 25 inches in thickness.
The B22t and B23t horizons range from sandy clay loam to
sandy clay. They are distinctly to prominently mottled in
shades of yellow, brown, gray, and red. They are 5 to 20 per-
cent, by volume, firm, brittle plinthite that is at depths of 20 to
50 inches. About 40 to 60 percent of the B22t and B23t hori-
zons, by volume, are firm and brittle. Reaction is strongly acid
to very strongly acid throughout. The water table is at a depth
of 15 to 20 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years.
Ardilla soils are associated with Dothan, Fuquay, and Stil-
son soils. They are more poorly drained than those soils. The
A2 horizon of Ardilla soils is not so thick as that of Fuquay and
Stilson soils.
Ardilla loamy sand (Ar).-This is a nearly level, some-
what poorly drained soil along narrow drainageways,
around depressions, and on low ridges between small
streams. The water table is at a depth of 15 to 20 inches for
2 to 6 months in most years.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Pansey loamy sand, which are generally indicated on the
detailed soil map by a wet-spot symbol, and soils that have
less than 5 percent plinthite in the lower part of the sub-
soil. Also included are small areas of Dothan loamy sand,
2 to 5 percent slopes, Stilson loamy sand, Leefield loamy
sand, and a few small areas of Ardilla soils that have
slopes of 2 to 5 percent.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, soybeans, and watermelons. If it is used for these
crops, however, the soil needs some water control practices.
Among the pasture and hay crops to which it is well suited
are Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Simple drainage practices are generally adequate to re-
move excess water in cultivated fields. This soil can be
cultivated continuously without hazard of erosion. How-
ever, it can be made more productive by using a cropping
sequence that includes close-growing and soil-building
crops at regular intervals. All crop residue should be re-
turned to the soil. Regular applications of lime and fer-
tilizer are needed. Simple drainage, liming, and fertilizing
are needed for pastures.
Most of this soil is in pine forest that has an understory
of gallberries and wiregrass. Capability unit IIw-3; wood-
land suitability group 2w2.

Bibb Series
The Bibb series consists of nearly level, poorly drained
soils that formed in loamy fluvial deposits. These soils are








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


the pasture and hay crops to which it is suited are Coastal
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Liming and regular fertilizing are needed. Erosion and
moderate wetness are the major limitations. Erosion can
be controlled by using contour cultivation, terraces, and
waterways and by including close-growing crops in the
rotation. Turning under crop residue helps to maintain the
organic-matter content.
Most of this soil is in native vegetation consisting of
pine forest and scattered hardwoods. Capability unit
IIIe-3; woodland suitability group 2w8.

Ardilla Series
The Ardilla series consists of nearly level, somewhat
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of loamy
marine deposits. These soils are along narrow drainage-
ways, around depressions, and on low ridges between small
streams.
In a representative profile the surface layer is very dark
gray loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is grayish-brown loamy sand 4 inches thick. The sub-
soil extends to a depth of 65 inches. In sequence from the
top, it is 7 inches of light yellowish-brown sandy loam; 20
inches of yellowish-brown sandy clay loam that has light
brownish-gray, strong-brown, and yellowish-red mottles;
12 inches of mottled yellowish-brown, light brownish-gray,
light-gray, strong-brown, yellowish-red, and red sandy
clay loam; and 17 inches of prominently mottled sandy
clay loam.
The available water capacity is low in the upper 9
inches, moderate between depths of 9 and 36 inches, and
low at a depth below 36 inches. Permeability is moderately
rapid to a depth of about 16 inches, moderate between
depths of 16 and 36 inches, and moderately slow at a depth
below 36 inches. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Ardilla loamy sand, approxi-
mately 3 miles east of Bonifay, 1 mile north of U.S. High-
way No. 90, and 100 feet west of a good motor road in the
NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 33, T. 5 N., R. 14 W.:
A1--0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; many
fine and medium roots; few small ironstone concre-
tions; few clean sand grains; strongly acid; clear,
smooth boundary.
A2-5 to 9 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loamy sand; few
tongues of very dark gray material extending down in
root channels and pores; weak, medium, granular
structure; very friable; common medium and fine
roots; few small ironstone concretions; strongly acid;
clear, smooth boundary.
Blt-9 to 16 inches, light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4) sandy
loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable; common fine roots; few small ironstone con-
cretions; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
B21t-16 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) sandy clay
loam; few, fine, distinct, light brownish-gray, strong-
brown, and yellowish-red mottles; weak, medium, sub-
angular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots;
few, thin, discontinuous clay films on ped faces;
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B22t-36 to 48 inches, sandy clay loam; mottled yellowish
brown (10YR 5/6), light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2),
light gray (N 7/0), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), yellow-
ish red (5YR 5/8), and red (2.5YR 4/8) ; moderate,
medium, subangular blocky structure; friable, except
about 45 percent of the volume is firm and brit-
tle; few fine roots; few, thin, discontinuous clay films


on ped faces; estimated 8 percent, by volume, is firm,
brittle plinthite; strongly acid; gradual, wavy bound-
ary.
B23t-48 to 65 inches, sandy clay loam; prominently mottled
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), brownish yellow (10YR
6/6), pale brown (10YR 6/3), light gray (N 7/0),
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), yellowish red (5YR 5/8),
and red (2.5YR 4/8) ; weak, medium, subangular
blocky structure; about 50 percent, by volume, is fri-
able and about 50 percent, by volume, is firm and
brittle; few, thin, discontinuous clay films on ped
faces; estimated 10 percent, by volume, is firm, brittle
plinthite; strongly acid.
The Ap or Al horizon is dark gray, very dark gray, very dark
grayish brown, or black. It ranges from 3 to 6 inches in thick-
ness. The A2 horizon is light brownish gray, grayish brown, or
gray and ranges from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The Bit hori-
zon is light yellowish brown, yellowish brown, or brownish
yellow and is 2 to 8 inches thick. The B21t horizon is yellowish
brown, brownish yellow, or light yellowish brown and has few
faint to distinct mottles of light brownish gray, strong brown,
or yellowish red. It ranges from 10 to 25 inches in thickness.
The B22t and B23t horizons range from sandy clay loam to
sandy clay. They are distinctly to prominently mottled in
shades of yellow, brown, gray, and red. They are 5 to 20 per-
cent, by volume, firm, brittle plinthite that is at depths of 20 to
50 inches. About 40 to 60 percent of the B22t and B23t hori-
zons, by volume, are firm and brittle. Reaction is strongly acid
to very strongly acid throughout. The water table is at a depth
of 15 to 20 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years.
Ardilla soils are associated with Dothan, Fuquay, and Stil-
son soils. They are more poorly drained than those soils. The
A2 horizon of Ardilla soils is not so thick as that of Fuquay and
Stilson soils.
Ardilla loamy sand (Ar).-This is a nearly level, some-
what poorly drained soil along narrow drainageways,
around depressions, and on low ridges between small
streams. The water table is at a depth of 15 to 20 inches for
2 to 6 months in most years.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Pansey loamy sand, which are generally indicated on the
detailed soil map by a wet-spot symbol, and soils that have
less than 5 percent plinthite in the lower part of the sub-
soil. Also included are small areas of Dothan loamy sand,
2 to 5 percent slopes, Stilson loamy sand, Leefield loamy
sand, and a few small areas of Ardilla soils that have
slopes of 2 to 5 percent.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, soybeans, and watermelons. If it is used for these
crops, however, the soil needs some water control practices.
Among the pasture and hay crops to which it is well suited
are Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Simple drainage practices are generally adequate to re-
move excess water in cultivated fields. This soil can be
cultivated continuously without hazard of erosion. How-
ever, it can be made more productive by using a cropping
sequence that includes close-growing and soil-building
crops at regular intervals. All crop residue should be re-
turned to the soil. Regular applications of lime and fer-
tilizer are needed. Simple drainage, liming, and fertilizing
are needed for pastures.
Most of this soil is in pine forest that has an understory
of gallberries and wiregrass. Capability unit IIw-3; wood-
land suitability group 2w2.

Bibb Series
The Bibb series consists of nearly level, poorly drained
soils that formed in loamy fluvial deposits. These soils are








8 SOIL

in old stream channels, sloughs, and depressions on flood
plains along streams.
In a representative profile the surface layer is sandy loam
that is very dark gray in the upper part and grades to dark
gray in the lower part. It is about 10 inches thick. The
underlying material extends to a depth of 60 inches. The
upper 24 inches of this material is gray sandy loam that
has few yellowish-brown and light brownish-gray mottles.
The lower 16 inches is gray sandy loam that has few light-
gray mottles.
The available water capacity is high in the surface layer
and moderate in the underlying material. Permeability is
moderate throughout. Natural fertility is moderate.
These soils are frequently flooded for a short duration and
are subject to scouring and uneven deposition of overwash.
A few areas that have poor drainage outlets are frequently
ponded.
Representative profile of Bibb sandy loam in an area of
the Bibb association, approximately 4 miles east of Boni-
fay, 200 feet north of old Chipley Road, and 75 feet west
of Holmes Creek in the NE/4NE1/4 sec. 35, T. 5 N., R.
14 W.:
All--O to 6 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy loam;
weak, fine, granular structure; friable; many medium
and fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth
boundary.
A12-6 to 10 inches, dark-gray .(0YR 4/1) sandy loam; com-
mon, medium, faint mottles of dark grayish brown
(10YR 4/2) ; weak, fine, granular structure; friable;
many medium and fine roots; very strongly acid;
clear, wavy boundary.
Clg-10 to 34 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; few, fine,
distinct mottles of yellowish brown and light brown-
gray and few dark stains along root channels; weak,
fine, granular structure; nonsticky; common thin
strata of loamy sand and sandy loam; few medium
and fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.
C2g-34 to 60 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sandy loam; few, fine,
faint mottles of light gray and few dark stains in old
root channels; weak, fine, granular structure; non-
sticky; common thin strata of loamy sand and sandy
loam; few fine roots; very strongly acid.
The Al horizon is very dark grayish-brown, brown, very
dark gray, gray, or dark-gray sandy loam or loam. It ranges
from 6 to 15 inches in thickness. The C horizon is light-gray or
gray loam or sandy loam that has few to many mottles in
shades of gray, brown, and yellow. It is stratified with lenses
of sand in many places. The content of small quartz pebbles
ranges from 0 to 5 percent, by volume, throughout. These
soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid throughout. The
water table is at a depth of 0 to 15 inches 6 to 12 months each
year.
Bibb soils are associated with Kenansville. Maxton, Pansey,
and Plummer soils. They are more poorly drained than Maxton
and Kenansville soils, they do not have the Bt horizon that
Pansey soils have. and they do not have the extremely thick,
sandy A horizon that Plummer soils have.
Bibb association (Bb.--This association of nearly level
soils occurs on flood plains of streams that are subject to 7-
to 30-day periods of stream overflow. The water table is at
a depth of less than 15 inches for 6 to 12 months each year.
Some areas are covered with shallow water for 3 to 9
months in most years.
The composition of this mapping unit is more variable
and the areas are generally much larger than those of most
other units in the county. Mapping has been controlled
well enough, however, for the anticipated uses of the
soils.


SURVEY


Poorly drained Bibb soils make up about 40 percent of
the association. About 25 percent is better drained soils
that are in positions slightly above those of the Bibb soils.
These better drained soils have a sandy clay loam subsoil
that has thin lenses of coarser textured soil material. The
remaining 35 percent is made up of several minor soils.
Among these are very poorly drained and poorly drained
soils that are sandy to a depth of more than 60 inches;
very poorly drained soils that have a subsoil of stratified
sand, sandy loam, and sandy clay loam; and soils in
sloughs that have a fine-textured subsoil and are covered
with shallow water most of the time. Small areas of Pansey
and Plummer soils occur near the borders of some areas.
None of these minor soils make up more than 10 percent
of any area mapped as the association.
This association occurs in areas where detailed investi-
gation is limited by wetness and dense vegetation, and pre-
cise identification of the soils is not feasible, because the
potential for intensive use is low. The soils are not suited
to any cultivated crops, because of excessive wetness and
the hazard of flooding by stream overflow. Drainage is not
feasible. The soils are poorly suited to pasture grasses and
hay crops. Pasture grasses could be established and im-
proved; however, all the areas of the association have a
rather dense cover of gum, bay, cypress, elm, and longleaf
pine. Improved pasture would be subject to damage from
stream overflow. Land clearing and site preparation for
improved pasture might not be feasible, because of the
difficulty and the cost. Capability unit Vw-1; woodland
suitability group 2w9.

Bonifay Series
The Bonifay series consists of nearly level to sloping,
well-drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and
loamy marine deposits. These soils are on narrow tops and
long sides of ridges.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
grayish-brown sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is sand, about 51 inches thick, that is yellowish brown
in the upper 30 inches and grades to pale brown in the
lower part. This layer has common very pale brown and
brownish-yellow mottles. The subsoil extends to a depth
of 73 inches. The upper 6 inches of the subsoil is light
yellowish-brown sandy loam that has few yellowish-brown,
yellowish-red, and strong-brown mottles. The lower part
is light yellowish-brown sandy clay loam that has common
yellowish-brown, strong-brown, yellowish-red, and red
mottles.
The available water capacity is low to a depth of about
57 inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
rapid to a depth of 57 inches and moderate below this
depth. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Bonifay sand, 1 to 8 percent
slopes, approximately 2 miles north of U.S. Highway No.
90, 100 yards east of the intersection of State Road No.
81A and a good motor road, about 75 feet south of the
good motor road in the SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 7, T. 4 N., R. 17 W.:
A1-0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand; single
grained; loose; many fine roots; very few small iron-
stone concretions 2 to 5 millimeters in size; strongly
acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
A21-6 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) sand; com-
mon, medium, faint mottles of very pale brown (10YR
7/3) ; single grained; loose; many fine roots; very few








HOLMES COUNT


ironstone concretions 2 to 5 millimeters in size; sand
grains dominantly coated with oxides; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
A22-36 to 57 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; comnion,
medium, distinct mottles of very pale brown (10YR
7/3), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4), and brownish yel-
low (10YR 6/6) ; single grained; loose; sand grains
dominantly clean; few fine roots; strongly acid; grad-
ual, wavy boundary.
Blt-57 to 63 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sandy
loam; few, medium, distinct mottles of yellowish
brown (10YR 5/6), yellowish red (5YR 5/6), and
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) ; weak, medium, subangular
blocky structure; friable; sand grains coated and
bridged with clay; estimated 8 percent is firm, brittle
plinthite; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B2t-63 to 73 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sandy
clay loam; common, medium, distinct mottles of yel-
lowish brown (10YR 5/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6),
yellowish red (5YR 5/6), and red (2.5YR 4/8) ; weak,
medium, subangular blocky structure; firm; thin dis-
continuous clay films on ped faces; estimated 15 per-
cent is firm, brittle plinthite; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is dark grayish-brown, brown, grayish-
brown, gray, or light brownish-gray sand or loamy sand. It
ranges from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon is
brownish-yellow, yellowish-brown, pale-brown, or light yellow-
ish-brown sand or loamy sand. It ranges from 37 to 52 inches
in thickness. It has few to common mottles of very pale brown,
yellowish brown, and brownish yellow.
The Bit horizon is yellowish-brown, brownish-yellow, or
light yellowish-brown sandy loam or sandy clay loam. It ranges
from 4 to 16 inches in thickness. It has few to common mottles
in shades of red, yellow, and brown in some places. The B2t
horizon is the same basic color as the Bit horizon but has com-
mon to many mottles. It is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. It is
15 to 25 percent clay and less than 20 percent silt. The B2t and
Bit horizons have 5 to 20 percent firm, brittle plinthite. Reac-
tion is strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout. The
content of ironstone concretions, 2 to 5 millimeters in size,
ranges from 0 to 5 percent by volume throughout the profile.
The water table is at a depth of more than 73 inches.
Bonifay soils are associated with Albany, Fuquay, and Stil-
son soils. They are better drained than Albany and Stilson
soils, they have plinthite in the B2t horizon that Albany soils
do not, and they have a thicker A2 horizon than Fuquay and
Stilson soils.
Bonifay sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes (BoC).-This is a
nearly level to sloping, well-drained soil on narrow tops
and long sides of ridges. The water table is at a depth of
more than 73 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Troup sand, Lakeland sand, and Fuquay loamy sand.
Also included are a few small areas of Albany sand and
Ardilla loamy sand, most of which are indicated on the
detailed soil map by wet-spot symbols, and a few areas of
Bonifay soils that have a surface layer of loamy sand.
Among the cultivated crops to:which this soil is mod-
erately suited are corn, peanuts, and soybeans. Among the
pasture and hay crops to which it is suited are bahiagrass,
Coastal bermudagrass, and small grain.
Liming and regular fertilizing are needed. Droughti-
ness and rapid leaching are severe limitations if the soil is
used for crops. Special conservation practices are required
that improve the available water capacity in the major
root zone. A cropping sequence that includes crops pro-
ducing large amounts of residue that can be returned to
the soil is such a practice; and clean-tilled crops in rota-
tion with cover crops, small grain, or perennial grasses is
a good example. The hazard of erosion is slight to mod-
erate on side slopes. Erosion can be controlled by contour
cultivation and by alternate strips of perennial grass or
small grain. Terracing is not practical.


.TY, FLORIDA 9

Most of this soil is in pine forest. Capability unit IIIs-1;
woodland suitability group 3s2.

Chipley Series
The Chipley series consists of nearly level to gently
sloping, moderately well drained soils that formed in thick
beds of sandy marine deposits. These soils are on low
ridges around small streams.
In a representative profile the surface layer is a dark-
gray to grayish-brown sand about 7 inches thick. The
underlying material extends to a depth of 90 inches. In
sequence from the top, it is 23 inches of light yellowish-
brown sand; 12 inches of light yellowish-brown sand that
has light-gray, very pale brown, and strong-brown mot-
tles; and 48 inches of mottled light yellowish-brown, light-
gray, brown, and red sand.
The available water capacity is low throughout. Perme-
ability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Chipley sand, approximately
0.5 mile north of Ponce de Leon and 150 feet west of a
good motor road in the NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 4 N., R.
17 W.:
Al--0 to 4 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single grained;
loose; many fine roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth
boundary.
A12-4 to 7 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; few thin
tongues of dark materials extending down in root
channels; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
C1-7 to 16 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand;
single grained; loose; common fine roots and few me-
dium roots; sand grains dominantly coated with ox-
ides; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
C2-16 to 30 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand;
few, fine, faint mottles of light gray and brown; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; sand grains in the
light-gray mottles are dominantly clean; matrix sand
grains are dominantly coated; strongly acid; gradual,
smooth boundary.
C3-30 to 42 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand;
common, medium, faint mottles of light gray (10YR
7/1) and very pale brown (10YR 7/3), few, fine, dis-
tinct mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) ; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; sand grains dominantly
coated; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
C4-42 to 90 inches, sand; mottled light yellowish brown
(10YR 6/4), light gray (10YR 7/1), brown (10YR
5/3), and red (2.5YR 5/6); single grained; loose;
few fine roots; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is gray, dark gray, dark grayish brown,
grayish brown, or very dark gray. It ranges from 6 to 10 inches
in thickness. The C horizon is yellowish brown, brownish yel-
low, yellow, light yellowish brown, very pale brown, or pale
brown. Patches of white or light-gray, clean sand grains occur
as faint to distinct mottles at a depth of 24 inches or more.
The C4 horizon is mottled in shades of brown, yellow, gray,
and red. Reaction is strongly acid to very strongly acid
throughout. The silt and clay content, between depths of 10 and
40 inches, is 5 to 10 percent. The water table is generally at a
depth of 40 to 60 inches, but during wet seasons it rises to a
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years.
Chipley soils are associated with Albany, Lakeland, Stilson,
and Troup soils. They lack a Bt horizon that Albany, Stilson,
and Troup soils have. They are not so well drained as Lake-
land soils, and they are better drained than Albany soils.
Chipley sand (Ch).-This is a moderately well drained
soil on low ridges adjacent to small streams. It has slopes
of 0 to 5 percent. The water table is generally at a depth of
40 to 60 inches, but it rises to a depth of 20 to 40 inches for
2 to 6 months in most years.








SOIL SURVEY


Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Albany sand, Stilson loamy sand, Lakeland sand, and
Troup sand. Also included are a few small areas of Pansey
loamy sand and Ardilla loamy sand that are indicated on
the soil map by wet-spot symbols, and a few areas of a
Chipley sand that has slopes of 5 to 8 percent.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is moder-
ately suited are corn, soybeans, and watermelons. Among
the pasture and hay crops to which it is suited are bahai-
grass, Coastal bermudagrass, and small grain.
In wet seasons the water table rises into the root zone of
most cultivated crops and is a minor hazard to the use of
this soil for cultivated crops. Simple drainage to remove
excess surface water is needed. This soil is deep and sandy,
and as a result the principal limitations are very low avail-
able water capacity and rapid leaching. Available water
capacity can be improved by using a cropping sequence
that includes close-growing and soil-building crops at reg-
ular intervals. All crop residue should be returned to the
soil. All crops require lime and liberal use of fertilizer.
Much of the soil is in pine forest. Capability unit IIIs-2;
woodland suitability group 2w2.

Dothan Series
The Dothan series consists of nearly level to strongly
sloping, well-drained soils that formed in loamy marine de-
posits. These soils are on broad ridges and long side slopes
between small streams and drainageways.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark gray-
ish-brown loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The subsoil ex-
tends to a depth of 67 inches. In sequence from the top, it
is 5 inches of yellowish-brown sandy loam; 27 inches of
yellowish-brown sandy clay loam that has strong-brown
and yellowish-red mottles in the lower part; 12 inches of
brownish-yellow sandy clay loam that has strong-brown,
yellowish-red, yellowish-brown, and red mottles; and 15
inches of mottled yellowish-brown, brownish-yellow, gray,
very pale brown, strong-brown, and red sandy clay loam.
Available water capacity is low in the surface layer and
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid
to a depth of about 8 inches, moderate between depths of 8
and 30 inches, and moderately slow at a depth below 30
inches. Natural fertility and the organic-matter content
are low.
Representative profile of Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes, approximately 7 miles north of the city limits
of Bonifay, about 100 yards east of U.S. Highway No. 79,
in the NW1/4NE/4 sec. 32, T. 6 N., R. 14 W.:
Ap-0 to 8 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; many
fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy
boundary.
B1-8 to 13 inches. yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) sandy loam;
weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; very fri-
able; common fine roots; few small iron and quartz
pebbles; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B21t-13 to 30 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) sandy
clay loam: moderate, medium, subangular blocky
structure; friable; few fine roots; thin discontinuous
clay films on ped faces; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.
B22t-30 to 40 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) sandy clay
loam; common, medium, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR
5/6) and few, fine, distinct, yellowish-red mottles;
moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure; fri-
able; few fine roots; thin discontinuous clay films on


ped faces; estimated 3 percent is firm plinthite;
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B23t-40 to 52 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy clay
loam; common, medium, prominent mottles of strong
brown (7.5YR 5/8), yellowish red (5YR 5/8), yellow-
ish brown (10YR 5/6), and red (2.5YR 4/6) ; mod-
erate, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable:
thin discontinuous clay films on ped faces; estimated
10 percent is firm, brittle plinthite; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
B24t-52 to 61 inches, sandy clay loam; mottled yellowish
brown (10YR 5/8), brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), gray
(10YR 6/1), very pale brown (10YR 7/3), strong
brown (7.5YR 5/8), and red (2.5YR 4/6) ; strong, me-
dium, subangular blocky structure; friable; discontin-
uous clay films on ped faces; estimated 18 percent is
firm, brittle plinthite; strongly acid.
B3t--61 to 67 inches, sandy clay loam; mottled brownish yel-
low (10YR 6/6), light gray (10YR 7/1), strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6), weak red (10R 4/3), and red (10R 4/6) ;
coarse, medium, subangular blocky structure; firm;
thin discontinuous clay films on ped faces; estimated
5 percent is firm, brittle plinthite; strongly acid.
The Ap or Al horizon is very dark grayish-brown, dark
grayish-brown, grayish-brown, or brown loamy sand or sandy
loam. It ranges from 6 to 10 inches in thickness. Some profiles
have an A2 horizon that is brown, yellowish brown, or light
yellowish brown and is 3 to 6 inches thick.
The B1 horizon is yellowish-brown, brownish-yellow, light
yellowish-brown, or strongly-brown sandy loam, fine sandy loam,
or sandy clay loam. It ranges from 3 to 10 inches in thickness.
The B2t horizon ranges from 30 to 60 inches in thickness.
The B21t, B22t, and B23t horizons are yellowish-brown,
brownish-yellow, or strong-brown sandy loam, fine sandy loam,
or sandy clay loam. The B22t and B23t horizons have common
to many mottles in shades of red, brown, or yellow. The B23t
horizon contains 5 to 10 percent plinthite. The B24t horizon
is mottled in shades of red, gray, yellow, or brown. It contains
8 to 20 percent, by volume, firm, brittle plinthite. The B24t
and B3t horizons range from sandy clay loam to sandy clay.
The B3t horizon is mottled and contains about 5 to 10 percent,
by volume, firm, brittle plinthite.
Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout.
The content of strongly cemented ironstone concretions ranges
from 0 to 5 percent throughout the profile. Depth to horizons
containing more than 5 percent plinthite ranges from 24 to 60
inches but is commonly 35 to 45 inches. The water table is at
a depth of more than 72 inches.
Dothan soils are associated with Ardilla, Fuquay, Orange-
burg, and Tifton soils. They are better drained than Ardilla
soils, and they have a thinner A2 horizon than Fuquay soils.
Dothan soils differ from Orangeburg soils in having plinthite
in the profile. They have fewer ironstone concretions in the
surface layer than Tifton soils.
Dothan loamy sand 0 to 2 percent slopes (DoA).-This
is a well-drained soil on broad ridges.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Fuquay loamy sand, Ardilla loamy sand, and Orange-
burg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Also included are
a few areas of Dothan soils that have 2 to 5 percent slopes
and soils that are similar to Dothan soils but have less
than 5 percent plinthite in the lower part of the subsoil.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are peanuts, corn, soybeans, and watermelons, and much
of the acreage is used for these crops. Among the pasture
and hay crops to which the soil is well suited are Coastal
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain (fig. 3).
Because runoff is slow and the erosion hazard is only
slight, this soil can be cultivated year after year without
significant losses of soil. Close-growing and soil-building
crops should be included in the cropping system regularly
to help maintain the organic-matter content and keep the
soil in good tilth. All crop residue should be returned to
the soil. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are






HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


Figure 3.-Horses and cattle grazing in a pasture of bahiagrass. The soil is Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.


needed. Capability unit IIs-1; woodland suitability
group 2ol.
Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (DoB).-This
is a well-drained soil on long side slopes between small
streams and drainageways. The water table is at a depth
of more than 72 inches. The profile of this soil is the one
described as representative of the series.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Fuquay loamy sand, Tifton loamy sand, Ardilla loamy
sand, and Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Also included are areas of Dothan soil where the surface
layer is sandy loam and areas of eroded Dothan soils.
In the eroded areas the original surface layer has been
mixed with material from the upper part of the subsoil,
and the resulting plow layer is sandy loam. Other inclu-
sions are a few small spots where severe sheet erosion
has taken place and some areas where a few shallow gullies
have been formed.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are peanuts, corn, soybeans, and watermelons. The soil is
also suited to Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small
grain.
This soil responds well to lime and fertilizer. Runoff is
moderate, and erosion is a hazard (fig. 4). Runoff can be
reduced and erosion can be controlled by such measures
as contour cultivation, terraces, and stabilized waterways
and by including close-growing crops in the rotation every
other year. Turning under crop residue helps to maintain
the organic-matter content.
Most of this soil has been cultivated, but now much of
it is in pasture or has been planted to slash pines. Capabil-
ity unit IIe-1; woodland suitability group 2o1.


Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (DoC).-This
is a well-drained soil on side slopes of short to medium
length around ridgetops.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Gritney loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Fuquay loamy
sand, Faceville sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, and
Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. Also
included are a few areas of eroded soils that have spots
where severe sheet erosion has taken place and shallow
gullies have been formed. Other inclusions are small areas
of Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and areas of
Dothan soils that have a surface layer of sandy loam.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is moder-
ately suited are peanuts, corn, soybeans, and watermelons.
The soil is also suited to Coastal bermudagrass, bahia-
grass, and small grain.
Runoff is moderate to rapid, and the major limitation
is the hazard of erosion. Erosion can be controlled by ter-
races, protected waterways, crop rotation, and contour cul-
tivation. Waterways should be constructed and stabilized
before terraces are constructed. A cropping system that
includes close-growing crops in rotation with cultivated
crops is desirable. Strips of perennial grass, established at
regular intervals across the slope, make such a cropping
system more effective. All crop residue should be returned
to the soil.
Much of this soil has been cultivated, but now the old
fields are in pasture or are planted to pines. Areas not pre-
viously used for cultivation are in native pine forest. Capa-
bility unit IIIe-1; woodland suitability group 2ol.
Dothan complex (Dt).-This complex consists of well-
drained soils that have slopes of 8 to 12 percent. It is about







SOIL SURVEY


Figure 4.-A field that is eroded because it has been plowed up and down the slope and across the terraces. The soil is Dothan loamy
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.


45 percent Dothan soils, 25 percent Troup soils, 15 percent
Lucy soils, and 8 percent Fuquay soils. The remaining
7 percent is mainly Bonifay, Lakeland, Orangeburg, and
Stilson soils. These soils occur in such intricate patterns
that it is not practical to map them separately. The pro-
portion and composition of the soils in each mapped area
are variable.
Dothan soils occur mainly near the tops of slopes, but
Troup soils and the other soils occur on the middle or lower
slopes. The Dothan soils in this complex are similar to
Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, but they are
more sloping and have an eroded surface layer. The Troup,
Lucy, and Fuquay soils in this complex are similar to the
representative soil in their series, but they are more slop-
ing.
Most areas of this complex are in woodland consisting
of slash pines and longleaf pines, scattered turkey oaks,
post oaks, and red oaks, and a few dogwoods. This complex
is generally not suited to cultivated crops and is not used
for them, mainly because the hazard of erosion is high. A
few areas have been cleared and used for pasture grasses or
have been reforested to slash pines. The complex is poorly
suited to pasture and hay because the hazard of erosion is
high until the grasses are established and form a protective
cover. Overgrazing should be avoided on pastures, and
regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Capability unit VIe-1; woodland suitability group 3s2.


Faceville Series
The Faceville series consists of gently sloping to sloping,
well-drained soils that formed in clayey marine deposits.
These soils are on the tops and sides of ridges.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
brown sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil ex-
tends to a depth of 65 inches and is mainly red sandy clay
to a depth of about 61 inches. Below a depth of 21 inches,
the subsoil has few to common yellowish-red, yellowish-
brown, and strong-brown mottles.
The available water capacity is moderate throughout.
Permeability is moderately rapid to a depth of about 6
inches and moderate below this depth. Natural fertility is
low.
Representative profile of Faceville sandy loam, 2 to 5
percent slopes, approximately 1 mile west of State High-
way No. 79 on the north side of a good motor road in the
NW1/4NE1/ sec. 31, T. 6 N., R. 14 W.:
Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) sandy loam;
moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; many
small and medium roots; estimated 25 percent of Ap
horizon is mixed with material from Bit horizon;
few, strongly cemented ironstone concretions; strongly
acid; clear, smooth boundary.
Blt-6 to 9 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8) sandy.clay loam; moder-
ate, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable;
few fine roots; thin discontinuous clay films between
ped faces; very few, strongly cemented ironstone con-
cretions; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


B21t-9 to 21 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay; moderate,
medium, angular blocky structure; firm; few fine
roots; clay films on ped faces; very few, strongly
cemented ironstone concretions; strongly acid;
gradual, smooth boundary.
B22t-21 to 43 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay; few, fine,
distinct, yellowish-red, red, and yellowish-brown mot-
tles; moderate, medium, angular blocky structure;
firm; few fine roots; clay films between ped faces;
very few, small, strongly cemented ironstone concre-
tions, about one-half inch in diameter; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
B23t-43 to 61 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay; few, fine,
distinct, red mottles and common, medium, distinct,
strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate, medium,
angular blocky structure; firm; very few, small,
strongly cemented ironstone concretions approximately
one-half inch in diameter; clay films between ped
faces; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B3t-61 to 65 inches, sandy clay; mottled red (2.5YR 4/6 and
10YR 4/8), strong brown (7.5YR 4/8), yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) and pale brown (10YR 6/3); moderate,
medium, angular blocky structure; firm; clay films
between ped faces; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is dark gray, dark grayish brown,
or dark brown and ranges from 4 to 10 inches in thickness. The
Bit horizon is strong brown, yellowish red, or red and ranges
from 3 to 9 inches in thickness. A few cultivated areas do not
have a B1 horizon, and in these areas the Ap horizon overlies
the B2t horizon. The B21t. B22t, and B23t horizons are yel-
lowish-red or red sandy clay or clay. The B22t and B23t hori-
zons have few to common mottles in shades of red, brown, and
yellow. The B3t horizon is mottled in shades of brown, red, or
yellow and is sandy clay or clay. The content of clay in the
Bt horizon is 35 to 60 percent, and the content of silt and very
fine sand is less than 30 percent. Reaction is strongly or very
strongly acid throughout. The content of strongly cemented
ironstone concretions ranges from 0 to 5 percent by volume
throughout. The water table is at a depth of more than 72
inches.
The percentage of minerals other than kaolinite in the clay
in the subsoil of the Faceville soils as mapped in this survey
is greater than that described as representative of the series.
Therefore, the plasticity of these soils is greater, but this does
not appreciably affect their use and management.
Faceville soils are associated with Ardilla, Dothan, Fuquay,
and Orangeburg soils. They are better drained than Ardilla
soils. They have a finer textured Bt horizon than Dothan and
Orangeburg soils. Faceville soils do not have plinthite in the
lower part of the Bt horizon, and the Dothan soils do. Faceville
soils have a thinner A horizon than Fuquay soils.
Faceville sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes (FcB).-
This is a well-drained soil on ridgetops. The water table is
at a depth of more than 72 inches. The profile of this soil
is the one described as representative for the series.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Orangeburg
loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Lucy loamy sand, and
Gritney loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Also included
are a few small areas of Faceville soils that have slopes of
5 to 8 percent and soils that are similar to Faceville soils,
except that they are yellowish brown in the upper part of
the subsoil and are mottled, compact sandy clay loam in
the lower part of the subsoil.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, peanuts, soybeans, and watermelons. Among the
pasture and hay crops to which it is well suited are Coastal
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Liming and regular fertilizing are needed. The main
limitation to the use of this soil for cultivated crops is
the moderate hazard of erosion. Runoff is moderate. All
cultivation should be on the contour. Terraces that have


stabilized waterways are needed to reduce runoff and con-
trol erosion. This soil also can be protected against erosion
and be made more productive by including close-grow-
ing, soil-improving crops in the rotation and by plant-
ing winter cover crops. Turning under all crop residue
helps to maintain the organic-matter content and control
erosion. Capability unit IIe-2; woodland suitability group
3ol.
Faceville sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes (FcC).-
This is a well-drained soil on short side slopes. Included
with this soil in mapping are small areas of Gritney loamy
sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes, and Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. Also included are a few small areas of Faceville
soils that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent and some small,
severely eroded spots.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is mod-
erately suited are corn, peanuts, soybeans, and water-
melons. Among the pasture and hay crops to which it is
suited are Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small
grain.
Runoff is medium to rapid, and the hazard of erosion is
severe. For this reason, special conservation practices are
required. Contour cultivation, terraces, and stabilized
waterways are essential to reduce runoff and erosion if the
soil is cultivated. Waterways should be sodded before ter-
races are constructed. Row crops should be rotated in se-
quence with close-growing, soil-improving crops and win-
ter cover crops. All crop residue should be turned under to
maintain the organic-matter content and help control ero-
sion. Capability unit IIIe-2; woodland suitability group
3ol.

Fuquay Series
The Fuquay series consists of nearly level to sloping,
well-drained soils that formed in loamy marine deposits.
These soils are on broad ridges and long side slopes.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
grayish-brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The sub-
surface layer is loamy sand about 27 inches thick. It grades
from yellowish brown to brownish yellow as depth in-
creases. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil is brownish-
yellow sandy loam. The next 10 inches is brownish-yellow
sandy clay loam that has common strong-brown and red
mottles. Below this, and reaching to a depth of 88 inches,
the subsoil is mottled brownish-yellow, pale-brown, light-
gray, olive-yellow, strong-brown, yellowish-red, and red
sandy clay loam.
The available water capacity is low to a depth of about
33 inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
rapid to a depth of about 33 inches, moderately rapid be-
tween depths of 33 to 45 inches, and slow below a depth of
45 inches. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Fuquav loamy sand, 1 to 8 per-
cent slopes, approximately 2.0 miles west of Bonifay and
0.25 mile south of U.S. Highway No. 90 in the SE1/4SE1/4
sec. 34, T. 5 N., R. 15 W.:
Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; many
fine roots and few medium roots; few small ironstone
concretions; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 13 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; few







SOIL SURVEY


fine and medium roots; few dark stains from Ap hori-
zon along root channels; few small ironstone concre-
tions; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
A22-13 to 33 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) loamy sand;
few, fine, faint mottles of light gray and few dark
stains along root channels; weak, medium, granular
structure; very friable; few small ironstone concre-
tions; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B1t-33 to 45 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy loam;
few, fine, distinct mottles of reddish yellow; weak,
medium, subangular blocky structure; friable; few
fine and medium roots; sand grains coated and bridged
with clay; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B21t-45 to 57 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy clay
loam; common, medium, distinct mottles of strong
brown (7.5YR 5/6) and red (2.5YR 4/8) ; moderate,
medium, subangular blocky structure; friable; thin
discontinuous clay films on ped faces; few small and
medium ironstone concretions; estimated 6 percent, by
volume, is firm, brittle plinthite; strongly acid; grad-
ual, wavy boundary.
B22t-57 to 88 inches, sandy clay loam; mottled brownish
yellow (10YR 6/8), pale brown (10YR 6/3), light gray
(10YR 7/1), olive yellow (2.5Y 6/6), strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8), yellowish red (5YR 5/8), and red (2.5YR
4/6) ; moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure;
firm; thin discontinuous clay films on ped faces; esti-
mated 10 percent, by volume, is firm, brittle plinthite;
strongly acid.
The A horizon ranges from 23 to 40 inches in thickness. The
Al or Ap horizon is grayish brown, dark grayish brown, or
dark gray and ranges from 3 to 9 inches in thickness. The A2
horizon is brownish yellow, light yellowish brown, yellow, yel-
lowish brown, or very pale brown and ranges from 20 to 35
inches in thickness. The Bit horizon is brownish-yellow, yel-
lowish-brown, or strong-brown sandy loam or sandy clay loam
and ranges from 6 to 12 inches in thickness. The B21t horizon
is brownish-yellow, yellowish-brown, or strong-brown sandy
loam or sandy clay loam. In most places the Bit and B21t hori-
zons have few to common mottles in shades of red, yellow, and


brown. The B22t horizon is sandy clay loam or sandy loam that
is mottled in shades of brown, yellow, red, and gray. It is 8
to 15 percent, by volume, firm, brittle plinthite.
Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout.
Depth to horizons that have more than 5 percent, by volume,
plinthite is 35 to 50 inches. The content of strongly cemented
ironstone concretions ranges from 0 to 5 percent, by volume,
throughout. The water table is at a depth of more than 88
inches.
Fuquay soils are associated with Ardilla, Dothan, Stilson,
and Troup soils. They are better drained than Ardilla and Stil-
son soils. They have a thicker A2 horizon than the Ardilla and
Dothan soils, but they have a thinner A2 horizon than the
Troup soils.
Fuquay loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes (FuC).-
This is a well-drained soil on broad ridges and long side
slopes. The water table is at a depth of more than 88
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Dothan loamy sand that has slopes of 2 to 8 percent,
Stilson loamy sand, Lucy loamy sand, Bonifay sand, and
Troup sand. Also included are a few small areas of soils
that are similar to Fuquay soils but have less than 5 per-
cent plinthite in the lower part of the subsoil.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are peanuts, soybeans, and watermelons. Among the pas-
ture and hay crops to which it is well suited are Coastal
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain (fig. 5).
The lack of moisture in the major root zone during hot
summer months sometimes causes crop damage, and
droughtiness is the main limitation for crop production.
Moderate practices are needed to increase the content of
moisture in this soil. Crop residue should be returned to
the soil, and annual crops that produce a large amount of
residue that can be returned help to improve the organic-


Figure 5.-Cattle grazing in excellent pasture of bahiagrass. The soil is Fuquay loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes.







HOLME6 COUNTY, FLORIDA


matter content. A cropping sequence that includes peren-
nial grasses or cover crops is desirable. Only moderate
practices are needed to protect the soil on side slopes from
erosion. Contour cultivation generally is sufficient, but al-
ternate strips of perennial grass are needed in a few places.
Capability unit IIs-2; woodland suitability group 3s2.

