• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Jackson county...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map for broad land...
 Soils maps for detailed planni...
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Illustrations
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Maps






Title: Soil survey of Jackson County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025714/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Jackson County, Florida
Physical Description: ix, 157 p., 41 fold. leaves of plates : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Duffee, Ernest M
Allen, William J
Ammons, Harold C
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: [1979]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Jackson County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Jackson County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 87-88.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ernest M. Duffee, William J. Allen, and Harold C. Ammons ; United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued July 1979."
Funding: (Florida Environments Online)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025714
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001206549
oclc - 06605144
lccn - 80600519
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
    Location of Jackson county in Florida
        Page x
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Climate
            Page 1
        Physiography, relief, and drainage
            Page 2
        Natural resources
            Page 2
        History and development
            Page 2
        Farming
            Page 3
        Recreation
            Page 3
        Transportation
            Page 3
    How this survey was made
        Page 3
    General soil map for broad land use planning
        Page 4
        Soils of the sand ridges
            Page 4
            Lakeland-Troup-Blanton
                Page 4
            Blanton-Troup-Bonifay
                Page 5
        Soils of the uplands
            Page 5
            Fuquay-Chipola-Troup
                Page 5
            Orangeburg-Dothan-Red Bay
                Page 6
            Greenville-Faceville
                Page 6
            Dothan-Clarendon-Compass
                Page 6
        Soils of the low flatwoods
            Page 7
            Hornsville-Duplin-Bethera
                Page 7
            Clarendon-Compass-Plummer
                Page 7
        Soils of the swamps, very wet areas, and river flood plains
            Page 8
            Grady-Bibb-Pamlico
                Page 8
    Soils maps for detailed planning
        Page 8
        Soils descriptions
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
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            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 45
        Crops and Pasture
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Yields per acre
                Page 47
            Capability classes and subclasses
                Page 48
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 48
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 49
        Engineering
            Page 50
            Building site development
                Page 50
            Sanitary facilities
                Page 51
            Water management
                Page 52
            Construction materials
                Page 52
        Recreation
            Page 53
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 54
    Soil properties
        Page 55
        Engineering properties
            Page 56
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 56
        Soil and water features
            Page 57
            Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
                Page 58
                Page 59
        Engineering test data
            Page 60
    Classification of the soils
        Page 60
        Soil series and morphology
            Page 61
            Alapaha series
                Page 61
            Albany series
                Page 62
            Apalachee series
                Page 62
            Bethera series
                Page 63
            Bibb series
                Page 64
            Blanton series
                Page 64
            Bonifay series
                Page 65
            Chipola series
                Page 66
            Clarendon series
                Page 67
            Compass series
                Page 67
            Dorovan series
                Page 68
            Dothan series
                Page 69
            Duplin series
                Page 70
            Esto series
                Page 70
            Faceville series
                Page 71
            Foxworth series
                Page 72
            Fuquay series
                Page 73
            Grady series
                Page 73
            Greenville series
                Page 74
            Herod series
                Page 74
            Hornsville series
                Page 75
            Luka series
                Page 76
            Lakeland series
                Page 77
            Leefield series
                Page 77
            Oktibbeha variant
                Page 78
            Orangeburg series
                Page 79
            Pamlico series
                Page 80
            Pansey series
                Page 80
            Pantego series
                Page 81
            Plummer series
                Page 81
            Red Bay series
                Page 82
            Rutlege series
                Page 83
            Tifton series
                Page 83
            Troup series
                Page 84
            Wicksburg series
                Page 84
            Yonges series
                Page 85
    Formation of the soils
        Page 86
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 86
            Parent material
                Page 86
            Climate
                Page 86
            Plants and animals
                Page 87
            Relief
                Page 87
            Time
                Page 87
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 87
    Reference
        Page 87
    Glossary
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Illustrations
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Tables
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
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        Page 156
        Page 157
    General soil map
        Page 158
    Index to map sheets
        Page 159
        Page 160
    Maps
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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Full Text


Soil SURVEy oF

JACksoN CouNTy, FloRidA









Locate your area of interest on
. the "Index to Map Sheets" (the
last page of this publication).


Locate your area of interest
* on the map sheet.


HOW TO U



^- -

/ Kokomo




Note the number of the map
2. sheet and turn to that sheet


List the map unit symbols


Symbols

,27C
-56B
-131B
-134A
-148B
`151C


4.






HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described.


II


~c---- -


. -.
- .- ?
-^wtjita ^nir


See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6, Contents) for location of additional data
on a specific soil use.


Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.


-- -


i-


'




















This is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort of
the United States Department of Agriculture and agencies of the States, usually
the Agricultural Experiment Stations. In some surveys, other Federal and local
agencies also contribute. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the
Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in the period 1970-1977.
Soil names and descriptions were approved in 1977. Unless otherwise indicat-
ed, statements in the publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1977.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department. It is part of the technical assist-
ance furnished to the Chipola River Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission, but any enlarge-
ment of these maps can cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping and
result in erroneous interpretations. Enlarged maps do not show small areas of
contrasting soils that could have been shown at a larger mapping scale.









Cover The Chipola River flows southward across the central part
of Jackson County. Yonges and Herod soils are the most common
soils along the banks.










Contents


Page
Index to map units.......................................... .......... iv
Summary of tables.................................................. v
Forew ord ....................................... ......................... ix
General nature of the county..................................... 1
Clim ate ................................. ...... ........ ... 1
Physiography, relief, and drainage ......................... 2
N natural resources ........................................................ 2
History and development.......................................... 2
F arm ing ....................................................................... 3
R creation .......................................................... ...... 3
Transportation................ ... .................................... 3
How this survey was made........................................ 3
General soil map for broad land use planning....... 4
Soils of the sand ridges.................................... ..... 4
1. 1Lakeland-Troup-Blanton................................... 4
2. Blanton-Troup-Bonifay ................................... 5
Soils of the uplands .................. ............ ....... 5
3. Fuquay-Chipola-Troup.................................... 5
4. Orangeburg-Dothan-Red Bay........................ 6
5. Greenville-Faceville .......................... .......... 6
6. Dothan-Clarendon-Compass......................... 6
Soils of the low flatwoods.......................................... 7
7. Hornsville-Duplin-Bethera................................ 7
8. Clarendon-Compass-Plummer ...................... 7
Soils of the swamps, very wet areas, and river
flood plains ..............................8
9. iGrady-Bibb-Pamlico ...................... ....... 8
Soil maps for detailed planning ................................. 8
S oil descriptions .......................................................... 9
Use and management of the soils....................... 45
Crops and pasture......................... ................ ..... 45
Yields per acre.................................................. 47
Capability classes and subclasses................... 48
Woodland management and productivity................. 48
Windbreaks and environmental plantings............ 49
Engineering ..................................... ........................ 50
Building site development............................ 50
Sanitary facilities............................................. 51
Water management.............................................. 52
Construction m materials ............................................ 52
Recre tion ........................... ................................... 53
W wildlife habitat ............................................................. 54
S o il properties ............................................................... 55
Engineering properties ............................................ 56
Physical and chemical properties.............................. 56
Soil and water features................................ 57
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses
of selected soils .............................. .......... 58
Engineering test data........................................ 60


Page
Classification of the soils......................................... 60
Soil series and morphology.............. .......................... 61
Alapaha series ..................................... ...... 61
Albany series.......................... .................... 62
Apalachee series .......................................... .......... 62
Bethera series.......................... ........ ........... 63
B ibb series................................................................ 64
Blanton series .............................. ....... ........ 64
Bonifay series.......................... ................... 65
Chipola series..................................................... 66
Clarendon series............................... ........ 67
Compass series ................................ ........... 67
Dorovan series.................................. .......... 68
Dothan series ............................................ ....... 69
Duplin series.................................................... 70
Esto series......................... ...................... 70
Faceville series ........................................... ...... 71
Foxworth series......................... .................. 72
Fuquay series......................... ................... 73
Grady series ........................... .................... 73
Greenville series............................... ........... 74
Herod series.......................................... ....... .. 74
Hornsville series............................................... 75
luka series ....................................... ............. 76
Lakeland series................................. ........... 77
Leefield series ........................................... ........ 77
Oktibbeha variant.............................................. .... 78
Orangeburg series ........................................ 79
Pamlico series.............................. ............... 80
Pansey series........................................................... 80
Pantego series .................................. .......... 81
Plummer series .................................. ......... 81
Red Bay series....................................... 82
Rutlege series ....................... ..................... 83
Tifton series.......... ................................. ........... 83
Troup series ............. .............................. ......... 84
Wicksburg series................................... ....... 84
Yonges series .................. ........... .................... 85
Formation of the soils............................................. ... 86
Factors of soil formation............................... 86
Parent m material ................................................... 86
Climate ....................... .................... 86
Plants and animals .................................... .... 87
R elief .................................................................. 87
Tim e ................................................................... 87
Processes of soil formation............................... 87
References ............................................................... 87
G lossary .............................................. ...................... 88
Illustrations............................................. 95
Tables ...................... ...................... 101


Issued July 1979










Index to map units


Page
1-Alapaha loamy sand..... .................................... 9
2-Albany sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 10
3- Apalachee clay ........................................................ 10
4- Bethera silt loam .............................. ....... 11
5- B ibb soils .............................................. ............. 11
6-Blanton coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 12
7-Blanton coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........ 12
8-Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................... 13
9-Bonifay sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ................. 14
10-Chipola loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 14
11 -Chipola loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes......... 15
12- Clarendon fine sandy loam.................................. 16
13-Compass loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes...... 16
14-Compass loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes...... 17
15-Compass loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes...... 17
16- Dorovan-Pamlico association ................................ 18
17-Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes......... 19
18-Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes......... 19
19-Dothan loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes....... 20
20-Duplin fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes.... 20
21-Duplin fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.... 21
22-Esto loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes .............. 22
23-Esto loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............ 22
24-Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes................... 23
25-Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes......................... ......... ........... 23
26-Faceville loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent
slopes ........... .................. ............ 24
27-Faceville-Esto complex, 5 to 15 percent slopes,
severely eroded ..................... ......... ..... 24
28-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.................. 25
29-Foxworth sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.................. 25
30-Fuquay coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 26
31-Fuquay coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........ 27
32-Grady fine sandy loam............................ 27
33-Greenville fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.................. ............... .. ......... 28


Page
34-Greenville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
slopes......................... 28
35-Hornsville fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent
slopes.................... 29
36-Hornsville fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
slopes....................................... ............ ..... 30
37- luka loam .......................................... .......... .... 30
38-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .............. 31
39-Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .............. 31
40-Lakeland sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes................ 32
41-Lakeland sand, 12 to 30 percent slopes.............. 32
42- Leefield loamy sand........................................... 33
43-Oktibbeha Variant-Rock outcrop complex, 2 to
5 percent slopes...................................................... 33
44-Oktibbeha Variant-Rock outcrop complex, 5 to
12 percent slopes.................................. .......... 34
45-Orangeburg loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.. 35
46-Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.. 35
47-Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.. 36
48-Pamlico-Pantego-Rutlege association .............. 36
49- Pansey fine sandy loam ........................ ........... 37
50-Pits...... ....... ........... 38
51- Plummer sand................................ ........... 38
52- Plummer sand, depressional.................................. 38
53-Red Bay fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes 39
54-Red Bay fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 39
55-Red Bay fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes 40
56-Rutlege loamy sand............................... 40
57-Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.......... 41
58-Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.......... 41
59-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........................ 42
60-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.................... 42
61-Troup sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes ................ 43
62- Urban land............... ............................... .................. 43
63-Wicksburg-Esto complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 43
64- Yonges-Herod association..................................... 44








Summary of tables
Page
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (Table 4)............................. 104
Acres. Percent.
Building site development (Table 8) ............................................................... 112
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial build-
ings. Local roads and streets.
Capability classes and subclasses (Table 6).............................................. 108
Class. Total acreage. Major management concerns
(Subclass)-Erosion (e), Wetness (w), Soil problem
(s).
Chemical properties of selected soils (Table 18)......................................... 147
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases; Ca, Mg, Na, K,
Sum. Meg per 100 grams of-Extractable acidity.
Sum Cations. Percentage of-Base saturation. Or-
ganic carbon. Electrical conductivity. pH-water, cal-
cium chloride, potassium chloride. Extractable citrate
dithionite-AI, Fe.
Classification of the soils (Table 21) ................................... ...................... 157
Soil name. Family or higher taxonomic class.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (Table 19) ............................................... 150
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals; Mont-
morillonite, 14 angstrom intergrade, Kaolinite, Gibb-
site, Quartz, Mica.
Construction materials (Table 11)......................... .. .......... .......... 123
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel Topsoil.
Engineering properties and classifications (Table 14).................................... 133
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified,
AASHTO. Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percent-
age passing sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid
limit. Plasticity index.
Engineering test data (Table 20)............................................ ....................... 152
FDOT report no. Depth. Moisture-density data-
Maximum dry density, Optimum moisture content
Mechanical analysis-Percentage passing sieve
number-10, 40, 200. Percentage smaller than-0.05
mm, 0.02, 0.005 mm, 0.002 mm. Liquid limit. Plastic-
ity index. Classification-AASHTO, Unified.










Summary of tables-Continued


Page
Freeze data (Table 2) .................................................................................... 102
Freeze threshold temperature. Mean date of last
spring occurrence. Mean date of first fall occurrence.
Mean number of days between dates. Years of
record, spring. Number of occurrences in spring.
Years of record, fall Number of occurrences in fall.
Physical and chemical properties of soils (Table 15)..................................... 138
Depth. Permeability. Available water capacity. Soil re-
action. Shrink-swell potential Erosion factors-K, T
Wind erodibility group.
Physical properties of selected soils (Table 17) ........................................... 144
Depth. Horizon. Particle size distribution- Sand-
Very coarse sand, Coarse, Medium, Fine, Very fine,
Total; Silt; Clay. Hydraulic conductivity. Bulk density.
Water content-1/10 bar, 1/3 bar, 15 bar.
Recreational development (Table 12) ............................................................ 126
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and
trails.
Sanitary facilities (Table 9)................................................................................. 116
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill Daily
cover for landfill
Soil and water features (Table 16) ................................................................. 141
Hydrologic group. Flooding-Frequency, Duration,
Months. High water table-Depth, Kind, Months.
Bedrock-Depth, Hardness. Subsidence-Initial,
Total Risk of corrosion-Uncoated steel, Concrete.
Soil potentials and restrictive features by map units (Table 3)................... 103
Map unit. Percent of county area. Community devel-
opment. Cultivated farm crops. Improved pasture.
Woodland.
Temperature and precipitation data (Table 1)............................................... 102
Temperature-Monthly normal mean; Normal daily
maximum; Normal daily minimum; Mean number of
days with temperature of-90 degrees F or higher,
32 degrees F or lower. Precipitation-Normal total;
Maximum total; Minimum total; Mean number of days
with rainfall of-0. 10 inch or more, 0.50 inch or
more.
Water management (Table 10) ............................................................. 120
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees. Features affecting-Drainage, Irri-
gation, Terraces and diversions, Grassed waterways.










Summary of tables-Continued
Page
W wildlife habitat potentials (Table 13) .............................................................. 130
Potential for habitat elements-Grain and seed
crops, Grasses and legumes, Wild herbaceous
plants, Hardwood trees, Coniferous plants, Wetland
plants, Shallow water areas. Potential as habitat
for-Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland
wildlife.
Woodland management and productivity (Table 7)....................................... 109
Ordination symbol. Management concerns-Erosion
hazard, Equipment limitation, Seedling mortality,
Windthrow hazard, Potential productivity-Common
trees, Site index. Trees to plant.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (Table 5) ............................................ 105
Corn. Soybeans. Peanuts. Watermelons. Improved
bermudagrass. Bahiagrass. Grass hay.
















Foreword


The Soil Survey of Jackson County, Florida contains much information
useful in any land-planning program. Of prime importance are the predictions of
soil behavior for selected land uses. Also highlighted are limitations or hazards
to land uses that are inherent in the soil, improvements needed to overcome
these limitations, and the impact that selected land uses will have on the envi-
ronment.
This soil survey has been prepared for many different users. Farmers,
ranchers, foresters, and agronomists can use it to determine the potential of
the soil and the management practices required for food and fiber production.
Planners, community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and homebuyers
can use it to plan land use, select sites for construction, develop soil resources,
or identify any special practices that may be needed to insure proper perform-
ance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife
management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the soil survey to
help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur even within short distances.
Soils may be seasonally wet or subject to flooding. They may be shallow to
bedrock. They may be too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or
roads. Very clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or under-
ground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map; the
location of each kind of soil is shown on detailed soil maps. Each kind of soil in
the survey area is described, and much information is given about each soil for
specific uses. Additional information or assistance in using this publication can
be obtained from the local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the Coop-
erative Extension Service.
This soil survey can be useful in the conservation, development, and pro-
ductive use of soil, water, and other resources.





William E. Austin
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service























































* State Agricultural Experiment Station


Location of Jackson County in Florida.
















soil SURVEy of

jackson COUNTy, flORidA


United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with

University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department


JACKSON COUNTY, part of the Florida panhandle
(see facing page), is bordered on the north by Geneva
and Houston Counties, Alabama; on the east by Semi-
nole County, Georgia, and Gadsden County, Florida; on
the south by Calhoun and Bay Counties; and on the west
by Washington and Holmes Counties. Holmes Creek
forms tile boundary between Jackson and Holmes Coun-
ties. The Chattahoochee River, the Jim Woodruff Reser-
voir, and the Apalachicola River form the boundary be-
tween Jackson County and Gadsden and Seminole
Counties.


General nature of the county
The county covers 596,680 acres, or 932 square
miles. It is about 40 miles wide at the widest part and 30
miles long at the longest part. The population is about
40,000. Marianna, the largest town and county seat, has
a population of 7,770.
Farming is the largest single enterprise. Forest prod-
ucts and livestock production are also important to the
economy of the county. There are a few small nonfarm
industries.
The following paragraphs describe the environmental
and cultural factors that affect the use and management
of soils in Jackson County.


By Ernest M. Duffee, William J. Allen,
and Harold C. Ammons, Soil Conservation Service

Also participating in the field survey was
Herbert H. Weeks, Soil Conservation Service



Climate
Jackson County has a moderate climate. Summers are
long, warm, and humid. Winters are mild to cool. The
Gulf of Mexico moderates maximum and minimum tem-
peratures.
Annual rainfall in the county averages 58 inches.
About 60 percent of the total occurs during the 5-month
rainy season, which generally begins early in December
and ends late in April. Less than 10 percent of the total
falls in May and June. About 30 percent falls in July and
August. October and November are generally the driest
months.
Because the air is moist and unstable, showers are
frequent and generally short. In summer, thunderstorms
occur on an average of 1 to 3 days each week. Some-
times 2 or 3 inches of rain falls within 1 or 2 hours. Rain
lasting all day is rare in summer. Winter and spring rains
generally are not so intense as the summer thunder-
showers. One year in 10, more than 8 inches of rain falls
in a 24-hour period. Occasionally, heavy rain and high
wind accompany the passage of a tropical disturbance or
hurricane. Hail falls occasionally during a thunderstorm,
but it is generally small and seldom causes much
damage. Snow is extremely rare.
As cold continental air flows eastward across the Flor-
ida panhandle toward Jackson County, the cold is appre-
ciably modified. The coldest weather is generally the
















soil SURVEy of

jackson COUNTy, flORidA


United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with

University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department


JACKSON COUNTY, part of the Florida panhandle
(see facing page), is bordered on the north by Geneva
and Houston Counties, Alabama; on the east by Semi-
nole County, Georgia, and Gadsden County, Florida; on
the south by Calhoun and Bay Counties; and on the west
by Washington and Holmes Counties. Holmes Creek
forms tile boundary between Jackson and Holmes Coun-
ties. The Chattahoochee River, the Jim Woodruff Reser-
voir, and the Apalachicola River form the boundary be-
tween Jackson County and Gadsden and Seminole
Counties.


General nature of the county
The county covers 596,680 acres, or 932 square
miles. It is about 40 miles wide at the widest part and 30
miles long at the longest part. The population is about
40,000. Marianna, the largest town and county seat, has
a population of 7,770.
Farming is the largest single enterprise. Forest prod-
ucts and livestock production are also important to the
economy of the county. There are a few small nonfarm
industries.
The following paragraphs describe the environmental
and cultural factors that affect the use and management
of soils in Jackson County.


By Ernest M. Duffee, William J. Allen,
and Harold C. Ammons, Soil Conservation Service

Also participating in the field survey was
Herbert H. Weeks, Soil Conservation Service



Climate
Jackson County has a moderate climate. Summers are
long, warm, and humid. Winters are mild to cool. The
Gulf of Mexico moderates maximum and minimum tem-
peratures.
Annual rainfall in the county averages 58 inches.
About 60 percent of the total occurs during the 5-month
rainy season, which generally begins early in December
and ends late in April. Less than 10 percent of the total
falls in May and June. About 30 percent falls in July and
August. October and November are generally the driest
months.
Because the air is moist and unstable, showers are
frequent and generally short. In summer, thunderstorms
occur on an average of 1 to 3 days each week. Some-
times 2 or 3 inches of rain falls within 1 or 2 hours. Rain
lasting all day is rare in summer. Winter and spring rains
generally are not so intense as the summer thunder-
showers. One year in 10, more than 8 inches of rain falls
in a 24-hour period. Occasionally, heavy rain and high
wind accompany the passage of a tropical disturbance or
hurricane. Hail falls occasionally during a thunderstorm,
but it is generally small and seldom causes much
damage. Snow is extremely rare.
As cold continental air flows eastward across the Flor-
ida panhandle toward Jackson County, the cold is appre-
ciably modified. The coldest weather is generally the








SOIL SURVEY


second night after the arrival of the cold front, after heat
is lost through radiation. The average date of the first
killing frost is about November 15th. The average date of
the last killing frost is about March 15th. Frost has oc-
curred however, as early as November 1st and as late
as April 15th. Freeze data representative of the county
(9) are shown in table 2.
Summer temperatures are moderated by the Gulf
breeze and by cumulus clouds, which frequently shade
the land without completely obscuring the sun. Mean
average temperature in June, July, August, and Septem-
ber is about 80 degrees F. Temperatures of 86 degrees
or higher have occurred in May, June, July, August, and
September, but 100 degrees is reached only rarely. In
July and August, the warmest months, the average maxi-
mum temperature is 90 degrees. Temperatures above 95
degrees occur on fewer than 6 days. Temperature and
precipitation data (8) are shown in table 1.
Fog occurs on an average of 5 mornings a month in
winter and spring and almost never in summer and fall.
Prevailing winds are generally from the south. In Novem-
ber, December, and January they are from the north-
west. The mean windspeed for the year is 7.5 miles per
hour. The lowest monthly mean windspeed, 5.8 miles per
hour, occurs in August. The highest, 9.0 miles per hour,
occurs in March.

Physiography, relief, and drainage
Jackson County lies within the Coastal Plain province
(4). Three predominant topographic levels subdivide the
county into three physiographic regions-the Marianna
River Valley Lowlands, the Delta Plain Highlands, and
the Terraced Coastal Lowlands.
The Marianna River Valley Lowlands, the largest phy-
siographic unit in Jackson County, includes all but the
extreme southwestern part of the county and a smaller
area east of the Chipola River near the Calhoun County
line. This terraced lowland formed through the erosion
and deposition by streams, namely the Chattahoochee
and Apalachicola Rivers, the Chipola River, Dry Creek,
and Holmes Creek. Elevation ranges from about 60 feet
to 180 feet above sea level. The soils are dominantly
well drained to somewhat poorly drained, but some in
low swamps and on flood plains are poorly drained or
very poorly drained. Most of the soils have a sandy
surface layer and a loamy subsoil. The natural vegetation
is dominantly mixed pine and hardwood forest. Much of
this region has been cleared and is used for crops and
pasture.
The Delta Plain Highlands, in the southwestern part of
the county south of Dry Creek and north of Compass
Lake, extends eastward to near Florida Highway 73. Ele-
vation generally is more than 240 feet and ranges to
about 320 feet. The soils are dominantly excessively
drained and sandy. The natural vegetation is mostly


turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, and scattered long-
leaf pine. This region is mostly in natural vegetation.
The Terraced Coastal Lowlands is dominantly south of
the Delta Plain Highlands, but probably includes an ex-
tensive high flat area east of the Chipola River, south-
east of Alliance, in Calhoun County. Elevation ranges
from about 180 to 240 feet. The soils are dominantly
excessively drained and sandy in the southwestern area
and are well drained with a loamy subsoil in the eastern
area. The natural vegetation on the excessively drained
soils is mostly turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, and
scattered pine. On the well drained soils, it is mixed pine
and hardwood. Much of this region has been cleared
and is used for crops and pasture.
Most of the central and western part of Jackson
County is drained through a well developed surface
drainage system. The northeastern part is drained
through numerous sinks and depressions. The Chatta-
hoochee and Apalachicola Rivers to the east, the Chi-
pola River in the central part, and Holmes Creek to the
west are the principal surface drains in the county. Dry
Creek, Marshall Creek, Cowarts Creek, and other large
creeks flow into these rivers.

Natural resources
Soil and water are the main resources in Jackson
County. More than half the acreage is productive farm-
land. The climate is favorable for farming, and the grow-
ing season is long.
Water is the second most important natural resource.
The Chipola, Apalachicola, and Chattahoochee Rivers
and their tributaries and the many ponds and lakes pro-
vide recreation and support industrial activity.
Woodland also is a major resource. Forestry and
forest products are important to the county's economy.
Although most native trees have been harvested, land-
owners are following a program of reforestation in most
areas.
A limestone formation underlies a large part of Jack-
son County. In several areas it is close to the surface
and is mined for agricultural lime.

History and development
Jackson County, the third county in the Florida Terri-
tory, was established August 12, 1822. It was named for
General Andrew Jackson.
Early settlement began before the county was estab-
lished. In July, 1821, about 55 pioneer families were
living in the area. By August 12, 1822, the number had
increased to more than 150. According to a census in
1825, the population was 2,236. By 1830, it had in-
creased to 3,910.
Jackson County includes four river valleys-the lower
Chattahoochee River, the upper Apalachicola River,
Holmes Creek, and the Chipola River, which roughly








SOIL SURVEY


second night after the arrival of the cold front, after heat
is lost through radiation. The average date of the first
killing frost is about November 15th. The average date of
the last killing frost is about March 15th. Frost has oc-
curred however, as early as November 1st and as late
as April 15th. Freeze data representative of the county
(9) are shown in table 2.
Summer temperatures are moderated by the Gulf
breeze and by cumulus clouds, which frequently shade
the land without completely obscuring the sun. Mean
average temperature in June, July, August, and Septem-
ber is about 80 degrees F. Temperatures of 86 degrees
or higher have occurred in May, June, July, August, and
September, but 100 degrees is reached only rarely. In
July and August, the warmest months, the average maxi-
mum temperature is 90 degrees. Temperatures above 95
degrees occur on fewer than 6 days. Temperature and
precipitation data (8) are shown in table 1.
Fog occurs on an average of 5 mornings a month in
winter and spring and almost never in summer and fall.
Prevailing winds are generally from the south. In Novem-
ber, December, and January they are from the north-
west. The mean windspeed for the year is 7.5 miles per
hour. The lowest monthly mean windspeed, 5.8 miles per
hour, occurs in August. The highest, 9.0 miles per hour,
occurs in March.

Physiography, relief, and drainage
Jackson County lies within the Coastal Plain province
(4). Three predominant topographic levels subdivide the
county into three physiographic regions-the Marianna
River Valley Lowlands, the Delta Plain Highlands, and
the Terraced Coastal Lowlands.
The Marianna River Valley Lowlands, the largest phy-
siographic unit in Jackson County, includes all but the
extreme southwestern part of the county and a smaller
area east of the Chipola River near the Calhoun County
line. This terraced lowland formed through the erosion
and deposition by streams, namely the Chattahoochee
and Apalachicola Rivers, the Chipola River, Dry Creek,
and Holmes Creek. Elevation ranges from about 60 feet
to 180 feet above sea level. The soils are dominantly
well drained to somewhat poorly drained, but some in
low swamps and on flood plains are poorly drained or
very poorly drained. Most of the soils have a sandy
surface layer and a loamy subsoil. The natural vegetation
is dominantly mixed pine and hardwood forest. Much of
this region has been cleared and is used for crops and
pasture.
The Delta Plain Highlands, in the southwestern part of
the county south of Dry Creek and north of Compass
Lake, extends eastward to near Florida Highway 73. Ele-
vation generally is more than 240 feet and ranges to
about 320 feet. The soils are dominantly excessively
drained and sandy. The natural vegetation is mostly


turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, and scattered long-
leaf pine. This region is mostly in natural vegetation.
The Terraced Coastal Lowlands is dominantly south of
the Delta Plain Highlands, but probably includes an ex-
tensive high flat area east of the Chipola River, south-
east of Alliance, in Calhoun County. Elevation ranges
from about 180 to 240 feet. The soils are dominantly
excessively drained and sandy in the southwestern area
and are well drained with a loamy subsoil in the eastern
area. The natural vegetation on the excessively drained
soils is mostly turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, and
scattered pine. On the well drained soils, it is mixed pine
and hardwood. Much of this region has been cleared
and is used for crops and pasture.
Most of the central and western part of Jackson
County is drained through a well developed surface
drainage system. The northeastern part is drained
through numerous sinks and depressions. The Chatta-
hoochee and Apalachicola Rivers to the east, the Chi-
pola River in the central part, and Holmes Creek to the
west are the principal surface drains in the county. Dry
Creek, Marshall Creek, Cowarts Creek, and other large
creeks flow into these rivers.

Natural resources
Soil and water are the main resources in Jackson
County. More than half the acreage is productive farm-
land. The climate is favorable for farming, and the grow-
ing season is long.
Water is the second most important natural resource.
The Chipola, Apalachicola, and Chattahoochee Rivers
and their tributaries and the many ponds and lakes pro-
vide recreation and support industrial activity.
Woodland also is a major resource. Forestry and
forest products are important to the county's economy.
Although most native trees have been harvested, land-
owners are following a program of reforestation in most
areas.
A limestone formation underlies a large part of Jack-
son County. In several areas it is close to the surface
and is mined for agricultural lime.

History and development
Jackson County, the third county in the Florida Terri-
tory, was established August 12, 1822. It was named for
General Andrew Jackson.
Early settlement began before the county was estab-
lished. In July, 1821, about 55 pioneer families were
living in the area. By August 12, 1822, the number had
increased to more than 150. According to a census in
1825, the population was 2,236. By 1830, it had in-
creased to 3,910.
Jackson County includes four river valleys-the lower
Chattahoochee River, the upper Apalachicola River,
Holmes Creek, and the Chipola River, which roughly








SOIL SURVEY


second night after the arrival of the cold front, after heat
is lost through radiation. The average date of the first
killing frost is about November 15th. The average date of
the last killing frost is about March 15th. Frost has oc-
curred however, as early as November 1st and as late
as April 15th. Freeze data representative of the county
(9) are shown in table 2.
Summer temperatures are moderated by the Gulf
breeze and by cumulus clouds, which frequently shade
the land without completely obscuring the sun. Mean
average temperature in June, July, August, and Septem-
ber is about 80 degrees F. Temperatures of 86 degrees
or higher have occurred in May, June, July, August, and
September, but 100 degrees is reached only rarely. In
July and August, the warmest months, the average maxi-
mum temperature is 90 degrees. Temperatures above 95
degrees occur on fewer than 6 days. Temperature and
precipitation data (8) are shown in table 1.
Fog occurs on an average of 5 mornings a month in
winter and spring and almost never in summer and fall.
Prevailing winds are generally from the south. In Novem-
ber, December, and January they are from the north-
west. The mean windspeed for the year is 7.5 miles per
hour. The lowest monthly mean windspeed, 5.8 miles per
hour, occurs in August. The highest, 9.0 miles per hour,
occurs in March.

Physiography, relief, and drainage
Jackson County lies within the Coastal Plain province
(4). Three predominant topographic levels subdivide the
county into three physiographic regions-the Marianna
River Valley Lowlands, the Delta Plain Highlands, and
the Terraced Coastal Lowlands.
The Marianna River Valley Lowlands, the largest phy-
siographic unit in Jackson County, includes all but the
extreme southwestern part of the county and a smaller
area east of the Chipola River near the Calhoun County
line. This terraced lowland formed through the erosion
and deposition by streams, namely the Chattahoochee
and Apalachicola Rivers, the Chipola River, Dry Creek,
and Holmes Creek. Elevation ranges from about 60 feet
to 180 feet above sea level. The soils are dominantly
well drained to somewhat poorly drained, but some in
low swamps and on flood plains are poorly drained or
very poorly drained. Most of the soils have a sandy
surface layer and a loamy subsoil. The natural vegetation
is dominantly mixed pine and hardwood forest. Much of
this region has been cleared and is used for crops and
pasture.
The Delta Plain Highlands, in the southwestern part of
the county south of Dry Creek and north of Compass
Lake, extends eastward to near Florida Highway 73. Ele-
vation generally is more than 240 feet and ranges to
about 320 feet. The soils are dominantly excessively
drained and sandy. The natural vegetation is mostly


turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, and scattered long-
leaf pine. This region is mostly in natural vegetation.
The Terraced Coastal Lowlands is dominantly south of
the Delta Plain Highlands, but probably includes an ex-
tensive high flat area east of the Chipola River, south-
east of Alliance, in Calhoun County. Elevation ranges
from about 180 to 240 feet. The soils are dominantly
excessively drained and sandy in the southwestern area
and are well drained with a loamy subsoil in the eastern
area. The natural vegetation on the excessively drained
soils is mostly turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, and
scattered pine. On the well drained soils, it is mixed pine
and hardwood. Much of this region has been cleared
and is used for crops and pasture.
Most of the central and western part of Jackson
County is drained through a well developed surface
drainage system. The northeastern part is drained
through numerous sinks and depressions. The Chatta-
hoochee and Apalachicola Rivers to the east, the Chi-
pola River in the central part, and Holmes Creek to the
west are the principal surface drains in the county. Dry
Creek, Marshall Creek, Cowarts Creek, and other large
creeks flow into these rivers.

Natural resources
Soil and water are the main resources in Jackson
County. More than half the acreage is productive farm-
land. The climate is favorable for farming, and the grow-
ing season is long.
Water is the second most important natural resource.
The Chipola, Apalachicola, and Chattahoochee Rivers
and their tributaries and the many ponds and lakes pro-
vide recreation and support industrial activity.
Woodland also is a major resource. Forestry and
forest products are important to the county's economy.
Although most native trees have been harvested, land-
owners are following a program of reforestation in most
areas.
A limestone formation underlies a large part of Jack-
son County. In several areas it is close to the surface
and is mined for agricultural lime.

History and development
Jackson County, the third county in the Florida Terri-
tory, was established August 12, 1822. It was named for
General Andrew Jackson.
Early settlement began before the county was estab-
lished. In July, 1821, about 55 pioneer families were
living in the area. By August 12, 1822, the number had
increased to more than 150. According to a census in
1825, the population was 2,236. By 1830, it had in-
creased to 3,910.
Jackson County includes four river valleys-the lower
Chattahoochee River, the upper Apalachicola River,
Holmes Creek, and the Chipola River, which roughly








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


divides the county in half. The first settlements were
along the Chipola and Chattahoochee Rivers and
Holmes Creek and near the Big Spring of Chipola, now
called Blue Springs. The Chipola settlement, the largest,
is now Marianna.
The first settlers cleared the heavily forested ham-
mocks, which were thought to be the richest land. They
cultivated small acreages of corn, cotton, and sugar
cane and home gardens. On the fertile Chipola River
bottomland, early planters raised premium cotton, corn,
and sugar cane. The cotton was shipped down the Chi-
pola and Apalachicola Rivers on barges and then taken
by steamboats to Pensacola, Florida, or Mobile, Ala-
bama. In 1913, cotton production totaled about 23,000
bales. After the boll weevil infestation that began in
1915, cotton production declined. Today almost no
cotton is produced.

Farming
About 200,000 acres, or 33 percent of the county, is
cropland. About 37,000 acres, or 6 percent, is improved
pasture. Federally owned noncropped land, urban land,
small water areas, and other land make up 37,500 acres,
or 6 percent. The remaining 322,000 acres, or 55 per-
cent of the county, is forest.
Soon after the territory was opened to settlers, several
large plantations were developed. Cotton was the princi-
pal crop, and corn for livestock feed was second. The
boll weevil was a major pest from 1915 to 1925, and as
a result, cotton declined in importance. As the acreage
in cotton decreased, peanut production increased. Pea-
nuts and forest products are now the most important
crops in the county.
The Holmes Creek Soil and Water Conservation Dis-
trict, which includes the northwestern part of Jackson
County, was organized in 1937. It was the first soil con-
servation district in Florida. The rest of the county is in
the Chipola River Soil and Water Conservation District,
which was organized in 1940.
The soil, the climate, and the economy of Jackson
County are favorable for agriculture. Present land-use
patterns will probably continue. As the demand for food
crops increases, it is likely that the acreage in crops will
increase.

Recreation
Many types of recreation are available in Jackson
County. Boating, water skiing, and various kinds of fish-
ing are popular on most of the larger lakes and streams.
The Chipola River provides canoeing, boating, fishing,
and scuba diving for fossils and Indian artifacts. Each
year several bass clubs hold fishing tournaments on
Lake Seminole. Ocheesee Pond offers year-round fish-
ing. The Florida Caverns State Park (fig. 1) has facilities


for camping, picnicking, hiking, golfing, swimming, and
other recreational activities.
The county is a popular hunting spot. Dove, quail,
deer, rabbit, squirrel, and turkey hunting are most
common. Nature trails and places for hiking and camping
occur throughout the county. Several Indian mounds at-
tract amateur and professional archeologists. Many
people hunt and collect arrowheads in the county.

Transportation
There are many hard surfaced roads, highways, and
bus routes in Jackson County. The airport at Marianna is
used by military and private planes. Rail freight service is
available in the county, and County, State, and Federal
highways provide ready access to population centers in
the county and in the State.


How this survey was made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
something about and perhaps identify some they had
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
tends from the surface down into the parent material,
which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
action of plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
with others in counties nearby and in places more dis-
tant. Thus, through correlation, they classified and
named the soils according to nationwide, uniform proce-
dures.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo-
graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads,
and other details that help in drawing boundaries accu-
rately. The soil map at the back of this publication was
prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map
units. Some map units are made up of one kind of soil,
others are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a
few have little or no soil material at all. Map units are
discussed in the sections "General soil map for broad
land use planning" and "Soil maps for detailed plan-
ning."
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


divides the county in half. The first settlements were
along the Chipola and Chattahoochee Rivers and
Holmes Creek and near the Big Spring of Chipola, now
called Blue Springs. The Chipola settlement, the largest,
is now Marianna.
The first settlers cleared the heavily forested ham-
mocks, which were thought to be the richest land. They
cultivated small acreages of corn, cotton, and sugar
cane and home gardens. On the fertile Chipola River
bottomland, early planters raised premium cotton, corn,
and sugar cane. The cotton was shipped down the Chi-
pola and Apalachicola Rivers on barges and then taken
by steamboats to Pensacola, Florida, or Mobile, Ala-
bama. In 1913, cotton production totaled about 23,000
bales. After the boll weevil infestation that began in
1915, cotton production declined. Today almost no
cotton is produced.

Farming
About 200,000 acres, or 33 percent of the county, is
cropland. About 37,000 acres, or 6 percent, is improved
pasture. Federally owned noncropped land, urban land,
small water areas, and other land make up 37,500 acres,
or 6 percent. The remaining 322,000 acres, or 55 per-
cent of the county, is forest.
Soon after the territory was opened to settlers, several
large plantations were developed. Cotton was the princi-
pal crop, and corn for livestock feed was second. The
boll weevil was a major pest from 1915 to 1925, and as
a result, cotton declined in importance. As the acreage
in cotton decreased, peanut production increased. Pea-
nuts and forest products are now the most important
crops in the county.
The Holmes Creek Soil and Water Conservation Dis-
trict, which includes the northwestern part of Jackson
County, was organized in 1937. It was the first soil con-
servation district in Florida. The rest of the county is in
the Chipola River Soil and Water Conservation District,
which was organized in 1940.
The soil, the climate, and the economy of Jackson
County are favorable for agriculture. Present land-use
patterns will probably continue. As the demand for food
crops increases, it is likely that the acreage in crops will
increase.

Recreation
Many types of recreation are available in Jackson
County. Boating, water skiing, and various kinds of fish-
ing are popular on most of the larger lakes and streams.
The Chipola River provides canoeing, boating, fishing,
and scuba diving for fossils and Indian artifacts. Each
year several bass clubs hold fishing tournaments on
Lake Seminole. Ocheesee Pond offers year-round fish-
ing. The Florida Caverns State Park (fig. 1) has facilities


for camping, picnicking, hiking, golfing, swimming, and
other recreational activities.
The county is a popular hunting spot. Dove, quail,
deer, rabbit, squirrel, and turkey hunting are most
common. Nature trails and places for hiking and camping
occur throughout the county. Several Indian mounds at-
tract amateur and professional archeologists. Many
people hunt and collect arrowheads in the county.

Transportation
There are many hard surfaced roads, highways, and
bus routes in Jackson County. The airport at Marianna is
used by military and private planes. Rail freight service is
available in the county, and County, State, and Federal
highways provide ready access to population centers in
the county and in the State.


How this survey was made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
something about and perhaps identify some they had
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
tends from the surface down into the parent material,
which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
action of plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
with others in counties nearby and in places more dis-
tant. Thus, through correlation, they classified and
named the soils according to nationwide, uniform proce-
dures.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo-
graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads,
and other details that help in drawing boundaries accu-
rately. The soil map at the back of this publication was
prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map
units. Some map units are made up of one kind of soil,
others are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a
few have little or no soil material at all. Map units are
discussed in the sections "General soil map for broad
land use planning" and "Soil maps for detailed plan-
ning."
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


divides the county in half. The first settlements were
along the Chipola and Chattahoochee Rivers and
Holmes Creek and near the Big Spring of Chipola, now
called Blue Springs. The Chipola settlement, the largest,
is now Marianna.
The first settlers cleared the heavily forested ham-
mocks, which were thought to be the richest land. They
cultivated small acreages of corn, cotton, and sugar
cane and home gardens. On the fertile Chipola River
bottomland, early planters raised premium cotton, corn,
and sugar cane. The cotton was shipped down the Chi-
pola and Apalachicola Rivers on barges and then taken
by steamboats to Pensacola, Florida, or Mobile, Ala-
bama. In 1913, cotton production totaled about 23,000
bales. After the boll weevil infestation that began in
1915, cotton production declined. Today almost no
cotton is produced.

Farming
About 200,000 acres, or 33 percent of the county, is
cropland. About 37,000 acres, or 6 percent, is improved
pasture. Federally owned noncropped land, urban land,
small water areas, and other land make up 37,500 acres,
or 6 percent. The remaining 322,000 acres, or 55 per-
cent of the county, is forest.
Soon after the territory was opened to settlers, several
large plantations were developed. Cotton was the princi-
pal crop, and corn for livestock feed was second. The
boll weevil was a major pest from 1915 to 1925, and as
a result, cotton declined in importance. As the acreage
in cotton decreased, peanut production increased. Pea-
nuts and forest products are now the most important
crops in the county.
The Holmes Creek Soil and Water Conservation Dis-
trict, which includes the northwestern part of Jackson
County, was organized in 1937. It was the first soil con-
servation district in Florida. The rest of the county is in
the Chipola River Soil and Water Conservation District,
which was organized in 1940.
The soil, the climate, and the economy of Jackson
County are favorable for agriculture. Present land-use
patterns will probably continue. As the demand for food
crops increases, it is likely that the acreage in crops will
increase.

Recreation
Many types of recreation are available in Jackson
County. Boating, water skiing, and various kinds of fish-
ing are popular on most of the larger lakes and streams.
The Chipola River provides canoeing, boating, fishing,
and scuba diving for fossils and Indian artifacts. Each
year several bass clubs hold fishing tournaments on
Lake Seminole. Ocheesee Pond offers year-round fish-
ing. The Florida Caverns State Park (fig. 1) has facilities


for camping, picnicking, hiking, golfing, swimming, and
other recreational activities.
The county is a popular hunting spot. Dove, quail,
deer, rabbit, squirrel, and turkey hunting are most
common. Nature trails and places for hiking and camping
occur throughout the county. Several Indian mounds at-
tract amateur and professional archeologists. Many
people hunt and collect arrowheads in the county.

Transportation
There are many hard surfaced roads, highways, and
bus routes in Jackson County. The airport at Marianna is
used by military and private planes. Rail freight service is
available in the county, and County, State, and Federal
highways provide ready access to population centers in
the county and in the State.


How this survey was made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
something about and perhaps identify some they had
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
tends from the surface down into the parent material,
which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
action of plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
with others in counties nearby and in places more dis-
tant. Thus, through correlation, they classified and
named the soils according to nationwide, uniform proce-
dures.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo-
graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads,
and other details that help in drawing boundaries accu-
rately. The soil map at the back of this publication was
prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map
units. Some map units are made up of one kind of soil,
others are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a
few have little or no soil material at all. Map units are
discussed in the sections "General soil map for broad
land use planning" and "Soil maps for detailed plan-
ning."
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


divides the county in half. The first settlements were
along the Chipola and Chattahoochee Rivers and
Holmes Creek and near the Big Spring of Chipola, now
called Blue Springs. The Chipola settlement, the largest,
is now Marianna.
The first settlers cleared the heavily forested ham-
mocks, which were thought to be the richest land. They
cultivated small acreages of corn, cotton, and sugar
cane and home gardens. On the fertile Chipola River
bottomland, early planters raised premium cotton, corn,
and sugar cane. The cotton was shipped down the Chi-
pola and Apalachicola Rivers on barges and then taken
by steamboats to Pensacola, Florida, or Mobile, Ala-
bama. In 1913, cotton production totaled about 23,000
bales. After the boll weevil infestation that began in
1915, cotton production declined. Today almost no
cotton is produced.

Farming
About 200,000 acres, or 33 percent of the county, is
cropland. About 37,000 acres, or 6 percent, is improved
pasture. Federally owned noncropped land, urban land,
small water areas, and other land make up 37,500 acres,
or 6 percent. The remaining 322,000 acres, or 55 per-
cent of the county, is forest.
Soon after the territory was opened to settlers, several
large plantations were developed. Cotton was the princi-
pal crop, and corn for livestock feed was second. The
boll weevil was a major pest from 1915 to 1925, and as
a result, cotton declined in importance. As the acreage
in cotton decreased, peanut production increased. Pea-
nuts and forest products are now the most important
crops in the county.
The Holmes Creek Soil and Water Conservation Dis-
trict, which includes the northwestern part of Jackson
County, was organized in 1937. It was the first soil con-
servation district in Florida. The rest of the county is in
the Chipola River Soil and Water Conservation District,
which was organized in 1940.
The soil, the climate, and the economy of Jackson
County are favorable for agriculture. Present land-use
patterns will probably continue. As the demand for food
crops increases, it is likely that the acreage in crops will
increase.