Gritney Series
The Gritney series consists of gently sloping to sloping,
well-drained soils that formed in thick beds of loamy ma-
rine deposits. These soils are on knolls, short choppy slopes,
and ridge crests.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark gray-
ish-brown loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The subsoil ex-
tends to a depth of 50 inches. The upper 5 inches of the sub-
soil is light olive-brown sandy clay loam; the next 19
inches is brownish-yellow sandy clay that has yellowish-
red, red, light-gray, and pale-brown mottles; and the lower
19 inches is mottled brownish-yellow, yellowish-red, red,
strong-brown, and light-gray sandy clay loam. The
underlying material extends to a depth of 68 inches. It is
coarsely mottled brownish-yellow, dark-red, weak-red, and
pale-brown sandy clay loam.
The available water capacity is low in the surface layer
and moderate in all other layers. Permeability is rapid to a
depth of 7 inches, moderate between depths of 7 and 12
inches, slow between depths of 12 and 31 inches, and mod-
erately slow below a depth of 31 inches. Natural fertility is
low.
Representative profile of Gritney loamy sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes, approximately 2.25 miles east of the city
limits of Bonifay on old Chipley Road, about 100 feet
south of the road in the NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 34, T. 5 N., R. 14
W.:
Ap-0 to 7 inches, dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; friable; many fine
and medium roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy
boundary.
Blt-7 to 12 inches, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/6) sandy clay
loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable; many fine and medium roots; few fine mica
flakes; patchy clay films on faces of peds; strongly
acid; clear, smooth boundary.
B21t-12 to 18 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy
clay; few, medium, distinct mottles of yellowish red
(5YR 5/8); moderate, medium, angular blocky struc-
ture; firm; common fine and medium roots; common
fine mica flakes; discontinuous clay films on ped faces;
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B22t-18 to 31 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy clay;
common, medium, distinct mottles of yellowish red
(5YR 5/8) and red (2.5YR 4/8) and few, fine, faint
mottles of pale brown and light gray; moderate,
medium, angular blocky structure; firm, slightly plas-
tic; few fine roots; common fine mica flakes; discon-
tinuous clay films; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.
B3t-31 to 50 inches, sandy clay loam; mottled brownish yel-
low (10YR 6/6), yellowish red (5YR 5/8), red (2.5YR
4/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), and light gray (10YR
7/1); moderate, medium, subangular blocky struc-
ture; firm; discontinuous clay films on faces of peds;
few lenses of sandy clay; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.
C-50 to 68 inches, sandy clay loam; coarsely mottled brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6), dark red (10R 3/6), weak red
(10R 5/4), and pale-brown (10YR 6/3); massive;
firm; discontinuous horizontal lenses of light reddish-
brown (2.5YR 6/4) sandy loam 5 to 20 millimeters


thick; fragments of light-gray (10YR7/1) sandy
clay; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is grayish-brown, dark grayish-brown,
brown, or dark-brown loamy sand or sandy loam. It ranges
from 4 to 8 inches in thickness. An A2 horizon of pale-brown
or light yellowish-brown loamy sand or sandy loam, 2 to 4
inches thick, occurs in some places. The B horizon ranges from
35 to 55 inches in thickness. The Bit horizon is light yellowish
brown, yellowish brown, light olive brown, strong brown, or
yellowish red and ranges from 4 to 6 inches in thickness. The
B21t horizon is brownish-yellow, yellowish-brown, strong-
brown, yellowish-red, or red sandy clay or clay that has few dis-
tinct mottles. The B22t horizon is brownish-yellow, yellowish-
brown, strong-brown, yellowish-red, or red sandy clay or clay
that is highly mottled in shades of yellow, red, brown, and gray.
The content of clay in the B2t horizon ranges from 35 to 50 per-
cent and the content of silt is less than 30 percent. The B3t
horizon is mottled sandy clay loam or sandy clay. The C hori-
zon is coarsely mottled and has discontinuous horizontal
lenses of sandy clay, sandy loam, or loamy sand. In some places
strata of platelike clay occur in the lower part of the C hori-
zon. Reaction ranges from strongly to very strongly acid
throughout. The water table is at a depth of more than 72
inches.
Gritney soils are associated with Dothan, Fuquay, and
Orangeburg soils. They have a higher content of clay in the
Bt horizon than all of those soils. They do not have plinthite
in the Bt horizon, but the Dothan and Fuquay soils do.
Gritney loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (GrB).-This
is a well-drained soil on knolls and short side slopes. The
water table is at a depth of more than 68 inches. The
profile of this soil is the one described as representative of
the series.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Faceville
sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and Tifton loamy sand,
2 to 5 percent slopes. Also included are areas of soils that
have a surface layer of loamy sand and a subsoil of mot-
tled, compact, brittle sandy clay loam. Other inclusions are
a few small areas of soils that are severely eroded, a few
areas that have slopes of 5 to 8 percent, and some areas of
Gritney soils that have a surface layer of sandy loam.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is mod-
erately suited are corn, peanuts, soybeans, and water-
melons. It is also suited to Coastal bermudagrass, bahia-
grass, and small grain.
The hazard of erosion is one of the main limitations to
the use of this soil for cultivated crops. Runoff is medium
to rapid. The root zone is restricted by the depth to the
clayey, slowly permeable subsoil. Cultivated crops are
affected by the lack of available moisture in the shallow
root zone during dry seasons. Productivity of crops can
be improved by using a cropping sequence that includes
close-growing, soil-improving crops in rotation with row
crops. All residue should be left on the surface to help
control erosion. All cultivation should be on the contour.
Terraces and stabilized waterways should be constructed
and maintained to reduce runoff and to help control ero-
sion. Liming and regular fertilizing are needed. Capabil-
ity unit IIIe-3; woodland suitability group 3o1.
Gritney loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (GrC).-
This is a well-drained soil on short, choppy slopes.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Faceville sandy
loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to
8 percent slopes, and Tifton loamv sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. Also included are a few small areas of soil that are
similar to Gritney soils except that they have a surface







SOIL SURVEY


layer more than 11 inches thick, a few areas that are se-
verely eroded, and a few areas of Gritney loamy sand, 2
to 5 percent slopes. Other inclusions are a few areas of a
soil that has a surface layer of loamy coarse sand and a
subsoil of compact, brittle sandy clay loam and some areas
of Gritney soils that have a surface layer of sandy loam.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is poorly
suited are corn, peanuts, or soybeans. Among the pasture
and hay crops to which it is moderately suited are Coastal
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
This soil is severely limited for cultivation because of
the hazard of erosion and the shallow root zone. Runoff
is rapid, and the soil is drought and hard during dry sea-
sons. The shallow root zone restricts root development and
affects plant growth. The soil should be cultivated only oc-
casionally, and it should always be contour cultivated. It
is not well suited to terraces. Strips of close-growing crops
should be used on long slopes to retard runoff. Capability
unit IVe-1; woodland suitability group 3ol.

Kenansville Series
The Kenansville series consists of gently sloping, well-
drained soils that formed in sandy fluvial sediments. These
soils are in the higher positions on river and stream
terraces.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
grayish-brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The sub-
surface layer is very pale brown fine sand about 19 inches
thick. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil is yellowish-
brown fine sandy loam, and the lower 11 inches is slightly
mottled, reddish-yellow fine sandy loam. The underlying
material is pale-yellow fine sand that has common white
and yellowish-brown mottles and extends to a depth of 75
inches.
Available water capacity is low to a depth of 25 inches,
moderate between depths of 25 and 48 inches, and low
below a depth of 48 inches. Permeability is rapid to a
depth of 25 inches, moderately rapid between depths of 25
and 48 inches, and rapid below a depth of 48 inches.
Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Kenansville fine sand, approxi-
mately 2.0 miles north of the city limits of Caryville and
0.5 mile west of State Highway No. 179 on the west side of
the good motor road in the SW/4SW1/4 sec. 35, T. 5 N.,
R. 16 W.:
Al--0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
weak, fine, granular structure; many medium and fine
roots; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
A2-6 to 25 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand;
few, fine, faint mottles of light gray (10YR 7/2);
single grained; loose; common medium and fine roots;
sand grains dominantly clean; strongly acid; gradual,
wavy boundary.
B2t-25 to 37 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy
loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable; few medium and fine roots; thin discontinu-
ous clay films on ped faces; strongly acid; gradual,
wavy boundary.
B3t-37 to 48 inches, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/6) fine sandy
loam; few, fine, distinct mottles of yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) ; weak, fine, subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged
with clay; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
C-48 to 75 inches, pale-yellow (2.5Y 8/4) fine sand; common,
medium, distinct mottles of white (2.5Y 8/2) ; few fine


nodules of yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy
loam; single grained; loose; sandy grains dominantly
clean; strongly acid.
The Al horizon is dark grayish-brown, grayish-brown, or
gray loamy fine sand, sand, or fine sand. It ranges from 3 to 8
inches in thickness. The A2 horizon is light yellowish-brown,
yellowish-brown, brown, or very pale brown loamy fine sand,
sand, or fine sand. It ranges from 17 to 32 inches in thickness. A
few profiles have a B1 horizon of brownish-yellow, yellowish-
brown, or strong-brown fine sandy loam that ranges from 2 to 8
inches in thickness. The B2t horizon is yellowish-brown,
brownish-yellow, or strong-brown fine sandy loam or sandy
clay loam. It ranges from 10 to 25 inches in thickness. The B3t
horizon is yellowish-brown, light yellowish-brown, or reddish-
yellow fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The C horizon is
pale-yellow, yellow, very pale brown, light yellowish-brown,
brownish-yellow, or strong-brown fine sand or loamy fine sand.
It has few to many mottles in shades of white, yellow, red, or
brown and extends to a depth of 75 inches. Reaction is strongly
acid to very strongly acid throughout. The water table is at a
depth of more than 75 inches.
Kenansville soils are associated with Maxton, Troup, and
Lucy soils. They are yellower than those soils; they have a
thicker A2 horizon than Maxton soils; and they have a thinner
A2 horizon than Troup soils. The subsoil of Kenansville soils
is underlain by fine sand, but that of the Lucy soils is under-
lain by sandy clay loam.
Kenansville fine sand (Ke).-This is a well-drained soil
in the higher positions on river and stream terraces. It has
slopes of 2 to 5 percent. The water table is at a depth of
more than 75 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Troup sand, Maxton loamy fine sand, Lucy loamy sand,
and Fuquay loamy sand. Also included are a few small
areas of soils that are similar to Kenansville soils, except
that the combined thickness of the surface and subsurface
layers is less than 20 inches, and some areas of Kenansville
soils that have a surface layer of loamy fine sand.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are peanuts, soybeans, and watermelons. Among the pas-
ture and hay crops to which it is well suited are Coastal
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Droughtiness is the main limitation for crop production.
The lack of moisture in the major root zone during hot
summer months often causes crop damage. Moderate con-
servation practices are needed to improve the content of
moisture in this soil. Large amounts of crop residue should
be returned. A cropping sequence that includes perennial
grasses or cover crops is desirable. The practice of plant-
ing such crops as corn in a mulched soil is useful in con-
trolling erosion and improving the soil condition. Capa-
bility unit IIs-2; woodland suitability group 3s2.

Lakeland Series
The Lakeland series consists of nearly level to gently
sloping, excessively drained soils that formed in thick
beds of sandy marine deposits along the Chootawhatchee
River.
In a representative profile the surface layer is grayish-
brown sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying material
extends to a depth of 84 inches. In sequence from the top,
this material is 5 inches of yellowish-brown sand; 35
inches of yellowish-brown sand that has few faint mottles;
13 inches of brownish-yellow sand that has few pale-brown
mottles; and 27 inches of very pale brown sand that has







SOIL SURVEY


layer more than 11 inches thick, a few areas that are se-
verely eroded, and a few areas of Gritney loamy sand, 2
to 5 percent slopes. Other inclusions are a few areas of a
soil that has a surface layer of loamy coarse sand and a
subsoil of compact, brittle sandy clay loam and some areas
of Gritney soils that have a surface layer of sandy loam.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is poorly
suited are corn, peanuts, or soybeans. Among the pasture
and hay crops to which it is moderately suited are Coastal
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
This soil is severely limited for cultivation because of
the hazard of erosion and the shallow root zone. Runoff
is rapid, and the soil is drought and hard during dry sea-
sons. The shallow root zone restricts root development and
affects plant growth. The soil should be cultivated only oc-
casionally, and it should always be contour cultivated. It
is not well suited to terraces. Strips of close-growing crops
should be used on long slopes to retard runoff. Capability
unit IVe-1; woodland suitability group 3ol.

Kenansville Series
The Kenansville series consists of gently sloping, well-
drained soils that formed in sandy fluvial sediments. These
soils are in the higher positions on river and stream
terraces.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
grayish-brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The sub-
surface layer is very pale brown fine sand about 19 inches
thick. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil is yellowish-
brown fine sandy loam, and the lower 11 inches is slightly
mottled, reddish-yellow fine sandy loam. The underlying
material is pale-yellow fine sand that has common white
and yellowish-brown mottles and extends to a depth of 75
inches.
Available water capacity is low to a depth of 25 inches,
moderate between depths of 25 and 48 inches, and low
below a depth of 48 inches. Permeability is rapid to a
depth of 25 inches, moderately rapid between depths of 25
and 48 inches, and rapid below a depth of 48 inches.
Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Kenansville fine sand, approxi-
mately 2.0 miles north of the city limits of Caryville and
0.5 mile west of State Highway No. 179 on the west side of
the good motor road in the SW/4SW1/4 sec. 35, T. 5 N.,
R. 16 W.:
Al--0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand;
weak, fine, granular structure; many medium and fine
roots; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
A2-6 to 25 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand;
few, fine, faint mottles of light gray (10YR 7/2);
single grained; loose; common medium and fine roots;
sand grains dominantly clean; strongly acid; gradual,
wavy boundary.
B2t-25 to 37 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) fine sandy
loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable; few medium and fine roots; thin discontinu-
ous clay films on ped faces; strongly acid; gradual,
wavy boundary.
B3t-37 to 48 inches, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/6) fine sandy
loam; few, fine, distinct mottles of yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) ; weak, fine, subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged
with clay; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
C-48 to 75 inches, pale-yellow (2.5Y 8/4) fine sand; common,
medium, distinct mottles of white (2.5Y 8/2) ; few fine


nodules of yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy
loam; single grained; loose; sandy grains dominantly
clean; strongly acid.
The Al horizon is dark grayish-brown, grayish-brown, or
gray loamy fine sand, sand, or fine sand. It ranges from 3 to 8
inches in thickness. The A2 horizon is light yellowish-brown,
yellowish-brown, brown, or very pale brown loamy fine sand,
sand, or fine sand. It ranges from 17 to 32 inches in thickness. A
few profiles have a B1 horizon of brownish-yellow, yellowish-
brown, or strong-brown fine sandy loam that ranges from 2 to 8
inches in thickness. The B2t horizon is yellowish-brown,
brownish-yellow, or strong-brown fine sandy loam or sandy
clay loam. It ranges from 10 to 25 inches in thickness. The B3t
horizon is yellowish-brown, light yellowish-brown, or reddish-
yellow fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The C horizon is
pale-yellow, yellow, very pale brown, light yellowish-brown,
brownish-yellow, or strong-brown fine sand or loamy fine sand.
It has few to many mottles in shades of white, yellow, red, or
brown and extends to a depth of 75 inches. Reaction is strongly
acid to very strongly acid throughout. The water table is at a
depth of more than 75 inches.
Kenansville soils are associated with Maxton, Troup, and
Lucy soils. They are yellower than those soils; they have a
thicker A2 horizon than Maxton soils; and they have a thinner
A2 horizon than Troup soils. The subsoil of Kenansville soils
is underlain by fine sand, but that of the Lucy soils is under-
lain by sandy clay loam.
Kenansville fine sand (Ke).-This is a well-drained soil
in the higher positions on river and stream terraces. It has
slopes of 2 to 5 percent. The water table is at a depth of
more than 75 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Troup sand, Maxton loamy fine sand, Lucy loamy sand,
and Fuquay loamy sand. Also included are a few small
areas of soils that are similar to Kenansville soils, except
that the combined thickness of the surface and subsurface
layers is less than 20 inches, and some areas of Kenansville
soils that have a surface layer of loamy fine sand.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are peanuts, soybeans, and watermelons. Among the pas-
ture and hay crops to which it is well suited are Coastal
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Droughtiness is the main limitation for crop production.
The lack of moisture in the major root zone during hot
summer months often causes crop damage. Moderate con-
servation practices are needed to improve the content of
moisture in this soil. Large amounts of crop residue should
be returned. A cropping sequence that includes perennial
grasses or cover crops is desirable. The practice of plant-
ing such crops as corn in a mulched soil is useful in con-
trolling erosion and improving the soil condition. Capa-
bility unit IIs-2; woodland suitability group 3s2.

Lakeland Series
The Lakeland series consists of nearly level to gently
sloping, excessively drained soils that formed in thick
beds of sandy marine deposits along the Chootawhatchee
River.
In a representative profile the surface layer is grayish-
brown sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying material
extends to a depth of 84 inches. In sequence from the top,
this material is 5 inches of yellowish-brown sand; 35
inches of yellowish-brown sand that has few faint mottles;
13 inches of brownish-yellow sand that has few pale-brown
mottles; and 27 inches of very pale brown sand that has











HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


few light yellowish-brown, yellowish-brown, and pale-
brown mottles.
Available water capacity is very low to low throughout.
Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Lakeland sand, approximately
3.0 miles north of Ponce de Leon and 0.75 mile east of
State Highway No. 81 on the south side of the good motor
road in the SE1/4SW/4 sec. 9, T. 4 N., R. 17 W.:
Al--0 to 4 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single
grained; loose; common fine roots; few, fine, distinct
streaks of dark grayish brown; some clean sand
grains; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
C1-4 to 9 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; few, fine, distinct,
dark grayish-brown tongues extending downward;
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
02-9 to 44 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) sand; few,
fine, faint, very pale brown mottles; single grained;
loose; few fine roots; sand grains are well coated;
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
C3-44 to 57 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; few,
medium, distinct, very pale brown mottles; single
grained; loose; sand grains are well coated; strongly
acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
C4-57 to 84 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand: few,
fine, distinct, light yellowish-brown, yellowish-brown,
and pale-brown mottles; single grained; loose; sand
grains dominantly clean; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is dark grayish-brown, grayish-brown,
gray, or dark-gray sand or fine sand. It ranges from 2 to 6
inches in thickness. The C horizon is fine sand or sand to a
depth of more than 84 inches. The upper part of the C horizon
is yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and yellow. The lower
part is light yellowish brown, pale brown, or very pale brown.
The 02 and C3 horizons have a few to common, pale-brown,
very pale brown, or white mottles. The 04 horizon has few to
common, light yellowish-brown, yellowish-brown, pale-brown,
or white mottles. The content of strongly cemented ironstone
concretions ranges from 0 to 5 percent, by volume. Reaction is
strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout. The water table
is at a depth of more than 84 inches.
Lakeland soils are associated with Fuquay, Bonifay, Troup,
and Chipley soils. They lack the Bt horizon that Fuquay,
Bonifay, and Troup soils have. They are better drained than
Chipley soils.
Lakeland sand (Ld).-This is an excessively drained soil.
It has slopes of 0 to 5 percent. The water table is at a depth
of more than 84 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Troup sand. Bonifay sand, Fuauay loamy sand, Chip-
ley sand, and Lucy loamy sand. Also included are some
areas of Lakeland soils that have a surface layer of fine
sand.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is poorly
suited are corn, peanuts, soybeans, and watermelons.
Among the pasture and hay crops to which it is moderately
suited are bahiagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, and small
grain.
Droughtiness is the main limitation to the use of this
soil for cultivated crops. Very low or low available water
capacity throughout makes the soil very drought in dry
periods. A cropping sequence that includes regular use of
close-growing crops is needed to improve soil condition.
All crop residue should be returned to the soil. Placing
row crops on the contour helps retain water and retard
erosion. Terracing on this soil is not practical. Liming and
frequent applications of fertilizers are needed for the best
productivity. Capability unit IVs-1; woodland suitability
group 3s2.


Leefield Series
The Leefield series consists of nearly level to gently
sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in
thick beds of loamy marine deposits. These soils are along
narrow drainageways and small streams and around
depressions.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
grayish-brown loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The sub-
surface layer is loamy sand that is grayish brown in the
upper 4 inches and pale brown in the lower 11 inches. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 65 inches. The upper 5 inches
of the subsoil is light yellowish-brown sandy clay loam
that has few yellowish-brown and light-gray mottles. Next
is 14 inches of light yellowish-brown sandy clay loam that
has common mottles in shades of brown, gray, and red. The
lower 33 inches is sandy clay loam mottled in shades of
brown, gray, and red.
Available water capacity is low to a depth of about 28
inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
rapid to a depth of about 23 inches and moderately slow
below this depth. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Leefield loamy sand, approxi-
mately 2 miles northwest of Bethlehem Church on the
south side of a good motor road in the SENl SE1/ sec. 11,
T. 6 N., R. 15W.:
Ap-0 to 8 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loamy
sand; weak, medium, granular structure; very friable;
few fine roots; few clean sand grains; strongly acid;
clear, smooth boundary.
A21-8 to 12 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; few
fine roots; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
A22-12 to 23 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; few
fine roots; many clean sand grains; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
B1-23 to 28 inches, light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4) sandy
clay loam; few, medium, distinct mottles of yellowish
brown and few, fine, faint mottles of light gray; weak,
medium, subangular blocky structure; friable; few
fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B21t-28 to 42 inches, light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4) sandy
clay loam; common, medium, distinct mottles of
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), pale brown (10YR 6/3),
light gray (10YR 7/1 or 7/2), strong brown (7.5YR
5/6), and yellowish red (5YR 5/6); weak, medium,
subangular blocky structure; friable; thin discon-
tinuous clay films on ped faces; estimated 3 percent,
by volume, is firm, brittle plinthite; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
B22t-42 to 60 inches, sandy clay loam; mottled yellowish
brown (10YR 5/8), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4),
light gray (10YR 7/1), yellow (10YR 7/8), strong
brown (7.5YR 5/6), yellowish red (5YR 5/6), and
red (2.5YR 5/6); moderate, medium, subangular
blocky structure: friable; thin discontinuous clay
films: estimated 10 percent, by volume, is firm, brittle
plinthite; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B23t-60 to 65 Inches, sandy clay loam; coarsely mottled light
yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4), light gray (10YR 7/2
or 7/1), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and red (2.5YR
5/6) ; moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable; slightly sticky and plastic: thin discontinuous
clay films; estimated 5 percent, by volume, is firm,
brittle plinthite; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is very dark gray, dark-gray, very
dark grayish-brown, or dark grayish-brown loamy ssnd or
sand. It ranges from 4 to 9 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon
is loamy sand or sand and ranges from 13 to 22 inches in thick-







SOIL SURVEY


ness. The upper part is grayish brown or light brownish gray,
and the lower part is very pale brown or pale brown. In some
profiles the A2 horizon has few mottles in shades of brown,
yellow, or gray.
The B horizon is sandy clay loam or sandy loam. The B1 hori-
zon is light yellowish brown or yellowish brown and ranges
from 3 to 5 inches in thickness. The B21t horizon is light yel-
lowish brown or yellowish brown. The B1 and B21t horizons
have few to common mottles in shades of brown, yellow, and
gray. The B22t horizon is light yellowish brown or yellowish
brown and has common to many mottles in shades of yellow,
brown, red, and gray. The B23t horizon, and in some profiles
the B22t horizon, has coarse mottles in shades of yellow,
brown, gray, and red. The content of firm, brittle plinthite in
the B22t and B23t horizons ranges from 5 to 20 percent. Re-
action is strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout. The
water table is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches for 2 to 3 months
in most years.
The Leefleld soils are associated with Ardilla, Stilson, Fu-
quay, and Albany soils. They have a thicker A horizon than
Ardilla soils. They are more poorly drained than Stilson and
Fuquay soils. Leefield soils have a thinner A horizon than the
Albany soils.
Leefield loamy sand (Le).-This is a somewhat poorly
drained soil that is along narrow drainageways and small
streams and around depressions. It has slopes of 0 to 5
percent. The water table is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches,
for 2 to 3 months in most years.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Ardilla loamy sand, Albany sand, Fuquay loamy sand,
Pansey loamy sand, and Stilson loamy sand. Also included
are some areas of Leefield soils that have a surface layer of
sand.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, soybeans, and watermelons. It is well suited to
Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Surface drainage should be installed and maintained
where this soil is used for cultivated crops. The hazard of
erosion is slight, but a cropping sequence that includes
close-growing, soil-improving crops is needed to main-
tain the organic-matter content. All crop residue should
be returned to the soil. This soil requires liming and regu-
lar fertilizing. Capability unit IIw-2; woodland suitabil-
ity group 3w2.

Lucy Series

The Lucy series consists of nearly level to sloping, well-
drained soils that formed in thick beds of loamy marine
deposits. These soils are on broad ridges and along side
slopes.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
grayish-brown loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The sub-
surface layer is strong-brown loamy sand in the upper 7
inches and yellowish-red loamy sand in the lower 14
inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. The
upper 9 inches of the subsoil is red sandy loam, and the
lower 43 inches is red sandy clay loam.
Available water capacity is low to a depth of about 28
inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
rapid to a depth of about 28 inches, moderately rapid be-
tween depths of 28 and 37 inches, and moderate below a
depth of 37 inches. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Lucy loamy sand, 1 to 8 per-
cent slopes, approximately 0.75 mile southeast of Sandy
Creek Church on the west side of a good motor road in the
NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 35, T. 5 N., R. 16 W.:


A1-0 to 7 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loamy sand;
few streaks of dark brown (10YR 4/3) ; weak, me-
dium, granular structure; very friable; many fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
A2-7 to 14 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy sand; few,
fine, faint mottles of light brown; weak, medium,
granular structure; very friable; common medium and
fine roots; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
A3-14 to 28 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) loamy sand; few,
fine, faint mottles of light brown; weak, medium,
granular structure; very friable; common medium and
fine roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Blt-28 to 37 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8) sandy loam; few, fine,
faint mottles of light brown; weak, medium, subangu-
lar blocky structure; friable; few medium and fine
roots; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
B2t-37 to 80 inches, red (10YR 4/6) sandy clay loam; weak,
medium, subangular blocky structure; friable; thin
discontinuous clay films on ped faces; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is dark grayish brown, grayish brown,
or dark brown and ranges from 6 to 10 inches in thickness. The
A2 horizon is yellowish brown, light yellowish brown, brownish
yellow, or strong brown. The A3 horizon is yellowish-red loamy
sand or sand and is as much as 15 inches thick. The combined
thickness of the A2 and A3 horizons ranges from 14 to 30
inches. The Bit horizon is yellowish-red or red sandy loam or
sandy clay loam. It ranges from 4 to 18 inches in thickness.
The B2t horizon is yellowish-red to red sandy loam or sandy
clay loam. In some places the B2t horizon has few to common
mottles of strong brown or yellowish red. Reaction is strongly
acid or very strongly acid throughout. The content of small,
cemented ironstone concretions ranges from 0 to 5 percent, by
volume, throughout. The water table is at a depth of more
than 80 inches.
Lucy soils are associated with Dothan, Orangeburg, and
Troup soils. Lucy soils have a thicker A horizon than Dothan
and Orangeburg soils and have a thinner A horizon than Troup
soils.
Lucy loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes (LuC).-This
is a well-drained soil on broad ridges and long side slopes.
The water table is at a depth of more than 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Orangeburg loamy sand, Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes, Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Face-
ville sandy loam, Troup sand, Fuquay loamy sand, and
Stilson loamy sand.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, peanuts, soybeans, and watermelons. Among the
pasture and hay crops to which the soil is suited are
Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Droughtiness is the main limitation, and moderate con-
servation practices are needed to improve the soil for crop
production. The lack of moisture in the major root zone
during hot, dry months in summer often causes crop dam-
age. A cropping sequence that includes perennial grasses
or cover crops that produce large amounts of crop residue
should be used. Fertilizer leaches rapidly and should be
applied in small but frequent applications. Moderate ero-
sion control practices are needed. Contour cultivation,
along with alternate strips of perennial grass, is needed
to retard runoff and erosion. Capability unit IIs-2; wood-
land suitability group 3s2.

Maxton Series
The Maxton series consists of gently sloping, well-
drained soils that formed in loamy marine and fluvial de-
posits. These soils are at higher elevations adjacent to the
Choctawhatchee River.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark gray-
ish-brown loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The sub-







SOIL SURVEY


ness. The upper part is grayish brown or light brownish gray,
and the lower part is very pale brown or pale brown. In some
profiles the A2 horizon has few mottles in shades of brown,
yellow, or gray.
The B horizon is sandy clay loam or sandy loam. The B1 hori-
zon is light yellowish brown or yellowish brown and ranges
from 3 to 5 inches in thickness. The B21t horizon is light yel-
lowish brown or yellowish brown. The B1 and B21t horizons
have few to common mottles in shades of brown, yellow, and
gray. The B22t horizon is light yellowish brown or yellowish
brown and has common to many mottles in shades of yellow,
brown, red, and gray. The B23t horizon, and in some profiles
the B22t horizon, has coarse mottles in shades of yellow,
brown, gray, and red. The content of firm, brittle plinthite in
the B22t and B23t horizons ranges from 5 to 20 percent. Re-
action is strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout. The
water table is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches for 2 to 3 months
in most years.
The Leefleld soils are associated with Ardilla, Stilson, Fu-
quay, and Albany soils. They have a thicker A horizon than
Ardilla soils. They are more poorly drained than Stilson and
Fuquay soils. Leefield soils have a thinner A horizon than the
Albany soils.
Leefield loamy sand (Le).-This is a somewhat poorly
drained soil that is along narrow drainageways and small
streams and around depressions. It has slopes of 0 to 5
percent. The water table is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches,
for 2 to 3 months in most years.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Ardilla loamy sand, Albany sand, Fuquay loamy sand,
Pansey loamy sand, and Stilson loamy sand. Also included
are some areas of Leefield soils that have a surface layer of
sand.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, soybeans, and watermelons. It is well suited to
Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Surface drainage should be installed and maintained
where this soil is used for cultivated crops. The hazard of
erosion is slight, but a cropping sequence that includes
close-growing, soil-improving crops is needed to main-
tain the organic-matter content. All crop residue should
be returned to the soil. This soil requires liming and regu-
lar fertilizing. Capability unit IIw-2; woodland suitabil-
ity group 3w2.

Lucy Series

The Lucy series consists of nearly level to sloping, well-
drained soils that formed in thick beds of loamy marine
deposits. These soils are on broad ridges and along side
slopes.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
grayish-brown loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The sub-
surface layer is strong-brown loamy sand in the upper 7
inches and yellowish-red loamy sand in the lower 14
inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. The
upper 9 inches of the subsoil is red sandy loam, and the
lower 43 inches is red sandy clay loam.
Available water capacity is low to a depth of about 28
inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
rapid to a depth of about 28 inches, moderately rapid be-
tween depths of 28 and 37 inches, and moderate below a
depth of 37 inches. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Lucy loamy sand, 1 to 8 per-
cent slopes, approximately 0.75 mile southeast of Sandy
Creek Church on the west side of a good motor road in the
NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 35, T. 5 N., R. 16 W.:


A1-0 to 7 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loamy sand;
few streaks of dark brown (10YR 4/3) ; weak, me-
dium, granular structure; very friable; many fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
A2-7 to 14 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy sand; few,
fine, faint mottles of light brown; weak, medium,
granular structure; very friable; common medium and
fine roots; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
A3-14 to 28 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) loamy sand; few,
fine, faint mottles of light brown; weak, medium,
granular structure; very friable; common medium and
fine roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Blt-28 to 37 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8) sandy loam; few, fine,
faint mottles of light brown; weak, medium, subangu-
lar blocky structure; friable; few medium and fine
roots; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
B2t-37 to 80 inches, red (10YR 4/6) sandy clay loam; weak,
medium, subangular blocky structure; friable; thin
discontinuous clay films on ped faces; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is dark grayish brown, grayish brown,
or dark brown and ranges from 6 to 10 inches in thickness. The
A2 horizon is yellowish brown, light yellowish brown, brownish
yellow, or strong brown. The A3 horizon is yellowish-red loamy
sand or sand and is as much as 15 inches thick. The combined
thickness of the A2 and A3 horizons ranges from 14 to 30
inches. The Bit horizon is yellowish-red or red sandy loam or
sandy clay loam. It ranges from 4 to 18 inches in thickness.
The B2t horizon is yellowish-red to red sandy loam or sandy
clay loam. In some places the B2t horizon has few to common
mottles of strong brown or yellowish red. Reaction is strongly
acid or very strongly acid throughout. The content of small,
cemented ironstone concretions ranges from 0 to 5 percent, by
volume, throughout. The water table is at a depth of more
than 80 inches.
Lucy soils are associated with Dothan, Orangeburg, and
Troup soils. Lucy soils have a thicker A horizon than Dothan
and Orangeburg soils and have a thinner A horizon than Troup
soils.
Lucy loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes (LuC).-This
is a well-drained soil on broad ridges and long side slopes.
The water table is at a depth of more than 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Orangeburg loamy sand, Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes, Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Face-
ville sandy loam, Troup sand, Fuquay loamy sand, and
Stilson loamy sand.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, peanuts, soybeans, and watermelons. Among the
pasture and hay crops to which the soil is suited are
Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Droughtiness is the main limitation, and moderate con-
servation practices are needed to improve the soil for crop
production. The lack of moisture in the major root zone
during hot, dry months in summer often causes crop dam-
age. A cropping sequence that includes perennial grasses
or cover crops that produce large amounts of crop residue
should be used. Fertilizer leaches rapidly and should be
applied in small but frequent applications. Moderate ero-
sion control practices are needed. Contour cultivation,
along with alternate strips of perennial grass, is needed
to retard runoff and erosion. Capability unit IIs-2; wood-
land suitability group 3s2.

Maxton Series
The Maxton series consists of gently sloping, well-
drained soils that formed in loamy marine and fluvial de-
posits. These soils are at higher elevations adjacent to the
Choctawhatchee River.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark gray-
ish-brown loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The sub-








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


surface layer is yellowish-brown loamy fine sand about 3
inches thick. The subsoil is 32 inches thick. In sequence
from the top, it is 5 inches of brown fine sandy loam; 10
inches of strong-brown sandy clay loam; 10 inches of yel-
lowish-red sandy clay loam; and 7 inches of yellowish-red
sandy loam. The underlying material extends to a depth
of 65 inches. It is yellow sand that has distinct mottles of
strong brown and yellowish red.
Available water capacity is low to a depth of about 9
inches, moderate between depths of 9 and 41 inches, and
low below a depth of 41 inches. Permeability is rapid to a
depth of about 9 inches, moderate between depths of 9 and
41 inches, and rapid below a depth of 41 inches. Natural
fertility is low.
Representative profile of Maxton loamy fine sand, ap-
proximately 0.25 mile north of Sikes Creek and 0.75 mile
west of State Highway 179 in the SE/4NE1/ sec. 7, T. 5 N.,
R.16W.:
A1-0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loamy fine
sand; weak, medium, granular structure; very fri-
able; many fine roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth
boundary.
A2-6 to 9 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) loamy fine
sand; weak, fine, granular structure; very friable;
common fine roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth
boundary.
B1-9 to 14 inches, brown (7.5YR 5/4) fine sandy loam; weak,
medium, subangular blocky structure; friable; few
fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
B21t-14 to 24 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) sandy clay
loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged
with clay; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B22t-24 to 34 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) sandy clay
loam; moderate, medium, subangular blocky struc-
ture; friable; thin discontinuous clay films on ped
faces; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B3-34 to 41 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) fine sandy loam;
weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable;
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly
acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
IIC-41 to 65 inches, yellow (10YR 7/6) sand; common, me-
dium, distinct mottles of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
and yellowish red (5YR 5/6); single grained; loose;
strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is dark grayish-brown, gray, or gray-
ish-brown loamy fine sand or loamy sand. It ranges from 4 to 8
inches in thickness. Some profiles have an A2 horizon that is
yellow, yellowish-brown, light yellowish-brown, or pale-brown
loamy fine sand or loamy sand. It ranges from 5 to 8 inches in
thickness. The B1 horizon is yellowish-red, brown, or strong-
brown fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. It ranges from 2 to
5 inches in thickness. The B2t horizon is red, yellowish-red,
or strong-brown sandy clay loam. It ranges from 10 to 20
inches in thickness. The B3 horizon is yellowish-red or red fine
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. It ranges from 2 to 8 inches in
thickness. The II horizon is yellow, yellowish-brown, or
strong-brown sand or loamy sand that is stratified in many
places. Reaction is strongly acid to very strongly acid through-
out. The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.
Maxton soils are associated with Kenansville, Lucy, and
Troup soils. They differ from those soils in having an A hori-
zon that is less than 20 inches thick.
Maxton loamy fine sand (Md).-This is a well-drained
soil at higher elevations adjacent to the Choctawhatchee
River. It has slopes of 2 to 5 percent. The water table is at
a depth of more than 72 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Kenansville fine sand, Lucy loamy sand, Troup sand,
Stilson loamy sand, and Ardilla loamy sand. Also included
are a few small areas of soils that have a clayey subsoil


and soils that are similar to Maxton loamy fine sand except
that the combined thickness of the surface and subsurface
layers is more than 20 inches. Other inclusions are some

areas of Maxton soils that have a surface layer of loamy
sand.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, soybeans, peanuts, and watermelons. Among the
pasture and hay crops to which it is well suited are bahia-
grass, Coastal bermudagrass, and small grain.
The hazard of erosion is a moderate limitation to the
use of this soil for cultivated crops. This soil can be pro-
tected against erosion by using a cropping sequence that in-
cludes close-growing, soil-improving crops and winter
cover crops that produce large amounts of crop residue.
Crop residue should be returned to the soil. All cultivation
should be on the contour. Stabilized waterways and ter-
races are useful in reducing runoff and erosion, and par-
allel strips of perennial grass sod are effective in control-
ling runoff and erosion. Liming and regular fertilizing
are needed. Capability unit IIe-1; woodland suitability
group 2o7.

Orangeburg Series
The Orangeburg series consists of gently sloping to slop-
ing, well-drained soils that formed in thick beds of loamy
marine deposits. These soils are on broad tops and long,
narrow sides of ridges.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark gray-
ish-brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The sub-
soil extends to a depth of 108 inches. The upper 7 inches of
the subsoil is yellowish-red sandy loam, and the lower part
is red sandy clay loam.
The available water capacity is low to a depth of about
10 inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
moderately rapid to a depth of about 21 inches and mod-
erate below this depth. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to
5 percent slopes, approximately 4.5 miles north of the city
limits of Ponce de Leon on the west side of State Highway
No. 81 in the SW/4SE/4 sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 17 W.:
Al--0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; many
fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth
boundary.
A2-5 to 10 inches, brown (7.5YR 4/4) loamy sand; weak,
medium, granular structure; very friable; common
medium and fine roots; strongly acid; gradual, smooth
boundary.
Blt-10 to 17 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 4/8) sandy loam;
moderate, medium, crumb structure; friable; few
medium and fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged
with clay; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
B21t-17 to 21 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam; mod-
erate, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable;
few medium and fine roots; sand grains coated and
bridged with clay; strongly acid; gradual, smooth
boundary.
B22t-21 to 108 inches, red (2.5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam;
moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure; fri-
able; thin discontinuous clay films on ped faces: few
small quartz pebbles and ironstone concretions;
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
The Al or Ap horizon is dark grayish-brown, grayish-brown,
or brown loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sandy loam, or fine
sandy loam. It ranges from 5 to 9 inches in thickness. The A2
horizon is yellowish-brown or brown loamy sand, loamy fine








SOIL SURVEY


sand, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam. It ranges from 0 to 9
inches in thickness. A few profiles have an A3 horizon of
brown or grayish-brown loamy sand, sandy loam, or fine sandy
loam that ranges from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. The Bit
horizon is strong-brown, yellowish-red, brown, or red sandy
loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. It ranges from 3
to 10 inches in thickness. The B2t horizon is yellowish-red
or red sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam
that extends to a depth of more than 65 inches. The content
of clay in this horizon ranges from 18 to 35 percent. Some
profiles have few to common mottles in shades of red, yellow,
and brown in the lower part of the B2t horizon. Soil reaction
is strongly acid to very strongly acid throughout. Cemented
ironstone concretions are 0 to 5 percent, by volume, throughout.
The water table is at a depth of more than 108 inches.
Orangeburg soils are associated with Dothan, Faceville,
Fuquay, Lucy, and Stilson soils. They lack the plinthite and
yellowish-brown colors in the lower part of the B horizon of
the Dothan soils. They have loamy Bt horizons rather than
clayey Bt horizons that Faceville soils have. Orangeburg soils
have a thinner A horizon than Fuquay, Lucy, and Stilson soils.
Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (OrB).-
This is a well-drained soil on broad ridges. It has the pro-
file described as representative for the series. The water
table is at a depth of more than 108 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Lucy loamy sand, Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, Faceville sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, and
Gritney loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Also included
are a few small areas of eroded soils and a few small areas
of severely eroded soils that are cut by shallow gullies.
Other inclusions are some areas of Orangeburg soils that
have a surface layer of loamy fine sand or sandy loam.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, peanuts, soybeans, and watermelons. Among the
pasture and hay crops to which it is well suited are Coastal
bermudagrass,'bahiagrass, and small grain.
Runoff is moderate, and the major hazard to cultivation
is erosion. Runoff can be reduced and erosion controlled by
such conservation measures as contour cultivation, terraces,
and stabilized waterways. A cropping sequence that in-
cludes a close-growing crop and winter cover crops is
needed to protect the soil from erosion and maintain the
organic-matter content. All crop residue should be re-
turned to the soil. Liming and regular fertilizing are
needed. Capability unit IIe-1; woodland suitability group
2ol.
Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (OrC).-
This is a well-drained soil on long, narrow side slopes.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Lucy loamy sand, Fuquay loamy sand, Troup sand,
Faceville sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Dothan loamy
sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, and Ardilla loamy sand. Also
included are a few small areas of soils that have a dark
reddish-brown surface layer and some small, severely
eroded spots. Other inclusions are some areas of Orange-
burg soils that have a surface layer of loamy fine sand or
sandy loam.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is moder-
ately suited are corn, peanuts, soybeans, and watermelons.
Among the pasture and hay crops to which it is suited are
Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Runoff is moderate to rapid, and the maior hazard to the
use of this soil for cultivated crops is erosion. Erosion can
be reduced by using contour cultivation, terraces, and sta-
bilized waterways. A cropping sequence including close-
growing crops and winter cover crops in rotation with row
crops is needed to reduce erosion, and the use of parallel


strips of perennial grass on the contour makes the crop-
ping sequence more effective. All crop residue should be
returned to the soil. Regular liming and fertilizing are
needed. Capability unit IIIe-1; woodland suitability
group 2ol.

Pansey Series
The Pansey series consists of nearly level, poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of loamy marine deposits.
These soils are on long narrow stream bottoms, in drain-
ageways, and in wide depressions.
In a representative profile the surface layer is very dark
gray loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is grayish-brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The sub-
soil extends to a depth of 69 inches. In sequence from the
top, it is 12 inches of light brownish-gray sandy loam that
has few strong-brown mottles; 12 inches of light brownish-
ish-gray sandy clay loam that has common yellowish-
brown, yellow, and very pale brown mottles; 27 inches of
light brownish-gray sandy clay loam that has many
yellowish-brown, yellow, strong-brown, and red mottles;
and 6 inches of reticulately mottled brown, strong-brown,
yellowish-brown, gray, and red sandy clay loam.
The available water capacity is low to a depth of about
12 inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
moderately rapid to a depth of about 24 inches and slow
below this depth. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Pansey loamy sand, approx-
imately 0.75 mile southwest of Bethlehem School and 50
yards south of a good motor road in the NE1/NE1/4 sec.
20, T. 6 N., R.15W.:
A1-0 to 7 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; many
fine and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.
A2-7 to 12 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; com-
mon fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy
boundary.
Bltg-12 to 24 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sandy
loam; few, fine, distinct mottles of strong brown;
weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; friable;
few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy
boundary.
B21tg-24 to 36 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sandy
clay loam; common, medium, distinct mottles of yel-
lowish brown (10YR 5/8), yellow (10YR 7/6), and
very pale brown (10YR 7/3) ; weak, medium, suban-
gular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; strong-
ly acid: gradual, wavy boundary.
B22tg-36 to 63 Inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sandy
: clay loam; many, medium, distinct mottles of yellow-
ish brown (10YR 5/8), yellow (10YR 7/6), strong
brown (7.5 5/8), and red (2.5YR 4/6 and 10R
4/6) ; moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine roots; lenses of loamy sand along
root channels; thin discontinuous clay films on ped
faces; estimated 10 percent is firm plinthite; strongly
acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B23t-63 to 69 inches, sandy clay loam; reticulately mottled
brown (10YR 5/3), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), yel-
lowish brown (10YR 5/8), gray (N 5/0), and red
(10R 4/6); moderate, medium, subangular blocky
structure; friable; thin discontinuous clay films on
ped faces; estimated 5 percent is firm plinthite;
strongly acid.
The Al horizon is black, very dark gray, or dark gray and
ranges from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon is dark
grayish brown, gray, light gray, grayish brown, or light grayish
brown and ranges from 2 to 5 inches in thickness. The Bltg








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


horizon is light brownish-gray, grayish-brown, or light-gray
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. It ranges from 4 to 12 inches
in thickness and has few to common mottles in shades of
brown and yellow. The B21tg and B22tg horizons are light
brownish-gray or light-gray sandy clay loam or sandy loam
that has common to many mottles in shades of brown, yellow,
and red. The B23t horizon is reticulately mottled sandy clay
loam or sandy loam, but in some places it is gray or light gray
and has few mottles. The B2t horizon has 18 to 35 percent
clay, and less than 20 percent of this horizon, by volume, is
firm plinthite. Soil reaction is strongly to very strongly acid
throughout. The water table is at a depth of 0 to 15 inches for 3
to 6 months in most years.
Pansey soils are associated with Ardilla, Leefield, and Stilson
soils. They are more poorly drained than all of those soils.
Pansey loamy sand (Po).-This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil along narrow stream bottoms and drainage-
ways and in wide depressions. It is subject to flooding.
The water table is at the surface or within 15 inches of the
surface for 3 to 6 months in most years.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
areas of Ardilla loamy sand, Plummer fine sand, Leefield
loamy sand, Stilson loamy sand, and Albany sand. Also
included are a few small areas of soils that are less than
5 percent plinthite in the lower part of the subsoil and
soils that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops. It
is suited to such cultivated crops as corn and soybeans
if it is managed intensively for water control. Otherwise,
its use is restricted mainly to woodland and pasture. The
soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay grasses. If
drained and protected from flooding, it is suited to
bahiagrass.
Wetness and the hazard of overflow are the major limi-
tations to the use of this soil for cultivated crops and
pasture. A water-control program for cultivated crops in-
cludes construction and maintenance of drainage ditches
and dikes to prevent flooding. The hazard of erosion is
slight if this soil is cultivated, but it is more productive
if a cropping sequence is used that includes a rotation
with close-growing, soil-improving crops. All crop residue
should be returned to the soil. Liming and regular fertil-
izing are needed for cultivated crops and pasture. Pasture
needs less intensive water control than cultivated crops.
Most of this soil is in forest consisting of mixed pine
and hardwoods. Capability unit IVw-2; woodland suit-
ability group 3w9.

Pantego Series

The Pantego series consists of nearly level, very poorly
drained soils that formed in loamy marine deposits. These
soils are in depressed areas that are swampy or ponded.
In a representative profile the surface layer is black
loamy fine sand in the upper 8 inches and very dark gray
loamy fine sand in the lower 5 inches. The subsoil extends
to a depth of 62 inches. The upper 5 inches of the subsoil
is gray sandy clay loam; the next 18 inches is gray sandy
clay loam that has few brownish-yellow, strong-brown,
and light-gray mottles; and the lower 26 inches is gray
sandy clay loam that has common brownish-yellow and
strong-brown mottles.
The available water capacity is low to a depth of about
13 inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability
is moderately rapid to a depth of about 13 inches and
moderate below this depth. Natural fertility is low. These


soils receive drainage water from surrounding areas and
have poor outlets; they are often ponded or swampy.
Representative profile of Pantego loamy fine sand in an
area of the Pantego complex, approximately 2.5 miles east
of Bonifay and 1.0 mile south of U.S. Highway No. 90
on the east side of a good motor road in the NE/4NE1/4
sec.9,T. 4 .,R. 14W.:
All-- to 8 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; weak,
medium, granular structure; very friable; many fine
roots; strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
A12-8 to 13 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine
sand; weak, medium, granular structure; many fine
roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
B21tg-13 to 18 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam;
weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; few, fine,
faint tongues of very dark gray extending downward
in root channels; friable; slightly sticky; thin dis-
continuous clay films on ped faces; very strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
B22tg-18 to 36 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam;
few, fine, distinct mottles of brownish yellow, strong
brown, and light gray; weak. medium, subangular
blocky structure; friable; slightly sticky; few fine
roots; thin discontinuous clay films on ped faces; very
strongly acid: gradual, wavy boundary.
B23tg-36 to 62 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam;
common, medium, distinct mottles of brownish yellow
(10YR 6/8) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8); weak,
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly
sticky; very strongly acid.
The All horizon is black or very dark gray loamy fine sand
or fine sandy loam. The A12 horizon is very dark gray to dark-
gray loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam. The A horizon ranges
from 10 to 20 inches in thickness. A few profiles have a Big
horizon that is dark-gray or gray sandy loam. It ranges from
2 to 5 inches in thickness. The B2tg horizon is gray, light
brownish-gray, or light-gray sandy clay loam or sandy loam.
It contains 18 to 35 percent clay and less than 20 percent silt.
Reaction is strongly or very strongly acid throughout. The
water table is at a depth of 0 to 15 inches for 9 to 12 months
in most years. Many areas are frequently ponded with shallow
water.
Pantego soils are associated with Ardilla, Stilson, Pansey,
and Plummer soils. They are more poorly drained than all of
those soils. They do not have plinthite in the lower part of
the B horizon that is present in Ardilla and Pansey soils. They
lack the thick A horizon that Plummer soils have.
Pantevo complex (Pg).-This complex is in low wet
places. Water is ponded on the surface for much of the year
in many places. The water table is within a depth of 15
inches, even in dry periods.
The composition of this mapping unit is more variable
and the areas are generally much larger than those of most
other units in the county. Mapping has been controlled
well enough, however, for the anticipated uses of the soils.
About 70 percent of the complex is nearly level Pantego
soils. About half of the remaining 30 percent is Ardilla,
Pansey, and Plummer soils: 10 percent is soils that have a
thin, black surface laver and a gray or light-gray subsoil;
and 5 percent is soils that have a dark-colored surface
layer, more than 20 inches thick, and a grayish-brown
sandy clay loam subsoil. All of these soils occur in such
intricate patterns that it is not practical to map them sep-
arately. The proportion and composition of each mapped
area are variable.
Excessive wetness and flooding make the soils of this
complex unsuited to cultivated crops, and drainage is gen-
erally not feasible. The soils are poorly suited to pasture
and hay grasses. Pasture of water-tolerant grasses can be
improved, but land clearing is required for establishment.
Some areas can be made into farm ponds or lakes (fig. 6).








SOIL SURVEY


Figure 6.-An area of the Pantego complex that was dammed to form Lake Victor. The lake is stocked with bream, shellcrackers, bass,
and channel catfish.


Most areas are woodland. Cypress, bay, and gum are the
principal trees. Capability unit Vw-2; woodland suitabil-
ity group 2w9.

Plummer Series
The Plummer series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine
deposits. These soils are in depressed areas and drainage-
ways.
In a representative profile the surface layer is very dark
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is dark-gray, gray, and light-gray fine sand about 38
inches thick. The subsoil is light-gray fine sandy loam that
extends to a depth of 65 inches.
The available water capacity is low to a depth of about
44 inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
rapid to a depth of about 44 inches and moderate below
this depth. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Plummer fine sand, 3.5 miles
west of Ponce de Leon and 0.25 mile north of the inter-
section of State Highway No. 10A and State Highway No.
81A in the SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 24, T. 3 N., R. 18 W.:
A--0 to 6 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; many
fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy bound-
ary.
A21-6 to 10 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; com-
mon, medium, distinct streaks of very dark gray;
single grained; loose, nonsticky; common fine roots;
very strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
A22g-10 to 32 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; com-
mon, medium, faint mottles of gray (10YR 5/1) and


few, fine, distinct, dark streaks; single grained; loose,
nonsticky; few fine roots; sand grains dominantly
clean; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
A23g-32 to 44 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few,
fine, faint mottles of gray; single grained; loose, non-
sticky; sand grains dominantly clean; very strongly
acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
Btg-44 to 65 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sandy loam;
lenses of loamy sand and nodules of sandy clay loam;
massive; slightly sticky; sand grains are coated and
bridged with clay; very strongly acid.
The Al horizon is black or very dark gray fine sand or loamy
fine sand. It ranges from 4 to 10 inches in thickness. The A2
horizon is dark-gray, gray, light-gray, grayish-brown, light
brownish-gray, or white fine sand or loamy fine sand. It ranges
from 30 to 54 inches in thickness. The Btg horizon is gray or
light-gray fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. In some places
it has few to common mottles in shades of yellow and brown.
Depth to this horizon ranges from 40 to 60 inches. Reaction is
strongly acid to very strongly acid throughout. The water
table is at a depth of 0 to 15 inches for 6 to 12 months in most
years. Some areas are ponded with shallow water for 6 months
or more.
Plummer soils are associated with Pansey, Pantego, and
Stilson soils. They have a thicker A horizon than Pansey,
Pantego, and Stilson soils. They are more poorly drained than
Stilson soils.
Plummer fine sand (Pm).-This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil. It is in drainageways and depressions. A
water table is within a depth of 0 to 15 inches for 6 to 12
months in most years. In some places water frequently
accumulates and forms shallow ponds for 6 months or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Pansey loamy sand and Ardilla loamy sand. Also in-
cluded are a few small areas of soils that have a thick, black








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


surface layer; soils that lack a fine-textured layer within
a depth of 80 inches; and soils that have sandy surface and
subsurface layers with a combined thickness of less than
40 inches. Other inclusions are some areas of Plummer soils
that have a surface layer of loamy fine sand.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops and to pas-
ture and hay grasses. If the soil has an effective water-
control system, it is moderately suited to such cultivated
crops as corn and soybeans and is suited to pasture and hay
grasses such as bahiagrass.
A complete water-control system of ditches and laterals
must be constructed and maintained if areas are cultivated.
The hazard of erosion is slight, but a cropping rotation that
includes close-growing, soil-improving crops is needed to
maintain the organic-matter content. All crop residue
should be returned to the soil. Pastures need drainage to
remove excess surface water. Lime and fertilizer are needed
in areas that are used for cultivated crops and pasture
grasses.
Most areas are woodland. Capability unit IVw-1; wood-
land suitability group 2w3.

Stilson Series
The Stilson series consists of nearly level to gently slop-
ing, moderately well drained soils that formed in thick
beds of loamy marine deposits. These soils are on broad,
low ridges between small streams and along drainageways.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
grayish-brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The sub-
surface layer, about 20 inches thick, is light yellowish-
brown loamy sand that has few, faint, very pale brown
mottles. The subsoil extends to a depth of 68 inches. In
sequence from the top, it is 4 inches of brownish-yellow
sandy loam; 16 inches of brownish-yellow sandy clay loam
that has yellowish-brown, light-gray, strong-brown,
reddish-brown, and red mottles; and 23 inches of sandy
clay loam mottled in shades of red, brown, yellow, gray,
and white. I
The available water capacity is low to a depth of about
25 inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
rapid to a depth of about 25 inches and moderate below
this depth. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Stilson loamy sand, 1 to 3 per-
cent slopes, 3.0 miles north of Gritney Crossroads and 0.51
mile east of State Highway 179 and 0.25 mile north of a
good motor road in the NEaSE% sec. 5, T. 5 N., R. 16 W.:
A1-0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loamy sand;
weak, medium, granular structure; very friable; many
fine roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
A2-5 to 25 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) loamy
'sand; few, fine, faint mottles of very pale brown; weak,
medium, granular structure; very friable; common
fine roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B1-25 to 29 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy loam;
few, fine, faint mottles of pale brown and few, fine,
distinct mottles of strong brown; weak, medium, sub-
langular blocky structure; friable; few medium and
fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
'strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B21t-29 to 39 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy clay
loam; few, fine, distinct mottles of strong brown and
yellowish brown and few, fine, faint mottles of pale
brown in lower part; weak, medium, subangular
blocky structure; friable; thin discontinuous clay
films on ped faces; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.


B22t-39 to 45 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy clay
loam; common, medium, distinct mottles of yellowish
brown (10YR 5/8), light gray (10YR 7/2), strong
brown (7.5YR 5/6), reddish brown (2.5YR 4/4), and
red (10R 4/6) ; weak, medium, subangular blocky
structure; friable; few fine roots; estimated 6 per-
cent, by volume, is firm, brittle plinthite; thin dis-
continuous clay films on ped faces; strongly acid;
gradual, wavy boundary.
B23t-45 to 68 inches, sandy clay loam; mottled yellowish
brown (10YR 5/8), brownish yellow (10YR 6/8),
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), light reddish brown (5YR
6/3), weak red (2.5YR 5/2), red (10R 4/6), light
gray (N 7/0), and white (N 8/0) ; moderate, medium,
subangular blocky structure; firm; estimated 10
percent, by volume, is firm, brittle plinthite; thin dis-
continuous clay films on ped faces; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is dark-gray, very dark gray, or dark
grayish-brown loamy sand or sand. It ranges from 3 to 6 inches
in thickness. The A2 horizon is dark grayish-brown, grayish-
brown, pale-yellow, light yellowish-brown, or light olive-brown
loamy sand or sand. It ranges from 18 to 32 inches in thickness.
The B1 horizon is brownish-yellow or light yellowish-brown
sandy loam or sandy clay loam that is as much as 6 inches
thick. The B2t horizon contains 19 to 35 percent clay and less
than 20 percent silt. The B21t and B22t horizons are
brownish-yellow, yellowish-brown, light yellowish-brown sandy
clay loam or sandy loam. They range from 10 to 19 inches
in combined thickness. They have mottles in shades of red,
yellow, and brown. The B22t horizon also has few or common
gray mottles at a depth of 30 to 40 inches. The B23t horizon
is mottled in shades of red, yellow, brown, gray, and white. The
B22t and B23t horizons contain 5 to 20 percent plinthite that
begins at a depth of 32 to 48 inches and extends to a depth
of 65 inches.
Reaction is strongly acid to very strongly acid throughout.
The content of ironstone concretions ranges from 0 to 5 per-
cent, by volume, in the A horizon and upper part of the B hori-
zon. The water table is at a depth of 30 to 40 inches for 1 to 2
months in wet periods in most years.
Stilson soils are associated with Ardilla, Dothan, Fuquay,
and Pantego soils. They have an A horizon that Is more than 20
inches thick, whereas the A horizon of Ardilla soils is less than
20 inches thick. Stilson soils are more poorly drained than
Dothan and Fuquay soils, but they are not so poorly drained
as Pantego soils.
Stilson loamy sand, 1 to 3 percent slopes (StA).-This
is a moderately well drained soil on broad low ridges be-
tween small streams and along drainageways. The water
table is at a depth of 30 to 40 inches for 1 to 2 months dur-
ing wet seasons in most years.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Fuquay loamy sand, Leefield loamy sand, Albany sand,
and Chipley sand. Also included are a few small areas of
Ardilla loamy sand and Pansey loamy sand that are gen-
erally indicated on the detailed soil map by a wet-spot
symbol. Other inclusions are some areas of Stilson soils that
have a surface layer of sand.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, soybeans, peanuts, and watermelons. Among the
pasture and hay grasses to which it is well suited are
Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
The hazard of excess water in the root zone is slight. A
water-control system is needed that removes excess surface
water in wet periods. The hazard of erosion is slight, but a
crop sequence that includes regular use of close-growing,
soil-improving crops is desirable to maintain the organic-
matter content. All crop residue should be returned to the
soil. Improved pastures are not seriously affected by soil
wetness. Liming and frequent fertilizing are needed for
both cultivated crops and pasture. Capability unit IIw-1;
woodland suitability group 3s2.








SOIL SURVEY


Tifton Series
The Tifton series consists of gently sloping to sloping,
well-drained soils that formed in loamy marine deposits.
These soils are on broad ridges and short side slopes.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
gray loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The subsoil extends
to a depth of 65 inches. In sequence from the top, it is 7
inches of brownish-yellow sandy loam; 19 inches of
yellowish-brown sandy clay loam; 12 inches of brownish-
yellow sandy clay loam that has few strong-brown and red
mottles; and 19 inches of reticulately mottled yellowish-
brown, brownish-yellow, very pale brown, strong-brown,
yellowish-red, and red sandy clay loam. The surface layer
and upper part of the subsoil have many, small to medium
ironstone concretions.
The available water capacity is low to a depth of 8
inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability
is rapid to a depth of 8 inches and moderate below this
depth. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes, 0.25 mile south of Poplar Springs School on
south side of a good motor road in the SE1/4SW/4 sec. 6,
T. 6N., R.13W.:
Apcn-0 to 8 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand; weak,
fine, granular structure; very friable; common, small
and medium, strongly cemented ironstone concretions;
common fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear,
smooth boundary.
Bltcn-8 to 15 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy loam;
moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; com-
mon, fine and medium, strongly cemented ironstone
concretions; few fine and medium roots; common fine
pores; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B21tcn-15 to 34 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) sandy
clay loam; moderate, medium, subangular blocky struc-
ture; friable; few fine roots; few fine pores; common
small ironstone concretions; thin discontinuous clay
films on ped faces; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.
B22t-34 to 46 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) sandy clay
loam; few, fine, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8)
and red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate, medium, sub-
angular blocky structure; friable; few, small, hard
ironstone concretions; estimated 3 percent, by volume,
is firm plinthite; clay films on ped faces; strongly
acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B3t-46 to 65 inches, sandy clay loam; reticulately mottled
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), brownish yellow (10YR
6/6), very pale brown (10YR 7/4), strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6), yellowish red (5YR 5/8), and red (2.5YR
4/6); moderate, medium, subangular blocky struc-
ture; firm; estimated 8 percent, by volume, is firm
plinthite; clay films between ped faces; strongly acid.
The Alcn or Apcn horizon is grayish-brown, dark-gray, dark
grayish-brown, or dark-brown loamy sand or sandy loam. It
ranges from 4 to 10 inches in thickness. Some profiles have a
well-defined A2 horizon of yellowish-brown or brown loamy
sand or sandy loam that is 3 to 5 inches thick. The Bltcn,
B21tcn, and B22t horizons are brownish-yellow, yellowish-
brown, strong-brown, or yellowish-red sandy clay loam or sandy
loam. The Bt horizon contains 18 to 35 percent clay and less
than 20 percent silt. The Bltcn horizon ranges from 3 to 8
inches in thickness, but it is absent in a few places. The B22t
horizon has few to common mottles in shades of red, brown,
yellow, and gray. The B3t horizon is mottled in these same
shades and is sandy clay loam or sandy loam. It contains 5 to
15 percent of firm plinthite. Reaction is strongly acid or very
strongly acid throughout. Ironstone concretions range from 5
to 20 percent in the A and upper part of the B horizon. Depth
to horizons containing plinthite ranges from 33 to 55 inches.
The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.


Tifton soils are associated with Dothan, Gritney, and Fuquay
soils. They have abundant, strongly cemented ironstone concre-
tions on the surface and in the A horizon and upper part of the
Bt horizon, but the Dothan, Gritney, and Fuquay soils do not.
They have a loamy B horizon, whereas the Gritney soils have a
clayey B horizon. They have an A horizon that is less than 20
inches thick, but Fuquay soils have an A horizon that is more
than 20 inches thick.
Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (TfB).-This is
a well-drained soil on broad ridges. The profile of this soil
is the one described as representative of the series. The
water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Faceville
sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Gritney loamy sand, 2 to
5 percent slopes, and Fuquay loamy sand. Also included
are some areas of Tifton soils that have a surface layer of
sandy loam.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, soybeans, peanuts, and watermelons. Among the
pasture and hay grasses to which it is well suited are
Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Erosion is a hazard if this soil is cultivated (fig. 7). Ero-
sion can best be controlled by contour cultivation, terraces,
stabilized waterways, or stripcropping. These practices are
more effective if they are used with a cropping sequence
that includes regular use of high-residue crops, perennial
grasses, or close-growing, soil-improving crops. All crop
residue should be returned to the soil. Capability unit
IIe-1; woodland suitability group 3ol.
Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (TfC).-This
is a well-drained soil on short side slopes.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Gritney
loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, and Faceville sandy
loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes. Also included are a few small
areas of soils that have plinthite at a depth of less than 24
inches and a few small areas of severely eroded soils. Other
inclusions are some areas of Tifton soils that have a sur-
face layer of sandy loam.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is moder-
ately suited are corn, soybeans, watermelons, and peanuts.
Among the pasture and hay grasses to which it is suited
are Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small'grain.
The limitations to cultivated crops are severe because
this soil is subject to severe erosion if it is cultivated. Ero-
sion is best controlled by terraces, stabilized waterways,
contour cultivation, and stripcropping. These practices are
more effective if they are used with a cropping sequence
that includes a rotation of close-growing crops, high-resi-
due crops, and perennial grasses. All crop residue should
be returned to the soil. Liming and regular use of fertil-
izers are needed. Capability unit IIIe-1; woodland suita-
bility group 3ol.

Troup Series
The Troup series consists of nearly level to sloping, well-
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy
marine deposits. These soils are on broad ridges and long
side slopes.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
grayish-brown sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is sand about 40 inches thick. The upper 6 inches of
this layer is pale brown, and the lower 34 inches is yellow-








SOIL SURVEY


Tifton Series
The Tifton series consists of gently sloping to sloping,
well-drained soils that formed in loamy marine deposits.
These soils are on broad ridges and short side slopes.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark-
gray loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The subsoil extends
to a depth of 65 inches. In sequence from the top, it is 7
inches of brownish-yellow sandy loam; 19 inches of
yellowish-brown sandy clay loam; 12 inches of brownish-
yellow sandy clay loam that has few strong-brown and red
mottles; and 19 inches of reticulately mottled yellowish-
brown, brownish-yellow, very pale brown, strong-brown,
yellowish-red, and red sandy clay loam. The surface layer
and upper part of the subsoil have many, small to medium
ironstone concretions.
The available water capacity is low to a depth of 8
inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability
is rapid to a depth of 8 inches and moderate below this
depth. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes, 0.25 mile south of Poplar Springs School on
south side of a good motor road in the SE1/4SW/4 sec. 6,
T. 6N., R.13W.:
Apcn-0 to 8 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand; weak,
fine, granular structure; very friable; common, small
and medium, strongly cemented ironstone concretions;
common fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear,
smooth boundary.
Bltcn-8 to 15 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy loam;
moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; com-
mon, fine and medium, strongly cemented ironstone
concretions; few fine and medium roots; common fine
pores; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
B21tcn-15 to 34 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) sandy
clay loam; moderate, medium, subangular blocky struc-
ture; friable; few fine roots; few fine pores; common
small ironstone concretions; thin discontinuous clay
films on ped faces; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.
B22t-34 to 46 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) sandy clay
loam; few, fine, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8)
and red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate, medium, sub-
angular blocky structure; friable; few, small, hard
ironstone concretions; estimated 3 percent, by volume,
is firm plinthite; clay films on ped faces; strongly
acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B3t-46 to 65 inches, sandy clay loam; reticulately mottled
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), brownish yellow (10YR
6/6), very pale brown (10YR 7/4), strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6), yellowish red (5YR 5/8), and red (2.5YR
4/6); moderate, medium, subangular blocky struc-
ture; firm; estimated 8 percent, by volume, is firm
plinthite; clay films between ped faces; strongly acid.
The Alcn or Apcn horizon is grayish-brown, dark-gray, dark
grayish-brown, or dark-brown loamy sand or sandy loam. It
ranges from 4 to 10 inches in thickness. Some profiles have a
well-defined A2 horizon of yellowish-brown or brown loamy
sand or sandy loam that is 3 to 5 inches thick. The Bltcn,
B21tcn, and B22t horizons are brownish-yellow, yellowish-
brown, strong-brown, or yellowish-red sandy clay loam or sandy
loam. The Bt horizon contains 18 to 35 percent clay and less
than 20 percent silt. The Bltcn horizon ranges from 3 to 8
inches in thickness, but it is absent in a few places. The B22t
horizon has few to common mottles in shades of red, brown,
yellow, and gray. The B3t horizon is mottled in these same
shades and is sandy clay loam or sandy loam. It contains 5 to
15 percent of firm plinthite. Reaction is strongly acid or very
strongly acid throughout. Ironstone concretions range from 5
to 20 percent in the A and upper part of the B horizon. Depth
to horizons containing plinthite ranges from 33 to 55 inches.
The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.


Tifton soils are associated with Dothan, Gritney, and Fuquay
soils. They have abundant, strongly cemented ironstone concre-
tions on the surface and in the A horizon and upper part of the
Bt horizon, but the Dothan, Gritney, and Fuquay soils do not.
They have a loamy B horizon, whereas the Gritney soils have a
clayey B horizon. They have an A horizon that is less than 20
inches thick, but Fuquay soils have an A horizon that is more
than 20 inches thick.
Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (TfB).-This is
a well-drained soil on broad ridges. The profile of this soil
is the one described as representative of the series. The
water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Faceville
sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Gritney loamy sand, 2 to
5 percent slopes, and Fuquay loamy sand. Also included
are some areas of Tifton soils that have a surface layer of
sandy loam.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is suited
are corn, soybeans, peanuts, and watermelons. Among the
pasture and hay grasses to which it is well suited are
Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small grain.
Erosion is a hazard if this soil is cultivated (fig. 7). Ero-
sion can best be controlled by contour cultivation, terraces,
stabilized waterways, or stripcropping. These practices are
more effective if they are used with a cropping sequence
that includes regular use of high-residue crops, perennial
grasses, or close-growing, soil-improving crops. All crop
residue should be returned to the soil. Capability unit
IIe-1; woodland suitability group 3ol.
Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (TfC).-This
is a well-drained soil on short side slopes.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Gritney
loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, and Faceville sandy
loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes. Also included are a few small
areas of soils that have plinthite at a depth of less than 24
inches and a few small areas of severely eroded soils. Other
inclusions are some areas of Tifton soils that have a sur-
face layer of sandy loam.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is moder-
ately suited are corn, soybeans, watermelons, and peanuts.
Among the pasture and hay grasses to which it is suited
are Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small'grain.
The limitations to cultivated crops are severe because
this soil is subject to severe erosion if it is cultivated. Ero-
sion is best controlled by terraces, stabilized waterways,
contour cultivation, and stripcropping. These practices are
more effective if they are used with a cropping sequence
that includes a rotation of close-growing crops, high-resi-
due crops, and perennial grasses. All crop residue should
be returned to the soil. Liming and regular use of fertil-
izers are needed. Capability unit IIIe-1; woodland suita-
bility group 3ol.

Troup Series
The Troup series consists of nearly level to sloping, well-
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy
marine deposits. These soils are on broad ridges and long
side slopes.
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark
grayish-brown sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is sand about 40 inches thick. The upper 6 inches of
this layer is pale brown, and the lower 34 inches is yellow-








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


Figure 7.-Field where rows have been placed on the contour to help control erosion. The soil is Tifton loamy sand, and the crop is grain
sorghum.


ish brown. The next layer is yellowish-red sand 13 inches
thick. The subsoil begins at a depth of about 58 inches and
extends to a depth of 83 inches. The upper 8 inches of the
subsoil is red sandy loam that has few reddish-yellow
streaks. Below this, the subsoil is red sandy clay loam that
has few yellowish-brown mottles.
The available water capacity is low to a depth of 58
inches and moderate below this depth. Permeability is
rapid to a depth of 58 inches and moderate below this
depth. Natural fertility is low.
Representative profile of Troup sand, 1 to 8 percent
slopes, 1 mile west of Winterville Church on State High-
way No. 177A in the SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 1, T. 4 N., R 16 W.:
A1-0 to 5 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand; single
grained; loose; many medium and fine roots; many
clean sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.
A21-5 to 11 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single
grained; loose; common medium and fine roots; many
clean sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
boundary.
A22-11 to 31 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) sand; single
grained; loose; few medium and fine roots; sand
grains dominantly coated; very few small quartz
pebbles; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
A23-31 to 45 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) sand; few,
fine, distinct streaks of pale brown (10YR 6/3) ; sin-
gle grained; loose; few medium and fine roots; sand
grains dominantly coated; strongly acid; gradual,
wavy boundary.
A23&B1---45 to 58 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) sand; com-
mon, medium, distinct, red (2.5YR 4/8) nodules of
loamy sand; weak, fine, granular structure; very fri-
able; few medium and fine roots; strongly acid; grad-
ual, wavy boundary.
B21t-58 to 66 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8) sandy loam; few, fine,


distinct, horizontal streaks of reddish yellow (5YR
6/6); weak, medium, subangular blocky structure;
very friable; sand grains coated and bridged with
clay; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B22t-66 to 83 inches, red (2.5YR 4/8) sandy clay loam; few,
fine, distinct mottles of yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) ;
weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; very fri-
able; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon is very dark grayish brown, dark gray-
ish brown, or grayish brown and ranges from 2 to 8 inches in
thickness. The A2 horizon is yellowish brown, pale brown, or
brown and ranges from 35 to 56 inches in thickness. The
A23&B1 horizon is yellowish red, reddish yellow, or strong
brown. It ranges from 6 to 18 inches in thickness. The Bt hori-
zon is reddish-yellow, strong-brown, yellowish-red, or red sandy
loam or sandy clay loam. Reaction is strongly acid or very
strongly acid throughout. The water table is at a depth of more
than 83 inches.
Troup soils are associated with Albany, Lakeland, Lucy.
Fuquay, and Bonifay soils. They are better drained than Al-
bany soils, and they have a Bt horizon that Lakeland soils do
not have. They have a thicker A horizon than Lucy and Fuquay
soils. Troup soils do not have plinthite that is characteristic of
Bonifay soils.
Troup sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes (TrC).-This is a
well-drained soil on broad ridores and lone side slopes.
The water table is at a depth of more than 83 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
of Lakeland sand, Lucy loamy sand, Bonifay sand, and
Fuquay loamy sand. Also included are a few small areas of
Albany sand and Ardilla loamy sand that are indicated on
the soil man by a wet-spot symbol. Other inclusions are a
few areas of slightly eroded to moderately eroded soils.
Among the cultivated crops to which this soil is mod-
erately suited are corn, peanuts, soybeans, and watermel-
ons. Among the pasture and hay grasses to which it is







SOIL SURVEY


suited are Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small
grain.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching are severe limitations
to cultivated crops. Erosion is a hazard in the steeper areas.
Among the practices needed for conserving soil are con-
tour cultivation and a cropping sequence that includes a
rotation of annual, close-growing crops; high-residue
crops; and perennial grasses. All crop residue should be
returned to the soil to improve the organic-matter content.
and available water capacity in the major root zone. Lim-
ing and regular use of fertilizers are needed. Alternate con-
tour strips of perennial grass make the cropping sequence
more effective and also aid in the control of erosion on
the slopes. Capability unit IIIs-1; woodland suitability
group 3s2.


Use and Management of the Soils for
Cultivated Crops and Pasture
This section discusses the management of the soils for
cultivated crops and pasture and explains the system of
capability grouping used by the Soil Conservation Serv-
ice. In addition, predicted yields of principal crops are
given.
Most of the soils in Holmes County are suited to culti-
vated crops and are well suited to improved pasture and
hay grasses.
Mainly well drained or moderately well drained soils
that have a sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil are
used for cultivated crops and pasture. Soil erosion is a haz-
ard on the sloping soils, and adequate erosion control
measures are needed. Most soils are low in natural fertility
and are strongly acid to very strongly acid. Liming and
frequent applications of fertilizers are required for in-
creased yields.
About 48.000 acres in the county are used for field
crops (4). The principal field crops grown are corn, soy-
beans, peanuts, and small grain. Several thousand acres
of watermelons are planted each year, and a small acreage
is used for other vegetables, such as peas, beans, okra, and
tomatoes. Sprinkler irrigation is used in some places on
the better drained soils.
Cattle production is an important part of many farming
operations. Almost 40,000 acres of improved pasture has
been established throughout the county (4), and most im-
proved pasture is used for beef cattle in cow-calf opera-
tions. Improved pasture and annual forage crops are also
used by the 13 dairies now located in the county. Bahia-
grass is the most widely used pasture grass. Coastal ber-
rnudagrass is also used for hay production and some graz-
ing. Fescue and crimson clover are used only to a very
limited extent for winter forage.

Capability Grouping
Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suita-
bility of soils for most kinds of field crops. The soils are
grouped according to their limitations when used for field
crops, the risk of damage when they are so used, and the
way they respond to treatment. The grouping does not
take into account major and generally expensive land-
forming that would change slope, depth, or other charac-
teristics of the soils; does not take into consideration pos-


sible but unlikely major reclamation projects; and does
not apply to rice, cranberries, horticultural crops, or other
crops requiring special management.
Those familiar with the capability classification can
infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used
for other purposes, but this classification is not a substitute
for interpretations designed to show suitability and limi-
tations of groups of soils for range, for forest trees, or
engineering.
In the capability system, the kinds of soils are grouped
at three levels: the capability class, subclass, and unit.
These are discussed in the following paragraphs.
CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are designated
by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals indi-
cate progressively greater limitations and narrower choices
for practical use.
CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within one class;
they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c
to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The letter e shows
that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless close-
growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water
in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation
(in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by arti-
ficial drainage) ; s shows that the soil is limited mainly be-
cause it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in only
some parts of the United States, shows that the chief limi-
tation is climate that is too cold to too dry.
In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, at
the most, only the subclasses indicated by w, s, and e, be-
cause the soils in class V are subject to little or no erosion,
though they have other limitations that restrict their use
largely to pasture, range, woodland, wildlife, or recreation.
CAPABILITY UNITS are soil groups within the subclasses.
The soils in one capability unit are enough alike to be
suited to the same crops and pasture plants, to require
similar management, and to have similar productivity and
other responses to management. Thus, the capability unit
is a convenient grouping for making many statements
about management of soils. Capability units are generally
designated by adding an Arabic numeral to the subclass
symbol, for example, IIe-4 or IIIe-6. Thus, in one symbol,
the Roman numeral designates the capability class, or de-
gree of limitation; the small letter indicates the subclass,
or kind of limitation, as defined in the foregoing para-
graph; and the Arabic numeral specifically identifies the
capability unit within each subclass.
The eight classes in the capability system and the sub-
classes and units in Holmes County are described in the
list that follows. The capability unit designation for each
soil is given in the "Guide to Mapping Units" at the back
of this survey.
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
(None in Holmes County.)
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or require moderate conservation
practices.
Subclass IIe.-Soils that are subject to moderate
erosion if they are not protected.
Unit IIe-1.-Gently sloping, well-drained soils
that have a thin sandy layer or layers over a
loamy subsoil.







SOIL SURVEY


suited are Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and small
grain.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching are severe limitations
to cultivated crops. Erosion is a hazard in the steeper areas.
Among the practices needed for conserving soil are con-
tour cultivation and a cropping sequence that includes a
rotation of annual, close-growing crops; high-residue
crops; and perennial grasses. All crop residue should be
returned to the soil to improve the organic-matter content.
and available water capacity in the major root zone. Lim-
ing and regular use of fertilizers are needed. Alternate con-
tour strips of perennial grass make the cropping sequence
more effective and also aid in the control of erosion on
the slopes. Capability unit IIIs-1; woodland suitability
group 3s2.


Use and Management of the Soils for
Cultivated Crops and Pasture
This section discusses the management of the soils for
cultivated crops and pasture and explains the system of
capability grouping used by the Soil Conservation Serv-
ice. In addition, predicted yields of principal crops are
given.
Most of the soils in Holmes County are suited to culti-
vated crops and are well suited to improved pasture and
hay grasses.
Mainly well drained or moderately well drained soils
that have a sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil are
used for cultivated crops and pasture. Soil erosion is a haz-
ard on the sloping soils, and adequate erosion control
measures are needed. Most soils are low in natural fertility
and are strongly acid to very strongly acid. Liming and
frequent applications of fertilizers are required for in-
creased yields.
About 48.000 acres in the county are used for field
crops (4). The principal field crops grown are corn, soy-
beans, peanuts, and small grain. Several thousand acres
of watermelons are planted each year, and a small acreage
is used for other vegetables, such as peas, beans, okra, and
tomatoes. Sprinkler irrigation is used in some places on
the better drained soils.
Cattle production is an important part of many farming
operations. Almost 40,000 acres of improved pasture has
been established throughout the county (4), and most im-
proved pasture is used for beef cattle in cow-calf opera-
tions. Improved pasture and annual forage crops are also
used by the 13 dairies now located in the county. Bahia-
grass is the most widely used pasture grass. Coastal ber-
rnudagrass is also used for hay production and some graz-
ing. Fescue and crimson clover are used only to a very
limited extent for winter forage.

Capability Grouping
Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suita-
bility of soils for most kinds of field crops. The soils are
grouped according to their limitations when used for field
crops, the risk of damage when they are so used, and the
way they respond to treatment. The grouping does not
take into account major and generally expensive land-
forming that would change slope, depth, or other charac-
teristics of the soils; does not take into consideration pos-


sible but unlikely major reclamation projects; and does
not apply to rice, cranberries, horticultural crops, or other
crops requiring special management.
Those familiar with the capability classification can
infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used
for other purposes, but this classification is not a substitute
for interpretations designed to show suitability and limi-
tations of groups of soils for range, for forest trees, or
engineering.
In the capability system, the kinds of soils are grouped
at three levels: the capability class, subclass, and unit.
These are discussed in the following paragraphs.
CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are designated
by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals indi-
cate progressively greater limitations and narrower choices
for practical use.
CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within one class;
they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c
to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The letter e shows
that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless close-
growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water
in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation
(in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by arti-
ficial drainage) ; s shows that the soil is limited mainly be-
cause it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in only
some parts of the United States, shows that the chief limi-
tation is climate that is too cold to too dry.
In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, at
the most, only the subclasses indicated by w, s, and e, be-
cause the soils in class V are subject to little or no erosion,
though they have other limitations that restrict their use
largely to pasture, range, woodland, wildlife, or recreation.
CAPABILITY UNITS are soil groups within the subclasses.
The soils in one capability unit are enough alike to be
suited to the same crops and pasture plants, to require
similar management, and to have similar productivity and
other responses to management. Thus, the capability unit
is a convenient grouping for making many statements
about management of soils. Capability units are generally
designated by adding an Arabic numeral to the subclass
symbol, for example, IIe-4 or IIIe-6. Thus, in one symbol,
the Roman numeral designates the capability class, or de-
gree of limitation; the small letter indicates the subclass,
or kind of limitation, as defined in the foregoing para-
graph; and the Arabic numeral specifically identifies the
capability unit within each subclass.
The eight classes in the capability system and the sub-
classes and units in Holmes County are described in the
list that follows. The capability unit designation for each
soil is given in the "Guide to Mapping Units" at the back
of this survey.
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
(None in Holmes County.)
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or require moderate conservation
practices.
Subclass IIe.-Soils that are subject to moderate
erosion if they are not protected.
Unit IIe-1.-Gently sloping, well-drained soils
that have a thin sandy layer or layers over a
loamy subsoil.