Recreation
Many types of recreation are available in Jackson
County. Boating, water skiing, and various kinds of fish-
ing are popular on most of the larger lakes and streams.
The Chipola River provides canoeing, boating, fishing,
and scuba diving for fossils and Indian artifacts. Each
year several bass clubs hold fishing tournaments on
Lake Seminole. Ocheesee Pond offers year-round fish-
ing. The Florida Caverns State Park (fig. 1) has facilities


for camping, picnicking, hiking, golfing, swimming, and
other recreational activities.
The county is a popular hunting spot. Dove, quail,
deer, rabbit, squirrel, and turkey hunting are most
common. Nature trails and places for hiking and camping
occur throughout the county. Several Indian mounds at-
tract amateur and professional archeologists. Many
people hunt and collect arrowheads in the county.

Transportation
There are many hard surfaced roads, highways, and
bus routes in Jackson County. The airport at Marianna is
used by military and private planes. Rail freight service is
available in the county, and County, State, and Federal
highways provide ready access to population centers in
the county and in the State.


How this survey was made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
something about and perhaps identify some they had
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
tends from the surface down into the parent material,
which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
action of plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
with others in counties nearby and in places more dis-
tant. Thus, through correlation, they classified and
named the soils according to nationwide, uniform proce-
dures.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo-
graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads,
and other details that help in drawing boundaries accu-
rately. The soil map at the back of this publication was
prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map
units. Some map units are made up of one kind of soil,
others are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a
few have little or no soil material at all. Map units are
discussed in the sections "General soil map for broad
land use planning" and "Soil maps for detailed plan-
ning."
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for








SOIL SURVEY


engineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpre-
tations of their behavior are modified as necessary
during the course of the survey. New interpretations are
added to meet local needs, mainly through field observa-
tions of different kinds of soil in different uses under
different levels of management. Also, data are assem-
bled from other sources, such as test results, records,
field experience, and information available from state
and local specialists. For example, data on crop yields
under defined practices are assembled from farm rec-
ords and from field or plot experiments on the same
kinds of soil.
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
information then needs to be organized so that it is
readily available to different groups of users, among
them farmers, managers of rangeland and woodland,
engineers, planners, developers and builders, home-
buyers, and those seeking recreation.


General soil map for broad land use
planning
The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of
soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a
unique natural landscape. Typically, a map unit consists
of one or more major soils and some minor soils. It is
named for the major soils. The soils making up one unit
can occur in other units but in a different pattern.
The general soil map provides a broad perspective of
the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a
basis for comparing the potential of large areas for gen-
eral kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most part,
suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land uses
can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils
having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer-
tain land uses can be located.
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The
kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to
place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other char-
acteristics that affect their management.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten-
tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the
map units shown on the general soil map and gives
general ratings of the potential of each, in relation to the
other map units, for major land uses. Soil properties that
pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings of
soil potential are based on the assumption that practices
in common use in the survey area are being used to
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease


of overcoming the soil limitations and the probability of
soil problems persisting after such practices are used.
Each map unit is rated for community developments,
cultivated farm crops, improved pastures, and woodland.
Community developments include residential, commer-
cial, and industrial uses. Cultivated farm crops and im-
proved pastures are those grown extensively by farmers
in the survey area. Woodland refers to land that is pro-
ducing either trees native to the area or introduced spe-
cies.

Soils of the sand ridges
The two map units in this group are excessively
drained to moderately well drained, nearly level to steep
soils on uplands. Some are sandy throughout. Some are
sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and loamy below.
These soils are in the southwestern and northeastern
parts of the county.

1. Lakeland-Troup-Blanton
Nearly level to steep, excessively drained to moderately
well drained soils, some sandy to a depth of 80 inches
or more, some sandy to 40 to 80 inches and loamy
below
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as one area
about 14 miles wide and 2 to 6 miles long in the extreme
southwest corner of the county. The area is interspersed
with large to small, steep-sided sinks, many of which are
lakes or ponds. It includes Compass Lake, the communi-
ty of Compass Lake, and Seventeen Mile Pond.
The landscape is mainly one of nearly level to gently
sloping broad ridges and steep slopes around sinks and
along drainageways. There is a well established stream
pattern of creeks and branches and narrow wet bottom-
land. The natural vegetation is mostly turkey, post, blue-
jack, and blackjack oak and scattered longleaf pine. In
some areas, longleaf and slash pine is the dominant
vegetation.
This unit makes up about 50,000 acres, or 9 percent
of the county. It is about 40 percent Lakeland soils, 30
percent Troup soils, 15 percent Blanton soils, and 15
percent soils of minor extent.
Lakeland soils are excessively drained. Typically, they
have a surface layer of dark brown sand about 5 inches
thick. Below this is yellowish brown and very pale brown
sand that extends to 82 inches or more.
Troup soils are well drained. They have a surface layer
of light yellowish brown sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 57 inches, is brownish yellow, pale
brown, and reddish yellow sand. The subsoil is yellowish
red sandy loam.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. The surface
layer is brown coarse sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 63 inches, is yellowish brown to








SOIL SURVEY


engineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpre-
tations of their behavior are modified as necessary
during the course of the survey. New interpretations are
added to meet local needs, mainly through field observa-
tions of different kinds of soil in different uses under
different levels of management. Also, data are assem-
bled from other sources, such as test results, records,
field experience, and information available from state
and local specialists. For example, data on crop yields
under defined practices are assembled from farm rec-
ords and from field or plot experiments on the same
kinds of soil.
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
information then needs to be organized so that it is
readily available to different groups of users, among
them farmers, managers of rangeland and woodland,
engineers, planners, developers and builders, home-
buyers, and those seeking recreation.


General soil map for broad land use
planning
The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of
soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a
unique natural landscape. Typically, a map unit consists
of one or more major soils and some minor soils. It is
named for the major soils. The soils making up one unit
can occur in other units but in a different pattern.
The general soil map provides a broad perspective of
the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a
basis for comparing the potential of large areas for gen-
eral kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most part,
suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land uses
can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils
having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer-
tain land uses can be located.
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The
kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to
place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other char-
acteristics that affect their management.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten-
tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the
map units shown on the general soil map and gives
general ratings of the potential of each, in relation to the
other map units, for major land uses. Soil properties that
pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings of
soil potential are based on the assumption that practices
in common use in the survey area are being used to
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease


of overcoming the soil limitations and the probability of
soil problems persisting after such practices are used.
Each map unit is rated for community developments,
cultivated farm crops, improved pastures, and woodland.
Community developments include residential, commer-
cial, and industrial uses. Cultivated farm crops and im-
proved pastures are those grown extensively by farmers
in the survey area. Woodland refers to land that is pro-
ducing either trees native to the area or introduced spe-
cies.

Soils of the sand ridges
The two map units in this group are excessively
drained to moderately well drained, nearly level to steep
soils on uplands. Some are sandy throughout. Some are
sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and loamy below.
These soils are in the southwestern and northeastern
parts of the county.

1. Lakeland-Troup-Blanton
Nearly level to steep, excessively drained to moderately
well drained soils, some sandy to a depth of 80 inches
or more, some sandy to 40 to 80 inches and loamy
below
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as one area
about 14 miles wide and 2 to 6 miles long in the extreme
southwest corner of the county. The area is interspersed
with large to small, steep-sided sinks, many of which are
lakes or ponds. It includes Compass Lake, the communi-
ty of Compass Lake, and Seventeen Mile Pond.
The landscape is mainly one of nearly level to gently
sloping broad ridges and steep slopes around sinks and
along drainageways. There is a well established stream
pattern of creeks and branches and narrow wet bottom-
land. The natural vegetation is mostly turkey, post, blue-
jack, and blackjack oak and scattered longleaf pine. In
some areas, longleaf and slash pine is the dominant
vegetation.
This unit makes up about 50,000 acres, or 9 percent
of the county. It is about 40 percent Lakeland soils, 30
percent Troup soils, 15 percent Blanton soils, and 15
percent soils of minor extent.
Lakeland soils are excessively drained. Typically, they
have a surface layer of dark brown sand about 5 inches
thick. Below this is yellowish brown and very pale brown
sand that extends to 82 inches or more.
Troup soils are well drained. They have a surface layer
of light yellowish brown sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 57 inches, is brownish yellow, pale
brown, and reddish yellow sand. The subsoil is yellowish
red sandy loam.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. The surface
layer is brown coarse sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 63 inches, is yellowish brown to








SOIL SURVEY


engineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpre-
tations of their behavior are modified as necessary
during the course of the survey. New interpretations are
added to meet local needs, mainly through field observa-
tions of different kinds of soil in different uses under
different levels of management. Also, data are assem-
bled from other sources, such as test results, records,
field experience, and information available from state
and local specialists. For example, data on crop yields
under defined practices are assembled from farm rec-
ords and from field or plot experiments on the same
kinds of soil.
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
information then needs to be organized so that it is
readily available to different groups of users, among
them farmers, managers of rangeland and woodland,
engineers, planners, developers and builders, home-
buyers, and those seeking recreation.


General soil map for broad land use
planning
The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of
soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a
unique natural landscape. Typically, a map unit consists
of one or more major soils and some minor soils. It is
named for the major soils. The soils making up one unit
can occur in other units but in a different pattern.
The general soil map provides a broad perspective of
the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a
basis for comparing the potential of large areas for gen-
eral kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most part,
suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land uses
can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils
having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer-
tain land uses can be located.
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The
kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to
place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other char-
acteristics that affect their management.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten-
tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the
map units shown on the general soil map and gives
general ratings of the potential of each, in relation to the
other map units, for major land uses. Soil properties that
pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings of
soil potential are based on the assumption that practices
in common use in the survey area are being used to
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease


of overcoming the soil limitations and the probability of
soil problems persisting after such practices are used.
Each map unit is rated for community developments,
cultivated farm crops, improved pastures, and woodland.
Community developments include residential, commer-
cial, and industrial uses. Cultivated farm crops and im-
proved pastures are those grown extensively by farmers
in the survey area. Woodland refers to land that is pro-
ducing either trees native to the area or introduced spe-
cies.

Soils of the sand ridges
The two map units in this group are excessively
drained to moderately well drained, nearly level to steep
soils on uplands. Some are sandy throughout. Some are
sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and loamy below.
These soils are in the southwestern and northeastern
parts of the county.

1. Lakeland-Troup-Blanton
Nearly level to steep, excessively drained to moderately
well drained soils, some sandy to a depth of 80 inches
or more, some sandy to 40 to 80 inches and loamy
below
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as one area
about 14 miles wide and 2 to 6 miles long in the extreme
southwest corner of the county. The area is interspersed
with large to small, steep-sided sinks, many of which are
lakes or ponds. It includes Compass Lake, the communi-
ty of Compass Lake, and Seventeen Mile Pond.
The landscape is mainly one of nearly level to gently
sloping broad ridges and steep slopes around sinks and
along drainageways. There is a well established stream
pattern of creeks and branches and narrow wet bottom-
land. The natural vegetation is mostly turkey, post, blue-
jack, and blackjack oak and scattered longleaf pine. In
some areas, longleaf and slash pine is the dominant
vegetation.
This unit makes up about 50,000 acres, or 9 percent
of the county. It is about 40 percent Lakeland soils, 30
percent Troup soils, 15 percent Blanton soils, and 15
percent soils of minor extent.
Lakeland soils are excessively drained. Typically, they
have a surface layer of dark brown sand about 5 inches
thick. Below this is yellowish brown and very pale brown
sand that extends to 82 inches or more.
Troup soils are well drained. They have a surface layer
of light yellowish brown sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 57 inches, is brownish yellow, pale
brown, and reddish yellow sand. The subsoil is yellowish
red sandy loam.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. The surface
layer is brown coarse sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 63 inches, is yellowish brown to








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA



very pale brown coarse sand. The subsoil is yellowish
brown sandy loam mottled with yellow, gray, and red.
Minor ,in this unit are Bonifay, Albany, Leefield, Chi-
pola, Fuquay, Dothan, Esto, Faceville, and Orangeburg
soils.
Large areas of this unit were cleared and planted to
tung nut trees, but most have been converted to pasture.
Some are under urban development. The rest of the unit
is wooded. Almost all merchantable timber has been
removed' and the plant cover is scrub oak. Some areas
have been replanted to slash pine and sand pine.

2. Blanton-Troup-Bonifay
Nearly /lvel to strongly sloping, well drained and moder-
ately wel drained soils, sandy to a depth of more than
40 inches and loamy below
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as one large
area in the northeastern part of the county and a few
scattered small areas in the eastern and southern parts.
Individual areas range from about 2 to almost 70 square
miles. The unit is interspersed with numerous sinks and
shallow depressions. It includes the communities of
Bascom and Two Egg.
The landscape is one of broad, nearly level to gently
sloping ridges and short, strong slopes around the nu-
merous sinks or potholes. In the northeastern part of the
county, the depressions are generally saucerlike and
have gently sloping sides. Many of these depressions,
however, are lakes and intermittent ponds. Drainage is
mostly subterraneous, but there are a few poorly defined
drainageways. Lake and intermittent pond levels fluctu-
ate considerably from season to season, depending on
rainfall and seepage from the surrounding deep sandy
soils.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, red oak, dogwood, and an understory of
native grasses and shrubs.
This rap unit makes up about 61,000 acres, or 10
percent Of the county. It is about 45 percent Blanton
soils, 30 percent Troup soils, 15 percent Bonifay soils,
and 10 percent soils of minor extent.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. They have a
surface layer of brown coarse sand. The subsurface
layer, extending to a depth of about 63 inches, is yellow-
ish brown to very pale brown coarse sand. The subsoil is
yellowish brown sandy loam mottled with yellow, gray,
and red.
Troup soils are well drained. They have a surface layer
of light yellowish brown sand. The subsurface, extending
to a depth of 57 inches, is brownish yellow, pale brown,
and reddish yellow sand. The subsoil is yellowish red
sandy loam.
Bonifay soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of dark grayish brown sand. The subsurface layer,
extending to a depth of about 45 inches, is yellowish
brown, light yellowish brown, and brownish yellow sand


and loamy sand. The subsoil is light yellowish brown,
yellowish brown, and brownish yellow sandy loam and
sandy clay loam. It is mottled with yellow, brown, red,
and gray.
Minor in this unit are Chipola, Fuquay, Orangeburg,
Red Bay, Dothan, Esto, Wicksburg, Faceville, Hornsville,
Albany, and Plummer soils.
Most areas are cutover woodland, cropland, or bahia-
grass improved pasture.

Soils of the uplands
The four map units in this group are well drained to
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to strongly sloping
soils on uplands. Some are loamy or clayey within a
depth of 20 inches. Some are loamy between depths of
20 and 40 inches. Others are sandy to 40 to 80 inches,
are loamy below, and have a loamy subsoil. These soils
occur in all but the extreme southwestern part of the
county.

3. Fuquay-Chipola-Troup
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils, some
sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below,
some sandy to more than 40 inches and loamy below
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as several
widely scattered areas, dominantly in the central part of
the county. Individual areas are irregular in shape. The
largest is about 22 miles long and one-quarter mile to 9
miles wide. The unit is interspersed with small areas of
somewhat poorly drained and poorly drained soils. It
includes the towns of Malone and Greenwood and part
of Cottondale.
The landscape is mostly one of nearly level to sloping
areas and a few narrow, strongly sloping hillsides. In
some areas, there is a fairly well developed drainage
system of creeks, branches, and drainageways. In
others, there is no well developed surface drainage
system. The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf
pine, live oak, red oak, post oak, white oak, laurel oak,
dogwood, hickory, and an understory of native grasses,
shrubs, and vines.
This map unit makes up about 101,000 acres, or 17
percent of the county. It is about 45 percent Fuquay
soils, 25 percent Chipola soils, 10 percent Troup soils,
and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Fuquay soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark grayish brown coarse sand. The
subsurface layer, extending to a depth of 32 inches, is
yellowish brown loamy coarse sand. The subsoil is yel-
lowish brown coarse sandy loam and sandy clay loam
that is mottled in the lower part.
Chipola soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark brown loamy sand. The subsurface
layer, extending to a depth of 34 inches, is yellowish red








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA



very pale brown coarse sand. The subsoil is yellowish
brown sandy loam mottled with yellow, gray, and red.
Minor ,in this unit are Bonifay, Albany, Leefield, Chi-
pola, Fuquay, Dothan, Esto, Faceville, and Orangeburg
soils.
Large areas of this unit were cleared and planted to
tung nut trees, but most have been converted to pasture.
Some are under urban development. The rest of the unit
is wooded. Almost all merchantable timber has been
removed' and the plant cover is scrub oak. Some areas
have been replanted to slash pine and sand pine.

2. Blanton-Troup-Bonifay
Nearly /lvel to strongly sloping, well drained and moder-
ately wel drained soils, sandy to a depth of more than
40 inches and loamy below
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as one large
area in the northeastern part of the county and a few
scattered small areas in the eastern and southern parts.
Individual areas range from about 2 to almost 70 square
miles. The unit is interspersed with numerous sinks and
shallow depressions. It includes the communities of
Bascom and Two Egg.
The landscape is one of broad, nearly level to gently
sloping ridges and short, strong slopes around the nu-
merous sinks or potholes. In the northeastern part of the
county, the depressions are generally saucerlike and
have gently sloping sides. Many of these depressions,
however, are lakes and intermittent ponds. Drainage is
mostly subterraneous, but there are a few poorly defined
drainageways. Lake and intermittent pond levels fluctu-
ate considerably from season to season, depending on
rainfall and seepage from the surrounding deep sandy
soils.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, red oak, dogwood, and an understory of
native grasses and shrubs.
This rap unit makes up about 61,000 acres, or 10
percent Of the county. It is about 45 percent Blanton
soils, 30 percent Troup soils, 15 percent Bonifay soils,
and 10 percent soils of minor extent.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. They have a
surface layer of brown coarse sand. The subsurface
layer, extending to a depth of about 63 inches, is yellow-
ish brown to very pale brown coarse sand. The subsoil is
yellowish brown sandy loam mottled with yellow, gray,
and red.
Troup soils are well drained. They have a surface layer
of light yellowish brown sand. The subsurface, extending
to a depth of 57 inches, is brownish yellow, pale brown,
and reddish yellow sand. The subsoil is yellowish red
sandy loam.
Bonifay soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of dark grayish brown sand. The subsurface layer,
extending to a depth of about 45 inches, is yellowish
brown, light yellowish brown, and brownish yellow sand


and loamy sand. The subsoil is light yellowish brown,
yellowish brown, and brownish yellow sandy loam and
sandy clay loam. It is mottled with yellow, brown, red,
and gray.
Minor in this unit are Chipola, Fuquay, Orangeburg,
Red Bay, Dothan, Esto, Wicksburg, Faceville, Hornsville,
Albany, and Plummer soils.
Most areas are cutover woodland, cropland, or bahia-
grass improved pasture.

Soils of the uplands
The four map units in this group are well drained to
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to strongly sloping
soils on uplands. Some are loamy or clayey within a
depth of 20 inches. Some are loamy between depths of
20 and 40 inches. Others are sandy to 40 to 80 inches,
are loamy below, and have a loamy subsoil. These soils
occur in all but the extreme southwestern part of the
county.

3. Fuquay-Chipola-Troup
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils, some
sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below,
some sandy to more than 40 inches and loamy below
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as several
widely scattered areas, dominantly in the central part of
the county. Individual areas are irregular in shape. The
largest is about 22 miles long and one-quarter mile to 9
miles wide. The unit is interspersed with small areas of
somewhat poorly drained and poorly drained soils. It
includes the towns of Malone and Greenwood and part
of Cottondale.
The landscape is mostly one of nearly level to sloping
areas and a few narrow, strongly sloping hillsides. In
some areas, there is a fairly well developed drainage
system of creeks, branches, and drainageways. In
others, there is no well developed surface drainage
system. The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf
pine, live oak, red oak, post oak, white oak, laurel oak,
dogwood, hickory, and an understory of native grasses,
shrubs, and vines.
This map unit makes up about 101,000 acres, or 17
percent of the county. It is about 45 percent Fuquay
soils, 25 percent Chipola soils, 10 percent Troup soils,
and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Fuquay soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark grayish brown coarse sand. The
subsurface layer, extending to a depth of 32 inches, is
yellowish brown loamy coarse sand. The subsoil is yel-
lowish brown coarse sandy loam and sandy clay loam
that is mottled in the lower part.
Chipola soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark brown loamy sand. The subsurface
layer, extending to a depth of 34 inches, is yellowish red








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA



very pale brown coarse sand. The subsoil is yellowish
brown sandy loam mottled with yellow, gray, and red.
Minor ,in this unit are Bonifay, Albany, Leefield, Chi-
pola, Fuquay, Dothan, Esto, Faceville, and Orangeburg
soils.
Large areas of this unit were cleared and planted to
tung nut trees, but most have been converted to pasture.
Some are under urban development. The rest of the unit
is wooded. Almost all merchantable timber has been
removed' and the plant cover is scrub oak. Some areas
have been replanted to slash pine and sand pine.

2. Blanton-Troup-Bonifay
Nearly /lvel to strongly sloping, well drained and moder-
ately wel drained soils, sandy to a depth of more than
40 inches and loamy below
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as one large
area in the northeastern part of the county and a few
scattered small areas in the eastern and southern parts.
Individual areas range from about 2 to almost 70 square
miles. The unit is interspersed with numerous sinks and
shallow depressions. It includes the communities of
Bascom and Two Egg.
The landscape is one of broad, nearly level to gently
sloping ridges and short, strong slopes around the nu-
merous sinks or potholes. In the northeastern part of the
county, the depressions are generally saucerlike and
have gently sloping sides. Many of these depressions,
however, are lakes and intermittent ponds. Drainage is
mostly subterraneous, but there are a few poorly defined
drainageways. Lake and intermittent pond levels fluctu-
ate considerably from season to season, depending on
rainfall and seepage from the surrounding deep sandy
soils.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, red oak, dogwood, and an understory of
native grasses and shrubs.
This rap unit makes up about 61,000 acres, or 10
percent Of the county. It is about 45 percent Blanton
soils, 30 percent Troup soils, 15 percent Bonifay soils,
and 10 percent soils of minor extent.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. They have a
surface layer of brown coarse sand. The subsurface
layer, extending to a depth of about 63 inches, is yellow-
ish brown to very pale brown coarse sand. The subsoil is
yellowish brown sandy loam mottled with yellow, gray,
and red.
Troup soils are well drained. They have a surface layer
of light yellowish brown sand. The subsurface, extending
to a depth of 57 inches, is brownish yellow, pale brown,
and reddish yellow sand. The subsoil is yellowish red
sandy loam.
Bonifay soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of dark grayish brown sand. The subsurface layer,
extending to a depth of about 45 inches, is yellowish
brown, light yellowish brown, and brownish yellow sand


and loamy sand. The subsoil is light yellowish brown,
yellowish brown, and brownish yellow sandy loam and
sandy clay loam. It is mottled with yellow, brown, red,
and gray.
Minor in this unit are Chipola, Fuquay, Orangeburg,
Red Bay, Dothan, Esto, Wicksburg, Faceville, Hornsville,
Albany, and Plummer soils.
Most areas are cutover woodland, cropland, or bahia-
grass improved pasture.

Soils of the uplands
The four map units in this group are well drained to
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to strongly sloping
soils on uplands. Some are loamy or clayey within a
depth of 20 inches. Some are loamy between depths of
20 and 40 inches. Others are sandy to 40 to 80 inches,
are loamy below, and have a loamy subsoil. These soils
occur in all but the extreme southwestern part of the
county.

3. Fuquay-Chipola-Troup
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils, some
sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below,
some sandy to more than 40 inches and loamy below
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs as several
widely scattered areas, dominantly in the central part of
the county. Individual areas are irregular in shape. The
largest is about 22 miles long and one-quarter mile to 9
miles wide. The unit is interspersed with small areas of
somewhat poorly drained and poorly drained soils. It
includes the towns of Malone and Greenwood and part
of Cottondale.
The landscape is mostly one of nearly level to sloping
areas and a few narrow, strongly sloping hillsides. In
some areas, there is a fairly well developed drainage
system of creeks, branches, and drainageways. In
others, there is no well developed surface drainage
system. The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf
pine, live oak, red oak, post oak, white oak, laurel oak,
dogwood, hickory, and an understory of native grasses,
shrubs, and vines.
This map unit makes up about 101,000 acres, or 17
percent of the county. It is about 45 percent Fuquay
soils, 25 percent Chipola soils, 10 percent Troup soils,
and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Fuquay soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark grayish brown coarse sand. The
subsurface layer, extending to a depth of 32 inches, is
yellowish brown loamy coarse sand. The subsoil is yel-
lowish brown coarse sandy loam and sandy clay loam
that is mottled in the lower part.
Chipola soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark brown loamy sand. The subsurface
layer, extending to a depth of 34 inches, is yellowish red







SOIL SURVEY


and reddish yellow loamy coarse sand. The subsoil is
red coarse sandy loam.
Troup soils are well drained. They have a surface layer
of light yellowish brown sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 57 inches, is brownish yellow, pale
brown, and reddish yellow sand. The subsoil is yellowish
red sandy loam.
Minor in this unit are Blanton, Bonifay, Dothan, Oran-
geburg, Red Bay, Esto, Wicksburg, Grady, Plummer,
Tifton, and Faceville soils.
Most areas have been cleared for cultivation or re-
planted to slash pine.

4. Orangeburg-Dothan-Red Bay
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained sandy or
loamy soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of
20 inches
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs in all parts of
the county but the extreme southwest corner. The larg-
est areas are in the central and northwestern parts.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and vary widely in
size. The largest is about 19 miles long and one-half mile
to 14 miles wide. This unit includes the town of Grace-
ville.
This unit is nearly level to gently sloping in most areas
but is sloping to strongly sloping along drainageways.
There is a fairly well developed drainage system of
creeks and branches. In some areas, there are wet de-
pressions. The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf
pine, live oak, laurel oak, red oak, white oak, hickory,
sweetgum, dogwood, and an understory of woody shrubs
and grasses.
This map unit makes up about 124,000 acres, or 21
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent Orangeburg
soils, 25 percent Dothan soils, 10 percent Red Bay soils,
and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
Orangeburg soils are well drained. Typically, they have
a surface layer of brown loamy sand. The subsoil is
yellowish red and red sandy clay loam.
Dothan soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark grayish brown loamy sand. The
subsoil is sandy clay loam. The upper 49 inches is yel-
lowish brown. The lower 22 inches is mottled brown, red,
yellow, and gray.
Red Bay soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of dark reddish brown fine sandy loam and a sub-
soil of dark red sandy clay loam.
Minor in this unit are Fuquay, Tifton, Faceville, Esto,
Greenville, Grady, and Leefield soils.
Most areas have been cleared for cultivation. A few
have been replanted to slash pine.
5. Greenville-Faceville
Gently sloping to strongly sloping well drained soils,
loamy or sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches and
clayey below


This map unit is on uplands. It occurs on two areas in
the central part of the county northwest of Marianna.
The larger is about 9 miles long and 1 to 5 miles wide.
The unit is interspersed with areas of poorly drained soils
along creeks. It includes most of Marianna.
The landscape is one of gently sloping to sloping
ridges and some strongly sloping hillsides along well
developed creeks and branches. The natural vegetation
is slash and longleaf pine, hickory, dogwood, magnolia,
live oak, laurel oak, white oak, water oak, sweetgum, and
an understory of woody shrubs and grasses.
This unit makes up about 25,000 acres, or 4 percent
of the county. It is about 45 percent Greenville soils, 30
percent Faceville soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
extent.
Greenville soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of dark reddish brown fine sandy loam. The subsoil,
within a depth of 20 inches, is dark red sandy clay.
Faceville soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil is sandy clay
that is red in the upper part and mottled in the lower
part.
Minor in this unit are Oktibbeha, Esto, Wicksburg, Red
Bay, Grady, Tifton, Dothan, Orangeburg, and Chipola
soils.
Most areas have been cleared for cultivation. Some
are under urban development.

6. Dothan-Clarendon-Compass
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained to some-
what poorly drained soils, some sandy to a depth of less
than 20 inches and loamy below, some sandy to 20 to
40 inches and loamy and clayey below
This map unit is on moderately high uplands. The
largest area is in the western and northwestern part of
the county. Another large area is between the communi-
ties of Sneads and Cypress. Small areas are in other
parts of the county, but none occur in the northern half
east of U.S. Highway 231. The unit is interspersed with
shallow depressions of poorly drained soils. It includes
the communities of Sneads, Cypress, Alford, and Cotton-
dale.
The landscape is one of nearly level to gently sloping,
moderately high ridges, sloping to strongly sloping hill-
sides along drainageways and depressions, poorly de-
fined drainageways, and small to large swampy depres-
sions. The native vegetation is slash and longleaf pine,
white oak, red oak, laurel oak, live oak, water oak, hick-
ory, dogwood, sweetgum, and an understory of woody
shrubs and grasses.
This unit makes up about 119,000 acres, or 20 percent
of the county. It is about 45 percent Dothan soils, 10
percent Clarendon soils, 9 percent Compass soils, and
36 percent soils of minor extent.
Dothan soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark grayish brown loamy sand. The







SOIL SURVEY


and reddish yellow loamy coarse sand. The subsoil is
red coarse sandy loam.
Troup soils are well drained. They have a surface layer
of light yellowish brown sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 57 inches, is brownish yellow, pale
brown, and reddish yellow sand. The subsoil is yellowish
red sandy loam.
Minor in this unit are Blanton, Bonifay, Dothan, Oran-
geburg, Red Bay, Esto, Wicksburg, Grady, Plummer,
Tifton, and Faceville soils.
Most areas have been cleared for cultivation or re-
planted to slash pine.

4. Orangeburg-Dothan-Red Bay
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained sandy or
loamy soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of
20 inches
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs in all parts of
the county but the extreme southwest corner. The larg-
est areas are in the central and northwestern parts.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and vary widely in
size. The largest is about 19 miles long and one-half mile
to 14 miles wide. This unit includes the town of Grace-
ville.
This unit is nearly level to gently sloping in most areas
but is sloping to strongly sloping along drainageways.
There is a fairly well developed drainage system of
creeks and branches. In some areas, there are wet de-
pressions. The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf
pine, live oak, laurel oak, red oak, white oak, hickory,
sweetgum, dogwood, and an understory of woody shrubs
and grasses.
This map unit makes up about 124,000 acres, or 21
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent Orangeburg
soils, 25 percent Dothan soils, 10 percent Red Bay soils,
and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
Orangeburg soils are well drained. Typically, they have
a surface layer of brown loamy sand. The subsoil is
yellowish red and red sandy clay loam.
Dothan soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark grayish brown loamy sand. The
subsoil is sandy clay loam. The upper 49 inches is yel-
lowish brown. The lower 22 inches is mottled brown, red,
yellow, and gray.
Red Bay soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of dark reddish brown fine sandy loam and a sub-
soil of dark red sandy clay loam.
Minor in this unit are Fuquay, Tifton, Faceville, Esto,
Greenville, Grady, and Leefield soils.
Most areas have been cleared for cultivation. A few
have been replanted to slash pine.
5. Greenville-Faceville
Gently sloping to strongly sloping well drained soils,
loamy or sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches and
clayey below


This map unit is on uplands. It occurs on two areas in
the central part of the county northwest of Marianna.
The larger is about 9 miles long and 1 to 5 miles wide.
The unit is interspersed with areas of poorly drained soils
along creeks. It includes most of Marianna.
The landscape is one of gently sloping to sloping
ridges and some strongly sloping hillsides along well
developed creeks and branches. The natural vegetation
is slash and longleaf pine, hickory, dogwood, magnolia,
live oak, laurel oak, white oak, water oak, sweetgum, and
an understory of woody shrubs and grasses.
This unit makes up about 25,000 acres, or 4 percent
of the county. It is about 45 percent Greenville soils, 30
percent Faceville soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
extent.
Greenville soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of dark reddish brown fine sandy loam. The subsoil,
within a depth of 20 inches, is dark red sandy clay.
Faceville soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil is sandy clay
that is red in the upper part and mottled in the lower
part.
Minor in this unit are Oktibbeha, Esto, Wicksburg, Red
Bay, Grady, Tifton, Dothan, Orangeburg, and Chipola
soils.
Most areas have been cleared for cultivation. Some
are under urban development.

6. Dothan-Clarendon-Compass
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained to some-
what poorly drained soils, some sandy to a depth of less
than 20 inches and loamy below, some sandy to 20 to
40 inches and loamy and clayey below
This map unit is on moderately high uplands. The
largest area is in the western and northwestern part of
the county. Another large area is between the communi-
ties of Sneads and Cypress. Small areas are in other
parts of the county, but none occur in the northern half
east of U.S. Highway 231. The unit is interspersed with
shallow depressions of poorly drained soils. It includes
the communities of Sneads, Cypress, Alford, and Cotton-
dale.
The landscape is one of nearly level to gently sloping,
moderately high ridges, sloping to strongly sloping hill-
sides along drainageways and depressions, poorly de-
fined drainageways, and small to large swampy depres-
sions. The native vegetation is slash and longleaf pine,
white oak, red oak, laurel oak, live oak, water oak, hick-
ory, dogwood, sweetgum, and an understory of woody
shrubs and grasses.
This unit makes up about 119,000 acres, or 20 percent
of the county. It is about 45 percent Dothan soils, 10
percent Clarendon soils, 9 percent Compass soils, and
36 percent soils of minor extent.
Dothan soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark grayish brown loamy sand. The







SOIL SURVEY


and reddish yellow loamy coarse sand. The subsoil is
red coarse sandy loam.
Troup soils are well drained. They have a surface layer
of light yellowish brown sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 57 inches, is brownish yellow, pale
brown, and reddish yellow sand. The subsoil is yellowish
red sandy loam.
Minor in this unit are Blanton, Bonifay, Dothan, Oran-
geburg, Red Bay, Esto, Wicksburg, Grady, Plummer,
Tifton, and Faceville soils.
Most areas have been cleared for cultivation or re-
planted to slash pine.

4. Orangeburg-Dothan-Red Bay
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained sandy or
loamy soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of
20 inches
This map unit is on uplands. It occurs in all parts of
the county but the extreme southwest corner. The larg-
est areas are in the central and northwestern parts.
Individual areas are irregular in shape and vary widely in
size. The largest is about 19 miles long and one-half mile
to 14 miles wide. This unit includes the town of Grace-
ville.
This unit is nearly level to gently sloping in most areas
but is sloping to strongly sloping along drainageways.
There is a fairly well developed drainage system of
creeks and branches. In some areas, there are wet de-
pressions. The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf
pine, live oak, laurel oak, red oak, white oak, hickory,
sweetgum, dogwood, and an understory of woody shrubs
and grasses.
This map unit makes up about 124,000 acres, or 21
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent Orangeburg
soils, 25 percent Dothan soils, 10 percent Red Bay soils,
and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
Orangeburg soils are well drained. Typically, they have
a surface layer of brown loamy sand. The subsoil is
yellowish red and red sandy clay loam.
Dothan soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark grayish brown loamy sand. The
subsoil is sandy clay loam. The upper 49 inches is yel-
lowish brown. The lower 22 inches is mottled brown, red,
yellow, and gray.
Red Bay soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of dark reddish brown fine sandy loam and a sub-
soil of dark red sandy clay loam.
Minor in this unit are Fuquay, Tifton, Faceville, Esto,
Greenville, Grady, and Leefield soils.
Most areas have been cleared for cultivation. A few
have been replanted to slash pine.
5. Greenville-Faceville
Gently sloping to strongly sloping well drained soils,
loamy or sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches and
clayey below


This map unit is on uplands. It occurs on two areas in
the central part of the county northwest of Marianna.
The larger is about 9 miles long and 1 to 5 miles wide.
The unit is interspersed with areas of poorly drained soils
along creeks. It includes most of Marianna.
The landscape is one of gently sloping to sloping
ridges and some strongly sloping hillsides along well
developed creeks and branches. The natural vegetation
is slash and longleaf pine, hickory, dogwood, magnolia,
live oak, laurel oak, white oak, water oak, sweetgum, and
an understory of woody shrubs and grasses.
This unit makes up about 25,000 acres, or 4 percent
of the county. It is about 45 percent Greenville soils, 30
percent Faceville soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
extent.
Greenville soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of dark reddish brown fine sandy loam. The subsoil,
within a depth of 20 inches, is dark red sandy clay.
Faceville soils are well drained. They have a surface
layer of brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil is sandy clay
that is red in the upper part and mottled in the lower
part.
Minor in this unit are Oktibbeha, Esto, Wicksburg, Red
Bay, Grady, Tifton, Dothan, Orangeburg, and Chipola
soils.
Most areas have been cleared for cultivation. Some
are under urban development.

6. Dothan-Clarendon-Compass
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained to some-
what poorly drained soils, some sandy to a depth of less
than 20 inches and loamy below, some sandy to 20 to
40 inches and loamy and clayey below
This map unit is on moderately high uplands. The
largest area is in the western and northwestern part of
the county. Another large area is between the communi-
ties of Sneads and Cypress. Small areas are in other
parts of the county, but none occur in the northern half
east of U.S. Highway 231. The unit is interspersed with
shallow depressions of poorly drained soils. It includes
the communities of Sneads, Cypress, Alford, and Cotton-
dale.
The landscape is one of nearly level to gently sloping,
moderately high ridges, sloping to strongly sloping hill-
sides along drainageways and depressions, poorly de-
fined drainageways, and small to large swampy depres-
sions. The native vegetation is slash and longleaf pine,
white oak, red oak, laurel oak, live oak, water oak, hick-
ory, dogwood, sweetgum, and an understory of woody
shrubs and grasses.
This unit makes up about 119,000 acres, or 20 percent
of the county. It is about 45 percent Dothan soils, 10
percent Clarendon soils, 9 percent Compass soils, and
36 percent soils of minor extent.
Dothan soils are well drained. Typically, they have a
surface layer of dark grayish brown loamy sand. The













JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


subsoil is sandy clay loam. The upper 49 inches is yel-
lowish brown, and the lower 22 inches is mottled brown,
red, yell w, and gray.
Compass soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand. The subsur-
face laydr is yellowish brown and yellow sandy loam to a
depth of 22 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
brownish yellow sandy loam and yellowish brown sandy
clay loar. The lower part is mottled gray, yellow, brown,
and red sandy clay and clay.
Clarendon soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typical-
ly, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine
sandy loam. The subsurface layer is light yellowish
brown fine sandy loam. The upper part of the subsoil is
light yellowish brown fine sandy loam mottled with
brown, gray, red, and yellow. The lower part is light gray
sandy cl y loam.
Minor n this unit are Grady, Leefield, Pansey, Alapaha,
Fuquay, Orangeburg, Tifton, and Albany soils.
Much of the acreage has been cleared for crops and
improved pasture. Some areas have been planted to
pines. Others are under urban development.

Soils of the low flatwoods
The two map units in this group are moderately well
drained to poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soils of the low flatwoods. Some are clayey within a
depth of 20 inches. Some are sandy to 20 to 40 inches
and loamy or clayey below. Others are sandy to 40 to 80
inches and loamy below. These soils are chiefly in the
extreme northeastern and eastern parts of the county
adjacent to the Apalachicola River flood plain. They
occur to lesser extent in other parts of the county, but
none are in the southwestern part.

7. Hornsville-Duplin-Bethera
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
and poorly drained soils, loamy or silty to a depth of less
than 20 inches and clayey below
This map unit is in low flatwoods. It occurs as one
area about 17 miles long and 1 to 3 miles wide in the
eastern part of the county along the Chattahoochee
River flood plain. It is interspersed with scattered depres-
sions of very poorly drained soils.
The landscape is one of broad, nearly level to gently
sloping low flatwoods. The native vegetation is loblolly
pine, longleaf pine, slash pine, sweetgum, blackgum,
water oak, live oak, laurel oak, hickory, dogwood, and an
understory of woody shrubs and grasses.
This unit makes up about 18,000 acres, or 3 percent
of the county. It is about 35 percent Hornsville soils, 35
percent Duplin soils, 15 percent Bethera soils, and 15
percent .inor soils.
Hornsville soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray fine sandy loam 6 inches


thick. The subsurface layer is very pale brown fine sandy
loam 4 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay. The
upper part is yellowish brown, and the lower part is
mottled brown, gray, and red.
Duplin soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam 9 inches
thick. The upper 8 inches of the subsoil is light yellowish
brown sandy clay loam. Below this is light yellowish
brown and yellowish brown clay mottled with yellow,
brown, red, and gray. The lower part is mottled red, gray,
brown, and yellow clay.
Bethera soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray silt loam 4 inches thick. The
subsoil is light gray clay loam in the upper part and light
gray clay in the lower part.
Minor in this unit are Grady, Apalachee, Tifton, Ala-
paha, Clarendon, Orangeburg, and Chipola soils.
Most of this unit is wooded. A few acres have been
cleared and cultivated or seeded to improved pasture.
Some areas have been cleared and replanted to slash
pine.

8. Clarendon-Compass-Plummer
Nearly level to strongly sloping, moderately well drained
to poorly drained soils, some sandy to a depth of less
than 20 inches and loamy below, some sandy to 20 to
40 inches and loamy and clayey below, some sandy to
more than 40 inches and loamy below
This map unit is in low flatwoods. It occurs as several
widely scattered areas, dominantly in the southeastern
part of the county. Individual areas are irregular in shape.
Many are adjacent to steeper hillsides. The unit is inter-
spersed with very poorly drained soils in swamps. It
includes Ocheesee Pond and part of the community of
Grand Ridge.
The landscape is dominantly one of nearly level to
sloping areas and a few strongly sloping hillsides. Scat-
tered depressions and swamps are typical throughout
most areas. The natural vegetation on the moderately
well drained and somewhat poorly drained soils is mostly
slash and longleaf pine, sweetgum, water oak, laurel
oak, live oak, and an understory of woody shrubs and
grasses. Slash and longleaf pine, sweetgum, water oak,
blackgum, and cypress grow on the poorly drained soils.
This map unit makes up about 35,000 acres, or 6
percent of the county. It is about 20 percent Clarendon
soils, 20 percent Compass soils, 20 percent Plummer
soils, and 40 percent minor soils.
Clarendon soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typical-
ly, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine
sandy loam and the subsurface layer is light yellowish
brown fine sandy loam. The upper part of the subsoil is
light yellowish brown fine sandy loam mottled with
brown, gray, red, and yellow. The lower part is light gray
sandy clay loam.













JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


subsoil is sandy clay loam. The upper 49 inches is yel-
lowish brown, and the lower 22 inches is mottled brown,
red, yell w, and gray.
Compass soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand. The subsur-
face laydr is yellowish brown and yellow sandy loam to a
depth of 22 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
brownish yellow sandy loam and yellowish brown sandy
clay loar. The lower part is mottled gray, yellow, brown,
and red sandy clay and clay.
Clarendon soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typical-
ly, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine
sandy loam. The subsurface layer is light yellowish
brown fine sandy loam. The upper part of the subsoil is
light yellowish brown fine sandy loam mottled with
brown, gray, red, and yellow. The lower part is light gray
sandy cl y loam.
Minor n this unit are Grady, Leefield, Pansey, Alapaha,
Fuquay, Orangeburg, Tifton, and Albany soils.
Much of the acreage has been cleared for crops and
improved pasture. Some areas have been planted to
pines. Others are under urban development.

Soils of the low flatwoods
The two map units in this group are moderately well
drained to poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soils of the low flatwoods. Some are clayey within a
depth of 20 inches. Some are sandy to 20 to 40 inches
and loamy or clayey below. Others are sandy to 40 to 80
inches and loamy below. These soils are chiefly in the
extreme northeastern and eastern parts of the county
adjacent to the Apalachicola River flood plain. They
occur to lesser extent in other parts of the county, but
none are in the southwestern part.

7. Hornsville-Duplin-Bethera
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
and poorly drained soils, loamy or silty to a depth of less
than 20 inches and clayey below
This map unit is in low flatwoods. It occurs as one
area about 17 miles long and 1 to 3 miles wide in the
eastern part of the county along the Chattahoochee
River flood plain. It is interspersed with scattered depres-
sions of very poorly drained soils.
The landscape is one of broad, nearly level to gently
sloping low flatwoods. The native vegetation is loblolly
pine, longleaf pine, slash pine, sweetgum, blackgum,
water oak, live oak, laurel oak, hickory, dogwood, and an
understory of woody shrubs and grasses.
This unit makes up about 18,000 acres, or 3 percent
of the county. It is about 35 percent Hornsville soils, 35
percent Duplin soils, 15 percent Bethera soils, and 15
percent .inor soils.
Hornsville soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray fine sandy loam 6 inches


thick. The subsurface layer is very pale brown fine sandy
loam 4 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay. The
upper part is yellowish brown, and the lower part is
mottled brown, gray, and red.
Duplin soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam 9 inches
thick. The upper 8 inches of the subsoil is light yellowish
brown sandy clay loam. Below this is light yellowish
brown and yellowish brown clay mottled with yellow,
brown, red, and gray. The lower part is mottled red, gray,
brown, and yellow clay.
Bethera soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray silt loam 4 inches thick. The
subsoil is light gray clay loam in the upper part and light
gray clay in the lower part.
Minor in this unit are Grady, Apalachee, Tifton, Ala-
paha, Clarendon, Orangeburg, and Chipola soils.
Most of this unit is wooded. A few acres have been
cleared and cultivated or seeded to improved pasture.
Some areas have been cleared and replanted to slash
pine.

8. Clarendon-Compass-Plummer
Nearly level to strongly sloping, moderately well drained
to poorly drained soils, some sandy to a depth of less
than 20 inches and loamy below, some sandy to 20 to
40 inches and loamy and clayey below, some sandy to
more than 40 inches and loamy below
This map unit is in low flatwoods. It occurs as several
widely scattered areas, dominantly in the southeastern
part of the county. Individual areas are irregular in shape.
Many are adjacent to steeper hillsides. The unit is inter-
spersed with very poorly drained soils in swamps. It
includes Ocheesee Pond and part of the community of
Grand Ridge.
The landscape is dominantly one of nearly level to
sloping areas and a few strongly sloping hillsides. Scat-
tered depressions and swamps are typical throughout
most areas. The natural vegetation on the moderately
well drained and somewhat poorly drained soils is mostly
slash and longleaf pine, sweetgum, water oak, laurel
oak, live oak, and an understory of woody shrubs and
grasses. Slash and longleaf pine, sweetgum, water oak,
blackgum, and cypress grow on the poorly drained soils.
This map unit makes up about 35,000 acres, or 6
percent of the county. It is about 20 percent Clarendon
soils, 20 percent Compass soils, 20 percent Plummer
soils, and 40 percent minor soils.
Clarendon soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typical-
ly, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine
sandy loam and the subsurface layer is light yellowish
brown fine sandy loam. The upper part of the subsoil is
light yellowish brown fine sandy loam mottled with
brown, gray, red, and yellow. The lower part is light gray
sandy clay loam.













JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


subsoil is sandy clay loam. The upper 49 inches is yel-
lowish brown, and the lower 22 inches is mottled brown,
red, yell w, and gray.
Compass soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand. The subsur-
face laydr is yellowish brown and yellow sandy loam to a
depth of 22 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
brownish yellow sandy loam and yellowish brown sandy
clay loar. The lower part is mottled gray, yellow, brown,
and red sandy clay and clay.
Clarendon soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typical-
ly, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine
sandy loam. The subsurface layer is light yellowish
brown fine sandy loam. The upper part of the subsoil is
light yellowish brown fine sandy loam mottled with
brown, gray, red, and yellow. The lower part is light gray
sandy cl y loam.
Minor n this unit are Grady, Leefield, Pansey, Alapaha,
Fuquay, Orangeburg, Tifton, and Albany soils.
Much of the acreage has been cleared for crops and
improved pasture. Some areas have been planted to
pines. Others are under urban development.

Soils of the low flatwoods
The two map units in this group are moderately well
drained to poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soils of the low flatwoods. Some are clayey within a
depth of 20 inches. Some are sandy to 20 to 40 inches
and loamy or clayey below. Others are sandy to 40 to 80
inches and loamy below. These soils are chiefly in the
extreme northeastern and eastern parts of the county
adjacent to the Apalachicola River flood plain. They
occur to lesser extent in other parts of the county, but
none are in the southwestern part.

7. Hornsville-Duplin-Bethera
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
and poorly drained soils, loamy or silty to a depth of less
than 20 inches and clayey below
This map unit is in low flatwoods. It occurs as one
area about 17 miles long and 1 to 3 miles wide in the
eastern part of the county along the Chattahoochee
River flood plain. It is interspersed with scattered depres-
sions of very poorly drained soils.
The landscape is one of broad, nearly level to gently
sloping low flatwoods. The native vegetation is loblolly
pine, longleaf pine, slash pine, sweetgum, blackgum,
water oak, live oak, laurel oak, hickory, dogwood, and an
understory of woody shrubs and grasses.
This unit makes up about 18,000 acres, or 3 percent
of the county. It is about 35 percent Hornsville soils, 35
percent Duplin soils, 15 percent Bethera soils, and 15
percent .inor soils.
Hornsville soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray fine sandy loam 6 inches


thick. The subsurface layer is very pale brown fine sandy
loam 4 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay. The
upper part is yellowish brown, and the lower part is
mottled brown, gray, and red.
Duplin soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam 9 inches
thick. The upper 8 inches of the subsoil is light yellowish
brown sandy clay loam. Below this is light yellowish
brown and yellowish brown clay mottled with yellow,
brown, red, and gray. The lower part is mottled red, gray,
brown, and yellow clay.
Bethera soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark gray silt loam 4 inches thick. The
subsoil is light gray clay loam in the upper part and light
gray clay in the lower part.
Minor in this unit are Grady, Apalachee, Tifton, Ala-
paha, Clarendon, Orangeburg, and Chipola soils.
Most of this unit is wooded. A few acres have been
cleared and cultivated or seeded to improved pasture.
Some areas have been cleared and replanted to slash
pine.

8. Clarendon-Compass-Plummer
Nearly level to strongly sloping, moderately well drained
to poorly drained soils, some sandy to a depth of less
than 20 inches and loamy below, some sandy to 20 to
40 inches and loamy and clayey below, some sandy to
more than 40 inches and loamy below
This map unit is in low flatwoods. It occurs as several
widely scattered areas, dominantly in the southeastern
part of the county. Individual areas are irregular in shape.
Many are adjacent to steeper hillsides. The unit is inter-
spersed with very poorly drained soils in swamps. It
includes Ocheesee Pond and part of the community of
Grand Ridge.
The landscape is dominantly one of nearly level to
sloping areas and a few strongly sloping hillsides. Scat-
tered depressions and swamps are typical throughout
most areas. The natural vegetation on the moderately
well drained and somewhat poorly drained soils is mostly
slash and longleaf pine, sweetgum, water oak, laurel
oak, live oak, and an understory of woody shrubs and
grasses. Slash and longleaf pine, sweetgum, water oak,
blackgum, and cypress grow on the poorly drained soils.
This map unit makes up about 35,000 acres, or 6
percent of the county. It is about 20 percent Clarendon
soils, 20 percent Compass soils, 20 percent Plummer
soils, and 40 percent minor soils.
Clarendon soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typical-
ly, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine
sandy loam and the subsurface layer is light yellowish
brown fine sandy loam. The upper part of the subsoil is
light yellowish brown fine sandy loam mottled with
brown, gray, red, and yellow. The lower part is light gray
sandy clay loam.







SOIL SURVEY


Compass soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand. The subsur-
face layer, extending to a depth of 22 inches, is yellow-
ish brown and yellow sandy loam. The upper part of the
subsoil is brownish yellow sandy loam and yellowish
brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is mottled gray,
yellow, brown, and red sandy clay and clay.
Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
face layer is dark gray sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 56 inches, is dark grayish brown,
gray, and light gray sand. The subsoil is light gray sandy
clay loam mottled with yellow, brown, and red.
Minor in this unit are Leefield, Alapaha, Albany, Blan-
ton, Pansey, Grady, Compass, Dorovan, Pamlico, and
Rutlege soils.
Much of this unit is still in natural vegetation. Some
areas have been cleared for crops and improved pas-
ture. Others have been planted to pine trees.

Soils of the swamps, very wet areas, and
river flood plains
The map unit in this group consists of poorly drained
and very poorly drained, nearly level soils in depressions
and on river flood plains. Some are organic soils under-
lain by sandy material. Others are loamy and clayey
within a depth of 20 inches.

9. Grady-Bibb-Pamlico
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
soils, some sandy or loamy to a depth of less than 20
inches and clayey or loamy below, others organic over
sandy material
This map unit is on river flood plains, in depressions,
and in swamps. Areas of the unit are most common in
the central and western parts of the county, but one is in
the southeastern part along the Apalachicola River. The
largest area is along the Chipola River flood plain. Most
areas are long and narrow. Streams and rivers are
common.
This unit is nearly level. Many areas are in depres-
sions. The natural vegetation is mostly wetland hard-
woods, such as sweetbay, sweetgum, red maple, water
oak, water tupelo, blackgum, poplar, and in places, cy-
press and titi.
This unit makes up about 62,000 acres, or 10 percent
of the county. It is about 26 percent Grady soils, 18
percent Bibb soils, 10 percent Pamlico soils, and 46
percent soils of minor extent.
Grady soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark gray fine sandy loam. The subsoil is grayish
brown clay in the upper part and gray clay mottled with
yellow, red, and brown in the lower part.
Bibb soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark grayish brown loamy sand. Below this


is gray sandy loam over light brownish gray, stratified
loamy sand and sandy loam.
Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
are black muck about 36 inches thick over very dark
grayish brown sand.
Minor in this unit are the Apalachee, Dorovan, Rutlege,
Bethera, Alapaha, Pansey, Clarendon, Herod, and
Yonges soils.
Almost all of this unit is still in natural vegetation.


Soil maps for detailed planning
The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the
back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the
survey area. They are described in this section. The
descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in
determining the potential of a soil and in managing it for
food and fiber production; in planning land use and de-
veloping soil resources; and in enhancing, protecting,
and preserving the environment. More information for
each map unit, or soil, is given in the section "Use and
management of the soils."
Preceding the name of each map unit is the symbol
that identifies the soil on the detailed soil maps. Each
soil description includes general facts about the soil and
a brief description of the soil profile. In each description,
the principal hazards and limitations are indicated, and
the management concerns and practices needed are
discussed.
The potential of a soil is the ability of that soil to
produce, yield, or support the given structure or activity
at a cost expressed in economic, social, or environmen-
tal units of value. The criteria used for rating soil poten-
tial include the relative difficulty or cost of overcoming
soil limitations, the continuing limitations after measures
in general use in overcoming the limitations are applied,
and the suitability of the soil relative to other soils in
Jackson County.
A five-class system of soil potential is used. The
classes are defined as follows:
Very high potential Soil limitations are minor or are
relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the intend-
ed use is excellent. Soils rated with very high potential
are the best in the county for the particular use.
High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but prac-
tices necessary to overcome the limitations are available
at reasonable cost. Performance for the intended use is
good.
Medium potential. Soil limitations exist and can be
overcome with recommended practices; limitations, how-
ever, are mostly of a continuing nature and require prac-
tices that have to be maintained or that are more difficult
or costly than average. Performance for the intended use
ranges from fair to good.
Low potential. Serious soil limitations exist, and they
are difficult to overcome. Practices necessary to over-







SOIL SURVEY


Compass soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand. The subsur-
face layer, extending to a depth of 22 inches, is yellow-
ish brown and yellow sandy loam. The upper part of the
subsoil is brownish yellow sandy loam and yellowish
brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is mottled gray,
yellow, brown, and red sandy clay and clay.
Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
face layer is dark gray sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 56 inches, is dark grayish brown,
gray, and light gray sand. The subsoil is light gray sandy
clay loam mottled with yellow, brown, and red.
Minor in this unit are Leefield, Alapaha, Albany, Blan-
ton, Pansey, Grady, Compass, Dorovan, Pamlico, and
Rutlege soils.
Much of this unit is still in natural vegetation. Some
areas have been cleared for crops and improved pas-
ture. Others have been planted to pine trees.

Soils of the swamps, very wet areas, and
river flood plains
The map unit in this group consists of poorly drained
and very poorly drained, nearly level soils in depressions
and on river flood plains. Some are organic soils under-
lain by sandy material. Others are loamy and clayey
within a depth of 20 inches.

9. Grady-Bibb-Pamlico
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
soils, some sandy or loamy to a depth of less than 20
inches and clayey or loamy below, others organic over
sandy material
This map unit is on river flood plains, in depressions,
and in swamps. Areas of the unit are most common in
the central and western parts of the county, but one is in
the southeastern part along the Apalachicola River. The
largest area is along the Chipola River flood plain. Most
areas are long and narrow. Streams and rivers are
common.
This unit is nearly level. Many areas are in depres-
sions. The natural vegetation is mostly wetland hard-
woods, such as sweetbay, sweetgum, red maple, water
oak, water tupelo, blackgum, poplar, and in places, cy-
press and titi.
This unit makes up about 62,000 acres, or 10 percent
of the county. It is about 26 percent Grady soils, 18
percent Bibb soils, 10 percent Pamlico soils, and 46
percent soils of minor extent.
Grady soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark gray fine sandy loam. The subsoil is grayish
brown clay in the upper part and gray clay mottled with
yellow, red, and brown in the lower part.
Bibb soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark grayish brown loamy sand. Below this


is gray sandy loam over light brownish gray, stratified
loamy sand and sandy loam.
Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
are black muck about 36 inches thick over very dark
grayish brown sand.
Minor in this unit are the Apalachee, Dorovan, Rutlege,
Bethera, Alapaha, Pansey, Clarendon, Herod, and
Yonges soils.
Almost all of this unit is still in natural vegetation.


Soil maps for detailed planning
The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the
back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the
survey area. They are described in this section. The
descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in
determining the potential of a soil and in managing it for
food and fiber production; in planning land use and de-
veloping soil resources; and in enhancing, protecting,
and preserving the environment. More information for
each map unit, or soil, is given in the section "Use and
management of the soils."
Preceding the name of each map unit is the symbol
that identifies the soil on the detailed soil maps. Each
soil description includes general facts about the soil and
a brief description of the soil profile. In each description,
the principal hazards and limitations are indicated, and
the management concerns and practices needed are
discussed.
The potential of a soil is the ability of that soil to
produce, yield, or support the given structure or activity
at a cost expressed in economic, social, or environmen-
tal units of value. The criteria used for rating soil poten-
tial include the relative difficulty or cost of overcoming
soil limitations, the continuing limitations after measures
in general use in overcoming the limitations are applied,
and the suitability of the soil relative to other soils in
Jackson County.
A five-class system of soil potential is used. The
classes are defined as follows:
Very high potential Soil limitations are minor or are
relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the intend-
ed use is excellent. Soils rated with very high potential
are the best in the county for the particular use.
High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but prac-
tices necessary to overcome the limitations are available
at reasonable cost. Performance for the intended use is
good.
Medium potential. Soil limitations exist and can be
overcome with recommended practices; limitations, how-
ever, are mostly of a continuing nature and require prac-
tices that have to be maintained or that are more difficult
or costly than average. Performance for the intended use
ranges from fair to good.
Low potential. Serious soil limitations exist, and they
are difficult to overcome. Practices necessary to over-







SOIL SURVEY


Compass soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand. The subsur-
face layer, extending to a depth of 22 inches, is yellow-
ish brown and yellow sandy loam. The upper part of the
subsoil is brownish yellow sandy loam and yellowish
brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is mottled gray,
yellow, brown, and red sandy clay and clay.
Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
face layer is dark gray sand. The subsurface layer, ex-
tending to a depth of 56 inches, is dark grayish brown,
gray, and light gray sand. The subsoil is light gray sandy
clay loam mottled with yellow, brown, and red.
Minor in this unit are Leefield, Alapaha, Albany, Blan-
ton, Pansey, Grady, Compass, Dorovan, Pamlico, and
Rutlege soils.
Much of this unit is still in natural vegetation. Some
areas have been cleared for crops and improved pas-
ture. Others have been planted to pine trees.

Soils of the swamps, very wet areas, and
river flood plains
The map unit in this group consists of poorly drained
and very poorly drained, nearly level soils in depressions
and on river flood plains. Some are organic soils under-
lain by sandy material. Others are loamy and clayey
within a depth of 20 inches.

9. Grady-Bibb-Pamlico
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
soils, some sandy or loamy to a depth of less than 20
inches and clayey or loamy below, others organic over
sandy material
This map unit is on river flood plains, in depressions,
and in swamps. Areas of the unit are most common in
the central and western parts of the county, but one is in
the southeastern part along the Apalachicola River. The
largest area is along the Chipola River flood plain. Most
areas are long and narrow. Streams and rivers are
common.
This unit is nearly level. Many areas are in depres-
sions. The natural vegetation is mostly wetland hard-
woods, such as sweetbay, sweetgum, red maple, water
oak, water tupelo, blackgum, poplar, and in places, cy-
press and titi.
This unit makes up about 62,000 acres, or 10 percent
of the county. It is about 26 percent Grady soils, 18
percent Bibb soils, 10 percent Pamlico soils, and 46
percent soils of minor extent.
Grady soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark gray fine sandy loam. The subsoil is grayish
brown clay in the upper part and gray clay mottled with
yellow, red, and brown in the lower part.
Bibb soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is very dark grayish brown loamy sand. Below this


is gray sandy loam over light brownish gray, stratified
loamy sand and sandy loam.
Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
are black muck about 36 inches thick over very dark
grayish brown sand.
Minor in this unit are the Apalachee, Dorovan, Rutlege,
Bethera, Alapaha, Pansey, Clarendon, Herod, and
Yonges soils.
Almost all of this unit is still in natural vegetation.


Soil maps for detailed planning
The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the
back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the
survey area. They are described in this section. The
descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in
determining the potential of a soil and in managing it for
food and fiber production; in planning land use and de-
veloping soil resources; and in enhancing, protecting,
and preserving the environment. More information for
each map unit, or soil, is given in the section "Use and
management of the soils."
Preceding the name of each map unit is the symbol
that identifies the soil on the detailed soil maps. Each
soil description includes general facts about the soil and
a brief description of the soil profile. In each description,
the principal hazards and limitations are indicated, and
the management concerns and practices needed are
discussed.
The potential of a soil is the ability of that soil to
produce, yield, or support the given structure or activity
at a cost expressed in economic, social, or environmen-
tal units of value. The criteria used for rating soil poten-
tial include the relative difficulty or cost of overcoming
soil limitations, the continuing limitations after measures
in general use in overcoming the limitations are applied,
and the suitability of the soil relative to other soils in
Jackson County.
A five-class system of soil potential is used. The
classes are defined as follows:
Very high potential Soil limitations are minor or are
relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the intend-
ed use is excellent. Soils rated with very high potential
are the best in the county for the particular use.
High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but prac-
tices necessary to overcome the limitations are available
at reasonable cost. Performance for the intended use is
good.
Medium potential. Soil limitations exist and can be
overcome with recommended practices; limitations, how-
ever, are mostly of a continuing nature and require prac-
tices that have to be maintained or that are more difficult
or costly than average. Performance for the intended use
ranges from fair to good.
Low potential. Serious soil limitations exist, and they
are difficult to overcome. Practices necessary to over-








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


come the limitations are relatively costly compared to
those required for soils of higher potential. Necessary
practices can involve environmental values and consider-
ations. Performance for the intended use is poor or unre-
liable.
Very low potential Very serious soil limitations exist,
and they are most difficult to overcome. Initial cost of
practices and cost of maintenance are very high com-
pared to those of soils with high potential. Environmental
values are usually depreciated. Performance for the in-
tended use is inadequate or below acceptable standards.
The map units on the detailed soil maps represent an
area on the landscape made up mostly of the soil or
soils for Which the unit is named. Most of the delinea-
tions shown on the detailed soil map are phases of soil
series.
Soils that have a profile that is almost alike make up a
soil series. Except for allowable differences in texture of
the surface layer or of the underlying substratum, all the
soils of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement in the profile. A
soil series commonly is named for a town or geographic
feature near the place where a soil of that series was
first observed and mapped. The Chipola series, for ex-
ample, was named for the Chipola River in Jackson
County. I
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or in the underlying substratum and in slope, ero-
sion, stoniness, salinity, wetness, or other characteristics
that affect their use. On the basis of such differences, a
soil series is divided into phases. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Compass loamy sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes, is one of several phases within the Com-
pass series.
Some rpap units are made up of two or more dominant
kinds of soil. Such map units are called soil complexes,
soil associations, and undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils
that are so intricately mixed or so small in size that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil map. Each area
includes some of each of the two or more dominant
soils, and the pattern and proportion are somewhat simi-
lar in all areas. Wicksburg-Esto complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, is an example.
A soil association is made up of soils that are geo-
graphically associated and are shown as one unit on the
map because it is not practical to separate them. A soil
association has considerable regularity in geographic
pattern and in the kinds of soil that are a part of it. The
extent of the soils can differ appreciably from one delin-
eation to another; nevertheless, interpretations can be
made for use and management of the soils. Yonges-
Herod association is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because there is little value in separating


them. The pattern and proportion of the soils are not
uniform. An area shown on the map has at least one of
the dominant (named) soils or may have all of them.
Bibb soils is an undifferentiated group in this survey
area.
Most map units include small, scattered areas of soils
other than those that appear in the name of the map
unit. Some of these soils have properties that differ sub-
stantially from those of the dominant soil or soils and
thus could significantly affect use and management of
the map unit. These soils are described in the descrip-
tion of each map unit. Some of the more unusual or
strongly contrasting soils that are included are identified
by a special symbol on the soil map.
Most mapped areas include places that have little or
no soil material and support little or no vegetation. Such
places are called miscellaneous areas; they are delineat-
ed on the soil map and given descriptive names. Pits is
an example. Some of these areas are too small to be
delineated and are identified by a special symbol on the
soil map.
The acreage and proportionate extent of each map
unit are given in table 4, and additional information on
properties, limitations, capabilities, and potentials for
many soil uses is given for each kind of soil in other
tables in this survey. (See "Summary of tables.") Many
of the terms used in describing soils are defined in the
Glossary.

Soil descriptions

1-Alapaha loamy sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in wet depressions and along poorly defined
drainageways in the flatwoods. Slopes are 0 to 2 per-
cent. They are smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are loamy
sand about 34 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is black,
the next 6 inches is dark gray, and the lower 22 inches
is gray. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 62
inches or more. The upper 14 inches is light gray mottled
with yellowish brown, strong brown, red, and light yellow-
ish brown. The lower 14 inches has similar colors, and is
about 20 percent plinthite.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pansey, Leefield, and Clarendon soils and small areas
where the subsoil is sandy clay. Small areas of soils that
are similar but have slopes of 2 to 5 percent are also
included. The included soils make up less than 20 per-
cent of any one mapped area.
In most years, the water table is within a depth of 5
inches for 3 to 6 months and most areas are flooded for
1 to 2 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderately slow in the subsoil.
Internal drainage is slow; it is impeded by the shallow
water table. Natural fertility and the organic matter con-








SOIL SURVEY


tent are moderate in the top 8 inches but are low below
8 inches.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine, scat-
tered sweetgum, blackgum, water oak, and red maple,
and an understory of scattered inkberry, waxmyrtle, a
few sawpalmetto, and abundant pineland threeawn. Most
areas are cutover forest or woodland.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops or im-
proved pasture.
This soil has high potential for loblolly, longleaf, and
slash pine, but a good water control system to remove
excess water is needed if the potential productivity is to
be realized. The equipment limitation is the main man-
agement concern. Slash and loblolly pine are the most
suitable for planting.
The potential is medium for septic tank absorption
fields, playgrounds, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and shallow excavations. The poten-
tial is low for trench sanitary landfill and dwellings with-
out basements. Water control and control of flooding or
protection from ponding are needed. In addition, mound-
ing is needed for septic tank absorption fields.
Capability subclass Vw.

2-Albany sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This some-
what poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is
along poorly defined drainageways and on low side
slopes. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a
depth of about 46 inches. The upper 18 inches is pale
brown, and the lower 20 inches is light gray mottled with
pale brown. The upper 21 inches of the subsoil is light
yellowish brown sandy loam mottled with gray, red, and
yellow. In places the texture of this layer ranges to sandy
clay loam. The lower 13 inches is light gray sandy clay
loam mottled with yellow.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Fuquay, Lakeland, Leefield,
Compass, and Troup soils. Also included are small areas
of soils that have a thick, dark surface layer, a few small
areas that are better drained, and a few small areas of
soils that are similar but have slopes of 5 to 8 percent.
The included soils make up less than 15 percent of any
one mapped area.
The water table is between depths of 12 and 30
inches for 1 to 2 months in most years. Available water
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers
and low to medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in
the surface and subsurface layers and moderate to mod-
erately rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. The
organic matter content is generally medium to low, but in
a few small areas it is moderately high.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine and
some hardwoods, chiefly blackjack, post, and blue oak,
and an understory of inkberry, waxmyrtle, and pineland
threeawn.


Limitations are severe because of the hazards of ero-
sion and wetness. Intensive erosion control and water
control are needed. Row crops should be planted on the
contour in strips alternating with close growing crops.
The crop rotation should include close growing crops at
least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops
and all crop residue should be left on the land or plowed
under. Drains are needed to intercept hillside seepage
water. Drainage and bedding are needed for crops that
are damaged by wetness.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
crops. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are mod-
erately well suited, but response to fertilizer and lime is
only moderate. Controlled grazing is needed in maintain-
ing vigorous plants for maximum yields and a good
ground cover.
The potential is moderately high for loblolly, longleaf,
and slash pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mor-
tality are the main management problems. Loblolly and
slash pine are the most suitable for planting.
If water is controlled, the potential is high for septic
tank absorption fields, small commercial buildings, and
local roads and streets. It is medium for playgrounds,
dwellings without basements, and shallow excavations.
Mounding is needed for septic tank absorption fields,
and the side walls of shallow excavations should be
shored. The potential is low for sanitary landfills, even if
water is controlled.
Capability subclass Ille.
3-Apalachee clay. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is on flood plains along major streams and rivers.
Slopes are generally smooth and less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is reddish brown clay about
18 inches thick. The underlying layer is clay to a depth of
60 inches or more. The upper 7 inches is reddish brown
mottled with gray, dark reddish gray, and yellowish red.
Below 25 inches the mottles are dark yellowish brown,
gray, and yellowish red.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bethera, Blanton, Duplin, Esto, Grady, Hornsville, and
Wicksburg soils. Also included are small areas of soils
that are similar to this Apalachee soil but are somewhat
poorly drained. In a few areas there is less clay in the
lower part of the soil. The included soils make up less
than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
In most years the water table is within a depth of 20
inches for 3 to 6 months and the soil is flooded for 1 to
3 months in winter and spring. The available water ca-
pacity is medium to high. Permeability is slow. Internal
drainage is slow. Natural fertility is high in the top 16
inches, and the organic matter content is medium. Both
are low below 16 inches.
The natural vegetation is water-tolerant species, chief-
ly water oak, pond pine, water tupelo, blackgum, Ameri-
can sweetgum, water hickory, poplar, black willow,
American beech, black oak, sugar hackberry, and sweet-








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


bay magnolia. Most areas are under natural vegetation,
but most of the merchantable timber has been cut out or
harvested. Small areas have been cleared and planted
to pasture or utilized as native pasture.
This soil is not suited to crops and is only moderately
well suited to improved pasture. Frequent flooding and
wetness, the major limitations, are difficult to overcome.
Late in spring and in summer the soil is normally not
under water and can be utilized as pasture. If well man-
aged, it has high potential for good quality pasture.
The potential is high for slash and loblolly pine, sweet-
gum, water oak, and eastern cottonwood. Severe equip-
ment limitations and seedling mortality are the main limit-
ing factors. Slash and loblolly pine are the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is low for sanitary landfill and small com-
mercial buildings. Water and flood control are needed.
Larger footings and foundations are needed for small
commercial buildings. The potential is low for shallow
excavations even if water and flooding are controlled. It
is very low for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
local roads and streets, and dwellings without base-
ments. Water control and protection from flooding are
needed for all of these uses. In addition, a larger absorp-
tion field is needed for septic tanks. The surface should
be stabilized if the soil is to be used as a playground.
The structural strength should be increased if the soil is
used as a site for local roads and streets.
Capability subclass Vw.

4-Bethera silt loam. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is in low flatwood areas that are saturated or flooded
at some season. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. They are
commonly slightly convex, but in depressions they are
slightly concave.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray silt loam
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray silt
loam about 2 inches thick. The subsoil, which extends to
a depth of 72 inches or more, is light gray clay loam in
the upper 12 inches and light gray clay in the lower 54
inches. It is mottled with brown, red, and yellow.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Alapaha, Clarendon, Duplin, Hornsville, Grady, and
Pansey soils. Also included are a few areas of soils that
are similar to this Bethera soil but have a slightly strati-
fied clayey subsoil, a few areas where slopes are 3
percent, and a few small areas where the surface layer
is black and is more than 8 inches thick. The included
soils make up less than 15 percent of any one mapped
area.
The w ter table is within a depth of 15 inches for 3 to
5 months in most years. Some slightly depressed areas
are flooded annually for 1 to 3 months. The available
water capacity is medium to a depth of about 8 inches
and is moderately high below. Permeability is moderate
in the surface and subsurface layers and is moderately
slow to very slow in the subsoil. Internal drainage is


slow; it is impeded by the shallow water table. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are moderate to
moderately high in the top 8 inches but are low below 8
inches.
The natural vegetation is loblolly and slash pine,
sweetgum, blackgum, and water oak. The understory is
waxmyrtle, inkberry, scattered sawpalmetto, and pineland
threeawn. Most areas are cutover forest. A few have
been cleared for improved pasture. Some are used for
soybeans, corn, and small grain.
Limitations are very severe for cultivated crops be-
cause of wetness and poor soil quality. A good water
control system is needed before the soil can be made
suitable for most crops. It should be designed to remove
excess surface water during heavy rains as well as
excess internal water. Seedbed preparation should in-
clude bedding the rows. Fertilizing, liming, and keeping a
close growing, soil-improving crop on the soil at least
three-fourths of the time also are important. All crop
residue and soil-improving crops should be plowed
under.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture, for ex-
ample, Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass. Surface
drainage, fertilization, and lime are needed. Grazing
should be controlled so that plants remain vigorous and
yields high.
This soil has high potential for loblolly, slash, and
longleaf pine. Removal of excess surface water and
water control are needed if the potential productivity is to
be realized. Loblolly and slash pine are the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is low for septic tank absorption fields,
playgrounds, small commercial buildings, and shallow ex-
cavations. It is very low for trench sanitary landfills, local
roads and streets, and dwellings without basements.
Water control is needed for all of these uses. In addition,
mounding and larger absorption fields are needed for
septic tanks.
Capability subclass IVw.

5-Bibb soils. These are nearly level, poorly drained
soils in drainageways and on flood plains. The unit con-
sists of the Bibb soils and a similar soil that does not
occur in a regular pattern. One of these soils or both
make up about 80 percent of each mapped area. Areas
are mostly long and narrow and range from about 50 to
500 acres. Individual areas of each soil range from about
15 to 200 acres. They are large enough to be mapped
separately, but considering the present and predicted
use and the fact that some areas are inaccessible, they
are mapped as one unit.
The composition of this unit is more variable than that
of most other units of the county, but it has been con-
trolled well enough for the expected use of the soils.
Typically, the surface layer of the Bibb soil is about 4
inches of very dark grayish brown loamy sand. The sub-
surface layer is about 14 inches of grayish brown loamy








SOIL SURVEY


sand. Below this is about 20 inches of gray sandy loam
mottled with brownish yellow and yellowish brown. Be-
tween depths of 38 and 62 inches is light yellowish
brown, stratified loamy sand and sandy loam.
The Bibb soil has a water table within a depth of 10
inches for about 6 months or more in most years. It is
also subject to frequent flooding. Permeability is moder-
ate, and the available water capacity is medium.
The soil similar to Bibb soil is sandy clay loam below
the surface and subsurface layers. It has a water table
within a depth of 10 inches for 6 months or more in most
years, and it is subject to frequent flooding. Permeability
is moderately slow and the available water capacity is
medium.
Minor soils make up about 20 percent of the unit. Most
extensive are the Alapaha, Albany, Clarendon, Foxworth,
Grady, Leefield, Pansey, Plummer, Rutlege, and Com-
pass soils. They generally occur near the edges of the
mapped areas or on low knolls and ridges on the flood
plain.
The natural vegetation is water-tolerant species of bay,
gum, beech, cypress, and oak. The understory is wax-
myrtle, titi, and other water-tolerant shrubs. All areas are
in native vegetation. In some of the more accessible
areas marketable trees have been cut.
These soils are not suited to crops. They are only
moderately well suited to improved pasture. Flooding
and wetness, the major limitations, are difficult to over-
come. If the excess water is removed and the soils are
well managed, the potential is high for production of
good quality pasture.
If water can be controlled, these soils have high po-
tential for loblolly pine, water oak, and sweetgum. Severe
equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
limiting factors. Eastern cottonwood, loblolly pine, sweet-
gum, and yellow-poplar are the most suitable for plant-
ing.
The potential is low for playgrounds, small commercial
buildings, local roads and streets (fig. 2), and shallow
excavations. The potential is very low for septic tank
absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills, and dwellings
without basements. Water control and protection from
flooding are needed for all of these uses. In addition,
mounding is needed for septic tank absorption fields and
sealing or lining is needed for trench sanitary landfills.
Capability subclass Vw.

6-Blanton coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This moderately well drained, nearly level to gently slop-
ing upland soil occurs throughout the county. Slopes are
smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is brown coarse sand
about 8 inches thick. The underlying layers are coarse
sand to a depth of about 63 inches. The upper 7 inches
is yellowish brown; the next 26 inches is light yellowish
brown; and the lower 22 inches is very pale brown mot-
tled with light yellowish brown. The upper 4 inches of the


subsoil is light yellowish brown loamy coarse sand mot-
tled with yellowish brown. The subsoil is sandy loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more. It is yellowish brown mottled
with light brownish yellow, light gray, pale brown, and
yellowish red.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Bonifay, Foxworth, Fuquay, Lakeland, Chipola,
and Troup soils. Also included are small areas of soils
that are similar to this Blanton soil but are sandy clay or
clay in the lower part of the subsoil. In a few small areas
the soil is 5 to 10 percent plinthite within a depth of 60
inches. The included soils make up less than 15 percent
of any one mapped area.
The water table is perched above the subsoil for less
than 1 month in most years. The available water capacity
is low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium
in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are low through-
out.
Natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, red oak, huckleberry, and dogwood and
an understory of native shrubs and pineland threeawn.
Most areas are cutover woodland or have been cleared
for crops or bahiagrass improved pasture.
This soil has severe limitations for most cultivated
crops. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients,
and slope greatly limit the choice of plants and reduce
potential yields. Row crops should be planted on the
contour in strips alternating with strips of close growing
crops. The crop rotation should include close growing
cover crops at least three-fourths of the time. Soil-im-
proving cover crops and all crop residue should be
plowed under. The soil is too steep for irrigation.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
crops. Deep rooted Coastal bermudagrass and the im-
proved bahiagrasses are well suited, but yields are re-
duced by periodic droughts. Regular fertilization -and
liming are needed. Grazing should be controlled to main-
tain plant vigor and a good ground cover.
This soil has moderately high potential for longleaf,
loblolly, and slash pine. Slash pine is the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, local roads and streets, and dwellings without
basements. No corrective measures are needed. The
potential is high for small commercial buildings, but land
shaping and an appropriate building design are needed.
The potential is medium for trench sanitary landfill. Seal-
ing or lining of the trench is needed. The potential is
medium for playgrounds if the land is shaped and the
surface stabilized. The potential is medium for shallow
excavations if the side walls are shored.
Capability subclass Ills.

7-Blanton coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
This moderately well drained, sloping soil is adjacent to








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


depressions and well defined drainageways. Slopes are
smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
coarse sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is coarse sand to a depth of about 60 inches. It is in
shades of brown or yellow and has light colored mottles
in the lower part. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 10 inches is
mottled Ibrownish yellow, light gray, strong brown, and
yellowish red and the lower 10 inches is gray mottled
with brown and red.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Bonifay, Foxworth, Fuquay, Lakeland, Chipola,
and Troup soils and small areas of soils that are similar
to this Blanton soil but are sandy clay or clay in the
lower part of the subsoil. Also included are a few areas
where slopes are 0 to 5 percent or 8 to 12 percent and
a few areas of soils that are 5 to 10 percent plinthite
within a depth of 60 inches. The included soils make up
less than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
The water table is perched above the subsoil for less
than 1 month in most years. The available water capacity
is low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium
in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic content are low.
Natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine, live oak,
post oak, and red oak, huckleberry, and dogwood and an
understory of native shrubs and pineland threeawn. Most
areas are cutover woodland. Some have been cleared
for crops or bahiagrass improved pasture.
This soil has very severe limitations for most cultivated
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields.
Row crops should be planted on the contour in strips
alternating with strips of close growing crops. The crop
rotation should include close growing cover crops at
least two4thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops
and all crop residue should be left on the ground or
plowed under. If water is readily available, irrigation of
high value crops is usually feasible.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
crops. Deep rooted Coastal bermudagrass and the im-
proved bahiagrasses are well suited, but periodic drought
reduces yields. Regular additions of fertilizer and lime
are needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain
plant vigor and a good ground cover.
This soil has moderately high potential for longleaf,
loblolly, and slash pine. Slash pine is the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, local roads and streets, and dwellings without
basements. No corrective measures are needed. The
potential is high for small commercial buildings, but land
shaping and appropriate building design are needed. The
potential is medium for trench sanitary landfill. Sealing or
lining the trench is needed. The potential is medium for


13


playgrounds if the land is shaped and the surface stabi-
lized. It is medium for shallow excavations if the side
walls are shored.
Capability subclass IVs.

8-Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This well
drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on narrow to
moderately broad ridges of the uplands. Areas are gen-
erally surrounded by long, steeper slopes that extend
from the ridges to narrow streambeds or natural drain-
ageways. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth
of 35 inches. The upper 9 inches of this layer is yellow-
ish brown, and the lower 21 inches is light yellowish
brown. Below this is 10 inches of brownish yellow loamy
sand. The subsoil begins at a depth of about 45 inches
and extends to 68 inches or more. The upper 13 inches
is light yellowish brown sandy loam mottled with light
gray and yellowish brown. The next 5 inches is yellowish
brown sandy clay loam mottled with yellowish red, strong
brown, and light yellowish brown. The lower 5 inches is
brownish yellow sandy clay loam mottled with yellowish
red, strong brown, and pale brown. The subsoil contains
plinthite.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Blanton, Foxworth, Fuquay, Lakeland, Chipola,
and Troup soils and small areas where the subsoil is
more than 25 percent plinthite. In some areas the layers
of plinthite are firm or cemented. Also included are small
areas where slopes are 5 to 8 percent and a few small
areas where plinthite is below a depth of 60 inches. The
included soils make up less than 15 percent of any one
mapped area.
The water table is usually below a depth of 72 inches,
but it is perched above the subsoil for 1 to 5 days after
heavy rains. The available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the sub-
soil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
the organic matter content are low throughout.
The natural vegetation is a forest of longleaf and slash
pine and a mixture of hardwoods, including blackjack,
live, turkey, and post oak and persimmon. The under-
story is huckleberry, native shrubs, and moderately
sparse pineland threeawn.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
the choice of plants and reduce potential yields. Row
crops should be planted on the contour in alternating
strips with close growing, soil-improving crops. The crop
rotation should include close growing, soil-improving
crops at least two-thirds of the time. These soil-improv-
ing crops and the residue of all other crops should be
plowed under. All crops should be limed and fertilized.
Where irrigation water is readily available, irrigation of








SOIL SURVEY


such high value crops as watermelons and tobacco is
usually feasible.
The soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
Deep rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
improved bahiagrasses, are well suited. If limed and fer-
tilized, they grow well and produce good ground cover.
Controlled grazing is needed in maintaining vigorous
plants for maximum yields. Extended severe drought oc-
casionally greatly reduces yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash, lob-
lolly, and longleaf pine. Slash pine is the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, local roads and streets, and dwellings without
basements. No special measures are needed. The po-
tential is high for playgrounds and small commercial
buildings. Surface stabilization is needed for playgrounds,
and land shaping is needed for small commercial build-
ings. The potential is medium for trench sanitary landfill,
but sealing or lining is needed. The potential is medium
for shallow excavations if the side walls are shored.
Capability subclass Ills.

9-Bonifay sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This well
drained, sloping soil is adjacent to narrow streambeds or
drainageways. Slopes are generally smooth.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a
depth of about 34 inches. The upper 10 inches is yellow-
ish brown, and the lower 20 inches is light yellowish
brown. Below this is about 10 inches of brownish yellow
loamy sand. The subsoil begins at a depth of about 44
inches and extends to 68 inches or more. The upper 12
inches is light yellowish brown sandy loam mottled with
light gray and yellowish brown. The next 6 inches is
yellowish brown sandy clay loam mottled with yellowish
red, strong brown, and light yellowish brown. The lower 6
inches is brownish yellow sandy clay loam mottled with
yellowish red, strong brown, and pale brown. The subsoil
contains plinthite.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Blanton, Foxworth, Fuquay, Lakeland, Chipola,
and Troup soils and small areas of soils that have similar
properties but are 30 percent plinthite. In some areas,
the layers of plinthite are cemented. Also included are
small areas of soils that are similar but have slopes of 0
to 5 percent or 8 to 12 percent and a few small areas
where plinthite occurs below a depth of 60 inches. The
included soils make up less than 15 percent of any one
mapped area.
The water table is usually below a depth of 72 inches,
but it is perched above the subsoil for 1 to 5 days after
heavy rains. Seepage at the base of slopes is common
after rains. The available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the sub-
soil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface


layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
the organic matter content are low throughout.
Natural vegetation is a forest of slash and longleaf
pine and a mixture of hardwoods, including blackjack
oak, turkey oak, live oak, post oak, and persimmon. The
understory is huckleberry, native shrubs, and moderately
sparse pineland threeawn.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields.
Row crops should be planted on the contour in alternat-
ing strips with close growing, soil-improving crops. The
crop rotation should include close growing, soil-improving
crops at least three-fourths of the time. These soil-im-
proving crops and the residue of all other crops should
be plowed under. All crops should be limed and fertil-
ized.
The soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
Deep rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
improved bahiagrasses, are well suited. If limed and fer-
tilized, they grow well and produce good ground cover.
Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants
for maximum yields. Extended severe drought occasion-
ally greatly reduces yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash, lob-
lolly, and longleaf pine. Slash pine is the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, local roads and streets, and dwellings without
basements. No special measures are needed. The po-
tential is high for small commercial buildings. An appro-
priate building design should be used; land shaping may
also be needed. The potential is medium for trench sani-
tary landfill if the trench is sealed or lined with impervi-
ous material. The potential is medium for playgrounds if
the land is shaped and the surface stabilized. It is
medium for shallow excavations if the side walls are
shored.
Capability subclass IVs.

lO-Chipola loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil
occurs throughout the county on broad uplands and
stream terraces. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy sand
about 10 inches thick. The subsurface layers are loamy
coarse sand to a depth of about 35 inches. The upper
12 inches is yellowish red, the next 10 inches is reddish
yellow, and the lower 3 inches is red. The subsoil is 21
inches of red coarse sandy loam and about 19 inches of
red loamy coarse sand. The underlying material is red
coarse sand that extends to 94 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of soils
that are similar to this Chipola soil but have no notice-
able decrease in clay content within a depth of 60
inches. Also included are small areas of Blanton, Esto,
Fuquay, Lakeland, Troup, and Wicksburg soils and a few








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


areas of soils that are similar to this Chipola soil but
have slopes of 5 to 8 percent. In a few small areas the
subsoil is more clayey than is typical. The included soils
make up ess than 20 percent of any one mapped area.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
sbsurface layers, medium in the subsoil, and low in the
substratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sub-
surface layers, moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid
to very rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility is low,
and the organic content is moderately low. The water
table is below 72 inches.
The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, red oak, and dogwood. The understory is
native shrubs, including huckleberry, southern dewberry,
smilax, Virginia creeper, American beautyberry, musca-
dine grape, yaupon, and sparse pineland threeawn.
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops.
It can be cultivated safely under ordinary good farming
methods, but droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
nutrients limit the choice of crops and the potential
yields. Corn, soybeans, and peanuts can be grown. Row
crops should be planted on the contour in alternate
strips with cover crops. The crop rotation should include
cover crops at least half the time. The cover crops and
all crop residue should be plowed under. For the best
yields, good seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming
are needed. Where water is readily available, irrigation of
some high value crops is usually feasible.
The soil is well suited to pasture. Deep rooted plants,
such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well
suited. Yields are good if the crop is fertilized and limed.
Controlled grazing is essential in maintaining vigorous
plants for maximum yields and good cover.
The potential is moderately high for slash, loblolly, and
longleaf pine. Slash and loblolly pine are the most suit-
able for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and buildings without basements. No special cor-
rective measures are needed. The potential is high for
trench sanitary landfill if the trench is sealed or lined with
impervious material. The potential is high for shallow
excavations if side walls are shored.
Capability subclass IIs.

11-Chipola loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
This well drained, sloping soil occurs throughout the
county, dominantly along drainageways. Slopes are
smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy
coarse sand to a depth of about 34 inches. The upper
12 inches is yellowish red, and the lower 14 inches is
reddish yellow. The subsoil is 22 inches of red coarse
sandy loam and 20 inches of red loamy coarse sand.
The underlying material is red to yellowish red loamy


coarse sand or coarse sand that extends to 80 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of soils
that are similar to this Chipola soil but have no decrease
in clay content within a depth of 60 inches. Also included
are small areas of Blanton, Bonifay, Esto, Fuquay, Lake-
land, Troup, and Wicksburg soils and a few small areas
of soils that are similar to this Chipola soil but have
slopes of 8 to 12 percent. In a few small areas the
subsoil is more clayey than is typical. The included soils
make up less than 20 percent of any one mapped area.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers, medium in the subsoil, and low in the
substratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sub-
surface layers, moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid
to very rapid in the substratum. The natural fertility is
low, and the organic content is moderately low.
The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, red oak, and dogwood. The understory is
native shrubs and grasses, including huckleberry, south-
ern dewberry, smilax, Virginia creeper, American beauty-
berry, muscadine grape, yaupon, and sparse pineland
threeawn.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
Special soil-improving measures are needed. Droughti-
ness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients severely limit
the suitability of this soil for most row crops. The slopes
make cultivation more difficult and increase the hazard
of erosion. Cultivated row crops should be planted on
the contour in strips alternating with wider strips of close
growing, soil-improving crops. The crop rotation should
include close growing crops at least two-thirds of the
time. All crops should be fertilized and limed. Soil-im-
proving cover crops and the residue of all other crops
should be left on the land or plowed under.
The soil is moderately well suited to pasture. Deep
rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahia-
grasses, are well suited. The slopes increase the erosion
hazard and reduce the potential yields. Good stands of
grass can be produced if the crop is fertilized and limed.
Controlled grazing is needed in maintaining vigorous
plants and good protective cover.
Under a high level of management, the potential is
moderately high for slash, loblolly, and longleaf pine.
Slash and loblolly pine are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, local roads and streets, and dwellings without
basements. No special corrective measures are needed.
The potential is high for trench sanitary landfill, play-
grounds, and small commercial buildings. Sealing or
lining is needed for trench sanitary landfills. The surface
should be stabilized and the land shaped if the soil is to
be used as a playground. Land shaping and an appropri-
ate building design are needed for small commercial
buildings. The potential is medium for shallow excava-
tions if the side walls are shored.
Capability subclass Ills.








SOIL SURVEY


12-Clarendon fine sandy loam. This somewhat
poorly drained, nearly level soil occurs in wet areas
along poorly defined and well defined drainageways in
the flatwoods. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. They are
smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
fine sandy loam about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam about 8
inches thick. The upper 5 inches of the subsoil is light
yellowish brown sandy clay loam mottled with gray, red,
yellow, and brown. Below this is 31 inches of sandy clay
loam that has grayish, reddish, and brownish mottles.
Below a depth of 52 inches the subsoil is gray light
sandy clay loam. The lower part of the subsoil contains
plinthite.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Alapaha, Albany, Blanton, Foxworth, Dothan, Leefield,
Pansey, Plummer, and Compass soils. Also included are
small areas of similar soils where slopes are 2 to 5
percent and, in some mapped areas, a few small wet
spots. The included soils make up less than 20 percent
of any one mapped area.
The water table is between depths of 10 and 40
inches for 3 to 5 months in most years. The available
water capacity is medium to a depth of about 26 inches
and low below. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
surface layer, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil,
and moderately slow below. Internal drainage is moder-
ately slow to slow; it is impeded by the shallow water
table. Natural fertility and the organic matter content are
moderate in the top 10 inches and low below 10 inches.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, pond pine,
slash pine, and water tolerant hardwoods that include
sweetgum and water oak. The understory is native
grasses and shrubs, including waxmyrtle, inkberry, and
pineland threeawn.
Limitations are moderate for cultivated crops because
of wetness. Only crops that are tolerant of periodic wet
conditions are suitable. Tile drains or open drainage
ditches are needed for most crops. If well managed,
such crops as corn and soybeans grow well. Occasional-
ly during the growing or harvesting seasons, excess
water damages the crops. The crop rotation should pro-
vide close growing cover crops at least half the time.
The soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue
should be left on the ground or plowed under. Good
seedbed preparation, fertilizing, and liming are also im-
portant.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
crops, for example, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass,
improved bahiagrasses, and clovers. The crops respond
moderately well to fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be
controlled so that plants remain vigorous, the ground
cover good, and yields high.
If water control is adequate, the potential is high for
loblolly pine, slash pine, and sweetgum. Loblolly pine,


slash pine, American sycamore, yellow-poplar, and
sweetgum are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is high for sanitary landfill, playgrounds,
small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and
dwellings without basements. It is medium for septic tank
absorption fields and shallow excavations. Water control
is needed for all of these uses. In addition, larger ab-
sorption fields are needed for septic tanks.
Capability subclass Ilw.