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


Unit IIe-2.-Gently sloping, well-drained soils
that have a thin, loamy surface layer over a
clayey subsoil.
Subclass IIw.-Soils that have moderate limitations
because of excess water.
Unit IIw-1.-Nearly level to gently sloping,
moderately well drained soils that have a thick,
sandy surface layer over a loamy subsoil.
Unit IIw-2.-Nearly level to gently sloping,
somewhat poorly drained soils that have a
thick, sandy surface layer over a loamy subsoil.
Unit IIw-3.-Nearly level, somewhat poorly
drained soils that have thin, sandy surface
layer over a loamy subsoil.
Subclass IIs.-Soils that have moderate limitations
because of droughtiness or moderately slow perme-
ability.
Unit IIs-1.-Nearly level, well-drained soils that
have a thin, sandy surface layer over a loamy
subsoil.
Unit IIs-2.-Nearly level to sloping, well-drained
soils that have a thick, sandy surface layer over
a loamy subsoil.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants, require special conservation practices,
or both.
Subclass IIIe.-Soils that are subject to severe erosion
if they are cultivated and not protected.
Unit IIIe-1.-Sloping, well-drained soils that
have a thin, sandy layer or layers over a loamy
subsoil.
Unit IIIe-2.-Sloping, well-drained soils that
have a thin, loamy surface layer over a clayey
subsoil.
Unit IIIe-3.-Gently sloping, moderately well
drained and well drained soils that have a thin,
loamy or sandy surface layer over a clayey or
loamy subsoil.
Unit IIIe-4.-Gently sloping, somewhat poorly
drained soils that have an extremely thick,
sandy surface layer over a loamy subsoil.
Subclass IIIs.-Soils that have severe limitations be-
cause of droughtiness.
Unit IIIs-1.-Nearly level to sloping, well-
drained soils that have an extremely thick,
sandy surface layer over a loamy subsoil.
Unit IIIs-2.-Nearly level to gently sloping,
moderately well drained soils that are sandy
throughout.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants, require very careful management, or
both.
Subclass IVe.-Soils that are subject to very severe
erosion if they are cultivated and not protected.
Unit IVe-l.-Sloping, well-drained soils that
have a thin, sandy surface layer over a clayey
subsoil.
Subclass IVw.-Soils that have very severe limita-
|tions because of excess water.
Unit IVw-1.-Nearly level, poorly drained soils
that have an extremely thick, sandy surface
layer over a loamy subsoil.


Unit IVw-2.-Nearly level, poorly drained soils
that have a moderately thick, sandy surface
layer over a loamy subsoil.
Subclass IVs.-Soils that have very severe limitations
because of droughtiness.
Unit IVs-1.-Nearly level to gently sloping, ex-
cessively drained soils that are sandy through-
out.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but have other limi-
tations, impractical to remove without major reclama-
tion, that limit their use largely to pasture, woodland,
or wildlife.
Subclass Vw.-Soils that are too wet for cultivation;
drainage or protection not feasible.
Unit Vw-1.-Association of nearly level, poorly
drained soils that are loamy throughout, that
are subject to periodic stream overflow, and
that have a fluctuating high water table.
Unit Vw-2.-Complex of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that have a moderately
thick, sandy surface layer over a loamy subsoil,
that are subject to ponding with shallow water,
and that have a fluctuating high water table.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuited to cultivation and that limit their
use largely to pasture, woodland, or wildlife.
Subclass VIe.-Soils that are severely limited, chiefly
by risk of erosion, if protective cover is not main-
tained.
Unit VIe-l.-Complex of sloping and strongly
sloping, well-drained soils that have a thin,
sandy surface layer over a loamy subsoil.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuited to cultivation and that restrict their use
largely to pasture or range, woodland, or wildlife habi-
tat. (None in Holmes County.)
Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that pre-
clude their use for commercial plants and restrict their
use to recreation, wildlife, water supply, or to esthetic
purposes. (None in Holmes County.)

Predicted Yields
Table 2 lists predicted yields of the principal crops and
pasture plants grown in Holmes County. The predictions
are based on estimates made by farmers, soil scientists, and
others who have knowledge of yields in the county and on
information taken from research data. Crops other than
those shown in table 2 are grown in the county, but their
predicted yields are not included, because their acreage is
small or because reliable data on yields are not available.
The predicted average yields per acre given in table 2
can be expected under a high level of management. A high
level of management includes the following practices in
areas that are not irrigated:
1. Rainfall is effectively used and conserved.
2. Surface and subsurface drainage systems or both
are installed.
3. Crop residues are managed to maintain soil tilth.
4. Minimum but timely tillage is used.
5. Insect, disease, and weed control measures are con-
sistently used.








SOIL SURVEY


6. Fertilizer is applied according to soil test and crop
needs.
7. Adapted crop varieties are used at recommended
seeding rates.
8. Needed conservation practices are installed and
maintained.
A high level of management in irrigated areas includes
the following additional practices:
1. Suitable quality and quantity or irrigation water
is used.
2. Irrigations are timed to meet the need of the soil
and crop.
3. Irrigation systems are properly designed and effi-
ciently used.


Use of the Soils for Woodland
Originally, Holmes County was mainly wooded. Now,
trees cover about 65 percent of the county. Good stands of
commercial trees are produced in the woodlands of the
county. Pine forests are most commonly on the hills, and


hardwoods generally are dominant on the bottoms along
rivers and creeks. Forests of planted pine are common in
the county.
The commercial value of the wood products is substan-
tial, though it is below its potential. Other values of wood-
land include grazing, wildlife, recreation, natural beauty,
and conservation of soil and water.
In table 3 the soils of Holmes County have been placed
in woodland suitability groups to assist owners in plan-
ning the proper use of their soils for wood crops. Each
group is made up of soils that are suited to the same kinds
of trees, that need approximately the same kind of man-
agement when the vegetation on them is similar, and that
have about the same potential productivity. A brief de-
scription is given in the table for each group, management
hazards and limitations that are based on soils are given,
and some of the preferred timber species and their average
site indexes are shown.
Each woodland group is identified by a three-part sym-
bol, such as 2ol, 2w9, or 3s2. The first part of the symbol, an
Arabic numeral, indicates relative potential productivity
of the soils in the group: 1, very high; 2, high; 3, moder-


TABLE 2.--Predicted average yields per acre of principal crops under a high level of management
[Absence of a yield figure indicates that the soil is not suited to the crop, the crop is not commonly grown on the soil, or data are not
available]

Improved pasture
Coastal grasses
Water- bermuda-
Soil Corn Peanuts Soybeans melons grass
(hay) Coastal Pensacola
bermuda- bahiagrass
grass

Animal-unit- Animal-unit-
Bushel Pounds Buehel Pounds Tons months I months 1
Albany sand---------.------------------. 60 -------- 25 10,000 4.5 7.3 6.8
Angie fine sandy loam------------------- 65 ---------- 30 12, 000 6. 0 7. 0 7. 0
Ardilla loamy sand-..----------------- ...75 -- .35 10, 000 5. 5 8. 0 7. 0
Bibb association......----------------------- ---.......----------..-------------.---------------------------------------
Bonifay sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes-------- 45 1, 400 20 10, 000 4. 0 6. 5 6.5
Chipley sand---------------------------. 50 --- 25 10, 000 5. 5 8. 0 7. 5
DAthan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes--- 80 2, 100 40 12, 000 5. 5 9. 0 8. 0
Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.-- 70 2,050 40 10, 000 5. 5 9. 0 8. 0
Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes--- 60 1,700 30 9, 000 5. 0 8. 0 7. 0
Dothan complex .------------------------------------------------------------------3.0 5.0 5.0
Faceville sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes-- 75 2,100 30 11,000 6.0 9.5 8.
Faceville sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes-- 65 1,000 25 8, 000 5. 5 9. 0 7. 0
Fuquay loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes--- 75 2,500 35 11,000 5. 0 7. 0 7. 0
Gritney loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes--- 45 1, 100 25 7, 000 4. 5 6. 0 6. 0
Gritney loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes--- 35 1,000 25 .-------- 4.0 5. 0 5. 0
Kenansville fine sand------------------- 60 1, 900 30 10, 000 4. 5 7. 0 7. 0
Lakeland sand-.--------...--- ..--------- 45 1, 000 20 10, 000 3. 5 5. 0 5. 0
Leefield loamy sand -...----...._-- ..---- 65 ----...- 25 10, 000 5. 5 8.0 7.5
Lucy loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes----- 70 2,200 35 11, 000 5. 0 7. 5 7.5
Maxton loamy fine sand.._.....---.------- 7.) 2, 400 35 11, 000 5. 0 8. 5 7. 5
Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes ..----..................-------- 80 2,500 40 12,000 5.5 9.0 8.0
Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes -------------------------------- 75 2,300 30 9,000 5.0 8. 0 7.0
Pansey loamy sand----. ------.... ........- 70 ---- 30 ------------------------ ------------ 6.0
Pantego complex -----------.----..- ..--....... ... ----------------- -- -
Plummer fine sand --...... ......... 70 30 ------------------------.0
Stilson loamy sand, 1 to 3 percent slopes.... 70 2, 100 35 10, 000 6. 0 9. 0 8 0
Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.--- 80 2, 500 35 10, 000 6. 0 9. 5 8. 0
Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-..- 75 2, 300 30 9, 000 5. 5 9. 0 8. 0
Troup sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes--------- 55 1, 800 25 10, 000 3. 5 6. 5 6. 5

1 Animal-unit-months is the number of months during a normal grazing season that 1 acre will provide grazing for 1 animal unit (one
cow, steer, or horse; five hogs; or seven sheep or goats) without injury to the pasture.







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


ately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low. These ratings are
based on field determinations of average site index. Site
index is the height, in feet, that the dominant trees of a
given species, on a specified kind of soil, reach in a natural,
unmanaged stand in a stated number of years. For the
merchantable hardwoods and softwoods in this county,
the site index is the height reached in 50 years, except for
cottonwood, for which the site index is for height reached
in 30 years.
The five foregoing ratings are based on field determina-
tion of average site index of an indicator forest type or
species. Site indexes are grouped into site quality classes,
and the classes are used to arrive at approximate expected
yields per acre in cords and board feet. On basis of re-
search studies, site index can be converted into approxi-
mate expected growth and yield per acre in cords and
board feet. In table 3, the average annual growth in cords
per acre is given for the pine species, but data are not
available for hardwood species.
The second part of the symbol identifying a woodland
suitability group is a lowercase letter. This letter indicates
an important soil property that imposes a slight to severe
hazard or limitation in managing the soils of the group
for wood crops. The letter o shows that the soils have few
limitations' that restrict their use for trees; s shows that
the soils are sandy and dry, have little or no difference in
texture between surface layer and subsoil (or B horizon),
have low available water capacity, and generally have a
low supply of plant nutrients; and w shows that water in
or on the soil, either seasonally or year round, is the chief
limitation.
The third part of the symbol is an Arabic numeral that
indicates degree of hazard or limitation and general suita-
bility of the soils for certain kinds of trees.
The numeral 1 indicates soils that have no or only
slight limitations and that are best suited to needle-
leaf trees.
The numeral 2 indicates soils that have one or more
moderate limitations and that are best suited to nee-
dleleaf trees.
The numeral 3 indicates soils that have one or more
severe limitations and that are best suited to needle-
leaf trees.
The [numeral 4 indicates soils that have no or only
slight limitations and that are best suited to broad-
leaf trees.
The numeral 5 indicates the soils that have one or
more moderate limitations and that are best suited to
broadleaf trees.
The humeral 6 indicates soils that have one or more
severe limitations and that are best suited to broad-
leaf trees.
The numeral 7 indicates soils that have no or only
slight limitations and that are suited to either needle-
leaf or broadleaf trees.
The numeral 8 indicates soils that have one or more
moderate limitations and that are suited to either nee-
dleleaf or broadleaf trees.
The numeral 9 indicates soils that have one or more
severe limitations and that are suited to either needle-
leaf or broadleaf trees.
The numeral 0 indicates that the soils are not suita-
ble for producing commercial timber.


The hazards or limitations that affect the management
of soils for woodland are erosion hazard, equipment limi-
tations, seedling mortality, and plant competition. In table
3, each woodland suitability group is rated for these haz-
ards and limitations. The ratings are explained in the fol-
lowing paragraphs.
Erosion hazard refers to the potential hazard of soil loss
in well-managed woodland. The hazard is slight if ex-
pected soil loss is small; moderate if some soil loss is ex-
pected and care is needed during logging and construction
to reduce soil loss; and severe if special methods of opera-
tion are necessary for preventing excessive soil loss. In
Holmes County, none of the soils are subject to severe
erosion.
Equipment limitations are rated on the basis of soil
characteristics that restrict or prohibit the use of equip-
ment commonly used in tending and harvesting the trees.
In Holmes County, soil characteristics having the most
limiting effect are drainage, depth to the water table, slope,
and texture of the surface layer. Slight means there is no
restriction in the kind of equipment or in the time of year
it is used; moderate means that use of equipment is re-
stricted for less than 3 months of the year; and severe
means that special equipment is needed and its use is re-
stricted for more than 3 months of the year.
Seedling mortality refers to the expected degree of mor-
tality of planted seedlings as influenced by kinds of soil
when plant competition is not a limiting factor. Consid-
ered in the ratings are depth to the water table, hazard of
flooding, drainage, soil depth and structure, and degree of
erosion. Normal rainfall, good planting stock, and proper
planting are assumed. A rating of slight indicates an ex-
pected loss of less than 25 percent of the planted seedlings;
moderate, a loss of 25 to 50 percent of the seedlings; and
severe, a loss of more than 50 percent of the seedlings.
Special preparation of the site is needed before planting
on soils where the rating is severe and on most of the soils
where the rating is moderate.
Plant competition is rated on the basis of the degree
to which unwanted plants invade openings in the tree can-
opy. Considered in the ratings are available moisture ca-
pacity, fertility, drainage, and degree of erosion. A rating
of slight means that competition from other plants is not
a problem; moderate, that plant competition delays de-
velopment of fully stocked stands of desirable trees; and
severe, that plant competition prevents establishment of a
desirable stand unless intensive site preparation and such
practices as weeding are used to control undesirable plants.

Use of the Soils for Wildlife
Soils directly influence the kind and amount of vegeta-
tion and the amount of water available, and in this way
they indirectly influence the kinds of wildlife that can live
in an area. Soil properties that affect the growth of wild-
life habitat are thickness of soil useful to crops, texture
of the surface layer, available water capacity to a depth
of 40 inches, wetness, surface stoniness or rockiness, flood
hazard, slope, and permeability of the soil to air and
water.
In table 4 the soils in this survey area are rated for
producing seven elements of wildlife habitat and for three
groups, or kinds, of wildlife. The ratings indicate relative









SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 3.-Soil ratings for woodland use

[Absence of yield figure indicates

Potential soil productivity
Woodland group and map symbols
Site Average
Important trees index 1 annual
growth 2


Group 2ol: Well-drained, nearly level to sloping soils that have a thin or mod-
erately thick sandy layer over a loamy subsoil; high potential productivity;
suited to needleleaf trees. DoA, DoB, DoC, OrB, OrC.

Group 2o7: Well-drained, gently sloping soils that have a thin sandy layer
over a loamy subsoil; nigh potential productivity; suited to needleleaf
trees, broadleaf trees, or both. Md.


Group 2w2: Somewhat poorly drained, nearly level soils that have a thin
sandy layer over a loamy subsoil and moderately well-drained, nearly level
to gently sloping soils that are sandy throughout; high potential produc-
tivity; suited to needleleaf trees. Ar, Ch.

Group 2w3: Poorly drained, nearly level soils that have an extremely thick
sandy layer over a loamy subsoil; high potential productivity; suited to
needleaf trees. Pm.

Group 2w8: Moderately well drained, gently sloping soils that have a thin,
loamy layer over a clayey subsoil; high potential productivity; suited to
needleleaf trees, broadleaf trees, or both. An.


Group 2w9: Poorly drained, nearly level soils that are loamy throughout and
very poorly drained, nearly level soils that have a moderately thick
sandy layer over a loamy subsoil; high potential productivity; suited to
needleleaf trees, broadleaf trees, or both. Bb, Pg.

Group 3o1: Well-drained, gently sloping and sloping soils that have a thin
loamy layer over a clayey subsoil, or a thin sandy layer over a clayey or
loamy subsoil; moderately high potential productivity; suited to needleleaf
trees. FcB, FcC, GrB, GrC, TfB, TfC.
Group 3w2: Somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping soils that
have an extremely thick or thick sandy layer over a loamy subsoil; mod-
erately high potential productivity; suited to needleleaf trees. Ab, Le.

Group 3w9: Poorly drained, nearly level soils that have a thick sandy layer
over a loamy subsoil; moderately high potential productivity; suited to
needleleaf trees, broadleaf trees, or both. Pa.

Group 3s2: Well drained and moderately well drained, nearly level to sloping
soils that have an extremely thick or thick sandy layer over a loamy sub-
soil well drained, strongly sloping soils that have a thin sandy layer
over a loamy subsoil; and excessively drained, nearly level to gently slop-
ing soils that are sandy throughout; moderately high potential produc-
tivity; suited to needleleaf trees. BoC, Dt, FuC, Ke, Ld, LuC, StA, TrC.


Slash pine.---------_---
Loblolly pine-----------
Shortleaf pine-----------.
Longleaf pine-----------

Slash pine--------------
Longleaf pine-----------
Loblolly pine-----------
Sweetgum-------------.
Yellow-poplar ----------
Loblolly pine-----------
Slash pine-------------
Longleaf pine-----------

Loblolly pine-----------
Slash pine-------------
Longleaf pine----------.

Slash pine--------------
Loblolly pine_---_-----
Longleaf pine----..----.
Sweetgum-------------
Yellow-poplar ---------.

Loblolly pine----------
Slash pine--------------
Sweetgum--------------

Slash pine--------------
Loblolly pine -----------
Longleaf pine-----------

Slash pine-------.......
Loblolly pine-----------
Longleaf pine-----..----

Slash pine-----------...
Longleaf pine-------....

Slash pine---...........
Loblolly pine-----------
Longleaf pine-----------
Shortleaf pine-----------


I Based on the average height of dominant and codominant trees at an age of 50 years.


Cords per acre
2.2
2.3
1.5
1.0

2.2
1.0
2.3


2.2
2.3
1. 1

2.2
2.2
.7

2.2
2.2
.9


2.3
2.2


1.8
1.9
.9

2.3
2.3
1. 1

2.2
2.2

2.3
2.2
1.0
1.5








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


according to woodland suitability groups

that data are not available]

Management hazard or limitation Species suitability

Erosion Equipment Seedling Plant Favor in Use for
hazard limitations mortality competition existing planting
stands


Slight...---...-----.



Slight.-----------


Slight.-- -------- Slight..----.. --...



Slight--....------- Slight.-------......


Moderate --------- Slight.------------.


Severe_. --------.


Slight to moderate -


Slash pine, longleaf
pine.


Slash pine, longleaf
pine.


Moderate--------- .Slash pine---... ....


Severe .------------


Moderate------.---


Slight......-----.



Slight ..------..




Slight.--- ---



Slight.--.. ---...


Slight ....-----




Slight ---



Slight- ------



Slight........---


Slight....--..---


Slight.--- -------


Moderate ---------


Severe------------.


Moderate-.--------


Moderate----------


Severe-----------.-


Moderate---------


Moderate-..------.


Severe ------------


Slight.-------.---..


Slash pine..---.--...


Slash pine-.------..-




Slash pine, sweet-
gum.


Slash pine, loblolly
pine.


Slash pine........--------


Slash pine..--------


Slash pine, longleaf
pine.


Slash pine, loblolly
pine, longleaf
pine.

Slash pine, yellow-
poplar, sweetgum.



Slash pine.



Slash pine.


Slash pine, yellow-
poplar, sweetgum,



Slash pine, loblolly
pine, sweetgum,
water tupelo,
sycamore.
Slash pine, loblolly
pine.


Slash pine.


Slash pine, loblolly
pine.

Slash pine.


2 Well-stocked, even-aged, managed stands to age 30 (a standard cord is 128 cubic feet).


Severe-------------


Moderate----------


Severe---------... Severe------------ Severe ...-------..



Slight.------------ Slight.------.--. Slight...........







SOIL SURVEY


suitability for various habitat elements and are expressed
by an adjective rating as follows:
Good means habitats are easily improved, maintained,
or created. There are few or no soil limitations in habitat
management, and satisfactory results can be expected.
Fair means habitats can be improved, maintained, or
created on these soils, but moderate soil limitations affect
habitat management or development. A moderate intensity
of management and fairly frequent attention may be re-
quired to ensure satisfactory results.
Poor means habitats can be improved, maintained, or
created on these soils, but the soil limitations are severe.
Habitat management may be difficult and expensive and
require intensive effort. Results are questionable.
Very poor means that under the prevailing soil condi-
tions, it is impractical to attempt to improve, maintain,
or create habitats. Unsatisfactory results are probable.
The elements of wildlife habitat and kinds of wildlife in
table 4 are explained in the following paragraphs.
Habitat Elements.-Each soil is rated in the table ac-
cording to its suitability for producing various kinds of
plants and other elements that make up wildlife habitats.
The ratings take into account mainly the characteristics
of the soils and closely related natural factors of the en-
vironment. They do not take into account climate, present
use of soils, or present distribution of wildlife and people.
For this reason, selection of a site for development as a
habitat for wildlife requires inspection at the site.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grain or other seed-
producing annuals planted to produce wildlife food. Ex-
amples are corn, sorghum, wheat, oats, barley, millet, buck-
wheat, cowpeas, soybeans, and sunflowers.
Domestic grasses and legumes are domestic grasses and
legumes that are established by planting. They provide
food and cover for wildlife. Grasses include bahiagrass,
ryegrass, and panicgrass; legumes include annual les-
pedeza. shrub lespedeza, and other clovers.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or introduced peren-
nial grasses, forbs, and weeds that provide food and cover
for upland wildlife. Beggarweed, perennial lespedeza, wild
bean, pokeweed, and cheatgrass are typical examples. On
range, typical plants are bluestem, grama, perennial forbs,
and legumes.
Hardwood trees are nonconiferous trees and associated
woody understory plants that provide wildlife cover or
produce nuts, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, or foliage used
as food by wildlife. Such plants commonly grow in their
natural environment, but they may be planted and devel-
oped through wildlife management programs. Typical
plants in this category are oak, beech, cherry, dogwood,
maple, viburnum, grape, honeysuckle, greenbrier, and
silverberry.
Coniferous plants are cone-bearing trees that provide
cover and frequently furnish food in the form of browse,
seeds, or fruitlike cones. They commonly grow in their
natural environment, but they may be planted and man-
aged. Typical plants in this category are pines, cedars,
and ornamental trees.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial herbaceous
plants that grow wild on moist and wet sites. They furnish
food and cover mostly for wetland wildlife. Typical ex-
amples of these plants are smartweed, wild millet, spike-
rush and other rushes, sedges, burreed, tearthumb, and


aneilema. Submerged and floating aquatics are not in-
cluded in this category.
Shallow water areas are areas of surface water with an
average depth of less than 5 feet that are useful to wild-
life. They include natural wet areas or those created by
dams or levees or by water-control devices in marshes or
streams. Examples are muskrat marshes, waterfowl feed-
ing areas, wildlife watering developments, wildlife ponds,
and beaver ponds.
Kinds of Wildlife.-Table 4 rates soils according to
their suitability as habitat for the three kinds of wildlife
in the county: openland, woodland, and wetland wildlife.
These ratings are related to ratings made for the elements
of habitat. For example, soils rated very poor for shallow
water developments are rated very poor for wetland
wildlife.
Openland wildlife are birds and mammals that normally
live in meadows, pastures, and open areas where grasses,
herbs, and shrubby plants grow. Bobwhite quail, dove,
meadowlark, field sparrow, cottontail rabbit, and red fox
are typical examples of openland wildlife.
Woodland wildlife are birds and mammals that nor-
mally live in wooded areas of either hardwood or conif-
erous trees and shrubs or a mixture of both. Wood-
peckers, thrushes, wild turkey, vireos, deer, squirrel, and
racoon are typical examples of woodland wildhfe.
Wetland wildlife are birds and mammals that normally
live in swampy, marshy, or open-water areas. Ducks, geese,
rails, shore birds, herons, mink, muskrat, and beaver are
typical examples of wetland wildlife.


Engineering Uses of the Soils
This section is useful to those who need information
about soils used as structural material or as foundation
upon which structures are built. Among those who can
benefit from this section are planning commissions, town
and city managers, land developers, engineers, contractors,
and farmers.
Among properties of soils highly important in engineer-
ing are permeability, strength, compaction characteristics,
soil drainage, shrink-swell potential, grain size, plasticity,
and soil reaction. Also important are depth to the water
table, depth to bedrock, and slope. These properties, in
various degrees and combinations, affect construction and
maintenance of roads, airports, pipelines, foundations for
small buildings, irrigation systems, ponds and small dams,
and systems for disposal of sewage and refuse.
Information in this section of the soil survey can be
helpful to those who-
1. Select potential residential, industrial, commer-
cial, and recreational areas.
2. Evaluate alternate routes for roads, highways,
pipelines, and underground cables.
3. Seek sources of topsoil, sand, or road fill.
4. Plan farm drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, terraces, and other structures for control-
ling water and conserving soil.
5. Correlate performance of structures already built
with properties of the kinds of soil on which they

JAMEs N. KRIDER, Assistant State Conservation Engineer, Soil
Conservation Service, helped prepare this section.







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


are built, for the purpose of predicting perform-
ance of structures on the same or similar kinds of
soil in other locations.
6. Predict the trafficability of soils for cross-country
movement of vehicles and construction equipment.
7. Develop preliminary estimates pertinent to con-
struction in a particular area.
Most of the information in this section is presented in
tables 5, 6, 7, and 8. Table 5 shows several estimated
soil properties significant to engineering; table 6 shows
results of engineering laboratory tests on soil samples;
table 7 gives interpretations for various engineering uses;
and table 8 gives the degree and kinds of limitations for
recreational and other specified uses.
This information, along with the soil map and other
parts of this publication, can be used to make interpreta-
tions in addition to those given in tables 7 and 8, and it
also can be used to make other useful maps.
This information, however, does not eliminate need for
further investigations at sites selected for engineering
works, especially works that involve heavy loads or that
require excavations to depths greater than those shown in
the tables, generally depths greater than 6 feet. Also, in-
spection of sites, especially the small ones, is needed
because many delineated areas of a given soil mapping unit
may contain small areas of other kinds of soil that have
strongly contrasting properties and different suitabilities
or limitations for soil engineering.

Engineering Classification Systems
The two systems most commonly used in classifying
samples of soils for engineering are the Unified Soil Classi-
fication System (11) used by the Soil Conservation Service
engineers, Department of Defense, and others, and the
AASHO Classification System (1) adopted by the Ameri-
can Association of State Highway Officials.
In the Unified Soil Classification System, soils are classi-
fied according to the particle-size distribution, plasticity,
liquid limit, and organic matter. Soils are grouped in 15
classes. There are eight classes of coarse-grained soils,
identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six
classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL,
MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils,
identified as Pt. Soils possessing characteristics of two
groups are designated by a combination of class symbols,
for example, SM-SC.
The AASHO Classification System is used to classify
soils according to those properties that affect use in high-
way construction and maintenance. In this system, a soil
is placed in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1
through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid
limit, and plasticity index. In group A-1 are gravelly
soils of high bearing capacity, or the best soils for subgrade
(foundation). At the other extreme, in group A-7, are clay
soils that have low strength when wet and that are the
poorest soils for subgrade. Where laboratory data are
available to justify a further breakdown, the A-i, A-2, and
A-7 groups are divided as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the engineering value of a soil material can be
indicated by a group index number. Group indexes range
from 0 for the best material to 20 or more for the poorest.


The AASHO classification for tested soils, with group
index numbers in parentheses, is shown in table 6; the esti-
mated classification, without group index numbers, is
given in table 5 for all soils mapped in the survey area.

Soil Properties Significant to Engineering
Several estimated soil properties significant in engineer-
ing are given in table 5. These estimates are made for typi-
cal soil profiles, by layers sufficiently different to have
different significance for soil engineering. The estimates
are based on field observations made in the course of map-
ping, on test data for these and similar soils, and on experi-
ence with the same kinds of soil in other counties. Follow-
ing are explanations of some of the columns in table 5.
Soil texture is expressed in table 5 in the standard terms
used by the Department of Agriculture. These terms take
into account relative percentages of sand, silt, and clay in
soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
"Sandy clay loam," for example, is soil material that con-
tains 20 to 35 percent clay, less than 28 percent silt, and 45
percent or more sand. "Sand," "silt," "clay," and some of
the other terms used in USDA textural classification are
defined in the Glossary of this soil survey. The Unified Soil
Classification System and the AASHO Classification Sys-
tem are described under Engineering Classification
Systems.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of soil material. As
the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from a
dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased,
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil mate-
rial changes from the semisolid to plastic state; and the
liquid limit, from a plastic to a liquid state. The plasticity
index is the numerical difference between the liquid limit
and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of moisture
content within which a soil material is plastic. Liquid
limit and plasticity index are estimated in table 5, but in
table 6 the data on liquid limit and plasticity index are
based on tests of soil samples.
Permeability is that quality of a soil that enables it to
transmit water or air. It is estimated on basis of those soil
characteristics observed in the field, particularly structure
and texture. The estimates in table 5 do not take into ac-
count lateral seepage or such transient soil features as
plowpans and surface crusts.
Available water capacity is the ability of soils to hold
water for use by most plants. It is commonly defined as
the difference between the amount of water in the soil
at field moisture capacity and the amount at the wilting
point of most crop plants.
Shrink-swell potential is the relative change in volume
to be expected of soil material with changes in moisture
content, that is, the extent to which the soil shrinks as it
dries out or swells when it gets wet. Extent of shrinking
and swelling is influenced by the amount and kind of clay
in the soil. Shrinking and swelling of soils causes much
damage to building foundations, roads, and other struc-
tures. A high shrink-swell potential indicates a hazard to
maintenance of structures built in, on, or with material
having this rating.









SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 4.-Suitability of soils for elements

Elements of wildlife habitat

Soil series and map symbols
Grain and seed Domestic grasses Wild herbaceous Hardwood trees
crops and legumes plants


Albany: Ab----.----------..----.-------------. Poor------------. Poor------------- Poor..----------- Fair -----..-....
Ang e: An----_ -------.-------------.--..---. Good ----------. Good-----------Good------------ Good ----
Ardilla: Ar---.-------.-----...------------- Fair--------.---- Good.----------. Good------------ Good -------
Bibb: Bb---- ..-----------.----------------- .Very poor-------- Poor----.-------- Poor------..----- Good..--------..
Bonifay: BoC--...---------. -------... .------- Poor -------- Poor------------ Fair ----------- Poor .----
Chipey Ch-....---------------------.---.------. Poor------------- Poor------------ Poor------------ Poor------
Dothan:
DoA, DoB.--.--..---.------------------.... Good.------------ Good.-----..... Good------------ Good -----.---..
DoC-...---------..---------------------- Fair------------- Good.----------- Good------------ Good ..---...--
Dt..-------... ----- .-----....---------. Poor----.-------- Fair------------- Fair------------- Fair-.-------....
Faceville: FcB, FcC-..-----------------------.. Good----------- Good------------ Good------------ Fair .----- ...
Fuquay: FuC---------------.---------------.. Fair------------- Fair------------- Good------------ Poor------... --
Gritney: GrB, GrC.--------. ----------------... Fair------.--- Fair_--- ------. Good.----------. Fair ...-..---
Kenansville: Ke..------------.--------------. Fair-.----.----.. Fair------------ Fair ------------ Poor---
Lakeland: Ld-...---------------------------.- Poor----------..- Poor------------. Poor ----------- Poor ---...---
Leefield: Le----......-----.. ---..----.....--.. Fair------------. Fair.----..--.--- Good----------- Fair------
Lucy: LuC----.---.. ----. --.---.-----.-----. Fair-----------. Good.----------- Good---------- Poor ...------
Maxton: Md.------------... ---------------.--- Good ----------- Good---------- Good ----------- Good--.-
Orangeburg: OrB,OrC .----..------..---------- Good----------- Good------------Good------------ Good --
Pansey: Pa...---.....-- -----------.---------. Poor..----. ---.. FaFira .--------. FFi. Fair.-----.....
Pantego: Pg......................-------------.-------......... Very poor-----.--...... Poor------------............ Poor.............------ Good..........---
Plummer: Pm ...-------------------.-----.. Poor..----------- Fair----------- Fair_----------- Fair-....-----.
Stilson: StA--..----....------------------- Good-----. ... Good......... Good----------- Fair--....-------
Tifton: TfB, TfC---------.. ------------------ Good ---.--.---- ood----------- Good---------- Fair_.-------
Troup TrC----...--.---..... -----------..--. Poor ...------.. Fair------------. Fair----------- Poor---------



TABLE 5.-Estimated soil properties

Classification
Depth to
seasonal Depth
Soil series and map symbols high from
water surface
table i USDA soil texture Unified AASHO


Albany: Ab ..........-.....---......


Angle: An----.............. ........


Ardilla: Ar-- -----------........


See footnotes at end of table.


In
15-30


30-60


15-20


In
0-45
45-52
52-65
0-6
6-69
69-75
0-9
9-16
16-36
36-65


Sand, loamy sand -------.....
Sandy loam, sandy clay loam-. -
Sandy clay loam, sandy loam --.
Fine sandy loam... -....-----
Clay loam..--...-------....
Loam -------...............
Loamy sand------- --.....
Sandy loam.---...............
Sandy clay loam__ --------...
Sandy clay loam, sandy clay....


SM,
SC
SC


SP-SM


SM
CL, CH
CL
SM
SC-SM, SC
SC
SC


A-2-4
A-4, A-6
A-4, A-6
A-2-4 A-4
A-6, A-7
A-6
A-2-4
A-2-4
A-6, A-2
A-2, A-6, A-7








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


of wildlife habitat and kinds of wildlife

Elements of wildlife habitat-Continued Kinds of wildlife

Coniferous plants Wetland plants Shallow water areas Openland Woodland Wetland


Fair --------- Poor.------------- Very poor--- ------. Poor...------------ Fair_ ------------ Very poor.
Good----- ------Poor-------------- Very poor---------- Good-------------- Good------------- Very poor.
Good----.. ----- Fair-------------- Fair-------------- Good-------------- Good------------- Fair.
Good----- ------ Good-------.------ Good-------------. Poor -------------- Good-------------- Good.
Fair------------ Very poor---------- Very poor---------- Poor--...----..---- Poor------------- Very poor.
Good .-----.-- -- Poor--------------. Poor------------- .Poor------------ Fair-------------- Poor.

Good -----!----- Poor------.----- Very poor---------- Good-_--- ------- Good------------- Very poor.
Good-----.. ---- Poor-------------- Very poor---------- Good------------- Good------------ Very poor.
Fair----...!----- Very poor---------- Very poor---------- Fair ------------ Fair------------- Very poor.
Fair.---..------- Poor--------------. Very poor---------- Good------------- Fair--------------- Very poor.
Fair_------..----- Poor ----------. Very poor---------- Fair ------------- Fair----------- Very poor.
Fair------ ------ Poor-------------- Very poor--------- Fair.-------------- Fair-------------- Very poor.
Fair------.------ .Poor-------------- Very poor---------- Fair--------------- Fair-------------- Very poor.
Fair --.--------- Very poor--------- Very poor---------- Poor-------------- Fair -------------- Very poor.
Fair----------- Fair------------ Fair-------------- Fair ..---..----... Fair-------------- Fair.
Fair------ ------ Very poor---------- Very poor---------- Good------------- Fair-- ----------- Very poor.
Good-_.---------Poor............... -Very poor.......... Good-....--........ Good-------------Very poor.
Good----------- Poor-------------- Very poor---------- Good------------ Good------------- Very poor.
Good----------- Poor-------------- Verypoor---------- Good-------------- Good--------------- Verypoor.
Fair------.. ----- Good-------------- Good-------------- Fair-------------- Fair..------------- Good.
Fair------.. ----- Good-------------- Good------------- F Poor-------------- Fair_------------ Good.
Fair..-----... .--....---- Good-------------- Good ....---------- Fair------------ Fair....----------.......... Good.
Fair------ ----- Poor-....-------- .Poor-------------- Good------------- Fair-------------- Poor.
Fair------ ------ Poor-------------- Very poor---------. Good------------ Fair -------------- Very poor.
Fair -------- --- Very poor---------- Very poor----------. Fair------------- Fair--------------- Very poor.



significant to engineering

Percentage less than 3 inches Corrosivity to-
passing sieve 2-
r___ 1- Liquid Plas- Available Shrink-
limit ticity Permeability water Reaction swell
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 index capacity potential Uncoated
(4.7 (2.0 (0.42 (0.074 steel s Concrete 4
mm) mm) mm) mm)


100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100


100
100
100

100
100
100
95-100
95-100
95-100
90-100
I


80-100
80-95
80-95

85-100
90-100
90-100
70-90
65-90
65-95
55-95


11-25
36-45
36-45
30-50
60-85
51-70
13-25
20-35
25-50
30-50


Pce
20-40
20-40

30-60
20-40

20-30
25-40
35-65


5 NP
8-20
8-20

NP
15-45
12-20
NP
5-10
11-20
15-35


In per hr
6. 0-20. 0
2. 0-6. 0
0.60-2. 0

0.60-2. 0
0. 06-0. 20
0. 06-0. 20
2. 0-6. 0
2.0-6. 0
0. 60-2. 0
0. 20-0.60


In per in
ofsoil
0.02-0. 05
0.10-0. 15
0. 10-0. 15

0.12-0. 15
0. 15-0. 20
0.15-0. 20
0. 06-0. 10
0. 10-0. 15
0. 10-0. 15
0. 05-0. 10


pH
4. 5-5. 5
4.5-5. 5
4.5-5.5

4.5-5. 5
4.5-5. 5
4.5-5. 5
4. 5-5. 5
4.5-5. 5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5


Low--.....
Low.
Low.

Low.------
High.
Moderate.

Low.-----.
Low.
Low.
Moderate.


Moderate_--


High...-...


High.....--


High.


High.


High.








SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 5.-Estimated soil properties

Classification
Depth to
seasonal Depth
Soil series and map symbols high from
water surface
table1 USDA soil texture Unified AASHO


Bibb: Bb.----------------....---
Properties are those only of the Bibb
soils in Bb.
Bonifay: BoC--------------------.....

Chipley: Ch------------------------
Dothan: DoA, DoB, DoC, Dt------.....
Properties are those only of the
Dothan soils in Dt.



Faceville: FcB, FcC -- -.....---------


Fuquay: FuC-----------------------


Gritney: GrB, GrC------------------







Kenansville: Ke----------------------



Lakeland: Ld------------------------

Leefield: Le-----------------------..


Lucy: LuC---------------------------


Maxton: Md..------------------------



See footnotes at end of table.


0-15


>73

20-40
>72





>72


>88


>72


Sandy loam, loam------------- SM
Sandy loam, loam------------- SM


In
0-10
10-60

0-57
57-73
0-90
0-8
8-30
30-52

52-67
0-6
6-9
9-65
0-33
33-45
45-88

0-7
7-12
12-31
31-50
50-68


0-25
25-48
48-75

0-84
0-23
23-65

0-28
28-37
37-80
0-9
9-41

41-65


SP-SM, SM
SC-SM, SM
SP-SM
SM
SC
SC

SC
SM
SC
SC, CL, CH
SM
SC-SM, SC
SC

SM
SC

CH, CL, SC
CH, CL, SC
SC


SM, SP-SM
SC-SM, SC
SM, SP-SM

SP-SM

SM
SC, SC-SM

SM
SM, SC-SM
SC, SC-SM
SM
SC, SC-SM
SP-SM, SM


A-2-4, A-4
A-2-4, A-4

A-2-4, A-3
A-2-4
A-3, A-2-4
A-2-4
A-2, A-4, A-6
A-2, A-4, A-6

A-6
A-2-4
A-2, A-4, A-6
A-6, A-7
A-2-4
A-2-4, A-4
A-2, A-4, A-6
A-2-4
A-2-7, A-6,
A-7
A-7
A-7
A-2, A-6, A-7


A-2-4
A-4, A-2-4
A-2-4

A-3, A-2-4
A-2-4
A-4, A-6

A-2-4
A-2-4, A-4
A-4, A-6, A-2
A-2-4
A-4, A-6

A-3, A-2-4


Sandy, loamy sand.-----------
Sandy clay loam, sandy loam__-
Sand...........---------..
Loamy sand, sandy loam.----..
Sandy clay loam, sandy loam,
fine sandy loam.
Sandy clay loam, sandy loam,
fine sandy loam.
Sandy clay loam, sandy clay---....-

Sandy loam------------------
Sandy clay loam.....--------
Sandy clay, clay---....----..
Loamy sand.....-----------
Sandy loam, sandy clay loam--
Sandy clay loam, sandy loam---

Loamy sand, sandy loam----..
Sandy clay loam --------------
Sandy clay, clay-------------
Sandy clay loam, sandy clay....-
Sandy clay loam with lenses of
sandy loam, loamy sand, and
sandy clay.
Fine sand, loamy fine sand---..--
Fine sandy loam, sandy clay
loam.
Fine sand, loamy fine sand ----..

Sand, fine sand--------------
Loamy sand, sand--.......
Sandy clay loam, sandy loam ..-

Loamy sand.------------
Sandy loam, sandy clay loam-.
Sandy clay loam, sandy loam ---
Loamy fine sand, loamy sand -
Sandy clay loam, fine sandy
loam.
Sand, loamy sand--.--.------..