13-Compass loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
This moderately well drained, moderately slowly perme-
able, nearly level soil occurs as broad areas on uplands.
It occurs throughout the county, generally in small areas.
The lower part of the subsoil is saturated in winter and
early in spring. Slopes are smooth.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand
about 8 inches thick. The upper 8 inches of the subsur-
face layer is yellowish brown loamy sand, and the lower
6 inches is yellow sandy loam. The subsoil, in sequence
from the top, is 11 inches of brownish yellow sandy
loam, 7 inches of yellowish brown sandy clay loam that
has few to common yellow, brown, and red mottles, and
17 inches of yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has
common brown, yellow, and gray mottles and is more
than 5 percent plinthite. The lower part of the subsoil,
extending to a depth of 74 inches or more, is mottled
gray, yellow, brown, and red sandy clay and clay.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Clarendon, Dothan, Fuquay, and Leefield soils.
Also included are soils that are similar to this Compass
soil but are sandy clay loam throughout the subsoil and
a few small areas where slopes are 2 to 5 percent. The
included soils make up less than 15 percent of any one
mapped area.
In most years, the water table is perched between
depths of 30 and 40 inches for 2 to 4 months in winter
and in spring. In some years, it is within a depth of 30
inches for a few days after heavy rainfall. Permeability is
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate to
moderately rapid in the upper part of the subsoil, and
moderately slow in the lower part of the subsoil. Internal
drainage is moderately slow. Surface runoff is slow. The
organic matter content and the natural fertility are mod-
erate in the surface layer but low below.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine,
white oak, red oak, laurel oak, water oak, persimmon,
and sweetgum. The understory is inkberry, waxmyrtle,
blackberry, greenbrier, and pineland threeawn. A few
small areas have been cleared and planted to peanuts,
corn, soybeans, and improved pasture grasses.
Limitations are moderate for cultivated crops because
of wetness. Unless this soil is drained, suitable crops are
limited to those that tolerate slight wetness. If it is
drained, such crops as corn and peanuts can be grown.
The crop rotation should include close growing crops at
least half the time. The soil-improving cover crops and









JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA



all crop residue should be left on the land or plowed
under. Good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime are
needed for top yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. If well
managed, such grasses as Coastal bermudagrass and
improved bahiagrasses grow well. Several legumes are
also well suited. Fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing
are needed for top yields.
This soil has high potential for loblolly pine, longleaf
pine, slash pine, and sweetgum. Slash and loblolly pine
are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for small commercial build-
ings, local roads and streets, and buildings without base-
ments. No special measures are needed. The potential is
high for septic tank absorption fields, trench sanitary
landfill, playgrounds, and shallow excavations. Water
control is needed for all but playgrounds. In addition,
mounding is needed for septic tanks. The surface should
be stabilized if the soil is to be used as a playground.
Capability subclass IIw.

14-Compass loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
This moderately well drained, moderately slowly perme-
able, gently sloping soil occurs as broad areas on up-
lands. The lower part of the subsoil is saturated in winter
and early in spring. Slopes are smooth.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand
about 6 Inches thick. The upper 7 inches of the subsur-
face layer is yellowish brown loamy sand, and the lower
6 inches is yellow sandy loam. The subsoil, extending to
a depth of more than 60 inches, is 9 inches of brownish
yellow sandy loam and about 9 inches of a yellowish
brown sandy clay loam that has few to common yellow,
brown, and red mottles. Below this is yellowish brown
sandy clay loam that has common brown, yellow, and
gray mottles and is more than 5 percent plinthite. The
lower part is mottled gray, yellow, brown, and red sandy
clay or clay.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Clarendon, Dothan, Fuquay, and Leefield soils.
Also included are areas of a soil that is similar to this
Compass soil but is sandy clay loam throughout the
subsoil and a few small areas where slopes are 0 to 2
percent or 5 to 8 percent. The included soils make up
less than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
In most years, the water table is between depths of 30
and 40 inches for 2 to 4 months in winter and in spring.
In some years it is within a depth of 30 inches for a few
days after heavy rainfall. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers, moderate to moderately
rapid in the upper part of the subsoil, and moderately
slow in the lower part of the subsoil. Internal drainage is
moderately slow, and surface runoff is slow. The organic
matter content and natural fertility are moderate in the
surface layer but low below.
The natural fertility is longleaf and slash pine, white
oak, red oak, water oak, persimmon, and sweetgum. The


understory is inkberry, waxmyrtle, dewberry, greenbrier,
blackberry, and pineland threeawn. A few small areas
have been cleared and planted to peanuts, corn, soy-
beans, and improved pasture grasses.
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
because of the hazards of erosion and wetness. Suitable
crops are limited to those that tolerate slight wetness. If
the soil is drained, such crops as corn and peanuts are
suited. Row crops should be planted on the contour in
rotation with cover crops. The cover crops should remain
on the soil at least half the time. The soil-building cover
crops and all crop residue should be left or plowed
under. Good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime are
needed for top yields.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
crops. If well managed, such grasses as Coastal bermu-
dagrass and improved bahiagrasses grow well. Several
legumes are also well suited. Fertilizer, lime, and con-
trolled grazing are needed for top yields.
This soil has high potential for loblolly pine, longleaf
pine, slash pine, and sweetgum. Slash and loblolly pine
are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for small commercial build-
ings, local roads and streets, and buildings without base-
ments. No special measures are needed. The potential is
high for septic tank absorption fields, trench sanitary
landfill, and shallow excavations. Water control is
needed for all of these uses. In addition, mounding is
needed for septic tanks. The potential is high for play-
grounds if the surface is stabilized.
Capability subclass lie.

15-Compass loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
This moderately well drained, moderately slowly perme-
able, sloping soil is on uplands and hillsides of the
Coastal Plain. It occurs throughout the county. The lower
part of the subsoil is saturated in winter and early in
spring. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand
about 5 inches thick. The upper 6 inches of the subsur-
face layer is yellowish brown loamy sand, and the lower
5 inches is yellow sandy loam. The subsoil, extending to
a depth of more than 60 inches, is about 8 inches of
brownish yellow sandy loam and 8 inches of yellowish
brown sandy clay loam that has few to common yellow,
brown, and red mottles. Below this is yellowish brown
sandy clay loam that has common brown, yellow, and
gray mottles and is more than 5 percent plinthite. The
lower part is mottled gray, yellow, brown, and red sandy
clay.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Clarendon, Dothan, Fuquay, and Leefield soils.
Also included are areas of a soil that is similar to this
Compass soil but is sandy clay loam throughout the
subsoil and a few small areas where slopes are 2 to 5
percent. The included soils make up less than 15 per-
cent of any one mapped area.







SOIL SURVEY


In most years, the water table is perched between
depths of 30 and 40 inches for 2 to 4 months in winter
and in spring. In some years, it is within a depth of 30
inches for a few days after heavy rainfall. Permeability is
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate to
moderately rapid in the upper part of the subsoil, and
moderately slow in the lower part of the subsoil. Internal
drainage is moderately slow, and surface runoff is
medium. The organic matter content and natural fertility
are moderate in the surface layer but low below.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine,
white oak, red oak, laurel oak, water oak, persimmon,
and sweetgum. The understory is inkberry, waxmyrtle,
dewberry, greenbrier, blackberry, and pineland threeawn.
A few small areas have been cleared and planted to
peanuts, corn, soybeans, and improved pasture grasses.
Limitations are severe for cultivated crops because of
the hazards of erosion and wetness. The soil is poorly
suited to cultivated crops. If excess water can be re-
moved and the soil well managed, it is moderately suit-
able for most crops commonly grown in the county. In-
tensive erosion control and water control are needed.
Row crops should be cultivated on the contour in alter-
nate strips with close growing crops. The crop rotation
should include close growing crops at least two-thirds of
the time. The soil-improving cover crops and all crop
residue should be left on the soil or plowed under.
Drains are needed to intercept hillside seepage water.
Drainage and bedding are needed for crops that are
damaged by wetness.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
crops, for example, Coastal bermudagrass and bahia-
grasses. Response to fertilizer and lime is only moder-
ate. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous
plants for maximum yields and a good ground cover.
This soil has high potential for growing loblolly pine,
longleaf pine, slash pine, and sweetgum. Loblolly and
slash pine are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for local roads and streets
and buildings without basements. It is high for septic
tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfill, play-
grounds, and small commercial buildings. Water control
is needed for septic tank absorption fields and trench
sanitary landfill. In addition, the absorption field should
be laid out parallel to the slope. For playgrounds, land
shaping and surface stabilization are needed. Small com-
mercial buildings should be designed to fit the slope. The
potential is medium for shallow excavations. Water con-
trol and correct placement of the excavation on the
slope are needed.
Capability subclass Ille.

16-Dorovan-Pamlico association. This map unit
consists of nearly level, very poorly drained Dorovan and
Pamlico soils. These soils occur in a regular and repeat-
ing pattern in depressions in the uplands and flatwoods.
The Dorovan soil is generally in the center of the areas,


where organic material is thicker, and the Pamlico soil is
at the outer edges or rims. Areas are generally round or
oblong. They range from about 10 to 300 acres. Individu-
al areas of each soil range from about 10 to 100 acres.
They are large enough to be mapped separately. Consid-
ering the predicted use, however, and the fact that ex-
amining the soils in detail is extremely difficult because
of dense vegetation and wetness, they are mapped as
one unit.
The composition of this unit is more variable than that
of most other units in the county, but it has been con-
trolled well enough for the expected use of the soils.
The Dorovan soil makes up about 45 percent of the
unit. Typically, it is black muck to a depth of 51 inches or
more.
In most years, the Dorovan soil is covered with water
for 6 to 12 months. The water table is usually within a
depth of 10 inches. Only during the driest seasons, usu-
ally late in fall, is the water table lower. At such times it
can recede briefly to depths of 40 inches or more. Per-
meability is very slow. The available water capacity is
very high.
The Pamlico soil makes up about 35 percent of the
unit. Typically, it is black muck about 36 inches thick
over very dark grayish brown sand that extends to a
depth of 60 inches or more.
In most years, the Pamlico soil is covered with water
for 6 to 9 months. The water table is usually within a
depth of 10 inches. Only during the driest seasons, usu-
ally late in fall, is the water table lower. At such times it
can recede briefly to depths of 40 inches or more. Per-
meability is moderate. The available water capacity is
very high.
Minor soils make up about 20 percent of the unit.
Alapaha, Pansey, Pantego, Plummer, and Rutlege soils,
in about equal proportion, are the most extensive. These
soils generally occur near the edges of the mapped
areas.
The natural vegetation is chiefly such water-tolerant
hardwoods as water oak, sweetbay, blackgum, sweet-
gum, red maple, black willow alder, and cypress. Around
the edges of the areas, the vegetation includes pond,
shortleaf, and slash pine. Almost all areas are still under
natural vegetation. They provide habitat for wildlife.
These soils have very severe limitations for cultivated
crops because of wetness. If water can be controlled,
they are suited to some new crops, for example, sun-
flowers and potatoes, and to most vegetable crops. A
well designed and well maintained water control system
is needed. It should remove excess water during the
growing season and keep the soils saturated at all other
times. Phosphates, potash, and minor elements are
needed. Water-tolerant cover crops are needed unless
the soil is row cropped. All crop residue and cover crops
should be plowed under.
If water is controlled, most improved grasses and clo-
vers grow well on these soils. The water control system







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA



should maintain the water table near the surface to pre-
vent excessive oxidation of the organic horizons. Fertiliz-
er high in potash, phosphorus, and minor elements is
needed. Grazing should be controlled for maximum
yields.
The potential is low for woodland. Seedling mortality
and equipment limitations are the main management
concerns. On the Dorovan soil, baldcypress is the most
suitable for planting. On the Pamlico soil, slash and lob-
lolly pine are most suitable.
The potential is very low for septic tank absorption
fields, trench sanitary landfills, playgrounds, local roads
and streets, dwellings without basements, and shallow
excavations. The potential is low for small commercial
buildings! Water control is needed for all of these uses.
In addition, the organic material should be excavated
and backfilled with suitable soil material. Mounding is
needed for septic tank absorption fields. Special equip-
ment is needed for shallow excavations.
Capability subclass IVw.

17-Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
This is a well drained, gently sloping upland soil. Areas
occur in all but the extreme southwestern part of the
county. Slopes are smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The upper 29 inches of
the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The next
20 inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam mottled
with brown and red. The lower 22 inches is yellowish
brown sandy clay loam mottled with brown, red, yellow,
and gray! The lower part of the subsoil contains plinthite.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Chipola, Orangeburg, Compass,
Tifton, and Wicksburg soils and small areas of soils that
are similar to this Dothan soil but have slopes of 0 to 2
percent or 5 to 8 percent. Also included are small areas
of a soil that is similar to this Dothan soil but it is
moderately well drained. The included soils make up less
than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
The water table is usually below 6 feet, but after heavy
rainfall it is commonly perched above the lower part of
the subsoil for 1 to 6 days. The available water capacity
is medium. Permeability is moderately slow in the lower
part of thie subsoil. Runoff is moderate. Natural fertility
and the organic matter content are moderately low.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine and
mixed hardwoods, including white oak, red oak, live oak,
laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and persim-
mon. The understory is native grasses and shrubs, in-
cluding huckleberry, briers, and pineland threeawn.
Limitations are moderate for cultivated crops because
of the hazard of erosion. The variety of suitable crops is
somewhat limited by occasional wetness. Such crops as
corn and peanuts are suited. Measures to control ero-
sion are needed. Such measures include terraces with
stabilized outlets and contour cultivation of row crops in


alternate strips with cover crops. The crop rotation
should include cover crops at least half the time. The
crop residue and the soil-improving cover crops should
be left on the ground or plowed under. For such crops
as tobacco, which are damaged by the slight wetness,
tile drains are needed. For maximum yields, good
seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, for
example, improved pasture plants such as clovers, tall
fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, and improved bahia-
grasses. Yields are good if the crop is well managed.
Fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing are needed to
maintain vigorous plants and a good ground cover.
The potential is high for longleaf, loblolly, and slash
pine. Loblolly and slash pine are the most suitable for
planting.
The potential is very high for trench sanitary landfill,
local roads and streets, buildings without basements,
and shallow excavations. No special measures are
needed. The potential is high for septic tank absorption
fields, but a larger field is needed. If the land is shaped
and the surface stabilized, the potential is high for play-
grounds. If the land is shaped, the potential is high for
small commercial buildings.
Capability subclass lie.

18-Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
This well drained, sloping, upland soil is on hillsides
along drainageways and around depressions or sinks.
Slopes are commonly long and smooth. Some are
convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
brown or dark brown loamy sand about 4 inches thick.
The upper 20 inches of the subsoil is yellowish brown
sandy clay loam. The lower part of the subsoil is yellow-
ish brown sandy clay loam mottled with brown, yellow,
red, and gray. It is more than 5 percent plinthite by
volume.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Chipola, Orangeburg, Compass,
and Wicksburg soils and small areas of soils that have
similar properties but have slopes of 2 to 5 percent or 8
to 12 percent. Also included are small areas where ero-
sion has removed the original surface soil. The included
soils make up less than 15 percent of any one mapped
area.
The water table is usually below 6 feet, but after heavy
rainfall it is commonly perched above the lower subsoil
for 1 to 4 days. The available water capacity is medium.
Permeability is moderately slow in the lower part of the
subsoil. Surface runoff is moderately rapid. Natural fertil-
ity and the organic matter content are moderately low.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine, and
mixed hardwoods, including white oak, red oak, black
oak, laurel oak, live oak, water oak, dogwood, hickory,
sweetgum, and persimmon. The understory is native







SOIL SURVEY


grasses and shrubs, including huckleberry, briers, and
pineland threeawn.
Limitations are severe for cultivated crops because of
the erosion hazard. The variety of suitable crops is
somewhat limited by occasional wetness. Crops such as
corn, soybeans, and peanuts are only moderately well
suited. Intensive erosion control measures are needed.
Such measures include carefully designed terraces with
stabilized outlets, contour cultivation of row crops in al-
ternate strips with close growing crops, and a crop rota-
tion that includes close growing crops at least two-thirds
of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop resi-
due should be left on the land or plowed under. Tile or
open drains are needed to intercept seepage water from
higher areas, and rows should be planted on beds. For
maximum yields, good seedbed preparation, fertilization,
and liming are needed.
This soil is only moderately well suited to pasture, for
example, Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahia-
grass. Yields are only moderate, even if the soil is fertil-
ized and limed. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
vigorous plants, maximum yields, and good soil cover.
The potential is high for longleaf, loblolly, and slash
pine. Limitations are slight. Loblolly and slash pine are
the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for local roads and streets,
buildings without basements, and shallow excavations.
No special corrective measures are needed. The poten-
tial is high for septic tank absorption fields, trench sani-
tary landfill, playgrounds, and small commercial buildings.
A larger absorption field is needed for septic tanks. For
trench sanitary landfill, water control is needed. For play-
grounds, the land should be shaped and the surface
stabilized. For small commercial buildings, land shaping
and an appropriate building design are needed.
Capability subclass Ille.

19-Dothan loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
This well drained, strongly sloping soil occurs on uplands
adjacent to drainageways or depressions and on hill-
sides. Slopes are smooth.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown or
grayish brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is yellowish brown sandy loam about 4
inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay
loam more than 50 inches thick. The lower part has
common distinct mottles of brown, yellow, red, and gray.
It contains plinthite.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Esto, Faceville, Chipola, Orangeburg, Compass, and
Wicksburg soils and areas where slopes are 12 to 17
percent. Also included are small eroded areas where the
clayey subsoil is exposed at the surface. The included
soils make up less than 15 percent of any one mapped
area.
The water table is usually below 6 feet, but it is
perched above the lower part of the subsoil for 1 to 4


days after heavy rainfall. Usually this perched water table
is 40 to 60 inches below the surface for a brief period.
The available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is moderately slow in the lower part of the
subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic content are mod-
erately low throughout. Surface runoff is rapid.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine, and
mixed hardwoods, including various oak species, sweet-
gum, hickory, and persimmon. The understory is native
grasses and shrubs, including huckleberry, briers, and
pineland threeawn.
Limitations are very severe for cultivated crops be-
cause of the erosion hazard. The variety of suitable
crops is limited by occasional wetness. Intensive erosion
control measures are needed. Such measures include
contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with
close growing crops and a crop rotation that includes
close growing crops at least two-thirds of the time.
These soils are too steep for terracing. All crop residue
should be left on the land or plowed under. Tile drains or
open drains are needed to intercept seepage from
higher areas. Rows should be planted on beds. For best
yields, good seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming
are needed.
The soil is only moderately well suited to pasture, for
example, Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahia-
grasses. Yields are only moderate, even if the soil is
fertilized and limed. Controlled grazing is needed to
maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields.
The potential is high for longleaf, loblolly, and slash
pine. Loblolly and slash pine are the most suitable for
planting.
The potential is very high for local roads and streets. It
is high for trench sanitary landfill and shallow excava-
tions. Water control is needed. In addition, land shaping
is needed for trench sanitary landfill. The potential is
high for low commercial buildings and buildings without
basements. An appropriate building design is needed.
For small commercial buildings, land shaping is also
needed. The potential is medium for playgrounds if the
land is shaped.
Capability subclass IVe.

20-Duplin fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
This moderately well drained, nearly level soil occurs as
broad flat areas adjacent to the flood plains of large
streams. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy
loam about 9 inches thick. The upper 8 inches of the
subsoil is light yellowish brown mottles. The next 29
inches is light yellowish brown and yellowish brown clay
that has common to many medium distinct yellow,
brown, red, and gray mottles. Below 46 inches and ex-
tending to 64 inches or more is mottled gray, red, brown,
and yellow clay. The number of gray mottles increases
with increasing depth, whereas the number of red mot-
tles decreases with depth.







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Alapaha, Clarendon, Bethera, Hornsville, and Grady soils
and small areas of soils that are similar to this Duplin soil
but have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Also included are a
few small areas of soils that have similar texture but
have gray mottles below a depth of 30 inches and some
areas where the gray mottles are in the upper 10 inches
of the subsoil. The included soils make up less than 15
percent ol any one mapped area.
The water table is between depths of 24 and 40
inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. In slightly
depressed areas, the water table is within a depth of 10
to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months during extended wet
seasons. The available water capacity is medium. Per-
meability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and
moderately slow in the subsoil. Internal drainage is slow.
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are mod-
erate in the surface layer.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, loblolly pine,
slash pine, sweetgum, persimmon, wild hickory, several
species of oak, and dogwood. The understory is waxmyr-
tie, inkberry, native shrubs, and pineland threeawn.
Limitations are moderate for cultivated crops because
of wetness. Carefully designed tile or open drains are
needed, and a water control system should be designed
to remove excess water rapidly after heavy rains. The
crop rotation should include a cover crop at least half
the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue
should be left on the land or plowed under. Good
seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming are also im-
portant.
These soils are well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Tall fescue, clovers, Coastal bermudagrass, and bahia-
grasses are well suited. For the best yields, regular addi-
tions of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be
controlled to maintain vigorous plants for top yields.
The potential is high for loblolly and slash pine, black-
gum, yellow-poplar, and sweetgum. Loblolly and slash
pine, yellow-poplar, American sycamore, and sweetgum
are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is high for trench sanitary landfill, play-
grounds, and shallow excavations. Water control is
needed for all of these uses. The potential is medium for
septic tank absorption fields, small commercial buildings,
and buildings without basements. Water control and
larger absorption fields are needed for septic tanks.
Water co trol and larger footings and foundations are
needed fcr small commercial buildings and buildings
without basements. The potential is low for local roads
and street even if the structural strength is increased.
Capability subclass l1w.

21-Duplin fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
This moderately well drained, gently sloping soil occurs
as broad areas adjacent to the flood plains along large
streams. Slopes are smooth to convex.


Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sandy
loam about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, where
present, is pale brown sandy loam about 4 inches thick.
The upper 7 inches of the subsoil is light yellowish
brown sandy clay loam and has few to common yellow-
ish red and yellowish brown mottles. The next 26 inches
of the subsoil is yellowish brown clay and has common
to many medium distinct yellow, brown, red, and gray
mottles. The subsoil to a depth of 62 inches or more is
mottled gray and yellowish brown sandy clay. The
number of gray mottles increases with increasing depth,
whereas the number of red mottles decreases with
depth.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Alapaha, Clarendon, Bethera, and Grady soils. Also in-
cluded are small areas of a soil that is similar to this
Duplin soil but has gray mottles at a greater depth. The
included soils make up less than 15 percent of any one
mapped area.
The water table is between 30 and 40 inches for 1 to
3 months during most years. The available water capac-
ity is medium. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil. Internal
drainage is slow. Natural fertility and the organic matter
content are moderate in the surface layer.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, loblolly pine,
slash pine, sweetgum, persimmon, wild hickory, and dog-
wood and an understory of southern bayberry, inkberry,
native shrubs, and pineland threeawn.
Limitations are moderate for cultivated crops because
of the erosion hazard. If the soil is well managed, it is
well suited to a variety of crops, for example, such crops
as corn and soybeans. Moderate erosion control meas-
ures are needed, including a system of well designed
terraces with stabilized outlets and contour cultivation of
row crops in alternate strips with cover crops. The crop
rotation should include cover crops at least half the time.
Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue should
be left on the soil or plowed under. For best yields, good
seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Such
pasture grasses as tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass,
and the improved bahiagrasses are well suited. Clovers
and other legumes are also suitable. If the crop is well
managed, yields are good. Fertilizing and liming are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to maintain
vigorous plants for highest yields and good soil cover.
The potential is high for loblolly and slash pine, black-
gum, yellow-poplar, and sweetgum. Loblolly and slash
pine, yellow-poplar, American sycamore, and sweetgum
are the most suitable for planting.
If water is controlled, the potential is high for trench
sanitary landfill, playgrounds, and shallow excavations
and medium for septic tank absorption fields, small com-
mercial buildings, and dwellings without basements. In
addition, larger absorption fields are needed for septic
tanks, and larger footings and foundations are needed








SOIL SURVEY


for small commercial buildings and buildings without
basements. The potential is low for local roads and
streets, even if the structural strength is increased.
Capability subclass lie.

22-Esto loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
gently sloping, slowly permeable soil is deep and well
drained. It occurs as small areas of 5 to 20 acres on
uplands, mostly on small knolls and ridgetops. Slopes
are smooth and convex.
Typically, the surface layer is pale brown loamy sand
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark brown
loamy sand 9 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay and
clay to a depth of more than 80 inches. The upper 6
inches is reddish yellow, the next 18 inches is reddish
yellow, and the lower part is mottled red, yellow, brown,
and gray.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Dothan, Duplin, Faceville, Fuquay, Chipola, Orangeburg,
Troup, and Wicksburg soils. Also included are small
areas of similar but eroded soils where the surface layer
is a mixture of the original material and material from the
subsoil. In a few areas are similar soils that have slopes
of 0 to 2 percent or 5 to 8 percent. The included soils
make up less than 20 percent of any one mapped area.
The water table is below a depth of 6 feet at all times.
Permeability is slow. Surface runoff is moderate. The
available water capacity is medium. Natural fertility is
low, but the response to fertilizer is good.
The natural vegetation is longleaf, loblolly, and slash
pine; various species of oak, including white, black, red,
laurel, live, and water oak; and hickory and dogwood.
The understory is pineland threeawn, American beauty-
berry, smilax, muscadine grape, southern blackberry,
briers, and native shrubs.
Limitations are severe for cultivated crops because of
the erosion hazard. Crops such as corn, soybeans, and
peanuts are only fairly well suited. Intensive erosion con-
trol measures are needed, including contour cultivation
of row crops in alternate strips with close growing crops
and a crop rotation that includes close growing crops at
least two-thirds of the time. All crop residue should be
left on the soil or plowed under. For maximum yields,
good seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming are
needed.
The soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
crops. Cool-season plants such as tall fescue and clo-
vers are poorly suited. Coastal bermudagrass and im-
proved bahiagrasses grow only moderately well, even if
they are fertilized and limed. Controlled grazing is
needed to maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields
and good ground cover.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash, long-
leaf, and loblolly pine. Slash and loblolly pine are the
most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for trench sanitary landfill. It
is high for dwellings without basements if larger footings


and foundations are used and high for shallow excava-
tions if special equipment is used. The potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields, but a larger
field is needed. It is medium for playgrounds if the land is
shaped, medium for small commercial buildings if larger
footings and foundations are used, and medium for local
roads and streets if structural strength is increased.
Capability subclass Ille.

23-Esto loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
sloping soil occurs on uplands. Areas are generally 5 to
20 acres. Slopes are short to medium.
Typically, the surface layer is loamy sand about 8
inches thick. The upper 2 inches is brown, and the lower
6 inches is dark brown. The underlying layers are sandy
clay and clay to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper
6 inches is reddish yellow, and the layers below are
reddish brown. The number of gray mottles increases
with increasing depth.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chipola, Dothan, Faceville, Fuquay, Hornsville, Orange-
burg, Troup, and Wicksburg soils. Also included are
areas of soils similar to this Esto soil where erosion has
exposed the Bt horizon and areas where slopes are 2 to
5 percent or 8 to 12 percent. The included soils make up
less than 20 percent of the unit.
The water table is below 6 feet at all times. Permeabil-
ity is slow throughout the subsoil. Surface runoff is mod-
erate. The available water capacity is moderately low.
Natural fertility is low, but the soil responds well to fertil-
izer.
The natural vegetation is longleaf, loblolly, and slash
pine, various species of oak including white, black, red,
laurel, live, and water oak, and hickory and dogwood.
The understory is pineland threeawn, briers, and native
shrubs.
Limitations are very severe for cultivated crops and
improved pasture. Slow permeability, slope, and the
clayey subsoil are the dominant limiting factors. If the
soil is to be cultivated, complex erosion control practices
are needed.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash, long-
leaf, and loblolly pine. Loblolly and slash pine are the
most suitable for planting.
The potential is high for trench sanitary landfill, dwell-
ings without basements, and shallow excavations. Land
shaping is needed for trench sanitary landfill, larger foot-
ings and foundations for dwellings without basements,
and special equipment for shallow excavations. The po-
tential is medium for septic tank absorption fields, play-
grounds, and local roads and streets. Larger absorption
fields are needed for septic tanks. Land shaping is
needed for playgrounds. The structural strength should
be increased for local roads and streets.
Capability subclass IVe.







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


24-Faceville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This well drained, gently sloping soil occurs on
upland ridges. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is brown loamy fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The upper 15 inches of the subsoil
is red sandy clay. Next is 10 inches of red sandy clay
mottled with yellow and brown. The lower 31 inches of
the subsoil is mottled red, yellow, brown, and white
sandy clay and clay. Below the subsoil is mottled fine
sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
similar soils where slopes are 5 to 8 percent. Also in-
cluded are small areas of Orangeburg, Greenville, Esto,
Dothan, Fuquay, Chipola, and Red Bay soils. The includ-
ed soils make up less than 20 percent of any one
mapped area.
Permeability is moderate. Surface runoff is high. The
available water capacity is medium. Natural fertility and
the organic matter are moderately low. Depth to the
seasonal high water table is more than 10 feet.
The natural vegetation is longleaf, loblolly, and slash
pine, hickory, persimmon, dogwood, white oak, red oak,
black oak, live oak, laurel oak, and other oak species.
The understory is briers, pineland threeawn, and native
shrubs. Most areas of this soil are cutover woodland.
Some have been cleared and replanted to slash pine.
Many small areas in larger fields of other soils are culti-
vated. A few areas are planted to improved pasture
grasses.
Limitations are moderate for cultivated crops because
of the erosion hazard. A wide variety of cultivated crops
is well suited. If well managed, such crops as corn and
soybeans grow well. Moderate erosion control measures
are needed. These measures include a system of well
designed terraces having stabilized outlets and contour
cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with cover
crops. The crop rotation should include cover crops at
least half the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all
crop residue should be left on the soil or plowed under.
For maximum yields, good seedbed preparation, fertiliza-
tion, and iming are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Grasses such as tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, and
the improved bahiagrasses are well suited. Clovers and
other leglmes are suited and grow well if well managed.
Fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing are needed to
maintain rigorouss plants for highest yields and good soil
cover.
This so I has moderately high potential for slash, lob-
lolly, and longleaf pine. Slash and loblolly pine are the
most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for trench sanitary landfill,
buildings without basements, and shallow excavations.
No special corrective measures are needed. The poten-
tial is high for playgrounds if the land is shaped, high for
small commercial buildings if larger footings and founda-


23



tions are used, and high for local roads and streets if
structural strength is increased.
Capability subclass lie.

25-Faceville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. This well drained, sloping soil occurs on the
uplands. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown
loamy fine sand about 3 inches thick. In some areas
erosion has removed most or all of the original surface
layer. The upper part of the subsoil is about 16 inches of
red or yellowish red, unmottled sandy clay or clay. The
lower part is mottled red, yellow, brown, and white clay
or sandy clay.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
where erosion has completely removed the original sur-
face layer. Also included are small areas of Dothan,
Esto, Greenville, Chipola, Oktibbeha, Orangeburg, and
Tifton soils and some small areas of soils that have
similar properties but have slopes of 2 to 5 percent or 8
to 12 percent. The included soils make up less than 20
percent of any one mapped area.
Permeability is moderate. Surface runoff is high, which
causes a high risk of erosion. The available water capac-
ity is medium. Natural fertility and the organic matter
content are moderately low. The seasonal high water
table is usually at a depth of more than 10 feet.
The natural vegetation is longleaf, loblolly, and slash
pine, hickory, dogwood, and various species of oak, in-
cluding white, black, red, live, and laurel oak. The under-
story is pineland threeawn, briers, and native shrubs.
Most areas of this soil are wooded. Most of the mer-
chantable timber, however, has been harvested. A few
areas are cultivated or in improved pasture.
Limitations are moderate for cultivated crops because
of the erosion hazard. A wide variety of cultivated crops
is well suited. If well managed, such crops as corn and
soybeans grow well. Intensive erosion control measures
are needed. These measures include a system of well
designed terraces having stabilized outlets and contour
cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with cover
crops. The crop rotation should include cover crops at
least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops
and all crop residue should be left on the soil or plowed
under. For maximum yields, good seedbed preparation,
fertilization, and liming are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Grasses such as tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, and
improved bahiagrasses are well suited. Clovers and
other legumes are suited and grow well if well managed.
Fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing are needed to
maintain vigorous plants for highest yields and good soil
cover.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash, lob-
lolly, and longleaf pine. Loblolly and slash pine are the
most suitable for planting.







SOIL SURVEY


The potential is very high for trench sanitary landfill
and dwellings without basements. No special corrective
measures are needed. The potential is high for play-
grounds if the land is shaped, high for local roads and
streets if the structural strength is increased, and high
for shallow excavations if the excavation is placed prop-
erly on the slope. The potential is medium for septic tank
absorption fields, but larger absorption fields are needed.
It is medium for small commercial buildings, but land
shaping appropriate to the building design and larger
footings and foundations are needed.
Capability subclass Ille.

26-Faceville loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent
slopes. This well drained, strongly sloping soil occurs on
hillsides of the uplands. Slopes are generally smooth, but
in some small areas they are steep or abrupt.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
loamy fine sand 2 to 5 inches thick. The upper 12 to 16
inches of the subsoil is red or yellowish red, unmottled
sandy clay or clay. The lower part is mottled red, yellow,
brown, and white sandy clay or clay.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Dothan, Esto, Greenville, Chipola, Oktibbeha, Orange-
burg, Tifton, and Troup soils. Also included are small
areas of similar soils where the original surface layer has
been completely removed by erosion and small areas
where slopes are 5 to 8 percent or 12 to 17 percent.
The included soils make up less than 25 percent of any
one mapped area.
This soil has moderate permeability. Surface runoff is
very rapid. The hazard of erosion is very high. The avail-
able water capacity is medium. Inherent fertility and the
organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation is longleaf, loblolly, and slash
pine, hickory, dogwood, and various species of oak, in-
cluding white, black, red, post, and laurel oak. The un-
derstory is pineland threeawn, briers, and native shrubs.
Most areas of this soil are cutover woodland.
The potential is moderately high for slash, longleaf,
and loblolly pine. Slash and loblolly pine are the most
suitable for planting.
Limitations are very severe for cultivated crops be-
cause of the erosion hazard. Slopes are too steep to be
effectively terraced. The only practical erosion control
measure is an adequate plant cover. If row crops are
grown, they should be planted in narrow strips on the
contour with alternating wider strips of close growing
plants. A crop rotation should include close growing
vegetation at least three-fourths of the time. All crop
residue should be left on the soil. For both row crops
and close growing crops, lime and fertilizer are needed
for top yields.
The soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture,
for example, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, and im-
proved bahiagrasses. Fertilization, liming, and controlled


grazing are needed for best yields and to insure an
adequate plant cover for erosion control.
The potential is high for trench sanitary landfill, local
roads and streets, dwellings without basements, and
shallow excavations. Trench sanitary landfill should be
placed correctly on the slope. For local roads and
streets, increased structural strength is needed. Dwell-
ings without basements should be designed to accom-
modate the slopes. Land shaping and correct placement
on the slope are needed for shallow excavations. The
potential is medium for septic tank absorption fields,
playgrounds, and small buildings. Septic tank absorption
fields should be placed parallel to the slope, and a larger
field is needed. Land shaping is needed for playgrounds
and small commercial buildings. In addition, an appropri-
ate building design and larger foundations are needed
for small commercial buildings.
Capability subclass IVe.

27-Faceville-Esto complex, 5 to 15 percent
slopes, severely eroded. This map unit is made up of
small to large areas of severely eroded, sloping to mod-
erately steep, well drained Faceville and Esto soils.
Areas range from about 5 to 100 acres. They occur
dominantly on hillsides along drainageways. Areas of the
two soils were so intermixed that they could not be
shown separately at the scale selected for mapping.
The Faceville soil makes up about 40 to 50 percent of
the unit. In most areas, erosion has removed the original
dark brown loamy fine sand surface layer and exposed
the yellowish red sandy clay loam subsoil. The next 24
inches of the subsoil is red sandy clay mottled with
yellow, brown, gray, and red. Below this, the subsoil is
highly mottled gray, red, yellow, and brown sandy clay.
The Faceville soil is well drained and moderately per-
meable. Surface runoff is rapid. The available water ca-
pacity is medium. Natural fertility and the organic matter
content are low. This soil does not have a water table
within 10 feet of the surface.
The Esto soil makes up about 30 to 40 percent of the
unit. Erosion has removed the original surface layer of
grayish brown loamy sand. The present surface layer is 6
inches of the brown sandy clay loam subsoil material.
The next 18 inches is yellowish red sandy clay that has
common mottles of yellow, brown, and gray. The lower
part of the subsoil, extending to a depth of 60 inches or
more, is reticulately mottled red, yellow, gray, and brown
sandy clay.
The Esto soil is well drained and has slow permeabil-
ity. Surface runoff is rapid. The natural fertility and the
organic matter content are low. The available water ca-
pacity is medium. This soil does not have a water table
within 6 feet of the surface.
Minor soils make up about 10 to 20 percent of the
unit. Most of the minor soils have a loamy texture but
are otherwise similar to the Faceville or the Esto soil.
Small areas of Dothan and Orangeburg soils occur at the







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


top or bottom of slopes. Small areas of Blanton, Bonifay,
Chipola, Fuquay, and Troup soils are also at the top of
many slopes. A few mapped areas include small areas
of Albarny, Leefield, or Compass soils at the base of
slopes adjacent to drainageways.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine,
white oak, red oak, laurel oak, live oak, post oak, hick-
ory, dogwood, sweetgum, and persimmon. The under-
story is smilax, greenbrier, southern dewberry, huckleber-
ry, poison ivy, and pineland threeawn. Most areas of this
unit are cutover woodland or have been planted to slash
pine.
These soils are not suitable for cultivated crops be-
cause they are too steep and too easily eroded. A per-
manent plant cover is essential.
The soils are poorly suited to pasture and hay crops. If
well managed, such grasses as Coastal bermudagrass
and bahiagrass grow moderately well, but yields are low.
The need for a dense plant cover on the soil restricts
grazing and limits the amount of hay that can be harvest-
ed.
These soils have moderately high potential for slash,
longleaf, and loblolly pine. Loblolly and slash pine are
the most suitable for planting.
The potential is high for trench sanitary landfill, local
roads and streets, dwellings without basements, and
shallow excavations. Structural strength should be in-
creased for local roads and streets. Sanitary landfills,
dwellings without basements, and shallow excavations
should be placed correctly on the slope. The potential is
medium tor septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
and small commercial buildings. Larger septic tank ab-
sorption fields are needed. They should be installed par-
allel with, the slope. Land shaping is needed for play-
grounds. Land shaping, appropriate building design, and
larger footings and foundations are needed for small
commercial buildings.
Capability subclass IVe.

28-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil occurs in intermediate positions between the high
upland soils and the lower lying wet flatwoods. It occurs
as small areas throughout the county. Slopes are
smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown and brown
sand about 10 inches thick. The underlying layers are
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 30
inches is (ight yellowish brown, the next 12 inches is very
pale brown mottled with yellowish brown and pale brown,
the next 6 inches is light gray, the next 6 inches is very
pale brown, and the bottom 16 inches is light gray. Red
and yellow mottles are below a depth of 52 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Fuquay, Lakeland, Chipola,
Compass, and Troup soils. Also included are very small
areas of Alapaha, Clarendon, Leefield, Plummer, and


Rutlege soils, generally identified by wet spot symbols on
the soil map. The included soils make up less than 15
percent of any one mapped area.
In most years, the water table is 40 to 72 inches below
the surface for 1 to 3 months. In some years it is be-
tween 30 and 40 inches for less than 30 cumulative
days. The available water capacity is low. Permeability is
very rapid. Natural fertility and the organic content are
low.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, bluejack oak, red oak, huckleberry, and
dogwood and an understory of native shrubs and pine-
land threeawn. Most areas are cutover woodland. Some
have been replanted to slash pine. Some have been
cleared for crops or bahiagrass pasture.
Limitations are severe for most cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
the choice of plants and reduce potential yields. The
water table 40 to 72 inches below the surface provides
water through capillary rise, thus supplementing the low
available water capacity. In very dry seasons the water
table drops well below the root zone, so little capillary
water is available to plants. Row crops should be planted
on the contour in alternate strips with close growing
crops. The crop rotation should provide a close growing
crop on the soil at least two-thirds of the time. All crops
should be fertilized and limed. Soil-improving cover crops
and all crop residue should be left on the ground or
plowed under. If water is readily available, irrigating the
high value crops is usually feasible. Tile or other types of
drains are needed for some crops that are damaged by
the high water table during the growing season.
The soil is well suited to pasture, for example, Coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrasses. These grasses produce
good yields if they are fertilized and limed. Controlled
grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants for maxi-
mum yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for longleaf and
slash pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
are the main management concerns. Slash pine is the
most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for local roads and streets
and buildings without basements. It is high for septic
tank absorption fields if water is controlled, high for play-
grounds if the surface is stabilized, and high for small
commercial buildings if the land is shaped and the
building design is appropriate. The potential is medium
for shallow excavations; side slopes should be shored.
Capability subclass Ills.

29-Foxworth sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained, sloping soil occurs on upland
hillsides adjacent to the lower lying wet flatwood areas
and the drainageways. It occurs as small areas through-
out the county but is dominantly in the southeastern and
southern parts. Slopes are smooth to convex.







SOIL SURVEY


Typically, the surface layer is dark gray and grayish
brown sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying layers
are sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. The upper
22 inches is light yellowish brown mottled with light gray
and very pale brown and has few to common uncoated
sand grains. The lower part is light yellowish brown mot-
tled with light gray, brown, and red and has common to
many uncoated sand grains.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Fuquay, Lakeland, Chipola,
Compass, and Troup soils. Also included are small areas
of soils that are similar to this Foxworth soil but have
slopes of 2 to 5 percent. The included soils make up
less than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
In most years, the water table is 40 to 72 inches below
the surface for 1 to 3 months. In some years it is be-
tween 30 and 40 inches for less than 30 cumulative
days. The available water capacity is very low. Perme-
ability is very rapid. Natural fertility and the organic con-
tent are low.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, red oak, bluejack oak, huckleberry, and
sparse dogwood and an understory of native shrubs and
pineland threeawn. Most areas are cutover woodland.
Some have been replanted to slash pine. A few areas
have been cleared and cultivated or planted to bahia-
grass pasture.
Limitations are very severe for cultivated crops.
Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and ero-
sion are the principal limitations for row crops. Special
soil improving measures and erosion control are needed.
Row crops should be planted on the contour in alternate
strips with close growing crops. The crop rotation should
provide a close growing plant cover on the soil at least
three-fourths of the time. Frequent applications of fertiliz-
er and lime are needed. Soil-building cover crops and all
crop residue should be left on the ground or plowed
under. If water is readily available, irrigating a few high
value crops may be feasible. Irrigation systems should
be carefully designed to apply the water at a rate slow
enough to prevent runoff and erosion.
This soil has moderately high potential for longleaf and
slash pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
are the main management concerns. Slash pine is the
most suitable for planting.
The soil is moderately suited to pasture. Such deep
rooted plants as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass
grow well if they are fertilized and limed. Occasional
drought severely reduces yields. Grazing must be care-
fully controlled to permit plants to maintain their vigor for
best yields and good ground cover.
The potential is very high for local roads and streets
and buildings without basements. No special corrective
measures are needed. The potential is high for septic
tank absorption fields, but water control is needed. The
potential is also high for small commercial buildings; ap-
propriate building design and land shaping are needed. If


the surface is stabilized and the land shaped, the poten-
tial is medium for playgrounds. It is low for trench sani-
tary landfill, even if water is controlled and the side walls
are sealed or lined with impervious material. Potential is
low for shallow excavations, even if the side walls are
shored.
Capability subclass IVs.

30-Fuquay coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This well drained, nearly level and gently sloping soil
occurs as broad, smooth areas on the uplands.
Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are about
32 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is dark grayish
brown coarse sand, and the next 26 inches is yellowish
brown loamy coarse sand. The upper 12 inches of the
subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam. Below this is 11
inches of yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower 25
inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam mottled with
yellow, brown, red, and gray. Within a depth of 60 inches
the subsoil is more than 5 percent plinthite.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Clarendon, Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Chipola,
Dothan, Esto, Lakeland, Orangeburg, Compass, Troup,
and Wicksburg soils. Also included are small areas of
soils that are similar to this Fuquay soil but have slopes
of 5 to 8 percent and a few small areas of a similar soil
that is less than 5 percent plinthite within a depth of 60
inches. The included soils make up less than 15 percent
of any one mapped area.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and
slow in the lower part. Surface runoff is moderately slow.
Inherent fertility and the organic matter content are mod-
erately low. The water table is perched above the lower
part of the subsoil for a short time during wet periods.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine, hick-
ory, dogwood, black oak, turkey oak, willow oak, laurel
oak, and white oak. The understory is native grasses and
shrubs, including Carolina jessamine, southern dewberry,
smilax, Virginia creeper, common poison ivy, summer
grape, muscadine grape, American beautyberry, huckle-
berry, and pineland threeawn. Most areas have been
cleared for cultivation or replanted to slash pine.
This soil is moderately limited for cultivated crops be-
cause of poor soil qualities. It can be cultivated safely
under ordinary good farming methods, but droughtiness
and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of
crops and the potential yields. Corn, soybeans, peanuts,
and tobacco can be grown. Row crops should be plant-
ed on the contour in alternate strips with cover crops.
The crop rotation should include cover crops at least half
the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue
should be plowed under. For the best yields, good
seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Coastal bermudagrass
and bahiagrasses are well suited. Yields are good if the
crop is fertilized and limed. Controlled grazing is needed








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


to maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields and good
cover.
The potential is moderately high for slash, loblolly, and
longleaff pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mortal-
ity are the main management concerns. Slash pine is the
most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for small commercial build-
ings, local roads and streets, and buildings without base-
ments. No special corrective measures are needed. The
potential is high for septic tank absorption fields if the
size of the field is increased, high for shallow excava-
tions if the side walls are shored, and high for trench
sanitary landfill if the pit is sealed or lined with impervi-
ous material. The potential is medium for playgrounds if
the land is shaped and the surface stabilized.
Capability subclass Ils.

31-Fuquay coarse sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
This well drained, sloping soil occurs on generally
smooth hillsides throughout the county.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish
brown loamy sand and loamy coarse sand 25 inches
thick. The upper 10 inches of the subsoil is yellowish
brown coarse sandy loam. The next 10 inches is yellow-
ish brown, sandy clay loam. The lower part of the subsoil
is yellowish brown sandy clay loam mottled in shades of
yellow, brown, red, and gray. It extends to a depth of 60
inches or more. Between depths of 40 and 60 inches the
subsoil is more than 5 percent plinthite by volume.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Bonifay, Dothan, Esto, Chipola, Orangeburg,
Compass, Troup, and Wicksburg soils. Also included are
small areas of similar soils that have slopes of 0 to 5
percent or 8 to 12 percent and a few small areas of
similar soils where the content of plinthite is less than 5
percent within a depth of 60 inches. The included soils
make up less than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and
slow in the lower part. Inherent fertility and the organic
matter content are moderately low. The available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
medium below. The water table is perched above the
lower part of the subsoil for a short time during wet
periods.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine, hick-
ory, dogwood, black oak, white oak, willow oak, live oak,
and laurel oak. The understory is native grasses and
shrubs, including pineland threeawn, southern dewberry,
smilax, Virginia creeper, summer grape, muscadine
grape, American beautyberry, yaupon, and huckleberry.
Most areas have been cleared for crops or planted to
slash pine. Some are cutover woodland.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients se-
verely limit the suitability of this soil for most row crops.
The slopes make cultivation more difficult and increase


the hazard of erosion. Special soil-improving measures
are needed. Row crops should be planted in strips on
the contour alternating with wider strips of close growing,
soil-improving crops. The crop rotation should include
close growing crops at least two-thirds of the time. All
crops should be fertilized and limed. Soil-improving crops
and the residue of all other crops should be left on the
land or plowed under.
The soil is moderately well suited to pasture. Deep
rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahia-
grasses, are well suited. The slope increases the erosion
hazard and reduces the potential yields. If the soil is
fertilized and limed, good stands of grass can be pro-
duced. Controlled grazing is needed in maintaining vigor-
ous plants and good ground cover.
The potential is moderately high for loblolly, slash, and
longleaf pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mortal-
ity are the main management concerns. Slash pine is the
most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for local roads and streets
and buildings without basements. No corrective meas-
ures are needed. The potential is high for septic tank
absorption fields if the size of the field is increased, high
for trench sanitary landfill if the trench is sealed or lined
with impervious material, and high for small commercial
buildings if an appropriate building design is used and
the land is shaped. The potential is medium for play-
grounds. Surface stabilization and land shaping are
needed. If the side walls are shored, potential is medium
for shallow excavations.
Capability subclass Ille.
32-Grady fine sandy loam. This poorly drained,
nearly level soil occurs in low flat areas, depressions,
and poorly defined drainageways. Slopes are smooth to
slightly concave. Areas range from about 5 to 100 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sandy
loam about 6 inches thick. The upper 5 inches of the
subsoil is grayish brown clay. Below this is gray clay
mottled with yellow, red, and brown. The subsoil extends
to a depth of 76 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Alapaha, Clarendon, Bethera, Duplin, Hornsville, and
Pansey soils. A few small areas where the surface layer
is black or very dark gray and is more than 8 inches
thick are included in some mapped areas. In a few small
areas the upper part of the subsoil is sandy clay loam,
and in some depressions coarse textured material from
surrounding uplands has washed in and formed an over-
burden of sandier texture. In some areas, the surface
layer is loam or sandy clay loam. The included soils
make up about 25 percent of any one mapped area.
In most years the water table is at or near the surface
and depressions are ponded for 2 to 6 months. Perme-
ability is slow. The available moisture capacity is
medium. Drainage is slow; it is impeded by the shallow
water table. Natural fertility and the organic matter con-








SOIL SURVEY


tent are moderately high in the top 10 inches and low
below.
The natural vegetation is sweetgum, sweetbay, red
maple, water oak, water tupelo, and cypress. The under-
story is water-tolerant grasses, reeds, and shrubs.
Limitations are very severe for cultivated crops be-
cause of wetness. The slowly permeable subsoil makes
adequate drainage difficult to maintain. Even if drainage
is adequate, the soil is suited to only a few important
crops. A water control system is needed. It should be
designed to remove excess surface water and internal
water rapidly. Seedbeds should be well prepared by bed-
ding the rows. The crop rotation should provide a close
growing, soil-improving crop on the soil at least three-
fourths of the time. These crops and all other crop resi-
due should be plowed under. Fertilizer and lime are
needed for highest yields.
The soil is moderately well suited to pasture. Coastal
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and clovers are
well suited. Drainage is needed to remove excess sur-
face water during heavy rains. Good management in-
cludes water control, fertilization, liming, and controlled
grazing. Areas in depressions are not suitable for cultiva-
tion or pasture.
This soil has high potential for loblolly and slash pine
and sweetgum. Loblolly pine, slash pine, and American
sycamore are the most suitable for planting. An ade-
quate water control system is needed.
The potential is very low for septic tank absorption
fields, trench sanitary landfill, playgrounds, local roads
and streets, and dwellings without basements. It is low
for small commercial buildings and shallow excavations.
Water control and protection from ponding are needed
for all of these uses. In addition, mounding is needed for
septic tank absorption fields. Filling with suitable material
is needed for playgrounds, small commercial buildings,
local roads and streets, and dwellings without base-
ments.
Capability subclass IVw.

33-Greenville fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This well drained, gently sloping soil is on up-
lands. Slopes are smooth and convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown fine
sandy loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil extending
to a depth of 72 inches or more is dark red sandy clay.
In some areas the lower part of the subsoil has few to
common brown and red mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Faceville, Oktibbeha, Orangeburg, and Red Bay soils.
Also included are a few small areas of similar soils that
have slopes of less than 2 percent or of 5 to 8 percent
and a few small areas of eroded soils where the surface
layer is sandy clay loam or sandy clay. The included
soils make up less than 15 percent of any one mapped
area.


The water table is below 6 feet. The available moisture
capacity is medium to high. Permeability is moderate.
Runoff is moderate, and internal drainage is good. Natu-
ral fertility and the content of organic matter are moder-
ate in the surface layer and low in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine,
sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, white oak, water oak, post
oak, live oak, southern redcedar, and magnolia. The un-
derstory is smilax, Virginia creeper, common poison ivy,
muscadine grape, red buckeye, American beautyberry,
American holly, and native grasses and weeds. Most
areas have been cleared for cultivation.
The potential is high for most cultivated crops suited
to the county. Limitations are moderate because of the
erosion hazard. A wide variety of cultivated crops is well
suited. If well managed, corn and soybeans grow well.
Moderate erosion control measures are needed, includ-
ing a system of well designed terraces having stabilized
outlets and contour cultivation of row crops in alternate
strips with cover crops. The crop rotation should provide
a cover crop on the soil at least half the time. Soil-
improving cover crops and all crop residue should be left
on the soil or plowed under. For maximum yields, good
seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming are needed.
The potential is high for improved pasture. The soil is
well suited to pasture and hay crops, for example, tall
fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, the improved bahia-
grasses, and clovers and other legumes. Yields are good
if the crop is well managed. Fertilization, liming, and
controlled grazing are essential in maintaining vigorous
plants for highest yields and good soil cover.
The potential is moderately high for slash, longleaf,
and loblolly pine. Loblolly and slash pine are the most
suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for trench sanitary landfill
and shallow excavations. No special corrective measures
are needed. The potential is high for septic tank absorp-
tion fields if the size of the field is increased, high for
playgrounds if the land is shaped, and high for small
commercial buildings and dwellings without basements if
larger footings and foundations are installed. Potential is
high for local roads and streets if the structural strength
is increased.
Capability subclass lie.

34-Greenville fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. This well drained, sloping soil is on uplands.
Slopes are generally smooth and convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown fine
sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil, extending
to a depth of 75 inches or more, is dark red sandy clay.
In some areas the lower part of the subsoil has few to
common brown and red mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Faceville, Oktibbeha, Orangeburg, and Red Bay soils.
Also included are a few small areas of similar soils that
have slopes of 5 to 8 percent and a few small areas of







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


eroded Isoils where the surface layer is sandy clay loam
or sandy clay. The included soils make up less than 15
percent of any one mapped area.
The Water table is below a depth of 6 feet. The availa-
ble moisture capacity is medium to high. Permeability is
moderate. Runoff is moderate to rapid, and internal
drainage is good. Natural fertility and the content of
organic matter are moderate in the surface layer and low
in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation is slash and longleaf pine,
sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, white oak, water oak, post
oak, live oak, southern redcedar, and magnolia. The un-
derstory is smilax, Virginia creeper, common poison ivy,
muscadine grape, red buckeye, American beautyberry,
American holly, and native grasses and weeds. Most
areas have been cleared for cultivation.
Limitations are moderate for cultivated crops because
of the erosion hazard. A wide variety of cultivated crops
is well suited. If well managed, corn and soybeans grow
well. Intensive erosion control measures are needed, in-
cluding a system of well designed terraces having stabi-
lized outlets and contour cultivation of row crops in alter-
nate strips with cover crops. The crop rotation should
provide a cover crop on the soil at least two-thirds of the
time. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue
should be left on the soil or plowed under. For maximum
yields, good seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming
are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. If well
managed, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, the im-
proved bahiagrasses and clovers and other legumes
grow well. Fertilization, liming, and controlled grazing are
essential in maintaining vigorous plants for highest yields
and good soil cover.
The potential is moderately high for slash, longleaf,
and loblolly pine. Loblolly and slash pine are the most
suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for trench sanitary landfill.
No special corrective measures are needed. The poten-
tial is high for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
local roads and streets, buildings without basements,
and shallow excavations. Larger absorption fields are
needed for septic tanks. Land shaping is needed for
playgrounds.
Capability subclass Ille.

35-Hornsville fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent
slopes. This moderately well drained, nearly level soil
occurs dominantly on broad flats adjacent to large
stream flood plains. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sandy
loam about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is very
pale brown fine sandy loam about 4 inches thick. The
subsoil is sandy clay. The upper 12 inches is yellowish
brown, and the lower 24 inches is reticulately mottled in
shades oof brown, gray, and red and contains few to
many mica flakes.


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Clarendon, Blanton, Bethera, Chipola, Duplin, Esto, Fa-
ceville, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and Wicksburg soils. Also
included are small areas of similar soils that have slopes
of 2 to 5 percent, a few small areas of soils that are
similar to this Hornsville soil but have surface and sub-
surface layers 20 to 30 inches thick, and areas of similar
soils that have a thicker subsoil.
In most years the water table is between depths of 30
and 40 inches for 3 to 5 months. In some years it is
within a depth of 30 inches for 1 to 2 months. The
available water capacity is medium. Permeability is rapid
in the surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil.
Natural fertility and the content of organic matter are
moderately low.
The natural vegetation is a forest of longleaf, slash,
and loblolly pine and mixed hardwoods consisting of
several species of oak and hickory, dogwood, persim-
mon, and sweetgum. The understory is mainly native
grasses and shrubs, including inkberry, waxmyrtle, and
pineland threeawn. Most of the acreage is wooded. A
few areas have been cleared and cultivated or devel-
oped into improved pasture. Some areas have been
cleared and replanted to slash pine.
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
because of wetness. If well managed, corn, peanuts,
soybeans, and tobacco grow well. Carefully designed tile
or open drains that remove excess water rapidly after
heavy rains are needed. Cover crops should be rotated
with row crops, and the crop rotations should provide a
cover crop on the soil at least half the time. Soil-improv-
ing cover crops and all crop residue should be left on
the soil or plowed under. Good seedbed preparation,
fertilization, and liming are also important.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, for
example, tall fescue, clovers, Coastal bermudagrass, and
bahiagrasses. Regular additions of fertilizer and lime are
needed for highest yields. Grazing should be controlled
to maintain vigorous plants for best yields.
This soil has high potential for loblolly and slash pine
and sweetgum. Loblolly and slash pine, sweetgum, and
yellow-poplar are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is high for trench sanitary landfill, play-
grounds, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and shallow excavations. Water control is
needed for trench sanitary landfill. Also needed is sur-
face stabilization for playgrounds, larger footings and
foundations for small commercial buildings, increased
structural strength for local roads and streets, and water
control and special equipment for shallow excavations.
The potential is medium for septic tank absorption fields
if water is controlled and a larger absorption field is
installed. The potential is medium for dwellings without
basements if larger footings and foundations are used.
Capability subclass IIw.







SOIL SURVEY


36-Hornsville fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This moderately well drained, gently sloping soil
occurs on broad low ridges adjacent to the flood plains
along large streams. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy
loam about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray-
ish brown fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
upper 10 inches of the subsoil is yellowish red sandy
clay. The next 12 inches is mottled yellowish red, red,
yellowish brown, strong brown, and light gray sandy clay.
The lower 12 inches is mottled yellowish brown, red, and
pale brown sandy clay. Below a depth of 43 inches and
extending to 76 inches or more is fine sandy loam that is
mottled yellowish red, light gray, brownish yellow, and
yellow.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Clarendon, Blanton, Bethera, Chipola, Duplin, Esto, Fa-
ceville, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and Wicksburg soils. Also
included are small areas of similar soils that have slopes
of 5 to 8 percent or 1 to 2 percent and areas of a soil
that is similar to this Hornsville soil but its subsoil ex-
tends below 60 inches. The included soils make up
about 15 percent of any one mapped area.
In most years, the water table is at depths of 30 to 40
inches for 3 to 5 months. In some years it is within 30
inches for 1 to 2 months. The available water capacity is
medium. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
moderately slow in the subsoil. Runoff is medium. Natu-
ral fertility and the supply of organic matter are moder-
ately low.
The natural vegetation is a forest of longleaf, slash,
and loblolly pine and mixed hardwoods, consisting of
several oak species, hickory, dogwood, persimmon, and
sweetgum. The understory is mainly grasses and shrubs,
including inkberry, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn.
Most areas are cutover woodland, but a few have been
cleared for crops or developed into improved pasture.
Some areas have been cleared and replanted to slash
pine.
Limitations are moderate for cultivated crops because
of the erosion hazard. The number of suitable crops is
somewhat limited by occasional wetness. If well man-
aged, such crops as corn, soybeans, and peanuts grow
well. Moderate erosion control and water control meas-
ures are needed. Rows should be bedded on the con-
tour. Row crops should be planted in alternate strips with
cover crops. The crop rotation should provide a close
growing crop on the soil at least half the time. Soil-
improving cover crops and all crop residue should be left
on the soil or plowed under. For maximum yields, good
seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and lime are needed. For
some water sensitive crops, such as tobacco, tile drains
are needed to remove excess water during wet seasons.
The soil is well suited to improved pasture and hay
crops, for example, tall fescue, clovers, Coastal bermu-
dagrass and bahiagrasses. Yields are good if the crop is
fertilized and limed. Controlled grazing is needed to


maintain vigorous plants for maximum yields and a good
ground cover.
This soil has high potential for loblolly and slash pine
and sweetgum. Loblolly and slash pine, sweetgum, and
yellow-poplar are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is high for trench sanitary landfill, play-
grounds, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and shallow excavations. Water control is
needed for sanitary landfill, surface stabilization for play-
grounds, larger footings and foundations for small com-
mercial buildings, increased structural strength for local
roads and streets, and water control and special equip-
ment for shallow excavations. The potential is medium
for septic tank absorption fields if water is controlled and
if a larger absorption field is used. The potential is
medium for dwellings without basements if larger foot-
ings and foundations are used. Land shaping and sur-
face stabilization are needed for playgrounds.
Capability subclass lie.

37-luka loam. This moderately well drained, nearly
level soil occurs in slightly depressed areas of the up-
lands. Slopes are smooth and concave. Areas are small,
about 3 to 10 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loam about
12 inches thick. Below this is about 4 inches of dark
brown loam and 9 inches of dark yellowish brown sandy
loam. Next is about 31 inches of grayish brown sandy
loam mottled with brown, yellow, and gray. Gray colors
increase with increasing depth. The sandy loam is under-
lain by a layer of pale brown sandy clay loam that has
lenses and pockets of sandy loam and loamy sand and
is mottled with gray, brown, and yellow.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Blanton, Chipola, Grady, and Orangeburg soils.
Also included are small areas of a somewhat poorly
drained soil that has a subsoil of sandy clay loam or
sandy clay. In some pedons, the surface layer is sandy
loam or fine sandy loam. The included soils make up
less than 25 percent of any one mapped area.
In most years the water table is within 40 inches of the
surface for 1 to 3 months. Flash flooding is common in
periods of heavy rainfall, but the duration of flooding is
brief, generally 3 to 10 days. The available moisture
capacity is medium. Permeability is moderate. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are medium in the
top 12 inches and moderately low below.
The natural vegetation is water oak, white oak, laurel
oak, live oak, slash pine, longleaf pine, sweetgum,
willow, beech, red maple, and hickory. The understory is
various smilax species, southern dewberry, common
poison ivy, summer grape, muscadine grape, American
beautyberry, sumac, carpet weed, pigweed, trumpet
creeper, ragweed, horseweed, dogfennel, cudweed, bit-
terweed, common cocklebur, and vaseygrass.
The soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
because of the wetness and the hazard of flooding. The







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


number of well suited crops is limited, but if water control
is adequate, such crops as corn and soybeans can be
grown. The water control system should remove the
excess [surface water and internal water in the upper
layers during heavy rains, and it should protect the soil
from flooding. The crop rotation should provide a close
growing, soil-improving crop on the soil at least half the
time. All crop residue and soil-improving crops should be
plowed Under. Seedbed preparation should include bed-
ding the rows. Adding fertilizer and lime is also important.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, for
example, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass,
and clovers. Yields are moderate to high if the crop is
fertilized and limed. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain' the vitality of plants for highest yields. Pastures
should be protected from flooding.
This soil has very high potential for loblolly pine,
sweetgum, and eastern cottonwood. Yellow-poplar, east-
ern cottonwood, and loblolly pine are the most suitable
for planting. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
are the major management concerns.
The potential is high for septic tank absorption fields. It
is medium for trench sanitary landfill, local roads and
streets, and shallow excavations and low for play-
grounds, small commercial buildings, and buildings with-
out basements. Water control and protection from pond-
ing are needed for all of these uses.
Capability subclass llw.

38-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This ex-
cessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil
occurs on uplands throughout the county. Slopes are
smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand about 5
inches thick. The underlying material is 35 inches of
yellowish brown, loose sand over very pale brown sand
that extends to a depth of 82 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Chipola, Fuquay,
and Troup soils. Also included are small areas of similar
soils that have slopes of 5 to 8 percent. The included
soils make up less than 15 percent of any one mapped
area.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine,
blackjack oak, bluejack oak, turkey oak, post oak, and
persimmon. The understory is smilax, blackberry,
yaupon, dwarf live oak, running oak, huckleberry, milk-
weed, ragweed, mayweed, cornflower, dogfennel, cud-
weed, and sparse pineland threeawn. Large areas of this
soil were cleared and planted to tung nut trees, but most
are being converted to pasture. Some are under urban
development. The rest of the acreage is wooded. All
merchantable timber has been removed, and the plant
cover is scrub oak. Some areas have been replanted to
slash pine and sand pine.


The available water capacity is low throughout the soil.
Permeability is very rapid. The inherent fertility and or-
ganic matter are low.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients re-
strict the number of suitable crops and reduce potential
yields. If the soil is cultivated, intensive management is
needed. Row crops should be planted on the contour in
alternate strips with close growing crops. The crop rota-
tion should include close growing plants at least three-
fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops and all crop
residue should be plowed under. Only a few crops pro-
duce good yields without irrigation. If water is readily
available, irrigation of these crops is usually feasible.
The soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay crops.
Deep rooted plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass are well suited, but periodic drought reduces
yields. Regular additions of fertilizer and lime are
needed. Grazing should be controlled so that plants
remain vigorous and yields high.
This soil has moderately high potential for longleaf and
slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are the main management concerns.
Slash pine is the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, low commercial buildings, local roads and streets,
and buildings without basements. No special corrective
measures are needed for these uses. The potential is
medium for trench sanitary landfill if the trench is sealed
or lined with impervious material. It is medium for play-
grounds if the surface is stabilized and medium for shal-
low excavations if the side walls are shored.
Capability subclass IVs.

39-Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
deep, excessively drained, sloping soil occurs on side
slopes along well defined drainageways of the uplands.
Slopes are smooth and convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand about 4
inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a depth
of 80 inches or more. The upper 33 inches is brownish
yellow coated sand. Below 40 inches and extending to
80 inches or more is very pale brown sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Chipola, Fuquay,
and Troup soils. Also included are small areas of similar
soils that have slopes of 0 to 5 percent and a few areas
of similar soils that have slopes of 8 to 12 percent. The
included soils make up less than 15 percent of any one
mapped area.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine,
blackjack oak, bluejack oak, turkey oak, post oak, and
persimmon. The understory is smilax, blackberry,
yaupon, dwarf live oak, runner oak, huckleberry, milk-
weed, ragweed, mayweed, cornflower, dogfennel, cud-
weed, and sparse pineland threeawn. Large areas of this
soil were cleared and planted to tung nut trees, but most
are being converted to pasture. Some are under urban







SOIL SURVEY


development. The rest of the acreage is wooded. All
merchantable timber has been removed, and the plant
cover is scrub oak. Some areas have been replanted to
slash pine and sand pine.
The available water capacity is low throughout the soil.
Permeability is very rapid. The inherent fertility and the
organic matter content are low.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops because of
poor soil quality, steepness of slope, and susceptibility to
erosion. It is moderately suited to pasture. Deep rooted
plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass
are well suited, but periodic drought reduces yields. Reg-
ular additions of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
should be controlled so that plants remain vigorous and
yields high.
These soils have moderately high potential for slash
and longleaf pine. Equipment limitations and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns. Slash pine
is the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, local roads and streets, and dwellings without
basements. No special corrective measures are needed.
It is high for small commercial buildings if the building
design is appropriate and the land is shaped. The poten-
tial is medium for playgrounds if the land is shaped and
the surface stabilized. It is medium for shallow excava-
tions if the side walls are shored. The potential is low for
trench sanitary landfill even if the trench is lined or
sealed with impervious material.
Capability subclass Vis.

40-Lakeland sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This
excessively drained, deep, strongly sloping soil occurs
on hillsides. Slopes are smooth, irregular, and convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown or dark gray-
ish brown sand 3 to 4 inches thick. The underlying layers
are sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 40
inches is brownish yellow, and the lower part is pale
brown or very pale brown sand that has many uncoated
sand grains.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Chipola, Esto, Face-
ville, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and Troup soils and soils at
the base of the steeper slopes that have a subsoil of
mixed sandy clay loam and sandy clay at varying depths.
Also included are areas of similar soils that have slopes
of 5 to 8 percent and a few areas where slopes are 12
to 30 percent. The steeper slopes are usually narrow
escarpment-like areas adjacent to drainageways and low
lying wet depressional areas. The included soils make up
less than 20 percent of any one mapped area.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine,
blackjack oak, bluejack oak, turkey oak, post oak, and
persimmon. The understory is smilax, blackberry,
yaupon, dwarf live oak, runner oak, huckleberry, milk-
weed, ragweed, mayweed, cornflower, dogfennel, cud-
weed, and sparse pineland threeawn. Large areas of this


soil were cleared and planted to tung nut trees, but most
are being converted to pasture. Some are under urban
development. The rest of the acreage is wooded. All
merchantable timber has been removed, and the plant
cover is scrub oak. Some areas have been replanted to
slash pine and sand pine.
This soil has low available water capacity, low inherent
fertility, and low organic matter content throughout. Per-
meability is very rapid.
The soil is not suitable for cultivated crops because of
poor soil quality, steepness of slope, and susceptibility to
erosion. It is moderately suited to pasture. Deep rooted
plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass
are well suited, but periodic drought reduces yields. Reg-
ular fertilizing and liming are needed. Grazing should be
controlled so that plants remain vigorous and yields high.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash and
longleaf pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mortal-
ity are management concerns. Slash pine is the most
suitable for planting.
This soil has high potential for septic tank absorption
fields if the field is parallel to the slope. The potential is
high for small commercial buildings if the building design
is appropriate. It is high for local roads and streets and
buildings without basements if the land is shaped. It is
low for playgrounds, even if the surface is stabilized and
the land shaped, and low for shallow excavations, even
if the side walls are shored.
Capability subclass VIs.

41-Lakeland sand, 12 to 30 percent slopes. This
excessively drained, steep upland soil occurs on hill-
sides. Slopes are steep and irregular.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown or dark gray-
ish brown sand 2 to 4 inches thick. The underlying layers
are sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 40
inches is brownish yellow coated sand. Below this is
pale brown or very pale brown sand that has many
uncoated sand grains.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Chipola, Esto, Face-
ville, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. Also included
are soils at the base of some slopes that have a subsoil
of sandy clay or sandy clay loam within a depth of 40
inches. Areas of similar soils that have slopes of 8 to 12
percent, escarpments, and very steep slopes are includ-
ed in some mapped areas. The included soils make up
less than 20 percent of any one mapped area.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine,
blackjack oak, turkey oak, post oak, and persimmon. The
understory is smilax, blackberry, yaupon, dwarf live oak,
runner oak, huckleberry, milkweed, ragweed, mayweed,
cornflower, dogfennel, cudweed, and sparse pineland
threeawn. Large areas of this soil were cleared and
planted to tung nut trees, but most are being converted
to pasture. Some are under urban development. The rest
of the acreage is wooded. The merchantable timber has








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


been removed, and the plant cover is scrub oak. Some
areas have been replanted to slash pine and sand pine.
This soil has low available water capacity, low inherent
fertility, and low organic matter content throughout. Per-
meability is very rapid throughout.
This soil is not suited to field crops or pasture. It has
moderately high potential for slash and longleaf pine.
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are manage-
ment concerns. Slash pine is the most suitable for plant-
ing.
The potential is high for local roads and streets and
dwellings without basements. Land shaping and an ap-
propriate building design are needed. The potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields if the field is
installed parallel to the slope and medium for small com-
mercial buildings if the land is shaped and the building
design is appropriate. The potential is low for trench
sanitary landfill, even if the land is shaped, low for play-
grounds if the land is shaped and the surface stabilized,
and low for shallow excavations if the side walls are
shored.
Capability subclass Vlls.

42-Leefield loamy sand. This somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level upland soil occurs in wet areas
along poorly defined drainageways in the flatwoods.
Slopes are smooth to convex and 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
yellowish brown loamy sand about 19 inches thick. The
upper 15 inches of the subsoil is light yellowish brown
sandy loam that has few to many mottles of gray, brown,
yellow, and red. The lower 41 inches of the subsoil is
sandy clay loam reticulately mottled with gray, yellow,
brown, and red. The subsoil extends to a depth of 84
inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Alapaha, Albany, Clarendon, Compass, Foxworth, Grady,
and Pansey soils. Also included are small areas of a soil
that is similar to this Leefield soil but has sandy clay or
clay in the lower part of the subsoil and small areas of a
soil that is similar to this Leefield soil to a depth of about
48 inches but is sandy loam or loamy sand below 48
inches. In a few small areas slopes are 2 to 5 percent.
Small areas of more poorly drained soils are in some
mapped areas. A few small areas of a similar soil have a
very dark gray to black surface layer 10 to 12 inches
thick. The included soils make up less than 20 percent
of any one mapped area.
The water table is perched between depths of 18 and
30 inches for about 4 months during the year. The avail-
able moisture capacity is medium in the subsoil but low
in the surface and subsurface layers. Permeability is
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and moder-
ately slow in the lower part of the subsoil. Internal drain-
age is rroderately slow; it is impeded by the shallow
water table. Natural fertility and the organic matter con-


tent are moderate in the top 10 inches and low below 10
inches.
The natural vegetation is longleaf, slash, and pond
pine, sweetgum, water oak, sweetbay, blackgum, and red
maple. The understory is native grasses and shrubs in-
cluding inkberry, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn.
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
because of wetness. The water table is at or near the
surface much of the time. Crops such as corn and soy-
beans are suitable only if the soil is properly drained. Tile
drains or open ditches are needed. Row crops should be
rotated with cover crops, and the cover crops should be
on the soil at least half the time. Soil-improving cover
crops and all crop residue should be plowed under. For
best yields, good seedbed preparation, fertilization, and
liming are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. If well
managed, such grasses as Coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrasses grow well. White clovers and other le-
gumes are moderately well suited. For best yields fertil-
ization and liming are needed, and grazing should be
carefully controlled to maintain plant vigor.
This soil has moderately high potential for growing
slash, loblolly, and longleaf pine. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are the chief management con-
cerns. Loblolly and slash pine are the most suitable for
planting.
The potential is high for small commercial buildings,
local roads and streets, and dwellings without base-
ments. It is medium for septic tank absorption fields,
trench sanitary landfills, playgrounds, and shallow exca-
vations. Water control is needed for all of these uses. In
addition, larger absorption fields are needed for septic
tanks. Land shaping is needed for trench sanitary land-
fills. Surface stabilization is needed for playgrounds. The
side walls of shallow excavations should be shored.
Capability subclass IIw.

43-Oktibbeha Variant-Rock outcrop complex, 2 to
5 percent slopes. This map unit consists of small areas
of gently sloping, moderately well drained Oktibbeha
variant soils and limestone outcrops. Generally, it occurs
on ridges in dissected uplands. The soil and the rock
outcrop are so intermingled that they could not be
shown separately at the scale selected for mapping.
Areas of the unit are about 5 to 40 acres.
The Oktibbeha variant soil makes up about 60 percent
of the unit. Typically, the surface layer is 2 inches of dark
reddish brown sandy clay. The upper 15 inches of the
subsoil is yellowish red and red clay, and the next 11
inches is yellowish red and yellowish brown clay. Below
this, the subsoil is yellowish brown clay mottled with red.
Soft black manganese concretions occur throughout the
subsoil. Soft light gray and white limestone is at a depth
of about 48 inches. During periods of low rainfall, the soil
dries out, and cracks up to an inch wide extend from the
surface through the upper part of the subsoil.









SOIL SURVEY


The Oktibbeha variant soil has very slow permeability.
Surface runoff is medium. The available water capacity is
medium to high. The water table is below a depth of 72
inches. The organic matter content and inherent fertility
are low.
Outcrops of limestone make up about 20 percent of
the unit. They are about 10 to 20 feet wide and 100 to
200 feet long. Most are horizontal and are at the crest of
the slope. Others are in scattered areas throughout the
unit.
Minor soils make up about 20 percent of the unit.
Small areas of Esto, Faceville, Greenville, Orangeburg,
Red Bay, and Dothan soils are in most mapped areas.
The natural vegetation on this unit is slash pine, long-
leaf pine, loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, hickory, beech,
water oak, willow oak, southern red oak, laurel oak,
white oak, post oak, redcedar, sweetgum, and hackberry.
The understory is native shrubs and weeds that include
American beautyberry, smilax, blackberry, common
briers, sumac, muscadine grape, honeylocust, and
poison ivy. Most areas are cutover forest. Merchantable
trees have been harvested.
This unit has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of the erosion hazard and the rock outcrops.
Intensive erosion control measures are needed. Well de-
signed terraces with stabilized outlets are needed. Row
crops should be cultivated on the contour in alternate
strips with close growing crops. The crop rotation should
include close growing crops at least two-thirds of the
time. Soil-building cover crops and all crop residue
should be left on the land or plowed under. For maxi-
mum yields, good seedbed preparation, fertilizer, and
lime are needed.
The unit is well suited to pasture, for example, tall
fescue, clovers, Coastal bermudagrass, and improved ba-
hiagrasses. Yields are good if the crop is fertilized and
limed. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous
plants for maximum yields and good soil cover.
The unit has moderately high potential for loblolly pine.
Loblolly pine is the most suitable for planting.
This unit has high potential for trench sanitary landfill
and shallow excavations if the rock outcrop does not
interfere with installation. Special equipment is needed
for both of these uses. In areas where there are no rock
outcrops, the potential is medium for septic tank absorp-
tion fields if a larger field is used. The potential is
medium for playgrounds if the surface is stabilized. It is
medium for dwellings without basements if there are no
rock outcrops, but greater structural strength and larger
footings are needed. The potential is low for small com-
mercial buildings and local roads and streets, even if the
structural strength is increased and larger footings and
foundations are used.
Capability subclass Ille.

44-Oktibbeha Variant-Rock outcrop complex, 5 to
12 percent slopes. This map unit consists of small


areas of sloping to strongly sloping, moderately well
drained Oktibbeha variant soils and limestone outcrops.
Generally, it occurs on hillsides of dissected uplands.
The soil and the rock outcrop are so intermingled that
they could not be shown separately at the scale selected
for mapping. Areas of the unit are about 5 to 75 acres.
Oktibbeha variant soils make up about 60 percent of
the unit. Typically, the surface layer is 2 inches of dark
reddish brown clay. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil is
yellowish red and red clay. The next 10 inches is red
clay mottled with yellowish brown. Below this, the sub-
soil is yellowish brown and yellowish red clay mottled
with red, yellow, brown, and gray. Soft black manganese
concretions occur throughout the subsoil. Soft light gray
and white limestone is at a depth of about 45 inches.
During periods of low rainfall, the soil dries out, and
cracks up to an inch wide extend through the upper part
of the subsoil.
Oktibbeha variant soils have very slow permeability.
Surface runoff is high. The available water capacity is
medium to high. The water table is below a depth of 72
inches. The organic matter content and inherent fertility
are low.
Outcrops of limestone make up about 20 percent of
the unit. They are about 10 to 20 feet wide and 100 to
200 feet long. Most are horizontal and are at the crest of
the slope. Others are in scattered areas throughout the
unit.
Minor soils make up about 20 percent of the unit.
Small areas of Esto, Faceville, Greenville, Orangeburg,
Red Bay, and Dothan soils are in most mapped areas.
The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine,
loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, hickory, beech, water oak,
willow oak, southern red oak, laurel oak, white oak, post
oak, redcedar, sweetgum, and hackberry. The understory
is native shrubs and weeds that include American beau-
tyberry, smilax, blackberry, common briers, sumac, mus-
cadine grape, honeylocust, and poison ivy. Most areas
are cutover forests. The merchantable trees have been
harvested.
This unit has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops because of the erosion hazard and the rock out-
crops. The slopes are too steep for effective terracing,
so erosion control is limited chiefly to the use of a plant
cover. If row crops are grown, they should be in narrow
strips on the contour alternating with wider strips of
close growing crops. The crop rotation should include
close growing plants at least three-fourths of the time.
All crop residue should be left on the soil. For best yields
of row crops and close growing crops, lime and fertilizer
are needed.
The unit is moderately well suited to pasture, for ex-
ample, Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses. If the
crop is limed and fertilized, it produces fair grazing and a
good sod cover for protection against erosion. Grazing
should be carefully controlled to maintain vigorous plants
and maximum growth for good cover.







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


The unit has moderately high potential for loblolly pine.
Loblolly pine is the most suitable for planting.
If the rock outcrop does not interfere with installation,
the potential for trench sanitary landfill is high. No spe-
cial equipment is needed. In areas where there are no
rock outcrops, the potential is medium for septic tank
absorption fields, buildings without basements, and shal-
low excavations. A larger absorption field is needed for
septic tanks. For dwellings without basements, an appro-
priate building design, increased structural strength, and
larger footings and foundations are needed. For shallow
excavations, special equipment and proper placement on
the slope are needed. The potential for playgrounds is
low, even if the land is shaped and the surface stabi-
lized, and it is very low for small commercial buildings,
even if increased structural strength, larger footings, land
shaping, and appropriate building designs are used.
Capability subclass IVe.

45-Orangeburg loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent
slopes. This well drained, nearly level, deep soil is on
the uplarqds. Slopes are smooth to slightly convex.
Typically, the surface layer is brown loamy sand 9
inches thick. The upper 8 inches of the subsoil is yellow-
ish red sandy clay loam. This is underlain by red sandy
clay loam that extends to a depth of 72 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chipola, Dothan, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Greenville, Red
Bay, and Wicksburg soils and, in some mapped areas,
small areas of luka soils, local alluvium, or moderately
well drained soils in small depressions. Also included are
a few small areas of similar soils that have slopes of 2 to
5 percent. The included soils make up less than 15
percent of any one mapped area.
This soil has medium available water capacity. Perme-
ability is moderate, and runoff is slow. Natural fertility
and the organic matter content are moderately low. The
water table is below a depth of 72 inches.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine and
mixed hardwoods, including white oak, red oak, live oak,
laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and persim-
mon. The understory consists of native grasses and
shrubs including huckleberry, southern dewberry, black-
berry, American beautyberry, smilax, broomsedge, and
pineland threeawn. Most areas of this soil have been
cleared for cultivation. A few have been replanted to
slash pine.
This soil has few limitations for cultivated crops. It is
well suited to such crops as corn, soybeans, peanuts,
and tobacco without special erosion control or water
control measures. Good seedbed preparation, fertiliza-
tion, liming, and crop rotation are needed to keep the
soil in good condition. Cover crops should be alternated
with row crops. All crop residue should be plowed under.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, for
example, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, the im-
proved bahiagrasses, clovers, and other legumes. Yields


are good if the crop is well managed. Fertilization, liming,
and controlled grazing are needed to maintain vigorous
plants, high yields, and good soil cover.
This soil has high potential for growing loblolly, long-
leaf, and slash pine. Slash and loblolly pine are the most
suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, trench sanitary landfill, playgrounds, small com-
mercial buildings, local roads and streets, buildings with-
out basements, and shallow excavations. No special cor-
rective measures are needed.
Capability class I.

46-Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This well drained, gently sloping, moderately per-
meable soil is on uplands. Slopes are smooth and
convex. This soil occurs in all but the southwestern part
of the county.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy sand 6
inches thick. The subsoil is red sandy clay loam that
extends to a depth of 60 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chipola, Dothan, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Greenville, Red
Bay, and Wicksburg soils and, in some mapped areas,
areas of similar soils that have slopes of 0 to 2 percent
or 5 to 8 percent. In a few areas the lower part of the
subsoil is more sandy than is typical. A few very small
areas of moderately well drained soils are in depressions
in some mapped areas. The included soils make up less
than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
The available water capacity is medium. Permeability is
moderate, and runoff is moderate. Natural fertility and
the organic matter content are moderately low. The
water table is below a depth of 72 inches.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and shortleaf pine
and mixed hardwoods including white oak, red oak, live
oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, and dogwood. The
understory is native grasses and shrubs including Ameri-
can beautyberry, southern dewberry, smilax, blackberry,
panicum, spiny amaranth, poison ivy, ragweed, dogfen-
nel, bitterweed, cudweed, cocklebur, field sandbur, and
sparse pineland threeawn.
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
because of the erosion hazard. A wide variety of cultivat-
ed crops is well suited. If well managed, such crops as
corn and soybeans grow well. Moderate erosion control
measures are needed. These measures include a system
of well designed terraces with stabilized outlets and con-
tour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with cover
crops. The crop rotation should include cover crops at
least half the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all
crop residue should be left on the soil or plowed under.
For maximum yields, good seedbed preparation, fertilizer,
and lime are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, for
example, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, the im-
proved bahiagrasses, clovers, and other legumes. Yields







SOIL SURVEY


are good if the crop is well managed. Fertilization, liming,
and controlled grazing are needed to maintain vigorous
plants, highest yields, and good soil cover.
This soil has high potential for loblolly, longleaf, and
slash pine. Loblolly and slash pine are the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, trench sanitary landfill, local roads and streets,
dwellings without basements, and shallow excavations.
No special corrective measures are needed. The poten-
tial is high for playgrounds and small commercial build-
ings if the land is shaped and the design of the buildings
is appropriate.
Capability subclass lie.

47-Orangeburg loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. This is a well drained, sloping, moderately per-
meable soil of the uplands. Slopes are generally smooth
and convex. This soil occurs in all but the southwestern
part of the county.
Typically, the surface layer is brown loamy sand 6
inches thick. The subsoil is red sandy clay loam that
extends to a depth of 60 inches or more. In some
pedons the lower part of the subsoil has red, yellow, or
brown mottles.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chipola, Dothan, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Greenville, Red
Bay, and Wicksburg soils. Also included in some mapped
areas are small areas of similar soils that have slopes of
2 to 5 percent or 8 to 12 percent. The included soils
make up less than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
The available water capacity is medium. Permeability is
moderate. Runoff is moderately high to high. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are moderately
low. The water table is below a depth of 72 inches.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine and
mixed hardwoods, including white oak, red oak, live oak,
laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and yellow-
poplar. The understory is native grasses and shrubs,
including smilax species, blackberry, southern dewberry,
American beautyberry, panicum, poison ivy, ragweed,
dogfennel, bitterweed, cudweed, cocklebur, field sand-
bur, and spiny amaranth.
Limitations are moderate for cultivated crops because
of the erosion hazard. If well managed, such crops as
corn and soybeans grow well. Intensive erosion control
measures are needed. These measures include a system
of well designed terraces with stabilized outlets and con-
tour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with cover
crops. The crop rotation should include cover crops at
least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops
and all crop residue should be left on the soil or plowed
under. For maximum yields, good seedbed preparation,
fertilizer, and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, for
example, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, the im-
proved bahiagrasses, and clovers and other legumes.


Yields are good if the crop is well managed. Fertilization,
liming, and controlled grazing are needed to maintain
vigorous plants, highest yields, and good soil cover.
The potential is high for loblolly, longleaf, and slash
pine. Slash and loblolly pine are the most suitable for
planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, local roads and streets, dwellings without base-
ments, and shallow excavations. No special corrective
measures are needed. The potential is high for trench
sanitary landfill, playgrounds, and small commercial
buildings. Land shaping is needed for playgrounds. Land
shaping and appropriate building designs are needed for
small commercial buildings. Trench sanitary landfills
should be properly placed on the slope.
Capability subclass Ille.

48-Pamlico-Pantego-Rutlege association. This
map unit consists of nearly level, very poorly drained
soils. These soils occur in a regular and repeating pat-
tern. The landscape is mainly one of drainageways that
are frequently flooded. The Pamlico soil is in the lowest
parts of the drainageways. The Pantego and Rutlege
soils occur at the outer edges or rims of the drain-
ageways. The mapped areas are mostly long and
narrow. They range from about 50 to 500 acres. In a few
wide depressional areas the pattern of soils is the same
but the shape of the soil areas is different. These
depressional areas are about 10 to 300 acres. Individual
areas of each soil range from about 5 to 50 acres.
The composition of this unit is more variable than that
of most other units in the county, but it has been con-
trolled well enough for the expected use of the soils.
The Pamlico soil makes up about 30 percent of the
unit. Typically, it is about 36 inches of black muck over
very dark grayish brown sand that extends to a depth of
60 inches or more.
The Pamlico soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months in most
years. Even when the soil is not under water, the water
table is usually within a depth of 24 inches. Only during
the driest seasons, usually late in fall, is the water table
lower. At such times it can briefly recede to a depth of
40 inches or more. Permeability is moderate, and the
available water capacity is very high.
The Pantego soil makes up about 25 percent of the
unit. Typically, it has a surface layer of very dark gray
sandy loam 18 inches thick. The subsoil, extending to a
depth of 72 inches or more, is gray and dark gray sandy
clay loam mottled with brownish yellow and yellowish
brown.
In most years, the Pantego soil has a water table
within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and
between depths of 10 and 40 inches for 3 to 6 months.
Permeability is moderate, and the available water capac-
ity is medium to high.
The Rutlege soil makes up about 25 percent of the
unit. Typically, it has a surface layer of black and very








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


dark grayish brown sandy loam about 23 inches thick.
Below this, is light gray loamy sand to a depth of 80
inches or more.
In most years, the Rutlege soil has a water table within
a depth of 10 inches for 4 to 6 months. Permeability is
rapid, and the available water capacity is low.
Minor soils make up about 20 percent of the unit.
Alapaha, Albany, Leefield, Plummer, and Compass soils,
in abodt equal proportion, are the most extensive. The
minor soils generally occur at the edges of the mapped
areas.
The natural vegetation is sweetbay, titi, blackgum,
poplar, red maple, sweetgum, and slash pine. The under-
story is titi, waxmyrtle, hammoch, sweet azalea, inkberry,
and smilax species. Most of the acreage is under native
vegetation. Some acreage is cutover areas.
BecaUse of wetness, Pantego and Rutlege soils have
severe limitations and Pamlico soils very severe limita-
tions for cultivated crops. Unless water control is inten-
sive, the number of suitable crops is very limited. A well
designed and well maintained water control system is
essential before such crops as corn and soybeans
can be grown. The system should remove excess sur-
face water rapidly after heavy rains and provide rapid
internal drainage to the upper layers. Seedbed prepara-
tion should include bedding the rows. Regular applica-
tions of lime and fertilizers are needed. The crop rotation
should include close growing, soil-improving crops at
least two-thirds of the time. All crop residues and soil-
improving crops should be plowed under.
If well managed, this unit is well suited to pasture and
hay crops, and yields are good. Tall fescue, Coastal
bermudagrass, bahiagrasses, and white clovers are well
suited. Surface ditches are needed to remove excess
surface water rapidly during heavy rains. Fertilizer and
lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled so that
overgrazing does not reduce vitality of the plants.
Pantego soils have very high potential and Rutlege
soils have high potential for pine trees, but excess water
must be removed before the potential can be reached.
Pamlico soils have low potential for pine. Slash and
loblolly pine are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very low for trench sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds, local roads
and streets, and dwellings without basements. It is low
for small commercial buildings and shallow excavations.
Water control is needed for all of these uses. For all but
sanitary landfills and shallow excavations, filling with suit-
able material is also needed.
Pantego soil in capability subclass Illw; Rutlege and
Pamlico soils in capability subclass IVw.

49-Pansey fine sandy loam. This poorly drained,
nearly level soil occurs on broad flats, in poorly defined
drainageways, and in scattered depressions. Slopes are
smooth to concave.


Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy
loam about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sandy loam about 13 inches thick.
The upper 7 inches of the subsoil is light gray fine sandy
loam mottled in shades of yellow, brown, and red. Below
this is 27 inches of light gray sandy clay loam mottled in
shades of yellow, brown, and red that is about 15 per-
cent plinthite. The lower part of the subsoil, extending to
a depth of 80 inches or more, is light gray fine sandy
loam highly mottled in shades of yellow, brown, and red.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Alapaha, Albany, Clarendon, Bethera, Compass, Grady,
and Leefield soils and small areas of a soil that is similar
to this Pansey soil in the upper 40 inches but below 40
inches has a sandy clay or clay subsoil. Also included in
some mapped areas are small areas of a soil that is
similar to this Pansey soil but has loamy sand within the
profile and small areas of similar soils that have slopes
of 2 to 4 percent. The included soils make up less than
20 percent of any one mapped area.
The water table is within a depth of 18 inches during
wet seasons, usually winter, and most areas are flooded
for 1 to 3 months annually. Permeability is moderately
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and is slow in
the lower part of the subsoil. Internal drainage is slow; it
is impeded by a shallow water table. Natural fertility and
the organic matter content are moderate in the surface
layers but low below.
The natural vegetation is slash, loblolly, and longleaf
pine, sweetgum, blackgum, water oak, red maple, and
some cypress. The understory is inkberry, waxmyrtle,
sawpalmetto, and abundant pineland threeawn. Most
areas of this soil are cutover forest or woodland.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops because of wetness and poor soil quality. A good
water control system is needed before the soil can be
made suitable for most crops. It should be designed to
remove excess surface water during heavy rains as well
as excess internal water. Seedbed preparation should
include bedding the rows. Fertilizing, liming, and keeping
a close growing, soil-improving crop on the soil at least
three-fourths of the time also are important. All crop
residue and soil-improving crops should be plowed
under.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture, for ex-
ample, Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass. Surface
drainage, fertilization, and lime are needed. Grazing
should be controlled so that plants remain vigorous and
yields high.
This soil has moderately high potential for loblolly and
slash pine, sweetgum, and water oak, but adequate
water control is needed to reach the potential. Slash
pine, loblolly pine,and sweetgum are the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is medium for small commercial buildings
and local roads and streets. It is low for septic tank
absorption fields, trench sanitary landfill, playgrounds,








SOIL SURVEY


buildings without basements, and shallow excavations.
Water control and control of flooding are needed for all
of these uses. In addition, larger absorption fields are
needed for septic tanks.
Capability subclass IVw.

50-Pits. Pits are excavations from which soil and
geologic material have been removed, chiefly for use in
road construction or for foundations. Included in mapping
with pits are waste materials, mostly mixtures of sand,
sandy loam, sandy clay loam, and clayey material, that
have been piled or scattered around the edges of the
pits. Pits, locally called borrow pits, are mostly small, but
a few are large. Many have been abandoned. Pits have
little or no value for agriculture or for growing pine trees.
Not placed in a capability subclass.

51-Plummer sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil occurs in low lying areas and in poorly defined drain-
ageways throughout the county. Slopes are 0 to 2 per-
cent. They are smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are sand
about 56 inches thick. In sequence from the top, 8
inches is dark gray, 4 inches is dark grayish brown, 12
inches is gray, and the lower 32 inches is light gray. The
subsoil is light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of more
than 80 inches. Few to many mottles in shades of
yellow, brown, and red occur in the lower part of the
subsoil.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Alapaha, Blanton, Compass, Leefield, and
Pansey soils. Also included are small areas of soils that
are similar to this Plummer soil but that have a subsoil
within a depth of 20 to 40 inches or that have a sandy
clay subsoil at a depth of 70 to 80 inches. The included
soils make up less than 20 percent of any one mapped
area.
In most years, the water table is within a depth of 10
inches for 3 to 6 months and most areas are flooded for
brief periods. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
sandy surface and subsurface layers and moderate in
the subsoil. Internal drainage is slow; it is impeded by
the shallow water table. Natural fertility and the organic
matter content are moderate in the top 10 inches but
low below 10 inches.
The native vegetation is mostly slash pine, longleaf
pine, sweetgum, blackgum, water oak, and cypress and
an understory of inkberry, waxmyrtle, sea myrtle, swamp
grass, pitcher plants, and pineland threeawn. Most areas
are cutover forest or woodland. A few are cleared and
cultivated in dry years, and a few are improved pasture.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops because of wetness and very poor soil qualities. A
good water control system is needed before the soil can
be made suitable for cultivated crops. The system should
be designed to remove excess surface and subsurface
water during heavy rains. Seedbed preparation should


include bedding the rows. Row crops should be rotated
with close growing crops and the close growing crops
kept on the soil at least three-fourths of the time. All
crop residue and cover crops should be plowed under.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
The soil is only fair as pasture. Most improved grasses
and legumes are poorly suited. Even under good man-
agement, which includes water control, controlled graz-
ing, fertilization, and liming, the yields of pasture grasses
are only poor to moderate.
This soil has high potential for slash, longleaf, and
loblolly pine, but adequate drainage or bedding and
mounding are needed if the potential is to be reached.
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns. Loblolly and slash pine are the
most suitable for planting.
If water is controlled, the potential is medium for small
commercial buildings, low for septic tank absorption
fields, trench sanitary landfill, local roads and streets,
and dwellings without basements, and very low for play-
grounds and shallow excavations. In addition, septic tank
absorption fields should be mounded. Surface stabiliza-
tion is needed for playgrounds, and the side walls of
shallow excavations should be shored.
Capability subclass IVw.

52-Plummer sand, depressional. This poorly
drained, nearly level soil is in depressions throughout
the county. Slopes are concave. They are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are sand
about 54 inches thick. In sequence from the top, 8
inches is dark gray, 8 inches is dark grayish brown, 6
inches is gray, and the lower 32 inches is light gray. The
subsoil is light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 72
inches or more. Few to many mottles in shades of
yellow, brown, and red occur in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Alapaha, Bethera, Grady, and Pansey soils. Also
included are small areas of soils that have a subsoil
within a depth of 20 to 40 inches or a thick dark surface
layer and areas of a soil that is similar to this Plummer
soil but has lumps of sandy clay in the subsoil, generally
at a depth of 70 to 80 inches. The included soils make
up less than 20 percent of any one mapped area.
This soil is ponded for 6 to 12 months in most years.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface and sub-
surface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Internal
drainage is slow; it is impeded by the shallow water
table. Natural fertility and the organic matter content are
moderate in the top 10 inches but low below 10 inches.
The native vegetation is mostly blackgum and cypress
and an understory of swamp grass, pitcher plants, and
pineland threeawn. Most areas are in native vegetation.
This soil is not suitable for cultivation or improved
pasture. The ponded water inhibits cultivation and root
development. These low-lying depressional areas are







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


generally lower than surrounding soils, and drainage is
complex.
If water can be controlled, this soil has high potential
for slash, longleaf, and loblolly pine. Loblolly and slash
pine are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very low for septic tank absorption
fields, trench sanitary landfill, playgrounds, local roads
and streets, buildings without basements, and shallow
excavations. Protection from ponding is needed for all of
these uses. In addition, mounding and backfilling with
suitable soil material are needed for septic tank absorp-
tion fields. Filling is also needed for playgrounds, small
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. Shor-
ing of the side walls is needed for shallow excavations.
Capability subclass Vllw.

53-Red Bay fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent
slopes. This well drained, nearly level, deep soil is on
uplands. Slopes are smooth to slightly concave.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown fine
sandy loam 10 inches thick. The subsoil is dark red
sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of 60 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chipola, Faceville, Greenville, and Orangeburg soils and
a few small areas of similar soils that have slopes of 2 to
5 percent. Also included are a few small areas of moder-
ately well drained luka soils in depressions. In some
pedons, few to common small iron concretions occur
throughout the profile. The included soils make up less
than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
This soil has medium available water capacity, moder-
ate permeability, and slow surface runoff. Natural fertility
and the organic matter content are moderate. The water
table is below depths of 72 inches.
The natural vegetation is longleaf, shortleaf, and slash
pine and mixed hardwoods. The hardwoods include
white oak, red oak, laurel oak, live oak, hickory, dog-
wood, sweetgum, and persimmon. The understory is
native grasses and shrubs including American beauty-
berry, southern dewberry, blackberry, smilax, panicum,
ragweed' poison ivy, dogfennel, bitterweed, cudweed,
field sandbur, and sparse pineland threeawn.
This soil has few limitations for cultivated crops. A
wide variety of cultivated crops is well suited. Corn, soy-
beans, peanuts, and tobacco grow well without special
erosion control or water control measures. Good
seedbed preparation, fertilization, liming, and crop rota-
tion are needed to keep the soil in good condition. Cover
crops should be alternated with row crops. All crop resi-
due should be plowed under.
The sdil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. If well
managed, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, the im-
proved bahiagrasses, clovers, and other legumes grow
well. Fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing are needed
to maintain vigorous plants, yields, and good soil cover.


This soil has high potential for loblolly, longleaf, and
slash pine. Slash and loblolly pine are the most suitable
for planting.
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, trench sanitary landfill, small commercial
buildings, local roads and streets, dwellings without
basements, and shallow excavations.
Capability class I.

54-Red Bay fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This well drained, gently sloping soil is on up-
lands. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown fine
sandy loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is dark red
sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of 76 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chipola, Faceville, Greenville, and Orangeburg soils and
a few small areas of similar soils that have slopes of 1 to
2 percent or 5 to 8 percent. Also included in some
mapped areas are a few small areas of moderately well
drained luka soils in depressions. The included soils
make up less than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
The available water capacity is medium. Permeability is
moderate, and surface runoff is moderate. Natural fertility
and the organic matter content are moderate in the top
10 inches and moderately low below 10 inches.
The natural vegetation is longleaf, shortleaf, and slash
pine and mixed hardwoods. The hardwoods include
white oak, red oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, dog-
wood, and persimmon. The understory is native grasses
and shrubs including American beautyberry, southern
dewberry, blackberry, smilax, panicum, poison ivy, dog-
fennel, cudweed, field sandbur, cocklebur, and sparse
pineland threeawn.
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
because of the erosion hazard. If well managed, such
crops as corn and soybeans grow well. Moderate ero-
sion control measures are needed. These measures in-
clude a system of well designed terraces with stabilized
outlets and contour cultivation of row crops in alternate
strips with cover crops. The crop rotation should include
cover crops at least half the time. The soil-improving
cover crops and all crop residue should be left on the
soil or plowed under. For maximum yields, good seedbed
preparation, fertilization, and lime are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, for
example, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, the im-
proved bahiagrasses, clovers, and other legumes. Yields
are good if the crop is well managed. Fertilization, liming,
and controlled grazing are needed to maintain vigorous
plants, highest yields, and good soil cover.
This soil has high potential for loblolly, longleaf, and
slash pine. Loblolly and slash pine are the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, trench sanitary landfill, small commercial buildings,







SOIL SURVEY


local roads and streets, dwellings without basements,
and shallow excavations.
Capability subclass lie.

55-Red Bay fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. This well drained, sloping, deep soil is on up-
lands. Slopes are generally smooth and convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown fine
sandy loam 6 inches thick. The subsoil is dark red sandy
clay loam that extends to a depth of 60 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chipola, Faceville, Greenville, and Orangeburg soils,
small areas of similar soils that have slopes of 2 to 5
percent, and a few small areas where slopes are 8 to 12
percent. The included soils make up less than 15 per-
cent of any one mapped area.
This soil has medium available water capacity and
moderate permeability. Surface runoff is moderately high.
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are mod-
erately low.
The natural vegetation is longleaf, shortleaf, and slash
pine and mixed hardwoods. The hardwoods include
white oak, red oak, live oak, laurel oak, hickory, dog-
wood, and sweetgum. The understory is American beau-
tyberry, blackberry, southern dewberry, smilax, poison
ivy, dogfennel, cudweed, ragweed, and field sandbur.
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
because of the erosion hazard. If well managed, such
crops as corn and soybeans grow well. Intensive erosion
control is needed.
Measures needed are a system of well designed ter-
races with stabilized outlets and contour cultivation of
row crops in alternate strips with cover crops. The crop
rotation should include cover crops at least two-thirds of
the time. The soil-improving cover crops and all crop
residue should be left on the soil or plowed under. For
maximum yields, good seedbed preparation, fertilization,
and lime are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, for
example, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, the im-
proved bahiagrasses, and clovers and other legumes.
Yields are good if the crop is well managed. Fertilizers,
lime, and controlled grazing are needed to maintain vi-
gorous plants, highest yields, and good soil cover.
This soil has high potential for loblolly, longleaf, and
slash pine. Slash and loblolly pine are the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, trench sanitary landfill, local roads and streets,
buildings without basements, and shallow excavations.
No corrective measures are needed. The potential is
high for playgrounds if the land is shaped and the sur-
face stabilized and high for small commercial buildings if
the land is shaped and an appropriate building design is
used.
Capability subclass Ille.


56-Rutlege loamy sand. This very poorly drained
soil occurs in nearly level or slightly depressional areas
and along drainageways. Slopes are smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface layer is loamy sand about 23
inches thick. The upper 11 inches is black, and the lower
12 inches is very dark gray. The underlying material is
light gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Albany, Alapaha, Clarendon, Dorovan, Leefield, Pamlico,
Pantego, Plummer, and Compass soils. Also included in
a few mapped areas are soils that are similar to this
Rutlege soil but have a subsoil of sandy loam and small
areas of similar soils that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent.
The included soils make up less than 20 percent of any
one mapped area.
In most years, the water table is within a depth of 10
inches for 4 to 6 months and most drainageways are
flooded for 2 to 6 months. The available water capacity
is low. Permeability is rapid. Internal drainage is very
slow; it is impeded by the shallow water table. Natural
fertility and the organic matter are high in the top 11
inches, moderate to a depth of about 23 inches, and low
below 23 inches.
The natural vegetation is sweetbay, titi, blackgum,
water oak, inkberry, waxmyrtle, and abundant reeds and
pineland threeawn.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops because of wetness. A well designed and well
maintained water control system is needed. If water con-
trol is adequate, crops such as corn and soybeans can
be grown. The water control system should remove
excess surface water rapidly after heavy rains and pro-
vide rapid internal drainage to the upper layers. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding the rows. Regular
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed. The crop
rotation should include close growing, soil-improving
crops at least two-thirds of the time. All crop residue and
soil-improving crops should be plowed under.
If well managed, the soil is well suited to pasture and
hay crops. Tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, bahia-
grass, and white clovers are well suited. Surface ditches
are needed to remove excess surface water rapidly
during heavy rains. Fertilizer and lime are needed. Graz-
ing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing from
reducing the vitality of the plants.
This soil has high potential for loblolly and slash pine
and for sweetgum and water tupelo. Equipment limita-
tions and seedling mortality caused by excessive wet-
ness are the main management concerns. Adequate
water control is needed before trees can be planted.
Loblolly pine, slash pine, sweetgum, and American syca-
more are the most suitable for planting.
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
fields, small commercial buildings, and local roads and
streets. Water control and filling are needed. In addition,
mounding is needed for septic tank absorption fields.
The potential is very low for trench sanitary landfill, play-







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


grounds, buildings without basements, and shallow exca-
vations, even if water is controlled. Trench sanitary land-
fills should be sealed or lined with impervious material.
For playgrounds and dwellings without basements filling
is needed. For shallow excavations the side walls should
be shored.
Capability subclass IVw.

57-Tifton loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
well drained, gently sloping soil is on uplands. Slopes are
smooth io concave.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
loamy sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is light yellowish brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick.
The subsoil, in sequence from the top, is 3 inches of
brownish yellow fine sandy loam, 11 inches of yellowish
brown sandy clay loam, 24 inches of yellowish brown
sandy clay mottled with red, brown, yellow, and gray
where plinthite is common, and 13 inches of highly mot-
tled sandy clay loam. The surface and subsurface layers
and the upper part of the subsoil contain numerous iron-
stone nodules.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Dothan, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and Com-
pass soils. Also included are small areas of soils that
have similar properties but have slopes of 0 to 2 percent
or 5 to 8 percent. The included soils make up less than
15 percent of any one mapped area.
Usually/ the water table is below a depth of 6 feet.
After heavy rainfall it is usually perched above the lower
part of the subsoil for 1 to 6 days. The available water
capacity is medium. Permeability is moderate, and runoff
is low. Natural fertility and the organic matter content are
moderately low.
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine and
mixed hardwoods, including white oak, live oak, laurel
oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and persimmon. The
understory is native grasses and shrubs, including huck-
leberry, briers, and pineland threeawn.
This sbil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
becauseI of the erosion hazard. If well managed, such
crops as corn and soybeans grow well. Moderate ero-
sion control is needed. The measures needed include a
system of well designed terraces with stabilized outlets
and contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips
with cover crops. The crop rotation should include cover
crops at least half the time. Soil-improving cover crops
and all crop residue should be left on the soil or plowed
under. For maximum yields, good seedbed preparation,
fertilization, and lime are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, for
example, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, the im-
proved bahiagrasses, clovers, and other legumes. Yields
are good if the crop is well managed. Fertilization, lime,
and controlled grazing are needed to maintain vigorous
plants, highest yields, and good soil cover.


This soil has high potential for longleaf, loblolly, and
slash pine. Loblolly and slash pine are the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is very high for trench sanitary landfill,
local roads and streets, buildings without basements,
and shallow excavations. No corrective measures are
needed. The potential is high for septic tank absorption
fields, playgrounds, and small commercial buildings. A
larger absorption field is needed for septic tanks; land
shaping is needed for playgrounds; and land shaping
and an appropriate building design are needed for small
commercial buildings.
Capability subclass lie.

58-Tifton loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
well drained, sloping soil is on uplands. It is on side
slopes and hillsides along drainageways and around de-
pressions and sinks. Slopes are generally long and
smooth. Some are convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
loamy sand 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yel-
lowish brown loamy sand about 3 inches thick. The
upper 15 inches of the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy
clay loam, and the lower part of the subsoil is yellowish
brown sandy clay mottled with red, brown, yellow, and
gray. Plinthite is common in this layer. The surface and
subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil con-
tain numerous ironstone nodules.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Dothan, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and Com-
pass soils. Also included are small areas of similar soils
that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. The included soils
make up less than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
Usually, the water table is below a depth of 6 feet.
After heavy rainfall, it is usually perched above the lower
part of the subsoil for 1 to 4 days. The available water
capacity is medium. Permeability is moderate, and sur-
face runoff is medium. Natural fertility and the organic
matter content are moderately low.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine, and
mixed hardwoods, including white oak, red oak, black
oak, laurel oak, live oak, water oak, dogwood, hickory,
sweetgum, and persimmon. The understory is native
grasses and shrubs, including huckleberry, briers, and
pineland threeawn.
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops
because of the erosion hazard. If well managed, such
crops as corn and soybeans grow well. Intensive erosion
control is needed. The measures needed include a
system of well designed terraces with stabilized outlets
and contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips
with cover crops. The crop rotation should include cover
crops. All crop residue should be left on the soil or
plowed under. For maximum yields, good seedbed prep-
aration, fertilization, and liming are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops, for
example, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, and the im-








SOIL SURVEY


proved bahiagrasses and clovers and other legumes.
Yields are good if the crop is well managed. Fertilization,
liming, and controlled grazing are needed to maintain
vigorous plants, highest yields, and good soil cover.
This soil has high potential for longleaf, loblolly, and
slash pine. Slash and loblolly pine are the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is very high for local roads and streets,
dwellings without basements, and shallow excavations.
No special corrective measures are needed. The poten-
tial is high for septic tank absorption fields, trench sani-
tary landfill, playgrounds, and small commercial buildings.
Larger absorption fields are needed for septic tanks.
Trench sanitary landfills should be placed correctly on
the slope. For playgrounds, land shaping is needed, and
for small commercial buildings, land shaping and an ap-
propriate building design are needed.
Capability subclass Ille.

59-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This well
drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil occurs in
broad upland areas. Slopes are smooth to convex. Areas
are moderate to large in size.
Typically, the surface layer is light yellowish brown
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layers are
sand to a depth of 57 inches. The upper 20 inches is
brownish yellow; the next 22 inches is pale brown; and
the lower 10 inches is reddish yellow. The subsoil is
yellowish red sandy loam. It extends to a depth of 75
inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Bonifay, Chipola, Esto, Fuquay, Lakeland, Oran-
geburg, and Wicksburg soils. Also included are small
areas of similar soils that have slopes of 5 to 8 percent.
The included soils make up less than 15 percent of any
one mapped area.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic content are low throughout the
profile. The water table is at a depth of more than 6 feet.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, red oak, huckleberry, dogwood, and an
understory of native shrubs and pineland threeawn.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
the choice of crops and reduce potential yields. Row
crops should be planted on the contour in alternating
strips with close growing, soil-improving crops. The crop
rotation should include close growing, soil-improving
crops at least two-thirds of the time. The soil-improving
crops and the residue of all other crops should be
plowed under. All crops should be limed and fertilized. If
irrigation water is readily available, irrigation of high value
crops such as watermelons and tobacco is usually feasi-
ble.


This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture.
Such deep rooted plants as Coastal bermudagrass and
improved bahiagrass are well suited. If the crop is limed
and fertilized, the yields and the ground cover produced
are good. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigor-
ous plants for maximum yields. Extended severe drought
occasionally greatly reduces yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for longleaf,
loblolly, and slash pine. Equipment limitations and seed-
ling mortality are the main management concerns. Lob-
lolly and slash pine are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and dwellings without basements. No special
corrective measures are needed. The potential is high
for sanitary landfill; sealing or lining the trench with im-
pervious material is needed. The potential is medium for
playgrounds if the surface is stabilized and the land
shaped. It is medium for shallow excavations if the side
walls are shored.
Capability subclass Ills.

60-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This well
drained, sloping soil occurs on the uplands, generally
along drainageways. Slopes are smooth to convex. The
size of the areas is moderate to large.
Typically, the surface layer is light yellowish brown
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand
to a depth of 55 inches. The upper 18 inches is brownish
yellow; the next 20 inches is pale brown; and the lower
10 inches is reddish yellow. The subsoil is yellowish red
sandy loam that extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Bonifay, Chipola, Esto, Fuquay, Lakeland, Oran-
geburg, and Wicksburg soils. Also included are small
areas of similar soils that have slopes of less than 5
percent or of 8 to 12 percent. The included soils make
up less than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic content are low throughout. The
water table is at a depth of more than 6 feet. Permeabil-
ity is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, red oak, huckleberry, dogwood, and an
understory of native shrubs and pineland threeawn. Most
areas are cutover woodland. Some have been cleared
for crops or bahiagrass improved pasture.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields.
Row crops should be planted on the contour in alternat-
ing strips with close growing, soil-improving crops. The
crop rotation should include close growing, soil-improving
crops at least three-fourths of the time. The soil-improv-









JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


ing cro s and the residue of all other crops should be
plowed under. All crops should be limed and fertilized.
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture.
Deep rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
improved bahiagrasses, are well suited. If the crops are
limed End fertilized, they grow well and produce good
ground cover. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
vigorous plants for maximum yields. Extended severe
drought occasionally greatly reduces yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash, long-
leaf, and loblolly pine. Equipment limitations and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns. Loblolly
and slash pine are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for septic tank absorption
fields, local roads and streets, and buildings without
basements. No corrective measures are needed. The
potential is high for trench sanitary landfill, but sealing or
lining with impervious material is needed. If the land is
shaped and an appropriate building design is used, the
potential is high for small commercial buildings. It is
medium for playgrounds if the surface is stabilized, and
the land shaped and medium for shallow excavations if
the side walls are shored.
Capability subclass Vie.
I
61-Troup sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This well
drained' strongly sloping soil generally occurs on hill-
sides along drainageways on uplands or around sinks.
Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas are generally long
and narrow, but around the sinks they are circular.
Typically, the surface layer is light yellowish brown
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand
to a depth of 47 inches. The upper 16 inches is brownish
yellow; the next 18 inches is pale brown; and the lower
10 inches is reddish yellow. The subsoil is yellowish red
sandy loam that extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Blanton, Bonifay, Chipola, Esto, Fuquay, Lakeland, Oran-
geburg, and Wicksburg soils. Also included are small
areas of similar soils that have slopes of 5 to 8 percent
or of more than 12 percent. The included soils make up
less than 15 percent of any one mapped area.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are low through-
out thej profile. The water table is at a depth of more
than 6 feet. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
The. natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live
oak, post oak, red oak, huckleberry, dogwood, and an
understory of native shrubs and pineland threeawn. Most
areas are cutover woodland. Some have been cleared
for crops or bahiagrass improved pasture.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops. It is poorly
suited to improved pasture, but deep rooted plants, such
as Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are


well suited. They grow well and produce good ground
cover if they are limed and fertilized, but grazing must be
greatly restricted so that vigorous plants, adequate
growth, and ground cover for soil protection are main-
tained.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash, long-
leaf, and loblolly pine. Equipment limitations and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns. Loblolly
and slash pine are the most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for local roads and streets. It
is high for septic tank absorption fields, but the field
must be parallel to the slope. The potential is high for
small commercial buildings and buildings without base-
ments, but land shaping and an appropriate building
design are needed. The potential is medium for trench
sanitary landfill if the trench is sealed or lined with imper-
vious soil material. The potential is low for playgrounds
and shallow excavations. Land shaping and surface sta-
bilization are needed for playgrounds, and shoring of the
side walls is needed for shallow excavations.
Capability subclass Vis.

62-Urban land. More than 85 percent of the areas
mapped as Urban land are covered by buildings, run-
ways, taxi strips, large parking lots, industrial buildings,
streets, and the facilities of the Marianna Airport. The
unoccupied areas, mostly lawns, are Blanton, Dothan,
Esto, Faceville, Chipola, Orangeburg, Troup, and Wicks-
burg soils. The tracts are so small that they could not be
shown separately at the scale of mapping selected.
Not placed in a capability subclass.

63-Wicksburg-Esto complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. This map unit consists of small areas of gently
sloping, well drained Wicksburg and Esto soils, generally
on small rounded knolls. Areas are about 3 to 15 acres.
Individual areas of each soil range from about 1/2 to 3
acres. They are so intermingled that they could not be
shown separately at the scale selected for mapping.
The Wicksburg soil makes up about 45 percent of the
unit. Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches of grayish
brown loamy sand. The subsurface layer is light yel-
lowish brown loamy sand about 18 inches thick. The
subsoil extends to depths of 65 inches or more. The
upper 6 inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The
lower part is reddish yellow sandy clay mottled with gray,
brown, yellow, and red.
The Wicksburg soil has rapid permeability in the sur-
face and subsurface layers and slow permeability in the
subsoil. Surface runoff is slow. The available water ca-
pacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic
matter content are low. The water table is below a depth
of 72 inches.
The Esto soil makes up about 35 percent of the unit.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown loamy sand
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown









SOIL SURVEY


loamy sand about 9 inches thick. The upper 6 inches of
the subsoil is reddish yellow sandy clay. The next 18
inches of the subsoil is light reddish brown clay that has
few to common, fine and distinct, light gray and yellowish
brown mottles. The lower part of the subsoil, extending
to a depth of 60 inches or more, is highly mottled yellow,
brown, gray, and red clay.
The Esto soil has rapid permeability in the surface and
subsurface layers and slow permeability in the subsoil.
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low
throughout. The available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the sub-
soil. The water table is below a depth of 72 inches.
Minor soils make up about 20 percent of the unit.
Small areas of Blanton, Bonifay, Chipola, Dothan, Face-
ville, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and Troup soils are included
in most mapped areas. Not all of the minor soils are in
each mapped area.
The natural vegetation is loblolly, slash, and longleaf
pine, white oak, red oak, laurel oak, live oak, water oak,
hickory, dogwood, persimmon, and sweetgum. The un-
derstory is various species of smilax, American beauty-
berry, greenbrier, southern dewberry, poison ivy, and
sparse pineland threeawn.
The Wicksburg soil has moderate limitations and Esto
soil severe limitations for cultivated crops. The Wicks-
burg soil tends to be drought, and there is a hazard of
erosion on the Esto soil. Such crops as corn, soybeans,
oats, and peanuts are fairly well suited. In areas of Esto
soil, intensive erosion control measures are needed.
Close growing crops should be kept on the land at least
half of the time in areas of Wicksburg soil and two-thirds
of the time in areas of Esto soil. All cover crop residue
should be left on the land or plowed under. For best
yields, good seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming
are needed.
These soils are well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Such plants as tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, and
bahiagrass are moderately well suited. Fertilizer and lime
are needed for best growth.
These soils have moderately high potential for slash,
loblolly, and longleaf pine. In areas of Wicksburg soil,
seedling mortality and equipment limitations are the main
management concerns. Loblolly and slash pine are the
most suitable for planting.
The potential is very high for sanitary landfill and shal-
low excavations. No corrective measures are needed.
The potential is high for small commercial buildings, but
an appropriate building design, additional structural
strength, and larger footings and foundations are
needed. The potential is also high for dwellings without
basements, but additional structural strength of footings
and foundations is needed. The potential is medium for
septic tank absorption fields. A larger absorption field is
needed. If the surface is stabilized, the potential for play-
grounds is medium. It is medium for local roads and
streets if structural strength is increased.


Wicksburg soil in capability subclass IIs; Esto soil in
capability subclass Ille.

64-Yonges-Herod association. This map unit con-
sists of nearly level, poorly drained Yonges and Herod
soils. These soils occur in a regular and repeating pat-
tern on the flood plains of the Chipola River and the
large creeks and streams that flow into the Chipola
River. The Yonges soil is on low ridges. The Herod soil
is at slightly lower elevations. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Areas are generally narrow and long and follow
streambeds and flood plains. They range from about 100
to more than 1,000 acres. Individual areas of each soil
range from 50 to 150 acres. They are large enough to be
mapped separately, but considering the present and pre-
dicted use, they are mapped as one unit.
The composition of this unit is more variable than that
of most other units in the county, but it has been con-
trolled well enough for the expected use of the soils.
The Yonges soil makes up about 40 percent of the
unit. Typically, it has a 4-inch surface layer of dark gray-
ish brown fine sandy loam and a 4-inch subsurface layer
of light brownish gray fine sandy loam. The subsoil ex-
tends to a depth of about 62 inches. The upper 11
inches is light brownish gray sandy clay loam, and the
lower 43 inches is light gray sandy clay. Mottles are
brown and yellow. The substratum extends to 84 inches
or more. It is light gray sandy clay loam with pockets of
coarser material.
In most years, the Yonges soil has a water table within
a depth of 10 inches for about 2 months and at depths
of 10 to 20 inches for 4 to 6 months. It is subject to
occasional flooding. Permeability is moderately slow in
the lower part of the subsoil. The available water capac-
ity is medium.
The Herod soil makes up about 35 percent of the unit.
Typically, it has a dark grayish brown sandy loam surface
layer about 5 inches thick. Below this is about 7 inches
of light gray sandy loam and 10 inches of light brownish
gray sandy loam. Between depths of 22 and 56 inches is
light gray sandy clay loam, which is underlain by light
gray sandy loam that extends to 62 inches or more. Thin
strata of coarser or finer textured material occur through-
out the soil. The soil is mottled with brown and yellow.
The Herod soil has a water table within a depth of 10
inches for 3 to 5 months in most years. It is frequently
flooded. Permeability is moderate. The available water
capacity is medium.
Minor soils make up about 25 percent of the unit.
Alapaha, Bethera, Hornsville, Leefield, Pansey, and
Plummer soils, in about equal proportion, are the most
extensive.
These soils are not suited to crops. They are moder-
ately well suited to improved pasture. Flooding and wet-
ness, the major limitations, are difficult to overcome. If
water can be controlled and the soils well managed, the
potential is high for good quality pasture.








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA



These soils have very high potential for loblolly pine,
eastern cottonwood, sweetgum, and water oak, but
water control is needed. Severe equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are the main limiting factors. Lob-
lolly and slash pine and sweetgum are the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is low for septic tank absorption fields,
trench sanitary landfills, playgrounds, and shallow exca-
vations. It is very low for small commercial buildings,
dwellings without basements, and local roads and
streets. Water control and protection from flooding are
needed for all of these uses. In addition, a larger absorp-
tion field is needed for septic tanks. Additional structural
strength is needed for local roads and streets.
Capability subclass Vw.


Use and management of the soils
The soil survey is a detailed inventory and evaluation
of the most basic resource of the survey area-the soil.
It is useful in adjusting land use, including urbanization,
to the limitations and potentials of natural resources and
the environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related fail-
ures in uses of the land.
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists, con-
servationists, engineers, and others keep extensive
notes about the nature of the soils and about unique
aspects of behavior of the soils. These notes include
data on erosion, drought damage to specific crops, yield
estimates, flooding, the functioning of septic tank dispos-
al systems, and other factors affecting the productivity,
potential, and limitations of the soils under various uses
and management. In this way, field experience and
measured data on soil properties and performance are
used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section is useful in planning use and
management of soils for crops and pasture, rangeland,
and woodland; as sites for buildings, highways and other
transportation systems, sanitary facilities, and parks and
other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. From
the data presented, the potential of each soil for speci-
fied land uses can be determined, soil limitations to
these land uses can be identified, and costly failures in
houses and other structures, caused by unfavorable soil
properties, can be avoided. A site where soil properties
are favorable can be selected, or practices that will over-
come the soil limitations can be planned.
Planners and others using the soil survey can evaluate
the impact of specific land uses on the overall productiv-
ity of the survey area or other broad planning area and
on the environment. Productivity and the environment
are closely related to the nature of the soil. Plans should
maintain or create a land-use pattern in harmony with
the natural soil.
Contractors can find information that is useful in locat-
ing sources of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil.


Other information indicates the presence of bedrock,
wetness, or very firm soil horizons that cause difficulty in
excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and many
other specialists also can find useful information in this
soil survey. The safe disposal of wastes, for example, is
closely related to properties of the soil. Pavements,
sidewalks, campsites, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and
shrubs are influenced by the nature of the soil.

Crops and pasture
John Griffin, state conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation Serv-
ice, helped prepare this section.
The major management concerns in the use of the
soils for crops and pasture are described in this section.
In addition, the crops or pasture plants best suited to the
soil, including some not commonly grown in the survey
area, are discussed; the system of land capability classi-
fication used by the Soil Conservation Service is ex-
plained; and the estimated yields of the main crops and
hay and pasture plants are presented for each soil.
This section provides information about the overall ag-
ricultural potential of the survey area and about the man-
agement practices that are needed. The information is
useful to equipment dealers, land improvement contrac-
tors, fertilizer companies, processing companies, plan-
ners, conservationists, and others. For each kind of soil,
information about management is presented in the sec-
tion "Soil maps for detailed planning." Planners of man-
agement systems for individual fields or farms should
also consider the detailed information given in the de-
scription of each soil.
More than 215,000 acres in the survey area was used
for crops and pasture in 1974, according to the Jackson
County Extension Service Annual Report and the Soil
Conservation Service Now On The Land Records of
1975. Of this total, 99,280 acres was permanent pasture;
116,600 acres was in row crops, mainly corn, soybeans,
and peanuts; and 5,000 acres was in close grown crops,
mainly wheat and oats. The rest was idle cropland.
The potential of the soils in Jackson County is good
for increased production of food. About 139,000 acres of
potentially good cropland is currently used as woodland,
and about 25,000 acres as pasture. In addition to the
reserve productive capacity represented by this land,
food production could also be increased considerably by
extending the latest crop production technology to all
cropland in the county. This soil survey can greatly facili-
tate the application of such technology.
The acreage in crops and pasture has remained con-
stant, but the acreage in forest has gradually been de-
creasing as more land is used for urban development. In
1967 an estimated 17,500 acres was urban and built up
land; this figure has been growing at the rate of about
500 acres per year. The use of this soil survey in making








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA



These soils have very high potential for loblolly pine,
eastern cottonwood, sweetgum, and water oak, but
water control is needed. Severe equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are the main limiting factors. Lob-
lolly and slash pine and sweetgum are the most suitable
for planting.
The potential is low for septic tank absorption fields,
trench sanitary landfills, playgrounds, and shallow exca-
vations. It is very low for small commercial buildings,
dwellings without basements, and local roads and
streets. Water control and protection from flooding are
needed for all of these uses. In addition, a larger absorp-
tion field is needed for septic tanks. Additional structural
strength is needed for local roads and streets.
Capability subclass Vw.


Use and management of the soils
The soil survey is a detailed inventory and evaluation
of the most basic resource of the survey area-the soil.
It is useful in adjusting land use, including urbanization,
to the limitations and potentials of natural resources and
the environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related fail-
ures in uses of the land.
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists, con-
servationists, engineers, and others keep extensive
notes about the nature of the soils and about unique
aspects of behavior of the soils. These notes include
data on erosion, drought damage to specific crops, yield
estimates, flooding, the functioning of septic tank dispos-
al systems, and other factors affecting the productivity,
potential, and limitations of the soils under various uses
and management. In this way, field experience and
measured data on soil properties and performance are
used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section is useful in planning use and
management of soils for crops and pasture, rangeland,
and woodland; as sites for buildings, highways and other
transportation systems, sanitary facilities, and parks and
other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. From
the data presented, the potential of each soil for speci-
fied land uses can be determined, soil limitations to
these land uses can be identified, and costly failures in
houses and other structures, caused by unfavorable soil
properties, can be avoided. A site where soil properties
are favorable can be selected, or practices that will over-
come the soil limitations can be planned.
Planners and others using the soil survey can evaluate
the impact of specific land uses on the overall productiv-
ity of the survey area or other broad planning area and
on the environment. Productivity and the environment
are closely related to the nature of the soil. Plans should
maintain or create a land-use pattern in harmony with
the natural soil.
Contractors can find information that is useful in locat-
ing sources of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil.


Other information indicates the presence of bedrock,
wetness, or very firm soil horizons that cause difficulty in
excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and many
other specialists also can find useful information in this
soil survey. The safe disposal of wastes, for example, is
closely related to properties of the soil. Pavements,
sidewalks, campsites, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and
shrubs are influenced by the nature of the soil.

Crops and pasture
John Griffin, state conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation Serv-
ice, helped prepare this section.
The major management concerns in the use of the
soils for crops and pasture are described in this section.
In addition, the crops or pasture plants best suited to the
soil, including some not commonly grown in the survey
area, are discussed; the system of land capability classi-
fication used by the Soil Conservation Service is ex-
plained; and the estimated yields of the main crops and
hay and pasture plants are presented for each soil.
This section provides information about the overall ag-
ricultural potential of the survey area and about the man-
agement practices that are needed. The information is
useful to equipment dealers, land improvement contrac-
tors, fertilizer companies, processing companies, plan-
ners, conservationists, and others. For each kind of soil,
information about management is presented in the sec-
tion "Soil maps for detailed planning." Planners of man-
agement systems for individual fields or farms should
also consider the detailed information given in the de-
scription of each soil.
More than 215,000 acres in the survey area was used
for crops and pasture in 1974, according to the Jackson
County Extension Service Annual Report and the Soil
Conservation Service Now On The Land Records of
1975. Of this total, 99,280 acres was permanent pasture;
116,600 acres was in row crops, mainly corn, soybeans,
and peanuts; and 5,000 acres was in close grown crops,
mainly wheat and oats. The rest was idle cropland.
The potential of the soils in Jackson County is good
for increased production of food. About 139,000 acres of
potentially good cropland is currently used as woodland,
and about 25,000 acres as pasture. In addition to the
reserve productive capacity represented by this land,
food production could also be increased considerably by
extending the latest crop production technology to all
cropland in the county. This soil survey can greatly facili-
tate the application of such technology.
The acreage in crops and pasture has remained con-
stant, but the acreage in forest has gradually been de-
creasing as more land is used for urban development. In
1967 an estimated 17,500 acres was urban and built up
land; this figure has been growing at the rate of about
500 acres per year. The use of this soil survey in making








SOIL SURVEY


land use decisions that will influence the future role of
farming in the county is discussed under the heading
"General soil map for broad land use planning."
Soil erosion is the major soil problem on about two-
thirds of the cropland and pasture in Jackson County. If
the slope is more than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard.
Albany, Hornsville, and Compass soils, for example,
have slopes of 2 to 5 percent and an additional problem
of wetness.
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the
surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is incorporat-
ed into the plow layer. Loss of the surface layer is
damaging on soils that have a clayey subsoil, such as
the Esto, Faceville, and Greenville soils. Second, soil
erosion on farmland results in sediment entering
streams. Controlling erosion minimizes the pollution of
streams by sediment and improves quality of water for
municipal use, for recreation, and for fish and wildlife.
In many sloping fields, preparing a good seedbed and
tilling are difficult on clayey spots because the original
friable surface soil has been eroded away. Such spots
are common in areas of the moderately eroded Esto,
Faceville, and Greenville soils.
Erosion control provides protective surface cover, re-
duces runoff, and increases infiltration. A cropping
system that keeps a plant cover on the soil for extended
periods can hold soil erosion losses to amounts that will
not reduce the productive capacity of the soils. On live-
stock farms, which require pasture and hay, the legume
and grass forage crops in the cropping system reduce
erosion on sloping land and also provide nitrogen and
improve tilth for the following crop.
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the sur-
face increase infiltration and reduce the hazards of
runoff and erosion. These practices can be adapted to
most soils in the survey area but are more difficult to use
successfully on the eroded soils and on the soils that
have a clayey surface layer, such as Esto, Faceville, and
Greenville soils. No tillage for corn is effective in reduc-
ing erosion on sloping land and can be adapted to most
soils in the survey area. It is more difficult to practice
successfully on the soils that have a clayey surface
layer.
Terraces and diversions reduce the length of slope
and reduce runoff and the risk of erosion. They are more
practical on deep, well drained soils that have regular
slopes. Dothan, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Greenville,
Orangeburg, Redbay, Compass, and Tifton soils, for ex-
ample, are suitable for terraces. The other soils are less
suitable for terraces and diversions because of irregular
slopes or because of excessive wetness in the clayey
subsoil that would be exposed in terrace channels.
Contouring is a widespread erosion control practice in
the survey area. It can be best adapted to soils that
have smooth uniform slopes, including most areas of the


Dothan, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Greenville, Orangeburg,
Redbay, Compass, and Tifton soils.
Soil blowing is a slight hazard on the sandy Blanton,
Bonifay, Lakeland, Chipola, and Troup soils. Soil blowing
can damage tender crops in a few hours if winds are
strong and the soils are dry and bare of vegetation or
surface mulch. Maintaining a plant cover and a surface
mulch minimizes the risk of soil blowing on these soils.
Windbreaks of suitable shrubs and trees are effective in
reducing wind erosion hazard.
Information on the design of erosion control practices
for each kind of soil can be found in the Technical
Guide, available in local offices of the Soil Conservation
Service.
Soil drainage is the major management need on about
one-fifth of the acreage used for crops and pasture in
the survey area. Some soils are naturally so wet that the
production of crops common to the area is generally not
possible. Examples are the poorly drained Alapaha,
Grady, Pansey, and Plummer soils, which make up about
35,000 acres in the survey area.
Unless artificially drained, the somewhat poorly
drained soils are so wet that crops are damaged in most
years. In this category are the Clarendon, Duplin, and
Leefield soils, which make up about 30,000 acres.
Albany, Hornsville, and Compass soils have good natural
drainage most of the year, but they tend to dry out
slowly after rains. Small areas of wetter soils along drain-
ageways and in swales are commonly included in areas
of the moderately well drained soils, especially those
that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Artificial drainage is
needed in some of these wetter areas.
The design of surface drainage systems varies with
the kind of soil. Drains have to be more closely spaced
in slowly permeable soils than in more permeable soils.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils of the uplands
in the survey area. All but Oktibbeha soils are naturally
acid. The soils on flood plains, such as Yonges soils,
range from slightly acid to mildly alkaline and are natural-
ly higher in plant nutrients than most upland soils. Grady
and Plummer soils, in low swales and drainageways, are
acid.
Many upland soils are naturally very strongly acid. If
they have never been limed, they require application of
ground limestone to raise the pH level sufficiently for
good growth of crops. Available phosphorus and potash
levels are naturally low in most of these soils. On all
soils additions of lime and fertilizer should be based on
the results of soil tests, on the need of the crop, and on
the expected level of yields. The Cooperative Extension
Service can help in determining the kinds and amounts
of fertilizer and lime to be applied.
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
with good tilth are granular and porous.
Most of the soils used for crops in the survey area
have a sandy or sandy loam surface layer that is light in







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


color and low in content of organic matter. Generally the
structure of such soils is weak, and intense rainfall
causes the formation of a slight crust on the surface.
The crust is slightly hard when dry and is nearly impervi-
ous to water. Once the crust forms, it reduces infiltration
and increases runoff. Regular additions of crop residue,
manure,I and other organic material improve soil structure
and reduce the risk of crust formation.
Fall plowing is generally not a good practice in the
county because about two-thirds of the cropland is slop-
ing soils that are subject to damaging erosion if they are
plowed n fall.
Field crops suited to the soils and climate of the
survey area include many that are not now commonly
grown. Corn, peanuts (fig. 3), and soybeans are the row
crops. Grain sorghum, vegetables, sunflowers, potatoes,
and similar crops can be grown if economic conditions
are favorable.
Wheat, rye, and oats are the common close growing
crops. Barley can be grown, and grass seed can be
produced from bahiagrass and bermudagrass.
Special crops grown commercially in the survey area
are field peas, gladioli (fig. 4), nursery plants, vegetables,
pecans, and watermelons. A small acreage throughout
the county is used for melons, tomatoes, peppers, and
other vegetables and small fruits. In addition, large areas
can be adapted to other special crops such as blueber-
ries, peaches, grapes, and many vegetables.
Deep soils that have good natural drainage are espe-
cially well suited to many vegetables and small fruits. In
the survey area these are the Dothan, Esto, Faceville,
Fuquay, Chipola, Orangeburg, Red Bay, and Tifton soils
that have slopes of less than 8 percent, a total of about
260,000 acres. If irrigated, about 11,000 acres of Blan-
ton, Bonifay, and Troup soils that have slopes of less
than 8 percent are also very well suited to vegetables
and small fruits.
Most of the well drained soils in the survey area are
suitable for orchards and nursery plants. Soils in low
positions where frost is frequent and air drainage is poor
generally are poorly suited to early vegetables, small
fruits, and orchards.
Latest information and suggestions on growing special
crops can be obtained from local offices of the Coopera-
tive Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
Pastures in the survey area produce forage for beef
and dairy cattle. Beef cattle cow-calf operations are the
most common. Bahiagrass (fig. 5) and improved bermu-
dagrass are the main pasture plants grown in the county.
Many farmers seed small grain in the fall for winter and
spring forage. Excess grass in summer is harvested as
hay (fig. 6) for the winter. The well drained soils that
have a loamy surface layer, such as the Dothan, Orange-
burg, Red Bay, and Tifton soils, are well suited to le-
gumes with bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. If
adequately limed and fertilized, legumes, such as white,


crimson, and arrowleaf clovers, are well suited to these
soils.
The well drained and excessively drained Bonifay,
Fuquay, and Lakeland soils are well suited to bahiagrass
and improved bermudagrass pasture if adequately limed
and fertilized.
Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly depleted
by continuous excessive grazing. Yields of pasture can
be increased under management that includes liming,
fertilizing, and planting legumes.
Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields
are related closely to the kind of soil. Management of
pasture is based on the relationship of soils, pasture
plants, lime, fertilizer, and moisture.
Latest information and suggestions for pasture man-
agement can be obtained from local offices of the Coop-
erative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation
Service.