>75



>84
15-30


>80


>72









HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

significant to engineering-Continued

Percentage less than 3 inches Corrosivity to-
passing sieve -
p I______ s 2-- Liquid Plas- Available Shrink-
limit ticity Permeability water Reaction swell
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 index capacity potential Uncoated
(4.7 (2.0 (0.42 (0.074 steels Concrete
mm) mm) mm) mm)


95-100
95-100

100
100
100
100
100

100

100

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

100
100
100


100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100
100

100
100

100


90-100
90-100

95-100
95-100
100
95-100
95-100
95-100

95-100
95-100
95-100
95-100
95-100
95-100
95-100

100
100

100
100
100


100
100
100
95-100
100
100
95-100

95-100
95-100
95-100
100
100

100


Pet


20-35

20-40

20-55

20-40
30-60

18-30
20-40

41-55

41-70
41-60
35-55



18-30


60-100
60-100

70-95
70-95
75-95
75-90
75-90

75-90

75-90

75-95
75-95
80-95
70-95
90-100
75-90
75-90
75-95

80-100
80-100
80-100


90-100
90-100
95-100

70-100
60-95
65-95

70-90
75-85
80-95

85-90
70-95

70-95


30-50
30-50

5-20
20-35
6-12
15-35
30-40

30-45

36-50

25-35
30-50
45-75
13-25
25-40
30-45
15-25
30-45

45-65
40-60
30-50


11-25
25-45
11-25
5-12

13-25
36-50

13-30
25-40
30-45
15-25
36-50
5-20


NP
NP

NP
NP-7
NP
NP
8-15

8-20

11-30

NP
8-20
15-40
NP
4-10
8-20

NP
11-35

20-40
20-35
15-35


NP
4-10
NP
NP

NP
4-20

NP
NP-7
4-20
NP
4-20

NP


In per hr
0.60-2. 0
0.60-2. 0

6.0-20. 0
0.60-2. 0
6. 0-20. 0
2. 0-6. 0
0.60-2. 0

0.20-0. 60

0.20-0. 60
2. 0-6. 0
0.60-2. 0
0.60-2. 0
6.0-20. 0
2.0-6. 0
0.06-0. 20
6.0-20. 0
0.60-2. 0

0. 06-0. 20
0.20-0. 60
0.20-0. 60


6.0-20. 0
2.0-6. 0

6. 0-20. 0
6.0-20. 0

6. 0-20. 0
0.20-0. 60

6.0-20. 0
2.0-6. 0
0. 60-2. 0
6.0-20. 0
0.60-2. 0

6. 0-20. 0


In per in
of oil
0.15-0. 18
0.12-0.15

0. 05-0.10
0.10-0. 15
0. 05-0. 08

0. 07-0. 10
0.10-0. 15

0. 10-0. 15

0.10-0.15
0.10-0. 15
0.10-0. 15
0.15-0. 15
0.05-0. 10
0.10-0. 15
0.10-0. 15

0.05-0. 10
0.10-0. 15

0. 10-0. 15
0.10-0.15
0.10-0. 15


0.05-0. 10
0.10-0. 15

0.05-0. 10
0.03-0. 07

0. 05-0. 10
0. 10-0. 15

0.07-0.10
0. 10-0. 12
0.12-0. 14

0.05-0. 10
0. 10-0. 15

0.05-0. 10


Low ..... High.......
Low.


pH
4.5-5.5
4.5-5. 5

4.5-5.5
4.5-5. 5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5

4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5

4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5


4.5-5.5
4.5-5. 5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5
4.5-5.5

4. 5-5. 5
4. 5-5.5
4.5-5. 5

4.5-5. 5

4 5-5. 5
4. 5-5. 5


Low-------

Moderate.. --
Moderate...





Moderate_..


Low------.


High...---.


High.


High.

High.
Moderate.





Moderate.


Low.


Moderate.


Low-------
Low.
Low-------
Low-----.
Low.

Low.

Low.

Low ------
Low.
Moderate.
Low.----
Low.
Low.

Low---..--
High.

High.
High.
High.


Low ......
Low.

Low.
Low.

Low.-----..
Low.

Low........
Low.
Low.
Low...----
Low.

Low.


High.......

High--.....


Low.

High.


High---.... Low.


High ..-..-


Low.


18-40


<254
18-40

18-40-


Low----- High.









38 SOIL SURVEY
TABLE 5.-Estimated soil properties

Classification
Depth to
seasonal Depth
Soil series and map symbols high from
water surface
table I USDA soil texture Unified AASHO


In In

Orangeburg: OrB, OrC---------------- >108 0-10 Loamy sand, loamy fine sand, SM A-2-4
sandy loam, fine sandy loam.
10-21 Sandy loam, sandy clay loam, SC-SM, SC A-2-4
fine sandy loam.
21-108 Sandy clay loam, sandy loam, SC-SM, SC A-6, A-4,
fine sandy loam. A-2

Pansey: Pa.------------------------- 0-15 0-12 Loamy sand----------------- SM A--4
12-24 Sandy loam, sandy clay loam --- SC-SM, SM A-2-4
24-69 Sandy clay loam, sandy loam -- SC A-2-6, A-6

Pantego: Pg ..----------------------- 0-15 0-13 Loamy fine sand, fine sandy SM A-2-4
Properties are those only of the Pan- loam.
tego soils in Pg. 13-62 Sandy clay loam, sandy loam -- SC-SM, SC A-6 A-4,

Plummer: Pm...----------------------- 0-15 0-44 Fine sand, loamy fine sand SM A-2-4
44-65 Fine sandy loam, sandy clay SC-SM, SC A-2, A-4,
loam. A-6

Stilson: StA --- ------ --------- 30-40 0-25 Loamy sand, sand------------- SM A-2-4
25-68 Sandy clay loam, sandy loam --- SC-SM, SC A-4, A-6,
A-2

Tifton: TfB. TfC --------------------- >72 0-8 Loamy sand, sandy loam------- SM A-2-4, A--b
8-65 Sandy clay loam, sandy loam -- SC A-4, A-6

Troup: TrC-------------------------- >83 0-45 Sand----------------------- SM A-2-4
45-58 Sand with nodules of loamy SM A-2-4
sand.
58-83 Sandy clay loam, sandy loam--- SC, SC-SM A-4, A-6,
A-2


1 Level expected during the normal wet season.
2 For all soils mapped in this county, the coarse fraction greater than 3 inches in diameter is 0.

TABLE 6.-Engineering

[Tests performed by Florida State Department of Transportation (FDOT) in accordance with

Moisture density 2

Depth
Sample from
Soil name and location Parent material number 1 surface Maximum Optimum
dry moisture
density


Angie fine sandy loam:
Approximately 1.5 miles northwest of Westville
and 0.25 mile south of State Highway No. 181
in the NWySEY sec. 6, T. 4 N., R. 16 W.
(Modal)
Ardilla loamy sand:
Approximately 3 miles east of Bonifay and 1 mile
north of U.S. Highway No. 90 and 100 feet
west of a good motor road in the NE4SE3/
sec. 33, T. 5 N., R. 14 W. (Modal)
See footnotes at end of table.


Loamy marine deposits.--




Loamy marine deposits--


69 Fla. 30-4-4
69 Fla. 30-4-6
69 Fla. 30-4-7


70 Fla. 30-25-3
70 Fla. 30-25-4
70 Fla. 30-25-6


In
12-26
40-69
69-75


9-16
16-36
48-65


Lb per
90
98
110








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

significant to engineering-Continued

Percentage less than 3 inches Corrosivity to-
passing sieve 2-
Liquid Plas- Available Shrink-
limit ticity Permeability water Reaction swell
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 index capacity potential Uncoated
(4.7 (2.0 (0.42 (0.074 steel Coner te
mm) mm) mm) mm)

In er in
Pt In per hr o80oil pH
100 95-100 70-95 15-35 NP 2. 0-6. 0 0. 06-0.10 4. 5-5. 5 Low----.. High---....-- Low.
100 95-100 70-95 25-35 <28 NP-7 2. 0-6. 0 0.10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High-..---- Low.
100\ 95-100 80-95 30-50 18-40 4-20 0.60-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5.5 Low.

100 95-100 75-90 13-20 -- NP 2. 0-6. 0 0.06-0. 10 4.5-5. 5 Low -----. High-.----. High.
100 95-100 75-90 20-35 <28 NP-7 2. 0-6. 0 0. 10-0. 14 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 95-100 75-90 30-45 20-40 11-20 0.06-0. 20 0. 10-0. 14 4.5-5.5 Low.
100 95-100 85-95 15-35 .----- NP 2. 0-6. 0 0. 07-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High.-----. High.
100 95-100 85-90 30-45 18-40 4-20 0.60-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low.

100 100 80-95 13-25 ----- NP 6.0-20. 0 0. 05- 8 4.5-5. 5 Low------. High------. High.
100 100 75-90 25-45 18-40 4-20 0. 60-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low.

100 95-100 70-95 13-25 ----_ NP 6.0-2. 0 0. 06-0. 10 4.5-5. 5 Low------. High -----. Moderate.
100 95-100 70-95 30-50 18-40 4-20 0.60-2.0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5.5 Low.

95-100 80-95 45-85 13-25 ---- NP 6. 0-20. 0 0.06-0. 10 4.5-5. 5 Low------. High.------ Moderate.
95-100 80-100 70-90 36-45 20-40 11-20 0.60-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4.5-5.5 Low.
100 95-100 75-95 13-20 --..- NP 6. 0-20. 0 0.05-0. 09 4.5-5. 5 Low-.----. High--..--- Low.
100 100 75-90 15-25 NP 6. 0-20. 0 0. 06-0. 08 4.5-5.5 Low.
100 100 75-90 30-45 18-40 4-20 0. 60-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4.5-5.5 Low.


8 Estimates are based on the drainage class (wetness) and texture of the soil, the estimated total acidity, the estimated electrical
resistivity at' moisture equivalent, and the estimated electrical conductivity.
4 Estimates are based on soil texture and reaction and the estimated amount of sodium, magnesium sulfate, or both present in the soil.

test data
standard procedures of the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO)]

Mechanical analysis Classification

Percentage less than 3 inches Percentage smaller than-
passing sieve- Liquid Plasticity
___________ limit index
AASHO Unified
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 0.05 0.02 0.005 0. 002
(4.7 (2.0 (0.42 (0.074 mm mm mm mm
mm) mm) mm) mm)


A-7-6(17)
A-7-6(19)
A-6(9)


A-2-4(0)
A-2-6(0)
A-7-5(5)


SC
SC
SC








SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 6.-Engineering

Moisture density 2

Depth
Sample from
Soil name and location Parent material number surface Maximum Optimum
dry moisture
density


Dothan loamy sand:
Approximately 7 miles north of the city limits of
Bonifay and about 100 yards east of U.S. High-
way No. 79 in the NW4NEN sec. 32, T. 6 N.,
R. 14 W. (Modal)

Faceville sandy loam:
Approximately 1 mile north of Wrights Creek
Bridge and 0.25 mile west of State Highway No.
79 on the north side of a good motor road in the
NEYSWN sec. 29, T. 6 N., R. 14 W. (Modal)
Fuquay loamy sand:
Approximately 2 miles west of Bonifay and 0.25
mile south of U.S. Highway No. 90 in the
SEMSE% sec. 34, T. 5 N., R. 15 W. (Modal)
Gritney loamy sand:
Approximately 2.25 miles east of the city limits of
Bonifay on Old Chipley Road, 100 feet south of
the road in the NE9NE4 sec. 34, T. 5 N., R.
14 W. (Modal)
Kenansville fine sand:
Approximately 2 miles north of the city limits of
Caryville and % mile west of State Highway No.
179 on the west side of the good motor road in
the SWYSWY sec. 35, T. 5 N., R. 16 W. (Modal)
Lucy loamy sand:
Approximately 0.75 mile southeast of Sandy Creek
Church on the west side of a good motor road in
the NE4NE4 sec. 35, T. 5 N., R. 16 W. (Modal)
Orangeburg loamy sand:
Approximately 4.5 miles north of the city limits of
Ponce de Leon on the west side of State Highway
No. 81 in the SWSWY sec. 32, T. 5 N., R. 17 W.
(Modal)
Pansey loamy sand:
Approximately 0.75 mile southwest of Bethlehem
School and 50 yards south of a good motor road in
the NE.NE% sec. 20, T. 6 N., R. 15 W. (Modal)
Stilson loamy sand:
Approximately 3 miles north of Gritney Crossroads
and 0.5 mile east of State Highway No. 179 and
0.25 mile north of a good motor road in the NE%-
SEY sec. 5, T. 5 N., R. 16 W. (Modal)


Loamy marine deposits---




Clayey marine deposits --




Loamy marine deposits -


69 Fla. 30-2-1
69 Fla. 30-2-3
69 Fla. 30-2-7


69 Fla. 30-9-2
69 Fla. 30-9-3



69 Fla. 30-6-3
69 Fla. 30-6-4
69 Fla. 30-6-6


Clayey marine deposits- 69 Fla. 30-1-6
69 Fla. 30-1-7



Loamy fluvial sediments 70 Fla. 30-27-4
70 Fla. 30-27-6


Loamy marine deposits ---



Loamy marine deposits -




Loamy marine deposits ---



Loamy marine deposits. -


69 Fla. 30-8-1
69 Fla. 30-8-3
69 Fla. 30-8-5

69 Fla. 30-5-3
69 Fla. 30-5-5
69 Fla. 30-5-6


69 Fla. 30-17-4
69 Fla. 30-17-6
69 Fla. 30-17-7

69 Fla. 30-18-5
69 Fla. 30-18-6


In
0-8
13-30
61-67


5-19
19-38



13-33
33-45
57-88

18-31
50-68



25-37
48-75



0-7
14-28
37-80

10-17
21-54
54-108


12-24
36-63
63-69

39-45
45-68


Lb per
cult
113
121
103


110
104



123
120
112

95
108



112
98



112
123
112

126
113
117


126
120
115

110
111


1 Sample numbers of the Florida State Department of Transportation.
2 Based on AASHO Designation T 99-57 (1).
3 Mechanical analysis according to AASHO Designation T 88-57 (1). Results by this procedure may differ somewhat from results
obtained by the soil survey procedure of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). In the AASHO procedure the fine material is analyzed by the
hydrometer method and the various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material, including that coarser than 2 milli-
meters in diameter. In the SCS soil survey procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the pipette method and the material coarser than 2









HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


test data-Continued

Mechanical analysis Classification

Percentage less than 3 inches Percentage smaller than-
passing sieve- Liquid Plasticity
limit index
AASHO' Unified 6
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 0.05 0.02 0.005 0.002 AASHO Unified
(4.7 (2.0 (0.42 (0.074 mm mm mm mm
mm) mm) mm) mm)


Pt
-------------------------------------------------
21
51


37
46



20
32

50
52



24


34


30
29



23
31

38
37


SNP
10
28


20
22



NP
7
16

27
33



7
NP



NP
NP
16

NP
17
14


NP
12
19

14
15


A-2-4(0)
A-2-4(0)
A-7-6(9)


A-6(6)
A-7-6(9)



A-2-4(0)
A-2-4(0)
A-6(1)

A-7-6(13)
A-2-7(5)



A-4(2)
A-2-4(0)



A-2-4(0)
A-2-4(0)
A-6(2)

A-2-4(0)
A-6(3)
A-6(1)


A-2-4(0)
A-2-6(0)
A-6(4)

A-6(2)
A-6(1)


SM
SC
SC


SC
CL



SM
SM-SC
SC

CH
SC



SM-SC
SM



SM
SM
SC

SM
SC
SC


SM
SC
SC

SC
SC


millimeters in diameter is excluded from calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical analysis data used in this table are not suit-
able for naming textured classes for soils.
Based on AASHO Designation M 145-49(1).
Based on the Unified Soil Classification System (11). SCS and BPR have agreed that all soils having a plasticity index within two
points from A-line are to be given a borderline classification. An example of a borderline classification is SM-SC.
8 Nonplastic.









SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 7.-Estimated engineering

Suitability as source of-

Soil series and map symbol
Topsoil Sand Road fill


Ab----------------. Poor: soil material too sandy- Poor to fair-----....----------- Good........................


Angie: An-----------------................

Ardilla: Ar--- -----------

Bibb: Bb..-------------...............


thin surface layer-..---.

soil material too sandy--

wetness---------------


Unsuited---------------------

Unsuited---------------------

Poor------------------------.


Bonifay: BoC--------------- Poor: soil material too sandy-. Fair to poor.--------.... ---..


Chipley: Ch.---------------. Poor: soil material too sandy-- Fair----- ----------------


Dothan:
DoA -------- -----

Do B .........---.........--------...

DoC, Dt-----------------.

Faceville: FcB, FcC------....

Fuquay: FuC.---...-----....



Gritney: GrB, GrC----------.


thin surface layer...-...

thin surface layer-..---.

thin surface layer-------

thin surface layer.-----.

soil material too sandy. -


Poor: thin surface layer -.--..


Unsuited-------------------

Unsuited--------------------

Unsuited------------------

Unsuited--------------------.

Poor-.------------...........



Unsuited----.------------.._-


Kenansville: Ke------.----... Poor: soil material too sandy Poor .........--------.-


Poor: high shrink-swell poten-
tial; low shear strength.

Fair: low shear strength; wet-
ness.

Poor: wetness------------


Good -- --------------


Good.....------------------------



Fair: low shear strength---.. .-

Fair: low shear strength .----.

Fair: low shear strength ------

Poor: low shear strength-----.

Good--------------------



Poor: high shrink-swell poten-
tial; low shear strength.

Good --------..............-


Albany:


Poor:

Fair:

Poor:


Poor:

Poor:

Poor:

Poor:

Poor:









HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA

interpretations of soils

Soil features affecting-


Pond reservoir areas


Excessive permeability-



Features generally
favorable.
Features generally
favorable.

Excessive permeability;
subject to flooding.

Excessive permeability..


Excessive permeability-.


Excessive permeability_.

Excessive permeabillty_-

Excessive permeability--


Excessive permeability..
Excessive permeability--
Excessive permeability--







Features generally
favorable.
Excessive permeability..


Embankments, dikes,
and levees


Drainage of cropland
and pasture


Irrigation


Terraces and diversions


I I 1 .1


Excessive permeability;
piping hazard.


Features generally
favorable.
Features generally
favorable.

Excessive permeability;
piping hazard; subject
to flooding.

Excessive permeability;
piping hazard.

Excessive permeability;
piping hazard.


Features generally
favorable.

Features generally
favorable.

Features generally
favorable.
Low shear strength ....--
Excessive permeability;
piping hazard.


Wetness-----...........



Restricted permeability-__

Wetness; restricted per-
meability.
Wetness--------------.


Not needed; well
drained.

Features generally
favorable.


Not needed; well
drained.

Not needed; well
drained.
Not needed; well
drained.
Not needed; well drained.-
Not needed; well drained-.


Low shear strength.-----. Not needed; well drained..


Excessive permeability;
piping hazard.


Not needed; well drained-_


Very low available water
capacity; excessive
permeability in upper
45 inches.
Restricted permeability;
erodibility; slope.
Wetness; restricted per-
meability.
Wetness--------........


Excessive permeability;
low available water
capacity.
Excessive permeability;
low available water
capacity.

Features generally
favorable.

Erodibility; slope------.

Erodibility; slope---.....

Erodibility; slope- --...
Excessive permeability;
low available water
capacity in upper 33
inches.

Restricted permeability;
erodibility; slope.

Excessive permeability;
low available water
capacity in upper 25
inches.


Not needed.



Restricted permeability.

Not needed.

Not needed.


Not needed.


Not needed.



Not needed.

Features generally
favorable.

Slope.

Not needed.
Not needed.



Restricted permeability;
slope.
Not needed.









SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 7.-Estimated engineering

Suitability as source of-

Soil series and map symbol
Topsoil Sand Road fill


Lakeland: Ld--------------- Poor: soil material too sandy-__ Fair--------------.....------

Leefield: Le --------------- Poor: soil material too sandy--_ Unsuited------------------


Good_-----------------

Fair: wetness; low shear
strength.


Lucy: LuC---------------- Poor: soil materialtoosandy--_ Poor----.-------------------- Good-----------------------


Maxton: Md--------------



Orangeburg: OrB, OrC--..---.


Pansey: Pa----.------------.


Pantego: Pg----_--------_-

Plummer: Pm...-------.....


soil material too sandy--- Fair to poor ----------------


thin surface layer ---_---

wetness.--..---------..


wetness------------

soil material too sandy ---


Unsuited---------------------


Unsuited------------------


Unsuited..-----.----.... ---

Poor ----------.------...----


Fair to depth of 41 inches: low
shear strength. Good below
depth of 41 inches.

Fair: low shear strength-- -_-

Poor: wetness----.-----.---.


Poor: wetness-----.---------

Poor: wetness----------


Stilson: StA.-.-------.----- I Poor: soil material too sandy.-- Unsuited-------------.. --.--- Fair: low shear strength-......


TfB, TfC-----------

TrC-...--------...


thin surface layer .----..

soil material too sandy---


Unsuited....----...-----.....

Poor-------...................


Fair: low shear strength --....


Good------------------------


Poor:



Fair:

Poor:


Poor:

Poor:


Tifton:

Troup:


Fair:


Poor:









HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


interpretations of soils-Continued


Soil features affecting-

Pond reservoir areas Embankments, dikes, Drainage of cropland Irrigation Terraces and diversions
and levees and pasture


Excessive permeability-.

Features generally
favorable.


Excessive permeability;
piping hazard.

Low shear strength.-----


Excessive permeability-. Excessive permeability;
piping hazard.


Excessive permeability.-



Excessive permeability--

Features generally fa-
vorable.
Excessive permeability..

Excessive permeability._



Excessive permeability_.



Excessive permeability._

Excessive permeability._


Features generally
favorable except sand
below depth of 41
inches.

Features generally fa-
vorable.

Features generally fa-
vorable.

Excessive permeability-_-
Excessive permeability;
piping hazard.


Excessive permeability;
piping hazard.


Features generally fa-
vorable.

Not needed; well
drained.


Not needed; excessively
drained.

Wetness; restricted
permeability.


Not needed; well drained..



Not needed; well drained..



Not needed; well
drained.

Wetness; restricted
permeability.

Wetness; outlets -.-----..
Wetness---------------



Features generally fa-
vorable.


Not needed; well
drained.

Not needed; well
drained.


Very low to low avail-
able water capacity.
Wetness; excessive per-
meability; low avail-
able water capacity in
upper 23 inches.

Excessive permeability;
low available water
capacity in upper 28
inches.
Erodibility; slope...----



Erodibility; slope--------

Wetness--.------------.

Wetness---------------
Wetness; excessive per-
meability; low avail-
able water capacity in
upper 44 inches.

Excessive permeability;
low available water
capacity in upper 25
inches.
Erodibility; slope-------.

Excessive permeability;
low available water
capacity in upper 58
inches.


Not needed.

Not needed.



Not needed.



Features generally
favorable.


Features generally fa-
vorable.

Not needed.

Not needed.
Not needed.



Not needed.



Features generally fa-
vorable.
Not needed.










46 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 8.-Degree and kind of limitations for sanitary facilities

Sanitary facilities
Soil series and Dwellings and Local roads
map symbols light industrial and streets
Septic tank Sewage lagoons Sanitary buildings
absorption fields land fill I


Albany: Ab---....


Angie: An--.....-



Ardilla: Ar- .---


Bibb: Bb-------


Bonifay: BoC-.....


Severe: wetness.--.


Severe: restricted
permeability;
wetness.

Severe: restricted
permeability;
wetness.

Severe: wetness;
subject to flooding.

Slight_------------.


Chipley: Ch---.. Severe: wetness..--


Dothan:
DoA-........

DoB --------.

DoC------........

Dt------..........

Faceville:
FcB-...------

FcC.---------


Severe: restricted
permeability.

Severe: restricted
permeability.
Severe: restricted
permeability;
slope.
Severe: restricted
permeability.

Slight -------------

Moderate: slope --.


Fuquay: FuC..--- Severe: restricted
permeability.

Critney:
Gr B--..--. Severe: restricted
permeability.

GrC ------- Severe: restricted
permeability.


See footnote at end of table.


Severe: wetness;
excessive
permeability.

Slight.------------.


Severe: wetness;
excessive
permeability.

Severe: wetness ----


Slight----.--------- Severe: wetness----


Severe: wetness;
subject to flooding.

Severe: excessive
permeability.


Severe: excessive
permeability;
wetness.


Slight-..----------.

Moderate: slope ..-.

Moderate: slope-...

Severe: slope.-----


Moderate: slope;
excessive per-
meability.
Moderate: slope;
excessive per-
meability.
Moderate: possible
lateral seepage.

Moderate: slope..--


Severe: wetness;
subject to flooding.

Severe: excessive
permeability;
soil material too
sandy.
Severe: wetness;
excessive permea-
bility; soil ma-
terial too sandy.

Slight------------..

Slight.------------.

Slight------------..

Slight------------


Slight---------....

Slight-------------


Slight-------............


Slight------............


Moderate: slope--....Slight..-----.. --...


Moderate:
wetness.

Severe: high
shrink-swell
potential.

Severe: wetness-.--


Severe: wetness;
subject to flooding.

Slight------------.



Moderate: wet-
ness.



Slight------------.

Slight.------------.

Slight------------.

Moderate: slope.--.


Moderate: moder-
ate shrink-swell
potential.
Moderate: moder-
ate shrink-swell
potential.
Slight------------..


Severe: high
shrink-swell
potential.

Severe:, high
shrink-swell
potential.


Moderate:
wetness.

Severe: high
shrink-swell
potential; low
shear strength.
Moderate: wet-
ness; low shear
strength.
Severe: wetness;
subject to flooding.

Moderate: slope-..--



Moderate: wet-
ness.



Moderate: low
shear strength.

Moderate: low
shear strength.
Moderate: low
shear strength.
Severe: slope------


Severe: low
shear strength.

Severe: low
shear strength.

Moderate: slope.--.


Severe: high
shrink-swell
potential; low
shear strength.
Severe: high
shrink-swell
potential; low
shear strength.









HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

recreational areas, and other specified engineering uses

Recreational areas for-
Shallow
excavations
Camping Picnicking Playgrounds Golf course Paths and trails
fairways


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.

Moderate: re-
stricted per-
meability.

Moderate: wet-
ness.


Severe: wetness;
subject to flooding.

Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.



Moderate: re-
stricted permea-
bility.
Moderate: re-
stricted permea-
bility.
Moderate: re-
stricted permea-
bility.
Moderate: slope ---


Slight--....--

Slight------.......


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.

Slight --...........


Slight..............-----


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.

Slight----............



Moderate: wet-
ness.

Severe: wetness;
subject to flooding.

Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.



Slight-.---........

Slight ---..------.

Slight------- ----

Moderate: slope.--.


Slight .............

Slight.---..........


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.

Slight-----.....----


Slight ............


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.

Moderate: re-
stricted permea-
bility.

Moderate: wet-
ness.


Severe: wetness;
subject to flooding.

Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.



Moderate: re-
stricted permea-
bility.
Moderate: re-
stricted permea-
bility.
Severe: slope ------

Severe: slope ------


Moderate: slope...-

Severe: slope------


Moderate: slope-....


Moderate: slope;
soil material
too sandy.

Severe: slope......


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.

Moderate: re-
stricted permea-
bility.

Moderate: wet-
ness.


Severe: wetness;
subject to flooding.

Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.



Moderate: re-
stricted permea-
bility.
Moderate: re-
stricted permea-
bility.
Severe: slope------

Severe: slope------


Slight-----------

Moderate: slope-...-


Slight------------


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.

Slight-----....-....



Moderate: wet-
ness.


Severe: wetness;
subject to flooding.

Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.



Slight -----------

Slight-------------

Slight-... ..------

Slight.....---------


Slight-------------

Slight----..........


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Slight.------...----. Slight--- ------


Moderate: slope-.... Slight--.-------....


Severe: wetness;
soil material
too sandy.

Moderate: wet-
ness; too much
clay in subsoil.

Severe: wetness.


Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: soil ma-
terial too sand-'


Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy;
wetness.


Slight.

Slight.

Slight.

Moderate: slope.


Moderate: too
much clay in
subsoil.
Moderate: too
much clay in
subsoil.

Severe: soil ma-
terial too
sandy.

Moderate: too
much clay in
subsoil.

Moderate: too
much clay in
subsoil.









SOIL SURVEY


TABLE 8.-Degree and kind of limitations for sanitary facilities, recreational

Sanitary facilities
Soil series and Dwellings and
map symbols light industrial Local roads
Septic tank Sewage lagoons Sanitary buildings and streets
absorption fields landfill 1


Leefield: Le--....


Lucy: LuC -----


Maxton: Md---.

Orangeburg:
OrB......-----


Severe: restricted
permeability;
wetness.

Slight ------


Slight -------


Slight....-------.


OrC----------- .. Slight------------.


Pansey: Pa---....



Pantego: Pg---...


Plummer: Pm--..




Stilson: StA.---..


Tifton:
TfB ---

TfC--------_


Severe: restricted
permeability;
wetness; subject
to flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Severe: wetness ---



Moderate: re-
stricted per-
meability.
Moderate: re-
stricted per-
meability.


TrC _--- Slight .--..._____--


Severe: excessive
permeability.

Severe: excessive
permeability.


Severe: excessive
permeability.

Severe: excessive
permeability;
soil material too
sandy.


Severe: wetness.---. Severe: wetness ---


Moderate: slope;
excessive per-
meability.
Severe: excessive
permeability.

Moderate: exces-
sive permea-
bility; slope.
Moderate: exces-
sive permea-
bility; slope.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Moderate: exces-
sive permeability.


Moderate: exces-
sive permeability;
slope.
Moderate: exces-
sive permeability;
slope.
Severe: exces-
sive permeability.


Slight ------------- Slight-------------


Slight------------


Moderate:
ness.


wet-


Slight..------------ Slight-------------


Severe: excessive
permeability.


Slight-----------


Slight---------



Moderate: wet-
ness; low shear
strength.

Moderate: low
shear strength.

Moderate: low
shear strength.


Slight .- -------I Slight..------------- Moderate: low
shear strength.


Slight-- Slight.I ----------


Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Severe: wetness-..-- Slight-------------


Moderate: low
shear strength.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe; wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Moderate: low
shear strength.


Slight------------Slight-------------Moderate: low
shear strength.


Slight --------- I Slight--- --------


Severe: exces-
sive permeability;
soil material too
sandy.


Slight-----------


Moderate: low
shear strength;
slope.

Slight to moderate:
slope.


Kenansville:


Lakeland:


Ke-_ Slight-----------


Ld ---. Slight ----------


Troup:


1 Onsite deep studies of the underlying strata, water tables, and hazards of aquifer pollution and drainage into ground water need to be
made for landfills deeper than 5 or 6 feet.









HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA

areas, and other specified engineering uses-Continued


Recreational areas for-


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.

Severe: soil
material too
sandy.


Moderate: wetness;
restricted per-
meability.

Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Severe: soil
material too
sandy.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.

Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Severe: soil
material too
sandy.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy; slope.

Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.


Moderate: wetness;
restricted per-
meability.

Moderate: soil
material too
sandy; slope.


Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Severe: soil
material too
sandy.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.

Severe: soil ma-
terial too sandy.


Moderate: wetness;
restricted per-
meability.

Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Severe: soil
material too
sandy.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.

Severe: soil
material too
sandy.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Severe: soil
material too
sandy.


Slight.


Severe: soil
material too
sandy.

Severe: wetness.


Slight.


Slight.


Slight.

Slight.


Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding.


Severe: .wetness;
subject to
flooding.

Severe: wetness;
subject to
flooding;
soil material
too sandy.

Moderate: soil
material too
sandy.


Slight.

Slight.


Severe: soil
material too
sandy.








SOIL SURVEY


Corrosivity, as used in table 5, pertains to potential soil-
induced chemical action that dissolves or weakens uncoated
steel or concrete. Rate of corrosion of uncoated steel is
related to soil properties such as drainage, texture, total
acidity, and electrical conductivity of the soil material.
Corrosivity for concrete is influenced mainly by the con-
tent of sodium or magnesium sulfate in the soil but also
by soil texture and acidity. Installations of uncoated steel
that intersect soil boundaries or soil horizons are more
susceptible to corrosion than installations entirely in one
kind of soil or in one soil horizon. A corrosivity rating of
low means that there is a low probability of soil-induced
corrosion damage. A rating of high means that there is
a high probability of damage, so that protective measures
for steel and more resistant concrete should be used to
avoid or minimize damage.

Soil Test Data
Table 6 contains engineering test data for some of the
major soil series in Holmes County. These tests were made
to help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
engineering classifications given are based on data ob-
tained by mechanical analyses and by tests to determine
liquid limits and plastic limits. The mechanical analyses
were made by combined sieve and hydrometer methods.
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important
in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at successively
higher moisture contents, with a constant compactive ef-
fort, the density of the compacted material increases until
the maximum density is reached. After that, density de-
creases with increase in moisture content. The moisture
content at maximum density is termed the optimum mois-
ture content. For convenience, the maximum density is
normally quoted in terms of the maximum dry density by
weight. As a rule, maximum strength of earthwork is ob-
tained if the soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.
Tests to determine liquid limit and plastic limit measure
the effect of water on the consistence of soil material, as
has been explained for table 5.

Engineering Interpretations of the Soils
The estimated interpretations in tables 7 and 8 are based
on the engineering properties of soils shown in table 5,
on test data for soils in this survey area and others nearby
or adjoining, and on the experience of engineers and soil
scientists with the soils of Holmes County. Table 7 lists
those soil features not to be overlooked in planning, in-
stallation, and maintenance for such purposes as high-
ways, pond reservoirs, pond embankments, drainage of
cropland and pasture, irrigation, and terraces and diver-
sions. Table 8 gives the degree and kinds of limitations for
recreational and other specified uses.
Following are explanations of the columns in table 7.
Topsoil is used for topdressing an area where vegetation
is to be established and maintained. Suitability is affected
mainly by ease with which soil material can be worked and
spread, as in preparing a seedbed; natural fertility of the
material, or the response of plants when fertilizer is ap-
plied; and absence of substances toxic to plants. Texture
of the soil material and its content of stone fragments are


characteristics that affect suitability, but also considered
in the ratings is damage that will result at the area from
which topsoil is taken.
Sand is used in great quantities in many kinds of con-
struction. The ratings in table 8 provide guidance about
where to look for probable sources. A soil rated as a good
or fair source of sand generally has a layer of sand at least
3 feet thick, the top of which is at a depth of less than 6
feet. The ratings do not take into account thickness of
overburden, location of the water table, or other factors
that affect mining of the materials, and neither do thev
indicate quality of the deposit.
Road fill is soil material used in embankments for roads.
The suitability ratings reflect (1) the predicted perform-
ance of soil after it has been placed in an embankment
that has been properly compacted and provided with ade-
quate drainage, and (2) the relative ease of excavating
the material at borrow areas.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or em-
bankment. Soils suitable for pond reservoir areas have
low seepage, which is related to their permeability and
depth to fractured or permeable bedrock or other perme-
able material.
Embankments, dikes, and levees require soil material
resistant to seepage and piping and of favorable stability,
shrink-swell potential, shear strength, and compactibility.
Presence of stones or organic material in a soil are among
factors that are unfavorable.
Drainage of cropland and pasture is affected by such
soil properties as permeability, texture, and structure;
depth to claypan, rock, or other layers that influence rate
of water movement; depth to the water table; slope; sta-
bility in ditchbanks; susceptibility to stream overflow;
salinity or alkalinity; and availability of outlets for
drainage.
Irrigation of soil is affected by such features as slope;
water erosion; soil texture; content of stones; accumula-
tions of salts and alkali; depth of root zone; rate of water
intake at the surface; permeability of soil layers below
the surface layer and in fragipans or other layers that
restrict movement of water; amount of water held avail-
able to plants; and need for drainage, or depth to water
table or bedrock.
Terraces and diversions are embankments, or ridges,
constructed across the slope to intercept runoff so that it
soaks into the soil or flows slowly to a prepared outlet.
Features that affect suitability of a soil for terraces are
uniformity and steepness of slope; depth to bedrock or
other unfavorable material; presence of stones; perme-
ability; and resistance to water erosion. A soil suitable for
these structures provides outlets for runoff and is not dif-
ficult to vegetate.
In table 8 the soils are rated as having slight, moderate,
or severe limitations for the specified uses. For all of these
ratings, it is assumed that a good cover of vegetation can
be established and maintained. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and limitations are so
minor that they easily can be overcome. Moderate means
that the limitation can be overcome or modified by plan-
ning, by design, or by special maintenance. Severe means
that costly soil reclamation, special design, intense main-
tenance, or a combination of these, is required.








SOIL SURVEY


Corrosivity, as used in table 5, pertains to potential soil-
induced chemical action that dissolves or weakens uncoated
steel or concrete. Rate of corrosion of uncoated steel is
related to soil properties such as drainage, texture, total
acidity, and electrical conductivity of the soil material.
Corrosivity for concrete is influenced mainly by the con-
tent of sodium or magnesium sulfate in the soil but also
by soil texture and acidity. Installations of uncoated steel
that intersect soil boundaries or soil horizons are more
susceptible to corrosion than installations entirely in one
kind of soil or in one soil horizon. A corrosivity rating of
low means that there is a low probability of soil-induced
corrosion damage. A rating of high means that there is
a high probability of damage, so that protective measures
for steel and more resistant concrete should be used to
avoid or minimize damage.

Soil Test Data
Table 6 contains engineering test data for some of the
major soil series in Holmes County. These tests were made
to help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
engineering classifications given are based on data ob-
tained by mechanical analyses and by tests to determine
liquid limits and plastic limits. The mechanical analyses
were made by combined sieve and hydrometer methods.
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important
in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at successively
higher moisture contents, with a constant compactive ef-
fort, the density of the compacted material increases until
the maximum density is reached. After that, density de-
creases with increase in moisture content. The moisture
content at maximum density is termed the optimum mois-
ture content. For convenience, the maximum density is
normally quoted in terms of the maximum dry density by
weight. As a rule, maximum strength of earthwork is ob-
tained if the soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.
Tests to determine liquid limit and plastic limit measure
the effect of water on the consistence of soil material, as
has been explained for table 5.

Engineering Interpretations of the Soils
The estimated interpretations in tables 7 and 8 are based
on the engineering properties of soils shown in table 5,
on test data for soils in this survey area and others nearby
or adjoining, and on the experience of engineers and soil
scientists with the soils of Holmes County. Table 7 lists
those soil features not to be overlooked in planning, in-
stallation, and maintenance for such purposes as high-
ways, pond reservoirs, pond embankments, drainage of
cropland and pasture, irrigation, and terraces and diver-
sions. Table 8 gives the degree and kinds of limitations for
recreational and other specified uses.
Following are explanations of the columns in table 7.
Topsoil is used for topdressing an area where vegetation
is to be established and maintained. Suitability is affected
mainly by ease with which soil material can be worked and
spread, as in preparing a seedbed; natural fertility of the
material, or the response of plants when fertilizer is ap-
plied; and absence of substances toxic to plants. Texture
of the soil material and its content of stone fragments are


characteristics that affect suitability, but also considered
in the ratings is damage that will result at the area from
which topsoil is taken.
Sand is used in great quantities in many kinds of con-
struction. The ratings in table 8 provide guidance about
where to look for probable sources. A soil rated as a good
or fair source of sand generally has a layer of sand at least
3 feet thick, the top of which is at a depth of less than 6
feet. The ratings do not take into account thickness of
overburden, location of the water table, or other factors
that affect mining of the materials, and neither do thev
indicate quality of the deposit.
Road fill is soil material used in embankments for roads.
The suitability ratings reflect (1) the predicted perform-
ance of soil after it has been placed in an embankment
that has been properly compacted and provided with ade-
quate drainage, and (2) the relative ease of excavating
the material at borrow areas.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or em-
bankment. Soils suitable for pond reservoir areas have
low seepage, which is related to their permeability and
depth to fractured or permeable bedrock or other perme-
able material.
Embankments, dikes, and levees require soil material
resistant to seepage and piping and of favorable stability,
shrink-swell potential, shear strength, and compactibility.
Presence of stones or organic material in a soil are among
factors that are unfavorable.
Drainage of cropland and pasture is affected by such
soil properties as permeability, texture, and structure;
depth to claypan, rock, or other layers that influence rate
of water movement; depth to the water table; slope; sta-
bility in ditchbanks; susceptibility to stream overflow;
salinity or alkalinity; and availability of outlets for
drainage.
Irrigation of soil is affected by such features as slope;
water erosion; soil texture; content of stones; accumula-
tions of salts and alkali; depth of root zone; rate of water
intake at the surface; permeability of soil layers below
the surface layer and in fragipans or other layers that
restrict movement of water; amount of water held avail-
able to plants; and need for drainage, or depth to water
table or bedrock.
Terraces and diversions are embankments, or ridges,
constructed across the slope to intercept runoff so that it
soaks into the soil or flows slowly to a prepared outlet.
Features that affect suitability of a soil for terraces are
uniformity and steepness of slope; depth to bedrock or
other unfavorable material; presence of stones; perme-
ability; and resistance to water erosion. A soil suitable for
these structures provides outlets for runoff and is not dif-
ficult to vegetate.
In table 8 the soils are rated as having slight, moderate,
or severe limitations for the specified uses. For all of these
ratings, it is assumed that a good cover of vegetation can
be established and maintained. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and limitations are so
minor that they easily can be overcome. Moderate means
that the limitation can be overcome or modified by plan-
ning, by design, or by special maintenance. Severe means
that costly soil reclamation, special design, intense main-
tenance, or a combination of these, is required.







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


Following are explanations of some of the columns in
table 8.
Septic tank absorption fields are subsurface systems of
tile or perforated pipe that distribute effluent from a septic
tank into natural soil. The soil material from a depth of
18 inches to 6 feet is evaluated. The soil properties con-
sidered are those that affect both absorption of effluent
and construction and operation of the system. Properties
that affect absorption are permeability, depth to water
table (wetness) or rock, and susceptibility to flooding.
Slope is a soil property that affects difficulty of layout
and construction and also the risk of soil erosion, lateral
seepage, and downslope flow of effluent. Large rocks or
boulders increase construction costs.
Sewage lagoons are ponds constructed to hold sewage
long enough for bacteria to decompose the solids. A lagoon
has a nearly level floor, sloping sides, and embankments.
Embankments are compacted to medium density and the
pond is protected from flooding. Properties are considered
that affect the pond floor, excavated slopes, and the em-
bankment. Those that affect the pond floor and excavated
slopes are permeability, content of organic matter, and
depth to bedrock. The soil properties that affect the em-
bankment are the engineering properties of the embank-
ment material as interpreted from the Unified Soil Clas-
sification and the amount of stones, if any, that influence
the ease of excavation and compaction of the embankment
material.
Sanitary land filling is a method of disposing of refuse
in excavated trenches. The waste is spread in thin layers,
compacted, and covered with soil. Land fill areas are sub-
ject to heavy vehicular traffic. Some soil properties that
affect suitability for land fill are ease of excavation, hazard
of polluting ground water, and trafficability. The best
soils have moderately slow permeability, withstand heavy
traffic, ard are friable and easy to excavate. Unless other-
wise stated, the ratings in table 7 apply only to a depth
of about 6 feet, and limitation ratings of slight or moderate
might not be valid if trenches are deeper than that. For
some soils, reliable predictions can be made to a depth of
10 or 15 feet. However, every site should be investigated
before it is selected.
As rated in table 7, dwellings are not more than three
stories high, and light industrial buildings are less than
three stories high or have foundation loads not in excess
of that weight. The dwellings and buildings are supported
by foundation footings placed in undisturbed soil. The
features that affect the rating of a soil for dwellings and
light industrial buildings are those that relate to capacity
to support load and resist settlement under load and those
that relate to ease of excavation. Soil properties that affect
capacity to support load are wetness, susceptibility to flood-
ing, density, plasticity, texture, and shrink-swell potential.
Those that affect excavation are wetness, slope, depth to
bedrock, and content of stones and rocks.
Local roads and streets, as rated in table 7, have an
all-weather surface expected to carry automobile traffic
all year. They have a subgrade of underlying soil mate-
rial; a base consisting of gravel, crushed rock, or soil mate-
rial stabilized with lime or cement; and a flexible or rigid
surface, commonly asphalt or concrete. These roads are
graded to shed water and have ordinary provisions for


drainage. They are built mainly from soil at hand, and
most cuts and fills are less than 6 feet deep.
Soil properties that most affect design and construction
of roads and streets are load-supporting capacity and
stability of the subgrade and the workability and avail-
ability of fill material. The AASHO and Unified classifi-
cations of the soil material, and also the shrink-swell
potential, indicate traffic-supporting capacity. Wetness and
flooding affect stability of the material. Slope, depth to
hard rock, content of stones and rocks, and wetness affect
ease of excavation and amount of cut and fill needed to
reach a desired design grade.
Camp areas are used intensively for tents and small
camp trailers and the accompanying activities of outdoor
living. Little preparation of the site is required other than
shaping and leveling for tent and parking areas. Camp-
sites are subject to heavy foot traffic and limited vehicular
traffic. The best soils have mild slopes, good drainage, a
surface free of rocks and coarse fragments, freedom from
flooding during periods of heavy use, and a surface that is
firm after rain but not dusty when dry.
Picnic areas are attractive natural or landscaped tracts
used primarily for preparing meals and eating outdoors.
These areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most of the
vehicular traffic, however, is confined to access roads. The
best soils are firm when wet but not dusty when dry; are
free of flooding during the season of use; and do not have
slopes or stoniness that greatly increase cost of leveling
sites or of building access roads.
Playgrounds are areas used intensively for baseball,
football, badminton, and similar organized games. Soils
suitable for this use need to withstand intensive foot traf-
fic. The best soils have a nearly level surface free of coarse
fragments and rock outcrops, good drainage, freedom from
flooding during periods of heavy use, and a surface that is
firm after rain but not dusty when dry. If grading and
leveling are required, depth to rock is important.
Golf course fairways can be established on sites where
the soils vary widely, if the site has a good balance between
fairways and rough areas or hazards. The requirements for
fairways are affected most by the kinds of soils. A fairway
requires well-drained soils, gentle slopes, and a good cover
of grass. Also, people must be able to move over the fair-
way with ease on foot or in a golf cart or other light motor
vehicle. The soil properties that most affect the suitability
of soils for fairways for golf courses are susceptibility to
flooding, wetness, soil texture, permeability, and slope.
Paths and trails are used for local and cross country
travel by foot or horseback. Design and layout should re-
quire little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are at
least moderately well drained, are firm when wet but
not dusty when dry, are flooded not more than once during
the season of use, have slopes of less than 15 percent, and
have few or no rocks or stones on the surface.
Shallow excavations are those that require excavating
or trenching to a depth of less than 6 feet; for example,
excavations for pipelines, sewer lines, phone and power
transmission lines, basements, open ditches, and cemeteries.
Desirable soil properties are good workability, moderate
resistance to sloughing, gentle slopes, absence of rock out-
crops or big stones, and freedom from flooding or a high
water table.








SOIL SURVEY


Formation and Classification
of the Soils
This section discusses the major factors of soil forma-
tion and explains the current system of classification. Table
9 gives the classification of each soil series by higher cate-
gories according to the current system. The names and
classification of the soils in Holmes County were approved
in July 1971.
Factors of Soil Formation
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: (1)
the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or lay
of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on the
soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and (5)
the length of time these factors have acted on the soil
material.
Parent material
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from which
a soil forms. It determines the limits of the chemical and
mineralogical characteristics of soil. Most of the soils in
Holmes County formed in loamy, clayey, or sandy marine
deposits. The differences among these soils are determined
mainly by the amount and proportions of sand, silt, and
clay in the different soil layers and the chemical and miner-
alogical properties. Some soils formed in recent, water-
deposited materials along stream terraces and flood plains.
These soils generally have only weakly defined profiles.
Climate
The climate of Holmes County is uniform throughout
the county and accounts for few differences among the
soils. It is mild and humid with long, warm summers and
mild winters. Temperature and rainfall are the major
factors of climate that influence soil formation. In Holmes
County the average daily maximum temperature is about


79.7" F., and the average daily minimum is about 57.1 F.
The rainfall averages about 60 inches each year. For more
detailed information about the climate of Holmes County,
see the section on climate.
A climate such as that in Holmes County favors the
growth of plants and animals and rapid decomposition of
organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the soil.
The abundant rainfall leaches soluble bases, plant nutri-
ents, and colloidal materials downward leaving the soil
acid and low in natural fertility. Soil development con-
tinues the year round because the soils are seldom frozen.
Plant and animal life
Living organisms are important in soil formation. They
mix the soil, create pores and channels through which air
and water move, provide organic matter, bring plant
nutrients from the lower to the upper horizons, and bring
about changes in soil structure. Acids released by decompo-
sition of organic matter alter chemical reactions in the soil.
In Holmes County the original vegetation was forest.
Pine was dominant on the better drained soils, and hard-
woods on the wetter soils. On some soils there was a mixture
of pine and hardwoods.
Organic matter from the various plants decomposes
rather rapidly because the temperature, moisture content,
and micropopulation of the soil are favorable for its de-
composition. Most of the soils in this county contain a
fairly small amount of organic matter, and this is mainly
in the surface horizon. Vegetation has not been a major
factor in producing local differences among soils.
Relief
Relief, or topography, influences soil formation through
its effect on drainage, erosion, and vegetable cover. In
Holmes County the relief is nearly level to sloping uplands
that are dissected by many streams and drainageways.
Elevation ranges from about 30 feet to 312 feet above sea
level.


TABLE 9.-Classification of series by higher categories

Series Family Subgroup Order

Albany ----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic..--.--------------------. Grossarenic Paleudults -------------- Ultisols.
Angie ----------- Clayey, mixed, thermic .------------------------- Aquic Paleudults------------------- Ultisols.
Ardilla. ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---.------------------Fragiaquic Paleudults---------------- Ultisols.
Bibb ------------- Coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic --------------.. Typic Fluvaquents .--------------- Entisols.
Bonifay.---------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic- -----------.------_.---- Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults ----_ Ultisols.
Chipley------------ Thermic, coated..-----------------.. -------------. Aquic Quartzipsamments ----------- Entisols.
Dothan..--.- ---- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ----------_---__-----. Plinthic Paleudults----------------- Ultisols.
Faceville 1 -------- Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic------------..----...._-- Typic Paleudults-------------------- Ultisols.
Fuquay----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic .------------.---------. Arenic Plinthic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.
Gritney..--------- Clayey, mixed, thermic ..------------------.-----.. Typic Hapludults...-----------------Ultisols.
Kenansville-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic---------------------.... Arenic Hapludults------------------ Ultisols.
Lakeland.--------- Thermic, coated ----..--------------------------- Typic Quartzipsamments-----.----... Entisols.
Leefield------------ Loamy, siliceous, thermic------------- -----_-....- Arenic Plinthaquic Paleudults -------__Ultisols.
Lucy---....-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic----------------.-------- Arenic Paleudults ----------------- Ultisols.
Maxton ..------ Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic-.--------------------. Typic Hapludults .-.------- ------ I Ultisols.
Orangeburg--.---. Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic---.----------.-------- Typic Paleudults -----------.--..- Ultisols.
Pansey --------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic- --------------------_ Plinthic Paleaquults. ----------- Ultisols.
Pantego .-------.- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---------------------. Umbric Paleaquults ------------ -- Ultisols.
Phlmmer .--.--- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------ ----.. Grossarenic Paleaquults----- ------- Ultisols.
Stilson..--. ......-- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ..------------.--------- Arenic Plinthic Paleudults ----.----- Ultisols.
Tifton---- ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic .--- ------_--------- Plinthic Paleudults ------------- Ultisols.
Troup-------..---. Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------------ Grossarenic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.

1 The Faceville soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Faceville series because their clayey subsoil contains a higher percentage of
minerals, other than kaolinite, than is defined for the series. This difference does not alter the use and behavior of these soils.








SOIL SURVEY


Formation and Classification
of the Soils
This section discusses the major factors of soil forma-
tion and explains the current system of classification. Table
9 gives the classification of each soil series by higher cate-
gories according to the current system. The names and
classification of the soils in Holmes County were approved
in July 1971.
Factors of Soil Formation
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: (1)
the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or lay
of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on the
soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and (5)
the length of time these factors have acted on the soil
material.
Parent material
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from which
a soil forms. It determines the limits of the chemical and
mineralogical characteristics of soil. Most of the soils in
Holmes County formed in loamy, clayey, or sandy marine
deposits. The differences among these soils are determined
mainly by the amount and proportions of sand, silt, and
clay in the different soil layers and the chemical and miner-
alogical properties. Some soils formed in recent, water-
deposited materials along stream terraces and flood plains.
These soils generally have only weakly defined profiles.
Climate
The climate of Holmes County is uniform throughout
the county and accounts for few differences among the
soils. It is mild and humid with long, warm summers and
mild winters. Temperature and rainfall are the major
factors of climate that influence soil formation. In Holmes
County the average daily maximum temperature is about


79.7" F., and the average daily minimum is about 57.1 F.
The rainfall averages about 60 inches each year. For more
detailed information about the climate of Holmes County,
see the section on climate.
A climate such as that in Holmes County favors the
growth of plants and animals and rapid decomposition of
organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the soil.
The abundant rainfall leaches soluble bases, plant nutri-
ents, and colloidal materials downward leaving the soil
acid and low in natural fertility. Soil development con-
tinues the year round because the soils are seldom frozen.
Plant and animal life
Living organisms are important in soil formation. They
mix the soil, create pores and channels through which air
and water move, provide organic matter, bring plant
nutrients from the lower to the upper horizons, and bring
about changes in soil structure. Acids released by decompo-
sition of organic matter alter chemical reactions in the soil.
In Holmes County the original vegetation was forest.
Pine was dominant on the better drained soils, and hard-
woods on the wetter soils. On some soils there was a mixture
of pine and hardwoods.
Organic matter from the various plants decomposes
rather rapidly because the temperature, moisture content,
and micropopulation of the soil are favorable for its de-
composition. Most of the soils in this county contain a
fairly small amount of organic matter, and this is mainly
in the surface horizon. Vegetation has not been a major
factor in producing local differences among soils.
Relief
Relief, or topography, influences soil formation through
its effect on drainage, erosion, and vegetable cover. In
Holmes County the relief is nearly level to sloping uplands
that are dissected by many streams and drainageways.
Elevation ranges from about 30 feet to 312 feet above sea
level.


TABLE 9.-Classification of series by higher categories

Series Family Subgroup Order

Albany ----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic..--.--------------------. Grossarenic Paleudults -------------- Ultisols.
Angie ----------- Clayey, mixed, thermic .------------------------- Aquic Paleudults------------------- Ultisols.
Ardilla. ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---.------------------Fragiaquic Paleudults---------------- Ultisols.
Bibb ------------- Coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic --------------.. Typic Fluvaquents .--------------- Entisols.
Bonifay.---------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic- -----------.------_.---- Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults ----_ Ultisols.
Chipley------------ Thermic, coated..-----------------.. -------------. Aquic Quartzipsamments ----------- Entisols.
Dothan..--.- ---- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ----------_---__-----. Plinthic Paleudults----------------- Ultisols.
Faceville 1 -------- Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic------------..----...._-- Typic Paleudults-------------------- Ultisols.
Fuquay----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic .------------.---------. Arenic Plinthic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.
Gritney..--------- Clayey, mixed, thermic ..------------------.-----.. Typic Hapludults...-----------------Ultisols.
Kenansville-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic---------------------.... Arenic Hapludults------------------ Ultisols.
Lakeland.--------- Thermic, coated ----..--------------------------- Typic Quartzipsamments-----.----... Entisols.
Leefield------------ Loamy, siliceous, thermic------------- -----_-....- Arenic Plinthaquic Paleudults -------__Ultisols.
Lucy---....-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic----------------.-------- Arenic Paleudults ----------------- Ultisols.
Maxton ..------ Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic-.--------------------. Typic Hapludults .-.------- ------ I Ultisols.
Orangeburg--.---. Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic---.----------.-------- Typic Paleudults -----------.--..- Ultisols.
Pansey --------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic- --------------------_ Plinthic Paleaquults. ----------- Ultisols.
Pantego .-------.- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---------------------. Umbric Paleaquults ------------ -- Ultisols.
Phlmmer .--.--- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------ ----.. Grossarenic Paleaquults----- ------- Ultisols.
Stilson..--. ......-- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ..------------.--------- Arenic Plinthic Paleudults ----.----- Ultisols.
Tifton---- ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic .--- ------_--------- Plinthic Paleudults ------------- Ultisols.
Troup-------..---. Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------------ Grossarenic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.

1 The Faceville soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Faceville series because their clayey subsoil contains a higher percentage of
minerals, other than kaolinite, than is defined for the series. This difference does not alter the use and behavior of these soils.








SOIL SURVEY


Formation and Classification
of the Soils
This section discusses the major factors of soil forma-
tion and explains the current system of classification. Table
9 gives the classification of each soil series by higher cate-
gories according to the current system. The names and
classification of the soils in Holmes County were approved
in July 1971.
Factors of Soil Formation
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: (1)
the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or lay
of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on the
soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and (5)
the length of time these factors have acted on the soil
material.
Parent material
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from which
a soil forms. It determines the limits of the chemical and
mineralogical characteristics of soil. Most of the soils in
Holmes County formed in loamy, clayey, or sandy marine
deposits. The differences among these soils are determined
mainly by the amount and proportions of sand, silt, and
clay in the different soil layers and the chemical and miner-
alogical properties. Some soils formed in recent, water-
deposited materials along stream terraces and flood plains.
These soils generally have only weakly defined profiles.
Climate
The climate of Holmes County is uniform throughout
the county and accounts for few differences among the
soils. It is mild and humid with long, warm summers and
mild winters. Temperature and rainfall are the major
factors of climate that influence soil formation. In Holmes
County the average daily maximum temperature is about


79.7" F., and the average daily minimum is about 57.1 F.
The rainfall averages about 60 inches each year. For more
detailed information about the climate of Holmes County,
see the section on climate.
A climate such as that in Holmes County favors the
growth of plants and animals and rapid decomposition of
organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the soil.
The abundant rainfall leaches soluble bases, plant nutri-
ents, and colloidal materials downward leaving the soil
acid and low in natural fertility. Soil development con-
tinues the year round because the soils are seldom frozen.
Plant and animal life
Living organisms are important in soil formation. They
mix the soil, create pores and channels through which air
and water move, provide organic matter, bring plant
nutrients from the lower to the upper horizons, and bring
about changes in soil structure. Acids released by decompo-
sition of organic matter alter chemical reactions in the soil.
In Holmes County the original vegetation was forest.
Pine was dominant on the better drained soils, and hard-
woods on the wetter soils. On some soils there was a mixture
of pine and hardwoods.
Organic matter from the various plants decomposes
rather rapidly because the temperature, moisture content,
and micropopulation of the soil are favorable for its de-
composition. Most of the soils in this county contain a
fairly small amount of organic matter, and this is mainly
in the surface horizon. Vegetation has not been a major
factor in producing local differences among soils.
Relief
Relief, or topography, influences soil formation through
its effect on drainage, erosion, and vegetable cover. In
Holmes County the relief is nearly level to sloping uplands
that are dissected by many streams and drainageways.
Elevation ranges from about 30 feet to 312 feet above sea
level.


TABLE 9.-Classification of series by higher categories

Series Family Subgroup Order

Albany ----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic..--.--------------------. Grossarenic Paleudults -------------- Ultisols.
Angie ----------- Clayey, mixed, thermic .------------------------- Aquic Paleudults------------------- Ultisols.
Ardilla. ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---.------------------Fragiaquic Paleudults---------------- Ultisols.
Bibb ------------- Coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic --------------.. Typic Fluvaquents .--------------- Entisols.
Bonifay.---------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic- -----------.------_.---- Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults ----_ Ultisols.
Chipley------------ Thermic, coated..-----------------.. -------------. Aquic Quartzipsamments ----------- Entisols.
Dothan..--.- ---- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ----------_---__-----. Plinthic Paleudults----------------- Ultisols.
Faceville 1 -------- Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic------------..----...._-- Typic Paleudults-------------------- Ultisols.
Fuquay----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic .------------.---------. Arenic Plinthic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.
Gritney..--------- Clayey, mixed, thermic ..------------------.-----.. Typic Hapludults...-----------------Ultisols.
Kenansville-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic---------------------.... Arenic Hapludults------------------ Ultisols.
Lakeland.--------- Thermic, coated ----..--------------------------- Typic Quartzipsamments-----.----... Entisols.
Leefield------------ Loamy, siliceous, thermic------------- -----_-....- Arenic Plinthaquic Paleudults -------__Ultisols.
Lucy---....-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic----------------.-------- Arenic Paleudults ----------------- Ultisols.
Maxton ..------ Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic-.--------------------. Typic Hapludults .-.------- ------ I Ultisols.
Orangeburg--.---. Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic---.----------.-------- Typic Paleudults -----------.--..- Ultisols.
Pansey --------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic- --------------------_ Plinthic Paleaquults. ----------- Ultisols.
Pantego .-------.- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---------------------. Umbric Paleaquults ------------ -- Ultisols.
Phlmmer .--.--- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------ ----.. Grossarenic Paleaquults----- ------- Ultisols.
Stilson..--. ......-- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ..------------.--------- Arenic Plinthic Paleudults ----.----- Ultisols.
Tifton---- ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic .--- ------_--------- Plinthic Paleudults ------------- Ultisols.
Troup-------..---. Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------------ Grossarenic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.

1 The Faceville soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Faceville series because their clayey subsoil contains a higher percentage of
minerals, other than kaolinite, than is defined for the series. This difference does not alter the use and behavior of these soils.








SOIL SURVEY


Formation and Classification
of the Soils
This section discusses the major factors of soil forma-
tion and explains the current system of classification. Table
9 gives the classification of each soil series by higher cate-
gories according to the current system. The names and
classification of the soils in Holmes County were approved
in July 1971.
Factors of Soil Formation
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: (1)
the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or lay
of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on the
soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and (5)
the length of time these factors have acted on the soil
material.
Parent material
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from which
a soil forms. It determines the limits of the chemical and
mineralogical characteristics of soil. Most of the soils in
Holmes County formed in loamy, clayey, or sandy marine
deposits. The differences among these soils are determined
mainly by the amount and proportions of sand, silt, and
clay in the different soil layers and the chemical and miner-
alogical properties. Some soils formed in recent, water-
deposited materials along stream terraces and flood plains.
These soils generally have only weakly defined profiles.
Climate
The climate of Holmes County is uniform throughout
the county and accounts for few differences among the
soils. It is mild and humid with long, warm summers and
mild winters. Temperature and rainfall are the major
factors of climate that influence soil formation. In Holmes
County the average daily maximum temperature is about


79.7" F., and the average daily minimum is about 57.1 F.
The rainfall averages about 60 inches each year. For more
detailed information about the climate of Holmes County,
see the section on climate.
A climate such as that in Holmes County favors the
growth of plants and animals and rapid decomposition of
organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the soil.
The abundant rainfall leaches soluble bases, plant nutri-
ents, and colloidal materials downward leaving the soil
acid and low in natural fertility. Soil development con-
tinues the year round because the soils are seldom frozen.
Plant and animal life
Living organisms are important in soil formation. They
mix the soil, create pores and channels through which air
and water move, provide organic matter, bring plant
nutrients from the lower to the upper horizons, and bring
about changes in soil structure. Acids released by decompo-
sition of organic matter alter chemical reactions in the soil.
In Holmes County the original vegetation was forest.
Pine was dominant on the better drained soils, and hard-
woods on the wetter soils. On some soils there was a mixture
of pine and hardwoods.
Organic matter from the various plants decomposes
rather rapidly because the temperature, moisture content,
and micropopulation of the soil are favorable for its de-
composition. Most of the soils in this county contain a
fairly small amount of organic matter, and this is mainly
in the surface horizon. Vegetation has not been a major
factor in producing local differences among soils.
Relief
Relief, or topography, influences soil formation through
its effect on drainage, erosion, and vegetable cover. In
Holmes County the relief is nearly level to sloping uplands
that are dissected by many streams and drainageways.
Elevation ranges from about 30 feet to 312 feet above sea
level.


TABLE 9.-Classification of series by higher categories

Series Family Subgroup Order

Albany ----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic..--.--------------------. Grossarenic Paleudults -------------- Ultisols.
Angie ----------- Clayey, mixed, thermic .------------------------- Aquic Paleudults------------------- Ultisols.
Ardilla. ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---.------------------Fragiaquic Paleudults---------------- Ultisols.
Bibb ------------- Coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic --------------.. Typic Fluvaquents .--------------- Entisols.
Bonifay.---------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic- -----------.------_.---- Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults ----_ Ultisols.
Chipley------------ Thermic, coated..-----------------.. -------------. Aquic Quartzipsamments ----------- Entisols.
Dothan..--.- ---- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ----------_---__-----. Plinthic Paleudults----------------- Ultisols.
Faceville 1 -------- Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic------------..----...._-- Typic Paleudults-------------------- Ultisols.
Fuquay----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic .------------.---------. Arenic Plinthic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.
Gritney..--------- Clayey, mixed, thermic ..------------------.-----.. Typic Hapludults...-----------------Ultisols.
Kenansville-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic---------------------.... Arenic Hapludults------------------ Ultisols.
Lakeland.--------- Thermic, coated ----..--------------------------- Typic Quartzipsamments-----.----... Entisols.
Leefield------------ Loamy, siliceous, thermic------------- -----_-....- Arenic Plinthaquic Paleudults -------__Ultisols.
Lucy---....-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic----------------.-------- Arenic Paleudults ----------------- Ultisols.
Maxton ..------ Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic-.--------------------. Typic Hapludults .-.------- ------ I Ultisols.
Orangeburg--.---. Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic---.----------.-------- Typic Paleudults -----------.--..- Ultisols.
Pansey --------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic- --------------------_ Plinthic Paleaquults. ----------- Ultisols.
Pantego .-------.- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---------------------. Umbric Paleaquults ------------ -- Ultisols.
Phlmmer .--.--- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------ ----.. Grossarenic Paleaquults----- ------- Ultisols.
Stilson..--. ......-- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ..------------.--------- Arenic Plinthic Paleudults ----.----- Ultisols.
Tifton---- ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic .--- ------_--------- Plinthic Paleudults ------------- Ultisols.
Troup-------..---. Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------------ Grossarenic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.

1 The Faceville soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Faceville series because their clayey subsoil contains a higher percentage of
minerals, other than kaolinite, than is defined for the series. This difference does not alter the use and behavior of these soils.








SOIL SURVEY


Formation and Classification
of the Soils
This section discusses the major factors of soil forma-
tion and explains the current system of classification. Table
9 gives the classification of each soil series by higher cate-
gories according to the current system. The names and
classification of the soils in Holmes County were approved
in July 1971.
Factors of Soil Formation
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: (1)
the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or lay
of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on the
soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and (5)
the length of time these factors have acted on the soil
material.
Parent material
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from which
a soil forms. It determines the limits of the chemical and
mineralogical characteristics of soil. Most of the soils in
Holmes County formed in loamy, clayey, or sandy marine
deposits. The differences among these soils are determined
mainly by the amount and proportions of sand, silt, and
clay in the different soil layers and the chemical and miner-
alogical properties. Some soils formed in recent, water-
deposited materials along stream terraces and flood plains.
These soils generally have only weakly defined profiles.
Climate
The climate of Holmes County is uniform throughout
the county and accounts for few differences among the
soils. It is mild and humid with long, warm summers and
mild winters. Temperature and rainfall are the major
factors of climate that influence soil formation. In Holmes
County the average daily maximum temperature is about


79.7" F., and the average daily minimum is about 57.1 F.
The rainfall averages about 60 inches each year. For more
detailed information about the climate of Holmes County,
see the section on climate.
A climate such as that in Holmes County favors the
growth of plants and animals and rapid decomposition of
organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the soil.
The abundant rainfall leaches soluble bases, plant nutri-
ents, and colloidal materials downward leaving the soil
acid and low in natural fertility. Soil development con-
tinues the year round because the soils are seldom frozen.
Plant and animal life
Living organisms are important in soil formation. They
mix the soil, create pores and channels through which air
and water move, provide organic matter, bring plant
nutrients from the lower to the upper horizons, and bring
about changes in soil structure. Acids released by decompo-
sition of organic matter alter chemical reactions in the soil.
In Holmes County the original vegetation was forest.
Pine was dominant on the better drained soils, and hard-
woods on the wetter soils. On some soils there was a mixture
of pine and hardwoods.
Organic matter from the various plants decomposes
rather rapidly because the temperature, moisture content,
and micropopulation of the soil are favorable for its de-
composition. Most of the soils in this county contain a
fairly small amount of organic matter, and this is mainly
in the surface horizon. Vegetation has not been a major
factor in producing local differences among soils.
Relief
Relief, or topography, influences soil formation through
its effect on drainage, erosion, and vegetable cover. In
Holmes County the relief is nearly level to sloping uplands
that are dissected by many streams and drainageways.
Elevation ranges from about 30 feet to 312 feet above sea
level.


TABLE 9.-Classification of series by higher categories

Series Family Subgroup Order

Albany ----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic..--.--------------------. Grossarenic Paleudults -------------- Ultisols.
Angie ----------- Clayey, mixed, thermic .------------------------- Aquic Paleudults------------------- Ultisols.
Ardilla. ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---.------------------Fragiaquic Paleudults---------------- Ultisols.
Bibb ------------- Coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic --------------.. Typic Fluvaquents .--------------- Entisols.
Bonifay.---------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic- -----------.------_.---- Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults ----_ Ultisols.
Chipley------------ Thermic, coated..-----------------.. -------------. Aquic Quartzipsamments ----------- Entisols.
Dothan..--.- ---- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ----------_---__-----. Plinthic Paleudults----------------- Ultisols.
Faceville 1 -------- Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic------------..----...._-- Typic Paleudults-------------------- Ultisols.
Fuquay----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic .------------.---------. Arenic Plinthic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.
Gritney..--------- Clayey, mixed, thermic ..------------------.-----.. Typic Hapludults...-----------------Ultisols.
Kenansville-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic---------------------.... Arenic Hapludults------------------ Ultisols.
Lakeland.--------- Thermic, coated ----..--------------------------- Typic Quartzipsamments-----.----... Entisols.
Leefield------------ Loamy, siliceous, thermic------------- -----_-....- Arenic Plinthaquic Paleudults -------__Ultisols.
Lucy---....-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic----------------.-------- Arenic Paleudults ----------------- Ultisols.
Maxton ..------ Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic-.--------------------. Typic Hapludults .-.------- ------ I Ultisols.
Orangeburg--.---. Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic---.----------.-------- Typic Paleudults -----------.--..- Ultisols.
Pansey --------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic- --------------------_ Plinthic Paleaquults. ----------- Ultisols.
Pantego .-------.- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---------------------. Umbric Paleaquults ------------ -- Ultisols.
Phlmmer .--.--- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------ ----.. Grossarenic Paleaquults----- ------- Ultisols.
Stilson..--. ......-- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ..------------.--------- Arenic Plinthic Paleudults ----.----- Ultisols.
Tifton---- ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic .--- ------_--------- Plinthic Paleudults ------------- Ultisols.
Troup-------..---. Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------------ Grossarenic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.

1 The Faceville soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Faceville series because their clayey subsoil contains a higher percentage of
minerals, other than kaolinite, than is defined for the series. This difference does not alter the use and behavior of these soils.








SOIL SURVEY


Formation and Classification
of the Soils
This section discusses the major factors of soil forma-
tion and explains the current system of classification. Table
9 gives the classification of each soil series by higher cate-
gories according to the current system. The names and
classification of the soils in Holmes County were approved
in July 1971.
Factors of Soil Formation
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: (1)
the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or lay
of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on the
soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and (5)
the length of time these factors have acted on the soil
material.
Parent material
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from which
a soil forms. It determines the limits of the chemical and
mineralogical characteristics of soil. Most of the soils in
Holmes County formed in loamy, clayey, or sandy marine
deposits. The differences among these soils are determined
mainly by the amount and proportions of sand, silt, and
clay in the different soil layers and the chemical and miner-
alogical properties. Some soils formed in recent, water-
deposited materials along stream terraces and flood plains.
These soils generally have only weakly defined profiles.
Climate
The climate of Holmes County is uniform throughout
the county and accounts for few differences among the
soils. It is mild and humid with long, warm summers and
mild winters. Temperature and rainfall are the major
factors of climate that influence soil formation. In Holmes
County the average daily maximum temperature is about


79.7" F., and the average daily minimum is about 57.1 F.
The rainfall averages about 60 inches each year. For more
detailed information about the climate of Holmes County,
see the section on climate.
A climate such as that in Holmes County favors the
growth of plants and animals and rapid decomposition of
organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the soil.
The abundant rainfall leaches soluble bases, plant nutri-
ents, and colloidal materials downward leaving the soil
acid and low in natural fertility. Soil development con-
tinues the year round because the soils are seldom frozen.
Plant and animal life
Living organisms are important in soil formation. They
mix the soil, create pores and channels through which air
and water move, provide organic matter, bring plant
nutrients from the lower to the upper horizons, and bring
about changes in soil structure. Acids released by decompo-
sition of organic matter alter chemical reactions in the soil.
In Holmes County the original vegetation was forest.
Pine was dominant on the better drained soils, and hard-
woods on the wetter soils. On some soils there was a mixture
of pine and hardwoods.
Organic matter from the various plants decomposes
rather rapidly because the temperature, moisture content,
and micropopulation of the soil are favorable for its de-
composition. Most of the soils in this county contain a
fairly small amount of organic matter, and this is mainly
in the surface horizon. Vegetation has not been a major
factor in producing local differences among soils.
Relief
Relief, or topography, influences soil formation through
its effect on drainage, erosion, and vegetable cover. In
Holmes County the relief is nearly level to sloping uplands
that are dissected by many streams and drainageways.
Elevation ranges from about 30 feet to 312 feet above sea
level.


TABLE 9.-Classification of series by higher categories

Series Family Subgroup Order

Albany ----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic..--.--------------------. Grossarenic Paleudults -------------- Ultisols.
Angie ----------- Clayey, mixed, thermic .------------------------- Aquic Paleudults------------------- Ultisols.
Ardilla. ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---.------------------Fragiaquic Paleudults---------------- Ultisols.
Bibb ------------- Coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic --------------.. Typic Fluvaquents .--------------- Entisols.
Bonifay.---------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic- -----------.------_.---- Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults ----_ Ultisols.
Chipley------------ Thermic, coated..-----------------.. -------------. Aquic Quartzipsamments ----------- Entisols.
Dothan..--.- ---- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ----------_---__-----. Plinthic Paleudults----------------- Ultisols.
Faceville 1 -------- Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic------------..----...._-- Typic Paleudults-------------------- Ultisols.
Fuquay----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic .------------.---------. Arenic Plinthic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.
Gritney..--------- Clayey, mixed, thermic ..------------------.-----.. Typic Hapludults...-----------------Ultisols.
Kenansville-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic---------------------.... Arenic Hapludults------------------ Ultisols.
Lakeland.--------- Thermic, coated ----..--------------------------- Typic Quartzipsamments-----.----... Entisols.
Leefield------------ Loamy, siliceous, thermic------------- -----_-....- Arenic Plinthaquic Paleudults -------__Ultisols.
Lucy---....-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic----------------.-------- Arenic Paleudults ----------------- Ultisols.
Maxton ..------ Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic-.--------------------. Typic Hapludults .-.------- ------ I Ultisols.
Orangeburg--.---. Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic---.----------.-------- Typic Paleudults -----------.--..- Ultisols.
Pansey --------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic- --------------------_ Plinthic Paleaquults. ----------- Ultisols.
Pantego .-------.- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---------------------. Umbric Paleaquults ------------ -- Ultisols.
Phlmmer .--.--- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------ ----.. Grossarenic Paleaquults----- ------- Ultisols.
Stilson..--. ......-- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ..------------.--------- Arenic Plinthic Paleudults ----.----- Ultisols.
Tifton---- ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic .--- ------_--------- Plinthic Paleudults ------------- Ultisols.
Troup-------..---. Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------------ Grossarenic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.

1 The Faceville soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Faceville series because their clayey subsoil contains a higher percentage of
minerals, other than kaolinite, than is defined for the series. This difference does not alter the use and behavior of these soils.








SOIL SURVEY


Formation and Classification
of the Soils
This section discusses the major factors of soil forma-
tion and explains the current system of classification. Table
9 gives the classification of each soil series by higher cate-
gories according to the current system. The names and
classification of the soils in Holmes County were approved
in July 1971.
Factors of Soil Formation
Five major factors determine the formation of soils: (1)
the type of parent material, (2) the topography, or lay
of the land, (3) the plant and animal life in and on the
soil, (4) the climate under which the soil formed, and (5)
the length of time these factors have acted on the soil
material.
Parent material
Parent material is the unconsolidated mass from which
a soil forms. It determines the limits of the chemical and
mineralogical characteristics of soil. Most of the soils in
Holmes County formed in loamy, clayey, or sandy marine
deposits. The differences among these soils are determined
mainly by the amount and proportions of sand, silt, and
clay in the different soil layers and the chemical and miner-
alogical properties. Some soils formed in recent, water-
deposited materials along stream terraces and flood plains.
These soils generally have only weakly defined profiles.
Climate
The climate of Holmes County is uniform throughout
the county and accounts for few differences among the
soils. It is mild and humid with long, warm summers and
mild winters. Temperature and rainfall are the major
factors of climate that influence soil formation. In Holmes
County the average daily maximum temperature is about


79.7" F., and the average daily minimum is about 57.1 F.
The rainfall averages about 60 inches each year. For more
detailed information about the climate of Holmes County,
see the section on climate.
A climate such as that in Holmes County favors the
growth of plants and animals and rapid decomposition of
organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the soil.
The abundant rainfall leaches soluble bases, plant nutri-
ents, and colloidal materials downward leaving the soil
acid and low in natural fertility. Soil development con-
tinues the year round because the soils are seldom frozen.
Plant and animal life
Living organisms are important in soil formation. They
mix the soil, create pores and channels through which air
and water move, provide organic matter, bring plant
nutrients from the lower to the upper horizons, and bring
about changes in soil structure. Acids released by decompo-
sition of organic matter alter chemical reactions in the soil.
In Holmes County the original vegetation was forest.
Pine was dominant on the better drained soils, and hard-
woods on the wetter soils. On some soils there was a mixture
of pine and hardwoods.
Organic matter from the various plants decomposes
rather rapidly because the temperature, moisture content,
and micropopulation of the soil are favorable for its de-
composition. Most of the soils in this county contain a
fairly small amount of organic matter, and this is mainly
in the surface horizon. Vegetation has not been a major
factor in producing local differences among soils.
Relief
Relief, or topography, influences soil formation through
its effect on drainage, erosion, and vegetable cover. In
Holmes County the relief is nearly level to sloping uplands
that are dissected by many streams and drainageways.
Elevation ranges from about 30 feet to 312 feet above sea
level.


TABLE 9.-Classification of series by higher categories

Series Family Subgroup Order

Albany ----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic..--.--------------------. Grossarenic Paleudults -------------- Ultisols.
Angie ----------- Clayey, mixed, thermic .------------------------- Aquic Paleudults------------------- Ultisols.
Ardilla. ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---.------------------Fragiaquic Paleudults---------------- Ultisols.
Bibb ------------- Coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic --------------.. Typic Fluvaquents .--------------- Entisols.
Bonifay.---------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic- -----------.------_.---- Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults ----_ Ultisols.
Chipley------------ Thermic, coated..-----------------.. -------------. Aquic Quartzipsamments ----------- Entisols.
Dothan..--.- ---- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ----------_---__-----. Plinthic Paleudults----------------- Ultisols.
Faceville 1 -------- Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic------------..----...._-- Typic Paleudults-------------------- Ultisols.
Fuquay----------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic .------------.---------. Arenic Plinthic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.
Gritney..--------- Clayey, mixed, thermic ..------------------.-----.. Typic Hapludults...-----------------Ultisols.
Kenansville-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic---------------------.... Arenic Hapludults------------------ Ultisols.
Lakeland.--------- Thermic, coated ----..--------------------------- Typic Quartzipsamments-----.----... Entisols.
Leefield------------ Loamy, siliceous, thermic------------- -----_-....- Arenic Plinthaquic Paleudults -------__Ultisols.
Lucy---....-------- Loamy, siliceous, thermic----------------.-------- Arenic Paleudults ----------------- Ultisols.
Maxton ..------ Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic-.--------------------. Typic Hapludults .-.------- ------ I Ultisols.
Orangeburg--.---. Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic---.----------.-------- Typic Paleudults -----------.--..- Ultisols.
Pansey --------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic- --------------------_ Plinthic Paleaquults. ----------- Ultisols.
Pantego .-------.- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic ---------------------. Umbric Paleaquults ------------ -- Ultisols.
Phlmmer .--.--- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------ ----.. Grossarenic Paleaquults----- ------- Ultisols.
Stilson..--. ......-- Loamy, siliceous, thermic ..------------.--------- Arenic Plinthic Paleudults ----.----- Ultisols.
Tifton---- ------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic .--- ------_--------- Plinthic Paleudults ------------- Ultisols.
Troup-------..---. Loamy, siliceous, thermic ------------------------ Grossarenic Paleudults------------ Ultisols.

1 The Faceville soils in this county are taxadjuncts to the Faceville series because their clayey subsoil contains a higher percentage of
minerals, other than kaolinite, than is defined for the series. This difference does not alter the use and behavior of these soils.







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


Poorly drained or very poorly drained soils generally
are in low, nearly level areas and in depressions. Much
water is received as runoff from adjacent areas at higher
elevations. Soil formation is retarded by accumulated
water. The absence of air in these waterlogged soils results
in the reduction of iron in the soil, and soil colors are
dominantly gray.
Well-drained upland soils formed on nearly level to
sloping ridges and side slopes where excess water is readily
drained away. As the slope increases, runoff generally in-
creases in intensity, erosion accelerates, and less water is
absorbed to become available for plants. These soils are
well aerated and are dominantly yellow, brown, or red in
color.
In areas where relief and position are intermediate,
moderately well drained and somewhat poorly drained
soils are dominant. They have brown or yellow colors and
some gray mottles in the subsoil. The gray mottles are in-
dicators of a fluctuating water table.
Time
The length of time required for a soil to form depends
mainly on the combined influences of soil-forming factors.
If all other soil-forming factors are equal, the degree of
soil formation is in direct proportion to time. If soil-
forming factors have been active for a long time, soil for-
mation or horizonation is stronger than if the same factors
have been active for a relatively short time.
The oldest soils in Holmes County are those on nearly
level uplands and gently sloping ridges. These soils formed
in old marine deposits and have undergone considerable
weathering. They have well-defined horizons.
The next oldest soils in the county are those on the
terrace of the Choctawhatchee River that is no longer
flooded. These soils have fairly strong formation.
The youngest soils are the alluvial soils along streams.
They receive deposits of sediments from the surrounding
areas at higher elevations and are constantly accumulating
new soil materials. In most places these soils have only
weakly defined horizons because of the short period of time
soil-forming processes have been active.