Yields per acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. Ab-
sence of an estimated yield indicates that the crop is not
suited to or not commonly grown on the soil.
The estimated yields were based mainly on the experi-
ence and records of farmers, conservationists, and ex-
tension agents. Results of field trials and demonstrations
and available yield data from nearby counties were also
considered.
The yields were estimated assuming that the latest soil
and crop management practices were used. Hay and
pasture yields were estimated for the most productive
varieties of grasses and legumes suited to the climate
and the soil. A few farmers may be obtaining average
yields higher than those shown in table 5.
The management needed to achieve the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Such management provides drainage, ero-
sion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
varieties; appropriate tillage practices, including time of
tillage and seedbed preparation and tilling when soil
moisture is favorable; control of weeds, plant diseases,
and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction and optimum
levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace ele-
ments for each crop; effective use of crop residues,
barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; harvesting
crops with the smallest possible loss; and timeliness of
all fieldwork.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
the soils for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
to increase as new production technology is developed.








SOIL SURVEY


The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not included
because the acreage of these crops is small. The local
offices of the Soil Conservation Service and the Cooper-
ative Extension Service can provide information about
the management concerns and productivity of the soils
for these crops.

Capability classes and subclasses
Capability classes and subclasses show, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops.
The soils are classed according to their limitations when
they are used for field crops, the risk of damage when
they are used, and the way they respond to treatment.
The grouping does not take into account major and gen-
erally expensive landforming that would change slope,
depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not take
into consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticul-
tural crops, or other crops that require special manage-
ment. Capability classification is not a substitute for inter-
pretations designed to show suitability and limitations of
groups of soils for forest trees, or for engineering pur-
poses.
In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped
at two levels: capability class and subclass. These levels
are defined in the following paragraphs. A survey area
may not have soils of all classes.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designat-
ed by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals
indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower
choices for practical use. The classes are defined as
follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants, or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants, or that require very careful manage-
ment, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class;
they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e


shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
close growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly cor-
rected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is too cold
or too dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
class V are subject to little or no erosion, though they
have other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
class is indicated in table 6. All soils in the survey area
except those in a miscellaneous map unit or urban land
complex are included. Some of the soils that are well
suited to crops and pasture may be in low-intensity use,
for example, soils in capability classes I and II. Data in
this table can be used to determine the farming potential
of such soils.

Woodland management and productivity
Carl D. DeFazio, woodland conservationist, Soil Conservation Serv-
ice, helped prepare this section.
Approximately 320,000 acres, or 55 percent of the
survey area, is woodland. The soils and the climate of
Jackson County are good for growing timber. The major
part of the forested land is Orangeburg and Dothan soils.
Commercial forest resources are in scattered areas
throughout the county. General farming is prevalent in
the north-central and northwestern parts. The major part
of the woodland is privately owned small tracts. Approxi-
mately 25 percent of the commercial forest is owned by
large wood-using industries, mainly pulp and paper cor-
porations.
Slash pine, the predominant species in Jackson
County, makes up about 70 percent of the forests. Other
major pine species throughout the county are loblolly,
sand, shortleaf, and longleaf pine. Longleaf pine once
occurred extensively throughout the county particularly in
the sandhills of the southwest, but after the old growth
stands were cut, this species was replaced by more
aggressive species, such as slash and loblolly pine. The
most common hardwood species are sweetgum, black
gum, water oak, laurel oak, live oak, white oak, yellow-
poplar, and hickory. These hardwood species occur most
extensively in the eastern part of the county along the
Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers and their tribu-
taries and also along the Chipola River in the central
part of the county. The Appalachee Wildlife Management
Area and Florida Caverns State Park have many hard-
wood species. A large percentage of the sandhill area








SOIL SURVEY


The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not included
because the acreage of these crops is small. The local
offices of the Soil Conservation Service and the Cooper-
ative Extension Service can provide information about
the management concerns and productivity of the soils
for these crops.

Capability classes and subclasses
Capability classes and subclasses show, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops.
The soils are classed according to their limitations when
they are used for field crops, the risk of damage when
they are used, and the way they respond to treatment.
The grouping does not take into account major and gen-
erally expensive landforming that would change slope,
depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not take
into consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticul-
tural crops, or other crops that require special manage-
ment. Capability classification is not a substitute for inter-
pretations designed to show suitability and limitations of
groups of soils for forest trees, or for engineering pur-
poses.
In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped
at two levels: capability class and subclass. These levels
are defined in the following paragraphs. A survey area
may not have soils of all classes.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designat-
ed by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals
indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower
choices for practical use. The classes are defined as
follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants, or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants, or that require very careful manage-
ment, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class;
they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e


shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
close growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly cor-
rected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is too cold
or too dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
class V are subject to little or no erosion, though they
have other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
class is indicated in table 6. All soils in the survey area
except those in a miscellaneous map unit or urban land
complex are included. Some of the soils that are well
suited to crops and pasture may be in low-intensity use,
for example, soils in capability classes I and II. Data in
this table can be used to determine the farming potential
of such soils.

Woodland management and productivity
Carl D. DeFazio, woodland conservationist, Soil Conservation Serv-
ice, helped prepare this section.
Approximately 320,000 acres, or 55 percent of the
survey area, is woodland. The soils and the climate of
Jackson County are good for growing timber. The major
part of the forested land is Orangeburg and Dothan soils.
Commercial forest resources are in scattered areas
throughout the county. General farming is prevalent in
the north-central and northwestern parts. The major part
of the woodland is privately owned small tracts. Approxi-
mately 25 percent of the commercial forest is owned by
large wood-using industries, mainly pulp and paper cor-
porations.
Slash pine, the predominant species in Jackson
County, makes up about 70 percent of the forests. Other
major pine species throughout the county are loblolly,
sand, shortleaf, and longleaf pine. Longleaf pine once
occurred extensively throughout the county particularly in
the sandhills of the southwest, but after the old growth
stands were cut, this species was replaced by more
aggressive species, such as slash and loblolly pine. The
most common hardwood species are sweetgum, black
gum, water oak, laurel oak, live oak, white oak, yellow-
poplar, and hickory. These hardwood species occur most
extensively in the eastern part of the county along the
Chattahoochee and Apalachicola Rivers and their tribu-
taries and also along the Chipola River in the central
part of the county. The Appalachee Wildlife Management
Area and Florida Caverns State Park have many hard-
wood species. A large percentage of the sandhill area








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


supports turkey oak, southern red oak, post oak, and
bluejack' oak. These oaks have little economic value.
Timber management varies from intensive thinning,
clearcutfing, and planting on corporate land to less inten-
sive selective cutting and harvest on private land. Fire is
important in reducing "rough" and in exposing mineral
soil as a seedbed for natural reproduction. It also en-
courages grasses and forbs, which help support various
wildlife species, such as deer, turkey, and quail.
Markets for wood crops are plentiful in Jackson
County. Pulp and paper mills are the major outlets. Also
in the county is one sawmill, one veneer mill, and one
post-treating plant. Six pulpmills, five sawmills, three
veneer mills, and two pole companies buy wood in Jack-
son County.
More Idetailed information on woodland and woodland
management can be obtained from the local offices of
the Soil Conservation Service, the Florida Division of
Forestry, and the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
Table 7 contains information useful to woodland
owners or forest managers planning use of soils for
wood crops. Map unit symbols for soils suitable for wood
crops are listed, and the ordination (woodland suitability)
symbol for each soil is given. All soils bearing the same
ordination symbol require the same general kinds of
woodland management and have about the same poten-
tial productivity.
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indi-
cates the potential productivity of the soils for important
trees. The number 1 indicates very high productivity; 2,
high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low. The
second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the major
kind of soil limitation. The letter x indicates stoniness or
rockiness; w, excessive water in or on the soil; t, toxic
substances in the soil; d, restricted root depth; c, clay in
the upper part of the soil; s, sandy texture; f, high con-
tent of coarse fragments in the soil profile; and r, steep
slopes. The letter o indicates insignificant limitations or
restrictions. If a soil has more than one limitation, priority
in placing the soil into a limitation class is in the follow-
ing order: x, w, t, d, c, s, f, and r.
In table 7 the soils are also rated for a number of
factors to be considered in management. Slight, moder-
ate, and severe are used to indicate the degree of major
soil limitations.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the
expected soil loss is small, moderate if some measures
are needed to control erosion during logging and road
construction, and severe if intensive management or
special equipment and methods are needed to prevent
excessive loss of soil.
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the characteris-
tics and conditions of the soil that restrict use of the
equipment generally needed in woodland management
or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates that use of
equipment is not limited to a particular kind of equipment


or time of year; moderate indicates a short seasonal
limitation or a need for some modification in manage-
ment or equipment; severe indicates a seasonal limita-
tion, a need for special equipment or management, or a
hazard in the use of equipment.
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree that the
soil affects expected mortality of planted tree seedlings.
Plant competition is not considered in the ratings. Seed-
lings from good planting stock that are properly planted
during a period of sufficient rainfall are rated. A rating of
slight indicates that the expected mortality of the planted
seedlings is less than 25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50
percent; and severe, more than 50 percent.
Considered in the ratings of windthrow hazard are
characteristics of the soil that affect the development of
tree roots and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A
rating of slight indicates that trees in wooded areas are
not expected to be blown down by commonly occurring
winds; moderate, that some trees are blown down during
periods of excessive soil wetness and strong winds; and
severe, that many trees are blown down during periods
of excessive soil wetness and moderate or strong winds.
The potential productivity of merchantable or important
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
the average height, in feet, that dominant and codomin-
ant trees of a given species attain in a specified number
of years. The site index applies to fully stocked, even-
aged, unmanaged stands. Important trees are those that
woodland managers generally favor in intermediate or
improvement cuttings. They are selected on the basis of
growth rate, quality, value, and marketability.
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for commer-
cial wood production and that are suited to the soils.

Windbreaks and environmental plantings
Windbreaks are established to protect livestock, build-
ings, and yards from wind. Windbreaks also help protect
fruit trees and gardens, and they furnish habitat for wild-
life. Several rows of low- and high-growing broad-leaved
and coniferous species provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field, the interval depending on erodibility of
the soil. They protect cropland and crops from wind, and
provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. A healthy planting stock of suitable species
planted properly on a well prepared site and maintained
in good condition can insure a high degree of plant
survival.
Additional information about planning windbreaks and
screens and the planting and care of trees can be ob-
tained from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service
or the Cooperative Extension Service or from a nursery.








SOIL SURVEY


Engineering
Ernest A. Croxton, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
This section provides information about the use of
soils for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction ma-
terial, and water management. Among those who can
benefit from this information are engineers, landowners,
community planners, town and city managers, land de-
velopers, builders, contractors, and farmers and ranch-
ers.
The ratings in the engineering tables are based on test
data and estimated data in the "Soil properties" section.
The ratings were determined jointly by soil scientists and
engineers of the Soil Conservation Service using known
relationships between the soil properties and the behav-
ior of soils in various engineering uses.
Among the soil properties and site conditions identified
by a soil survey and used in determining the ratings in
this section were grain-size distribution, liquid limit, plas-
ticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness of
bedrock that is within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil
wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope,
likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure or aggrega-
tion, in-place soil density, and geologic origin of the soil
material. Where pertinent, data about kinds of clay min-
erals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and the
kind of absorbed cations were also considered.
On the basis of information assembled about soil prop-
erties, ranges of values can be estimated for erodibility,
permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available
water capacity, shear strength, compressibility, slope sta-
bility, and other factors of expected soil behavior in engi-
neering uses. As appropriate, these values can be ap-
plied to each major horizon of each soil or to the entire
profile.
These factors of soil behavior affect construction and
maintenance of roads, airport runways, pipelines, founda-
tions for small buildings, ponds and small dams, irrigation
projects, drainage systems, sewage and refuse disposal
systems, and other engineering works. The ranges of
values can be used to (1) select potential residential,
commercial, industrial, and recreational uses; (2) make
preliminary estimates pertinent to construction in a par-
ticular area; (3) evaluate alternative routes for roads,
streets, highways, pipelines, and underground cables; (4)
evaluate alternative sites for location of sanitary landfills,
onsite sewage disposal systems, and other waste dis-
posal facilities; (5) plan detailed onsite investigations of
soils and geology; (6) find sources of gravel, sand, clay,
and topsoil; (7) plan farm drainage systems, irrigation
systems, ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil
and water conservation; (8) relate performance of struc-
tures already built to the properties of the kinds of soil
on which they are built so that performance of similar
structures on the same or a similar soil in other locations


can be predicted; and (9) predict the trafficability of soils
for cross-country movement of vehicles and construction
equipment.
Data presented in this section are useful for land-use
planning and for choosing alternative practices or gener-
al designs that will overcome unfavorable soil properties
and minimize soil-related failures. Limitations to the use
of these data, however, should be well understood. First,
the data are generally not presented for soil material
below a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Also, because of the scale
of the detailed map in this soil survey, small areas of
soils that differ from the dominant soil may be included
in mapping. Thus, these data do not eliminate the need
for onsite investigations, testing, and analysis by person-
nel having expertise in the specific use contemplated.
The information is presented mainly in tables. Table 8
shows, for each kind of soil, the degree and kind of
limitations for building site development; table 9, for sani-
tary facilities; and table 10, for water management. Table
11 shows the suitability of each kind of soil as a source
of construction materials.
The information in the tables, along with the soil map,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
survey, can be used to make additional interpretations
and to construct interpretive maps for specific uses of
land.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are
defined in the Glossary.

Building site development
The degree and kind of soil limitations that affect shal-
low excavations, dwellings with and without basements,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
are indicated in table 8. A slight limitation indicates that
soil properties generally are favorable for the specified
use; any limitation is minor and easily overcome. A mod-
erate limitation indicates that soil properties and site fea-
tures are unfavorable for the specified use, but the limi-
tations can be overcome or minimized by special plan-
ning and design. A severe limitation indicates that one or
more soil properties or site features are so unfavorable
or difficult to overcome that a major increase in con-
struction effort, special design, or intensive maintenance
is required. For some soils rated severe, such costly
measures may not be feasible.
Shallow excavations are made for pipelines, sewer-
lines, communications and power transmission lines,
basements, and open ditches. Such digging or trenching
is influenced by soil wetness caused by a seasonal high
water table; the texture and consistence of soils; the
tendency of soils to cave in or slough; and the presence
of very firm, dense soil layers, bedrock, or large stones.
In addition, excavations are affected by slope of the soil
and the probability of flooding. Ratings do not apply to








SOIL SURVEY


Engineering
Ernest A. Croxton, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
This section provides information about the use of
soils for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction ma-
terial, and water management. Among those who can
benefit from this information are engineers, landowners,
community planners, town and city managers, land de-
velopers, builders, contractors, and farmers and ranch-
ers.
The ratings in the engineering tables are based on test
data and estimated data in the "Soil properties" section.
The ratings were determined jointly by soil scientists and
engineers of the Soil Conservation Service using known
relationships between the soil properties and the behav-
ior of soils in various engineering uses.
Among the soil properties and site conditions identified
by a soil survey and used in determining the ratings in
this section were grain-size distribution, liquid limit, plas-
ticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness of
bedrock that is within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil
wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope,
likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure or aggrega-
tion, in-place soil density, and geologic origin of the soil
material. Where pertinent, data about kinds of clay min-
erals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and the
kind of absorbed cations were also considered.
On the basis of information assembled about soil prop-
erties, ranges of values can be estimated for erodibility,
permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available
water capacity, shear strength, compressibility, slope sta-
bility, and other factors of expected soil behavior in engi-
neering uses. As appropriate, these values can be ap-
plied to each major horizon of each soil or to the entire
profile.
These factors of soil behavior affect construction and
maintenance of roads, airport runways, pipelines, founda-
tions for small buildings, ponds and small dams, irrigation
projects, drainage systems, sewage and refuse disposal
systems, and other engineering works. The ranges of
values can be used to (1) select potential residential,
commercial, industrial, and recreational uses; (2) make
preliminary estimates pertinent to construction in a par-
ticular area; (3) evaluate alternative routes for roads,
streets, highways, pipelines, and underground cables; (4)
evaluate alternative sites for location of sanitary landfills,
onsite sewage disposal systems, and other waste dis-
posal facilities; (5) plan detailed onsite investigations of
soils and geology; (6) find sources of gravel, sand, clay,
and topsoil; (7) plan farm drainage systems, irrigation
systems, ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil
and water conservation; (8) relate performance of struc-
tures already built to the properties of the kinds of soil
on which they are built so that performance of similar
structures on the same or a similar soil in other locations


can be predicted; and (9) predict the trafficability of soils
for cross-country movement of vehicles and construction
equipment.
Data presented in this section are useful for land-use
planning and for choosing alternative practices or gener-
al designs that will overcome unfavorable soil properties
and minimize soil-related failures. Limitations to the use
of these data, however, should be well understood. First,
the data are generally not presented for soil material
below a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Also, because of the scale
of the detailed map in this soil survey, small areas of
soils that differ from the dominant soil may be included
in mapping. Thus, these data do not eliminate the need
for onsite investigations, testing, and analysis by person-
nel having expertise in the specific use contemplated.
The information is presented mainly in tables. Table 8
shows, for each kind of soil, the degree and kind of
limitations for building site development; table 9, for sani-
tary facilities; and table 10, for water management. Table
11 shows the suitability of each kind of soil as a source
of construction materials.
The information in the tables, along with the soil map,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
survey, can be used to make additional interpretations
and to construct interpretive maps for specific uses of
land.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are
defined in the Glossary.

Building site development
The degree and kind of soil limitations that affect shal-
low excavations, dwellings with and without basements,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
are indicated in table 8. A slight limitation indicates that
soil properties generally are favorable for the specified
use; any limitation is minor and easily overcome. A mod-
erate limitation indicates that soil properties and site fea-
tures are unfavorable for the specified use, but the limi-
tations can be overcome or minimized by special plan-
ning and design. A severe limitation indicates that one or
more soil properties or site features are so unfavorable
or difficult to overcome that a major increase in con-
struction effort, special design, or intensive maintenance
is required. For some soils rated severe, such costly
measures may not be feasible.
Shallow excavations are made for pipelines, sewer-
lines, communications and power transmission lines,
basements, and open ditches. Such digging or trenching
is influenced by soil wetness caused by a seasonal high
water table; the texture and consistence of soils; the
tendency of soils to cave in or slough; and the presence
of very firm, dense soil layers, bedrock, or large stones.
In addition, excavations are affected by slope of the soil
and the probability of flooding. Ratings do not apply to






JACKSO\ COUNTY, FLORIDA


soil horizons below a depth of 6 feet unless otherwise
noted.
In the soil series descriptions, the consistence of each
soil horizon is given, and the presence of very firm or
extremely firm horizons, usually difficult to excavate, is
indicated.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings referred to
in table 8 are built on undisturbed soil and have founda-
tion loads of a dwelling no more than three stories high.
Separate ratings are made for small commercial build-
ings without basements and for dwellings with and with-
out basements. For such structures, soils should be suffi-
ciently stable that cracking or subsidence of the struc-
ture frorp settling or shear failure of the foundation does
not occur. These ratings were determined from esti-
mates of the shear strength, compressibility, and shrink-
swell potential of the soil. Soil texture, plasticity and in-
place density, soil wetness, and depth to a seasonal
high water table were also considered. Soil wetness and
depth to a seasonal high water table indicate potential
difficulty in providing adequate drainage for basements,
lawns, and gardens. Depth to bedrock, slope, and large
stones in or on the soil are also important considerations
in the choice of sites for these structures and were
considered in determining the ratings. Susceptibility to
flooding is a serious hazard.
Local roads and streets referred to in table 8 have an
all-weather surface that can carry light to medium traffic
all year. They consist of a subgrade of the underlying
soil material; a base of gravel, crushed rock fragments,
or soil material stabilized with lime or cement; and a
flexible or rigid surface, commonly asphalt or concrete.
The roads are graded with soil material at hand, and
most cuts and fills are less than 6 feet deep.
The load supporting capacity and the stability of the
soil as well as the quantity and workability of fill material
available are important in design and construction of
roads and streets. The classifications of the soil and the
soil texture, density, and shrink-swell potential, are indi-
cators oi the traffic supporting capacity used in making
the ratings. Soil wetness, flooding, slope, depth to hard
rock or Very compact layers, and content of large stones
affect stability and ease of excavation.

Sanitary facilities
Favorable soil properties and site features are needed
for proper functioning of septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The nature of the
soil is important in selecting sites for these facilities and
in identifying limiting soil properties and site features to
be considered in design and installation. Also, those soil
properties that affect ease of excavation or installation of
these facilities will be of interest to contractors and local
officials. Table 9 shows the degree and kind of limita-
tions of each soil for such uses and for use of the soil as


51


daily cover for landfills. It is important to observe local
ordinances and regulations.
If the degree of soil limitation is expressed as slight,
soils are generally favorable for the specified use and
limitations are minor and easily overcome; if moderate,
soil properties or site features are unfavorable for the
specified use, but limitations can be overcome by special
planning and design; and if severe, soil properties or site
features are so unfavorable or difficult to overcome that
major soil reclamation, special designs, or intensive
maintenance is required. Soil suitability is rated by the
terms good, fair, or poor, which, respectively, mean
about the same as the terms slight, moderate, and
severe.
Septic tank absorption fields are subsurface systems
of tile or perforated pipe that distribute effluent from a
septic tank into the natural soil. Only the soil horizons
between depths of 18 and 72 inches are evaluated for
this use. The soil properties and site features considered
are those that affect the absorption of the effluent and
those that affect the construction of the system.
Properties and features that affect absorption of the
effluent are permeability, depth to seasonal high water
table, depth to bedrock, and susceptibility to flooding.
Stones, boulders, and shallowness to bedrock interfere
with installation. Excessive slope can cause lateral seep-
age and surfacing of the effluent. Also, soil erosion and
soil slippage are hazards if absorption fields are installed
on sloping soils.
In some soils, loose sand and gravel or fractured bed-
rock is less than 4 feet below the tile lines. In these soils
the absorption field does not adequately filter the efflu-
ent, and ground water in the area may be contaminated.
On many of the soils that have moderate or severe
limitations for use as septic tank absorption fields, a
system to lower the seasonal water table can be in-
stalled or the size of the absorption field can be in-
creased so that performance is satisfactory.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
and liquid wastes. Lagoons have a nearly level floor and
cut slopes or embankments of compacted soil material.
Aerobic lagoons generally are designed to hold sewage
within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly impervious soil
material for the lagoon floor and sides is required to
minimize seepage and contamination of ground water.
Soils that are very high in content of organic matter and
those that have cobbles, stones, or boulders are not
suitable. Unless the soil has very slow permeability, con-
tamination of ground water is a hazard. In soils where
the water table is seasonally high, seepage of ground
water into the lagoon can seriously reduce the lagoon's
capacity for liquid waste. Slope, depth to bedrock, and
susceptibility to flooding also affect the suitability of sites
for sewage lagoons or the cost of construction. Shear
strength and permeability of compacted soil material
affect the performance of embankments.







SOIL SURVEY


Sanitary landfill is a method of disposing of solid waste
by placing refuse in successive layers either in excavat-
ed trenches or on the surface of the soil. The waste is
spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin layer
of soil material. Landfill areas are subject to heavy ve-
hicular traffic. Risk of polluting ground water and traffica-
bility affect the suitability of a soil for this use. The best
soils have a loamy or silty texture, have moderate to
slow permeability, are deep to a seasonal water table,
and are not subject to flooding. Clayey soils are likely to
be sticky and difficult to spread. Sandy or gravelly soils
generally have rapid permeability, which might allow nox-
ious liquids to contaminate ground water. Soil wetness
can be a limitation, because operating heavy equipment
on a wet soil is difficult. Seepage into the refuse in-
creases the risk of pollution of ground water.
Ease of excavation affects the suitability of a soil for
the trench type of landfill. A suitable soil is deep to
bedrock and free of large stones and boulders. If the
seasonal water table is high, water will seep into trench-
es.
Unless otherwise stated, the limitations in table 9
apply only to the soil material within a depth of about 6
feet. If the trench is deeper, a limitation of slight or
moderate may not be valid. Site investigation is needed
before a site is selected.
Daily cover for landfill should be soil that is easy to
excavate and spread over the compacted fill in wet and
dry periods. Soils that are loamy or silty and free of
stones or boulders and have low permeability are better
than other soils. Clayey soils may be sticky and difficult
to spread; sandy soils may be subject to soil blowing.
The soils selected for final cover of landfills should be
suitable for growing plants. Of all the horizons, the A
horizon in most soils has the best workability, more or-
ganic matter, and the best potential for growing plants.
Thus, for either the area- or trench-type landfill, stockpil-
ing material from the A horizon for use as the surface
layer of the final cover is desirable.
Where it is necessary to bring in soil material for daily
or final cover, thickness of suitable soil material available
and depth to a seasonal high water table in soils sur-
rounding the sites should be evaluated. Other factors to
be evaluated are those that affect reclamation of the
borrow areas. These factors include slope, erodibility,
and potential for plant growth.

Water management
Many soil properties and site features that affect water
management practices have been identified in this soil
survey. In table 10 the degree of soil limitation and soil
and site features that affect use are indicated for each
kind of soil. This information is significant in planning,
installing, and maintaining water management systems.
Soil and site limitations are expressed as slight, mod-
erate, and severe. Slight means that the soil properties


and site features are generally favorable for the specified
use and that any limitation is minor and easily overcome.
Moderate means that some soil properties or site fea-
tures are unfavorable for the specified use but can be
overcome or modified by special planning and design.
Severe means that the soil properties and site features
are so unfavorable and so difficult to correct or over-
come that major soil reclamation, special design, or in-
tensive maintenance is required.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or em-
bankment. Soils best suited to this use have a low seep-
age potential, which is determined by permeability and
the depth to fractured or permeable bedrock or other
permeable material.
Embankments, dikes, and levees require soil material
that is resistant to seepage, erosion, and piping and has
favorable stability, shrink-swell potential, shear strength,
and compaction characteristics. Large stones and organ-
ic matter in a soil downgrade the suitability of a soil for
use in embankments, dikes, and levees.
Drainage of soil is affected by such soil properties as
permeability; texture; depth to bedrock, or other layers
that affect the rate of water movement; depth to the
water table; slope; stability of ditchbanks; susceptibility to
flooding; salinity and alkalinity; and availability of outlets
for drainage.
Irrigation is affected by such features as slope, sus-
ceptibility to flooding, hazards of water erosion and soil
blowing, texture, depth of root zone, rate of water intake
at the surface, permeability of the soil below the surface
layer, available water capacity, need for drainage, and
depth to the water table.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a combi-
nation of channels and ridges constructed across a
slope to intercept runoff. They allow water to soak into
the soil or flow slowly to an outlet. Features that affect
suitability of a soil for terraces are uniformity and steep-
ness of slope; depth to bedrock, or other unfavorable
material; large stones; permeability; ease of establishing
vegetation; and resistance to water erosion, soil blowing,
soil slipping, and piping.
Grassed waterways are constructed to channel runoff
to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Features that affect
the use of soils for waterways are slope, permeability,
erodibility, wetness, and suitability for permanent vegeta-
tion.

Construction materials
The suitability of each soil as a source of roadfill,
sand, gravel, and topsoil is indicated in table 11 by
ratings of good, fair, or poor. The texture, thickness, and
organic-matter content of each soil horizon are important
factors in rating soils for use as construction materials.
Each soil is evaluated to the depth observed, generally
about 6 feet.







SOIL SURVEY


Sanitary landfill is a method of disposing of solid waste
by placing refuse in successive layers either in excavat-
ed trenches or on the surface of the soil. The waste is
spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin layer
of soil material. Landfill areas are subject to heavy ve-
hicular traffic. Risk of polluting ground water and traffica-
bility affect the suitability of a soil for this use. The best
soils have a loamy or silty texture, have moderate to
slow permeability, are deep to a seasonal water table,
and are not subject to flooding. Clayey soils are likely to
be sticky and difficult to spread. Sandy or gravelly soils
generally have rapid permeability, which might allow nox-
ious liquids to contaminate ground water. Soil wetness
can be a limitation, because operating heavy equipment
on a wet soil is difficult. Seepage into the refuse in-
creases the risk of pollution of ground water.
Ease of excavation affects the suitability of a soil for
the trench type of landfill. A suitable soil is deep to
bedrock and free of large stones and boulders. If the
seasonal water table is high, water will seep into trench-
es.
Unless otherwise stated, the limitations in table 9
apply only to the soil material within a depth of about 6
feet. If the trench is deeper, a limitation of slight or
moderate may not be valid. Site investigation is needed
before a site is selected.
Daily cover for landfill should be soil that is easy to
excavate and spread over the compacted fill in wet and
dry periods. Soils that are loamy or silty and free of
stones or boulders and have low permeability are better
than other soils. Clayey soils may be sticky and difficult
to spread; sandy soils may be subject to soil blowing.
The soils selected for final cover of landfills should be
suitable for growing plants. Of all the horizons, the A
horizon in most soils has the best workability, more or-
ganic matter, and the best potential for growing plants.
Thus, for either the area- or trench-type landfill, stockpil-
ing material from the A horizon for use as the surface
layer of the final cover is desirable.
Where it is necessary to bring in soil material for daily
or final cover, thickness of suitable soil material available
and depth to a seasonal high water table in soils sur-
rounding the sites should be evaluated. Other factors to
be evaluated are those that affect reclamation of the
borrow areas. These factors include slope, erodibility,
and potential for plant growth.

Water management
Many soil properties and site features that affect water
management practices have been identified in this soil
survey. In table 10 the degree of soil limitation and soil
and site features that affect use are indicated for each
kind of soil. This information is significant in planning,
installing, and maintaining water management systems.
Soil and site limitations are expressed as slight, mod-
erate, and severe. Slight means that the soil properties


and site features are generally favorable for the specified
use and that any limitation is minor and easily overcome.
Moderate means that some soil properties or site fea-
tures are unfavorable for the specified use but can be
overcome or modified by special planning and design.
Severe means that the soil properties and site features
are so unfavorable and so difficult to correct or over-
come that major soil reclamation, special design, or in-
tensive maintenance is required.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or em-
bankment. Soils best suited to this use have a low seep-
age potential, which is determined by permeability and
the depth to fractured or permeable bedrock or other
permeable material.
Embankments, dikes, and levees require soil material
that is resistant to seepage, erosion, and piping and has
favorable stability, shrink-swell potential, shear strength,
and compaction characteristics. Large stones and organ-
ic matter in a soil downgrade the suitability of a soil for
use in embankments, dikes, and levees.
Drainage of soil is affected by such soil properties as
permeability; texture; depth to bedrock, or other layers
that affect the rate of water movement; depth to the
water table; slope; stability of ditchbanks; susceptibility to
flooding; salinity and alkalinity; and availability of outlets
for drainage.
Irrigation is affected by such features as slope, sus-
ceptibility to flooding, hazards of water erosion and soil
blowing, texture, depth of root zone, rate of water intake
at the surface, permeability of the soil below the surface
layer, available water capacity, need for drainage, and
depth to the water table.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a combi-
nation of channels and ridges constructed across a
slope to intercept runoff. They allow water to soak into
the soil or flow slowly to an outlet. Features that affect
suitability of a soil for terraces are uniformity and steep-
ness of slope; depth to bedrock, or other unfavorable
material; large stones; permeability; ease of establishing
vegetation; and resistance to water erosion, soil blowing,
soil slipping, and piping.
Grassed waterways are constructed to channel runoff
to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Features that affect
the use of soils for waterways are slope, permeability,
erodibility, wetness, and suitability for permanent vegeta-
tion.

Construction materials
The suitability of each soil as a source of roadfill,
sand, gravel, and topsoil is indicated in table 11 by
ratings of good, fair, or poor. The texture, thickness, and
organic-matter content of each soil horizon are important
factors in rating soils for use as construction materials.
Each soil is evaluated to the depth observed, generally
about 6 feet.







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


Roadfill is soil material used in embankments for
roads. Soils are evaluated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, which generally are less than 6 feet high
and less exacting in design than high embankments. The
ratings reflect the ease of excavating and working the
material and the expected performance of the material
where it has been compacted and adequately drained.
The performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or
cement is not considered in the ratings, but information
about some of the soil properties that influence such
performance is given in the descriptions of the soil
series.
The ratings apply to the soil material between the A
horizon and a depth of 5 to 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
horizons will be mixed during excavation and spreading.
Many soils have horizons of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The estimated engineering properties in
table 14 provide specific information about the nature of
each horizon. This information can help determine the
suitability of each horizon for roadfill.
Soils rated good are coarse grained. They have low
shrink-swell potential, and few cobbles and stones. They
are at least moderately well drained and have slopes of
15 percent or less. Soils rated fair have a plasticity index
of less than 15 and have other limiting features, such as
moderate shrink-swell potential, moderately steep
slopes, wetness, or many stones. If the thickness of
suitable material is less than 3 feet, the entire soil is
rated poor.
Sand and gravel are used in great quantities in many
kinds of construction. The ratings in table 11 provide
guidance as to where to look for probable sources and
are based on the probability that soils in a given area
contain sizable quantities of sand or gravel. A soil rated
good or fair has a layer of suitable material at least 3
feet thick, the top of which is within a depth of 6 feet.
Coarse fragments of soft bedrock material, such as
shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and
gravel. Fine-grained soils are not suitable sources of
sand and gravel.
The ratings do not take into account depth to the
water table or other factors that affect excavation of the
material. Descriptions of grain size, kinds of minerals,
reaction, and stratification are given in the soil series
descriptions and in table 14.
Topsoil is used in areas where vegetation is to be
established and maintained. Suitability is affected mainly
by the ease of working and spreading the soil material in
preparing a seedbed and by the ability of the soil materi-
al to support plantlife. Also considered is the damage
that can result at the area from which the topsoil is
taken.
The ease of excavation is influenced by the thickness
of suitable material, wetness, slope, and amount of
stones. The ability of the soil to support plantlife is deter-
mined by texture, structure, and the amount of soluble
salts or toxic substances. Organic matter in the Al or Ap


53


horizon greatly increases the absorption and retention of
moisture and nutrients. Therefore, the soil material from
these horizons should be carefully preserved for later
use.
Soils rated good have at least 16 inches of friable
loamy material at their surface. They are free of stones
and cobbles, are low in content of gravel, and have
gentle slopes. They are low in soluble salts that can limit
or prevent plant growth. They are naturally fertile or
respond well to fertilizer. They are not so wet that exca-
vation is difficult during most of the year.
Soils rated fair are loose sandy soils or firm loamy or
clayey soils in which the suitable material is only 8 to 16
inches thick.
Soils rated poor are very sandy soils and very firm
clayey soils; soils with suitable layers less than 8 inches
thick; steep soils; and poorly drained soils.
Although a rating of good is not based entirely on high
content of organic matter, a surface horizon is generally
preferred for topsoil because of its organic-matter con-
tent. This horizon is designated as Al or Ap in the soil
series descriptions. The absorption and retention of
moisture and nutrients for plant growth are greatly in-
creased by organic matter.

Recreation
Recreation is important in Jackson County. The Chi-
pola River provides canoeing, boating, fishing, and scuba
diving for fossils and Indian artifacts. Fishing, boating,
and skiing are popular on Lake Seminole and Ocheesee
Pond. Florida Caverns State Park and Three Rivers
State Park have facilities for picnicking, hiking, golf (fig.
7), swimming (fig. 8), and other recreational activities.
Hunting is also popular. Many areas in the county have
high potential for recreational development.
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 12
according to limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation uses. The ratings are based on such restric-
tive soil features as flooding, wetness, slope, and texture
of the surface layer. Not considered in these ratings, but
important in evaluating a site, are location and accessi-
bility of the area, size and shape of the area and its
scenic quality, the ability of the soil to support vegeta-
tion, access to water, potential water impoundment sites
available, and either access to public sewerlines or ca-
pacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent. Soils
subject to flooding are limited, in varying degree, for
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. Onsite assess-
ment of height, duration, intensity, and frequency of
flooding is essential in planning recreation facilities.
The degree of the limitation of the soils is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that the soil
properties are generally favorable and that the limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
the limitations can be overcome or alleviated by plan-







SOIL SURVEY


ning, design, or special maintenance. Severe means that
soil properties are unfavorable and that limitations can
be offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 12 can be supplemented by
information in other parts of this survey. Especially help-
ful are interpretations for septic tank absorption fields,
given in table 9, and interpretations for dwellings without
basements and for local roads and streets, given in table
8.
Camp areas require such site preparation as shaping
and leveling for tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facili-
ties and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy
foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils for
this use have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but re-
mains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes and
stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of con-
structing camping sites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for use as picnic areas are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, are not subject to
flooding during the period of use, and do not have
slopes or stones or boulders that will increase the cost
of shaping sites or of building access roads and parking
areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones or boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If shaping is required to
obtain a uniform grade, the depth of the soil over bed-
rock or hardpan should be enough to allow necessary
grading.
Paths and trails for walking, horseback riding, bicy-
cling, and other uses should require little or no cutting
and filling. The best soils for this use are those that are
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
are not subject to flooding more than once during the
annual period of use. They should have moderate slopes
and have few or no stones or boulders on the surface.

Wildlife habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped pre-
pare this section.
Wildlife is a valuable resource of Jackson County. Al-
though intensive farming operations, conversion to pine
plantations, and increasing urbanization have reduced
the acreage of suitable habitat, large areas are still unde-
veloped and support a large variety and number of wild-
life species. Most of the county provides good habitat for


wildlife, especially the bottom land along Holmes Creek
and the Apalachicola and Chipola Rivers. The Apalachee
Wildlife Management Area is near Lake Seminole.
Game animals prominent in the county include bob-
white quail, mourning dove, rabbit, gray squirrel, fox
squirrel, white-tailed deer, turkey, waterfowl, red fox, gray
fox, and raccoon. In addition, a variety of songbirds,
woodpeckers, predatory birds, wading birds, reptiles, and
small mammals are common; occasionally armadillo and
wild hog are seen. Small game is found all over the
county, but deer, turkey and waterfowl are less common.
Deer populations are greatest in the large wooded tracts
of the sandhills and the swamps. Turkey populations,
which have declined during the past few years, are fairly
low. Most turkey are along the river bottoms. Waterfowl
are sparse. Most of those in the county are in the
swamps and on Lake Seminole.
A wide variety of fish species occur in the streams,
lakes, and reservoirs of the county. The most commonly
sought game fish include largemouth bass, bluegill,
redear, spotted sunfish, redbreast sunfish, black crappie,
pickerel, and warmouth. In addition, the rare Chipola
bass is caught in the Chipola River. Nongame fish com-
monly found in the county include eels, shad, bowfin,
catfish, gar, suckers, and shiners.
Soils directly affect the kind and amount of vegetation
that is available to wildlife as food and cover, and they
affect the construction of water impoundments. The kind
and abundance of wildlife that populate an area depend
largely on the amount and distribution of food, cover,
and water. If any one of these elements is missing, is
inadequate, or is inaccessible, wildlife either are scarce
or do not inhabit the area.
If the soils have the potential, wildlife habitat can be
created or improved by planting appropriate vegetation,
by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by helping the
natural establishment of desirable plants.
In table 13, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential to support the main kinds of
wildlife habitat in the area. This information can be used
in planning for parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas,
and other developments for wildlife; selecting areas that
are suitable for wildlife; selecting soils that are suitable
for creating, improving, or maintaining specific elements
of wildlife habitat; and determining the intensity of man-
agement needed for each element of the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good means that the element of
wildlife habitat or the kind of habitat is easily created,
improved, or maintained. Few or no limitations affect
management, and satisfactory results can be expected if
the soil is used for the designated purpose. A rating of
fair means that the element of wildlife habitat or kind of
habitat can be created, improved, or maintained in most
places. Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor means that limita-
tions are severe for the designated element or kind of









JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


wildlife habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor means that
restrictions for the element of wildlife habitat or kind of
wildlife are very severe, and that unsatisfactory results
can be 'expected. Wildlife habitat is impractical or even
impossible to create, improve, or maintain on soils
having such a rating.
The elements of wildlife habitat are briefly described in
the following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are seed-producing annuals
used by wildlife. The major soil properties that affect the
growth of grain and seed crops are depth of the root
zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capac-
ity, wetrness, slope, surface stoniness, and flood hazard.
Soil temperature and soil moisture are also consider-
ations.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes that are planted for wildlife
food and cover. Major soil properties that affect the
growth of grasses and legumes are depth of the root
zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capac-
ity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard, and slope.
Soil temperature and soil moisture are also consider-
ations.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally estab-
lished grasses and forbs, including weeds, that provide
food and cover for wildlife. Major soil properties that
affect the growth of these plants are depth of the root
zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capac-
ity, wetness, surface stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil
temperature and soil moisture are also considerations.
Hardwood trees and the associated woody understory
provide cover for wildlife and produce nuts or other fruit,
buds, catkins, twigs, bark, or foliage that wildlife eat.
Major soil properties that affect growth of hardwood
trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, available
water capacity, and wetness.
Coniferous plants are cone-bearing trees, shrubs, or
ground cover plants that furnish habitat or supply food in
the form of browse, seeds, or fruitlike cones. Soil proper-
ties that have a major effect on the growth of coniferous
plants are depth of the root zone, available water capac-
ity, and wetness.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild herba-
ceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites, exclusive
of submerged or floating aquatics. They produce food or
cover for wildlife that use wetland as habitat. Major soil
properties affecting wetland plants are texture of the
surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, slope, and sur-
face stoniness.
Shallow water areas are bodies of water that have an
average depth of less than 5 feet and that are useful to
wildlife. They can be naturally wet areas, or they can be
created by dams or levees or by water-control structures
in marshes or streams. Major soil properties affecting
shallow water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, sur-


face stoniness, slope, and permeability. The availability
of a dependable water supply is important if water areas
are to be developed.
The kinds of wildlife habitat are briefly described in the
following paragraphs.
Openland habitat consists of cropland, pasture, mead-
ows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses, herbs,
shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and seed
crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants.
Woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or
conifers, or a mixture of both, and associated grasses,
legumes, and wild herbaceous plants.
Wetland habitat consists of open, marshy or swampy,
shallow water areas where water-tolerant plants grow.


Soil properties
Extensive data about soil properties are summarized
on the following pages. The two main sources of these
data are the many thousands of soil borings made during
the course of the survey and the laboratory analyses of
selected soil samples from typical profiles.
In making soil borings during field mapping, soil scien-
tists can identify several important soil properties. They
note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the pres-
ence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in the
profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil
material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and
gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the
natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed
soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place
under the existing soil moisture conditions. They record
the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of
the soil, and identify any free carbonates.
Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory
to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to
determine all major properties of key soils, especially
properties that cannot be estimated accurately by field
observation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for
all soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for
many soil series not tested are available from nearby
survey areas.
The available field and laboratory data are summarized
in tables. The tables give the estimated range of engi-
neering properties, the engineering classifications, and
the physical and chemical properties of each major hori-
zon of each soil in the survey area. They also present
data about pertinent soil and water features, engineering
test data, and data obtained from physical and chemical
laboratory analyses of soils.






SOIL SURVEY


Engineering properties
Table 14 gives estimates of engineering properties and
classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the
survey area.
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons
of contrasting properties. Table 14 gives information for
each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each hori-
zon is indicated. More information about the range in
depth and about other properties in each horizon is
given for each soil series in the section "Soil series and
morphology."
Texture is described in table 14 in the standard terms
used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms
are defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and
clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil material that is 7
to 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than
52 percent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other parti-
cles coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is added,
for example, "gravelly loam." Other texture terms are
defined in the Glossary.
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils
for engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification
System (Unified) (2) and the system adopted by the
American Association of State Highway and Transporta-
tion Officials (AASHTO) (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to prop-
erties that affect their use as construction material. Soils
are classified according to grain-size distribution of the
fraction less than 3 inches in diameter, plasticity index,
liquid limit, and organic-matter content. Soils are grouped
into 15 classes-eight classes of coarse-grained soils,
identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six
classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL,
MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils,
identified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two
classes have a dual classification symbol, for example,
CL-ML.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect their use in highway con-
struction and maintenance. In this system a mineral soil
is classified in one of seven basic groups ranging from
A-1 through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, and plasticity index. Soils in group A-1 are
coarse grained and low in content of fines. At the other
extreme, in group A-7, are fine-grained soils. Highly or-
ganic soils are classified in group A-8 on the basis of
visual inspection.
When laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and
A-7 groups are further classified as follows: A-1-a, A-1-b,
A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As an addi-
tional refinement, the desirability of soils as subgrade
material can be indicated by a group index number.
These numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade ma-
terial to 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO


classification for soils tested in the survey area, with
group index numbers in parentheses, is given in table 20.
The estimated classification, without group index num-
bers, is given in table 14. Also in table 14 the percent-
age, by weight, of rock fragments more than 3 inches in
diameter is estimated for each major horizon. These
estimates are determined mainly by observing volume
percentage in the field and then converting that, by for-
mula, to weight percentage.
Percentage of the soil material less than 3 inches in
diameter that passes each of four sieves (U.S. standard)
is estimated for each major horizon. The estimates are
based on tests of soils that were sampled in the survey
area and in nearby areas and on field estimates from
many borings made during the survey.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of soil. These
indexes are used in both the Unified and AASHTO soil
classification systems. They are also used as indicators
in making general predictions of soil behavior. Range in
liquid limit and plasticity index is estimated on the basis
of test data from the survey area or from nearby areas
and on observations of the many soil borings made
during the survey.
In some surveys, the estimates are rounded to the
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and
Atterburg limits extend a marginal amount across classifi-
cation boundaries (1 or 2 percent), the classification in
the marginal zone is omitted.

Physical and chemical properties
Table 15 shows estimated values for several soil char-
acteristics and features that affect behavior of soils in
engineering uses. These estimates are given for each
major horizon, at the depths indicated, in the typical
pedon of each soil. The estimates are based on field
observations and on test data for these and similar soils.
Permeability is estimated on the basis of known rela-
tionships among the soil characteristics observed in the
field-particularly soil structure, porosity, and gradation
or texture-that influence the downward movement of
water in the soil. The estimates are for vertical water
movement when the soil is saturated. Not considered in
the estimates is lateral seepage or such transient soil
features as plowpans and surface crusts. Permeability of
the soil is an important factor to be considered in plan-
ning and designing drainage systems, in evaluating the
potential of soils for septic tank systems and other waste
disposal systems, and in many other aspects of land use
and management.
Available water capacity is rated on the basis of soil
characteristics that influence the ability of the soil to hold
water and make it available to plants. Important charac-
teristics are content of organic matter, soil texture, and
soil structure. Shallow-rooted plants are not likely to use
the available water from the deeper soil horizons. Availa-






SOIL SURVEY


Engineering properties
Table 14 gives estimates of engineering properties and
classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the
survey area.
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons
of contrasting properties. Table 14 gives information for
each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each hori-
zon is indicated. More information about the range in
depth and about other properties in each horizon is
given for each soil series in the section "Soil series and
morphology."
Texture is described in table 14 in the standard terms
used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms
are defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and
clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil material that is 7
to 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than
52 percent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other parti-
cles coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is added,
for example, "gravelly loam." Other texture terms are
defined in the Glossary.
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils
for engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification
System (Unified) (2) and the system adopted by the
American Association of State Highway and Transporta-
tion Officials (AASHTO) (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to prop-
erties that affect their use as construction material. Soils
are classified according to grain-size distribution of the
fraction less than 3 inches in diameter, plasticity index,
liquid limit, and organic-matter content. Soils are grouped
into 15 classes-eight classes of coarse-grained soils,
identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six
classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL,
MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils,
identified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two
classes have a dual classification symbol, for example,
CL-ML.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect their use in highway con-
struction and maintenance. In this system a mineral soil
is classified in one of seven basic groups ranging from
A-1 through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, and plasticity index. Soils in group A-1 are
coarse grained and low in content of fines. At the other
extreme, in group A-7, are fine-grained soils. Highly or-
ganic soils are classified in group A-8 on the basis of
visual inspection.
When laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and
A-7 groups are further classified as follows: A-1-a, A-1-b,
A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As an addi-
tional refinement, the desirability of soils as subgrade
material can be indicated by a group index number.
These numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade ma-
terial to 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO


classification for soils tested in the survey area, with
group index numbers in parentheses, is given in table 20.
The estimated classification, without group index num-
bers, is given in table 14. Also in table 14 the percent-
age, by weight, of rock fragments more than 3 inches in
diameter is estimated for each major horizon. These
estimates are determined mainly by observing volume
percentage in the field and then converting that, by for-
mula, to weight percentage.
Percentage of the soil material less than 3 inches in
diameter that passes each of four sieves (U.S. standard)
is estimated for each major horizon. The estimates are
based on tests of soils that were sampled in the survey
area and in nearby areas and on field estimates from
many borings made during the survey.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of soil. These
indexes are used in both the Unified and AASHTO soil
classification systems. They are also used as indicators
in making general predictions of soil behavior. Range in
liquid limit and plasticity index is estimated on the basis
of test data from the survey area or from nearby areas
and on observations of the many soil borings made
during the survey.
In some surveys, the estimates are rounded to the
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and
Atterburg limits extend a marginal amount across classifi-
cation boundaries (1 or 2 percent), the classification in
the marginal zone is omitted.

Physical and chemical properties
Table 15 shows estimated values for several soil char-
acteristics and features that affect behavior of soils in
engineering uses. These estimates are given for each
major horizon, at the depths indicated, in the typical
pedon of each soil. The estimates are based on field
observations and on test data for these and similar soils.
Permeability is estimated on the basis of known rela-
tionships among the soil characteristics observed in the
field-particularly soil structure, porosity, and gradation
or texture-that influence the downward movement of
water in the soil. The estimates are for vertical water
movement when the soil is saturated. Not considered in
the estimates is lateral seepage or such transient soil
features as plowpans and surface crusts. Permeability of
the soil is an important factor to be considered in plan-
ning and designing drainage systems, in evaluating the
potential of soils for septic tank systems and other waste
disposal systems, and in many other aspects of land use
and management.
Available water capacity is rated on the basis of soil
characteristics that influence the ability of the soil to hold
water and make it available to plants. Important charac-
teristics are content of organic matter, soil texture, and
soil structure. Shallow-rooted plants are not likely to use
the available water from the deeper soil horizons. Availa-







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


ble water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
plants or[ crops to be grown and in the design of irriga-
tion systems.
Soil reaction is expressed as a range in pH values.
The range in pH of each major horizon is based on many
field checks. For many soils, the values have been veri-
fied by laboratory analyses. Soil reaction is important in
selecting the crops, ornamental plants, or other plants to
be grown; in evaluating soil amendments for fertility and
stabilization; and in evaluating the corrosivity of soils.
Shrink-swell potential depends mainly on the amount
and kind of clay in the soil. Laboratory measurements of
the swelling of undisturbed clods were made for many
soils. For others the swelling was estimated on the basis
of the kind and amount of clay in the soil and on mea-
surements of similar soils. The size of the load and the
magnitude of the change in soil moisture content also
influence the swelling of soils. Shrinking and swelling of
some soils can cause damage to building foundations,
basement walls, roads, and other structures unless spe-
cial designs are used. A high shrink-swell potential indi-
cates that special design and added expense may be
required if the planned use of the soil will not tolerate
large volume changes.
Erosion factors are used to predict the erodibility of a
soil and its tolerance to erosion in relation to specific
kinds of land use and treatment. The soil erodibility
factor (K) is a measure of the susceptibility of the soil to
erosion by water. Soils having the highest K values are
the most erodible. K values range from 0.10 to 0.64. To
estimate annual soil loss per acre, the K value of a soil
is modified by factors representing plant cover, grade
and length of slope, management practices, and climate.
The soil-loss tolerance factor (T) is the maximum rate of
soil erosion, whether from rainfall or soil blowing, that
can occur without reducing crop production or environ-
mental quality. The rate is expressed in tons of soil loss
per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties that affect their resistance to soil blow-
ing if cultivated. The groups are used to predict the
susceptibility of soil to blowing and the amount of soil
lost as a result of blowing. Soils are grouped according
to the following distinctions:
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are extremely erodible, so vegetation
is difficult to establish. They are generally less suitable
for crops]
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very fine
sands. Tpese soils are very highly erodible, but crops
can be grown if intensive measures to control soil blow-
ing are used.
3. Sardy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly
erodible, but crops can be grown if intensive measures
to control soil blowing are used.


4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 per-
cent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided calcium
carbonate. These soils are erodible, but crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are
used.
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are
moderately erodible, but crops can be grown if measures
to control soil blowing are used.
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are
slightly erodible, but crops can be grown if measures to
control soil blowing are used.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and less
than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, except
silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly erodible,
and crops can easily be grown.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate.
These soils are very slightly erodible, and crops can
easily be grown.
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject to
soil blowing.

Soil and water features
Table 16 contains information helpful in planning land
uses and engineering projects that are likely to be affect-
ed by soil and water features.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
placed in one of four groups on the basis of the intake of
water after the soils have been wetted and have re-
ceived precipitation from long-duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or grav-
els. These soils have a high rate of water transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water trans-
mission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils that have a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils that have moderately fine texture or fine texture.
These soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
chiefly of clay soils that have a high shrink-swell poten-
tial, soils that have a permanent high water table, soils
that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface,






SOIL SURVEY


and soils that are shallow over nearly impervious materi-
al. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmis-
sion.
Flooding is the temporary covering of soil with water
from overflowing streams, and runoff from adjacent
slopes. Water standing for short periods after rains is not
considered flooding, nor is water in swamps and
marshes. Flooding is rated in general terms that describe
the frequency and duration of flooding and the time of
year when flooding is most likely. The ratings are based
on evidence in the soil profile of the effects of flooding,
namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or, in places, clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic-
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
distinctive soil horizons that form in soils of the area that
are not subject to flooding. The ratings are also based
on local information about floodwater levels in the area
and the extent of flooding; and on information that re-
lates the position of each soil on the landscape to histor-
ic floods.
The generalized description of flood hazards is of
value in land-use planning and provides a valid basis for
land-use restrictions. The soil data are less specific,
however, than those provided by detailed engineering
surveys that delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood
frequency levels.
High water table is the highest level of a saturated
zone more than 6 inches thick for a continuous period of
more than 2 weeks during most years. The depth to a
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils.
Estimates are based mainly on the relationship between
grayish colors or mottles in the soil and the depth to free
water observed in many borings made during the course
of the soil survey. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to
the seasonal high water table; the kind of water table,
that is, perched or apparent; and the months of the year
that the water table commonly is high. Only saturated
zones above a depth of 5 or 6 feet are indicated.
Information about the seasonal high water table helps
in assessing the need for specially designed foundations,
the need for specific kinds of drainage systems, and the
need for footing drains to insure dry basements. Such
information is also needed to decide whether or not
construction of basements is feasible and to determine
how septic tank absorption fields and other underground
installations will function. Also, a seasonal high water
table affects ease of excavation.
Depth to bedrock is shown for all soils that are under-
lain by bedrock at a depth of 5 to 6 feet or less. For
many soils, the limited depth to bedrock is a part of the
definition of the soil series. The depths shown are based
on measurements made in many soil borings and on
other observations during the mapping of the soils. The
kind of bedrock and its hardness as related to ease of
excavation is also shown. Rippable bedrock can be ex-
cavated with a single-tooth ripping attachment on a 200-


horsepower tractor, but hard bedrock generally requires
blasting.
Subsidence is the settlement of the soil surface. Sub-
sidence generally results from drainage, imposed loads,
and oxidation. Freedraining soils, such as clean sands,
subside almost instantly if a load is applied; clays sub-
side over a long period of time because of the slow
release of pore pressure. In organic soils, initial subsi-
dence generally results from drainage. Additional subsi-
dence occurs over a period of several years as a result
of oxidation or compression of the organic material.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
chemical action that dissolves or weakens uncoated
steel or concrete. The rate of corrosion of uncoated
steel is related to soil moisture, particle-size distribution,
total acidity, and electrical conductivity of the soil materi-
al. The rate of corrosion of concrete is based mainly on
the sulfate content, texture, and acidity of the soil. Pro-
tective measures for steel or more resistant concrete

help to avoid or minimize damage resulting from the
corrosion. Uncoated steel intersecting soil boundaries or
soil horizons is more susceptible to corrosion than an
installation that is entirely within one kind of soil or within
one soil horizon.

Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of se-
lected soils
By C.T. Hallmark, assistant professor of soil science, and V.W. Car-
lisle and R.E. Caldwell, professors of soil science, Soil Science Depart-
ment, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of
representative pedon samples in Jackson County are
listed in tables 17, 18, and 19. Analyses were conducted
and coordinated by the Soil Characterization Laboratory,
Soil Science Department, University of Florida. Profiles
of the soils analyzed, in alphabetic order, are described
under "Soil series and morphology." Laboratory data
and profile information for additional soils occurring in
Jackson County as well as other counties in Florida are
on file at the Soil Science Department, University of
Florida.
Soils were sampled by horizon from pits at carefully
selected locations that represented the typical pedons.
Samples were air-dried, crushed, and sieved through a 2
millimeter screen. Most of the analytical methods used
are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1
(6).
Particle size distribution was determined by using a
modification of the Bouyoucos hydrometer procedure
with sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. Hy-
draulic conductivity, bulk density, and water content data
were obtained on undisturbed core samples. Organic
carbon was determined by a modification of the Walkley-
Black wet combustion method. Extractable bases were
obtained by equilibrating and leaching soils with ammoni-
um acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium and potassium in







JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


the extract were determined by flame photometry; cal-
cium and magnesium were determined by atomic ab-
sorption spectroscopy. Extractable acidity was deter-
mined by the barium chloride-triethanolamine method at
pH 8.2. The sum of cations, which may be considered a
measure of the cation exchange capacity, was obtained
by summation of extractable bases and extractable acid-
ity. Base saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to
sum of cations expressed in percent. The pH measure-
ments were made with a glass electrode using water in a
1:1 soil-solution ratio; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride solu-
tion in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and a normal potassium
chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio. Electrical
conductivity was determined by using a conductivity
bridge on a 1:1 soil to water mixture. Iron and aluminum
extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate were determined
by atomic absorption.
Peak heights at 18-, 14-, 7.2-, 4.83-, and 4.31-ang-
strom positions representing montmorillonite and/or in-
terstratified expandibles, vermiculate and/or 14-angstrom
intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz, respectively,
were measured, summed, and normalized to give the
percentage of soil minerals identified in the X-ray diffrac-
tograms. These values are not an absolute quantity but a
relative distribution of minerals in the clay fraction. Find-
ing the absolute percentage would require additional
knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit structure
substitution, and matrix effects.
Generally the soils show an increase of clay in the B
horizon relative to that in the overlying A horizon (see
table 17 which indicates the presence of an argillic
horizon in the subsoil. Exceptions are the Apalachee and
Lakeland soils. In soils where clay content increases with
increasing depth, the percentages of silt and especially
sand show corresponding decreases. The A horizons in
all pedons but that of the Apalachee soil are more than
70 percent sand. In Albany, Lakeland, and Troup soils
this horizon is more than 90 percent sand. Only five
soils-the Blanton, Chipola, Compass, Fuquay, and
Orangeburg-are more than 20 percent very coarse and
coarse sand. Silt content is generally near 10 percent in
all pedons; the most notable exception is the Apalachee
soil, which is nearly 30 percent silt. Only the Apalachee
pedon is' dominated by clay throughout the depth of
sampling
Hydraulic conductivity (table 17) is a measure of the
movement of water through the soil when the soil is
saturated. Generally, hydraulic conductivity decreases
with increasing bulk density and percentages of clay and
silt and increases with increasing organic matter and
better developed structure. According to the data in table
17, the clay and sandy clay textures show hydraulic
conductivities below 2.6 centimeters per hour and in
many soils values below 0.1 centimeter per hour. Sands
and loamy sands show hydraulic conductivities that
range from 3.0 to 66.4 centimeters per hour and average
more than 20 centimeters per hour. Intermediate textures


59


show intermediate hydraulic conductivity values. The ca-
pacity of soil to hold water available for plants can be
estimated from the bulk density and water content data
in table 17. Generally, the sand and loamy sand textured
horizons retain less available water than do the horizons
of sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay, and clay
texture. Calculated to a depth of 1 meter, the total avail-
able water capacity ranges from nearly 4 centimeters in
the Lakeland and Troup soils, which are sandy through-
out, to more than 12 centimeters in the Apalachee, Com-
pass, Duplin, Faceville, Hornsville, and Leefield soils,
which contain significant amounts of silt and clay within
1 meter of the surface. Other soils for which data are
available are intermediate within this range.
Low values for extractable bases, the sum of cations,
and the base saturation, table 18, indicate low inherent
soil fertility. Calcium and magnesium are the predomi-
nant bases, and the largest amounts occur in the Apala-
chee soil. Sodium is almost uniformly low in all but the
Apalachee soil. Trace amounts of potassium along with
low base saturation support the absence of appreciable
quantities of weatherable minerals in that soil. The sum
of cations reflects the amount of organic matter, the
amount of clay, and the type of clay and increases with
an increasing content of organic matter and clay. There-
fore, the sum of cations generally is high in the surface
horizon, decreases with increasing depth, and then in-
creases again in the argillic horizon. The organic carbon
content is highest in the upper horizon of all but the
Albany soil. It decreases with increasing depth to less
than 0.12 percent at a depth of 1 meter in all but the
Apalachee soil. Because organic carbon directly influ-
ences nutrient and water retention capacities, manage-
ment that conserves and maintains the level of organic
carbon is desirable and is especially important on the
soils that are low in organic carbon and clay content, for
example, the Albany, Blanton, Lakeland, and Troup soils.
Electrical conductivity values reflect the amount of free
salts in the soil solution. A high value indicates condi-
tions that may adversely affect plant growth. According
to the data in table 18, none of the soils show values
high enough to indicate a hazard.
The pH determinations reflect the active acidity of the
soils. In general, the availability of nutrient is greatest in
soil if the reaction in water is between pH 6 and 7.
Addition of lime is a common management practice used
to raise the pH of the plow layer. In only one of the soils
analyzed, the Orangeburg, was the reaction in water
more than pH 6.0. Most likely, this soil had been limed
recently, because under native vegetation, Orangeburg
soils have pH values near 5. Soil reaction in calcium
chloride is generally 0.5 to 1 unit lower than in water.
Citrate-dithionite extractable iron and aluminum are as-
sociated with the ability of a soil to absorb and, with
time, make phosphorus unavailable to plants. Notably,
the Apalachee, Faceville, Greenville, Orangeburg, and







SOIL SURVEY


Red Bay soils show high extractable iron and/or alumi-
num near the surface.
Mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions (not shown) is
siliceous. Sand mineralogy was determined by optical
microscopy on a total of 20 samples from 9 soils-
Clarendon, Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay, Chipola, Orange-
burg, Red Bay, Troup, and Lakeland. Grain counts were
made by the National Soil Survey Laboratory, Soil Con-
servation Service, Lincoln, Nebraska. The sands are
from 96 to more than 99 percent quartz and 4 to 1
percent other resistant minerals. No weatherable miner-
als were observed. Mineralogy of the crystalline compo-
nents of the clay fraction is reported in table 19 for
selected horizons of the pedons. In general the clay
mineralogical suite consists of montmorillonite, a 14 ang-
strom intergrade mineral, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz.
Vermiculite was noted only in the Apalachee pedon in
trace amounts, and mica (illite) was found only in the
Apalachee, Duplin, Esto, Faceville, and Hornsville soils.
Except in the Apalachee soil, the montmorillonite content
ranged from 0 to 8 percent. Because of the shrink-swell
characteristics of montmorillonite and the high amount of
this mineral in the Apalachee soil, care is needed in
utilizing this soil for any engineering purpose. Kaolinite,
quartz, and the 14 angstrom intergrade minerals occur in
all pedons. Generally the quantity of quartz and the 14
angstrom intergrade mineral decrease with increasing
depth whereas the quantity of kaolinite increases. This
tendency suggests that the 14 angstrom intergrade min-
eral is more stable than kaolinite in the acidic weathering
environment near the surface and that quartz in the clay
fraction is the result of the decrement of silt-sized quartz.

Engineering test data
Table 20 contains engineering test data made by the
Soils Laboratory Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
classifications given are based on data obtained by me-
chanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits
and plastic limits.
The mechanical analyses were made by combined
sieve and hydrometer methods (3). In this method the
various grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis
of all the material in the soil sample, including that
coarser than 2 millimeter in diameter. The mechanical
analyses used in this method should not be used in
naming textural classes of soils.
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
effort remains constant, the density of the compacted
material increases until the optimum moisture content is
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the


compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.
Liquid limit and plastic index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil materi-
al. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased
from a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid
to a plastic state. If the moisture content is further in-
creased, the material changes from a plastic to a liquid
state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which
the soil material changes from semisolid to plastic state;
and the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the
soil material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.


Classification of the soils
The system of soil classification currently used was
adopted by the National Cooperative Soil Survey in
1965. Readers interested in further details about the
system should refer to "Soil taxonomy" (7).
The system of classification has six categories. Begin-
ning with the broadest, these categories are the order,
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. In
this system the classification is based on the different
soil properties that can be observed in the field or those
that can be inferred either from other properties that are
observable in the field or from the combined data of soil
science and other disciplines. The properties selected
for the higher categories are the result of soil genesis or
of factors that affect soil genesis. In table 21, the soils of
the survey area are classified according to the system.
Categories of the system are discussed in the following
paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized as classes in
the system. The properties used to differentiate among
orders are those that reflect the kind and degree of
dominant soil-forming processes that have taken place.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Ultisols.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
based primarily on properties that influence soil genesis
and are important to plant growth or that are selected to
reflect the most important variables within the orders.
The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the
order. An example is Udults (Ud, meaning moisture
regime, plus ult, from Ultisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, arrange-
ment, and degree of expression of pedogenic horizons;
soil moisture and temperature regimes; and base status.
Each great group is identified by the name of a suborder







SOIL SURVEY


Red Bay soils show high extractable iron and/or alumi-
num near the surface.
Mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions (not shown) is
siliceous. Sand mineralogy was determined by optical
microscopy on a total of 20 samples from 9 soils-
Clarendon, Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay, Chipola, Orange-
burg, Red Bay, Troup, and Lakeland. Grain counts were
made by the National Soil Survey Laboratory, Soil Con-
servation Service, Lincoln, Nebraska. The sands are
from 96 to more than 99 percent quartz and 4 to 1
percent other resistant minerals. No weatherable miner-
als were observed. Mineralogy of the crystalline compo-
nents of the clay fraction is reported in table 19 for
selected horizons of the pedons. In general the clay
mineralogical suite consists of montmorillonite, a 14 ang-
strom intergrade mineral, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz.
Vermiculite was noted only in the Apalachee pedon in
trace amounts, and mica (illite) was found only in the
Apalachee, Duplin, Esto, Faceville, and Hornsville soils.
Except in the Apalachee soil, the montmorillonite content
ranged from 0 to 8 percent. Because of the shrink-swell
characteristics of montmorillonite and the high amount of
this mineral in the Apalachee soil, care is needed in
utilizing this soil for any engineering purpose. Kaolinite,
quartz, and the 14 angstrom intergrade minerals occur in
all pedons. Generally the quantity of quartz and the 14
angstrom intergrade mineral decrease with increasing
depth whereas the quantity of kaolinite increases. This
tendency suggests that the 14 angstrom intergrade min-
eral is more stable than kaolinite in the acidic weathering
environment near the surface and that quartz in the clay
fraction is the result of the decrement of silt-sized quartz.

Engineering test data
Table 20 contains engineering test data made by the
Soils Laboratory Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
classifications given are based on data obtained by me-
chanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits
and plastic limits.
The mechanical analyses were made by combined
sieve and hydrometer methods (3). In this method the
various grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis
of all the material in the soil sample, including that
coarser than 2 millimeter in diameter. The mechanical
analyses used in this method should not be used in
naming textural classes of soils.
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
effort remains constant, the density of the compacted
material increases until the optimum moisture content is
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the


compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.
Liquid limit and plastic index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil materi-
al. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased
from a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid
to a plastic state. If the moisture content is further in-
creased, the material changes from a plastic to a liquid
state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which
the soil material changes from semisolid to plastic state;
and the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the
soil material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.


Classification of the soils
The system of soil classification currently used was
adopted by the National Cooperative Soil Survey in
1965. Readers interested in further details about the
system should refer to "Soil taxonomy" (7).
The system of classification has six categories. Begin-
ning with the broadest, these categories are the order,
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. In
this system the classification is based on the different
soil properties that can be observed in the field or those
that can be inferred either from other properties that are
observable in the field or from the combined data of soil
science and other disciplines. The properties selected
for the higher categories are the result of soil genesis or
of factors that affect soil genesis. In table 21, the soils of
the survey area are classified according to the system.
Categories of the system are discussed in the following
paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized as classes in
the system. The properties used to differentiate among
orders are those that reflect the kind and degree of
dominant soil-forming processes that have taken place.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Ultisols.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
based primarily on properties that influence soil genesis
and are important to plant growth or that are selected to
reflect the most important variables within the orders.
The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the
order. An example is Udults (Ud, meaning moisture
regime, plus ult, from Ultisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, arrange-
ment, and degree of expression of pedogenic horizons;
soil moisture and temperature regimes; and base status.
Each great group is identified by the name of a suborder








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


and a prefix that suggests something about the proper-
ties of the soil. An example is Paleudults (Pale, meaning
old development, plus udult, the suborder of Ultisols that
have a moist moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group may be divided into
three subgroups: the central typicc) concept of the great
groups, which is not necessarily the most extensive sub-
group; the intergrades, or transitional forms to other
orders, suborders, or great groups; and the extragrades,
which have some properties that are representative of
the great groups but do not indicate transitions to any
other known kind of soil. Each subgroup is identified by
one or more adjectives preceding the name of the great
group. Toe adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that is
thought Ito typify the great group. An example is Typic
Paleudults.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of similar physical and chemical properties that
affect management. Among the properties considered in
horizons of major biological activity below plow depth are
particle-size distribution, mineral content, temperature
regime, thickness of the soil penetrable by roots, consis-
tence, moisture equivalent, soil slope, and permanent
cracks. A family name consists of the name of a sub-
group and a series of adjectives. The adjectives are the
class names for the soil properties used as family differ-
entiae. An example is clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Typic
Paleudults.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that formed in a
particular kind of material and have horizons that, except
for texture of the surface soil or of the underlying sub-
stratum, are similar in differentiating characteristics and
in arrangement in the soil profile. Among these charac-
teristics are color, texture, structure, reaction, consis-
tence, and mineral and chemical composition.

Soil series and morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described in detail. The descriptions are
arranged in alphabetic order by series name.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then
compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other
series. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
soil that is typical of the soil series in the survey area, is
described. The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon
follow standards in the Soil Survey Manual (5). Unless
otherwise noted, colors described are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
Phases, or map units, of each soil series are described
in the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."


Alapaha series
The Alapaha series is a member of the loamy, sili-
ceous, thermic family of Arenic Plinthic Paleaquults. It
consists of deep, poorly drained, moderately slowly per-
meable soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
sediments. These soils are on flats, in shallow depres-
sions, and in poorly defined drainageways. They have a
water table within 15 inches of the surface for periods of
3 to 6 months in most years. Most areas are flooded for
1 to 2 months annually. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Alapaha soils are associated with Albany, Bethera,
Foxworth, Duplin, Grady, Leefield, and Pansey soils.
They are more poorly drained than Albany, Foxworth,
Duplin, and Leefield soils. Albany soils have an A hori-
zon 40 to 80 inches thick. Bethera, Duplin, and Grady
soils have an A horizon less than 20 inches thick. Fox-
worth soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Bethera soils have a clayey argillic horizon and mixed
mineralogy. Grady soils have a clayey argillic horizon and
kaolinitic mineralogy.
Typical pedon of Alapaha loamy sand in a wooded
area approximately 3 1/2 miles northeast of Campbell-
ton, approximately 2 miles north of Florida Highway 2;
SW1/4 sec. 29, T. 7 N., R. 11 W.
A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy
sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 12 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand;
weak medium granular structure; very friable;
common fine and few medium roots; strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
A22-12 to 34 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) loamy sand;
weak medium granular structure; very friable; few
fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand grains;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B21tg-34 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay loam with few medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; thin patchy clay films on
ped faces; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-48 to 62 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay loam with common medium distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/6), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4),
and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles and common
medium prominent red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; moder-
ate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; clay
films on ped faces; approximately 20 percent plinth-
ite by volume; strongly acid.

Unless limed, the soil is strongly acid or very strongly
acid in all horizons. The profile is 1 to 5 percent by
volume strongly cemented ironstone pebbles.
Thickness of the A horizon is dominantly about 32
inches but ranges from 20 to 40 inches. The Al or Ap








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


and a prefix that suggests something about the proper-
ties of the soil. An example is Paleudults (Pale, meaning
old development, plus udult, the suborder of Ultisols that
have a moist moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group may be divided into
three subgroups: the central typicc) concept of the great
groups, which is not necessarily the most extensive sub-
group; the intergrades, or transitional forms to other
orders, suborders, or great groups; and the extragrades,
which have some properties that are representative of
the great groups but do not indicate transitions to any
other known kind of soil. Each subgroup is identified by
one or more adjectives preceding the name of the great
group. Toe adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that is
thought Ito typify the great group. An example is Typic
Paleudults.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of similar physical and chemical properties that
affect management. Among the properties considered in
horizons of major biological activity below plow depth are
particle-size distribution, mineral content, temperature
regime, thickness of the soil penetrable by roots, consis-
tence, moisture equivalent, soil slope, and permanent
cracks. A family name consists of the name of a sub-
group and a series of adjectives. The adjectives are the
class names for the soil properties used as family differ-
entiae. An example is clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Typic
Paleudults.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that formed in a
particular kind of material and have horizons that, except
for texture of the surface soil or of the underlying sub-
stratum, are similar in differentiating characteristics and
in arrangement in the soil profile. Among these charac-
teristics are color, texture, structure, reaction, consis-
tence, and mineral and chemical composition.

Soil series and morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described in detail. The descriptions are
arranged in alphabetic order by series name.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then
compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other
series. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
soil that is typical of the soil series in the survey area, is
described. The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon
follow standards in the Soil Survey Manual (5). Unless
otherwise noted, colors described are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
Phases, or map units, of each soil series are described
in the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."


Alapaha series
The Alapaha series is a member of the loamy, sili-
ceous, thermic family of Arenic Plinthic Paleaquults. It
consists of deep, poorly drained, moderately slowly per-
meable soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
sediments. These soils are on flats, in shallow depres-
sions, and in poorly defined drainageways. They have a
water table within 15 inches of the surface for periods of
3 to 6 months in most years. Most areas are flooded for
1 to 2 months annually. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Alapaha soils are associated with Albany, Bethera,
Foxworth, Duplin, Grady, Leefield, and Pansey soils.
They are more poorly drained than Albany, Foxworth,
Duplin, and Leefield soils. Albany soils have an A hori-
zon 40 to 80 inches thick. Bethera, Duplin, and Grady
soils have an A horizon less than 20 inches thick. Fox-
worth soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Bethera soils have a clayey argillic horizon and mixed
mineralogy. Grady soils have a clayey argillic horizon and
kaolinitic mineralogy.
Typical pedon of Alapaha loamy sand in a wooded
area approximately 3 1/2 miles northeast of Campbell-
ton, approximately 2 miles north of Florida Highway 2;
SW1/4 sec. 29, T. 7 N., R. 11 W.
A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy
sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 12 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy sand;
weak medium granular structure; very friable;
common fine and few medium roots; strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
A22-12 to 34 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) loamy sand;
weak medium granular structure; very friable; few
fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand grains;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B21tg-34 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay loam with few medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; thin patchy clay films on
ped faces; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-48 to 62 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay loam with common medium distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/6), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4),
and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles and common
medium prominent red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; moder-
ate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; clay
films on ped faces; approximately 20 percent plinth-
ite by volume; strongly acid.

Unless limed, the soil is strongly acid or very strongly
acid in all horizons. The profile is 1 to 5 percent by
volume strongly cemented ironstone pebbles.
Thickness of the A horizon is dominantly about 32
inches but ranges from 20 to 40 inches. The Al or Ap








SOIL SURVEY


horizon is 4 to 6 inches thick and has hue of 10YR,
value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of N
and value of 2 through 4. The A21 horizon has hue of
10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
A22 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through
7, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of N and value of 5
through 7. Texture is sandy clay loam or sandy loam.
The Btg horizon has few to many mottles of yellow,
brown, gray, and red. In some pedons, the lower part is
reticulately mottled with gray, yellow, brown, and red.
Content of plinthite ranges from 10 to 25 percent by
volume.

Albany series
The Albany series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level and gently sloping
soils on uplands. These soils formed in thick deposits of
sandy and loamy material. They occur in small areas,
generally at low elevations, throughout the county.
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. Most areas are dis-
sected by well defined drainage patterns. The water
table is 12 to 30 inches below the surface for 1 to 2
months during most years.
Albany soils are associated with Alapaha, Clarendon,
Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Lakeland, Leefield, Plummer,
Rutlege, and Compass soils. They are more poorly
drained than Blanton, Foxworth, and Lakeland soils. Like
Bonifay soils, they are less than 5 percent plinthite within
a depth of 60 inches. Foxworth and Lakeland soils are
sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. Alapaha, Lee-
field, and Compass soils have an argillic horizon within a
depth of 20 to 40 inches. Compass soils are better
drained than Alapaha soils. Albany and Clarendon soils
have similar drainage, but Clarendon soils have a loamy
argillic horizon within a depth of 20 inches. Rutlege soils
are very poorly drained and have a thick umbric epipe-
don.
Typical pedon of Albany sand in an area of Albany
sand where slopes are 0 to 2 percent, in woodland
approximately 17 miles south of Marianna, about 150
feet east of Florida Highway 73, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 18,
T. 2 N., R. 9 W.

A1-0 to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
A21-8 to 26 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A22-26 to 46 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few
medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3) mottles;
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.


B21t-46 to 67 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sandy loam; common medium distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), very pale
brown (10YR 7/4), and yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mot-
tles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; fri-
able; few uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
B22t-67 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; common medium distinct brownish yellow
(10YR 6/6) and yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; moder-
ate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few
sand lenses with few uncoated sand grains; few
patchy, thin clay films on ped faces; very strongly
acid.
The soil ranges from slightly acid to very strongly acid
in the A horizon and from very strongly acid to medium
acid in the B horizon. The solum thickness is more than
80 inches.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3
through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2 and is 4 to 8 inches
thick. The A2 horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of
5 to 7, and chroma 2 through 8 and has few to common,
faint to distinct mottles of gray, yellow, or brown. It is 36
to 56 inches thick.
The B1 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 through 6 and
has few to common mottles in shades of gray and
yellow. It is 0 to 6 inches thick. The B2t horizon has hue
of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2
through 8. It has common to many distinct mottles of
red, brown, yellow, and gray. Texture of the B2t horizon
is sandy loam or sandy clay loam.

Apalachee series
The Apalachee series is a member of the very fine,
montmorillonitic, thermic family of Fluvaquentic Dystroch-
repts. It consists of nearly level, poorly drained, fine
textured soils that formed in sediments on flood plains.
These soils are on flood plains along major streams and
rivers. Slopes are less than 2 percent. In most years, the
water table is within a depth of 20 inches for 3 to 6
months and the soil is flooded for 1 to 3 months in
winter and in spring.
Apalachee soils are associated with the Bethera,
Dothan, Duplin, Esto, Hornsville, Faceville, Fuquay, and
Orangeburg soils. Bethera and Duplin soils have an argil-
lic horizon and occur at higher elevations. In addition,
Bethera and Duplin soils do not have the reddish colors
in the A horizon typical of the Apalachee soils. Dothan,
Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, and Orangeburg soils are all
well drained upland soils that have a well developed
argillic horizon. In addition, Dothan and Orangeburg soils
have less clay in the argillic horizon than Apalachee
soils. Fuquay soils have an A horizon 20 to 40 inches
thick and a loamy argillic horizon. Hornsville soils are








SOIL SURVEY


horizon is 4 to 6 inches thick and has hue of 10YR,
value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of N
and value of 2 through 4. The A21 horizon has hue of
10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
A22 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through
7, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of N and value of 5
through 7. Texture is sandy clay loam or sandy loam.
The Btg horizon has few to many mottles of yellow,
brown, gray, and red. In some pedons, the lower part is
reticulately mottled with gray, yellow, brown, and red.
Content of plinthite ranges from 10 to 25 percent by
volume.

Albany series
The Albany series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It consists of
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level and gently sloping
soils on uplands. These soils formed in thick deposits of
sandy and loamy material. They occur in small areas,
generally at low elevations, throughout the county.
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. Most areas are dis-
sected by well defined drainage patterns. The water
table is 12 to 30 inches below the surface for 1 to 2
months during most years.
Albany soils are associated with Alapaha, Clarendon,
Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Lakeland, Leefield, Plummer,
Rutlege, and Compass soils. They are more poorly
drained than Blanton, Foxworth, and Lakeland soils. Like
Bonifay soils, they are less than 5 percent plinthite within
a depth of 60 inches. Foxworth and Lakeland soils are
sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. Alapaha, Lee-
field, and Compass soils have an argillic horizon within a
depth of 20 to 40 inches. Compass soils are better
drained than Alapaha soils. Albany and Clarendon soils
have similar drainage, but Clarendon soils have a loamy
argillic horizon within a depth of 20 inches. Rutlege soils
are very poorly drained and have a thick umbric epipe-
don.
Typical pedon of Albany sand in an area of Albany
sand where slopes are 0 to 2 percent, in woodland
approximately 17 miles south of Marianna, about 150
feet east of Florida Highway 73, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 18,
T. 2 N., R. 9 W.

A1-0 to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
A21-8 to 26 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A22-26 to 46 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few
medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3) mottles;
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.


B21t-46 to 67 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sandy loam; common medium distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), very pale
brown (10YR 7/4), and yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mot-
tles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; fri-
able; few uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
B22t-67 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; common medium distinct brownish yellow
(10YR 6/6) and yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; moder-
ate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few
sand lenses with few uncoated sand grains; few
patchy, thin clay films on ped faces; very strongly
acid.
The soil ranges from slightly acid to very strongly acid
in the A horizon and from very strongly acid to medium
acid in the B horizon. The solum thickness is more than
80 inches.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3
through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2 and is 4 to 8 inches
thick. The A2 horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of
5 to 7, and chroma 2 through 8 and has few to common,
faint to distinct mottles of gray, yellow, or brown. It is 36
to 56 inches thick.
The B1 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 through 6 and
has few to common mottles in shades of gray and
yellow. It is 0 to 6 inches thick. The B2t horizon has hue
of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2
through 8. It has common to many distinct mottles of
red, brown, yellow, and gray. Texture of the B2t horizon
is sandy loam or sandy clay loam.

Apalachee series
The Apalachee series is a member of the very fine,
montmorillonitic, thermic family of Fluvaquentic Dystroch-
repts. It consists of nearly level, poorly drained, fine
textured soils that formed in sediments on flood plains.
These soils are on flood plains along major streams and
rivers. Slopes are less than 2 percent. In most years, the
water table is within a depth of 20 inches for 3 to 6
months and the soil is flooded for 1 to 3 months in
winter and in spring.
Apalachee soils are associated with the Bethera,
Dothan, Duplin, Esto, Hornsville, Faceville, Fuquay, and
Orangeburg soils. Bethera and Duplin soils have an argil-
lic horizon and occur at higher elevations. In addition,
Bethera and Duplin soils do not have the reddish colors
in the A horizon typical of the Apalachee soils. Dothan,
Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, and Orangeburg soils are all
well drained upland soils that have a well developed
argillic horizon. In addition, Dothan and Orangeburg soils
have less clay in the argillic horizon than Apalachee
soils. Fuquay soils have an A horizon 20 to 40 inches
thick and a loamy argillic horizon. Hornsville soils are








JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA


moderately well drained. They have a well defined argillic
horizon and a decrease in clay content within a depth of
60 inches,
Typical pedon of Apalachee clay in a bahiagrass pas-
ture having a few water oaks, adjacent to the Apalachi-
cola River, southeast of Sneads, 1 1/2 miles south of
U.S. Highway 90, 1/2 mile east of State Road 271;
SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 6, T. 3 N., R. 6 W.

A-0 to 18 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/3) clay;
common medium distinct dark grayish brown (10YR
4/2) mottles; massive, crushes to weak angular and
subangular blocky structure; firm; many fine roots
and few medium roots; common pressure faces on
faces of peds; common fine mica flakes; strongly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
B21-18 to 25 inches; mottled reddish brown (5YR 4/4),
gray (5YR 5/1), and dark reddish gray (5YR 4/2)
clay; few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6)
mottles; massive, crushes to weak angular and su-
bangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky; many
slickensides; many fine mica flakes; strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
B22g-25 to 66 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) clay; common
medium distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
mottles; common fine faint yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) and few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR
4/6) mottles; massive, crushes to weak medium an-
gular and medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
very plastic and sticky when wet; common slicken-
sides, many fine mica flakes; strongly acid.

The soil is very strongly acid or strongly acid in all
horizons. lope is nearly level. Some depressional areas
and sloughs are included.
The A horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR, value
of 3 through 5, and chroma of 2 through 4. The A2
horizon is 12 to 18 inches thick in most pedons but
ranges from 10 to 22 inches. Texture of the A horizon is
generally clay but includes loam, silt loam, clay loam, or
silty clay loam. The A horizon has few to many fine mica
flakes and few to many pressure faces on ped faces.
The B horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR; value
of 4 and 5; and chroma of 1 and 2. Mottles are in
shades of brown, yellow, and red. Texture is dominantly
clay but ranges from silty clay loam to silty clay and clay.
Slickensides are common in this horizon.

Bethera series
The Bethera series is a member of the clayey, mixed,
thermic family of Typic Paleaquults. It consists of poorly
drained soils in nearly level areas in the flatwoods or in
slightly depressed areas that are subject to flooding.
These soils formed in clayey marine materials. Areas are
sparse but throughout the county. In most years the
water table is within a depth of 15 inches for 3 to 5


months and depressions are flooded for 1 to 3 months.
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Bethera soils are associated with Alapaha, Clarendon,
Duplin, Grady, Leefield, Pansey, and Compass soils.
Bethera soils have an A horizon less than 20 inches
thick, whereas the A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick in
Alapaha, Leefield, and Compass soils. In addition, Beth-
era soils have a B2tg horizon of clay loam or clay tex-
ture, whereas those soils have a B2tg horizon of sandy
clay loam texture and are 5 percent or more plinthite
within a depth of 60 inches. Bethera soils are more
poorly drained than the Clarendon and Duplin soils, have
a finer textured B2tg horizon than the Clarendon soils,
and are less than 5 percent plinthite. Bethera soils have
mixed mineralogy, whereas Grady soils have kaolinitic
mineralogy. Bethera soils are similar in drainage to the
Pansey soils but have a clayey B2tg horizon. Pansey
soils have sandy clay loam B2tg horizons and are more
than 5 percent plinthite within a depth of 60 inches.
Typical pedon of Bethera silt loam approximately 7
miles east of Bascom, 1 mile east of Florida Highway
164; SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 22, T. 6 N., R. 8 W.

A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam;
weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; ex-
tremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
A2-4 to 6 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silt loam; few
medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) and
grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly sticky
when wet; extremely acid; clear smooth boundary.
B21tg-6 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) clay loam;
common medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3)
mottles; common fine distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) mottles and few medium distinct yellow-
ish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate fine and
medium angular blocky and weak medium subangu-
lar blocky structure; firm; sticky when wet; thick
patchy clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-18 to 72 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) clay;
common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/8) mottles and few medium distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/4) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
mottles; moderate fine and medium angular blocky
structure; firm; very hard when dry; sticky and plastic
when wet; thick continuous clay films on faces of
peds; structure becomes weaker with depth; strongly
acid.

The solum thickness is 60 inches or more. Unless
limed, the soil ranges from extremely acid to medium
acid in all horizons. In some pedons the A horizon is
extremely acid.
The A horizon is dominantly silt loam. It is from 6 to 16
inches thick. The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 2.5Y or
10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 2 or less. It is







SOIL SURVEY


2 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 2 or less.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value
of 5 to 7; and chroma of less than 2. It has common
mottles of brown, red, and yellow. Texture ranges from
clay loam to clay; the weighted clay content in the upper
20 inches ranging from 35 to 60 percent.

Bibb series
The Bibb series is a member of the coarse-loamy,
siliceous, acid, thermic family of Typic Fluvaquents. It
consists of nearly level, poorly drained soils that formed
in sandy and loamy fluvial sediments. These soils are in
small to large drainageways and on flood plains that are
subject to frequent flooding. The water table is within 10
inches of the surface for 6 months or more in most
years. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Bibb soils are associated with Alapaha, Albany, Clar-
endon, Grady, Pansey, Plummer, Rutlege, and Compass
soils. Bibb soils differ from Alapaha, Albany, Clarendon,
Grady, Pansey, Plummer, and Compass soils in that they
have no argillic horizon. Bibb soils occur on low-lying
flood plains, whereas the associated soils occur in slight-
ly higher upland positions. In addition, Bibb soils do not
contain plinthite. Plinthite is characteristic of Alapaha,
Clarendon, Pansey, and Compass soils. Bibb soils do not
have the thick black umbric epipedon of Rutlege soils. In
addition, Rutlege soils are sandy throughout.
Typical pedon of Bibb loamy sand in a wooded area of
Bibb soils east of Holmes Creek, approximately 5 miles
southwest of Graceville, just north of bridge, north side
of Florida Highway 277 west; SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 30, T. 6
N., R. 14 W.

A11-0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; very fri-
able; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
A12-4 to 18 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy
sand; common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/4) mottles; weak fine granular structure; very fri-
able; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
Clg-18 to 38 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy loam;
common fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; strongly acid; gradual
smooth boundary.
C2g-38 to 62 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
stratified loamy sand and sandy loam; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; strongly acid.
The soil is strongly acid or very strongly acid in all
horizons.
The thickness of the A horizon ranges from 8 to 18
inches. Texture is loamy sand or sandy loam. The All
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and


chroma of 2 or less. It is 3 to 6 inches thick. The A12
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and
chroma of 2 or less.
The Cg horizon has hue of 5Y, 2.5Y, or 10YR; value of
5 through 7; and chroma of 2 or less. The Cg horizon
has few to common mottles in shades of red, yellow,
and brown. Texture is varied, ranging from sand to strati-
fied layers of silt loam, but is commonly sandy loam.

Blanton series
The Blanton series is a member of the loamy, sili-
ceous, thermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It con-
sists of deep, moderately well drained, moderately per-
meable soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy
marine sediments. These nearly level to sloping soils are
on the Coastal Plain. During wet seasons they have a
perched water table above the argillic horizon for less
than 1 month in most years. Slope ranges from 0 to 8
percent.
Blanton soils are associated with the Albany, Bonifay,
Foxworth, Fuquay, Lakeland, Chipola, Compass, and
Troup soils. Blanton soils differ from Albany soils in
being better drained and having fewer gray mottles in
the upper part of the Bt horizon; they occur on similar
landscapes. Blanton soils differ from Bonifay soils in
being less than 5 percent plinthite within a depth of 60
inches. They occur on a landscape of broad flats, where-
as Bonifay soils occur on rolling uplands. Blanton soils
have a Bt horizon within a depth of 40 to 80 inches,
whereas Foxworth and Lakeland soils are sandy to a
depth of 80 inches or more. Foxworth and Blanton soils
occur on similar landscapes, but Lakeland soils occur on
rolling uplands. Blanton soils do not have the Bt horizon
within a depth of 20 to 40 inches that is characteristic of
Fuquay, Chipola, and Compass soils. In addition, Chipola
soils have a red Bt horizon and Fuquay and Compass
soils are more than 5 percent plinthite within a depth of
60 inches. Fuquay and Chipola soils occur on nearly
level to rolling uplands. Compass and Blanton soils
occur on similar landscapes. Blanton soils have a yellow-
ish Bt horizon and are moderately well drained, whereas
Troup soils have a reddish Bt horizon and are well
drained. Troup soils occur at higher elevations than Blan-
ton soils and on rolling uplands.
Typical pedon of Blanton coarse sand in a wooded
area of Blanton coarse sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
approximately 6 miles east-southeast of Malone and 2.5
miles south of Florida Highway 2; SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 7,
T. 6 N., R. 8 W.
Ap-0 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) coarse sand; weak
fine granular structure; crushes to single grained;
loose; low organic matter content; strongly acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
A21-8 to 15 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) coarse
sand; weak fine granular structure; crushes to single




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