Classification of the Soils
Soils are classified so that we can more easily remember
their significant characteristics. Classification enables us
to assemble knowledge about the soils, to see their relation-
ship to one another and to the whole environment, and to
develop principles that help us to understand their be-
havior and their response to manipulation. First through
classification, and then through use of soil maps, we can
apply our knowledge of soils to specific fields and other
tracts of land.
The narrow categories of classification, such as those
used in detailed soil surveys, allow us to organize and apply
knowledge about soils in managing farms, fields, and wood-
lands; in developing rural areas; in engineering work;
and in many other ways. Soils are placed in broad classes
to facilitate study and comparison in large areas such as
countries and continents.
The system of soil classification currently used was
adopted by the National Cooperative Soil Survey in 1965
(6, 9). Because this system is under continual study, read-


ers interested in developments of the current system should
refer to the latest literature available.
The current system of classification has six categories.
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the order,
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. In
this system the criteria used as a basis for classification are
soil properties that are observable and measurable. The
properties are chosen, however, so that the soils of similar
genesis, or mode of origin, are grouped. In table 9, the soil
series of Holmes County are placed in four categories of
the current system. Classes of the current system are briefly
defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER.-Ten soil orders are recognized. The properties
used to differentiate among soil orders are those that tend
to give broad climatic groupings of soils. The two excep-
tions to this are the Entisols and Histosols, which occur
in many different climates. Each order is named with a
word of three or four syllables ending in sol (Ent-i-sol).
SUBORDER.-Each order is divided into suborders that
are based primarily on those soil characteristics that seem
to produce classes with the greatest genetic similarity. The
suborders narrow the broad climatic range permitted in
the orders. The soil properties used to separate suborders
are mainly those that reflect either the presence or absence
of water-logging, or soil differences resulting from the
climate or vegetation. The names of suborders have two
syllables. The last syllable indicates the order. An example
is Aquent (Aqu, meaning water or wet, and ent, from
Entisols).
GREAT GRoUP.-Soil suborders are separated into great
groups on the basis of uniformity in the kinds and se-
quence of major soil horizons and features. The horizons
used to make separations are those in which clay, iron, or
humus have accumulated; those that have pans that inter-
fere with growth of roots, movement of water, or both;
and those that have a thick, dark-colored surface layer.
The features used are the self-mulching properties of clay,
soil temperature, major differences in chemical composi-
tion (mainly calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potas-
sium), dark-red and dark-brown colors associated with
basic rocks, and the like. The names of great groups have
three or four syllables and are made by adding a prefix to
the name of the suborder. An example is Fluvaquents
(Fluv, meaning deposited by flowing water, aqu for wet-
ness or water, and ent, from Entisols).
SUBGROUP.-Great groups are subdivided into sub-
groups, one representing the central typicc) segment of
the group, and others called intergrades that have proper-
ties of the group and also one or more properties of an-
other great group, suborder, or order. Subgroups may also
be made in those instances where soil properties intergrade
outside of the range of any other great group, suborder, or
order. The names of subgroups are derived by placing one
or more adjectives before the name of the great group. An
example is Typic Fluvaquents (a typical Fluvaquent).
FAMILY.-Soil families are separated within a subgroup
primarily on the basis of properties important to the
growth of plants or on the behavior of soils when used for
engineering. Among the properties considered are texture,
mineralogy, reaction, soil temperature, permeability,
thickness of horizons, and consistence. A family name con-
sists of a series of adjectives preceding the subgroup name.
The adjectives are the class names for texture, mineralogy,
and so on, that are used to differentiate families (see table







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


Poorly drained or very poorly drained soils generally
are in low, nearly level areas and in depressions. Much
water is received as runoff from adjacent areas at higher
elevations. Soil formation is retarded by accumulated
water. The absence of air in these waterlogged soils results
in the reduction of iron in the soil, and soil colors are
dominantly gray.
Well-drained upland soils formed on nearly level to
sloping ridges and side slopes where excess water is readily
drained away. As the slope increases, runoff generally in-
creases in intensity, erosion accelerates, and less water is
absorbed to become available for plants. These soils are
well aerated and are dominantly yellow, brown, or red in
color.
In areas where relief and position are intermediate,
moderately well drained and somewhat poorly drained
soils are dominant. They have brown or yellow colors and
some gray mottles in the subsoil. The gray mottles are in-
dicators of a fluctuating water table.
Time
The length of time required for a soil to form depends
mainly on the combined influences of soil-forming factors.
If all other soil-forming factors are equal, the degree of
soil formation is in direct proportion to time. If soil-
forming factors have been active for a long time, soil for-
mation or horizonation is stronger than if the same factors
have been active for a relatively short time.
The oldest soils in Holmes County are those on nearly
level uplands and gently sloping ridges. These soils formed
in old marine deposits and have undergone considerable
weathering. They have well-defined horizons.
The next oldest soils in the county are those on the
terrace of the Choctawhatchee River that is no longer
flooded. These soils have fairly strong formation.
The youngest soils are the alluvial soils along streams.
They receive deposits of sediments from the surrounding
areas at higher elevations and are constantly accumulating
new soil materials. In most places these soils have only
weakly defined horizons because of the short period of time
soil-forming processes have been active.

Classification of the Soils
Soils are classified so that we can more easily remember
their significant characteristics. Classification enables us
to assemble knowledge about the soils, to see their relation-
ship to one another and to the whole environment, and to
develop principles that help us to understand their be-
havior and their response to manipulation. First through
classification, and then through use of soil maps, we can
apply our knowledge of soils to specific fields and other
tracts of land.
The narrow categories of classification, such as those
used in detailed soil surveys, allow us to organize and apply
knowledge about soils in managing farms, fields, and wood-
lands; in developing rural areas; in engineering work;
and in many other ways. Soils are placed in broad classes
to facilitate study and comparison in large areas such as
countries and continents.
The system of soil classification currently used was
adopted by the National Cooperative Soil Survey in 1965
(6, 9). Because this system is under continual study, read-


ers interested in developments of the current system should
refer to the latest literature available.
The current system of classification has six categories.
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the order,
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. In
this system the criteria used as a basis for classification are
soil properties that are observable and measurable. The
properties are chosen, however, so that the soils of similar
genesis, or mode of origin, are grouped. In table 9, the soil
series of Holmes County are placed in four categories of
the current system. Classes of the current system are briefly
defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER.-Ten soil orders are recognized. The properties
used to differentiate among soil orders are those that tend
to give broad climatic groupings of soils. The two excep-
tions to this are the Entisols and Histosols, which occur
in many different climates. Each order is named with a
word of three or four syllables ending in sol (Ent-i-sol).
SUBORDER.-Each order is divided into suborders that
are based primarily on those soil characteristics that seem
to produce classes with the greatest genetic similarity. The
suborders narrow the broad climatic range permitted in
the orders. The soil properties used to separate suborders
are mainly those that reflect either the presence or absence
of water-logging, or soil differences resulting from the
climate or vegetation. The names of suborders have two
syllables. The last syllable indicates the order. An example
is Aquent (Aqu, meaning water or wet, and ent, from
Entisols).
GREAT GRoUP.-Soil suborders are separated into great
groups on the basis of uniformity in the kinds and se-
quence of major soil horizons and features. The horizons
used to make separations are those in which clay, iron, or
humus have accumulated; those that have pans that inter-
fere with growth of roots, movement of water, or both;
and those that have a thick, dark-colored surface layer.
The features used are the self-mulching properties of clay,
soil temperature, major differences in chemical composi-
tion (mainly calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potas-
sium), dark-red and dark-brown colors associated with
basic rocks, and the like. The names of great groups have
three or four syllables and are made by adding a prefix to
the name of the suborder. An example is Fluvaquents
(Fluv, meaning deposited by flowing water, aqu for wet-
ness or water, and ent, from Entisols).
SUBGROUP.-Great groups are subdivided into sub-
groups, one representing the central typicc) segment of
the group, and others called intergrades that have proper-
ties of the group and also one or more properties of an-
other great group, suborder, or order. Subgroups may also
be made in those instances where soil properties intergrade
outside of the range of any other great group, suborder, or
order. The names of subgroups are derived by placing one
or more adjectives before the name of the great group. An
example is Typic Fluvaquents (a typical Fluvaquent).
FAMILY.-Soil families are separated within a subgroup
primarily on the basis of properties important to the
growth of plants or on the behavior of soils when used for
engineering. Among the properties considered are texture,
mineralogy, reaction, soil temperature, permeability,
thickness of horizons, and consistence. A family name con-
sists of a series of adjectives preceding the subgroup name.
The adjectives are the class names for texture, mineralogy,
and so on, that are used to differentiate families (see table







SOIL SURVEY


9). An example is the coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic
family of Typic Fluvaquents.
SEMIEs.-The series has the narrowest range of charac-
teristics of the categories in the current system. It is de-
scribed fully in the section "How This Survey Was Made."
For a description of each soil series in Holmes County,
turn to the section "Descriptions of the Soils."


Physical and Chemical Analyses
of Soils
The physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of
four soil series (Dothan, Faceville, Fuquay, and Orange-
burg) from Holmes County are given in tables 10 and 11.
These analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil
Characterization Laboratory, Soil Science Department,
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Detailed descriptions of the soils, including their location,
are given in alphabetical order in the section "Descriptions
of the Soils."
'By F. G. CALHOUN, soil taxonomist, and R. E. CALDWELL, soil
chemist, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
Gainsville, Florida.


In addition to the data presented in tables 10 and 11,
the results of laboratory analyses for many other soils
identified in Holmes County (profiles sampled in other
counties) are on file in the Soil Science Department, Uni-
versity of Florida. Data of this nature are useful in classi-
fication, determination of potential productivity, and un-
derstanding the genesis of soils.

Laboratory Methods
The majority of the data were obtained by using meth-
ods outlined in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1
(10). Soil samples collected from carefully selected sites
were air-dried, rolled or crushed, and sieved through a
2-millimeter screen. Particle-size distribution data were
obtained by the hydrometer method (2) after dispersion
by shaking with sodium hexametaphosphate. The sand
fractions were obtained by dry-sieving through a nest of
sieves for at least 15 minutes and expressed on an oven-dry
weight basis. The percentage of silt was determined by
difference. The textures given in the section "Descriptions
af the Soils" are field estimates and do not necessarily agree
with the laboratory texture shown in the third column of
table 10.


TABLE 10.--Particle-size distribution


[Analyses by Soil Characterization Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Absence of

Particle-size distribution
Depth
Soil and sample number Horizon from USDA texture
surface Very Coarse Medium Fine sand
coarse sand sand sand (0.5- (0.25-
(2-1 mm) (1-0.5 mm) 0.25 mm) 0.1 mm)

Dothan loamy sand: Inches Percent Percent Percent Percent
S69-Fla30-2 (1-7). Ap 0-8 Loamy sand------------ 0.9 6.8 25.2 41.0
B1 8-13 Fine sandy loam------.. 1. 6 8. 9 20.3 32.0
B21t 13-30 Fine sandy loam------- 1. 3 7.9 20. 3 32. 8
B22t 30-40 Sandy clay loam ------ 1. 6 8. 0 21. 0 29. 4
B23t 40-52 Sandy clay loam-------- 2.3 8. 8 22. 4 25. 9
B24t 52-61 Sandy clay loam------. 1. 9 18 0 31. 9 9.9
B3t 61-67 Sandy clay loam------ 4. 1 18. 0 28. 8 10. 7
Faceville sandy loam:
S69-Fla30-3 (1-6). Ap 0-6 Sandy loam------------- 1. 3 5. 1 18. 6 33. 1
Bit 6-9 Sandy clay loam------ 1. 7 6.7 16.0 26. 4
B21t 9-21 Sandy clay------------ 2. 1 6. 3 13. 6 20. 0
B22t 21-43 Clay ----------. 1.4 6.2 10.3 12. 3
B23t 43-61 Clay------------------- 7 5. 3 11. 4 15. 5
B3t 61-65 Clay -------..- .9 4.7 9.0 11.4
Fuquay loamy sand:
S69-Fla30-6 (1-6). Ap 0-6 Loamy sand----------- 2.3 13. 2 29. 4 30. 1
A21 6-13 Loamy sand-------- 2. 5 12. 3 27. 7 30. 0
A22 13-33 Loamy sand--------. 2.9 12.5 25.0 29.6
Bit 33-45 Sandy loam --- ----- 3. 5 13. 5 25. 5 28.5
B21t 45-57 Sandy clay loam-------- 3. 7 13. 1 22. 3 25. 4
B22t 57-88 Sandy clay loam------ 3. 5 14. 4 21. 9 21. 1
Orangeburg loamy sand:
S69-Fla30-5 (1-6). Al 0-5 Loamy sand----------- 1. 3 4. 7 10. 4 40. 2
A2 5-10 Fine sandy loam------ 1.2 4.3 9.5 36.7
Bit 10-17 Fine sandy loam-------- 1. 2 4. 0 9. 5 35. 5
B21t 17-21 Sandy clay loam ------ 1. 3 4.3 8. 8 31. 7
B22t 21-54 Sandy clay loam------- 1. 7 4. 5 7.3 32. 9
B22t 54-108 Sandy clay loam ------- 1. 5 4.5 7.8 31. 6







SOIL SURVEY


9). An example is the coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic
family of Typic Fluvaquents.
SEMIEs.-The series has the narrowest range of charac-
teristics of the categories in the current system. It is de-
scribed fully in the section "How This Survey Was Made."
For a description of each soil series in Holmes County,
turn to the section "Descriptions of the Soils."


Physical and Chemical Analyses
of Soils
The physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of
four soil series (Dothan, Faceville, Fuquay, and Orange-
burg) from Holmes County are given in tables 10 and 11.
These analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil
Characterization Laboratory, Soil Science Department,
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Detailed descriptions of the soils, including their location,
are given in alphabetical order in the section "Descriptions
of the Soils."
'By F. G. CALHOUN, soil taxonomist, and R. E. CALDWELL, soil
chemist, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
Gainsville, Florida.


In addition to the data presented in tables 10 and 11,
the results of laboratory analyses for many other soils
identified in Holmes County (profiles sampled in other
counties) are on file in the Soil Science Department, Uni-
versity of Florida. Data of this nature are useful in classi-
fication, determination of potential productivity, and un-
derstanding the genesis of soils.

Laboratory Methods
The majority of the data were obtained by using meth-
ods outlined in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1
(10). Soil samples collected from carefully selected sites
were air-dried, rolled or crushed, and sieved through a
2-millimeter screen. Particle-size distribution data were
obtained by the hydrometer method (2) after dispersion
by shaking with sodium hexametaphosphate. The sand
fractions were obtained by dry-sieving through a nest of
sieves for at least 15 minutes and expressed on an oven-dry
weight basis. The percentage of silt was determined by
difference. The textures given in the section "Descriptions
af the Soils" are field estimates and do not necessarily agree
with the laboratory texture shown in the third column of
table 10.


TABLE 10.--Particle-size distribution


[Analyses by Soil Characterization Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Absence of

Particle-size distribution
Depth
Soil and sample number Horizon from USDA texture
surface Very Coarse Medium Fine sand
coarse sand sand sand (0.5- (0.25-
(2-1 mm) (1-0.5 mm) 0.25 mm) 0.1 mm)

Dothan loamy sand: Inches Percent Percent Percent Percent
S69-Fla30-2 (1-7). Ap 0-8 Loamy sand------------ 0.9 6.8 25.2 41.0
B1 8-13 Fine sandy loam------.. 1. 6 8. 9 20.3 32.0
B21t 13-30 Fine sandy loam------- 1. 3 7.9 20. 3 32. 8
B22t 30-40 Sandy clay loam ------ 1. 6 8. 0 21. 0 29. 4
B23t 40-52 Sandy clay loam-------- 2.3 8. 8 22. 4 25. 9
B24t 52-61 Sandy clay loam------. 1. 9 18 0 31. 9 9.9
B3t 61-67 Sandy clay loam------ 4. 1 18. 0 28. 8 10. 7
Faceville sandy loam:
S69-Fla30-3 (1-6). Ap 0-6 Sandy loam------------- 1. 3 5. 1 18. 6 33. 1
Bit 6-9 Sandy clay loam------ 1. 7 6.7 16.0 26. 4
B21t 9-21 Sandy clay------------ 2. 1 6. 3 13. 6 20. 0
B22t 21-43 Clay ----------. 1.4 6.2 10.3 12. 3
B23t 43-61 Clay------------------- 7 5. 3 11. 4 15. 5
B3t 61-65 Clay -------..- .9 4.7 9.0 11.4
Fuquay loamy sand:
S69-Fla30-6 (1-6). Ap 0-6 Loamy sand----------- 2.3 13. 2 29. 4 30. 1
A21 6-13 Loamy sand-------- 2. 5 12. 3 27. 7 30. 0
A22 13-33 Loamy sand--------. 2.9 12.5 25.0 29.6
Bit 33-45 Sandy loam --- ----- 3. 5 13. 5 25. 5 28.5
B21t 45-57 Sandy clay loam-------- 3. 7 13. 1 22. 3 25. 4
B22t 57-88 Sandy clay loam------ 3. 5 14. 4 21. 9 21. 1
Orangeburg loamy sand:
S69-Fla30-5 (1-6). Al 0-5 Loamy sand----------- 1. 3 4. 7 10. 4 40. 2
A2 5-10 Fine sandy loam------ 1.2 4.3 9.5 36.7
Bit 10-17 Fine sandy loam-------- 1. 2 4. 0 9. 5 35. 5
B21t 17-21 Sandy clay loam ------ 1. 3 4.3 8. 8 31. 7
B22t 21-54 Sandy clay loam------- 1. 7 4. 5 7.3 32. 9
B22t 54-108 Sandy clay loam ------- 1. 5 4.5 7.8 31. 6








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


Measurements of soil reaction (pH) were made by pro-
cedure 8C1 using a glass electrode (10). Extractable bases
were obtained by leaching a soil sample with amonium
acetate buffered at pH 7.0 as outlined in procedure 5B1
(10). These cations were then determined separately
through the use of a Beckman DU flame spectrophotom-
eter. Titratable acidity, which was determined instead of
extractable acidity, 6H2 (10), was measured by potentio-
metric titrations with 0.05 N barium hydroxide using a
Sargent Model D Recording Titrator after mixing 10
grams of soil in 50 millimeters of neutral 1 N KC1 (13).
Titratable acidity may be somewhat lower than extract-
able acidity, which is used in definitions of some soil tax-
onomic units. However, in data presented, this would not
alter the classification. Cation exchange capacity was cal-
culated by summing the exchangeable bases and titratable
acidity. Base saturation was derived by dividing the sum
of exchangeable bases by the cation exchange capacity and
then multiplying by 100. Exchangeable aluminum values
were obtained from inflection points on the previously
mentioned Ba(OH)2 potentiometric titration curves (13).
The content of organic matter was determined by a mod-
ification of the Walkley-Black wet-combustion method as
outlined in procedure 6Ala (10). Total nitrogen was ob-


trained by the semi-micro Kjeldahl method was shown in
procedure 6B2a (10). Corrosion potentials were deter-
mined using a Model 100 Corrosion Tester. Corrosion re-
sistance is in ohms and corrosion potential is in pipe life.
The smaller the potential, the less the corrosion and the
greater the expectancy of pipe life. Generally, values range
from 1 to 10 with pipe life ranging from 20 years to 2
years, respectively.
Bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and
water retention at 0.33 bar were measured on 3 x 5.4 centi-
meter cylindrical (undisturbed) soil cores. Water reten-
tion at 15 bars suction was determined on disturbed or
loose soil samples by procedure 4B2 (10). The water re-
tention difference, calculated by procedure 4C1 (10), is
the differences between the water retained at 0.33 bar and
that at 15 bar suction, multiplied by the bulk density.
Clay minerals were identified by X-ray diffraction and
differential thermal analysis. A General Electric XRD-
700 X-ray diffraction instrument was used. Radiation was
detected with a proportional counter. Diffractograms of
treated clays were obtained by procedures outlined under
code no. TA (10). Differential thermograms of soil clays
were made using the Deltatherm Model D200 as described
by Reneau and Carlisle (5).


and mineralogy of selected soils
data indicates determination was not made. The symbol < means less than; the symbol > means more than]

Particle-size distribution-Continued Mineral content of clay fraction (less than 0.002 mm)

Very fine Silt Clay Vermicu- Intergrade
sand (0.1- (0.05- (<0.002 lite Kaolinite Quartz Gibbsite Feldspar Goethite Mica vermicu-
0.05 mm) 0.002 mm) mm) lite-mica

Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
13.10 8. 4 4. 7
10. 2 8.8 18.0 >40 >40 <10 <10 -
10.17 9.6 17.4 >40 >40 <10 10-40
8.18 8.4 22.8 >40 >40 <10 10-40
6.8 7.4 26.4 -----.................. ------
2.1 3.9 32.4 10-40 >40 <10 <10
2.4 3.6 32.4 <10 >40 <10

13.7 14.4 13.8 >40 >40 <10 10-40 <10- --
12.12 8.8 28.2 >40 >40 <10 10-40 <10----- ---- --------
8.8 7.6 41.6 >40 >40 <10 <10 <10
5.18 9.2 53.8 <10 >40 <10 <10
6.15 9.4 50. 2----
5. O 12.2 56.8 <10 >40 <10 <10 ----------------- 10-40 10-40

8.13 10.8 5. 9 >40 >40 <10 10-40 ......... .....--..----------
8.!4 10.6 8.5 .....-.. .......... ...... .......... .----..- .------
9.11 8.3 10. 6------ ----- ---------------------------------- -------- --------
8.12 8.4 12.4 >40 10-40 <10 10-40 <10 .......--------------------
7.11 7.4 21.0---------- -------------------- ---------- ......---------- ------------------------
5. 1 7.0 27.0 10-40 >40 <10 10-40 ---------- <10 ----------.---------

24. 5 11.8 7.1 >40 >40 <10 10-40 ------.----------------------------
22.13 11. 9 14. 1 ......--------- .... .-...- ...----- ----------------------- ----------
23. 0 11.4 15.4 >40 >40 <10 10-40 ------------------------------------
21.17 10.0 22.2 ------.. ---- --- ------.-.--------- ---------- ---------- ----------
20.14 8. 0 25. 2 .------ ------- -- --------- ------------ -------------------
25.10 6.4 23.2 >40 >40 <10 10-40 --------- <10 --------------








SOIL SURVEY


General Nature of the County
Farming and timber products are the major enterprises
in Holmes County. In 1969, there were 737 commercial
farms and the average size of each farm was 177.6 acres.
The Conservation Needs Inventory of 1967 (3) showed
67,945 acres of cropland, 38,660 acres of pasture, and 190,-
800 acres of woodland. The remaining 4,698 acres consisted
of urban built-up land, small water areas, and Federal
noncropland.
The main crops are peanuts, corn, watermelons, small
grains, and pasture grasses. The woodland is mainly long-
leaf and slash pines on the uplands and cypress, birch,
tupelo, poplar, sweetgum, bay, and magnolia in the
swamps, on the bottom lands, and along the Choctawhat-
chee River. The timberland can be reforested rapidly be-
cause of the favorable climate, and three sawmills and
flour pulpmills operate in the county (4).
The livestock and produce markets near Bonifay are
serviced by trucks. The improvement of pastures and the
introduction of better breeding stock have bolstered the
livestock resources in recent years. The county now has
approximately 260 beef-cattle herds and 13 commercial
dairy farms (4).


Holmes County has a well-maintained system of Federal
and State highways that provide easy access to all major
cities in Florida, Alabama, and Georgia. U.S. Highway
90 passes through Bonifay and the southern part of the
county. Bonifay is served by several trucking companies
from nearby cities and a main line of the Louisville and
Nashville Railroad.

Physiography and Drainage
Holmes County lies within the Coastal Plain province, a
major physiographic division of the United States. The
Coastal Plain is a broad belt consisting mainly of un-
consolidated sand, silt, and clay that were deposited pri-
marily by sea water before the shoreline of the continental
United States reached its present position. These are ter-
races of Pliocene and Pleistocene Age. The rest of the
county is made up of soils from formations of Eocene,
Oligocene, and Miocene Age (12). These formations, from
oldest to youngest, are the Ocala Limestone, Mariana
Limestone, Suwannee Limestone, Tampa Limestone, and
Alum Bluff Formation. These formations dip to the south
at approximately 20 feet per mile.
Holmes County has a well-defined branching or den-
dritic drainage system. The large creeks are shallow and

TABLE 11.-Chemical analyses and certain


[Analyzed by Soil Characterization Laboratory, University of Florida,

Reaction Extractable bases
Depth
Soil name and Horizon from
sample number surface 0.01M 1N Magne- Potas-
H20 CaCl1 KC1 Calcium slum Sodium sium
1:1 1:2 1:1

Meg per 100 Meq per 100 Meq per 100 Meq per 100
Dothan loamy sand: Inches pH pH pH gm of soil gm of soil gm of soil gm of soil
S69-Fla30-2 (1-7). Ap 0-8 5.2 4.5 4.2 0.3 0.0 0. 0 0.1
B1 8-13 4.8 4.4 3.8 .2 .1 0 0
B21t 13-30 5.0 4.2 4.2 .2 0 0 .1
B22t 30-40 5.1 4.5 4.2 .8 .1 0 .1
B23t 40-52 5.2 4.3 4. 1 .3 .1 0 .1
B24t 52-61 5.1 4.1 4.0 .8 .1 .1 0
B3t 61-67 --------- 4.1 ----- 1 .1 .1 0
Faceville sandy loam:
S69-Fla30-3 (1-6). Ap 0-6 5.2 4.6 4.2 .9 .2 0 .2
Bit 6-9 4.8 4.4 3.8 .7 .2 0 .1
B21t 9-21 5. 0 4.8 4. 2 1. 0 .4 0 .1
B22t 21-43 5. 1 4. 7 4. 2 .8 .5 0 .1
B23t 43-61 5.2 4. 6 4. 1 .4 .4 0 .1
B3t 61-65 5.1 4.6 4.0 .4 .5 0 .2
Fuquay loamy sand:
S69-Fla30-6 (1-6). Ap 0-6 5.4 4.9 4.5 .7 .2 0 .1
A21 6-13 5.2 4.5 4.0 .3 .1 0 0
A22 13-33 5.0 4.3 3.9 .3 .1 0 0
Bit 33-45 5.0 4.4 3.9 .4 .1 .1 0
B21t 45-57 4.8 4.3 3.8 .3 .1 0 0
B22t 57-88 5.0 4.4 3. .1 .2 0 0
Orangeburg loamy sand:
S69-Fla30-5 (1-7). Al 0-5 5. 1 4.8 4.3 .6 .2 0 .1
A2 5-10 5.2 4.7 4.1 .2 .2 0 0
Bit 10-17 5.2 4.7 4.0 .2 .2 0 0
B21t 17-21 5.2 4.7 4.0 .6 .2 0 0
B22t 21-54 5.2 4.5 3.9 .5 .4 0 0
B23t 54-108 5.1 4.3 3. 8 .1 .1 0 0
B3t 108-150 5.1 4.3 3. 8 .1 .1 0 0








SOIL SURVEY


General Nature of the County
Farming and timber products are the major enterprises
in Holmes County. In 1969, there were 737 commercial
farms and the average size of each farm was 177.6 acres.
The Conservation Needs Inventory of 1967 (3) showed
67,945 acres of cropland, 38,660 acres of pasture, and 190,-
800 acres of woodland. The remaining 4,698 acres consisted
of urban built-up land, small water areas, and Federal
noncropland.
The main crops are peanuts, corn, watermelons, small
grains, and pasture grasses. The woodland is mainly long-
leaf and slash pines on the uplands and cypress, birch,
tupelo, poplar, sweetgum, bay, and magnolia in the
swamps, on the bottom lands, and along the Choctawhat-
chee River. The timberland can be reforested rapidly be-
cause of the favorable climate, and three sawmills and
flour pulpmills operate in the county (4).
The livestock and produce markets near Bonifay are
serviced by trucks. The improvement of pastures and the
introduction of better breeding stock have bolstered the
livestock resources in recent years. The county now has
approximately 260 beef-cattle herds and 13 commercial
dairy farms (4).


Holmes County has a well-maintained system of Federal
and State highways that provide easy access to all major
cities in Florida, Alabama, and Georgia. U.S. Highway
90 passes through Bonifay and the southern part of the
county. Bonifay is served by several trucking companies
from nearby cities and a main line of the Louisville and
Nashville Railroad.

Physiography and Drainage
Holmes County lies within the Coastal Plain province, a
major physiographic division of the United States. The
Coastal Plain is a broad belt consisting mainly of un-
consolidated sand, silt, and clay that were deposited pri-
marily by sea water before the shoreline of the continental
United States reached its present position. These are ter-
races of Pliocene and Pleistocene Age. The rest of the
county is made up of soils from formations of Eocene,
Oligocene, and Miocene Age (12). These formations, from
oldest to youngest, are the Ocala Limestone, Mariana
Limestone, Suwannee Limestone, Tampa Limestone, and
Alum Bluff Formation. These formations dip to the south
at approximately 20 feet per mile.
Holmes County has a well-defined branching or den-
dritic drainage system. The large creeks are shallow and

TABLE 11.-Chemical analyses and certain


[Analyzed by Soil Characterization Laboratory, University of Florida,

Reaction Extractable bases
Depth
Soil name and Horizon from
sample number surface 0.01M 1N Magne- Potas-
H20 CaCl1 KC1 Calcium slum Sodium sium
1:1 1:2 1:1

Meg per 100 Meq per 100 Meq per 100 Meq per 100
Dothan loamy sand: Inches pH pH pH gm of soil gm of soil gm of soil gm of soil
S69-Fla30-2 (1-7). Ap 0-8 5.2 4.5 4.2 0.3 0.0 0. 0 0.1
B1 8-13 4.8 4.4 3.8 .2 .1 0 0
B21t 13-30 5.0 4.2 4.2 .2 0 0 .1
B22t 30-40 5.1 4.5 4.2 .8 .1 0 .1
B23t 40-52 5.2 4.3 4. 1 .3 .1 0 .1
B24t 52-61 5.1 4.1 4.0 .8 .1 .1 0
B3t 61-67 --------- 4.1 ----- 1 .1 .1 0
Faceville sandy loam:
S69-Fla30-3 (1-6). Ap 0-6 5.2 4.6 4.2 .9 .2 0 .2
Bit 6-9 4.8 4.4 3.8 .7 .2 0 .1
B21t 9-21 5. 0 4.8 4. 2 1. 0 .4 0 .1
B22t 21-43 5. 1 4. 7 4. 2 .8 .5 0 .1
B23t 43-61 5.2 4. 6 4. 1 .4 .4 0 .1
B3t 61-65 5.1 4.6 4.0 .4 .5 0 .2
Fuquay loamy sand:
S69-Fla30-6 (1-6). Ap 0-6 5.4 4.9 4.5 .7 .2 0 .1
A21 6-13 5.2 4.5 4.0 .3 .1 0 0
A22 13-33 5.0 4.3 3.9 .3 .1 0 0
Bit 33-45 5.0 4.4 3.9 .4 .1 .1 0
B21t 45-57 4.8 4.3 3.8 .3 .1 0 0
B22t 57-88 5.0 4.4 3. .1 .2 0 0
Orangeburg loamy sand:
S69-Fla30-5 (1-7). Al 0-5 5. 1 4.8 4.3 .6 .2 0 .1
A2 5-10 5.2 4.7 4.1 .2 .2 0 0
Bit 10-17 5.2 4.7 4.0 .2 .2 0 0
B21t 17-21 5.2 4.7 4.0 .6 .2 0 0
B22t 21-54 5.2 4.5 3.9 .5 .4 0 0
B23t 54-108 5.1 4.3 3. 8 .1 .1 0 0
B3t 108-150 5.1 4.3 3. 8 .1 .1 0 0








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


meander slowly through wide bottom-land areas. The
smaller intermittent streams dissect the upland ridges and
receive drainage water from these areas at higher eleva-
tions. The smaller streams generally flow in a southerly
direction to the larger streams. The Choctawhatchee River
flows to the south through the center of the county; the
larger creeks empty into it.
The drainage system in a few areas of the southern part
of the county is not well defined. These areas consist of
large depressions that have poorly defined outlets and are
ponded for long periods.


Water Supply and Natural Resources

Holmes County has many perennial streams, flowing
springs, lakes, and ponds. Many of these are used for live-
stock, and they are well distributed throughout the county.
Many rural and farm homes have privately owned deep
wells. Some of these are of the artesian type and range
from 100 to several hundred feet deep. An adequate supply
of water for residential and industrial use is supplied by
the city of Bonifay from an artesian well that is 600 feet
deep (4). This well produces 250 gallons per minute.
Other natural resources of the county consist of deposits


of lime, sand, and clay. Preliminary analysis of lime shows
that it is suitable for agricultural and road building uses.
Numerous sand deposits are located and found to be suit-
able for construction materials and sand-blasting. A few
small clay deposits that occur in the county can be used in
structural clay products and pottery (7). These deposits
are of high-quality material but are of limited quantity.


Climate"

The climate of Holmes County is characterized by long,
warm summers and mild winters. Rainfall is abundant
and, on the average, is reasonably well distributed through-
out the year. Summarized climatic data, taken from the
records of stations immediately adjacent to the county, are
shown in table 12.
The Gulf of Mexico is largely responsible for the mild,
moist climate, although the proximity of the'great North
American land mass gives this part of the State a slightly
more continental climate and greater temperature extremes
than are encountered in peninsular Florida. Temperatures

'By JAMES T. BRADLEY, climatologist for Florida, National
Weather Service, U.S. Department of Commerce.


physical properties of selected soils
Gainesville, Florida. Absence of data indicates determination was not made]

Corrosion Water content at-
Titrat- Cation Exchange- Saturated Water
able exchange able Base Organic Total Bulk hydraulic retention
acidity capacity aluminum saturation matter nitrogen Resist- Poten- density conduc- difference
ance tial tivity 0.33 bar 15 bars


0.0
.6
.9
.6
1. 1
2.7
3.3


---------






0
.3
.5
.5
.7
.5

r---------
.2
.2
.4
.6
1.2
1.0


Percent


Percent
1.6
.8
.2
.1
.1
0
.1


1.3
.6
.3
.3
.1
.1


1.4
.4
.2
.1
.2
.1

1.8
.5
.3
.2
.1
0
.1


Percent
0.4
0
0
0
0
0
0


Ohms
1.6
1.5
1.8
1.6
.7
.9
1.4

2. 1
2.2
1.7
.5
.7
.8


2.0
1. 1
.9
1. 1
1.0
.6

2.6
1.0
.8
.5
.5
.4
.5


Ohms
0.2
.2
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1

.3
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1


.2
.2
.1
.2
.1
.1

.4
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1


Gm per cm
1.68
1.63
1.70
1.66
1.68






1. 63



1.48

1.53
1.58
1. 59


1. 60


1. 62

1. 59
1. 65


Cm per hr
19. 5
13. 2
6.3
3.9
1.5


----------
----------
2. 9
----------
----------

33. 3
----------
46. 5
20. 8


----------
4.7
3.----------3

- - -


In per in
0.04
.07
.09
.10
.08


Percent
4.5
9.6
11.6
14. 9
14. 9


-------- ---20.7 ----6.


.04
----------
.04
.06
.06
----------

.07
--- 08
.08


4.9

5.9
8.9
11.9


6.6


.09 14. 3


Per cent
2.0
5.2
6.1
9.1
10.0


2.4

3.2
4.8

7.9


2. 1


8.8
9.0


---9.9--- 5.-2








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


meander slowly through wide bottom-land areas. The
smaller intermittent streams dissect the upland ridges and
receive drainage water from these areas at higher eleva-
tions. The smaller streams generally flow in a southerly
direction to the larger streams. The Choctawhatchee River
flows to the south through the center of the county; the
larger creeks empty into it.
The drainage system in a few areas of the southern part
of the county is not well defined. These areas consist of
large depressions that have poorly defined outlets and are
ponded for long periods.


Water Supply and Natural Resources

Holmes County has many perennial streams, flowing
springs, lakes, and ponds. Many of these are used for live-
stock, and they are well distributed throughout the county.
Many rural and farm homes have privately owned deep
wells. Some of these are of the artesian type and range
from 100 to several hundred feet deep. An adequate supply
of water for residential and industrial use is supplied by
the city of Bonifay from an artesian well that is 600 feet
deep (4). This well produces 250 gallons per minute.
Other natural resources of the county consist of deposits


of lime, sand, and clay. Preliminary analysis of lime shows
that it is suitable for agricultural and road building uses.
Numerous sand deposits are located and found to be suit-
able for construction materials and sand-blasting. A few
small clay deposits that occur in the county can be used in
structural clay products and pottery (7). These deposits
are of high-quality material but are of limited quantity.


Climate"

The climate of Holmes County is characterized by long,
warm summers and mild winters. Rainfall is abundant
and, on the average, is reasonably well distributed through-
out the year. Summarized climatic data, taken from the
records of stations immediately adjacent to the county, are
shown in table 12.
The Gulf of Mexico is largely responsible for the mild,
moist climate, although the proximity of the'great North
American land mass gives this part of the State a slightly
more continental climate and greater temperature extremes
than are encountered in peninsular Florida. Temperatures

'By JAMES T. BRADLEY, climatologist for Florida, National
Weather Service, U.S. Department of Commerce.


physical properties of selected soils
Gainesville, Florida. Absence of data indicates determination was not made]

Corrosion Water content at-
Titrat- Cation Exchange- Saturated Water
able exchange able Base Organic Total Bulk hydraulic retention
acidity capacity aluminum saturation matter nitrogen Resist- Poten- density conduc- difference
ance tial tivity 0.33 bar 15 bars


0.0
.6
.9
.6
1. 1
2.7
3.3


---------






0
.3
.5
.5
.7
.5

r---------
.2
.2
.4
.6
1.2
1.0


Percent


Percent
1.6
.8
.2
.1
.1
0
.1


1.3
.6
.3
.3
.1
.1


1.4
.4
.2
.1
.2
.1

1.8
.5
.3
.2
.1
0
.1


Percent
0.4
0
0
0
0
0
0


Ohms
1.6
1.5
1.8
1.6
.7
.9
1.4

2. 1
2.2
1.7
.5
.7
.8


2.0
1. 1
.9
1. 1
1.0
.6

2.6
1.0
.8
.5
.5
.4
.5


Ohms
0.2
.2
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1

.3
.3
.1
.1
.1
.1


.2
.2
.1
.2
.1
.1

.4
.2
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1


Gm per cm
1.68
1.63
1.70
1.66
1.68






1. 63



1.48

1.53
1.58
1. 59


1. 60


1. 62

1. 59
1. 65


Cm per hr
19. 5
13. 2
6.3
3.9
1.5


----------
----------
2. 9
----------
----------

33. 3
----------
46. 5
20. 8


----------
4.7
3.----------3

- - -


In per in
0.04
.07
.09
.10
.08


Percent
4.5
9.6
11.6
14. 9
14. 9


-------- ---20.7 ----6.


.04
----------
.04
.06
.06
----------

.07
--- 08
.08


4.9

5.9
8.9
11.9


6.6


.09 14. 3


Per cent
2.0
5.2
6.1
9.1
10.0


2.4

3.2
4.8

7.9


2. 1


8.8
9.0


---9.9--- 5.-2








58 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 12.-Temperature and precipitation data
[Based on data recorded at De Funiak Springs, Marianna, and Caryville, Florida, during the 30-year period 1931 through 1960]

Temperature Precipitation

Two years in 10 will have One year in 10 will
at least 4 days with- have- Average Average
Month Average Average number of number of
daily daily Average days with days with
maximum minimum Maximum Minimum total rainfall of rainfall of
temperature temperature Less More 0.10 inch 0.50 inch
equal to equal to than- than- or more or more
or higher or lower
than- than-

OF OF OF OP Inches Inches Inches
January----------- 65.4 43.6 79 27 4. 15 1.2 7.0 6 3
February---------- 67.8 45.5 80 30 4.34 1.4 6.7 6 3
March ----------- .73.2 49.3 84 35 6.02 2.6 10.2 6 4
A ril ----------- 80.4 56.0 88 43 5.30 2.0 10.0 6 3
May. ----------- 87.3 63.2 93 52 4.54 1.4 8.2 6 3
June------------ 91.5 64.3 97 63 5.12 1.6 8.5 8 4
July -------------. 91.6 71.2 97 68 8.38 4.0 12.5 12 6
August------------ 91.5 71.1 95 67 7.08 3.3 11.0 10 5
September--------- 88.4 67.6 94 59 5.52 1.6 10.5 7 3
October------------ 81.7 57.4 89 43 2.20 0.2 4.5 3 1
November---------- 71.6 47.0 83 32 3.20 0.4 6.4 4 2
December-.------. 65.5 43.5 78 28 4.32 1.6 7.7 6 3
Year-------.--. 79.7 57. 1 ----------------------- 60.17 ---- --------- 80 40


during the summer months, June through mid-Septem-
ber, show little day-to-day variation and range from early
morning minimums near 700 F. to afternoon highs in the
low nineties. Although temperatures reach 900 or higher
with great regularity in summer (averaging about 90 days
per year), temperatures of 1000 or higher generally oc-
cur only once or twice a year.
Fall is a pleasant season of transition. Warm summery
weather persists until early in October. Extremes in tem-
peratures are rare. Temperatures during the winter
months, December through February, display considerable
day-to-day variation and range from the high forties on
the colder days to the low seventies on the warmer days.
Freezing temperatures occur on an average of 20 days
every winter, and every winter has some freezing temper-
atures.
Records indicate the average dates of the first 320 freeze
in fall and the last 320 freeze in spring are about Novem-
ber 20 and March 1, respectively. Temperatures of 200 or
lower can be expected at least once during the winter. ip
about 50 percent of the years. Temperatures as low as 100
are rare, and records indicate that temperatures this low
occur only about once in every 25 years. The lowest tem-
perature on record for this part of Florida is 00, and this
was observed at De Funiak Springs on February 13, 1899.
Cold spells in winter are generally 2 to 4 days in dura-
tion, and even on the colder days temperatures almost al-
ways rise above freezing. Spring is a period of warm tem-
peratures and relatively high rainfall. March is typically
windy; the average windspeed in March is 10 miles per
hour.
Precipitation varies greatly for any one month from
year to year. On the basis of average monthly totals, there
are two relatively high rainfall periods during the year.
One is around March and early April, and the other is from


about mid-June through mid-September. October and No-
vember commonly are the driest months. Most of the rain-
fall in summer comes from local afternoon or evening
showers and thundershowers. Thundershowers occur in
all seasons, averaging about 70 per year, but nearly 75 per-
cent of the thunderstorms occur in summer. During June,
July, and August, measurable rainfall can be expected on
about 50 percent of the days. Summer showers are occa-
sionally heavy and 2 or 3 inches of rain fall in an hour or
two. Daylong summer rains are rare, and when they do oc-
cur, they are almost always associated with tropical storms
or hurricanes.
The winter or early spring rains generally occur as a
result of large-scale weather developments and tend to be
of longer duration and more widespread. Excessive and
flood-producing rains occur ocassionally; 24-hour rainfall
totals in excess of 8 inches can be expected to occur in
about 10 percent of the years.
Nearly all the precipitation in Holmes County falls as
rain. Hail is observed at irregular intervals but is almost
always associated with spring and early summer thunder-
showers. Snowfall is a rarity, but measurable amounts
have been noted on several occasions during the past 50
years. It is extremely rare for snow to remain on the
ground for more than 24 hours.
For planting and harvesting reasons, it is important
to know as nearly as possible the latest date of damaging
low temperatures in spring and the earliest in fall. Table
13 gives probabilities of temperature of 320 and 280 for
various dates in spring and fall.
Damaging droughts occasionally occur, even though
rainfall distribution is e-enerallv good in Holmes County.
By definition, a drought occurs when the soil does not have
enough available water for plants to maintain normal
growth. Consequently, within a normal year there are








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


periods when rainfall does not supply as much water as
is needed by most crops. Therefore, supplementary irriga-
tion is needed in most years for maximum crop produc-
tion. These droughts may occur in any season, but usually
they are in October and November, or April, May, and
June. Table 14 shows drought probabilities calculated for
Quincy, Florida.
Tropical storms or hurricanes, which can generally occur
early in June through early in November, have affected


TABLE 13.-Probabilities of damaging low temperatures in
spring and fall
[Based on records from 1925 through 1961 at De Funiak Springs in
Walton Countyl

Dates for given probability
and temperature-
Probability
320 F. 280 F.

Spring:
1 year in 10 later than-. --- March 26 March 13
2 years in 10 later than------ March 17 March 3
3 years in 10 later than------ March 11 February 24
4 years in 10 later than-..... March 5 February 18
5 years in 10 later than-....- February 28 February 13
6 years in 10 later than-..-. February 23 February 8
7 years in 10 later than..---- February 18 January 31
8 years in 10 later than ..-.. February 11 January 23
9 years in 10 later than------ February 2 January 13
Fall:
1 year in 10 earlier than .--- November 4 November 17
2 years in 10 earlier than ---- November 10 November 21
3 years in 10 earlier than ---- November 14 November 25
4 years in 10 earlier than---- November 18 November 29
5 years in 10 earlier than --- November 21 December 3
6 years in 10 earlier than---- November 25 December 10
7 years in 10 earlier than---- November 29 December 20
8 years in 10 earlier than..-- December 3 December 30
9 years in 10 earlier than --- December 9 January 10


TABLE 14.-Probabilities of occurrence of
given length


dry periods of


[Data based on determinations made for the North Florida Experi-
ment Station at Quincy. A dry period is defined as a set of con-
secutive days, each of which has less than 0.20 inch of
precipitation. > means greater than; < means less than]

Probability of occurrence in-
Duration of dry period

Fall Spring Entire
year

Pet Pt Pt
10 to 14 days--------- >99 >99 >99
15 to 19 days --------------. 97 90 >99
20 to 24 days -------------84 64 96
25 to 29 days --------------- 65 39 84
30 to 34 days---------45 21 63
35 to 39 days -------------- 29 10 43
40 to 44 days!--------------- 18 5 27
45 to 49 days --------------- 10 2 16
50 to 54 days --------------- 6 1 9
55 to 59 days---------------- 3 <1 5
60 days or more ------------- 2 <1 3


this area in about 33 percent of the last 50 years. Since
these storms rapidly diminish in intensity as they move
inland from the Gulf of Mexico, winds of hurricane force
(75 miles per hour or greater) are rarely observed in
Holmes County. The major effects of these storms are pro-
longed and widespread rainfall and persistent surface
winds. Winds seldom exceed 60 miles per hour in the
county during the passage of one of these storms. Tor-
nadoes have been reported in this part of Florida, but the
frequency and the areas affected by these storms are very
small compared to the storms observed in the Great Plains
and Middle West of the United States.
Prevailing winds in this area are generally southerly in
summer and northerly in winter. Windspeed by day usu-
ally ranges between 8 and 15 miles per hour but nearly
always drops below 8 miles per hour at night.


Literature Cited
(1) AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS.
1961. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS AND
METHODS OF SAMPLING AND TESTING. Ed. 8, 2 v.,
illus.
(2) BouYoucos, G. J.
1962. HYDROMETER METHOD IMPROVED FOR MAKING PARTICLE
SIZE ANALYSES OF SOILS. Agronomy, Jour. 54: 464-
465.
(3) FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER
SERVICES.
1967. CONSERVATION NEEDS. 200 pp.
(4) HOLMES COUNTY DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION.
1967. OVERALL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR HOLMES
COUNTY. 92 pp.
(5) RENEAU, R. B., and CARLISLE, V. W.
1971. CLAY MINERAL DIFFERENTIAL THERMOGRAMS AS AFFECTED
BY FIRED ASBESTOS. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.,
Proc. 30: 315-320.
(6) SIMONSoN, RoY W.
1962. SOIL CLASSIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Science
139: 1027-1034.
(7) SWEENY, J. W., and SHIRLEY, L. E.
1965. CLAY, SAND, AND GRAVEL RESOURCES, HOLMES COUNTY,
FLORIDA. U.S. Dept. Int., Bur. Mines. 96 pp.
(8) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
1951. SOIL SURVEY MANUAL. U.S. Dept. Agr. Handbook 18,
503 pp., illus.
(9)
1960. SOIL CLASSIFICATION, A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM, 7TH
APPROXIMATION. 265 pp., illus. Supplements issued
in March 1967 and in September 1968.
(10) -
1972. SOIL SURVEY LABORATORY METHODS AND PROCEDURES FOR
COLLECTING SOIL SAMPLES. Soil Cons. Serv., Soil
Surv. Inv. Rept. No. 1 (Rev.), 50 pp., illus.
(11) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE.
1968. UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ROADS, AIR-
FIELDS, EMBANKMENTS AND FOUNDATIONS. MIL-
STD-619B, 3 pp., illus.
(12) VERNON, R. O.
1942. GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, FLOR-
IDA. State of Fla. Dept. Cons. Geol. Bul. 21. pp.
(13) ZELAZNY, L. W., and FISKELL, J. G. A.
1972. ACIDIC PROPERTIES OF SOME FLORIDA SOILS II. EXCHANGE-
ABLE AND TITRATABLE ACIDITY. Soil Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla., Proc. 31: In press.


Glossary
Alluvium. Soil material, such as sand, silt, or clay, that has been
deposited on land by streams.
Available water capacity (also termed available moisture capacity).
The capacity of soils to hold water available for use by most








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


periods when rainfall does not supply as much water as
is needed by most crops. Therefore, supplementary irriga-
tion is needed in most years for maximum crop produc-
tion. These droughts may occur in any season, but usually
they are in October and November, or April, May, and
June. Table 14 shows drought probabilities calculated for
Quincy, Florida.
Tropical storms or hurricanes, which can generally occur
early in June through early in November, have affected


TABLE 13.-Probabilities of damaging low temperatures in
spring and fall
[Based on records from 1925 through 1961 at De Funiak Springs in
Walton Countyl

Dates for given probability
and temperature-
Probability
320 F. 280 F.

Spring:
1 year in 10 later than-. --- March 26 March 13
2 years in 10 later than------ March 17 March 3
3 years in 10 later than------ March 11 February 24
4 years in 10 later than-..... March 5 February 18
5 years in 10 later than-....- February 28 February 13
6 years in 10 later than-..-. February 23 February 8
7 years in 10 later than..---- February 18 January 31
8 years in 10 later than ..-.. February 11 January 23
9 years in 10 later than------ February 2 January 13
Fall:
1 year in 10 earlier than .--- November 4 November 17
2 years in 10 earlier than ---- November 10 November 21
3 years in 10 earlier than ---- November 14 November 25
4 years in 10 earlier than---- November 18 November 29
5 years in 10 earlier than --- November 21 December 3
6 years in 10 earlier than---- November 25 December 10
7 years in 10 earlier than---- November 29 December 20
8 years in 10 earlier than..-- December 3 December 30
9 years in 10 earlier than --- December 9 January 10


TABLE 14.-Probabilities of occurrence of
given length


dry periods of


[Data based on determinations made for the North Florida Experi-
ment Station at Quincy. A dry period is defined as a set of con-
secutive days, each of which has less than 0.20 inch of
precipitation. > means greater than; < means less than]

Probability of occurrence in-
Duration of dry period

Fall Spring Entire
year

Pet Pt Pt
10 to 14 days--------- >99 >99 >99
15 to 19 days --------------. 97 90 >99
20 to 24 days -------------84 64 96
25 to 29 days --------------- 65 39 84
30 to 34 days---------45 21 63
35 to 39 days -------------- 29 10 43
40 to 44 days!--------------- 18 5 27
45 to 49 days --------------- 10 2 16
50 to 54 days --------------- 6 1 9
55 to 59 days---------------- 3 <1 5
60 days or more ------------- 2 <1 3


this area in about 33 percent of the last 50 years. Since
these storms rapidly diminish in intensity as they move
inland from the Gulf of Mexico, winds of hurricane force
(75 miles per hour or greater) are rarely observed in
Holmes County. The major effects of these storms are pro-
longed and widespread rainfall and persistent surface
winds. Winds seldom exceed 60 miles per hour in the
county during the passage of one of these storms. Tor-
nadoes have been reported in this part of Florida, but the
frequency and the areas affected by these storms are very
small compared to the storms observed in the Great Plains
and Middle West of the United States.
Prevailing winds in this area are generally southerly in
summer and northerly in winter. Windspeed by day usu-
ally ranges between 8 and 15 miles per hour but nearly
always drops below 8 miles per hour at night.


Literature Cited
(1) AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS.
1961. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS AND
METHODS OF SAMPLING AND TESTING. Ed. 8, 2 v.,
illus.
(2) BouYoucos, G. J.
1962. HYDROMETER METHOD IMPROVED FOR MAKING PARTICLE
SIZE ANALYSES OF SOILS. Agronomy, Jour. 54: 464-
465.
(3) FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER
SERVICES.
1967. CONSERVATION NEEDS. 200 pp.
(4) HOLMES COUNTY DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION.
1967. OVERALL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR HOLMES
COUNTY. 92 pp.
(5) RENEAU, R. B., and CARLISLE, V. W.
1971. CLAY MINERAL DIFFERENTIAL THERMOGRAMS AS AFFECTED
BY FIRED ASBESTOS. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla.,
Proc. 30: 315-320.
(6) SIMONSoN, RoY W.
1962. SOIL CLASSIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Science
139: 1027-1034.
(7) SWEENY, J. W., and SHIRLEY, L. E.
1965. CLAY, SAND, AND GRAVEL RESOURCES, HOLMES COUNTY,
FLORIDA. U.S. Dept. Int., Bur. Mines. 96 pp.
(8) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
1951. SOIL SURVEY MANUAL. U.S. Dept. Agr. Handbook 18,
503 pp., illus.
(9)
1960. SOIL CLASSIFICATION, A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM, 7TH
APPROXIMATION. 265 pp., illus. Supplements issued
in March 1967 and in September 1968.
(10) -
1972. SOIL SURVEY LABORATORY METHODS AND PROCEDURES FOR
COLLECTING SOIL SAMPLES. Soil Cons. Serv., Soil
Surv. Inv. Rept. No. 1 (Rev.), 50 pp., illus.
(11) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE.
1968. UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ROADS, AIR-
FIELDS, EMBANKMENTS AND FOUNDATIONS. MIL-
STD-619B, 3 pp., illus.
(12) VERNON, R. O.
1942. GEOLOGY OF HOLMES AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES, FLOR-
IDA. State of Fla. Dept. Cons. Geol. Bul. 21. pp.
(13) ZELAZNY, L. W., and FISKELL, J. G. A.
1972. ACIDIC PROPERTIES OF SOME FLORIDA SOILS II. EXCHANGE-
ABLE AND TITRATABLE ACIDITY. Soil Crop Sci. Soc.
Fla., Proc. 31: In press.


Glossary
Alluvium. Soil material, such as sand, silt, or clay, that has been
deposited on land by streams.
Available water capacity (also termed available moisture capacity).
The capacity of soils to hold water available for use by most








SOIL SURVEY


plants. It is commonly defined as the difference between the
amount of soil water at field capacity and the amount at wilting
point. It is commonly expressed as inches of water per inch of
soil.
Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than 0.002
millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural class, soil material
that is 40 percent or more clay, less than 45 percent sand, and
less than 40 percent silt.
Clay film. A thin coating of clay on the surface of a soil aggregate.
Synonyms: clay coating.
Concretions. Grains, pellets, or nodules of various sizes, shapes,
and colors consisting of concentrations of compounds, or of
soil grains cemented together. The composition of some con-
cretions is unlike that of the surrounding soil. Calcium car-
bonate and ironstone are examples of material commonly found
in concretions.
Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease with which a
lump can be crushed by the fingers. Terms commonly used to
describe consistence are-
Loose.-Noncoherent when dry or moist; does not hold together
in a mass.
Priable.-When moist, crushes easily under gentle pressure be-
tween thumb and forefinger and can be pressed together into
a lump.
Firm.-When moist, crushes under moderate pressure between
thumb and forefinger, but resistance is distinctly noticeable.
Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate pressure but
can be pressed into a lump; will form a "wire" when rolled
between thumb and forefinger.
Sticky.-When wet, adheres to other material and tends to
stretch somewhat and pull apart rather than to pull free
from other material.
Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to pressure;. can be
broken with difficulty between thumb and forefinger.
Soft.-When dry, breaks into powder or individual grains under
very slight pressure.
Cemented.-Hard and brittle; little affected by moistening.
Drainage class (natural). Drainage that existed during the devel-
opment of the soil, as opposed to altered drainage, which is
commonly the result of artificial drainage or irrigation but may
be caused by the sudden deepening of channels or the block-
ing of drainage outlets. Seven different classes of natural soil
drainage are recognized.
Excessively drained soils are commonly very porous and
rapidly permeable and have a low water-holding capacity.
Somewhat excessively drained soils are also very permeable and
and are free from mottling throughout their profile.
Well-drained soils are nearly free from mottling and are com-
monly of intermediate texture.
Moderately well drained soils commonly have a slowly permeable
layer in or immediately beneath the solum. They have uni-
form color in the A horizon and upper part of the B horizon
and have mottling in the lower part of the B horizon and
in the C horizon.
Somewhat poorly drained soils are wet for significant periods
but not all the time, and some soils commonly have mottling
at a depth below 6 to 16 inches.
Poorly drained soils are wet for long periods; they are light gray
and generally mottled from the surface downward, but some
have few or no mottles.
Very poorly drained soils are wet nearly all the time. They
have a dark-gray or black surface layer and are gray or
light gray, with or without mottling, in the deeper parts of
the profile.
Diversion, or diversion terrace. A ridge of earth, generally a ter-
race, that is built to divert runoff from its natural course and
thus to protect areas downslope from the effects of such runoff.
Fertility, soil. The quality of a soil that enables it to provide
compounds, in adequate amounts and in proper balance, for the
growth of specified plants, when other growth factors such as
light, moisture, temperature, and the physical condition of
the soil are favorable.
Field moisture capacity. The moisture content of a soil. expressed
as a percentage of the oven-dry weight, after the gravitational,
or free, water has been allowed to drain away: the field mois-
ture content 2 or 3 days after a soaking rain; also called
normal field capacity, normal moisture capacity, or capillary
capacity.


Flood plain. Nearly level land, consisting of stream sediments, that
borders a stream and is subject to flooding unless protected
artificially.
Fragipan. A loamy, brittle, subsurface horizon that is very low in
organic-matter content and clay but is rich in silt or very
fine sand. The layer is seemingly cemented. When dry, it is
hard or very hard and has a high bulk density in comparison
with the horizon or horizons above it. When moist, the fragi-
pan tends to rupture suddenly if pressure is applied, rather
than to deform slowly. The layer is generally mottled, is slowly
or very slowly permeable to water, and has few or many
bleached fracture planes that form polygons. Fragipans are a
few inches to several feet thick; they generally occur below the
B horizon, 15 to 40 inches below the surface.
Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the surface,
that has distinct characteristics produced by soil-forming
processes. These are the major horizons:
0 horizon.-The layer of organic matter on the surface of a min-
eral soil. This layer consists of decaying plant residues.
A horizon.-The mineral horizon at the surface or just below
an O horizon. This horizon is the one in which living orga-
nisms are most active and therefore is marked by the accumu-
lation of humus. The horizon may have lost one or more of
soluble salts, clay, and sesquioxides (iron and aluminum
oxides).
B horizon.-The mineral horizon below an A horizon. The B
horizon is in part a layer of change from the overlying
A to the underlying C horizon. The B horizon also has
distinctive characteristics caused (1) by accumulation of
clay, sesquioxides, humus, or some combination of these; (2)
by prismatic or blocky structure; (3) by redder or stronger
colors than the A horizon; or (4) by some combination
of these. Combined A and B horizons are usually called the
solum, or true soil. If a soil lacks a B horizon, the A hori-
zon alone is the solum.
C horizon.-The weathered rock material immediately beneath
the solum. In most soils this material is presumed to be like
that from which the overlying horizons were formed. If the
material is known to be different from that in the solum,
a Roman numeral precedes the letter C.
R layer.-Consolidated rock beneath the soil. The rock usually
underlies a C horizon but may be immediately beneath an A
or B horizon.
Irrigation. Application of water to soils to assist in production of
crops. Methods of irrigation are-
Border.-Water is applied at the upper end of a strip in which
the lateral flow of water is controlled by small earth ridges
called border dikes, or borders.
Basin.-Water is applied rapidly to relatively level plots sur-
rounded by levees or dikes.
Controlled flooding.-Water is released at intervals from closely
spaced field ditches and distributed uniformly over the field.
Corrugation.-Water is applied to small, closely spaced furrows
or ditches in fields of close-growing crops, or in orchards,
to confine the flow of water to one direction.
Furrow.-Water is applied in small ditches made by cultivation
implements used for tree and row crops.
Sprinkler.-Water is sprayed over the soil surface through pipes
or nozzles from a pressure system.
Subirrigation.-Water is applied in open ditches or tile lines
until the water table is raised enough to wet the soil.
Wild flooding.-Irrigation water, released at high points, flows
onto the field without controlled distribution.
Leaching. The removal of soluble materials from soils or other
material by percolating water.
Mottling, soil. Irregularly marked with spots of different colors
that vary in number and size. Mottling in soils usually indi-
cates poor aeration and lack of drainage. Descriptive terms
are as follows: Abundance-few. common, and many; size-
fine, medium, and coarse; and contrast-faint, distinct, and
prominent. The size measurements are these: fine, less than 5
millimeters (about 0.2 inch) in diameter along the greatest
dimension: medium, ranging from 5 millimeters to 15 mil-
limeters (about 0.2 to 0.6 inch) in diameter along the greatest
dimension: and coarse, more than 15 millimeters (about 0.6
inch) in diameter along the greatest dimension.
Munsell notation. A system for designating color by degrees of the
three simple variables-hue, value, and chroma. For example,








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


a notation of 10YR 6/4 is a color with a hue of 10YR, a value
of 6, and a chroma of 4.
Organic matter. A general term for plant and animal material, in
or on the soil, in all stages of decomposition. Readily decom-
posed organic matter is often distinguished from the more
stable forms that are past the stage of rapid decomposition.
Parent material. Disintegrated and partly weathered rock from
which soil has formed.
Permeability. The quality that enables the soil to transmit water
or air. Terms used to describe permeability are as follows:
very slow, slow, moderately slow, moderate, moderately rapid,
rapid, and very rapid.
Plinthite. The sesquioxide-rich, humus-poor, highly weathered mix-
ture of clay with quartz and other dilutents that commonly
shows as red mottles, usually in platy, polygonal, or reticulate
patterns. Plinthite changes irreversibly to hardpan or to ir-
regular aggregates upon repeated wetting and drying, or it is
hardened relicts of the soft, red mottles. It is a form of
laterite.
Plowpan. A compacted layer formed in the soil immediately below
the plowed layer.
Poorly graded. A soil material consisting mainly of particles of
nearly the same size. Because there is little difference in size
of the particles in poorly graded soil material, density can be
increased only slightly by compaction.
Profile, soil. A vertical section of the soil through all its horizons
and extending into the parent material.
Reaction, soil. The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a soil, ex-
pressed in pH values. A soil that tests to pH 7.0 is precisely
neutral in reaction because it is neither acid nor alkaline. In
words, the degrees of acidity or alkalinity are expressed thus:
pH! pH
Extremely acid--. Below 4.5 Neutral ------- 6.6 to 7.3
Very strongly acid- 4.5 to 5.0 Mildly alkaline ---_ 7.4 to 7.8
Strongly acid--- 5.1 to 5.5 Moderately alkaline- 7.9 to 8.4
Medium acid---- 5.6 to 6.0 Strongly alkaline--. 8.5 to 9.0
Slightly acid..-- 6.1 to 6.5 Very strongly alka-
line ----------- 9.1 and
higher
Sand. As a soil separate, individual rock or mineral fragments that
range from 0.05 to 2.0 millimeters in diameter. Most sand
grains consist of quartz, but the sand may be of any mineral
composition. As a textural class soil that is 85 percent or more
sand and not more than 10 percent clay.
Silt. As a soil separate, individual mineral particles that range in
diameter from the upper limit of clay (0.002 millimeter) to
the lower limit of very fine sand (0.05 millimeter). As a
textural |class, soil that is 80 percent or more silt and less
than 12 percent clay.
Soil. A natural, three-dimensional body on the earth's surface that
supports plants and that has properties resulting from the
integrated effect of climate and living matter acting on earthy
parent material, as conditioned by relief over periods of time.
Soil separates. Mineral particles, less than 2 millimeters in equiv-
alent diameter and ranging between specified size limits. The
names and sizes of separates recognized in the United States
are as follows: Very coarse sand (2.0 to 1.0 millimeter) ; coarse
sand (1.0 to 0.5 millimeter) ; medium sand (0.5 to 0.25 milli-
meter); fine sand (0.25 to 0.10 millimeter); very fine sand


(0.10 to 0.05 millimeter) ; silt (0.05 to 0.002 millimeter) ; and
clay (less than 0.002 millimeter). The separates recognized by
the International Society of Soil Science are as follows: I (2.0
to 0.2 millimeter); II (0.2 to 0.02 millimeter); III (0.02 to
0.002 millimeter) ; and IV (less than 0.0002 millimeter).
Structure, soil. The arrangement of primary soil particles into
compound particles or clusters that are separated from ad-
joining aggregates and have properties unlike those of an
equal mass of unaggregated primary soil particles. The prin-
cipal forms of soil structure are-platy (laminated), prismatic
(vertical axis of aggregates longer than horizontal), columnar
(prisms with rounded tops), blocky (angular or subangular),
and granular. Structureless soils are either single grain (each
grain by itself, as in dune sand) or massive (the particles
adhering together without any regular cleavage, as in many
claypans and hardpans).
Subsoil. Technically, the B horizon; roughly, the part of the solum
below plow depth.
Surface soil. The soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or its equivalent
in uncultivated soil, about 5 to 8 inches in thickness. The
plowed layer.
Terrace. An embankment, or ridge, constructed across sloping soils
on the contour or at a slight angle to the contour. The terrace
intercepts surface runoff so that it may soak into the soil or
flow slowly to a prepared outlet without harm. Terraces in
fields are generally built so they can be farmed. Terraces in-
tended mainly for drainage have a deep channel that is main-
tained in permanent sod.
Terrace (geological). An old alluvial plain, ordinarily flat or un-
dulating, bordering a river, lake, or the sea. Stream terraces
are frequently called second bottoms, as contrasted to flood
plains, and are seldom subject to overthrow. Marine terraces
were deposited by the sea and are generally wide.
Texture, soil. The relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay par-
ticles in a mass of soil. The basic textural classes, in order of
increasing proportion of fine particles, are sand, loamy sand,
sandy loam, loam, silt loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay loam,
silty clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and clay. The sand, loamy
sand, and sandy loam classes may be further divided by speci-
fying "coarse," "fine," or "very fine."
Tilth, soil. The condition of the soil in relation to the growth of
plants, especially soil structure. Good tilth refers to the friable
state and is associated with high noncapillary porosity and
stable, granular structure. A soil in poor tilth is nonfriable,
hard, nonaggregated, and difficult to till.
Topsoil. A presumed fertile soil or soil material, or one that re-
sponds to fertilization, ordinarily rich in organic matter, used
to topdress roadbanks, lawns, and gardens.
Water table. The highest part of the soil or underlying rock ma-
terial that is wholly saturated with water. In some places an
upper, or perched, water table may be separated from a lower
one by a dry zone.
Well-graded soil. A soil or soil material consisting of particles that
are well distributed over a wide range in size or diameter. Such
a soil normally can be easily increased in density and bearing
properties by compaction. Contrasts with poorly graded soil.
Wilting point (or permanent wilting point). The moisture content
of soil, on an oven-dry basis, at which plants (specifically sun-
flower) wilt so much that they do not recover when placed in
a dark, humid atmosphere.


SU. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1975 0 534-338








GUIDE TO MAPPING UNITS


For a full description of a mapping unit, read both the description of the mapping unit and that of the soil
series to which the mapping unit belongs. A discussion of the capability classification begins on page 26.
Other information is given in tables as follows:



Acreage and extent, table 1, page 5. Engineering uses of the soils, tables
Predicted yields, table 2, page 28. 5, 6, and 7, pages 34 through 45.
Woodland groups, table 3, page 30. Recreational development, table 8,
Suitability for wildlife habitat, table 4, page 34. page 46.



Capability Woodland
Described unit group
Map fon
symbol Mapping unit page Symbol Symbol

Ab Albany sand----------------------------------------------------- 6 IIIe-4 3w2
An Angie fine sandy loam------------------------------------------- 6 IIIe-3 2w8
Ar Ardilla loamy sand---------------------------------------------- 7 IIw-3 2w2
Bb Bibb association------------------------------------------------ 8 Vw-l 2w9
BoC Bonifay sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes----------------------------- 9 IIIs-1 3s2
Ch Chipley sand---------------------------------------------------- 9 IIIs-2 2w2
DoA Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes------------------------ 10 IIs-1 2ol
DoB Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------ 11 IIe-1 2ol
DoC Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes------------------------ 11 IIIe-1 2ol
Dt Dothan complex-------------------------------------------------- 11 VIe-1 3s2
FcB Faceville sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes--------------------- 13 IIe-2 301
FcC Faceville sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes--------------------- 13 IIIe-2 301
FuC Fuquay loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes------------------------ 14 IIs-2 3s2
GrB Gritney loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes----------------------- 15 IIIe-3 3o1
GrC Gritney loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes----------------------- 15 IVe-1 3o1
Ke Kenansville fine sand------------------------------------------- 16 IIs-2 3s2
Ld Lakeland sand--------------------------------------------------- 17 IVs-1 3s2
Le Leefield loamy sand--------------------------------------------- 18 IIw-2 3w2
LuC Lucy loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes-------------------------- 18 IIs-2 3s2
Md Maxton loamy fine sand--------------------------------------- 19 IIe-1 207
OrB Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes-------------------- 20 IIe-1 201
OrC Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------------- 20 IIIe-1 2ol
Pa Pansey loamy sand----------------------------------------------- 21 IVw-2 3w9
Pg Pantego complex------------------------------------------------- 21 Vw-2 2w9
Pm Plummer fine sand----------------------------------------------- 22 IVw-1 2w3
StA Stilson loamy sand, 1 to 3 percent slopes----------------------- 23 IIw-1 3s2
TfB Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes------------------------ 24 IIe-1 3ol
TfC Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes------------------------ 24 IIIe-1 3ol
TrC Troup sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes------------------------------- 25 IIIs-1 3s2


SU.S. Government Printing Office: 1975--577-154/98

















ALABAMA 85-30'


GENEVAI -y.OUNTY --





351 sTI-T.-7 NT. 6 N.
12A 185 t"17 AA171













3631material over a loamy subsoil; on ridges and side slopes



Fuquay-Dothan association: Nearly level to sloping, well-drained soils
that have thick or thin layers of sandy material over a loamy subsoil; on
ridges and side slopes
Troup-Fuquay association: Nearly level to sloping, well-drained soils
that have thick to extremely thick layers of sandy material over a loamy

3050' ... T. 5 N. Pantego-Stilson association: Nearly level and gently sloping, very poor-
ly drained and moderately well drained soils that have moderately thick
or thick layers of sandy material over a loamy subsoil; in depressed
11 -







Leni Wareas andorl on ridges
throughout on floorydpain ed s oils that have ti laeso sandy

Fuquay-DothBibassociation: Nearly level to sloping, well-drained soils




subsoil; on ridges and side slopesd 1973









3050'- N. U. 5 N. Pantego-Stilson DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
O R. 15 W. R. 14W.

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS

GENERAL SOIL MAP
SU. HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA

WALTON COUNTY SOIL SECTIONALIZED Scale 1:RVATION SERV190,080

R. 18 W. R. 17 W. R. 16 W. TOWNSHIP 1 0 1 2 3 4Miles
6 5 4 3 2 1 III l I I I
7 8 9 10 11 12
18 17 16 15 14 13
19 20 21 22 23 24
Each area outlined on this map consists of
more than one kind of soil. The map is thus 30 29 28 27 26 25
meant for general planning rather than a basis 31 32 33 34 35 36
for decisions on the use of specific tracts.
















SA T A1P A AXrA -30'


85'50'


rENEVA


IA

C1.eei(


COUNTY
-= --


4 -...r- + 4 + -- U 4 ---


VILL.


[-1 (I i 5,IVLL


r(.00 C
_r I o

ittle_ 0 R.13W.
7 In
I ~KIm / -t-I1j ,IIInp~Z~t


T. 7 N.
Inset,
sheet 14


JY wI1


I U I -
161 6 1
C p7
P


1177



- _.. er_ _,
Lake
Cassi .eek 179A 7A
179 Ca d
183A


Inset, sheet 40
Inset, sheet 40


R. 15 W.


79-
- 73--- ) 1
TI I


T. 5 N.


R. 14 W.


INDEX TO MAP SHEETS

HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


SECTIONALIZED
TOWNSHIP
6 5 4 3 2 1
7 8 9 10 11 12
18 17 16 15 14 13
19 20 21 22 23 24
30 29 28 27 26 25
31 32 33 34 35136


Scale 1:190,080
1 0 1 2 3 4Miles
I I I I' I


86*00'
I
zz~ DPI2


30*55'-


30*50'-


3045'-


X10


W ALI UN


R. 18 W.


R. 17 W.


COJUINTY Q9 /-/ R.16W.


I


4 i VR i I i j M I I A;=4 i ( i M i 17'-- -- 4


L-- --f t -11L I mi II II


CrC
XXT T rnM O T r


)l


F-- I -r F--Tl


--l


k~/~2


1a I


\?

est
an

:1 179n


r Id

ilo


""Our 4


.17


ff 6 ,


iD
^





U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA


SOIL LEGEND



The first capital letter is the initial one of the soil name. A second capital letter, A,
B, or C, indicates the class of slope. Most symbols without a slope letter are for nearly
level or gently sloping soils, but some are for soils that have stronger slopes.



SYMBOL NAME

Ab Albany sand
An Angie fine sandy loam
Ar Ardilla loamy sand

Bb Bibb association *
BoC Bonifay sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes

Ch Chipley sand

DoA Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
DoB Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
DoC Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
Dt Dothan complex

FcB Faceville sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
FcC Faceville sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes
FuC Fuquay loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes

GrB Gritney loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
GrC Gritney loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes

Ke Kenansville fine sand

Ld Lakeland sand
Le Leefield loamy sand
LuC Lucy loamy sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes

Md Maxton loamy fine sand

OrB Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
OrC Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes

Pa Pansey loamy sand
Pg Pantego complex *
Pm Plummer fine sand

StA Stilson loamy sand, 1 to 3 percent slopes

TfB Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
TfC Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
TrC Troup sand, 1 to 8 percent slopes


*The delineations generally are larger and the composition of the
mapping unit is more variable than that of other mapping units in
this county. Mapping has been controlled well enough, however,
for the anticipated use of the soils.


WORKS AND STRUCTURES

Highways and roads

Divided ................. .....

Good motor.............. .....

Poor m otor ............. ...

Trail ................ .. ...

Highway markers

National Interstate ..........

U S ............... ... ...

State or county .............

Railroads

Single track ... ......

M multiple track ....... ...

Abandoned ..............J -- _

Bridges and crossings

Road ............... .. .

Trail................. ........

Railroad .............. .. .

Ferry...............
Ford F..
Ford ................ ... ..

Grade ................. ..

R. R. over ............. .....

R. R. under .......... ...

Buildings ................ .....

School ................ ... .

Church ................ .

Borrow pit ............... ..... B.

G ravel pit .................. .....

Power line .............. .... ..

Pipeline ............ ..... ..... -

Cem etery ......................

Dam s ..........................

Levee ..........................

Tanks ..........................

W ell, oil or gas ............ 6

Forest fire or lookout station ... ,

W indmill .............. ...

Located object ........... .....


CONVENTIONAL SIGNS

BOUNDARIES


National or state ..........

County................

M inor civil division .............

Reservation ................

Land grant .....................

Small park, cemetery, airport..

Land survey division corners ...


_


3

)


DRAINAGE


Streams, double-line

Perennial ....

Intermittent .....

Streams, single-line

Perennial .................

Intermittent
Crossable with tillage
implements ............
Not crossable with tillage
im plements ..............

Unclassified ............

Canals and ditches ............

Lakes and ponds

Perennial ......... ......

Intermittent

Spring .............

Marsh or swamp .............

Wet spot ..................

Drainage end or alluvial fan ...


L- --


SOIL SURVEY DATA


Soil boundary

and symbol ..................

G ravel ........................

[Stony .............
Stoniness
LVery stony ..........

Rock outcrops ..................

Chert fragments ................

Clay spot ....... ....

Sand spot ......................

Gumbo or scabby spot ......

Made land ...........

Severely eroded spot ...........

Blowout, wind erosion ..........

Gully ....................


I mt




xi,


'I,--


RELIEF


-------------


I-1 -I I-




.i i
1 1
~-


Escarpments

Bedrock .................

Other ..................

Short steep slope ...............

Prominent peak ..............

Depressions

Crossable with tillage
im plements .............. ..
Not crossable with tillage
implements.............
Contains water most of
the tim e ....................


vvvvvy "V 'Vyv

ana""'"""aavnannnui








Large Small


$"0
R O
pn


Dx




B 4













ww','


i


- --


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS




-cc

-cc

~






HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA -


SHEET NUMBER 1


o
















6 S
0






az



oc





HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA SHEET


NUMBER 2


R~ `"a, ^ tuH R al ..'1', ,,* .-'.- ,





.vw
0-1







_A ; ..
,
,',I


I


DoB

FuC

Ch


GENEN19 I
DOC 'FU cl s

DOCC
DDoB
"o" a~lE, .dESC TrC

Ab

~~LuC


StA 1


IDOC Ar



TtCo
. .. .. .... tADo


DoB DOC
FuC DOC~~B~QY~ TrC
J)oc



Ar





/ ~E~ ~"~/I ~ 'lTrC
~cC 0 DoA o




t DoB
r; oB


ay


"I --


1 565 000 FEET











.I .



., .,



.~. ~rf .
t '. ,





1 570 000 FEET HOLME COUNTY, FLORID A SHEETI NUMBER 3
IVu .r




;A60I !k fi



9AXI,

I s '" 0,


I o


.4m I i b
o 'ar. vv COU N
FJ% DoB
E BoC W".:
'6 C.
Lu

:TrC
Al-K
BoC~"i ~ l:

M10Iy 'r 31 k
Church NE
~F;~i: ".L : VI' ~ Ch 7 ';;; : L TrC
;- J7r F uC~e.I:i
0 c

Z F
FuC~i~ i
,Z 5 r,. E
FuC Fy ": ;
LI L. r ~2~ rr C
B g'l ~T~ qi e
E 1$'
o l1 ~c


IL Ch~tL15
laaf StA LL r:
r' ; r Il-- I ~ p~~144:
s ,s~F D.I




HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA SHEET NUMBER 4


1 610 000 FEET










0o ,
0






'" = ia .










0o a 3 a .02
0





O rCD oCFAl. rn FD o D o
16C '.BC G_
,. ,.D.-TDOB -..B oC-B








o~Do DOC dDo o
I FF. f C,. r B









a~~~u Fu oBDBTfBAFC C Fu Do D
...._ _, o


DOBB oB DBTOCC>Do
DC FuCPFuCO T, ,FB





D0 41oD B O B-
oo









DorDC Or F OCAc r u ~ uCt o
DOB DDoB2 .o
0 5

(Do





0 DC
14%1
0uc TfCj
0 4u
0








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA -


SHEET NUMBER


,-


p



Y L_

C
m

8


d

S

t


S




E




g

a


E





a
m
ii)


c
3
GI
5

6

6










a
in
m
N






a
E
8









r a
E

L






HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA -


SHEET NUMBER


,Z



s~
r

ee



"d






do



r

o,

P~
sa





ag
bn
ant
m,
e~n

Y'


m-

Xs




0::



a"


N




P I


$";

m,
Oo

%6~a
^<

o,
~EP
YILL
=a








HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA -


SHEET NUMBER 7


3

a




~

c
m

8
r
d

o





o


Sj


a


M
4




E
r


B

a
a
u,

s



f.

6

6




P


s

m
a
in
m
N
I\
01






E
o
u
a


o

o


m
E


E


(Joins sheet 14)






HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA SHEET NUMBER 8

R. 18 W. R. 17 W* 1 MOn 000 FEET

I lo0rs shreet II Do0


















DOC~
P~~A pCa DoB' h \ s



















DDaDB .o DC DoS
SDoC


'Ar ArL~L 5 r .





O0 D.
DoB DoB DC Doc
























0 DDB
I~ I uC~

o~~~~~~O C~ Do / E; C oE ~ u
o 0!

















0 2-
OrB, i rDCA

In Or OC0
LuC LOB


DrC DfB StA















:0-



C, DoC OrB x OrC OrB
Zo -

Q lDOB D DoB DDo
D0C ak














































J' Ore
DoC FC I Ann
rlxur14 Churc ~uCt





EDcB
FuC DBOTCOB D FC
... + St Doaau r .o
FuC Fu D
U Or Lu O


A P.DFo I C
D Po r Do
0~ .~c



.112 DOB:
0 DOC
0 0 0
0 Ore ;OrB,~~E~~~~B:~~YLg~1;:E.~i1 n
-.DOB Or


FuC 'we Tf Ore


o 'Do



cu
-f cD orlB O r Fu

o Qt



SIA Doe ~1



V.





HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA SHEET NUMBER 9

1 545 000 FEET R. 17 W.
(Joins sheet 2)

DoCDDoB DB oC



DDo
DoB Fu C ..r Da D
C..._C










4oDo
Doc DC


Fu,,oC o o
















1 o
DDoBC oB



E I DoC
,DDo
D C D




o 0


EEo*
,' O r-DoB


C0
.eD .AD

Join Are 16
Z o




: tC DoB
MDDo








Doe DoC k
N Do DCu


Do DTB DoB rB DoB Ld
E FuC DD



*At SDr.uL







HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA -


SHEET NUMBER 10


E -o
oec
























0 w,-



04
c0


V C 4























o00
oo







21


ES





HOLMES COUNTY, FLORIDA SHEET NUMBER 11
1 590 000 FEET R. 16 W. R. 15 W.
Ch DoC FuC
DoC oC DoB iheer di
a *DoBDoBTrC C 4 oB OrBDo oI DB

FC TfC oB
DDABbC FuCF TIB k 0













CO j ,
... 0CDO,















~z
Bo DDB
DOC FC DI
C oC FuC Fu ,








E o.
DoC Ar C





oC. DC Ar *
BDOB St4 CDBDC0





00
Ch~~~~~o .9 Do tAgC o O c







& A DDD





Ch/
C Gr -'B F e DB B5 t



DoB TFBo SA 3

DoC I &u










~DOC
FCC DoB G *
C h aa C e h c r v St u oF







Do0
1Do T E TtA r D Fu.
B Doo Do o La B F,


uC DOC DOo

S t F DuC 3 C A )
2 E P o










StA. DC


00

00
DLuC 0 DOC DOB B Fu






(in sheet S8)AlDCUDoB
Do .c Ar DOo
D o DIB DoB rAC
Do Do, FuC-- r oB u


D2E Cs A
C DB Pah
E- 2









Dt Do o A Tr Dol DoB A
FuC F I

E DOB 8 0
S-A-
D DOB 14 I

~ 8 Do DoB lipB t


P uC DOC FB C.
A I 1
DDOB

rn StA Ott h
B L 4'A r J. .J
T C A r A

FuC DOB Who I I jL
DOC DOB' 177A DoEP Do

GB AB A,
lb Ar/A

FuC, Ar DbC D

DoEe I me i


(Jin het18 160 0 FE




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs