• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Martin County area...
 General nature of the survey...
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Martin County area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025713/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Martin County area, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 204 p., 49 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McCollum, Samuel H
Cruz, Orlando E
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Martin County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Martin County   ( lcsh )
Soil-surveys -- Florida -- Martin County   ( nal )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Martin County   ( nal )
Sols -- Cartes -- Floride -- Martin   ( rvm )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 115).
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Authors: Samuel H. McCollum and Orlando E. Cruz, Sr.
General Note: "In cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services."
General Note: "Issued April 1981"--P. iii.
General Note: Item 102-B-9.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025713
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001237413
notis - AFY7840
oclc - 07565030
lccn - 81602193

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ia
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Martin County area in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the survey area
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    How this survey was made
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    General soil map units
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
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        Page 31
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        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 53
        Crops and pasture
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Range and grazeable woodland
            Page 58
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 58
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 59
        Recreation
            Page 60
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 60
            Page 61
        Engineering
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Soil properties
        Page 67
        Engineering index properties
            Page 67
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 68
        Soil and water features
            Page 69
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Engineering index test data
            Page 72
    Classification of the soils
        Page 73
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
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        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Formation of the soils
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Reference
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Glossary
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
    Tables
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
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        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
    General soil map
        Page 205
        Page 206
    Index to map sheets
        Page 207
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3-4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9-10
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        Page 49
Full Text







Soil Survey Of

Martin County Area, Florida


United States Departmentof Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




HOW TO UV

Locate your area of interest on
the "Index to Map Sheets" (the ----
last page of this publication). ,/

Kokomo

: \- 9 I

Note the number of the map
I__' --- -. --- '.-*-- sheet and turn to that sheet.





Locate your area of interest
on the map sheet.
\ 34A \151C

T I, I-34A\ 5 6
4-I- I = 1 18B






4. List the map unit symbols
thal are in your area I I
1 Symbols
151C- 27C
134A 56B -- 5 6 B
5156B
27C 1 31 B
56B 1312313- 134A
14 l\ 148B
134A/ 151C






HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units" .................. .......... .
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. _





















See "Summary of Tables" (following the




I
Contents) for location of additional data
on a specific soil use. i g w


















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homobuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was performed in the period 1974-1978.
Soil names and descriptions were approved in 1979. Unless otherwise
indicated, statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in
1978. This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service;
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; the Martin County Board of
County Commissioners; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Martin
Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.























i i

















contents


Index to m ap units ..................................................... iv Engineering ............................................................ 62
Sum m ary of tables..................................................... v Soil properties ............................................................... 67
Forew ord......................................................................... vii Engineering index properties............................ 67
General nature of the survey area................................ 1 Physical and chem ical properties.............................. 68
How this survey was m ade......................................... 6 Soil and water features............................................ 69
General soil m ap units.............................................. 9 Physical, chem ical, and m ineralogical analyses of
Detailed soil m ap units ............................................. 19 selected soils..................................................... 70
Use and m anagem ent of the soils......................... 53 Engineering index test data..................................... 72
Crops and pasture.................................................... 53 Classification of the soils......................................... 73
Range and grazeable woodland............................. 58 Soil series and their m orphology................................ 73
W oodland m anagem ent and productivity .............. 58 Form ation of the soils............................................... 113
W indbreaks and environm ental plantings.............. 59 References .................................................................. 115
Recreation.............................................................. 60 G lossary ................................................ ........ .......... .. 117
W wildlife habitat ............................................................. 60 Tables ........................................................................ 123



soil series

Adam sville Variant........................................................... 73 Oldsmar series........................................................... 93
Aquents ........................................................................... 74 O rsino series.............................................................. 94
Parents ............................................................................ 75 Palm Beach series ............................................. .... 95
Basinger series ...................................... ....................... 75 Paola series ............................................................... 95
Bessie series............................................................... 76 Pineda series ............................................................. 96
Boca series .. ................................................................. 76 Pinellas series ............................................................ 97
Canaveral series ........................................................ 77 Placid series ..................................................................... 98
Canova Variant ................................... ................- 78 Pom ello series ........................................................... 98
Chobee series............................. .............................. 79 Pom ello Variant .................................. ....................... 99
Cocoa Variant ....................... ........................ .. ..- 80 Pom pano series......................................................... 99
EauGallie series ......................................................... 80 Q uartzipsam ments .................................................... 100
Electra series...................................... ...................... 81 Riviera series .................... ......................................... 100
Floridana series ................................... ...................... 82 St. Johns Variant ....................................................... 102
Ft. Drum series ............................................................. 83 St. Lucie series................. ......................................... 103
Gator series ...................................... ........ .... ............. 83 Salerno series .................................................................. 103
Hallandale series ................................................................ 84 Sam sula series .............................................. ............ 104
Hilolo series .................................... ...... ..................... 85 Sanibel series ............................................................ 104
Hobe series ................................................................ 86 Satellite Variant ............................................................... 105
Holopaw series ................................... .................... ... 87 Tequesta Variant ............................................................. 106
Hontoon series .................................... .......... ..........-- 87 Terra Ceia Variant ..................................................... 106
Jonathan series ....................................... .................. 88 Torry series ...................................................................... 107
Jupiter series.................................................................... 89 Tuscawilla series ............................................................. 108
Lawnwood series...................................... ................. 89 Udorthents..................................... ........................... 109
M alabar series ...................................... ........... .......... 90 Valkaria series ........................................ ......................... 109
Nettles series .................. ..................... .... ........................ 91 W abasso series ............................................................... 110
O keelanta series .............................................................. 92 W aveland series .............................................................. 111
O keelanta Variant......................................................... 92 W inder series......................... ............................ ........ 112
Issued April 1981

iii
















index to map units


2-Lawnwood fine sand ............................................ 19 40-Sanibel muck ........................................................ 34
3-Lawnwood fine sand, depressional.................... 20 41-Jonathan sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 35
4-Waveland sand ..................................................... 20 42-Hallandale sand ................................................ 35
5-Waveland sand, depressional............................. 21 44-Boca fine sand ..................................................... 36
6-Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes..................... 21 45-Hilolo fine sand..................................................... 37
7-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes................ 22 47-Pinellas fine sand................................................. 37
8-Palm Beach sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes.......... 22 48-Jupiter sand .......................................................... 38
9-Pomello sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................. 22 49-Riviera fine sand, depressional .......................... 38
10-Basinger fine sand, depressional....................... 23 50-Okeelanta Variant muck...................................... 39
12-St. Johns Variant sand ........................................ 23 51-Pompano fine sand, occasionally flooded ........ 39
13-Placid sand ............................................................ 24 52-Malabar sand .................................................... 39
14-Satellite Variant sand........................................... 25 53-Arents, 2 to 35 percent slopes........................... 40
15-Electra fine sand ..................................................... 25 54-Oldsmar fine sand, depressional........................ 40
1 6-Oldsmar fine sand .................. .......................... 25 55-Basinger fine sand ........................................... 41
1 7-Wabasso sand ..................... ............................. 26 56-Wabasso sand, depressional.............................. 42
19-Winder sand .......................................................... 27 57-Chobee loamy sand ............................................. 42
20-Riviera fine sand................................................... 27 58-Gator muck ....................................................... 43
21-Pineda sand .......................................................... 28 60-Tequesta Variant muck........................................ 43
22-Okeelanta muck ........................ .............................. 28 61-Hobe fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.............. 44
23-Urban land............................................................. 29 62-Nettles sand, depressional.................................. 45
24-Orsino sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...................... 29 63-Nettles sand ......................... 45
25-Beaches ................................................................ 29 64-EauGallie fine sand................................................. 46
26-Pompano fine sand................................................. 30 65-Tuscawilla sand ......................46
27-Arents, organic substratum, 0 to 2 percent 66-Holopaw fine sand ................................................. 47
slopes ........................................................................ 30 67-Aquents, frequently flooded ................................... 47
28-Canaveral sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 31 68-Pits ............................................................................ 48
30-Bessie muck ..................................................... 31 69-Hontoon muck ......................................................... 48
31-Cocoa Variant sand ................................................ 31 70-Canova Variant muck .............. ........................ 48
32-Udorthents, 0 to 35 percent slopes...................... 32 72-Adamsville Variant sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.. 48
33-Paola-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent 73-Samsula muck ....................... 49
slopes ........................................................................ 32 74- Torry m uck ............................................................... 49
34-St. Lucie-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent 75-Ft. Drum fine sand ..................... 50
slopes ........................................................................ 32 76-Valkariafine sand .................................................... 50
35-Salerno sand......................................................... 33 77-St. Lucie sand, 8 to 20 percent slopes ............. 51
36-Arents, 0 to 2 percent slopes............................. 33 78-Pomello Variant fine sand................................... 51
38-Floridana fine sand, depressional...................... 34 79-Terra Ceia Variant muck ..................................... 52
39-Quartzipsamments, 0 to 8 percent slopes........ 34 86-Paola sand, 8 to 20 percent slopes................... 52











iv

















summary of tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)........................................................ 124
Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2)....................................................... 125
Soil ratings and limitations of map units on the general soil map (table 3) 126
Map unit and component soils. Percent. Suitability for-
Cropland, Pasture. Potential for-Woodland. Limitations
for-Sanitary facilities, Building sites, Recreation areas.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4)............................. 132
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5) ............................................ 133
Oranges. Grapefruit. Tomatoes. Bahiagrass.
Pangolagrass. Grass-clover.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 6)................................................. 135
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Potential production and composition of livestock forage (table 7) .......... 136
Potential production. Composition of forage.
Woodland management and productivity (table 8)...................................... 140
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 9)............................................................... 143
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 10) ................................................................................ 148
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 11) ............................................................. 152
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 12)............................................................................. 156
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction m materials (table 13)................................................................... 161
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
W ater m anagem ent (table 14)........................................................................ 165
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Grassed waterways.

v




















Engineering index properties (table 15) ........................................................ 170
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments more than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of soils (table 16).................................. 177
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.
W ater features (table 17) ................................................................................... 182
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table.
Soil features (table 18)....................................................................................... 186
Bedrock. Cemented pan. Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 19)...................... 190
Depth. Horizon. Particle size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 20)........................................... 194
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. PH. Pyrophosphate extractable-C,
Fe, Al. Citrate-dithionite extractable-Al, Fe.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 21).................................................... 198
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 22) ........................................................... 200
Classification. Grain-size distribution. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density
Classification of the soils (table 23).................................................................. 204
Family or higher taxonomic class.














vi
















foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Martin County Area, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior
for selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards
inherent in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.





William E. Austin
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service







vii





















PENSACOLA E ACKSONVILLE
PENSACOLA "^ GAINE


GAINESVIL E




APPROXIMATE SCALES
ORLAN )'
0 50 100 TAMPA
I 1 I
MILES

0 100 200 STUART
I i I I SUART,
KILOMETERS







MIAMI


*State Agricultural Experiment Station




Martin County Area in Florida.











soil survey of


Martin County Area, Florida


By Samuel H. McCollum and Orlando E. Cruz, Sr.


Others participating in the fieldwork were David J. Belz,
Lewis J. Carter, and Steven J. Hundley, Soil Conservation Service;
and Dennis J. DeFrancesco, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department;
the Martin County Board of County Commissioners;
and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services



MARTIN COUNTY AREA is in the southeastern part of general nature of the survey area
peninsular Florida. It is bordered on the north by St.
Lucie County, on the west by Okeechobee County and In this section, environmental and cultural factors that
Lake Okeechobee, on the south by Palm Beach County, affect the use and management of soils in the Martin
and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. This survey joins County Area are described. These factors are climate;
the published surveys of Okeechobee, Palm Beach, and history and development; physiography, relief, and
St. Lucie Counties, Florida. drainage; water resources; farming; transportation; and
The survey area, which does not include all of Martin recreation.
County, covers 348,640 acres or about 545 square
miles. The area not surveyed, however, is included in the climate
aerial photographs which are the basis for the detailed
soil maps at the back of this publication. The survey area The climate of Martin County Area is characterized by
includes about 2,482 acres of water in bodies of less a long, warm, humid summer and a mild winter. The
than 40 acres. Also included within the county boundary moderating influence of the Atlantic Ocean and the
is about 79,000 acres of saltwater and freshwater in the Gulfstream on maximum temperatures in summer and
Indian River and Lake Okeechobee. minimum temperatures in winter is strong along the
The survey area is about 33 miles long and about 21 immediate coast, but it diminishes slightly a few miles
miles wide at the widest point. Stuart, the county seat, is inland. Because of the moderation of winter
in the northeastern part of the county on the south shore temperatures, the coastal area has a tropical climate.
of the St. Lucie River. The rest of the survey area, which receives a slight
Tourism is one of the major nonagricultural industries moderating influence on temperatures from Lake
in the survey area. The favorable climate, extensive Okeechobee, has a subtropical climate.
open water areas, and numerous recreational Mean annual rainfall is about 57 inches, but it ranges
opportunities attract both tourists and retirees from all from 35 to 80 inches. Rainfall is unevenly distributed
over the country. Commercial and sport fishing are also during the year. About 60 percent occurs from June
an important part of the economy. through October; about 20 percent in March, April, and

1







2 Soil Survey



May; and about 20 percent from November through Windspeed is generally between 10 and 15 miles per
February. Normal monthly rainfall during the wet season hour in the afternoon and 5 to 10 miles per hour at night.
ranges from 5 to 9 inches or more. The start of the rainy
season varies from early in May to late in June. Mid to history and development
late October generally marks the end of the wet season.
Extended dry periods can occur in any season, but Prior to about 1500, the area that is now Martin
such periods are most common in spring and fall. County Area was a wilderness inhabited by Indians of
Occasionally, there are dry periods of less than 3 inches the Ais and Jaegas tribes. Relics found in burial mounds
of rainfall within the wet season. Dry periods in the and middens indicate habitation as far back as 3,000
spring, however, when temperatures are high and ground B.C. Ponce deLeon was the first European to explore
water reserves are low, tend to be more serious. Early in along the east coast, but his attempt to colonize in about
1977, only 1.51 inches of rain was recorded in a 3-month 1513 failed. Little effort was made to settle the area for
period at the Stuart reporting station. almost 300 years. The Seminole Indians moved into the
The moist, unstable air in the survey area results in area in the mid 18th century, and were practically the
frequent showers that are generally of short duration. sole inhabitants for several decades. In the early 1800's
Winter and spring rains are not generally so intense as the Spanish crown made several large land grants, most
the summer thunderstorms. Thunderstorms are frequent notably Hanson, Gomez, Hutchinson Island, and Sewall's
during the summer, occurring on an average of every Point. Extensive settlement of the area, however, was
other day. They are sometimes heavy, with 2 to 3 inches not begun until about 1880.
of rain falling in 1 or 2 hours. Summarized climatic data, Most of the early settlers came to the area to grow
based on records collected at Stuart, are shown in table pineapples on the sandy coastal ridge or to enjoy the
1 (12). excellent fishing. In the early 1900's, most of the area's
Daylong rains are rare and almost always are present communities came into being, including Stuart
associated with a tropical storm. Tropical storms can (originally Potsdam), Jensen Beach, Port Salerno, and
affect the area any time from late in May through mid- Hobe Sound.
November. Winds reach hurricane force, 74 miles per In 1925, Martin County was formed from the northern
hour or greater, in about 1 year out of 12. part of Palm Beach County and a small part of southern
Hail falls occasionally in thunderstorms, but it is St. Lucie County. Population growth and development
generally small and seldom causes much damage. m s n
Snowfall is almost unknown in the Martin County Area, remained slow until after World War II. According to the
although snow flurries occurred throughout south Florida Martin County Historical Review, the population in 1956
in the winter of 1976-77. was 13,100 (8). The population in 1977 was 76,000,
Cold continental air is modified as it travels over water according to census estimates. Except for the
or flows down the Florida peninsula before reaching the development around Indiantown, most of the current
Martin County Area. The coldest temperatures, and growth is occurring in the coastal area.
infrequent frosts, occur on the second or third night after
the arrival of the cold air because heat is lost through physiography, relief, and drainage
radiation. Freezing temperatures of 32 degrees F occur Martin County Area is in the Coastal lowlands unit of
less than 1 year out of 10. Temperatures of 28 degrees the Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province (16).
or less are rare. A record low of 26 degrees was the Atlantc oastal lan hysiographic province (16).
recorded in January 1977 at the Stuart station. Freeze The survey area is on the southeastern coast of
data shown in table 2 (13), taken at Ft. Pierce, West peninsular Florida and extends from the Atlantic Ocean
Palm Beach, and Okeechobee, encompass the to Lake Okeechobee. It is divided into three
conditions that can be expected in the Martin County physiographic subdivisions-the coastal ridge; the broad,
Area. An important citrus and vegetable growing industry sandy flatlands; and a narrow extension of the
has been established because of the nearly frost-free Everglades marsh along the shore of Lake Okeechobee
winter. (15). Another important area is the Allapattah Flats, an
Summer temperatures are tempered by the ocean elongated marsh extending from St. Lucie County
breeze and by the frequent formation of cumulus clouds, southeastward to just east of Indiantown.
which shade the land somewhat without completely The coastline of the Martin County Area is formed by
obscuring the sun. Temperatures of 88 degrees F or two long barrier islands, Hutchinson Island and Jupiter
higher have occurred in all months. Temperatures of 90 Island. These are separated by the St. Lucie Inlet, the
to 94 degrees F in summer are common. A high only ocean access within the county. Hutchinson Island,
exceeding 96 degrees seldom occurs. August is the the northernmost island, is generally low in elevation,
warmest month and has an average maximum averaging about 3 feet above sea level. A narrow sand
temperature of about 90 degrees, but temperatures from ridge, having an average elevation of 15 feet, parallels
June to September are much the same. the ocean along the eastern edge of the island. Jupiter
Prevailing winds are generally from the east and Island extends south from the inlet to Jupiter Inlet in
southeast, except in March when southerly winds prevail, northern Palm Beach County. It has lowlands in the







Martin County Area, Florida 3



northern part, but the southern part is dominated by a elevation ranges to about 50 feet. Vegetation is mostly
sandy ridge that has elevations ranging up to 30 feet pine, sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn.
(16). The Everglades marsh, adjacent to Lake Okeechobee,
Soils in the lowland areas on these islands consist of is 15 to 20 feet above sea level. The Allapattah Flats
both organic and mineral materials and are subject to marsh in the west-central part of the survey area is 25 to
tidal flooding. The dominant vegetation is mangrove 30 feet above sea level. These marshes range from
trees. Soils on the elevated ridges are mostly deep, about 1 to 2 miles wide. Each is about 12 miles long.
excessively drained, mixed sands with shell fragments. The soils are dominantly very poorly drained organic and
Vegetation is mainly sawpalmetto, cabbage palm, sea- mineral soils. There are numerous scattered areas of
oats, and seagrape. Much of Jupiter Island has a dense sandy soils that are shallow over limestone. Most of the
cover of tropical hardwoods and shrubs. marshland has been drained and is used for improved
The coastal ridge parallels the coastal area and is pasture, sugarcane, and citrus crops.
broken only by the St. Lucie River. The ridge ranges The surface drainage system in the survey area is
from about 1 to 3 miles wide. Elevation on the ridge poorly defined, except for Bessey Creek in the
ranges to 50 feet in several places and to 86 feet in northeastern part, the South Fork of the St. Lucie River
Jonathan Dickinson State Park, the highest point in the in the east-central part, and Loxahatchee River in the
Martin County Area. Soils on the ridge are deep, southeastern part. Before the land was developed, most
excessively drained sand and have highly variable natural drainage was through numerous closed
slopes. Vegetation is chiefly sand pine, sawpalmetto, depressions, sloughs, and poorly defined drainageways.
scrub oak, rosemary, and other woody shrubs. The flow pattern was mainly toward the south and
The sandy flatlands, stretching westward from the southwest. The St. Lucie Canal and numerous lesser
coastal ridge to near Lake Okeechobee, make up the canals and drainage systems have extensively altered
major part of the survey area. The flatlands consist the natural flow pattern.
mostly of flatwoods with numerous small ponds and
grassy sloughs. The soils are predominantly nearly level, water resources
sandy, and wet and have a sandy subsoil that is weakly Martin County Area has extensive areas of surface
cemented with organic matter. In the south-central part water in the coastal part, most of which are either salty
of the survey area, limestone is below the soil in many or brackish. These include the St. Lucie River and its
places. Most areas of the flatwoods have an elevation south fork, Indian River, Loxahatchee River, and the
ranging from 15 to 30 feet, but in the northwestern part Intracoastal Waterway (fig. 1). In addition, there are

























Figure 1.-A pleasure boat on the Intracoastal Waterway in an area of the Bessie-Okeelanta Variant-Terra Ceia Variant map unit.







4 Soil Survey



several small streams and creeks that serve as Most artesian water in the survey area comes from the
tributaries (fig. 2) to the larger bodies of water. Although Floridan Aquifer, which lies at a depth of about 800 feet
these extensive water areas are used for recreation and below the land surface. Since many areas are distant
water transport, they are too salty to serve as a source from major canals or other surface water supplies, the
of water for municipal, industrial, or agricultural uses. Floridan Aquifer is one of the main sources of water for
Lake Okeechobee is a potential source of huge irrigation. Many artesian wells are scattered throughout
quantities of freshwater, but it is approximately 30 miles the survey area. Although the chloride content of
from the major population center. There are no springs artesian water is much higher than that of nonartesian
in the survey area. water, the yield is much greater. Rainfall and ground
The major source of freshwater in the survey area is water help to dilute the chloride concentration and make
nonartesian wells drilled into the shallow aquifer. These the water suitable for irrigation.
wells range in depth from about 15 to 115 feet. The
quality of nonartesian water is generally superior to that
of artesian water. The chemical composition of
nonartesian water is such that the water generally is farming
suitable for all purposes. Removing the iron content and Farming has long been important to the economy of
color and reducing the hardness, however, generally are the Martin County Area. Most of the land is used for
desirable if the water is used for domestic purposes. The various kinds of farming, although diversified cropping by
nonartesian aquifer in the coastal area is the source of individual farmers is not practiced. Most farming
supply for most municipalities and for hundreds of endeavors involve large areas of land devoted to a
privately owned wells (3). specific product.

































Figure 2.-A small tributary to the Loxahatchee River offers an ideal setting for nature study. The slightly brackish water produces a dense
cover of freshwater and saltwater tolerant vegetation. The soil is Terra Ceia Variant muck.







Martin County Area, Florida 5



The main farming enterprises are citrus and beef transportation
production. In 1978, about 38,000 acres was planted to
citrus (fig. 3) (6, 14). Oranges and grapefruit made up Most of the Martin County Area is served by good
most of this acreage, but lemons were also an important transportation facilities. Several county, state, and
crop. One of the world's largest lemon groves is in the federal highways provide ready access. The mainland is
survey area. connected to the islands and beaches by a system of
Approximately 36,000 acres was used as improved bridges. Scheduled airline service is not available in the
pasture (fig. 4) for beef and dairy production. Of this, area. Charter air service is available from Witham Field
6,000 acres was grass and clover mixtures. Thirty-two in Stuart. Both rail and bus service is available and
thousand acres of managed range and 72,000 acres of numerous large trucking firms that have facilities for
grazeable woodlands provided additional grazing. In handling interstate trade serve the area.
1978, 6 dairy farms were in the survey area.
Many kinds of vegetables can be grown in the area.
About 1,300 acres is used for vegetable crops each year recreation
(6, 7, 14). The major vegetable crops are cabbage (fig.
5), potatoes, peppers, tomatoes, and Chinese A variety of recreational activities is available in the
vegetables. Other common vegetables are watermelons, Martin County Area. Fishing, swimming, boating, water
eggplants, and squash, but these are not grown on a skiing, and horseback riding are popular. A number of
regular basis. One large sugarcane farm is in the survey parks and playgrounds are available for public use.
area. The production of flowers is of major importance to Jonathan Dickinson State Park has facilities for all these
the economy of the area, though only about 300 acres is activities, plus camping and canoeing. Both freshwater
in flower farms. and saltwater fishing are readily available and highly
Each year, urban development removes up to 1,000 popular year-round. Beaches at Jensen, Stuart, and
acres of land from that available for agriculture. Almost Hobe Sound attract swimmers on all but the coldest
all of this is unimproved rangeland or woodland that has days (fig. 6). Blowing Rocks, on the beach at the south
been idle for many years. line of Martin County, is a unique attraction.



























Figure 3.-A grove of orange trees on Floridana fine sand. The ditches are dual purpose. They drain off the excess surface water,
control the water table, and provide for subsurface irrigation as the need arises.







6 Soil Survey



how this survey was made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils are
in the survey area, where they are, and how they can be
used. They observed the steepness, length, and shape
of slopes; the size of streams and the general pattern of
.. ". drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; and the
-t '" ". kinds of rock. They dug many holes to study soil profiles.
A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in
a soil. It extends from the surface down into the parent
S., material, which has been changed very little by leaching
or by plant roots.
S- The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
S profiles they studied and compared those profiles with
others in nearby counties and in more distant places.
They classified and named the soils according to
nationwide uniform procedures. They drew the
.. boundaries of the soils on aerial photographs. These
photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately.
The soil maps at the back of this publication were
S'.. .prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units.
Figure 4.-Cattle grazing improved pasture on Pineda Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some
sand. If simple surface drainage and good
management are used, this poorly drained soil are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in this
is well suited to produce good quality pasture survey area are described under "General soil map
of grass and clover. units" and "Detailed soil map units."

























Figure 5-Cabbage after one picking on nearly level Waveland sand. If water is controlled and management is good, vegetable
crops can be grown on this soil.






Martin County Area, Florida 7



While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
engineering tests. All soils are field tested to determine have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
their characteristics. Interpretations of those on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
are assembled from other sources, such as test results, information then needs to be organized so that it can be
records, field experience, and state and local specialists, used by farmers, rangeland and woodland managers,
For example, data on crop yields under defined engineers, planners, developers and builders, home
management are assembled from farm records and from buyers, and others.



























Figure 6.-Public beach on Hutchinson Island. Rock outcrops are scattered along the shoreline. Miles of open beaches provide year-
round recreation in the survey area.










9








general soil map units


The general soil map at the back of this publication sand and shell fragments. These soils are in the eastern
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of part of the survey area. Two map units are in this group.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map 1. Paola-St. Lucie
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor Nearly level to moderately steep, excessively drained
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up soils that are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more
one unit can occur in other units but in a different
pattern. This map unit consists of nearly level to gently sloping
The general soil map can be used to compare the ridges and sloping to moderately steep hillsides. It mainly
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of occupies the high coastal ridge on the mainland that
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, extends in a north-south direction across the county and
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. the lower ridges and knolls adjacent to the St. Lucie
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for River. In some areas, especially in the vicinity of
planning the management of a farm or field or for Jonathan Dickinson State Park and north of the St. Lucie
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. River, slopes are complex. The largest area of this unit
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place extends from the Stuart Airport southward to the Martin
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that County line and averages about 1 mile wide. Another
affect management. area extends from the St. Lucie County line to Sewall's
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their Point and west along the north shore of the St. Lucie
suitabilty and potential for major land uses. Table 3 River. A smaller area encompasses most of the city of
shows the extent of the map units shown on the general Stuart.
soil map. It lists the suitability and potential of each of The natural vegetation is sand pine, scrub oak,
the map units for major land uses and shows soil rosemary, running oak, sawpalmetto, and pineland
properties that limit use. Soil ratings are based on the threeawn. The natural vegetation has been completely or
practices commonly used in the survey area to partially removed in many areas.
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease This map unit makes up about 14,000 acres, or about
of overcoming the limitations. They also reflect the 4 percent of the survey area. It is about 50 percent
problems that will persist even if such practices are Paola soils, 30 percent St. Lucie soils, and 20 percent
used. soils of minor extent.
Each map unit is rated for cropland, pasture, The Paola soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
woodland, sanitary facilities, building sites, and recreation surface layer is gray sand about 4 inches thick. The
areas. Cultivated crops are those grown extensively in subsurface layer is dominantly white sand to a depth of
the survey area. Pasture is improved pasture grasses about 32 inches. The subsoil is sand to a depth of about
grown extensively in the survey area. Woodland refers to 68 inches; the upper 14 inches of the subsoil is yellowish
areas of native pine trees. Sanitary facilities include brown, and the lower 22 inches is brownish yellow. The
septic tank absorption fields and trench sanitary landfills. substratum is light yellowish brown sand to a depth of 80
Building sites include residential, commercial, and inches or more.
industrial developments. Recreation areas are campsites, The St. Lucie soils are excessively drained. Typically,
picnic areas, ballfields, and other areas that are subject the surface layer is gray sand about 3 inches thick.
to heavy foot traffic. Below this is white sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
soils of the sand ridges and coastal Of minor extent in this unit are the Jonathan, Pomello,
islands and Satellite soils.
Some areas of this unit are used for urban
These soils are on ridges and coastal beaches and in development. Stuart, Jensen Beach, Rio, Port Salerno,
dunelike areas. They are nearly level to moderately Hobe Sound, and Jonathan Dickinson State Park are in
steep, excessively drained to poorly drained, and are areas of this unit. Years ago, some areas were used for
sandy throughout. Some of these soils consist of mixed growing pineapples and mango trees. Numerous flower







10 Soil survey


farms specializing in cut flowers and bulbs are in areas 3. Salerno-Jonathan-Hobe
of this unit. Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained, moderately
. Palm Beach-Canaveral-Beaches well drained, and somewhat excessively drained soils
2. Palm Beach-Canaveral-Beachesthat have a dark colored, weakly cemented, dominantly
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained, moderately sandy subsoil below a depth of 50 inches
well drained, and somewhat poorly drained soils that are This map unit consists of long narrow ridges, slightly
sandy throughout and contain shell fragments; and elevated knolls, flatwoods, and scattered depressions. It
beaches is mainly in the eastern one-third of the survey area
This map unit consists of nearly level to sloping adjacent to the coastal ridge, and along major
dunelike ridges and adjacent beaches. Areas are drainageways. Some small areas are along the west side
adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean on Hutchinson and of Allapattah Flats from Indiantown to the St. Lucie
extend from St. Lucie County in the County line. Parts of Stuart, Palm City, and Jonathan
Jupiter Islands. They extend from St. Lucie County in the Dickinson State Park are in this map unit.
north to Palm Beach County in the south and are broken The natural vegetation on the ridges and knolls is
only by the St. Lucie Inlet. Areas are less than 1/2 mile South Florida slash pine, scrub oak, sawpalmetto,
wide and include the community of Jupiter Island. fetterbush, cacti, and pineland threeawn. Sand pine and
The natural vegetation in most areas of this unit is rosemary are in some areas. Vegetation in the flatwoods
sawpalmetto, seagrape, sea-oats, and scattered is South Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto, fetterbush,
cabbage palm. Much of Jupiter Island is covered with a gallberry, running oak, pineland threeawn, and a wide
variety of subtropical hardwoods, shrubs, and other variety of grasses.
plants. This map unit makes up about 17,000 acres, or about
This map unit makes up about 3,300 acres, or about 1 5 percent of the survey area. It is about 40 percent
percent of the survey area. It is about 31 percent Palm Salerno soils, 23 percent Jonathan soils, 12 percent
Beach soils, 24 percent Canaveral soils, 14 percent Hobe soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
Beaches, and 31 percent soils of minor extent. The Salerno soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
The Palm Beach soils are excessively drained, surface layer is sand about 9 inches thick; the upper 4
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 8 inches inches of the surface layer is black, and the lower 5
thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish brown sand inches is very dark gray. The subsurface layer is sand to
about 5 inches thick. Below this is sand to a depth of 80 a depth of about 61 inches; the upper 8 inches of the
inches or more; the upper 14 inches of the sand is subsurface layer is dark gray, the next 29 inches is light
brown, and the lower part is pale brown. Shells and shell brownish gray, and the lower 15 inches is brown. The
fragments are throughout the soil. subsoil is black, weakly cemented fine sand in the upper
The Canaveral soils are moderately well drained and 15 inches and dark reddish brown fine sand below this.
somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is The Jonathan soils are moderately well drained to
dark brown sand and shell fragments and is about 6 somewhat excessively drained. Typically, the surface
inches thick. Below this is light brownish gray sand and layer is dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The
shells to a depth of 80 inches or more. subsurface layer is sand to a depth of 56 inches; the
Beaches are partly flooded daily by high tides and are upper 33 inches of the subsurface layer is light gray, and
completely flooded by storm tides. Typically, the surface the lower 18 inches is light brownish gray. The subsoil is
layer is a mixture of light brownish gray shells and sand black, weakly cemented sand to a depth of 100 inches
about 40 inches thick. Next is light gray shells and sand or more.
about 40 inches thick. Next is light gray shells and sand -The Hobe soils are somewhat excessively drained.
about 16 inches thick. Below this is gray shells and sand Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
to a depth of 70 inches or more. inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
Of minor extent in this unit are the Cocoa Variant soils. depth of about 70 inches; the upper 5 inches of the
Most areas of this unit are in natural vegetation. Some subsurface layer is gray, the next 35 inches is white, and
areas are used for residential development, and some the lower 26 inches is light gray. The upper part of the
are used for recreation. subsoil is black, weakly cemented fine sand about 4
inches thick over dark yellowish brown fine sand about 4
soils of the low ridges and knolls inches thick. The lower part of the subsoil is gray fine
sandy loam.
These soils are on low ridges and knolls. They are Of minor extent in this unit are the Orsino, Pomello,
somewhat excessively drained, moderately well drained, Pomello Variant, Satellite Variant, St. Lucie, and
and poorly drained. They have a weakly cemented sandy Waveland soils.
subsoil, and in places are underlain by loamy material. Most areas of this unit are in natural vegetation. A
Most areas of these soils are near the coast, but a few small acreage is used for citrus and improved pasture.
are in the western part of the survey area. One map unit Some large areas are used for residential and urban
is in this group,. development.






Martin County Area, Florida 11


soils of the flatwoods The natural vegetation in the flatwoods is South
Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto, fetterbush, gallberry,
These nearly level, poorly drained soils are in broad and dwarf huckleberry and bluestem, panicum, and
areas of flatwoods. Most areas of these soils have a pineland threeawn grasses. In the depressions the
dark colored sandy subsoil that is weakly cemented in vegetation is sandweed, maidencane, stillingia, and
places. In some areas, the subsoil is sandy in the upper sedges.
part and loamy in the lower part, or is loamy to a depth This map unit makes up about 73,000 acres, or about
of 20 to 40 inches, or is sandy throughout. Four map 21 percent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent
units are in this group. Waveland soils, 20 percent Lawnwood soils, 10 percent
Basinger soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
4. Waveland-Lawnwood-Basinger The Waveland soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a dark surface layer is dark gray sand about 18 inches thick.
colored, sandy, mainly weakly cemented subsoil The subsurface layer is about 25 inches thick; the upper
T. 18 inches of the subsurface layer is light gray sand, and
This map unit consists of broad flatwoods interspersed the lower 7 inches is grayish brown sand. The subsoil is
with depressions (fig. 7). The largest area of this unit ele inches o he subsoil is
occupies much of the land between Allapattah Flats and weakly cemented; the upper 4 inches of the subsoil is
Lake Okeechobee in the western part of the survey area. black sand, the next 30 inches is black loamy sand, and
An area 1 to 5 miles wide is just west of the coastal the lower 14 inches is black sand to a depth of 91
ridge and extends from Stuart southward to the Palm inches. The substratum is dark brown sand to a depth of
Beach County line. The third major area is in the north- 110 inches.
central part of the survey area. It is 1 to 4 miles wide The Lawnwood soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
and extends from Green Ridge eastward and from the surface layer is 5 inches of very dark gray fine sand over
St. Lucie County line southward to the St. Lucie Canal. 12 inches of dark grayish brown fine sand. The
Smaller areas are in the northeastern part of the survey subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about
area adjacent to the St. Lucie County line. 11 inches thick. The subsoil is weakly cemented and is



























Figure 7.-A shallow, grassy pond in an area of flatwoods in the Waveland-Lawnwood-Basinger map unit. The soil in the pond is
Waveland sand, depressional.






12 Soil survey



black loamy fine sand in the upper 14 inches and dark 6. Wabasso-Winder
reddish brown fine sand in the lower 22 inches. Below Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some have a subsoil
this is brown loamy fine sand. that is dark colored and sandy in the upper part and
The Basinger soils are poorly drained. Typically, the loamy in the lower part, and some have a loamy subsoil
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches loamy in depth of lwersspart, thand some have a loamy subsoiles
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of at a depth of less than 20 inches
about 28 inches; the upper 6 inches of the subsurface This map unit consists of broad flatwoods interspersed
layer is grayish brown, and the lower 16 inches is light with depressions and long, poorly defined drainageways.
brownish gray. The subsoil is dark grayish brown fine It is in the north-central part of the survey area,
sand to a depth of about 42 inches and has pockets of extending 3 to 8 miles south from the St. Lucie County
very dark grayish brown. The substratum is grayish line on either side of Florida Highway 609.
brown fine sand in the upper 26 inches and brown fine Natural vegetation in the flatwoods is South Florida
sand in the lower 20 inches. slash pine, sawpalmetto, fetterbush, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
Of minor extent in this unit are the Oldsmar, Placid, and pineland threeawn, bluestem, and panicum grasses.
Salerno, Samsula, and Wabasso soils. Cabbage palms are scattered along the edges of
Most areas of this unit are in natural vegetation and drainageways and depressions. Natural vegetation in the
are used for range. Several large areas are used for drainageways and depressions is maidencane, sedges,
improved pasture, and some areas are used for buttonbush, willow, and sandweed.
residential and urban development. This map unit makes up about 18,000 acres, or about
5. Nettles 5 percent of the survey area. It is about 40 percent
Wabasso soils, 35 percent Winder soils, and 25 percent
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a subsoil that soils of minor extent.
is dark colored, weakly cemented, and sandy in the The Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
upper part and loamy in the lower part surface layer is sand about 7 inches thick; the upper 2
This map unit consists of broad flatwoods and inches of the surface layer is black, and the lower 5
scattered depressions. The only area of this unit is in the inches is very dark gray. The subsurface layer is sand
northeastern part of the survey area. It is along the about 13 inches thick; the upper 5 inches of the
Sunshine State Parkway, extending southeasterly from subsurface layer is gray, and the lower 8 inches is light
the St. Lucie County line for a distance of about 10 brownish gray. The upper part of the subsoil is
miles. dominantly black sand about 16 inches thick. The lower
The natural vegetation in the flatwoods is South part of the subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 58
Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto, gallberry, fetterbush, inches; the upper 5 inches is very dark grayish brown,
running oak, pineland threeawn, and various grasses. In the next 8 inches is dark grayish brown, the lower 9
the depressions natural vegetation is sandweed, inches is olive gray. The substratum is sandy clay loam
stillingia, redroot, maidencane, and a few grasses, to a depth of 80 inches; the upper 15 inches is olive
This map unit makes up about 21,000 acres, or about gray, and the lower 7 inches is greenish gray.
6 percent of the survey area. It is about 75 percent The Winder soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Nettles soils and 25 percent soils of minor extent. surface layer is dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The
The Nettles soils are poorly drained. Typically, the subsurface layer is gray sand about 8 inches thick. The
surface layer is about 12 inches thick; the upper 5 subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 42 inches; the
inches of the surface layer is very dark gray sand, and upper 11 inches of the subsoil is light brownish gray, and
the lower 7 inches is dark gray fine sand. The the lower 16 inches is light gray. The substratum is
subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 20 inches thick, greenish gray loamy sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
The upper part of the subsoil is about 19 inches thick Of minor extent in this unit are the Chobee, Floridana,
and is weakly cemented; it is 11 inches of black sand Oldsmar, Pineda, Riviera, and Tuscawilla soils. Oldsmar
over 8 inches of dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower soils are most common in the flatwoods. Floridana and
part of the subsoil is grayish brown fine sandy loam Riviera soils are most common in the low, wet areas.
about 11 inches thick. The substratum is dark grayish
about 11 inches thick. The substratum is dark grayish Most areas of this unit are in natural vegetation and
brown loamy sand to a depth of about 71 inches and are used for
grayish brown fine sandy loam below that to a depth of are used for range. Some large areas are used for
80 inches. improved pasture, and some are used for citrus crops.
Of minor extent in this unit are the Electra, Hobe, 7. Wabasso-Riviera-Oldsmar
Oldsmar, Salerno, and Waveland soils. Oldsmar,
Salerno, and Waveland soils are the most common. Nearly level, poorly drained soils; most are sandy to a
Most areas of this unit have been cleared and are depth of 20 to 40 inches, but some are sandy to a depth
used for improved pasture grasses. Some areas are in of more than 40 inches, most have a subsoil that is dark
natural vegetation and are used for range, and some colored and sandy in the upper part and loamy in the
areas are used for urban development and recreation. lower part






Martin County Area, Florida 13



This map unit consists of broad, nearly level flatwoods soils of the sloughs and fresh water
interspersed with sloughs and depressions. Small to marshes
large areas are scattered throughout the survey area,
except in the extreme eastern part. One of the large areas These soils are in broad sloughs, depressions, and
is about 11 miles long and 2 to 7 miles wide. marshes interspersed with slightly higher hammocks.
Natural vegetation in the sloughs is South Florida slash They are poorly drained and very poorly drained. Some
ine, cabbage palm, and waxmrtle with scattered of these soils are sandy throughout; some have a loamy
pine, cabbage palm, and waxmyrtle with scattered subsoil within a depth of 20 inches or at a depth of 20 to
sawpalmetto and blue maidencane. In the flatwoods the 40 inches; and some have a thick, dark colored surface
natural vegetation is South Florida slash pine, layer. Some of these soils have hard limestone within a
sawpalmetto, huckleberry, fetterbush, and pineland depth of 40 inches, and some are organic. These soils
threeawn. In the depressions the natural vegetation is are in the western two-thirds of the survey area. Seven
sandweed, stillingia, sedges, and water tolerant grasses. map units are in this group.
This map unit makes up about 77,640 acres, or about
22 percent of the survey area. It is about 30 percent 8. Pineda-Riviera
Wabasso soils, 24 percent Riviera soils, 15 percent Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a loamy
Oldsmar soils, and 31 percent soils of minor extent. subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches
The Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the This map unit consists of broad sloughs interspersed
surface layer is mainly very dark gray sand about 7 with flatwoods and depressions. Most areas of this unit
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand about 13 occur south of the St. Lucie Canal and west of the
inches thick; the upper 5 inches of the subsurface layer Sunshine State Parkway. One area is just east of
is gray, and the lower 8 inches is light brownish gray. Indiantown and extends north from the St. Lucie Canal.
The upper part of the subsoil is mainly black sand about The natural vegetation is South Florida slash pine,
16 inches thick. The lower part of the subsoil to a depth cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, gallberry, and fetterbush and
of about 58 inches is sandy clay loam; the upper 5 blue maidencane, pineland threeawn, bluestem, and
inches is very dark grayish brown, the next 8 inches is panicum grasses.
dark grayish brown, and the lower 9 inches is olive gray. This map unit makes up about 70,000 acres, or about
The substratum is sandy clay loam; the upper 15 inches 20 percent of the survey area. It is about 40 percent
is olive gray, the lower part is greenish gray to a depth of Pineda soils, 30 percent Riviera soils, and 30 percent
80 inches or more. soils of minor extent.
The Riviera soils are poorly drained. Typically, the The Pineda soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is sand about 8 inches thick; the upper 5
surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. surface layer is sand about 8 inches thick; the upper 5
The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 36 inches is dark grayish brown. The subsurface layer is
inches; the upper 13 inches of the subsurface layer is brown sand to a depth of about 15 inches. The subsoil is
grayish brown, and the lower 19 inches is light gray. The about 45 inches thick. The upper 21 inches of the
subsoil is olive gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about subsoil is sand; it is 7 inches of brownish yellow over 14
42 inches and has tongues of light gray fine sand from inches of very pale brown. The next 8 inches of the
the overlying layers. The substratum is light gray fine subsoil is gray sandy loam, and the lower 16 inches is
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. It has shell greenish gray fine sandy loam. The substratum is
fragments in the lower part. greenish gray fine sand with shell fragments to a depth
The Oldsmar soils are poorly drained. Typically, the of about 72 inches.
surface layer is black sand about 5 inches thick. The The Riviera soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 35 surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick.
inches; the upper 9 inches of the subsurface layer is The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 36
gray and the lower 21 inches is light gray. The upper inches; the upper 13 inches of the subsurface layer is
part of the subsoil is fine sand to a depth of 46 inches; grayish brown and the lower 19 inches is light gray. The
the upper 5 inches is black and the lower 6 inches is subsoil is olive gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about
brown.42 inches and has tongues of light gray fine sand from
brown. The lower part of the subsoil to a depth of 60 the overlying layers. The substratum is light gray fine
inches is grayish brown fine sandy loam. sand to a depth of 80 inches or more and has shell
Of minor extent in this unit are the Malabar, Pineda, fragments in the lower part.
and Pinellas soils. The Malabar and Pineda soils are Of minor extent in this unit are the Boca, Oldsmar, and
most common. Pinellas soils. Oldsmar soils are the most common.
Most areas of this unit are in natural vegetation and Many areas of this unit are in natural vegetation and
are used for range. Some large areas are used for citrus are used for range. Some large areas are used for citrus
crops and improved pasture. crops and pasture.






14 Soil survey


9. Pineda-Riviera-Boca have layers high in carbonates within a depth of 20
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a loamy inches, and some have a yellowish brown layer in the
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches; some have subsoil
limestone below the subsoil This map unit consists of broad sloughs, depressions,
This map unit consists of broad sloughs interspersed poorly defined drainageways, and hammocks. The only
with flatwoods and depressions. Two areas are in the area of this unit is in the extreme northwestern corner of
south-central part of the survey area. Another area is in the survey area.
the western part, northwest of the Barley Barber Swamp. The natural vegetation is South Florida slash pine,
The natural vegetation is South Florida slash pine, cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, sandweed, sawpalmetto, and
cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, gallberry, and fetterbush and gallberry and pineland threeawn, bluestem, panicum, and
blue maidencane, pineland threeawn, bluestem, and blue maidencane grasses.
panicum grasses. This map unit makes up about 3,600 acres, or about 1
This map unit makes up about 21,000 acres, or about percent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent
6 percent of the survey area. It is about 28 percent Basinger soils, 20 percent Ft. Drum soils, 15 percent
Pineda soils, 25 percent Riviera soils, 22 percent Boca Valkaria soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent. The Basinger soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
The Pineda soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches
surface layer is sand about 8 inches thick; the upper 5 thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of
inches of the surface layer is dark gray and the lower 3 about 28 inches; the upper 6 inches of the subsurface
inches is dark grayish brown. The subsurface layer is layer is grayish brown and the lower 16 inches is light
brown sand to a depth of about 15 inches. The subsoil is brownish gray. The subsoil is dark grayish brown fine
about 45 inches thick. The upper 21 inches of the sand to a depth of about 42 inches and has pockets of
subsoil is sand; it is 7 inches of brownish yellow over 14 very dark grayish brown. The upper 26 inches of the
inches of very pale brown. The next 8 inches of the substratum is grayish brown fine sand, and the lower 20
subsoil is gray sandy loam, and the lower 16 inches is inches is brown fine sand.
greenish gray fine sandy loam. The substratum is The Ft. Drum soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
greenish gray fine sand with shell fragments to a depth surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick.
of 72 inches. The subsurface layer is brown fine sand to a depth of
The Riviera soils are poorly drained. Typically, the about 14 inches. The subsoil is calcareous and about 19
surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. inches thick; the upper 4 inches of the subsoil is light
The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 36 brownish gray loamy fine sand, and the lower 15 inches
inches; the upper 13 inches of the subsurface layer is is light gray fine sand. The upper 18 inches of the
grayish brown, and the lower 19 inches is light gray. The substratum is brownish yellow loamy fine sand, and the
subsoil is olive gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 42 lower 29 inches is gray fine sand to a depth Of 80 inches
inches and has tongues of light gray fine sand from the or more.
overlying layers. The substratum is light gray fine sand to The Valkaria soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
a depth of 80 inches and has shell fragments in the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick.
lower part. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
The Boca soils are poorly drained. Typically, the depth of about 13 inches. The subsoil is fine sand about
surface layer is fine sand about 8 inches thick; the upper 32 inches thick; the upper 6 inches of the subsoil is
4 inches of the surface layer is very dark gray, and the brown, the next 10 inches is pale brown, the next 6
lower 4 inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer is fine inches is yellowish brown, and the lower 10 inches is
sand to a depth of about 25 inches; the upper 8 inches brown. The substratum is fine sand to a depth of 80
of the subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower 9 inches; the upper 10 inches of the substratum is grayish
inches is pale brown. The subsoil is light gray fine sandy brown, the next 15 inches is light gray, and the lower 10
loam to a depth of about 32 inches. Limestone is at a inches is light yellowish brown.
f minor extent in this unit are the HallandaleOf minor extent in this unit are the Pinellas and
Oldsmar, Pf minor extellas, and Wabasso soils. The Oldsmar soils Waveland soils. The Pinellas soils are the most common.
are most common. Many areas of this unit are used for improved pasture.

Many areas of this unit are in natural vegetation and Some areas are in natural vegetation and are used for
are used for range. Some areas are used for citrus crops range.
and improved pasture. 11. Winder-Riviera
10. Basinger-Ft. Drum-Valkaria Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a loamy
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy subsoil, mainly within a depth of 20 inches; some have a
throughout; some have organic stained layers, some subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches







Martin County Area, Florida 15



This map unit consists of broad, low marshes that This map unit makes up about 16,000 acres, or about
have scattered areas of organic soils and slightly 5 percent of the survey area. It is about 60 percent
elevated hammock islands. The only area is along the Floridana soils, 15 percent Jupiter soils, 7 percent Hilolo
eastern side of the Allapattah Flats. It extends soils, and 18 percent soils of minor extent.
southeastward from the St. Lucie County line for about 7 The Floridana soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
miles and is about 1/2 to 1 mile wide. the surface layer is black fine sand about 15 inches
The natural vegetation in the marsh areas is thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine
sandweed, maidencane, stillingia, pickerelweed, sedges, sand about 12 inches thick. The upper 10 inches of the
and water tolerant grasses. There are also scattered subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower
areas of willow, fireflag, red maple, and sawgrass. In the 13 inches is grayish brown fine sandy loam. Light gray
hammock areas, the natural vegetation is cabbage palm, fine sand is below this to a depth of 62 inches or more.
oak, marlberry, wild coffee, and strangler fig. The Jupiter soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
This map unit makes up about 4,000 acres, or about 1 surface layer is black sand about 4 inches thick. Below
percent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent Winder this is about 6 inches of very dark grayish brown sand.
soils, 30 percent Riviera soils, and 25 percent soils of Fractured limestone is at a depth of about 10 inches and
minor extent. is about 12 inches thick. Below this, is calcareous loamy
The Winder soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sand to a depth of 84 inches or more; the upper 10
surface layer is dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The inches of the loamy sand is light brownish gray, the next
subsurface layer is gray sand about 8 inches thick. The 16 inches is light gray, the next 24 inches is olive gray,
subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of about 42 inches; and the lower part is greenish gray.
the upper 11 inches of the subsoil is light brownish gray, The Hilolo soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
and the lower 16 inches is light gray. The substratum is surface layer is fine sand to a depth of 8 inches; the
greenish gray loamy sand to a depth of about 80 inches. upper 3 inches of the surface layer is black and the
The Riviera soils are poorly drained. Typically, the lower 5 inches is very dark brown. The subsoil is sandy
surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. clay loam about 48 inches thick; the upper 32 inches of
The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 36 the subsoil is gray and the lower 16 inches is white. The
inches; the upper 13 inches of the subsurface layer is substratum is light gray fine sandy loam.
grayish brown, and the lower 19 inches is light gray. The Of minor extent in this unit are Canova Variant,
subsoil is olive gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about Chobee, Gator, Hallandale, Riviera, and Tequesta
42 inches and has tongues of light gray fine sand from Variant soils. The Canova Variant soils are only in an
the overlying layers. The substratum is light gray fine area of this unit near Lake Okeechobee. The Chobee
sand to a depth of 80 inches and has shell fragments in soils are the most common minor soil in the marshes
the lower part. and the Hallandale soils are most common in the
Of minor extent in this unit are the Chobee, Floridana, hammocks.
Gator, Hallandale, and Jupiter soils. The Floridana soils Most areas of this unit are used for improved pasture.
are the most common. Some areas are used for citrus and sugarcane. Most of
Most areas of this unit are used for improved pasture, the hammocks remain in natural vegetation.
Some large areas are used for citrus crops. The
remainder is in natural vegetation and is used for range. 13. Chobee-Gator
12. FloridanaI-Jupiter-Hilolo Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some are loamy
12. -Floridana-JupiterMHilolo throughout, and some have an organic surface layer and
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils a loamy substratum
that have a dark colored surface layer; most have a This map unit consists of broad low marshes with
loayThis map unit consists of broad low marshes with
loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 inches, and some scattered, small, wooded islands. An area of this unit is
have limestone within a depth of 20 inches in the Allapattah Flats. It is about 5 miles long and up to
This map unit consists of broad, low marshes and 1.25 miles wide.
slightly elevated hammocks. Areas are mainly elongated The natural vegetation is sawgrass, cypress,
and less than a mile wide. They are in the Allapattah pickerelweed, maidencane, and a few water oaks and
Flats, in a drainageway extending from Indiantown to cabbage palms.
Barley Barber Swamp, and in the marsh area adjacent to This map unit makes up about 3,600 acres or about 1
Lake Okeechobee. percent of the survey area. It is about 50 percent
The natural vegetation in the marshes is waxmyrtle, Chobee soils, 30 percent Gator soils, and 20 percent
buttonbush, pickerelweed, sawgrass, smartweed, soils of minor extent.
maidencane, and water tolerant grasses. In the The Chobee soils are very poorly drained. Typically, a
hammocks vegetation is cabbage palm, oaks, strangler layer of black muck about 3 inches thick overlies the
fig, wild coffee, American beautyberry, greenbriar, and a mineral soil. The surface layer is black fine sandy loam
few grasses. about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a







16 Soil survey



depth of 42 inches; the upper 18 inches of the subsoil is the surface layer is black fine sand about 15 inches
black, and the lower 18 inches is gray and calcareous. thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine
The substratum is calcareous; the upper 7 inches of the sand about 12 inches thick. The subsoil is grayish brown
substratum is grayish brown sandy loam, the next 9 sandy clay loam in the upper 10 inches, and grayish
inches is light olive gray sandy clay loam, and the lower brown fine sandy loam in the lower 13 inches. Below this
22 inches is greenish gray sandy clay loam to a depth of is light gray fine sand to a depth of 62 inches or more.
80 inches or more. Of minor extent in this unit are Adamsville Variant,
The Gator soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the Pompano, Tequesta Variant, and Torry soils. The
surface layer is muck about 24 inches thick; the upper Adamsville Variant soils are on a natural dike along the
11 inches of the surface layer is black, and the lower 13 entire western side of this unit and are the most
inches is dark reddish brown. The substratum is below extensive minor soils.
this. The upper 24 inches of the substratum is very dark Most areas of this unit have been drained and are
gray fine sandy loam, and the lower part is a mixture of used for sugarcane. The rest is used mainly as improved
gray and grayish brown sand and shell fragments to a pasture.
depth of 56 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this unit are the Floridana, Hilolo, soils of the tidal swamps
Jupiter, Tequesta Variant, and Winder soils. The These soils are in tidal swamps. They are organic and
Floridana soils are most common.
Most areas of this unit are used for improved pasture, very poorly drained. These soils are on either side of the
Some areas are used for citrus production. Only small, Intracoastal Waterway and along its tributaries in the
scattered areas remain in native vegetation, eastern part of the survey area. One map unit is in this
group.

14. Okeelanta-Canova Variant-Floridana 15. Bessie-Okeelanta Variant-Terra Ceia Variant
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils; some
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; most are organic have a clayey layer in the substratum, some have a
and have a sandy substratum, some have a thin organic sandy substratum, and some have more than 50 inches
surface layer and a loamy subsoil underlain by limestone, of organic material
and some have a dark colored sandy surface layer and a This map unit consists of mangrove swamps that are
loamy subsoil This map unit consists of mangrove swamps that are
subject to tidal flooding by saltwater. Areas of this map
This map unit consists of broad marshes adjacent to unit are on Hutchinson Island and along the Intracoastal
Lake Okeechobee. An area about 0.5 to 0.75 mile wide Waterway, the Loxahatchee River, and the South Fork of
extends about 8 miles north from the Palm Beach the St. Lucie River.
County line. The native vegetation has been cleared The natural vegetation is dominantly red mangrove
from this area. (fig. 8), with black mangrove in coastal areas, and white
This map unit makes up about 3,500 acres, or about 1 mangrove and cypress in the two river systems. Leather
percent of the survey area. It is about 40 percent fern is also common along the inland rivers.
Okeelanta soils, 30 percent Canova Variant soils, 20 This map unit makes up about 3,000 acres, or about 1
percent Floridana soils, and 10 percent soils of minor percent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent Bessie
extent. soils, 30 percent Okeelanta Variant soils, 15 percent
The Okeelanta soils are very poorly drained. Typically, Terra Ceia Variant soils, and 10 percent soils of minor
well decomposed organic material (muck) is to a depth extent. The Bessie soils are dominant in the more
of about 30 inches; the upper 4 inches of the muck is extensive coastal areas of this unit, and Terra Ceia
black, the next 22 inches is dark reddish brown, and the Variant soils are dominant in the inland river areas.
lower 4 inches is black and has a high sand content. The Bessie soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
Sand is below this; the upper 18 inches of the sand is surface layer is dark reddish brown muck about 18
very dark gray, and the lower 32 inches is dark grayish inches thick. Next is very dark grayish brown clay to a
brown to a depth of 80 inches or more. depth of 44 inches. Below this is dark gray fine sand and
The Canova Variant soils are very poorly drained, shell fragments.
Typically, a 12-inch layer of black muck overlies the The Okeelanta Variant soils are very poorly drained.
mineral soil. The surface layer is black fine sand about 5 Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 4 inches
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand thick. Next is dark reddish brown muck about 16 inches
about 13 inches thick. The subsoil is grayish brown thick. Below this is sand and shell fragments that are
sandy clay loam about 6 inches thick. The substratum is very dark brown in the upper 8 inches, very dark grayish
light brownish gray fine sandy loam. Limestone is at a brown in the next 8 inches, and gray in the lower part to
depth of about 30 inches. a depth of 54 inches or more.
The Floridana soils are very poorly drained. Typically, The Terra Ceia Variant soils are very poorly drained.








Martin County Area, Florida 17




































Figure 8.-Red mangrove in an area of Bessie-Okeelanta Variant-Terra Ceia Variant map unit that is flooded daily by tidal action.
The bald cypress has been killed because of increased salinity after drainage of adjacent soils reduced the inflow of
freshwater.

Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 12 Of minor extent in this unit are very poorly drained
inches thick. The next layer is dark reddish brown muck Aquents and somewhat poorly drained Canaveral soils.
about 28 inches thick. Below this is black muck that has Most areas of this unit remain in natural vegetation. A
dark reddish brown muck pockets or lenses to a depth few small areas have been filled in and are used for
of 60 inches or more. urban development and recreation.










19








detailed soil map units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil of these included soils have properties that differ
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be differences could significantly affect use and
used to plan the management needed for those uses. management of the soils in the map unit. The included
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
under "Use and management of the soils." small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an a special symbol on the soil maps.
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
for which the unit is named. have little or no soil material and support little or no
A number identifying the soil precedes the map unit vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
general facts about the soil and gives the principal shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for maps.
specific uses. Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of tables")
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the give properties of the soils and the limitations,
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
a series have major horizons that are similar in defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface 2-Lawnwood fine sand. This nearly level soil is
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in poorly drained. It is in broad areas of flatwoods. Areas
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, range from about 10 to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the and range from 0 to 2 percent.
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil Typically, the surface layer is black and dark grayish
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil brown fine sand. The subsurface layer is light brownish
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil gray fine sand to a depth of about 28 inches. The
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or subsoil is fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more; the
management. For example, Waveland sand, upper part of the subsoil is black and weakly cemented,
depressional, is one of several phases in the Waveland the middle part is dark reddish brown and weakly
series. cemented, and the lower part is brown and has darker
Some map units are made up of two or more major colored, weakly cemented fragments.
soils. These map units are called soil complexes. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such Waveland and St. Johns Variant soils and soils that do
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they not have a cemented subsoil. Also included are small,
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The shallow depressions. Total inclusions in any area are
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar less than 20 percent.
in all areas. St. Lucie-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
slopes, is an example. for 2 to 4 months and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6
Not all of the map units in this county have been months or more during most years. It is perched above
mapped with the same degree of detail. Broadly defined the subsoil during the rainy period early in summer. In
units, indicated by a superscript on the soil map legend, dry seasons, the water table recedes to a depth of 40
are apt to be larger and to vary more in composition inches or more. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
than the rest of the map units in the survey. Composition subsurface layers and slow to very slow in the subsoil.
of these broadly defined units has been controlled well The available water capacity is low in the surface and
enough, however, to be interpreted for the expected use subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
of the soils. fertility and the content of organic matter are low.







20 Soil survey



Most areas of this soil are in open forest. The natural small areas of soils that have several inches of organic
vegetation is slash pine and an understory of material at the surface. Total inclusions in any area are
sawpalmetto, gallberry, fetterbush, huckleberry, running less than 25 percent.
oak, and waxmyrtle. Pineland threeawn is the most This soil is ponded more than 6 months in most years.
common native grass. Other grasses are creeping Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
bluestem, chalky bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, little and slow to very slow in the subsoil. The available water
blue maidencane, and species of panicums. capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the content of
crops because of wetness. The number of adapted organic matter are low.
crops suited to this soil is limited unless intensive water Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation of St.
control measures are used. If a water control system is Johnswort, ferns, and a variety of water tolerant grasses.
designed to remove the excess water, this soil is suitable Some scattered areas have waxmyrtle and melaleuca
for vegetable crops. Good management, in addition to trees.
water control, includes crop rotations with close growing, Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
soil improving crops on the land at least two-thirds of the cultivated crops because of the ponding. However, if
time. These crops and the residue of all other crops very intensive management, soil improving measures,
should be used to protect the soil from erosion. Fertilizer and a good water control system are used, this soil is
and lime should be added according to the need of the suitable for vegetable crops. A water control system is
crop. needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to
Citrus trees are poorly suited to this soil because of provide for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row
the wetness. If adequately drained and well managed, crops should be rotated with close growing, soil
this soil is suited to citrus. Drainage should be adequate improving crops. The soil improving crops need to be in
to remove excess water from the soil rapidly to a depth the rotation three-fourths of the time. Crop residue and
of about 4 feet after heavy rains. Planting the trees on soil improving crops should be used to protect the soil
beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. A from erosion. Seedbed preparations need to include
close growing cover crop is needed between the tree bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
rows to protect the soil from blowing when dry and from according to the need of the crop.
washing during heavy rains. The trees require regular This soil is not suited to citrus trees in the natural
applications of fertilizer. To insure highest yields, state. It is poorly suited to citrus even if management is
irrigation is needed in seasons of low rainfall, intensive and includes adequate water control.
This soil is well suited to improved grasses. In the natural state, this soil is not suited to pasture.
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers are well adapted However, if management is very intensive and soil
and grow well if well managed. Water control is required improving measures and a good water control system
to remove surface water in times of high rainfall. Regular are used, this soil is moderately suited for improved
use of fertilizer is needed for high production, and grazing pasture grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses,
should be carefully controlled to maintain healthy plants. and white clover grow well if well managed. Water
The potential for pine trees is low. Equipment control measures are needed to remove the excess
limitations and seedling mortality are the main surface water after heavy rains. Regular applications of
management concerns. A good drainage system to fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be
remove the excess surface water is needed if the controlled to prevent overgrazing and weakening of
potential productivity is to be realized. Slash pine is the plants.
best adapted species. This soil has low potential for pine trees. Severe
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns. A good water control system
3-Lawnwood fine sand, depressional. This poorly that removes the excess surface water is necessary
drained soil is in depressions in the flatwoods. Areas before trees can be planted and the potential
range from about 2 to 40 acres. Slopes are smooth to productivity realized. Slash pine is better suited than
concave and are 1 percent or less. other species.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand. Below This soil is in capability subclass VIIw.
this is light gray and white fine sand to a depth of 27
inches. The subsoil is dark brown, weakly cemented fine 4-Waveland sand. This nearly level soil is poorly
sand about 23 inches thick. The substratum is brown drained. It is in broad areas of flatwoods. Slopes are
and pale brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or dominantly smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent
more. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand. The
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of subsurface layer is light gray and grayish brown. The
Basinger, Waveland, St. Johns Variant, and Placid soils. subsoil begins at a depth of 43 inches. The upper 4
Also included are areas of soils that are similar to this inches of the subsoil is black sand and is not cemented.
Lawnwood soil but do not have a cemented subsoil and The next 30 inches is weakly cemented, black and dark







Martin County Area, Florida 21


reddish brown loamy sand. The next 14 inches is loose gray sand to a depth of 48 inches. The subsoil is black,
black sand, and below that is dark brown sand. weakly cemented sand and noncemented, dark reddish
Included with this soil in mapping are soils that are brown sand. Below this is brown sand to a depth of 80
similar to this Waveland soil but have a dark colored inches or more.
surface layer 10 to 14 inches thick. Also included are Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
small areas of Basinger, Jonathan, Lawnwood, Nettles, Basinger, Lawnwood, Oldsmar, Placid, and St. Johns
Placid, and Salerno soils and small wet depressions. Variant soils. Also included are small areas of soils that
Total inclusions in any area make up about 20 percent. are similar to this Waveland soil but have a thinner,
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches noncemented subsoil or have a few inches of organic
for 2 to 4 months and within a depth of 40 inches for 6 material at the surface. Total inclusions in any area are
months or more during most years. Permeability is rapid about 25 percent.
in the surface and subsurface layers and very slow to This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more in most
moderately slow in the subsoil. The available water years. The natural fertility is low, and response to
capacity is low in the surface layer and medium in the fertilizers is moderate. Permeability is rapid in the surface
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. and subsurface layers and very slow to moderately slow
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The in the subsoil. The available water capacity is medium in
natural vegetation is South Florida slash pine with an the subsoil and low in the surface layer.
understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, fetterbush, running The natural vegetation is St. Johnswort, needlerush,
oak, and dwarf huckleberry. Grasses are pineland pipewort, ferns, panicums, maidencane, and other water
threeawn, bluestem, and panicum. tolerant grasses.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
crops because of wetness and the sandy texture. The cultivated crops because of the ponding. However, if
adapted crops are limited unless management is very very intensive management, soil improving measures,
intensive. If management is proper, this soil is suitable and a good water control system are used, this soil is
for a number of vegetable crops. A water control system suitable for vegetable crops. A water control system is
needed to remove the excess water in wet seasons and
is needed to remove the excess water in wet seasons remove fe excess water in wed seasons d
and to provide water for subsurface irrigation in drto provide for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row
seasons. Crop residue and soil improving crops should crops should be rotated with close growing, soil
tthe soil from erosion. Seedbed improving crops. The soil improving crops need to be in
be used to protect the soil from erosion Seedbed rotation three-fourths of the time. Crop residue and soil
preparation needs to include bedding of the rows. improving crops should be used to protect the soil from
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the erosion. Seedbed preparations need to include bedding
need of the crop. to this soil after a carefullof the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
Citrus trees are suited to this soil after a carefully according to the need of the crop.
designed water control system has been installed to This soil is not suited to citrus trees in the natural
maintain the water table below a depth of 4 feet. state. It is poorly suited to citrus even if management is
Planting trees on beds helps lower the effective depth of intensive and water control is adequate.
the water table. Plant cover should be maintained. Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, pasture. However, if very intensive management, soil
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses, improving measures, and a good water control system
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover are used, this soil is moderately suited to improved
grow well if properly managed. Water control measures pasture grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses,
are needed to remove the excess surface water after and white clover grow well if well managed. Water
heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime control measures are needed to remove the excess
are needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent surface water after heavy rains. Regular applications of
overgrazing and weakening of the plants. fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be
The potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pine is controlled to prevent overgrazing and weakening of
better suited than other trees. The main management plants.
concerns are equipment limitations during wet periods, This soil has low potential for pine trees. Severe
seedling mortality, and plant competition. For best equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
results, a simple water control system to remove excess management concerns. A good water control system
surface water should be installed, that removes the excess surface water is necessary
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. before trees can be planted and the potential
productivity realized. Slash pine is better suited than
5-Waveland sand, depressional. This poorly other species.
drained soil is in depressions in the flatwoods. Slopes This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand. The 6-Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This nearly
subsurface layer is gray, light gray, and light brownish level to sloping soil is excessively drained. It is on the







22 Soil survey



coastal ridge and isolated knolls in coastal areas. Areas Most areas of this soil are in native vegetation. This
are many hundreds of acres in size. Slopes are smooth consists of sand pine, scrub live oak, and an understory
to convex. of sawpalmetto, rosemary, cacti, lichens, and deer moss.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand. The Pineland threeawn is the most common grass.
subsurface layer is white sand. Below this is yellowish This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, and
brown and brownish yellow sand to a depth of 80 inches improved pasture because it is very drought and
or more. infertile. Response to fertilizers is low. Irrigation water
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of moves through the soil rapidly, and little is retained for
soils that are similar to this Paola soil but do not have a plant use.
light colored subsurface layer and small areas of soils The potential for pine trees is very low. Equipment
that have a thicker subsurface layer. Also included are limitations and seedling mortality are the main
small areas of Hobe, Jonathan, Orsino, Pomello, Satellite management concerns. Sand pine is preferred for
Variant, and St. Lucie soils. Total inclusions in any area planting.
are less than 20 percent. This soil is in capability subclass VIIs.
The water table is below a depth of 72 inches
throughout the year. Permeability is very rapid, and the
available water capacity is very low throughout the 8-Palm Beach sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This
profile. Natural fertility and the content of organic matter nearly level to sloping soil is well drained to excessively
are very low. drained. It is on dunelike ridges parallel to the coastline.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The Areas are generally several miles long and very narrow,
vegetation is sand pine, scrub oak, rosemary, though in places on Jupiter Island they range to 0.25
sawpalmetto, running oak, cacti, mosses, and lichens. mile wide. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent.
Slash pine and scrub hickory are in some areas. Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches thick. It is
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It is poorly a mixture of black sand and shell fragments. Below this
suited to citrus trees, and production is only fair if is sand and shell fragments to a depth of 80 inches or
management is good. A ground cover of close growing more. The upper 5 inches of the sand and shell
plants is needed between tree rows to protect the soil fragments is dark grayish brown, the next 14 inches is
from blowing. Fertilizer should be applied as needed. A brown, and the lower 53 inches is pale brown.
well designed irrigation system helps maintain optimum Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
moisture for maximum yields. Canaveral soils. Also included are small areas of
This soil has only fair suitability for pasture. Grasses, moderately well drained soils near the base of slopes.
such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass, make only fair Total inclusions in any area are less than 10 percent.
growth when fertilized. Grazing must be carefully The depth to the water table is more than 120 inches.
controlled. Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile, and the
Potential is very low on this soil for pine trees. available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility and
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main the content of organic matter are very low.
management concerns. Sand pine is preferred for A few areas of this soil are used for building sites or
planting. recreational purposes. Most areas remain in natural
This soil is in capability subclass Vis. vegetation consisting of sawpalmetto, seagrape, sea-
S. oats, and scattered cabbage palm. Parts of Jupiter Island
7-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This are covered with a wide variety of subtropical
deep, nearly level to sloping sandy soil is excessively hardwoods, shrubs, and other plants.
drained. It is on dry coastal ridges and on isolated knolls This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus trees,
in the flatwoods. Areas range from a few acres to cultivated crops, citrus trees,
several hundred acres. Slopes are generally uniform and orThe ntial for pine trees is very low. Equipmentre.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 3 inches m emt on er Sand pinei p refre for
thick. Underlying this is white sand to a depth of 80 management concerns. Sand pine is preferred for
inches or more. planting in areas of expanding urban growth.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil is in capability subclass Vlls.
soils that are similar to this St. Lucie soil but have fine
sand texture or have a thicker surface layer. Soils that 9-Pomello sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
have short, steeper slopes, ranging up to 30 percent, are nearly level to gently sloping soil is moderately well
in some places. Also included are small areas of Paola, drained. It is on low ridges and knolls in the flatwoods.
Pomello, and Satellite Variant soils. Total inclusions in Areas range from about 5 to 100 acres. Slopes are
any area are less than 15 percent. smooth to convex.
The available water capacity is very low, and Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 3 inches
permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and the content thick. The subsurface layer is light gray sand about 43
of organic matter are very low. The water table is below inches thick. The subsoil is dark reddish brown sand
a depth of 72 inches. about 21 inches thick and has scattered, weakly







Martin County Area, Florida 23



cemented fragments throughout. Below this is brown organic surface layer or have a black surface layer more
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. than 10 inches thick. Also included are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Placid and Sanibel soils. Total inclusions in any area are
soils that are similar to this Pomello soil but the subsoil about 25 percent.
is below a depth of 50 inches, soils that have a weakly This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more in most
cemented subsoil, and soils that have a deep loamy fine years. Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile.
sand layer. Also included are small areas of Jonathan, The available water capacity is very low, and natural
Orsino, Salerno, Satellite Variant, and Waveland soils. fertility is low.
Total inclusions in any area are less than 20 percent. Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. This
The water table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for consists of St. Johnswort, maidencane, pickerelweed,
about 2 to 4 months during the wet season. It ranges needlerush, and other water tolerant grasses and
from a depth of 40 to 60 inches for about 8 months sedges. A few areas are covered with cypress, water
during the drier seasons. Permeability is very rapid in the oak, and red maple.
surface and subsurface layers and moderately rapid in Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
the subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in cultivated crops because of ponding. However, if very
the surface and subsurface layers and medium in the intensive management, soil improving measures, and a
subsoil. Natural fertility and the content of organic matter good water control system are used, this soil is suitable
are very low. for vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. The remove the excess water in wet seasons and to provide
vegetation in most areas consists of South Florida slash for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops
pine, scrub live oak, sawpalmetto, fetterbush, running should be rotated with close growing, soil improving
oak, and pineland threeawn. Some areas also have sand crops. The soil improving crops need to be in the
pine, and a few areas in the southeastern part of Martin cropping system three-fourths of the time. Crop residue
County have turkey oak. and soil improving crops should be used to protect the
This soil is not suited to most commonly cultivated soil from erosion. Seedbed preparations need to include
crops. It is poorly suited to citrus trees. Only fair yields bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
can be obtained if the level of management is high. For according to the need of the crop.
maximum yields, sprinkler irrigation should be provided. This soil is not suitable for citrus trees in the natural
Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are needed. state. It is poorly suited even if intensive management
Improved pasture grasses are fairly well suited if good practices are used and the water control is adequate.
management practices are used. Bahiagrasses are Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
better suited than other grasses. Clovers are not suited. pasture. However, if very intensive management, soil
Droughtiness is the major limitation except during the improving measures, and a good water control system
wet season. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are used, this soil is moderately suited to improved
are needed. Grazing should be well controlled to permit pasture grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses,
vigorous growth for highest yields and to provide good and white clover grow well if well managed. Water
ground cover, control measures are needed to remove the excess
The potential is low on this soil for pine trees. Seedling surface water after heavy rains. Regular applications of
mortality, plant competition, and equipment mobility are fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be
the major management concerns for commercial tree controlled to prevent overgrazing and weakening of
production. South Florida slash pine and sand pine are plants.
preferred for planting. This soil has low potential for pine trees. Severe
This soil is in capability subclass VIs. equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns. A good water control system
10-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This nearly that removes the excess surface water is necessary
level soil is poorly drained. It is in depressional areas in before trees can be planted and the potential
the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to concave and range productivity realized. South Florida slash pine is better
from 0 to 2 percent. suited than other species.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand about 18 inches thick. The 12-St. Johns Variant sand. This nearly level soil is
subsoil is mixed, dark brown and grayish brown fine sand very poorly drained. It is in depressions and sloughs and
about 20 inches thick. Below this is fine sand to a depth at the base of short slopes in areas of flatwoods. Areas
of 80 inches or more. The upper 18 inches of the fine are generally long and narrow and range from about 5 to
sand is pale brown, and the lower part is very pale 50 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from
brown. 0 to 2 percent.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 14
soils that are similar to this Basinger soil but have a thin inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of







24 Soil survey


about 40 inches. The upper 16 inches of the subsurface fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be
layer is dark gray, and the lower 10 inches is gray. The controlled to prevent overgrazing and weakening of
subsoil is sand to a depth of 72 inches or more. The plants.
upper 8 inches of the subsoil is dark grayish brown, and This soil has low potential for pine trees, even if the
the next 6 inches is black and has dark brown pockets excess wetness is overcome. Equipment limitations and
or mottles. The next 8 inches of the subsoil is dark seedling mortality are the main management concerns.
reddish brown mixed with black and grayish brown, and Slash pine is better suited than most other trees for
the lower 10 inches is brown. planting, but only after adequate water control is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of provided.
soils that are similar to this St. Johns Variant soil but the This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
subsoil is at a depth of slightly less than 30 inches,
areas of soils that have an ortstein, and some areas of 13-Placid sand. This nearly level soil is very poorly
this soil that have a brownish colored subsurface layer. drained. It is in wet depressions and drainageways in the
Also included are small areas of Basinger, Lawnwood, flatwoods. Areas range from a few acres to about 30
Placid, Sanibel, and Waveland soils. Total inclusions in acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0
any area are less than 20 percent. to 2 percent.
This soil is ponded for 6 months or more in most Typically, the surface layer is black sand. The
years, except for dry seasons, and the water table is subsurface layer is sand to a depth of more than 80
within a depth of 10 inches the rest of the year. In dry inches. It is dark grayish brown, gray, and light brownish
seasons the water table can recede to a depth of 10 to gray.
30 inches or more. The available water capacity is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
medium in the surface layer and subsoil and low in the Basinger, Lawnwood, Sanibel, and St. Johns Variant
subsurface layer. Permeability is rapid in the surface and soils. Also included are small areas of soils that are
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The similar to this Placid soil but have 2 to 7 inches of
s e layranc mtter i th ithe organic material at the surface and small areas that have
content of organic matter is medium to high in the a brown to dark brown subsurface layer. Total inclusions
surface and subsoil layers and low in other layers. in any area are less than 20 percent.
Natural fertility is medium. Most areas of this soil are pounded for 6 months or
A few areas of this soil are used for improved pasture, more each year. The water table is at a depth of less
but most areas remain in natural vegetation. The natural than 10 inches for most of the rest of the year, except in
vegetation consists of St. Johnswort, maidencane, extended dry seasons. Permeability is rapid throughout
pickerelweed, needlerush, ferns, pineland threeawn, and the profile. The available water capacity is high in the
other grasses. Sawpalmetto and South Florida slash pine surface layer and low in the subsurface layer. Natural
are scattered throughout some areas. fertility and the content of organic matter are high.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to A few areas of this soil are drained and used for
cultivated crops because of ponding. However, if very improved pasture. Most areas are in natural vegetation.
intensive management, soil improving measures, and a The natural vegetation is pickerelweed, ferns, St.
good water control system are used, this soil is suitable Johnswort, maidencane, redroot, sedges, and water
for vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to tolerant grasses. Common trees are cypress, sweetbay,
remove the excess water in wet seasons and to provide willow, and swamp maple.
for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops need Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
to be rotated with close growing, soil improving crops. cultivated crops. If good water control is provided, this
The soil improving crops should be in the cropping soil is well suited to many vegetable crops. A well
system three-fourths of the time. Crop residue and soil designed and maintained water control system should
improving crops should be used to protect the soil from rapidly remove the excess water during heavy rains.
erosion. Seedbed preparations need to include bedding Important in soil management are good seedbed
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added preparation, crop rotations, and regular applications of
according to the need of the crop. fertilizer and lime. Cover crops need to be in the
This St. Johns Variant soil is not suited to citrus trees cropping system two-thirds of the time and should be
in the natural state. It is poorly suited to citrus even if rotated with row crops. All crop residue and soil
management is intensive and water control is adequate. improving crops should be used to protect the soil from
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to erosion.
pasture. However, if very intensive management, soil This Placid soil is not suited to citrus trees unless
improving measures, and a good water control system water control is maintained and good soil aeration is
are used, this soil is moderately suited to improved provided to a depth of about 4 feet. If water is controlled
pasture grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and trees are planted on beds, citrus trees grow well. A
and white clover grow well if properly managed. Water good, close growing cover crop is needed between the
control measures are needed to remove the excess tree rows to prevent blowing and washing. The trees
surface water after heavy rains. Regular applications of require regular applications of fertilizers.







Martin County Area, Florida 25


Under natural conditions, this soil is too wet for range from about 10 to 150 acres. Along streams they
improved pasture grasses and legumes. If the water is are generally elongated. Slopes are smooth and range
adequately controlled, suitability is high for many grasses from 0 to 2 percent.
and legumes. Pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The
respond to adequate fertilizing and liming. Grazing subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor for high about 40 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is dark
yields. brown fine sand coated with colloidal organic matter, and
This soil has high potential for pine trees if the excess the lower part is light gray fine sandy loam that has
water is controlled. Slash pine is better suited than other yellow, brown, and red mottles. The substratum is
species. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are mottled, light gray loamy fine sand to a depth of 80
the main management concerns. inches or more. The substratum becomes sandier as
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw. depth increases.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
14-Satellite Variant sand. This deep, nearly level Waveland, Nettles, and Pomello soils. Also included are
sandy soil is moderately well drained. It is on slightly a few areas of soils in which the upper, sandy part of the
elevated ridges and knolls in the flatwoods. Areas range subsoil is not dark colored and soils in which the lower
from about 5 to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex part of the subsoil is loamy fine sand. Total inclusions in
and range from 0 to 2 percent. any area are less than 20 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 5 inches The water table is at a depth of 25 to 40 inches for
thick. Underlying this is sand to a depth of more than 80 cumulative periods of 4 months in most years. It is below
inches. The upper 12 inches of this sand is light gray, a depth of 60 inches during extreme dry periods. The
the next 22 inches is light brownish gray, and the lower available water capacity is low to very low in the surface
41 inches is grayish brown. and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of substratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
Jonathan, Orsino, Pomello, Salerno, St. Lucie, and subsurface layers, moderate in the sandy part of the
Waveland soils. Total inclusions in any area are less subsoil, and slow or very slow in the loamy part. Natural
than 15 percent. fertility and the content of organic matter are very low.
The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 6 A few small areas of this soil are used for improved
to 9 months in most years and between depths of 30 to pasture. Most areas remain in open forest. The natural
40 inches for less than 60 cumulative days. It recedes vegetation is slash pine and an understory of scrub oak,
below a depth of 60 inches for 2 to 4 months in drier sawpalmetto, fetterbush, running oak, lopsided
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and other grasses,
seasons. Permeability is very rapid throughout the indies, and fograss, pineland threeawn, and other grasses,
profile. The available water capacity, natural fertility, and vines, and forbs.
onfe. T ai after capacity, natural f and This soil is not suited to cultivated crops and is poorly
contmentre of this matter are very lowurban suited to citrus trees. Irrigation is needed for maximum
development, areas of this soilst areas remain in naturban yields.
development, but most areas remain in natural This soil has fair suitability for pasture. Yields for
vegetation. The natural vegetation is South Florida slash grasses such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass are fair if
pine, sawpalmetto, scrub oak, fetterbush, running oak, management is good.
broomsedge bluestem, and pineland threeawn. A few The potential for pine trees is low. Slash pine and
areas also have sand pine and rosemary. sand pine are preferred for planting. Equipment
Common cultivated crops are not suited to this soil. limitations and seedling mortality are the main
Citrus is fairly well suited if management is good. Good management concerns.
management includes sprinkler irrigation and regular This soil is in capability subclass VIs.
applications of fertilizers and lime. A close growing cover
crop between trees is needed to prevent soil blowing. 16-Oldsmar fine sand. This nearly level soil is
Improved pasture grasses are fairly well suited to this poorly drained. It is in broad areas in the flatwoods.
soil if good management practices are used. Areas are generally large, ranging to 1,000 acres or
Bahiagrasses are better adapted than most other more. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
grasses. Clovers are not suited. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
This soil has low potential for pine trees. Seedling inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
mortality and equipment limitations are the main depth of 35 inches. The upper 9 inches of the
management concerns. South Florida slash pine is subsurface layer is gray, and the lower 21 inches is light
preferred for planting. gray. The upper 11 inches of the subsoil is black and
This soil is in capability subclass VIs. brown fine sand and has organic matter coatings on the
sand grains. The lower part of the subsoil is grayish
15-Electra fine sand. This nearly level soil is brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 60 inches or more.
somewhat poorly drained. It is on low knolls and ridges Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
in the flatwoods and adjacent to drainageways. Areas soils in which the dark colored, sandy part of the subsoil







26 Soil survey



is above a depth of 30 inches or slightly deeper than 50 is preferred for planting. A simple drainage system to
inches and in some small areas is less well developed remove excess surface water should be installed.
than in the typical profile. Some areas of included soils This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
have a thicker dark surface layer, a surface layer of sand,
or a subsurface layer with more color. Also included are 17-Wabasso sand. This nearly level soil is poorly
small areas of Basinger, Boca, Holopaw, Malabar, Nettles, drained. It is in broad, openland areas in the flatwoods.
Pinellas, and Wabasso soils. Total inclusions in any area Areas generally range up to about 1,000 acres. Slopes
are less than 20 percent. are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches Typically, the surface layer is black and very dark gray
for 1 to 3 months during wet seasons in most years. It is sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray
at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more, and and light brownish gray sand. The upper part of the
recedes to a greater depth during extended dry periods, subsoil is black sand, and the lower part is very dark
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface grayish brown, dark grayish brown, and olive gray sandy
layers. It is moderately rapid to moderately slow in the clay loam. The substratum is olive gray and greenish
upper sandy part of the subsoil and slow to very slow in gray sandy clay loam.
the lower loamy part. The available water capacity is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
very low in the surface and subsurface layers and Boca, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Riviera soils. Also included
medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the content of are areas of soils that are similar to this Wabasso soil
organic matter are low. but have a thicker, dark colored surface layer, areas of
Some large areas of this soil are used for citrus or soils that have a thicker sandy subsoil, and few to
improved pasture grasses. Most areas remain in natural common, small, wet depressions that are less than 3
vegetation consisting of South Florida slash pine, acres in size. Total inclusions in any area are less than
scattered cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, 20 percent.
gallberry, fetterbush, running oak, dwarf huckleberry, The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for
pineland threeawn, blue maidencane, and species of more than 6 months in most years and at a depth of less
bluestem. than 10 inches for 1 to 2 months. The available water
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers,
crops because of wetness. The number of adapted medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum.
crops is limited unless intensive water control measures Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
are used. If a water control system is designed to layers, moderate in the sandy part of the subsoil, and
remove the excess water in wet seasons and to provide slow or very slow in the loamy part. Natural fertility is
for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons, this soil is suited low.
to many kinds of flower and vegetable crops. Good Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation
management includes close growing, soil improving consisting of slash pine, scattered cabbage palm,
crops in the crop rotation, use of crop residue and cover sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, gallberry, fetterbush, pineland
crops to protect the soil from erosion, and applications threeawn, bluestems, panicums, and other grasses.
of lime and fertilizers according to the need of the crop. Under natural conditions, this soil has severe
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness. The
citrus trees because of wetness. If a well designed number of crops is limited unless intensive water control
drainage system is used to remove the excess water to measures are used. Many crops can be grown if
a depth of about 4 feet, this soil is suitable for citrus management is good and a good water control system is
crops. Good management includes planting the trees on designed to remove excess surface water in wet
beds to lower the effective depth of the water table, use seasons and provide subsurface irrigation in dry
of a close growing cover crop between tree rows to seasons. Crop residue and soil improving crops should
protect the soil from blowing when dry and washing be used to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed
during heavy rains, and regular applications of fertilizers preparation needs to include bedding. Fertilizer and lime
and lime as needed. Supplemental irrigation is needed in should be applied according to the need of the crop.
dry seasons for maximum yields. Citrus trees are moderately suited if a well designed
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. water control system is established to maintain the water
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if table below a depth of 4 feet. Planting trees on beds
well managed. A simple drainage system that removes helps lower the effective depth of the water table. A
the excess surface water in times of high rainfall is cover crop needs to be maintained between the tree
needed. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied as needed.
also needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses.
healthy plants for best yields. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover
The potential is medium for pine trees. The major grow well if well managed. Water control measures are
management concerns are plant competition, equipment needed to remove the excess surface water in times of
mobility, and seedling mortality. South Florida slash pine high rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime







Martin County Area, Florida 27



are needed, and grazing should be controlled to maintain 4 feet and protect the soil from ponding are needed.
healthy plants. Planting the trees on beds helps lower the effective
The potential is medium for pine trees. The major depth of the water table. A good close growing cover
management concerns are plant competition, equipment crop is needed between the tree rows to protect the soil
mobility, and seedling mortality during wet seasons. from blowing when the trees are young. The trees
South Florida slash pine is preferred for planting. A require regular applications of fertilizer and occasional
simple water control system to remove excess surface liming.
water should be installed. Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. improved pasture. However, if water control is adequate,
this soil is suitable for good quality pasture of improved
19-Winder sand. This nearly level soil is poorly grasses. Good pasture of grass alone or grass-clover
drained. It is in long, low depressions in the flatwoods. mixtures can be grown if management is good. Pasture
Areas are 5 to 10 acres or range to several hundred requires regular applications of fertilizers and controlled
acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and are less than grazing for highest yields.
2 percent. The potential is low for pine trees. Water control is
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 7 needed before trees can be planted. Equipment
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray sand about 8 limitations and seedling mortality are management
inches thick. The subsoil is light brownish gray sandy concerns. Slash pine is better suited than other species.
clay loam and has sandy streaks in the upper 11 inches This soil is in capability subclass VIIw.
and light gray sandy clay loam in the lower 16 inches.
The substratum is below a depth of 42 inches. It is
greenish gray loamy sand and has white shell fragments 20-Riviera fine sand. This nearly level soil is poorly
in the lower part. drained. It is on broad, low flats and in drainageways.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2
Chobee, Floridana, Gator, Riviera, and Wabasso soils. percent.
Also included are small spots of soils that are similar to Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about
this Winder soil but have a few inches of organic 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown to
material on the surface or have a loamy fine sand or light gray fine sand to a depth of 36 inches. The subsoil is
loamy sand surface layer. Total inclusions in any area olive gray fine sandy loan that has a few fine tongues and
are less than 25 percent. olive gray fine sandy loan that has a few fine tongues and
This soil is pounded for 6 to 9 months in most years, pockets of light gray subsurface material. Next is light gray
and the water table is at a depth of less than 40 inches fine sand to a depth of about 56 inches and mixed fine
the rest of the time. Permeability is rapid in the surface sand and shell fragments to a depth of 80 inches or more.
and subsurface layers, moderately slow in the upper part Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
of the subsoil, and slow to very slow in the lower part of soil that has a dark colored surface layer more than 6
the subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the inches thick and soil that has an organic stained layer
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the above the subsoil. Also included are small areas of
subsoil. Floridana, Holopaw, Pineda, Wabasso, and Winder soils.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation Total inclusions in any area are less than 20 percent.
consisting of waxmyrtle, maidencane, blue maidencane, The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
sand cordgrass, queensdelight, and a wide variety of for 2 to 4 months in most years, and at a depth of 10 to
sedges. 30 inches the rest of the time. It can recede below a
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to depth of 40 inches for short periods in dry seasons. The
cultivated crops. However, if a water control system available water capacity is low in the surface and
removes the excess water rapidly and protects the soil subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
from ponding, this soil is suited to vegetable crops. Good Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
management includes crop rotations that keep close and slow to very slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
growing cover crops in the cropping system at least two- the content of organic matter are low.
thirds of the time. The cover crops and all other crop Several large areas of this soil are used for citrus,
residue should be used to protect the soil from erosion. truck crops, and improved pasture grasses. Most areas
Seedbed preparation needs to include bedding. are in natural vegetation of South Florida slash pine,
Fertilizers should be applied according to the need of the cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, blue
crop. maidencane, broomsedge bluestem, pineland threeawn,
This soil is not suited to citrus trees because of cordgrass, panicums, and a variety of sedges.
ponding and wetness. However, if water control is Under natural conditions, this soil has severe
adequate, this soil is suitable for citrus. Water control limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness.
systems that maintain good drainage to a depth of about However, if a water control system removes the excess







28 Soil survey



surface water in wet seasons and provides subsurface layers and substratum and medium in the subsoil.
irrigation in dry seasons, this soil is suitable for common Natural fertility and the content of organic matter are
vegetable crops. Good management includes crop low.
rotations that keep close growing cover crops in the Some large areas of this soil are used for citrus crops
cropping system two-thirds of the time and includes the and improved pasture. Most areas remain in natural
use of cover crops and all crop residue to protect the vegetation of slash pine, cabbage palm, waxmyrtle,
soil from erosion. Other management practices are good gallberry, fetterbush, blue maidencane, broomsedge
seedbed preparation, bedding, and applying fertilizers bluestem, chalky bluestem, low panicums, pineland
according to the need of the crop. threeawn, and numerous grasses.
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. If a
citrus trees. However, if water control is adequate, this water control system is established to remove excess
soil is well suited to the production of oranges and water and provide a means of applying subsurface
grapefruit. A water control system that maintains good irrigation, this soil is well suited to vegetable crops. Good
drainage to a depth of about 4 feet is needed. The trees management includes crop rotations that keep close
should be planted on beds, and a close growing cover growing cover crops in the cropping system at least two-
crop needs to be maintained on the beds to prevent soil thirds of the time. The cover crops and all other crop
blowing while the trees are young. Regular applications residue should be used to protect the soil from erosion.
of fertilizers are needed. Seedbed preparation needs to include bedding.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Fertilizers should be applied according to the need of the
Excellent pasture of pangolagrass, bahiagrass, or grass- crop.
clover mixtures can be grown if management is good. A Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
simple drainage system to remove the excess surface citrus trees, but if water control is adequate, it is well
water in wet seasons is needed. Also needed are regular suited to citrus. Water control systems that maintain
applications of fertilizers and controlled grazing. good drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are needed.
The potential is medium for pine trees, but a water Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of
control system is needed if the potential productivity is to the water table. A close growing cover crop is needed
be realized. Equipment limitations, plant competition, and between the tree rows to protect the soil from blowing
seedling mortality are the main management concerns, when the trees are young. The trees require regular
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture, especially
21-Pineda sand. This nearly level soil is poorly to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers. Excellent
drained. It is in low grassy flats in most parts of the pasture of grass alone or grass-clover mixtures can be
county. Areas vary considerably in size, ranging from 5 grown if management is good. Pasture requires regular
to 1,000 acres. Slopes are smooth and dominantly less applications of fertilizers and controlled grazing for
than 1 percent but range from 0 to 2 percent. highest yields.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray and dark The potential is medium for pine trees, but a water
grayish brown sand. The subsurface layer is brown fine control system is needed if the potential productivity is to
sand and has yellow and brownish yellow mottles. The be realized. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
upper part of the subsoil is brownish yellow and very are the main management concerns. Slash pine is better
pale brown fine sand that is coated with iron oxides. The suited than other species.
lower part of the subsoil is mottled, gray fine sandy loam. This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
Below this is grayish fine sandy loam. The substratum is
a mixture of gray sand and white shell fragments to a 22-Okeelanta muck. This nearly level soil is very
depth of 72 inches or more. poorly drained. It is in depressions and freshwater
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of swamps and marshes. The two major areas are a long,
Boca, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pinellas, Riviera, Wabasso, and narrow swamp along the eastern foot of the coastal
Winder soils. Also included are areas of soils that have ridge and a marsh area adjacent to Lake Okeechobee.
organic stained layers or a thin, discontinuous Bh Slopes are smooth to concave and 0 to 1 percent.
horizon above the loamy subsoil and areas of soils that Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 4
have a thicker, dark colored surface layer. Total inches thick. Next is dark reddish brown muck about 22
inclusions in any area are less than 20 percent. inches thick over a 4-inch layer of black muck mixed with
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to sand. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand
6 months during wet seasons in most years and at a that is very dark gray in the upper 18 inches and dark
depth of 10 to 40 inches most of the remaining time. grayish brown below.
Some areas are covered in places with shallow water for Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
1 to 2 months. Permeability is rapid, except it is slow to soils that are similar to this Okeelanta soil but have
very slow in the lower part of the subsoil. The available organic material to a depth of 40 inches or more. Also
water capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface included are small areas of Samsula and Sanibel soils.







Martin County Are'a, Florida 29



Total inclusions in any area range from about 10 to 15 flatwoods. Areas are mainly in the Port Salerno area and
percent. range from about 20 to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth to
This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more in most convex and range from 0 to 5 percent.
years. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches Typically, the surface layer is gray sand. The
most of the rest of the year. Internal drainage is slow subsurface layer is white sand. Next is strong brown and
because it is inhibited by the high water table. yellowish brown sand stained by organic matter. Below
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available water this is light yellowish brown and very pale brown sand to
capacity is very high in the organic material and low in a depth of 80 inches or more.
the underlying sand. Natural fertility is moderate. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The area of this soil near Lake Okeechobee is drained Jonathan, Paola, Salerno, Satellite Variant, and
and is used for sugarcane. All other areas are in natural Waveland soils. Also included are soils that are similar to
vegetation of red maple, cabbage palm, water oak, this Orsino soil but have more strongly developed
redbay, strangler fig, sawgrass, arrowhead, vines, and organic stained layers. Total inclusions in any area are
ferns. less than 20 percent.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops unless the The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for
excess water is controlled. If the water is adequately more than 6 months in most years and below a depth of
controlled, this soil is well suited to many vegetable 60 inches during the dry season. Permeability is very
crops and sugarcane. A well designed and maintained rapid throughout the profile, and the available water
water control system should provide for removing excess capacity is very low or low. Natural fertility and the
water while crops are growing on the soil and for content of organic matter are very low.
keeping the soil saturated with water at all other times. This Orsino soil has very severe limitations for
Fertilizers that contain phosphates, potash, and minor cultivated crops. It requires intensive management if
elements are needed. Lime is needed on the more acid cultivated. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
soils. Cover crops should be maintained on the soil when nutrients reduce the variety of adapted crops and
crops are not being grown, and all plant residue and potential yields of crops that are adapted. Row crops
cover crops should be used to protect the soil from should be planted on the contour in strips alternating
erosion with strips of close growing crops. Close growing crops
heron. are needed in the crop rotation at least three-fourths of
When the excess water is properly controlled, this soil the time. Soil improving crops and all crop residue
is well suited to improved pasture grasses, should be left on the ground to protect the soil from
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, St. Augustine grass, and white erosion. Only a few crops produce good yields without
clover grow well if properly managed. The water control irrigation. Irrigation is generally feasible if irrigation water
system should maintain the water table near the surface is readily available.
to prevent excessive oxidation of the organic material. Citrus trees are moderately well suited to this soil. A
Fertilizers high in phosphates, potash, and minor close growing cover crop is needed between the tree
elements are needed. Grazing should be controlled to rows to protect the soil from blowing and washing. Good
permit maximum yields. yields of oranges and grapefruit can be obtained in some
This soil is not suitable for the production of citrus or years without irrigation. A well designed irrigation system
pine trees, to maintain optimum moisture conditions is needed to
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. assure high yields.
Pasture and hay crops are moderately well suited to
23-Urban land. This miscellaneous area is more this soil. Deep rooting plants, such as Coastal
than 70 percent covered by shopping centers, parking bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted, but
lots, large buildings, houses, streets, sidewalks, airports, yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
and related facilities. The natural soil cannot be fertilizing and liming are needed. Grazing should be
observed. Unoccupied areas, mostly lawns, vacant lots, controlled to permit plants to recover from grazing and
playgrounds, and parks, consist mainly of St. Lucie, Paola, maintain vigor.
Pomello, and Waveland soils. These soils have been The potential is low for pine trees on this soil.
generally altered by grading and shaping, or have been Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
covered with 5 to 12 inches of sandy fill material. The competition are the main management concerns. Slash
unoccupied areas are too small to map separately. and sand pines are preferred in planting.
Slopes are mostly nearly level, but range to sloping in a This soil is in capability subclass IVs.
few places.
This map unit is not assigned to a capability subclass. 25-Beaches. Beaches consist of nearly level to
sloping, narrow strips of tide-washed sands and shell
24-Orsino sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly fragments. Beaches are along the Atlantic Ocean
level to gently sloping soil is moderately well drained. It shoreline.
is in transitional sites between excessively drained soils No one pedon represents beaches. They commonly
on ridges and poorly drained soils in areas of the are a mixture of light brownish gray sand and fine shell







30 Soil survey


fragments in the upper 40 inches. Next is light gray or excess water in wet seasons and to provide water
gray sand and shell fragments. Below this is gray sand through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Seedbed
and shell fragments to a depth of 70 inches or more. preparation needs to include bedding of the rows.
The soil is moderately alkaline. Shell fragments are Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
calcareous. Texture is dominantly sand but ranges from need of the crop.
fine sand to coarse sand. Shell fragments are mostly Citrus trees are poorly suited to this soil in its natural
sand size, but in places coarser fragments or whole condition. This soil is suitable for citrus only after a
shells are scattered through the soil or in pockets or carefully designed water control system that maintains
lenses. Layers within the soil differ only in color or shell the water table below a depth of about 4 feet has been
content. They may be in any sequence or may have a installed. Planting trees on beds helps lower the effective
uniform color and shell content throughout. depth of the water table. A cover crop should be
Beaches range from less than 100 feet to more than maintained between tree rows. Regular applications of
500 feet in width. As much as half of the area may be fertilizer and lime are needed.
flooded daily during high tides, and all of the area may This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses.
be flooded by storm tides. Most beaches gently slope to Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover
the water's edge, though the shape and slope can grow satisfactorily if well managed. A water control
change with every storm. system that removes excess surface water after heavy
Rock outcrops are in scattered places along the rains is needed. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
beaches and are extensive at Blowing Rocks near the are needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
south county line. In some spots, the outcrops are visible overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
only during low tide. Potential is low for longleaf and slash pine on this soil.
Depth to the water table is highly variable depending A water control system to remove excess surface water
on distance from the shore, elevation of the beach, and is necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized.
the tidal condition. Commonly, the water table can range Seedling mortality and equipment limitations are the
from a depth of 0 to 6 feet, depending on the time and planting thanagement concern trees. Slash pine is better suited to
place, and the depth can fluctuate daily. planting than other trees.
This map unit is not placed in a capability subclass. This soil is in capability subclass Vw.
26-Pompano fine sand. This nearly level soil is 27-Arents, organic substratum, 0 to 2 percent
26-Pompano fine sand. This nearly level soil is slopes. This nearly level soil is somewhat poorly
poorly drained. It is in sloughs in the flatwoods. Areas rained. It consists of fill material that was excavated
range from about 5 to 50 acres. Slopes are smooth to and spread over organic soils, then shaped or smoothed
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. to suit the desired use. The mixed fill material was
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand. spread over the surface of the natural organic soil to a
Below this is light brownish gray, grayish brown, and light depth of about 20 to 50 inches. The areas are irregular
gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. in shape and range from about 2 to 50 acres.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The texture and thickness of the layers of this soil are
Basinger, Holopaw, Malabar, and Placid soils. Also highly variable from place to place. A common profile
included are a few areas of soils that are pounded for 6 has a surface layer about 36 inches thick. The surface
months or more. Total inclusions in any area range to layer is mixed dark gray and dark brown fine sand and
about 25 percent, has a few lumps of gray fine sandy loam and small
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches pockets of black muck. Next is 10 inches of dark gray
for 2 to 6 months a year and a depth of 10 to 30 inches and grayish brown fine sand that has some black and
for periods of more than 6 months in most years. very dark gray fine sand mixed into the upper part.
Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile. The Below this, the upper 20 inches is undisturbed dark
available water capacity and content of organic matter reddish brown muck that has few to common, gray fine
are very low. Natural fertility is low. sand pockets. Below this is dark grayish brown and
Most areas of this soil remain in open forest. Natural grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 70 inches. The
vegetation is scattered slash pine and cabbage palm and upper part of this fine sand has a few pockets and
an understory of sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, gallberry, St. tongues of black muck.
Johnswort, pineland threeawn, blue maidencane, and Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas of
other grasses. soil in which the organic layer is over thin to thick layers
Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe of calcareous or saline silty clay loam. Also included are
limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness and small areas that have less than 20 inches of fill material
the sandy texture. The number of adapted crops is overlying the natural soil, a few areas that have material
limited unless management is very intensive. However, if mixed with shell fragments in the surface layer or below
water control is good and soil improving measures are the muck layer, and a few spots of more poorly drained
used, this soil is suitable for a number of vegetable soil. Total inclusions in any area are less than 25
crops. A water control system is needed to remove the percent.







Martin County Area, Florida 31


The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches during This soil is in capability subclass VIs.
most of the year. Permeability is mainly rapid. The
available water capacity is variable but is generally low in 30-Bessie muck. This nearly level, organic soil is
the mineral soil layers and high in the organic layer. very poorly drained. It is in mangrove swamps along
Natural fertility is low.. coastal areas, especially the Intracoastal Waterway.
Most areas of this soil are used for urban Areas range from about 20 to 200 acres. Slopes are less
development. Some small areas are used for citrus than 1 percent.
where low, wet organic soils are covered so that Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck
continuous, uniform bedding can be established, about 18 inches thick. This layer has a high percent of
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. The weight of fine mineral material. Next is 26 inches of very dark
the overburden in the beds compresses the underlying grayish brown clay. Below this is dark gray fine sand with
organic material and allows the beds to sag. Also, the shell fragments.
compression reduces permeability and in places causes Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
a thin seal to form at the surface of the organic material. Okeelanta Variant, Aquents, and Canaveral soils. Also
In these places the water table remains high, trees grow included are small areas of soils that have less than 16
poorly, and the drainage furrows hold water and become inches or more than 40 inches of organic material and
boggy. small areas of soils that have a mineral surface layer
The potential is variable for most urban uses because overlying organic materials. Total inclusions in any area
of a wide range in soil properties. Low soil strength and are less than 20 percent.
wetness are the major limitations. This soil has high The water table is dependent on tidal action. It is at or
potential for playgrounds. Onsite investigation is above the surface during high tides and storm periods
necessary to determine the limitations and suitability of and is within a depth of 10 inches at all other times. The
each site available water capacity is very high in the organic
This soil is not assigned to a capability subclass, surface layer and high in the clayey substratum.
Permeability is rapid in the organic layer and slow or very
28-Canaveral sand, O to 5 percent slopes. This slow in the clayey substratum. The natural fertility is
nearly level to gently sloping soil is somewhat poorly medium, and salinity is high.
drained to moderately well drained. It is on low dunelike The natural vegetation is a dense growth of red, black,
ridges and side slopes bordering sloughs and mangrove and white mangrove trees and bushy sea-oxeye, sea
swamps. Areas range from 15 to about 100 acres. purslane, leather fern, and glasswort in more open
Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 5 areas.
percent. This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, citrus,
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand and pasture, or pine trees.
shell fragments. The underlying layers are light brownish This soil is in capability subclass Vlllw.
gray sand and multicolored shell fragments. 31-Cocoa Variant sand. This nearly level soil is
Included with this soil in mapping are soils that are moderately well drained. It is on low ridges on
similar to this Canaveral soil but have a thicker, dark Hutchinson Island. Areas range from about 10 to 40
colored surface layer or have steeper slopes. Also acres. Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to
included are small areas of Arents, Arents organic 2 percent.
substratum, Palm Beach, and Cocoa Variant soils. Total Typically, the surface layer is sand about 14 inches
inclusions in any area are about 25 percent. thick; the upper 8 inches of the surface layer is very dark
In most years under natural conditions, the water table brown, and the lower 6 inches is brown. The subsoil is
is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. brown sand about 6 inches thick. Next is very pale
Permeability is very rapid, and the available water brown sand to a depth of about 25 inches. Below this is
capacity is very low. Natural fertility and the content of coquina limestone. The layers below the surface layer
organic matter are very low. are about 50 percent shell fragments.
Native vegetation consists of cabbage palm, scattered Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
sawpalmetto, and magnolia and bay trees. Many areas soils that are similar to this Cocoa Variant soil but have a
have Australian pine and cabbage palm and a sparse thinner, dark colored surface layer. An area on Jupiter
ground cover of grasses and sedges. Island has soils that are similar to this soil but are slightly
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It is poorly elevated, well drained, do not have the dark colored
suited to improved pasture grasses. Low water retention surface layer, and have a redder subsoil. The behavior of
and low natural fertility severely reduce the variety of these soils is enough like Cocoa Variant soils that
grasses. nothing would be gained by mapping them separately.
The potential is low for pine trees. Moderate Also included are small areas of Canaveral and Palm
equipment limitations and severe seedling mortality are Beach soils and soils deeper than 40 inches to
the main management concerns. Slash pine is better limestone. Total inclusions in any area are less than 15
adapted than other species. percent.







32 Soil survey



The water table is at a depth of 30 to 40 inches for water table is within a depth of 60 inches. Total
brief periods during the wet season or after heavy rains, inclusions in any area are about 10 percent.
It is generally in or below the rock layer, depending on Permeability is rapid except in places on the crest of
the depth of the rock. The water table is at a depth of 40 the dike where the soil has been compacted. Runoff is
to 60 inches most of the rest of each year and is rapid. The available water capacity is commonly low.
probably never below this depth because of the proximity Most of the dike surface has been planted to bahiagrass.
of sea level. The available water capacity is low or very The grass grows fairly well in wet seasons but suffers in
low in all layers. Permeability is rapid throughout the soil. drier seasons. Maintenance of the grass is needed
Natural fertility is low. continuously if erosion is to be prevented. Areas of this
Some areas of this soil are used for urban soil are protected from grazing animals and are not
development or recreation areas. The natural vegetation available for other uses.
is cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, Australian pine, patches This soil is not assigned to a capability subclass.
of seagrape, and other shrubs and grasses.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated 33-Paola-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent
crops because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of slopes. This complex consists of small areas of nearly
plant nutrients. Soil improving crops and all crop residue level to sloping, excessively drained Paola soils and
should be left on the surface to help protect the soil Urban land. Areas of the soils and Urban land are so
from erosion. Only a few crops produce good yields intermingled they could not be separated at the scale
without irrigation. Areas of this soil are rapidly being used in mapping. Areas of the complex are rectangular
developed for urban uses, which generally precludes its or elongated and range from 10 to 160 acres.
use for crops. The Paola soils make up about 45 to 60 percent of
This soil is suitable for citrus. A good ground cover of this complex. Typically, the surface layer of the Paola
close growing plants is needed between the trees to soil is gray sand. The subsurface layer is white sand.
protect the soil from blowing. Good yields of oranges Below this is yellowish sand to a depth of 80 inches or
and grapefruit can be obtained in some years without more.
irrigation. However, an irrigation system to maintain Urban land makes up 25 to 35 percent of this
optimum moisture conditions is needed to assure best complex. It is occupied by shopping centers, parking
yields. lots, houses, buildings, streets, sidewalks, and related
The suitability of this soil for pasture is moderate. structures. Unoccupied or openland areas are mainly
Deep rooting plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds. These areas consist
bahiagrass, are well adapted but yields are reduced by mostly of Paola soils.
periodic drought. Regular fertilizing and liming are The St. Lucie, Pomello, and Satellite Variant soils
needed. Grazing should be controlled to permit plants to make up about 5 to 30 percent of the land not covered
maintain vigor for best yields. by urban facilities. Some of these soils have a shallower
The potential for pine trees is medium. Equipment water table, but otherwise they have properties similar to
limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are the Paola soils. Some unoccupied areas of these soils
the main management concerns. South Florida slash have been cut, filled, or smoothed for future
pine is preferred for planting. development.
This soil is in capability subclass IVs. Present land use precludes the use of this complex for
cultivated crops, citrus, improved pasture, or forestry.
32-Udorthents, 0 to 35 percent slopes. This soil is This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass.
on a large dike around Lake Okeechobee. It consists of
mixed material that was excavated from adjacent areas 34-St. Lucie-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent
and shaped to form a large dike. The dike is slopes. This complex consists of small areas of nearly
approximately 25 to 30 feet high, 300 feet wide at the level to sloping, excessively drained St. Lucie soils and
base, and continuous along the lake shoreline, except Urban land. Areas of the soils and Urban land are so
where broken by the St. Lucie Canal. intermingled they could not be separated at the scale
The texture, color, and thickness of this soil vary from used in mapping. Areas of the complex are generally
one area to another. A more common profile has a rectangular or elongated and range from 10 to about 160
surface layer of mixed, very dark gray and grayish brown acres.
fine sand about 1 inch thick. The next layer is mixed The St. Lucie soils make up about 45 to 60 percent of
grayish brown and pale brown fine sand that has this complex. Typically, the surface layer of the St. Lucie
numerous shell fragments and some rock fragments. soil is gray sand about 3 inches thick. Underlying white
Below this is many feet of boulders and cobbles with sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
grayish brown fine sand and loamy material in the voids Urban land makes up 25 to 35 percent of this
between rocks. complex. It is occupied by shopping centers, parking
Included with this soil in mapping are long narrow lots, houses, buildings, streets. sidewalks, and related
areas at the base of each side of the dike where the structures. Unoccupied or openland areas are mainly







Martin County Area, Florida 33



lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds. These areas consist soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation needs to include
mostly of St. Lucie soils. bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
The Paola, Pomello, and Satellite Variant soils make according to the need of the crop.
up about 5 to 30 percent of the land not covered by Citrus is poorly suited to this soil, unless management
urban facilities. Some of these soils have a shallower is very intensive. This soil can be made suitable for citrus
water table, but otherwise they have properties similar to if a carefully designed water control system is installed
the St. Lucie soils. Some unoccupied areas of soils in to maintain the water table below a depth of 4 feet. The
this complex have been cut, filled, or smoothed for urban trees should be planted on beds and a cover crop
development. maintained between the tree rows. Regular applications
Present land use precludes the use of this complex for of fertilizer and lime are needed.
cultivated crops, citrus, improved pasture, or forestry. This soil is moderately suited to pasture.
This complex is not assigned to a capability subclass. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover
produce moderate yields if well managed. A water
35-Salerno sand. This nearly level soil is poorly control system to remove excess surface water is
drained. It is in broad areas of flatwoods. Areas range needed. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
from about 20 to 500 acres. Slopes are dominantly needed and grazing should be controlled to prevent
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
Typically, the surface layer is black to very dark gray The potential is low for pine trees on this soil.
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
gray to brown fine sand to a depth of 61 inches. Next is competition are the main management concerns. Slash
cemented black sand about 15 inches thick. Below this pine is preferred in planting.
is dark reddish brown sand that has weakly cemented This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
fragments to a depth of 100 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 36-Arents, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This nearly level
soils that are similar to this Salerno soil but have soil is somewhat poorly drained to moderately well
noncemented subsoil and soils that have loamy sand drained. It consists of fill material that was excavated
below the subsoil. Also included are small areas of and spread over the surface of wet mineral soils, then
Basinger, Hobe, Jonathan, Oldsmar, Placid, and smoothed to suit the desired use. The mixed fill material
Waveland soils. Total inclusions in any area are about 20 was spread to a depth of about 20 to 50 inches. Areas
percent. are irregular in shape and range from about 5 to 50
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to acres.
4 months during the wet season in most years and The texture and thickness of the layers of this soil are
below a depth of 40 inches for 1 to 4 months in dry highly variable from place to place. A common profile
seasons. The internal drainage is slow and is impeded has a surface layer of light brownish gray fine sand
by the water table that is perched above the subsoil for about 30 inches thick. It has numerous small to large
long periods. Permeability is rapid to a depth of 61 lumps of dark grayish brown sandy loam and sandy clay
inches and very slow to moderately slow between loam and few to common, firm, black and dark reddish
depths of 61 and 76 inches. The available water capacity brown fragments. Below this is the natural undisturbed
is low in the surface layer, very low in the subsurface soil in which the upper 6 inches is black, mucky fine
layer, and low in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the sand that has a few small pockets of dark gray and very
content of organic matter are low. dark gray fine sand and black organic matter. Below a
Some large areas of this soil are used for improved depth of 36 inches is dark grayish brown fine sand that
pasture, but most areas remain in natural vegetation, has a few lenses of very dark gray fine sand and
The natural vegetation is South Florida slash pine, pockets of dark gray and light gray fine sand to a depth
sawpalmetto, gallberry, fetterbush, waxmyrtle, creeping of 60 inches or more.
bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, chalky bluestem, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
pineland threeawn, and panicums. soils that are similar to this Arents soil, but have less
Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe than 20 inches or more than 50 inches of mixed
limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness and overburden material and small areas of soils underlain by
poor soil qualities. Adapted crops are limited unless very organic material. Also included are a few areas where
intensive management practices are used. If water garbage and other refuse has been deposited and
control is good and soil improving measures are used, covered by a layer of mixed soil material. These areas
this soil is suitable for many vegetable crops. A water are labeled Sanitary Landfill on the maps where they
control system is needed to remove the excess water in occur. Total inclusions in any area are less than 25
wet seasons and provide water through subsurface percent.
irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops need to be rotated The water table is below a depth of 30 inches during
with close growing, soil improving crops. Crop residue most of the year. Permeability is variable but generally is
and soil improving crops should be used to protect the rapid. The available water capacity is variable but







34 Soil survey



generally is low. Natural fertility and the content of to a depth of about 4 feet. If water is controlled and
organic matter are low. trees are planted on beds, citrus trees grow well. A close
This soil is not used as cropland. It consists of mixed growing cover crop is needed between the tree rows to
soil material used to fill low areas to make them suitable prevent blowing and washing. The trees require regular
for building sites or other urban uses. Even though it was applications of fertilizers.
constructed for such uses, the potential of this soil is This soil is too wet for improved pasture grasses and
variable for urban development because of the wide legumes in its natural state, but if water control is
range in soil properties. Soil strength is likely to be adequate, suitability is high for many grasses and
variable because of differences in thickness, texture, and legumes. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well
degree of compaction. Onsite investigation is needed for if properly fertilized and limed. Grazing should be
each use. controlled to maintain plant vigor for high yields.
This soil is not assigned to a capability subclass. The potential is high for pine trees if water is
controlled. Slash pine is better adapted than other
38-Floridana fine sand, depressional. This nearly species. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
level soil is very poorly drained. It is in wet sloughs and the main management concerns.
depressions. Areas range from 10 to about 80 acres. This soil is in capability subclass VIIw.
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2
percent. 39-Quartzipsamments, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 15 nearly level to sloping soil is excessively drained. It
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray consists of thick deposits of mixed sand and shell
fine sand to a depth of 27 inches. The subsoil is grayish materials. These materials were dredged from adjacent
brown sandy clay loam. Next is grayish brown fine sandy canals and deposited in long, narrow ridges along the
loam, and below this is light gray fine sand to a depth of banks. The deposits are generally 5 to 20 feet thick, and
62 inches or more. in most areas are not shaped. The water table is below a
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of depth of 60 inches.
soils that are similar to this Floridana soil but are The texture and thickness of the layers in this soil vary
underlain by limestone at a depth of 30 to 50 inches, from one area to another. A more common profile has a
soils that have a very thick surface layer, and soils that surface layer of mixed grayish brown fine sand and shell
have a subsoil slightly deeper than 40 inches. Also fragments about 6 inches thick. Below this is mixed light
included are small areas of Chobee, Riviera, Tequesta gray fine sand and shell fragments to a depth of 80
Variant, and Winder soils. Total inclusions in any area inches or more.
are less than 20 percent. Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas that
This soil is ponded for more than 6 months during have steeper slopes. Some areas along the fringes of
most years. The water table is at a depth of less than 10 the overburden have a surface covering of dark gray,
inches for much of the remainder of the year. sticky clay that has washed out of the loose overburden
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers materials and redeposited at the base. This layer ranges
and slow to very slow in the subsoil. The available water from about 2 to 8 inches thick. Small areas of this soil
capacity is medium in the surface layer and subsoil and are spoil islands, or mounds, along the Intracoastal
low in the subsurface layer. The content of organic Waterway. These areas have an elevation of about 2 to
matter is high, and natural fertility is medium. 8 feet. They have a water table as shallow as 2 feet on
Some areas of this soil are drained and used for the fringes adjacent to the waterway. Also included are
cultivated crops, or citrus. Most areas remain in natural Arents and Canaveral soils. Total inclusions in any area
vegetation consisting of cypress, willow, and bay trees, are about 15 percent.
pickerelweed, waxmyrtle, primrose willow, sawgrass, The available water capacity is variable but is
smartweed, and water-tolerant grasses. commonly very low. Permeability is rapid or very rapid.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to Runoff is rapid. The natural fertility and content of
cultivated crops. If water control is good, this soil is well organic matter are very low.
suited to many vegetable crops. A well designed and A few broader, gently sloping areas of this soil are
maintained water control system should provide rapid used for citrus, or as roadways and homesites. Most
removal of excess water during heavy rains. Important areas are not utilized, except as a source of fill material.
management practices include good seedbed This soil has low potential for most agricultural uses
preparation, crop rotations, and regular applications of because of soil reaction, low natural fertility, and
fertilizer and lime. Cover crops need to be rotated with droughtiness.
row crops and should be in the cropping sequence two- This soil is not assigned to a capability subclass.
thirds of the time. All crop residue and soil improving
crops should be used to protect the soil from erosion. 40-Sanibel muck. This nearly level soil is very poorly
This soil is not suited to citrus trees unless the excess drained. It is in marshes and swamps, depressions, and
water is controlled and good soil aeration is maintained poorly defined drainageways. Areas range from about 5







Martin County Area, Florida 35


to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and are about 56 inches. The upper 33 inches of the subsurface
less than 1 percent. layer is light gray, and the lower 18 inches is light
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 12 inches brownish gray. The subsoil is black, weakly cemented
thick; the upper 7 inches of the surface layer is black, sand to a depth of 100 inches or more.
and the lower 5 inches is dark reddish brown. Next is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
very dark grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick. soils that are similar to this Jonathan soil but have a
Below this is sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The weakly cemented subsoil at a depth of slightly less than
upper 7 inches of the sand is grayish brown, and the 50 inches or slightly more than 80 inches. Also included
lower part is light gray. are small areas of Hobe, Pomello Variant, Salerno,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Satellite Variant, and Waveland soils. Total inclusions in
soils that are similar to this Sanibel soil but have slightly any area are less than 20 percent.
less than 8 inches of muck on the surface or have 10 The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1
inches or more of dark colored sand immediately below to 4 months during the wet season, and may rise for
the muck surface layer. Also included are small areas of brief periods to a depth of 36 inches. It is below 60
Basinger, Okeelanta, Samsula, and Placid soils. Total inches most of the rest of each year. Permeability is very
inclusions in any area are less than 20 percent. rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and slow or
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches very slow in the subsoil. The available water capacity is
for 6 to 12 month in most years. Water is ponded on the very low in the surface and subsurface layers and
surface for 2 to 6 months during wet seasons. The medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the content of
available water capacity is very high in the organic organic matter are very low.
surface layer and medium in the sand layer. Permeability Some large areas of this soil are used for urban
is rapid. The natural fertility is moderate. development. The rest is in natural vegetation of South
Some areas of this soil are used for crops and Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto, species of scrub oak,
improved pasture. Most areas remain in natural gallberry, fetterbush, running oak, gopher apple,
vegetation of redbay, red maple, black willow, cypress, grassleaf goldastor, cacti, and scattered sprigs of
waxmyrtle, sawgrass, maidencane, needlerush, and other pineland threeawn and other grasses. Sand pine and
grasses and sedges. rosemary are in some areas.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because of
because of wetness. Under natural conditions this soil is droughtiness and the sandy texture. It is only fairly well
not suited to cultivated crops, but if the wetness is droughtiness and the sandy texture. It is only fairly well
adequately controlled, it is well suited to most vegetable suited to improved pasture grasses, even if good
crops and sugarcane. A well designed and maintained management practices are used. Bahiagrasses are
water control system is needed. The water control better suited than most other grasses. Clovers are not
system should remove the excess water when crops are suited. Droughtiness is the major limitation except during
on the lashould keep the soils saturate with water a aall the wet season. Regular applications of fertilizers and
other times. Fertilizers that contain phosphates, potash, lime are needed.
another times. Fertilizerments thare needed. Water tolerant cover This soil has fair suitability for citrus trees. Fair yields
and miror elements are needed. Water tolerant cover
crops should be on the soils when they are not in use can be obtained with a high level of management.
for row crops. All crop residue and cover crops need to Droughtiness is the major limitation, and for maximum
be used to protect the soil from erosion. yields sprinkler irrigation should be provided. Regular
This soil is not suited to citrus or to pine trees. applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
Most improved grasses and clovers adapted to the The potential of this soil is very low for the commercial
area grow well on this soil if water is properly controlled. production of pine trees. Seedling mortality and
High yields of pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white equipment limitations are the major management
clover are possible. Water control should maintain the concerns. South Florida slash pine and sand pine are
water table near the surface to prevent excessive preferred in planting.
oxidation of the organic surface layer. Fertilizers high in This soil is in capability subclass VIs.
potash, phosphorus, and minor elements are needed.
Grazing should be controlled to permit maximum yields. 42-Hallandale sand. This nearly level, shallow soil is
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. poorly drained. It is in broad, low flats and along the
edges of drainageways. Areas range from 5 to about 65
41-Jonathan sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This acres. Slopes are smooth and are 1 percent or less.
nearly level to gently sloping soil is moderately well Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 4
drained. It is on slightly elevated knolls and ridges in the inches thick. Below this is sand to a depth of about 13
flatwoods, mainly in the eastern part of the county. inches. The upper 4 inches of this sand is light brownish
Areas range from 5 to 200 acres or more. Slopes are gray, and the lower 5 inches is grayish brown. Next is
smooth to convex and range from 0 to 5 percent. hard, fractured limestone about 7 inches thick. Below
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5 this, the upper 21 inches of the substratum is light gray
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of and white sandy clay loam. The next 17 inches is light







36 Soil survey



brownish gray sandy loam. The next 18 inches is This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
greenish gray fine sandy loam, and below this the
substratum is greenish gray fine sandy loam mixed with 44-Boca fine sand. This nearly level soil is poorly
shell fragments to a depth of 60 inches or more. drained. It is in areas of flatwoods. Slopes are less than
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 2 percent.
soils that are similar to this Hallandale soil but have rock Typically, the surface layer is fine sand to a depth of
at a depth of slightly less than 6 inches or slightly more about 8 inches. The upper 4 inches of the surface layer
than 20 inches and soils that have a thin layer of loamy is very dark gray, and the lower 4 inches is dark gray.
or carbonatic material over the rock. Some small areas The subsurface layer is fine sand about 17 inches thick.
have a few scattered rock outcrops. Also included are The upper 8 inches of the subsurface layer is light gray,
small areas of Boca, Jupiter, Pineda, Riviera, and and the lower 9 inches is pale brown. The subsoil is light
Wabasso soils. Total inclusions in any area are less than gray fine sandy loam about 7 inches thick. Below this is
20 percent. hard limestone about 8 inches thick. Underlying the
This soil is periodically covered with shallow water for limestone are layers of light gray fine sand, greenish
a few days to a month in especially wet periods. In most gray loamy fine sand, and light gray fine sand mixed with
years, the water table is at a depth of less than 10 shell fragments to a depth of 60 inches or more.
inches for about 4 months during wet seasons and at a Included with this soil in mapping are soils that are
depth of 10 to 30 inches most of the rest of the year. similar to this Boca soil but have black, organic matter
Permeability is rapid in the sandy layer above the enriched layers or have soft carbonate accumlation in
limestone. The limestone is impermeable, but has place of or overlying the hard limestone. Also included
sufficient fractures and solution holes to permit water are small areas of Hallandale, Pineda, Pinellas, Riviera,
movement. The available water capacity is low or very and Wabasso soils. Total inclusions in any area are
low above the rock. Natural fertility and the content of about 20 percent.
organic matter are very low. The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
Many areas of this soil are used for improved pasture. for 2 to 4 months in most years. In drier seasons, the
Most areas remain in natural vegetation of South Florida depth to the water table coincides with the depth of the
slash pine, cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, limestone layer. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
gallberry, blue maidencane, pineland threeawn, subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
bluestems, and various grasses, available water capacity is low in the surface layer, very
Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe low in the subsurface layer, and medium in the subsoil.
limitations for cultivated crops because of the wetness Natural fertility and the content of organic matter are
and shallow root zone. The high water table and shallow low.
depth to rock severely restrict root development. If water Many areas of this soil are in open forest. The natural
control is adequate, this soil is moderately well suited to vegetation is slash pine and cabbage palm and an
vegetable crops. The water control system must be understory of sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, gallberry,
designed to remove excess surface water in wet fetterbush, blue maidencane, pineland threeawn,
seasons. The shallow depth to rock makes such a bluestems, and other native grasses.
system difficult to construct. Row crops need to be Under natural conditions, this soil has severe
planted on beds and rotated with soil improving crops. limitations for cultivated crops because of the wetness
All crop residue should be used to protect the soil from and shallow depth to rock. The variety of adapted crops
erosion, and fertilizers should be applied as needed. is limited unless intensive water control and soil
This soil is poorly suited to citrus if water is not improving measures are used. However, if a good water
adequately controlled. A water control system that control system removes the excess water in wet
maintains the water table at a depth of 4 feet and seasons and provides water through subsurface irrigation
intensive management are needed for citrus production. in dry seasons, this soil is suitable for adapted vegetable
Trees need to be planted on beds, and a close growing crops. Seedbed preparation needs to include bedding of
cover crop should be maintained between the tree rows. the rows. Row crops need to be rotated with close
Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are needed. growing, soil improving crops, and these crops should be
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses if a in the cropping system two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer
water control system is designed to remove the excess and lime should be added according to the need of the
surface water. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, crop.
and white clover grow well if well managed. Regular This soil is suited to citrus only after a carefully
applications of fertilizers and lime are needed, and designed water control system has been installed. The
grazing should be controlled. water control system should maintain the water table
The potential is low for pine tree production, even if a below a depth of 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds
water control system removes the excess surface water. lowers the effective depth of the water table. A cover
Windthrow hazard and seedling mortality are the main crop should be maintained between the rows of trees.
management concerns. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.






Martin County Area, Florida 37



Improved pasture grasses are well suited to this soil. residue to protect the soil from erosion, bedding, and
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover applications of fertilizers according to the need of the
grow well if well managed. A simple drainage system is crop.
needed to remove the excess surface water after heavy Citrus crops are well suited to this soil. A well
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are designed water control system that will maintain good
needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain drainage to a depth of about 4 feet is needed. The trees
vigorous plants for highest yields and good ground need to be planted on beds. A good close growing cover
cover. crop should be maintained between the tree rows to
The potential is high for pine trees on this soil. A prevent soil blowing in dry weather and eroding in rainy
simple drainage system is needed to remove excess seasons. Regular applications of fertilizers are needed,
water in the wet season. Plant competition and seedling but lime is already present in adequate amounts.
mortality are management concerns. South Florida slash This soil is excellent for improved pasture grasses. It is
pine is better suited to this soil than other trees. well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. clover. A simple surface drainage system is needed. For
maximum yields, regular applications of fertilizers are
45-Hilolo fine sand. This nearly level soil is poorly needed and grazing should be controlled.
drained. It is in hammocks and along borders of The potential is medium for pine trees. A simple
depressions and sloughs. Areas range from about 5 to drainage system is needed to remove the excess
50 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex and range from surface water. Seedling mortality, plant competition, and
0 to 2 percent. occasional equipment limitations are the major
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand to a depth of 8 management concerns.
inches. The upper 3 inches of the surface layer is black, This soil is in capability subclass Ill1w.
and the lower 5 inches is very dark brown. The subsoil is 4-Pneas fne sand. This nearly level soil is poorly
calcareous sandy clay loam to a depth of 56 inches. The 47Pdrained. It illas in flatwoods and. This nearly level soil is poorlydering
upper 32 inches of the subsoil is gray, and the lower 16 sloughdrained. It is in flatwoods and depressions. Ammock areas range from about 5 ordering
inches is white. Below this is light gray fine sandy loam 50 acres. Slopes aresmooth and range from 0 to 2
to a depth of 66 inches or more.prnt
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of percenally, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
soils that are similar to this Hilolo soil but have limestone inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
below the subsoil, soils that have a dark surface layer depth of about 26 inches. The upper 6 inches of the
more than 10 inches thick, and soils that have a sandy subsurface layer is grayish brown. The lower part of the
surface layer slightly more than 20 inches thick. Also subsurface layer has carbonate accumulations and is
included are small spots of Chobee, Jupiter, and Pinellas calcareous. It is dark grayish brown in the upper 2
soils. Total inclusions in any area are less than 25 inches, light gray in the next 3 inches, and white in the
percent, lower 10 inches. The subsoil is light olive gray fine sandy
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches loam about 12 inches thick. Below this is about 14
for 2 to 4 months in most years. It is at a depth of 10 to inches of light olive gray fine sand over light gray fine
40 inches for 6 to 9 months and below 40 inches in dry sand and shell fragments to a depth of 60 inches or
seasons. The available water capacity is low to medium more.
in the surface layer and medium in the subsoil and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
substratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, soils that are similar to this Pinellas soil but have a
moderate to moderately slow in the subsoil, and slow to subsoil slightly deeper than 40 inches or have a dark
very slow below the subsoil. Natural fertility and the colored surface layer more than 6 inches thick. Small
content of organic matter are medium. areas of soils have a yellowish horizon above the
Most areas of this soil are used for citrus. The rest is subsoil. Limestone boulders are below the subsoil in
in natural vegetation of cabbage palm, South Florida some pedons. Also included are small areas of Boca, Ft.
slash pine, live oak, water oak, scattered sawpalmetto, Drum, Hallandale, Hilolo, Pineda, Riviera, and Tuscawilla
wild coffee, ferns, American beautyberry, and species of soils. Total inclusions in any area are less than 25
bluestem and a few other grasses. percent.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for less
because of wetness. If a complete water control system than 3 months and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 4 to
is installed and maintained, this soil is suitable for many 6 months during most years. The water table can recede
adapted vegetable crops. The water control system to a depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry
should be designed to remove excess surface water periods. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
rapidly and provide a means for subsurface irrigation, subsurface layer and moderate in the subsoil. The
Good management includes crop rotations that keep available water capacity is very low in the surface layer
close growing cover crops in the cropping system two- and medium in the subsurface layer and subsoil. Natural
thirds of the time, use of cover crops and all crop fertility and the content of organic matter are low.






38 Soil survey



Some areas of this soil are used for citrus. Most areas of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months in the wet
remain in natural vegetation. The natural vegetation is season during most years. It is at a depth of 10 to 40
South Florida slash pine, cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, inches in drier seasons. Permeability is rapid in the
waxmyrtle, and gallberry. It also includes grasses, such sandy surface layer above the rock. The hard limestone
as broomsedge and chalky bluestems, blue maidencane, is impermeable but has sufficient fractures and solution
lopsided indiangrass, sand cordgrass, and pineland holes to permit water movement. Permeability is
threeawn. moderate to rapid in the substratum. The available water
Under natural conditions, this soil has severe capacity is low to medium in the surface layer. Natural
limitations for cultivated crops. Wetness resulting from a fertility and the content of organic matter are medium.
high water table is the major limiting factor. This soil is A few areas of this soil are used for citrus and
well suited to many vegetable crops if a complete water improved pasture grasses. Most areas are in natural
control system is used to remove the excess surface vegetation of water oak, cabbage palm, red maple,
water and provide a means for applying subsurface strangler fig, marlberry, wild coffee, greenbriar, ferns, and
irrigation. Good management practices include crop a few sprigs of grasses.
rotations that keep close growing cover crops on the soil Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe
between cropping seasons, use of cover crops and all limitations for cultivated crops because of the wetness
crop residue to protect the soil from erosion, good and shallow root zone. The shallow depth to rock and
seedbed preparation, bedding, and applications of the high water table severely restrict root development. If
fertilizers according to the need of the crop. water control is adequate, this soil is suitable for adapted
Citrus trees are suited to this soil if a water control vegetable crops. The water control system must be
system is designed to maintain the water table below a designed to remove excess surface water in wet
depth of 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds helps provide seasons. However, the shallow depth to rock makes
good surface drainage. A good close growing cover crop such a system difficult to construct. Row crops need to
is needed between tree rows to protect the soil from be placed on beds and should be rotated with soil
blowing. Regular applications of fertilizers are needed, improving crops. All crop residue and soil improving
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. crops should be used to protect the soil from erosion.
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and covers grow Fertilizers should be applied according to the need of the
well. Management practices include regular applications crop.
of fertilizers and controlled grazing. TheThis soil is poorly suited to citrus if the excess water is
The potential is medium for pine trees. The major not controlled. Citrus can be grown if water control and
concerns in management are seedling mortality, intensive management are provided. The water control
windthrow hazard, and plant competition. Slash pine is system should be designed and constructed to maintain
This soil is in capability subclass Ies IIw. the water table at a depth of 4 feet. Trees need to be
This soil is in capability subclass planted on beds, and a cover crop should be maintained
48-Jupiter sand. This nearly level, shallow soil is between tree rows. Regular applications of fertilizers are
poorly drained. It is in low flats and hammocks along the needed.
fringes of broad, marshy drainageways. Areas range Pasture is well suited to this soil. Pangolagrass,
from 5 to about 150 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex improved bahiagrasses, and white clover grow well if
and are dominantly 1 percent or less. well managed. A water control system is needed to
Typically, the surface layer is sand about 10 inches remove the excess surface water after heavy rains.
thick. The upper 4 inches of the surface layer is black, Regular applications of fertilizers are needed, and
and the lower 6 inches is very dark grayish brown. Below grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing and
this is hard, fractured limestone about 12 inches thick. weakening of the plants.
The substratum is calcareous loamy sand. The upper 10 The potential is low for pine tree production, even if a
inches of the substratum is light brownish gray, the next water control system removes the excess surface water.
16 inches is light gray, the next 24 inches is olive gray, Windthrow hazard and seedling mortality are the main
and the lower part is greenish gray and is mixed with management concerns.
white shell fragments to a depth of 84 inches or more. This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soils that are similar to this Jupiter soil but have a thin 49-Riviera fine sand, depressional. This nearly
layer of loamy material over the limestone, soils that level soil is poorly drained. It is in depressions. Slopes
have less than 6 inches of sandy material over the are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
limestone, and scattered spots of exposed limestone. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 2
Also included are small areas of Canova Variant, inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a
Chobee, Floridana, Hallandale, and Hilolo soils. Total depth of 28 inches. The upper 14 inches of the
inclusions in any area are less than 25 percent. subsurface layer is light gray, the next 4 inches is gray,
Some areas of this soil are covered with water for brief and the lower 8 inches is light brownish gray. The upper
periods in the wet season. The water table is at a depth 10 inches of the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam that has






Martin County Area, Florida 39



pockets and tongues of material from the subsurface This soil is flooded by high tides, daily or seasonally,
layer, and the lower 11 inches is grayish brown sandy and during storm periods. The water table is within a
clay loam. Below this is grayish brown loamy fine sand depth of 10 inches at all other times. Permeability is
with pockets of fine sand to a depth of 50 inches or rapid in all layers. The available water capacity is very
more. high in the organic layers and very low to low in the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of underlying sand and shell layers. Natural fertility is high.
Chobee, Floridana, Holopaw, Pineda, Wabasso, and All areas of this soil are in natural vegetation of red
Winder soils. Also included are small spots of soils that and black mangrove trees, with scattered areas of white
have a thin layer of organic material on the surface. mangrove in places. Openland in the mangrove areas is
Total inclusions in any area are less than 20 percent. covered with glasswort, bushy sea-oxeye, and other salt-
This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months in most years, tolerant plants.
During the dry season, the water table recedes to a This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
depth of 10 to 40 inches. The available water capacity is pasture grasses, or pine trees. Wetness and salinity are
low in the surface and subsurface layers, medium in the the major limiting factors. Areas of this soil are better
upper 10 inches of the subsoil, and low below this. utilized if left in their native condition and used as wildlife
Permeability is rapid in the sandy surface and subsurface habitat and marine life breeding areas.
layers, slow or very slow in the upper part of the subsoil, This soil is in capability subclass Vlllw.
and rapid below this. Natural fertility and the content of
organic matter are low. 51-Pompano fine sand, occasionally flooded. This
Numerous areas of this soil are used for citrus and nearly level soil is poorly drained. It is in narrow
improved pasture grasses. Most areas remain in native drainageways. Areas are long, narrow, and highly
vegetation of queensdelight, sand cordgrass, St. dissected by stream action. Slopes are dominantly 0 to 2
Johnswort, maidencane, and water tolerant grasses and percent, but stream dissection has created numerous
sedges. Some areas have dense to scattered stands of short steep side slopes.
cypress trees. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to Below this is fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
cultivated crops, improved pasture grasses, or citrus. It The upper part is light gray and has white pockets. Next
occupies the lowest positions in the landscape, and is mottled light brownish gray with dark grayish brown
drainage outlets are generally not available. However, and very dark grayish brown pockets. The lower part is
the depressions in which this soil occurs are generally so light gray fine sand with a few grayish brown pockets.
numerous in areas of soils being developed that they are Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
included in the developments. Although this soil receives soils that have a finer textured, darker colored surface
the same drainage and management as the adjoining layer and soils that have an organic surface layer 2 to 12
soils, it generally does not produce so well. inches thick. Also included are more poorly drained soils
In the natural state, areas of this soil provide nesting in stream bottoms and old isolated meanders and soils
and feeding areas for a variety of wetland wildlife, in small fringe areas that have a dark colored, weakly
This soil is in capability subclass VIIw. cemented sandy subsoil. Total inclusions in any area are
about 30 percent.
50-Okeelanta Variant muck. This nearly level soil is The water table is generally at a depth of 10 to 40
very poorly drained. It is in tidal mangrove swamps along inches, but depth to the water table at any particular site
the Intracoastal Waterway and the upper reaches of the depends on the elevation of the soil surface above the
Loxahatchee River and the South Fork of the St. Lucie stream bottom. Occasionally, rainfall over the watershed
River. Areas generally range from about 20 to 200 acres. produces flooding. When this occurs, the soil is covered
Slopes are less than 1 percent. with fast moving water for brief periods of 2 to 7 days. At
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 4 all other times the stream provides drainage for the soil.
inches thick. Next is dark reddish brown mucky peat Permeability and the available water capacity are
about 16 inches thick. Below this is sand mixed with somewhat variable, but in most places permeability is
shell fragments to a depth of 60 inches or more. The very rapid, and the available water capacity is low.
upper 8 inches of sand is very dark brown, the next 8 Natural fertility and the content of organic matter are
inches is very dark grayish brown, the next 6 inches is low.
dark grayish brown, and the lower 18 inches is grayish Areas are in native vegetation consisting of dense
brown. stands of cabbage palm, water oak, sweetbay, swamp
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of maple, cypress, slash pine, ferns, vines, and grasses.
Aquents, Bessie, and Canaveral soils. Also included are This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, pasture,
small areas of soils that are similar to this Okeelanta citrus, or pine trees.
Variant soil but have slightly less than 16 inches of This soil is in capability subclass VIIw.
organic material and soils that do not have mucky peat
in the organic material. Total inclusions in any area are 52-Malabar sand. This nearly level soil is poorly
less than 20 percent. drained. It is in broad, low areas of flatwoods and







40 Soil survey



sloughs. Areas range from about 10 to 100 acres. major management concerns. A simple drainage system
Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. to remove excess surface water is needed if the
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand potential productivity is to be realized. Slash pine is
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray better suited than other species.
sand about 10 inches thick. The upper 14 inches of the This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
subsoil is brownish yellow sand, the next 13 inches is
very pale brown sand, and the lower part is gray sandy 53-Arents, 2 to 35 percent slopes. This steep soil
loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. is well drained to excessively drained. It is mainly on the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of dike around the Florida Power and Light cooling
soils that are similar to this Malabar soil but are reservoir and the older, eroded spoil banks along the C-
discontinuous in the lower part of the subsoil, or have a 23 Canal. This soil consists of mixed, heterogeneous
dark colored, organic stained layer above the lower part materials that were excavated from adjacent areas and
of the subsoil, or have a loamy sand subsoil. Also canals. The material is as much as 30 feet thick in
included are small areas of Boca, Holopaw, Oldsmar, places. Areas are commonly 200 to 300 feet wide and
Pineda, Pinellas, and Riviera soils. Total inclusions in any many miles long.
area are less than 20 percent. Typically, the soil material to a depth of many feet is a
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to mixture of grayish and brownish fine sand. Some parts
6 months during most years. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 are highly mottled in shades of gray, brown, and yellow.
inches most of the rest of each year. Permeability is Few to common lumps of mottled sandy loam and sandy
rapid in all layers above the subsoil and slow to very clay loam are scattered through the matrix and are
slow in the subsoil. The available water capacity is low remnants of former subsoils. Pockets of organic
or very low in the surface and subsurface layers and materials and fragments of former dark colored sandy
upper part of the sandy subsoil and medium in the lower subsoils are also scattered through the matrix. In places,
part of the subsoil. Natural fertility and the content of thin discontinuous lenses of black sandy materials occur
organic matter are low. several inches apart as evidence of alternating layers of
Some areas of this soil are used for citrus or improved topsoil and other layers deposited by dragline
pasture grasses. Most areas remain in natural vegetation operations. Shell fragments, whole shells, and a few rock
consisting of South Florida slash pine, cabbage palm, fragments are in some pedons.
waxmyrtle, gallberry, sawpalmetto, blue maidencane, St. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Johnswort, bluestems, pineland threeawn, and sedges, soils in which slopes are steeper than 35 percent and
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated range to vertical. The slopes are commonly the result of
crops because of wetness, but if water is adequately erosion. Total inclusions in any area are less than 10
controlled, this soil is suited to adapted vegetable crops. percent.
A water control system is needed that will remove the Most soil properties are variable. However,
excess surface water rapidly. Good management permeability is dominantly rapid, and the available water
practices include crop rotations that keep close growing capacity is mostly low. Reaction ranges from strongly
cover crops in the cropping system three-fourths of the acid to moderately alkaline.
time. The cover crops and all crop residue should be The areas of this soil have been shaped to form a dike
used to protect the soil from erosion. Crops need to be or exist as mounds of excess spoil material. This soil is
planted on beds, and fertilizers should be applied not suited to agricultural or urban uses. The spoil areas
according to the needs of the crop. are an excellent source of fill material.
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to This soil is not assigned to a capability subclass.
citrus, but if a well designed water control system is
provided, citrus can be grown. The system should 54-Oldsmar fine sand, depressional. This nearly
maintain the water table below a depth of 4 feet and level soil is poorly drained. It is in wet depressions in the
provide for subsurface irrigation. Trees need to be flatwoods. Areas generally range from about 5 to 50
planted on beds, and a close growing cover crop should acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0
be maintained between the tree rows. Regular to 2 percent.
applications of fertilizers are needed. Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 12
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. inches thick. The upper 5 inches of the surface layer is
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if very dark gray, and the lower 7 inches is dark grayish
properly managed. Water control measures are needed brown. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about
to remove the excess surface water after heavy rains. 21 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is black,
Regular applications of fertilizers are needed, and dark reddish brown, and brown fine sand that has
grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing and coatings of organic matter, and the lower part of the
weakening of the plants. subsoil is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam about 8
The potential is medium on this soil for pine trees. inches thick. The substratum is light olive gray sandy
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the loam to a depth of 68 inches or more.







Martin County Area, Florida 41



Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
soils that are similar to this Oldsmar soil but have a
thicker, dark colored surface layer, a few small areas of 55-Basinger fine sand. This nearly level soil is
soils that have a thin layer of muck on the surface, and poorly drained. It is in sloughs and poorly defined
areas of soils that have a sand texture. Some small drainageways in the flatwoods. Slopes are less than 2
areas of this soil have a less well developed, lighter percent.
colored sandy subsoil, rather than the typical black color. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
Also included are small areas of Basinger, Floridana, about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
Holopaw, Riviera, and Wabasso soils. Total inclusions in to a depth of about 28 inches. The upper 6 inches of the
any area are less than 25 percent. subsurface layer is grayish brown, and the lower 16
This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more in most inches is light brownish gray. The subsoil is dark grayish
years, and the water table is within 10 inches of the brown fine sand and has discontinuous lenses and
surface most of the rest of the time. The available water pockets of black and dark reddish brown. The next layer
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers is grayish brown fine sand. Below this is brown fine sand
and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the to a depth of 80 inches or more.
surface and subsurface layers, rapid to moderately slow Included with this soil in mapping are areas of soils
in the upper sandy part of the subsoil, and slow to very that are similar to this Basinger soil but have a dark
slow in the lower loamy part. Natural fertility and the colored surface layer 9 to 12 inches thick or that have
content of organic matter are low. loamy sand or loamy fine sand below a depth of 40
Most areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation inches. Also included are areas of Lawnwood and
consisting of St. Johnswort, needlerush, pipewort, Waveland soils and a few small areas of Placid and St.
queensdelight, ferns, sedges, blue maidencane, and Johns Variant soils in depressions. Total inclusions in
various grasses. any area make up about 15 percent.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
cultivated crops because of ponding. However, if very for 2 to 6 months annually and at a depth of 10 to 30
intensive management, soil improving measures, and a inches for more than 6 months in most years.
good water control system are used, this soil is suitable Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile. The
for vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility is
remove the excess water in wet seasons and provide for low.
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops should Most areas of this soil are in open forest. The natural
be rotated with close growing, soil improving crops. The vegetation is slash pine and an understory of
rotation needs to include soil improving crops three- sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, gallberry, and pineland
fourths of the time. Crop residue and soil improving threeawn.
crops should be used to protect the soil from erosion. Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe
Seedbed preparation needs to include bedding of the limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness and
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added according to sandy texture. The number of adapted crops is limited,
the need of the crop. unless management is very intensive. However, if good
This soil is not suited to citrus trees in the natural water control measures and soil improving measures are
state and is poorly suited even if management is used, this soil is suitable for a number of vegetable
intensive and water control is adequate. crops. A water control system is needed to remove the
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to excess water in wet seasons and provide water through
pasture. However, if very intensive management, soil subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Seedbed
improving measures, and a good water control system preparation needs to include bedding of the rows.
are used, this soil is moderately suited to improved Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
pasture grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, need of the crop.
and white clover grow well if well managed. Water This soil in its natural condition is poorly suited to
control measures are needed to remove the excess citrus trees. It is suitable for citrus only after a carefully
surface water after heavy rains. Regular applications of designed water control system that maintains the water
fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be table below a depth of about 4 feet has been installed.
controlled to prevent overgrazing and weakening of Planting trees on beds helps lower the effective depth of
plants. the water table. A cover crop should be maintained
The potential is low on this soil for pine trees. Severe between tree rows. Regular applications of fertilizer and
equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main lime are needed.
management concerns. A good water control system Improved pasture grasses are well suited to this soil.
that removes the excess surface water is necessary Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover
before trees can be planted and the potential grow satisfactorily if well managed. A water control
productivity realized. Slash pine is better than other system that removes the excess surface water after
species to plant. heavy rains is needed. Regular applications of fertilizer






42 Soil survey



and lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled improving measures, and a good water control system
to prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants. are used, this soil is moderately suited to improved
The potential is low on this soil for longleaf and slash pasture grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses,
pine. A water control system to remove the excess and white clover grow well if well managed. Water
surface water is necessary if the potential productivity is control measures are needed to remove the excess
to be realized. Seedling mortality and equipment surface water after heavy rains. Regular applications of
limitations are the main management concerns. Slash fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be
pine is preferred for planting. controlled to prevent overgrazing and weakening of
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. plants.
The potential is low on this soil for pine trees. Severe
56-Wabasso sand, depressional. This nearly level equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
soil is poorly drained. It is in wet depressions in the management concerns. A good water control system
flatwoods. Areas range from about 5 to 100 acres. that removes the excess surface water is necessary
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 before trees can be planted and the potential
percent. productivity realized. Slash pine is better suited than
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand other species.
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white and This soil is in capability subclass VIIw.
light gray fine sand about 26 inches thick. The upper part
of the subsoil is black fine sand about 4 inches thick, 57-Chobee loamy sand. This nearly level soil is very
and the lower part is grayish brown sandy clay loam poorly drained. It is in small to large depressions and
about 8 inches thick. The substratum is light brownish poorly defined drainageways and on broad, low flats.
gray loamy fine sand. Areas range from as little as 5 to 10 acres in isolated
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of depressions to 3,000 acres or more in the broad
Floridana, Oldsmar, Riviera, Tequesta Variant, and Allapattah Flats. Slopes are smooth to concave and
Winder soils. Also included are soils that are similar to range from 0 to 2 percent.
this Wabasso soil but have an organic surface layer; Typically, this soil has a 3-inch layer of black muck on
soils that have a thicker sandy subsoil; and soils that the surface. The surface mineral layer is black loamy
have a thick, dark colored surface layer. Total inclusions sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy loam
in any area are less than 25 percent. and sandy clay loam about 36 inches thick. The upper
This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more in most part of the subsoil is black, and the lower part is gray.
years. The available water capacity is very low in the Below this is the calcareous substratum to a depth of 80
surface and subsurface layers, medium in the subsoil, inches or more. The upper 7 inches of the substratum is
and low in the substratum. Permeability is rapid in the grayish brown sandy loam, the next 9 inches is light olive
surface and subsurface layers. It is moderate in the gray clay loam, and the lower 22 inches is greenish gray
upper, sand part of the subsoil and slow or very slow in sandy clay loam that has pockets of loamy sand.
the lower part. Natural fertility is low. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Most areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation Floridana, Gator, Riviera, Tequesta Variant, and Winder
consisting of St. Johnswort, sedges, redroot, soils. Also included are small areas of soils that are
queensdelight, maidencane, and other water tolerant similar to this Chobee soil but have 6 to 16 inches of
grasses. organic material on the surface and a few areas of soils
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to that have a surface texture of loamy fine sand or sandy
cultivated crops because of the ponding. However, if loam. Total inclusions in any area are less than 20
very intensive management, soil improving measures, percent.
and a good water control system are used, this soil is The water table is above the surface or within a depth
suited to vegetable crops. A water control system is of 10 inches for 6 to 9 months or more in most years. It
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for short periods during
provide for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row dry seasons. The available water capacity is medium in
crops should be rotated with close growing, soil all layers. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface
improving crops. The soil improving crops need to be in layer and slow or very slow in the subsoil and
the rotation three-fourths of the time. Crop residue and substratum. The natural fertility is medium.
soil improving crops should be used to protect the soil A large acreage of this soil is used for improved
from erosion. Seedbed preparations need to include pasture, and a small acreage is planted in citrus. The
bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added natural vegetation in swampy areas is red maple, water
according to the need of the crop. oak, and cabbage palm and an understory of ferns and
This soil is not suited to citrus trees in the natural water tolerant grasses. Vegetation in the open marsh
state. It is poorly suited to citrus even if management is areas and depressions is maidencane, pickerelweed,
intensive and water control is adequate. smartweed, and patches of sawgrass.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to In the natural state, this soil is too wet for cultivated
pasture. However, if very intensive management, soil crops. If water control is adequate, it is well suited to







Martin County Area, Florida 43


many adapted vegetable crops. A well designed and growing on the soil and needs to keep the soils
maintained water control system should rapidly remove saturated with water at all other times. Water tolerant
the excess surface water. .Other management practices cover crops need to be on the soils when they are not
needed are good seedbed preparation, bedding, and being row cropped. All crop residue and cover crops
rotating row crops with soil improving crops. All crop should be used to protect the soil from erosion.
residue and soil improving crops should be used to Most improved grasses and clovers grow well on this
protect the soil from erosion. Regular applications of soil if the water is properly controlled. Pangolagrass,
fertilizers are needed. bahiagrass, and white clover grow well. The water
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to control system should maintain the water table near the
citrus. However, if a well designed water control system surface to prevent excessive oxidation of the organic
is installed, citrus can be grown. The system should be horizons. Grazing should be controlled to permit
designed to maintain the water table at a depth of about maximum yields.
4 feet. Trees need to be planted on beds, and a close This soil is not suitable for citrus trees or pine trees.
growing cover crop should be maintained between the This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
tree rows to prevent soil blowing or washing. Regular
applications of fertilizers are needed.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. A 60-Tequesta Variant muck. This nearly level soil is
water control system is needed to rapidly remove the very poorly drained. It is in depressions and marshy
excess surface water. High yields of pangolagrass, areas. Most areas are 5 to 20 acres, but a few range to
bahiagrass, and white clover can be obtained if they are 100 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
adequately fertilized. Grazing should be controlled to from 0 to 2 percent.
maintain plant vigor. Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 14
If a water control system is used to remove the excess inches thick. The next layer is black sand about 12
surface water, the potential is high on this soil for pine inches thick. Below this is a layer of light brownish gray
trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant sand about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is grayish brown,
competition are the major management concerns. light sandy clay loam in the upper 10 inches and dark
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. grayish brown loamy sand in the lower 8 inches. Below
this is light gray and light brownish gray sand to a depth
58-Gator muck. This nearly level soil is very poorly of 50 inches or more.
drained. It is in wet depressions and broad marsh areas. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Areas range from 5 to 10 acres to about 1,000 acres, soils that have a loamy sand A horizon or. an Al horizon
Slopes are 1 percent or less. less than 10 inches thick. Some small areas have soils
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 24 inches in which the muck surface layer is slightly less than 6
thick. The upper 11 inches of the muck is black, and the inches thick or the subsoil is slightly deeper than 20
lower 13 inches is dark reddish brown. Next is very dark inches. Also included are small areas of Chobee,
gray fine sandy loam about 24 inches thick. Below this is Floridana, Gator, Riviera, and Winder soils. Total
gray and brownish gray sand and common shell inclusions in any area are less than 30 percent.
fragments to a depth of 56 inches or more. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches, or the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more in most years.
Chobee, Tequesta Variant, and Floridana soils. Also Permeability is rapid in the organic surface and sandy
included are areas of soils that have sandy layers subsurface layers and is moderately slow or slow in the
between the organic layer and loamy substratum. Total subsoil. The available water capacity is very high in the
inclusions in any area are less than about 20 percent. organic surface layer, low in the sandy layers below the
In the natural condition, this soil is covered with water, organic material, and medium in the subsoil. Natural
or the water table is within a depth of 10 inches except fertility is medium.
in extended dry seasons. The available water capacity is A few areas of this soil have been drained and used,
very high in the organic layer, medium in the loamy layer, for citrus or improved pasture. Most areas remain in
and low in the underlying sandy material. Permeability is natural vegetation of sawgrass, waxmyrtle, willow,
rapid in the organic layer and moderate in the loamy pickerelweed, smartweed, duckpotato, buttonbush,
layer. The natural fertility is medium to high. ferns, sedges, maidencane, and water tolerant grasses.
A few large areas of this soil are used for improved Cypress trees are in some areas.
pasture. Other areas have natural vegetation consisting In the native condition, this soil is too wet for
of willows, red maple, sawgrass, pickerelweed, sedges, cultivated crops. If water control is adequate, this soil is
ferns, maidencane, and water tolerant grasses (fig. 9). well suited to many locally important crops. A well
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops unless the designed and maintained water control system should
water is controlled. However, if adequate water control is rapidly remove the excess water during heavy rains.
provided, it is well suited to most vegetable crops and Management practices include good seedbed
sugarcane. A well designed and maintained water control preparation, crop rotations, and regular applications of
system should remove the excess water when crops are fertilizers. Crop rows need to be bedded. Soil improving







44 Soil survey

































Figure 9.-Dense tropical vegetation on Gator muck along the banks of a small stream. The soil is subject to flooding. Preserving
the natural vegetation along the winding stream enhances the beauty of the landscape.

crops need to be rotated with the row crops, and all crop management concerns. South Florida slash pine is
residue and soil improving crops should be used to preferred for planting.
protect the soil from erosion. This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
If a complete water control system is installed, this soil
is moderately suited to citrus. A water control system 61-Hobe fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
that maintains good soil aeration to a depth of 4 feet is nearly level to gently sloping soil is somewhat
needed. Trees need to be planted on beds, and a close excessively drained. It is on knolls and ridges in coastal
growing cover crop should be maintained between tree areas of flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex.
rows to prevent blowing and washing. Regular Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand. The
applications of fertilizers and lime are needed. subsurface layer is gray, white, and light gray fine sand
i to a depth of about 70 inches. In places the upper 4
This soil is too wet for most improved pasture grasses, inches of the subsoil is black, strongly cemented fine
but if water control is adequate, it is well suited to sand coated with organic matter. The lower 4 inches is
pangolagrass, St. Augustine grass, and white clover, dark yellowish brown fine sand coated with organic
Simple water control measures are needed to remove matter and has weakly cemented, dark brown lumps.
excess water after heavy rains. Regular applications of maThe lower part of the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to aps.
fertilizers and lime are needed, and grazing should be The lower part of the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to a
controlled to maintain plant vigor for best yields. depth of 88 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to pine soils that are similar to this Hobe soil but are moderately
trees. However, if water control is adequate, the well drained. Also included are small areas of Jonathan,
potential is high for pine. Equipment limitations, seedling Nettles, Pomello, Salerno, Satellite Variant, and St. Lucie
mortality, windthrow hazard, and plant competition are soils. Total inclusions in any area are about 20 percent.







Martin County Area, Florida 45



The water table can be at a depth of 50 to 60 inches Most areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation
for brief periods but generally is at a depth of 60 to 80 consisting of St. Johnswort, hatpin, queensdelight, ferns,
inches during the wet season and below 80 inches the waxmyrtle, broomsedge bluestem, panicums, and a
remainder of the year. The available water capacity is variety of sedges.
very low in the surface and subsurface layers and Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the content of cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture grasses.
organic matter are very low. This soil occupies the lowest positions in the landscape,
The native vegetation consists of sand pine, with and adequate outlets for artificial drainage are not
scattered slash pine in some areas. The understory available.
vegetation is sand live oak, sawpalmetto, fetterbush, The potential is low on this soil for pine trees.
sand heath, running oak, cacti, and scattered pineland Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
threeawn, panicums, and other grasses. management concerns. Slash pine is preferred for
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because of planting, but only after a water control system has been
droughtiness and sandy texture. It is only fairly well installed.
suited to improved pasture grasses even if good This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
management practices are used. Bahiagrasses are
better suited than other improved grasses. Clovers are 63-Nettles sand. This nearly level soil is'poorly
not suited. Droughtiness is the major limitation except drained. It is in broad areas of flatwoods, mainly in the
during the wet season. Regular applications of fertilizers northeastern part of the county. Areas are generally
and lime are needed. quite large, ranging up to 2,000 acres. Slopes are
The suitability of this soil is fair for citrus trees. Fair smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
yields can be obtained if a high level of management is Typically, the surface layer is about 12 inches thick.
used. Droughtiness is the major limitation, and for The upper 5 inches of the surface layer is very dark gray
maximum yields sprinkler irrigation should be provided, sand, and the lower 7 inches is dark gray fine sand. The
Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are needed. subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 20 inches thick.
The potential of this soil is very low for commercial The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand weakly
production of pine trees. Sand pines are preferred for cemented with organic matter. It is black in the upper 11
planting. Seedling mortality and mobility of equipment inches and dark reddish brown in the lower 8 inches.
are the major management concerns for commercial tree The lower part of the subsoil is grayish brown fine sandy
production. loam about 11 inches thick. Below this is about 9 inches
This soil is in capability subclass VIs. of dark grayish brown loamy fine sand over grayish
brown loamy fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.
62-Nettles sand, depressional. This nearly level soil Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
is poorly drained. It is in depressions and drainageways Oldsmar, Salerno, St. Johns Variant, and Waveland soils.
in the flatwoods. Areas are generally small, ranging from Also included are soils that are similar to this Nettles soil
about 5 to 20 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave and but have a weakly cemented subsoil at a depth of
range from 0 to 2 percent. slightly less than 30 inches or slightly more than 50
Typically, the surface 1 inch is very dark gray sand. inches. Total inclusions in any area are less than 30
The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of about 34 percent.
inches; the upper 4 inches of the subsurface layer is The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 4
gray, and the lower 29 inches is light gray. The subsoil is to 6 months or more during most years. It is at a depth
between depths of 34 and 70 inches. The upper 4 of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months during wet
inches of the subsoil is firm, weakly cemented, black seasons. The water table is perched above the subsoil
sand, the next 18 inches is grayish brown sandy loam, early in the wet season and after heavy rains in other
and the lower 14 inches is light brownish gray sandy seasons. During extended dry periods, the water table
loam. Below this is light brownish gray loamy sand to a can recede to a depth of more than 40 inches. The
depth of 80 inches or more. available water capacity is low to very low in the surface
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Basinger, Oldsmar, Placid, and Waveland soils. Also Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
included are soils that are similar to this Nettles soil but and very slow to moderately slow in the subsoil.
have a thicker, dark colored surface layer. Total Some areas of this soil are used for cultivated crops or
inclusions in any area are less than 20 percent. for pasture. A few areas are used for urban
This soil is ponded for 6 months or more in most development. Most areas remain in natural vegetation
years. In extremely dry seasons, the water table can consisting of South Florida slash pine and an understory
recede to a depth of 20 inches or more. The available of gallberry, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, fetterbush, dwarf
water capacity is low or very low in the surface and huckleberry, redroot, running oak, pineland threeawn,
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. bluestems, indiangrass, and panicums.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
and very slow to moderately slow in the subsoil. crops because of wetness. However, if water is properly







46 Soil survey



controlled and management is good, this soil is suited to is slash pine, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, gallberry, pineland
many adapted vegetable crops. The water control threeawn, and species of bluestem, panicum, and other
system should be designed to remove the excess grasses.
surface water in wet seasons and to provide for This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Management crops because of wetness and sandy texture in the root
practices should include bedding, rotation of row crops zone. The number of adapted crops is limited unless
with soil improving crops, use of crop residue and cover management is very intensive. If water control is good
crops to protect the soil from erosion, and regular and soil improving measures are used, this soil is well
applications of fertilizers and lime. suited to a number of vegetable crops. A water control
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to system is needed to remove the excess water in wet
citrus trees. It is suitable for citrus only after a well seasons and to provide water through subsurface
designed water control system has been installed to irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops need to be rotated
maintain the water table below a depth of 4 feet. with close growing, soil improving crops. Crop residue
Planting trees on beds helps to lower the effective depth and soil improving crops should be used to protect the
of the water table. A cover crop should be maintained soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation needs to include
between the rows of trees. Regular applications of bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
fertilizers and lime are needed, according to the need of the crop.
This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Unless management.is very intensive, this soil is
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover poorly suited to citrus. It is suitable for citrus only after
grow well if well managed. A simple water control installation of a water control system that is carefully
system is needed to remove the excess surface water designed to maintain the water table below a depth of 4
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizers and feet. Planting the trees on beds helps to lower the
lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to prevent effective depth of the water table. A cover crop should
overgrazing and weakening of the plants. be maintained between the tree rows. Regular
The potential is medium on this soil for pine trees. applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
major management concerns. South Florida slash pine is improved bahiagrasses, and white clover grow well if
better suited than other species, well managed. Water control measures are needed to
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. remove the excess surface water after heavy rains.
Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are needed,
64-EauGallie fine sand. This nearly level soil is and grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing
poorly drained. It is in broad areas of flatwoods. Areas and weakening of the plants.
range from 20 to 200 acres. Slopes are smooth and The potential for pine trees on this soil is medium.
range from 0 to 2 percent. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand. competition are the main management concerns. Slash
The subsurface layer is grayish brown and light brownish pine is preferred for planting.
gray fine sand to a depth of about 28 inches. The upper This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
part of the subsoil is black fine sand coated with organic
matter, and the lower part is grayish brown sandy clay 65-Tuscawilla sand. This nearly level soil is poorly
loam. The substratum is mixed grayish brown fine sand, drained. It is in low semihammock areas bordering
loamy fine sand, and fine sandy loam. depressions and sloughs and in the intervening open
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of flatwoods. Areas range from about 20 to 100 acres.
Lawnwood, Waveland, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils and Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
scattered wet depressions. Also included are soils that Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 4
are similar to this EauGallie soil but have yellowish or inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of
brownish colors in the subsurface layer. Total inclusions about 12 inches. The upper 4 inches of the subsurface
in any one delineation are less than 20 percent. layer is dark gray, and the lower 4 inches is light
In most years, the water table is at a depth of less brownish gray. The upper 3 inches of the subsoil is dark
than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months during wet seasons grayish brown loamy sand, the next 7 inches is grayish
and within a depth of 40 inches for more than 6 months. brown sandy clay, and the lower 10 inches is white,
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers calcareous sandy clay loam. Below this is 14 inches of
and moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil and light brownish gray loamy sand. The substratum is light
substratum. The available water capacity is very low in brownish gray to greenish gray, calcareous sandy loam
the surface and subsurface layers, low to medium in the mixed with shell fragments to a depth of 80 inches or
subsoil, and low in the substratum. Natural fertility and more.
the content of organic matter are low. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Some areas of this soil are used for improved pasture, Pineda, Pinellas, Riviera, Wabasso, and Winder soils.
but most areas are in open forest. The natural vegetation Also included are small, slightly depressed areas that







Martin County Area, Florida 47


have a slightly thicker, dark colored surface layer or that layer 10 to 14 inches thick, small depressional areas that
are wet for longer periods. Total inclusions in any area are ponded, and a few scattered areas of soils that have
are less than 20 percent. an organic stained, dark brown to very dark grayish
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches brown sandy layer above the subsoil. Also included are
for 2 to 4 months in most years, and within a depth of 40 small areas of Basinger, Malabar, Nettles, Oldsmar,
inches most of the rest of the year. Permeability is rapid Pompano, and Riviera soils. Total inclusions in any area
in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the are about 15 percent.
subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. The available water In most years, the water table is at a depth of less
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers, than 10 inches for cumulative periods of 2 to 6 months.
medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. In drier seasons, it recedes to a depth of 40 inches or
Internal drainage is slow and is impeded by the shallow more. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
water table. Natural fertility is moderate. layers and is moderately rapid in the subsoil. Available
Some areas of this soil are used for citrus crops or water capacity is low to very low in the surface and
improved pasture. Most areas remain in natural subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
vegetation consisting of slash pine, cabbage palm, fertility and the content of organic matter are low.
sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, Florida threeawn, bluestem, and Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation
numerous grasses. consisting of scattered slash pine, cabbage palm,
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, saltbush, St. Johnswort, blue
cultivated crops because of wetness. If a complete water maidencane, pineland threeawn, bluestems, panicums,
control system is designed to remove the excess surface and other grasses and forbs.
water and provide subsurface irrigation, this soil is Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe
suitable for many fruit and vegetable crops. Crop residue limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness and
and soil improving crops should be used to protect the other soil factors. The number of adapted.crops is
soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation needs to include limited unless management is very intensive. However, if
bedding, and fertilizers should be applied according to a good water control system removes the excess
the need of the crop. surface water and provides for subsurface irrigation in
If a water control system provides good drainage to a surface water and provides for subsurface irrigation in
depth of about 4 feet, this soil is well suited to citrus dry seasons and the level of management is high, this
trees. Trees need to be planted on beds and a cover soil is suitable for cultivated crops. Row crops should be
crop should be maintained between the tree rows to rotated with soil improving cover crops. The cover crops
protect the soil from erosion by wind or water. Fertilizer need to be in the cropping system three-fourths of ther and
should be applied as needed, time. The rows need to be bedded, and fertilizer and
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses, lime should be added according to the need of the crop.
PangThis soil is well suited tos, improved bahiagrass, and whitture clover This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless management
grow well if properly managed Water control measures is very intensive. It is well suited to citrus after a carefully
are needed to remove excess surface water during wet designed water control system is installed to maintain
seasons. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed, the water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees need
and grazing should be controlled to maintain healthy to be planted on beds, and a cover crop should be
plants. maintained between the tree rows. Regular applications
The potential on this soil is high for pine trees. The of fertilizer and lime are needed.
major management concerns are plant competition, Improved pasture is well suited to this soil.
equipment mobility, and seedling mortality during wet Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover
seasons. Slash pine is preferred for planting. A simple grow well if well managed. Water control measures are
water control system to remove excess surface water needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
should be provided, rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
66-Holopaw fine sand. This nearly level soil is The potential is medium on this soil for slash pine. A
poorly drained. It is in low, flat areas and poorly defined water control system to remove excess surface water is
drainageways in the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized.
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. Seedling mortality and equipment limitations are the
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand. main management concerns. Slash pine is better suited
The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of 42. to planting than other trees.
inches. It is light gray in the upper part and light This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
brownish gray in the lower part. The subsoil is grayish
brown sandy loam. The substratum is light olive gray 67-Aquents, frequently flooded. This nearly level,
loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. very poorly drained soil consists of stratified deposits of
Included with this soil in mapping are soils that are marine sediment. It is in small to large mangrove
similar to this Holopaw soil but have a black surface swamps in coastal areas. This soil is flooded daily by







48 Soil survey



tidal action or is covered by salt or brackish water during This soil is not suited to citrus trees or pine trees. The
seasonal or storm tides. potential is high on this soil as habitat for wetland
The color, texture, and thickness of the layers of this wildlife.
soil vary from one area to another. A common profile This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
has a surface layer of dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand about 12 inches thick. The next layer is gray fine 70-Canova Variant muck. This nearly level soil is
sand about 8 inches thick. Below this is a mixture of very very poorly drained. It is in low positions near Lake
dark grayish brown and dark grayish brown loamy fine Okeechobee, extending from near the Palm Beach
sand about 12 inches thick. Next is gray fine sand to a County line north to Chancey Bay. Slopes are concave
depth of 60 inches or more. and are 0 to 1 percent.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas that Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 12
have 6 to 16 inches of muck on the surface. Also inches thick. Next is black fine sand about 5 inches
included are Bessie, Okeelanta Variant, and Canaveral thick. Below this is gray fine sand about 13 inches thick.
soils. Total inclusions in any area are about 25 percent. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay loam about 6
Permeability is slow to moderate in the loamy or inches thick. The substratum is calcareous, light
clayey layers and rapid in all other layers. The available brownish gray fine sandy loam and has shell fragments.
water capacity is variable but is dominantly low. Only salt Below this is hard limestone.
tolerant plants grow on this soil. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, Floridana, Jupiter, Okeelanta, and Tequesta Variant soils.
pasture, or pine trees. It is poorly suited to urban uses. A Also included are soils that are similar to this Canova
few small areas have been covered with several feet of Variant soil but have the subsoil or limestone, or both, at
fill material and are used for homesites. This soil is best a greater depth. Total inclusions in any area range to
used in its native condition as nesting and breeding about 30 percent.
grounds for fish and wildlife. All areas of this soil are drained, and the water table is
This soil is in capability subclass VIIIw. controlled within a depth of 10 to 36 inches, or according
to the needs of the crop. Before this soil was drained,
68-Pits. Pits consist of open excavations from which the water table was above the surface most of the time.
soil and geologic material have been removed for use in Permeability is rapid in the organic surface and mineral
road construction or for foundation purposes. Most areas subsurface layers and moderately slow to slow in the
of this unit include mounds between excavations of subsoil. The available water capacity is very high in the


Sa If the artificial drainage is good and continually
69-Hontoon muck. This deep, nearly level, organic maintained, this soil is well suited to cultivated crops and
soil is very poorly drained. It is in heavily wooded improved pasture grasses. If crops other than sugarcane
freshwater swamps. Slopes are less than 2 percent. are grown, the soil needs to be protected from blowing
Typically, the soil is black muck to a depth of about 65 by planted windbreaks or close growing crops. Between
inches. It commonly has pockets or discontinuous lenses cropping periods, the water table should be held as near
of dark reddish brown, more fibrous material, the surface as possible to reduce oxidation of the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of organic material. Regular applications of complete
Samsula and Sanibel soils and narrow bands of Basinger fertilizers are needed.
and Placid soils along the fringes of this soil. Total This soil is not suited to pine trees.
inclusions in any area are less than 10 percent. This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
The water table is at or above the surface except
during extended dry periods. Permeability is rapid. The 72-Adamsville Variant sand, 0 to 5 percent
available water capacity is very high. Natural fertility is slopes. This nearly level to gently sloping soil is
moderate. somewhat poorly drained. It is on a low, narrow ridge
The natural vegetation in most areas is sweetbay or parallel to the shoreline of Lake Okeechobee. Slopes are
redbay with an understory of vines and bracken fern. smooth to convex and range from 0 to 5 percent.
Red maple is in some areas. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 3
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to inches thick. Light gray sand is below this to a depth of
cultivated crops. If an adequate water control system is about 54 inches or more. Next is black muck about 16
installed, it is well suited to most vegetable crops, inches thick. Below this is dark grayish brown sand to a
especially leafy crops, and improved pasture grasses, depth of 80 inches or more.
Fertilizers that contain phosphates, potash, and minor Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
elements are needed. Heavy applications of lime are soil that have discontinuous layers of black sand in the
needed to correct the high acidity of this soil. sandy material above the organic material. In a few







Martin County Area, Florida 49



pedons, black sand occurs in place of the organic In the natural condition, this soil is ponded for 6 to 9
material. Also included are small spots of Pompano soils, months or more in most years. The water table is at a
Total inclusions in any area are less than 10 percent. depth of less than 10 inches the rest of the year. Internal
In most years, the water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 drainage is slow and is inhibited by the water table.
inches for 2 to 4 months. It is at a depth of 40 to 60 Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available water
inches the rest of the time, except during dry periods capacity is very high in the organic material and very low
when it is below 60 inches. Permeability is rapid in the in the underlying sand. Natural fertility is moderate.
sandy layers and moderate in the organic layer. The Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation of St.
available water capacity is very low in the upper 54 Johnswort, maidencane, red maple, sawgrass,
inches and very high in the underlying organic material. waxmyrtle, and water tolerant grasses, shrubs, and forbs.
Natural fertility is low. This soil is not suited to cultivated crops unless water
A few small areas of this soil are used for homesites. is controlled. If the water is adequately controlled, this
Most areas remain in natural vegetation. The vegetation soil is well suited to some vegetable crops. A well
consists of cabbage palm, cypress, live oak, strangler fig, designed and maintained water control system should
and other hardwoods and a ground cover of coffeeweed, remove the excess water when crops are growing on the
switchgrass, and other shrubs and grasses. soil and should keep the soil saturated with water at all
Under natural conditions, this soil has severe other times. Fertilizers that contain phosphates, potash,
limitations for cultivated crops because of periodic and trace elements are needed. Lime is needed. Cover
wetness and because of the sandy texture in the root crops need to be maintained on the soil when crops are
zone. However, this soil is suited to a number of not being grown, and all plant residue and cover crops
vegetable and flower crops if a water control system is should be used to protect the soil from erosion.
used to remove the excess water in wet seasons, If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited to
sprinkler irrigation is used in dry seasons, and soil improved pasture grasses. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, St.
improving measures are included in management. Augustine grass, and white clover grow well if properly
Regular applications of a complete fertilizer are needed. managed. The water control system should maintain the
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to managed. The water control system should maintain the
citrus. It is well suited to citrus if a drainage system is subsidence of the organic material. Lime is needed, and
used to remove excess water rapidly from the soil to a subsidence of the organic material. Lime is needed, and
used to remove excess water rapidly from the soil to a
depth of about 4 feet and if supplemental sprinkler fertilizers high in phosphates, potash, and trace elements
irrigation is used. A close growing cover crop should be are needed. Grazing should be controlled to permit
maintained between the tree rows to protect the soil highest possible yields.
from blowing, and regular applications of fertilizer are This soil is not sutedto citrus or pine trees.
needed. This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
If properly fertilized and managed, this soil ismuck. This nearly level, organic soil is very
moderately well suited to improved pasture. 74-Torry muck. This nearly level, organic soil is very
Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are well suited. Grazing poorly drained. Areas of this soil are in the southwestern
should be controlled to maintain healthy plants for corner of the county adjacent to Lake Okeechobee.
highest yields. Slopes are smooth and are less than 1 percent.
This soil has low potential for slash pine. Seedling Typically, the upper layer of this soil is black muck that
mortality and equipment limitations are the main has a high content of clay. Between the depths of 24
management concerns, and 56 inches is black muck that is fibrous, looser, and
This soil is in capability subclass 111w. much lower in clay content than the upper layer. Below
this is light gray loamy marl about 6 inches thick. Hard
73-Samsula muck. This nearly level, organic soil is limestone is at a depth of about 62 inches.
very poorly drained. It is in depressions and in freshwater Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
swamps and marshes. Slopes are smooth to concave soils that are similar to this Torry soil but have an
and are 0 to 1 percent. organic surface layer high in clay and slightly less than
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 34 inches 18 inches thick. Also included are small areas of
thick. The upper 12 inches of the surface layer is black, Okeelanta muck. Total inclusions in any area are less
and the lower 22 inches is dark reddish brown. Below than 10 percent.
this is sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper All areas of this soil are artificially drained. If the
10 inches of the sand is very dark gray, the lower 36 drainage system is not maintained, the soil is saturated
inches is light brownish gray. or covered with water for 6 to 9 months or more in most
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of years. Permeability is moderate to a depth of 24 inches
soils that have more than 40 inches of muck and soils and rapid between depths of 24 and 56 inches. The
that have loamy material below a depth of 40 inches. available water capacity is very high to a depth of 56
Also included are small areas of Okeelanta, Sanibel, and inches. Natural fertility is high.
St. Johns Variant soils. Total inclusions in any area are All areas of this soil are used for crops or improved
10 to 20 percent. pasture and have been cleared of natural vegetation.







50 Soil survey


If a well designed water control system is maintained the sandy texture. The number of adapted crops is
and management is good, this soil is well suited to select limited unless intensive management practices are used.
vegetable crops and sugarcane. The water control However, if water control is good and soil improving
system should remove the excess water while crops are practices are part of management, a number of
growing on the soil and should keep the soil saturated at vegetable crops can be grown. Fertilizer should be
all other times. Water tolerant cover crops need to be on added according to the need of the crop. The high
the soil when crops are not being grown. Crop residue calcium content of the subsoil reduces the need for lime.
and cover crops should be used to protect the soil from Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
erosion. Fertilizers high in phosphorus, potash, and citrus trees because of wetness. If the wetness is
minor elements are needed, adequately controlled, trees grow well. A carefully
This soil is not suited to the production of citrus or designed water control system should maintain the water
pine trees, table below a depth of 4 feet. Planting trees on beds
If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited to helps to lower the effective depth of the water table. A
the improved pasture grasses and clovers adapted to cover crop needs to be maintained between the tree
the area. High yields of St. Augustine grass, rows. Fertilizer should be applied as needed. The high
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover can be calcium content of the subsoil reduces the need for lime.
obtained. Water control should maintain the water table This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses.
near the surface to prevent excessive oxidation of the Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover
organic horizons. Fertilizers high in potash, phosphorus, grow well if well managed. Water control measures are
and minor elements are needed. Grazing should be needed to remove excess water from the surface after
controlled to maintain plant vigor and permit maximum heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
yields. The high calcium content of the subsoil reduces the
This soil is in capability subclass 111w. need for lime. Grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
75-Ft. Drum fine sand. This nearly level soil is The potential is medium on this soil for pine trees. A
poorly drained. It is on low ridges and in flats that border water control system to remove excess surface water is
sloughs and depressional areas. Slopes are smooth to necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized.
convex and are less than 2 percent. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
Typically, the surface layer is a dark gray fine sand 7 management concerns. Slash pine is better suited to
inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown fine sand to planting than other trees.
a depth of 14 inches. The subsoil is about 19 inches This soil is in capability subclass IVw.
thick. The upper 4 inches of the subsoil is light brownish
gray, calcareous fine sand and has brownish yellow 76-Valkaria fine sand. This nearly level soil is poorly
mottles, the next 10 inches is light gray, calcareous fine drained. It is in poorly defined drainageways and low
sand and has brownish yellow mottles, and the lower lying areas. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
part is light gray, calcareous fine sand and has yellow Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
and olive yellow mottles to a depth of 33 inches. The about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
substratum is about 18 inches of brownish yellow fine brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 13 inches.
sand with many medium pockets of light gray fine sand The subsoil is fine sand to a depth of about 45 inches.
over light gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 6 inches of the subsoil is brown, the next 10
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of inches is pale brown and mottled with yellowish brown,
soils that have a thicker, darker colored surface layer the next 6 inches is yellowish brown, and the lower part
than this Ft. Drum soil and soils that do not have mottles of the subsoil is grayish brown and mottled with pale
in the upper 20 inches and are yellow. Also included are brown. The substratum is grayish brown, light gray, light
small areas of Salerno, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pinellas, and yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
Valkaria soils. Total inclusions in any area are 15 to 25 more.
percent. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The water table is on the surface or within a depth of Basinger, Ft. Drum, Malabar, and Oldsmar soils. Also
10 inches for 1 to 2 months annually and at a depth of included are small areas of soils that have discontinuous
10 to 40 inches for 9 months in most years. Permeability lenses or pockets of loamy material or dark colored,
is rapid in the surface layer, subsurface layer, and organic stained sands below the subsoil. Total inclusions
substratum and is moderate in the subsoil. The available in any area are about 20 percent.
water capacity is low in the surface layer, subsurface The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
layer, and substratum and is medium in the subsoil. for 3 to 6 months and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation months or more in most years. Permeability is rapid
consisting of cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, broomsedge throughout the profile. The available water capacity is
bluestem, chalky bluestem, and pineland threeawn. low to very low. Natural fertility is low.
Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe Many areas of this soil are used for improved pasture.
limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness and Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm,







Martin County Area, Florida 51


sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, St. Johnswort, and pineland This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, or
threeawn. improved pasture. The combined hazards of low natural
Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe fertility, droughtiness, and moderately steep slopes are
limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness and too severe for such uses.
the sandy texture. The number of adapted crops is The potential is very low on this soil for pine trees.
limited unless very intensive management practices are Equipment limitations, hazard of erosion on the steeper
followed. However, if water control is good and soil slopes, and seedling mortality are the main management
improving measures are included in management, this concerns. Sand pine is preferred for planting.
soil is suitable for a number of vegetable crops. A water This soil is in capability subclass Vils.
control system is needed to remove excess water in wet
seasons and to provide for subsurface irrigation in dry 78-Pomello Variant fine sand. This nearly level soil
seasons. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of is moderately well drained. It is on broad, low ridges in
the rows. the west-central part of the flatwoods. Areas range from
This soil in a natural condition is poorly suited to citrus about 25 to 250 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex and
trees. It is well suited to citrus if a carefully designed range from 0 to 2 percent.
water control system is installed to maintain the water Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
table below a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
beds helps to lower the effective depth of the water to a depth of about 52 inches. The upper 1'2 inches of
table. A cover crop should be maintained between tree the subsoil is black fine sand that has organic matter
rows. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are coatings, and the lower 6 inches of the subsoil is brown
needed, fine sand thinly coated or stained with organic matter.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. Below this is brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover more.
grow satisfactorily if well managed. A water control Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
system to remove the excess surface water after heavy soils that are similar to this Pomello soil but have a
rains is needed. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime cemented subsoil at depths of less than 50 inches or
are needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent have a less well developed subsoil. Also included are
overgrazing and weakening of the plants. small areas of Jonathan, Pomello, Satellite Variant,
The potential is low on this soil for pine trees. A water Salerno, and Waveland soils. Total inclusions in any area
control system to remove excess surface water is are less than 25 percent.
necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized. In most years, the water table is at a depth of 30 to 40
Seedling mortality, plant competition, and equipment inches for 1 to 4 months during the wet season. During
limitations are the main management concerns. Slash most of the rest of the year, it is at a depth of 40 to 60
pine is better suited to planting than other trees. inches. It can recede below 60 inches during extremely
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. dry seasons. Permeability is very rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
77-St. Lucie sand, 8 to 20 percent slopes. This available water capacity is very low in the surface and
deep, strongly sloping to moderately steep sandy soil is subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
excessively drained. It is on the coastal ridge. Areas fertility and the content of organic matter are very low.
range from about 10 to 100 acres. Slopes are single or A few small areas of this soil are used for improved
complex and range from 8 to 20 percent. pasture. Most areas are in natural vegetation consisting
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 3 inches of South Florida slash pine, varieties of scrub oak,
thick. Underlying this is white sand to a depth of 80 sawpalmetto, fetterbush, running oak, pineland threeawn,
inches or more. and other grasses. Sand pine and turkey oak are in a
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of few small areas.
soils that are similar to this St. Lucie soil but have This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It is poorly
texture of fine sand and soils that have slightly steeper suited to citrus trees. Only fair yields can be obtained
slopes. Also included are Paola, Pomello, and Satellite even if the management is high. For maximum yields,
Variant soils. Total inclusions in any area are less than sprinkler irrigation should be provided. Regular
15 percent. applications of fertilizers and lime are needed.
The available water capacity is very low, and This soil is only fairly well suited to improved pasture
permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and the content grasses, even if good management is used. Bahiagrass
of organic matter are very low. The water table is below is better adapted than other grasses. Clovers are not
a depth of 72 inches at all times. suited. Droughtiness is the major limitation, except during
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation a part of the wet season. Regular applications of
consisting of sand pine, scrub oak, and an understory of fertilizers and lime are needed. Grazing should be well
sawpalmetto, rosemary, deer moss, lichens, and cacti. controlled to permit vigorous growth for highest yields
Pineland threeawn is the most common grass. and to provide good ground cover.







52



The potential of this soil is low for commercial breeding and spawning habitat for shellfish and other
production of pine trees. Seedling mortality and marine life.
equipment mobility are the main management concerns. This soil is in capability subclass VIllw.
South Florida slash pine and sand pine are preferred for
planting.
This soil is in capability unit Vis. 86-Paola sand, 8 to 20 percent slopes. This
79-Terra Ceia Variant muck. This nearly level, strongly sloping to moderately steep soil is excessively
organic soil is very poorly drained. It is in mangrove drained. It is on the coastal ridge. Areas range from
swamps along the Loxahatchee River and South Fork of about 10 to 100 acres. Slopes are single or complex.
the St. Lucie River. Slopes are smooth and less than 1 Typically, the surface layer is gray sand. The
percent. subsurface layer is white sand. Below this is yellowish
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 12 sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
inches thick. Next is dark reddish brown muck to a depth Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
of 40 inches. Below this is black muck to a depth of 60 soils that are similar to this Paola soil but do not have a
inches or more. white subsurface layer and soils that are similar but have
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of a deeper yellowish layer. In places are soils that have a
Aquents, Canaveral, and Okeelanta Variant soils. Total few short, steeper slopes. Also included are small areas
inclusions in any area are less than 15 percent. of Orsino, Pomello, Satellite Variant, and St. Lucie soils.
This soil is covered with water during daily high tides Total inclusions in any area are less than 20 percent.
and during seasonal or storm tides. The water table is The available water capacity is very low, and
within a depth of 10 inches at all other times, permeability is very rapid throughout the profile. The
Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid throughout water table is below a depth of 72 inches at all times.
the profile, but internal drainage is impeded by the Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation
shallow water table. The available water capacity is very consisting of sand pine, scrub live oak, and an
high in all layers. Natural fertility is moderate, but salinity understory of sawpalmetto, rosemary, mosses, lichens,
is too high for most plants to tolerate. and cacti.
The natural vegetation is red mangrove, white This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, or
mangrove, cypress, pondapple, leather fern, and vines, improved pasture. The combined hazards of low natural
Red maple and cabbage palm grow along the outer fertility, droughtiness, and moderately steep slopes are
edges of some areas. too severe for such uses.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved The potential for pine trees on this soil is very low.
pasture, or pine trees. The potential for these uses is Equipment limitations, hazard of erosion on the steeper
very low. slopes, and seedling mortality are the main management
In a natural condition, this soil is better used as habitat concerns. Sand pine is preferred for planting.
for marine life than for most other uses. Areas are major This soil is in capability subclass VIls.







53








use and management of the soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the explained; and the predicted yields of the main crops
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land and hay and pasture plants are presented for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural This section provides information about the overall
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid agricultural potential of the survey area and about the
soil-related failures in land uses. management practices that are needed. The information
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, is useful to equipment dealers, land improvement
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive contractors, fertilizer companies, processing companies,
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics planners, conservationists, and others. For each kind of
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, soil, information about management is presented in the
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses section "Detailed soil map units." Planners of
and management. Field experience and collected data management systems for individual fields or farms
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis should also consider the detailed information given in the
in predicting soil behavior, description of each soil.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use Approximately 81,000 acres in the survey area was
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as used for crops and pasture in 1978 (6, 7, 14). Of this,
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary about 5,000 acres was used for sugarcane, about 36,000
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and acres was used for pasture, and about 40,000 acres was
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife used for specialty crops. Specialty crops included citrus
habitat. It can be used to identify the limitations of each fruits on approximately 38,000 acres; vegetables, mainly
soil for specific land uses and to help prevent potatoes, cabbage, and tomatoes, on approximately
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil 1,300 acres; and flowers on about 300 acres.
properties. Potential of the soils in the Martin County Area for
Planners and others using soil survey information can increased food production is good. Almost 210,000 acres
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity of potentially good cropland is presently used for
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. pasture, range, and woodland. Conversion of this land to
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a crops would require intensive conservation measures to
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. control water and soil blowing. In addition to the reserve
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of capacity represented by this land, food production could
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to be increased considerably by extending the latest crop
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil production technology to all cropland in the survey area.
layers can cause difficulty in excavation. This soil survey can greatly facilitate the application of
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and such technology.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can Acreage in forest land and rangeland has gradually
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate development and improved pasture. Acreage in crops
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, and citrus fruits has remained stable over the past
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs several years. The land in improved pasture has
increased slightly. The use of this soil survey to help
crops and pasture make land use decisions that will influence the future
role of farming in the county is discussed in the section
John D. Griffin, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, "General soil map units."
helped prepare this section. Soil erosion is a hazard on disturbed soils in areas
The major management concerns in the use of the undergoing development. Water erosion can damage
soils for crops and pasture are described in this section. these soils if rains are intense and the soils are bare of
In addition, the crops or pasture plants best suited to the vegetation and surface mulch.
soil, including some not commonly grown in the survey Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
area, are discussed; the system of land capability for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the
classification used by the Soil Conservation Service is topsoil material is lost and the subsoil is exposed.







53








use and management of the soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the explained; and the predicted yields of the main crops
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land and hay and pasture plants are presented for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural This section provides information about the overall
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid agricultural potential of the survey area and about the
soil-related failures in land uses. management practices that are needed. The information
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, is useful to equipment dealers, land improvement
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive contractors, fertilizer companies, processing companies,
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics planners, conservationists, and others. For each kind of
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, soil, information about management is presented in the
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses section "Detailed soil map units." Planners of
and management. Field experience and collected data management systems for individual fields or farms
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis should also consider the detailed information given in the
in predicting soil behavior, description of each soil.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use Approximately 81,000 acres in the survey area was
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as used for crops and pasture in 1978 (6, 7, 14). Of this,
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary about 5,000 acres was used for sugarcane, about 36,000
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and acres was used for pasture, and about 40,000 acres was
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife used for specialty crops. Specialty crops included citrus
habitat. It can be used to identify the limitations of each fruits on approximately 38,000 acres; vegetables, mainly
soil for specific land uses and to help prevent potatoes, cabbage, and tomatoes, on approximately
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil 1,300 acres; and flowers on about 300 acres.
properties. Potential of the soils in the Martin County Area for
Planners and others using soil survey information can increased food production is good. Almost 210,000 acres
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity of potentially good cropland is presently used for
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. pasture, range, and woodland. Conversion of this land to
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a crops would require intensive conservation measures to
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. control water and soil blowing. In addition to the reserve
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of capacity represented by this land, food production could
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to be increased considerably by extending the latest crop
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil production technology to all cropland in the survey area.
layers can cause difficulty in excavation. This soil survey can greatly facilitate the application of
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and such technology.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can Acreage in forest land and rangeland has gradually
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate development and improved pasture. Acreage in crops
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, and citrus fruits has remained stable over the past
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs several years. The land in improved pasture has
increased slightly. The use of this soil survey to help
crops and pasture make land use decisions that will influence the future
role of farming in the county is discussed in the section
John D. Griffin, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, "General soil map units."
helped prepare this section. Soil erosion is a hazard on disturbed soils in areas
The major management concerns in the use of the undergoing development. Water erosion can damage
soils for crops and pasture are described in this section. these soils if rains are intense and the soils are bare of
In addition, the crops or pasture plants best suited to the vegetation and surface mulch.
soil, including some not commonly grown in the survey Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
area, are discussed; the system of land capability for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the
classification used by the Soil Conservation Service is topsoil material is lost and the subsoil is exposed.







54 Soil survey



Second, water erosion results in sediment entering drained soils. Citrus trees have a deep taproot and need
streams. Control of erosion minimizes sediment pollution a deep rooting zone. The soils need surface and
of streams and lakes and improves the quality of water subsurface drainage, and the citrus trees need irrigation
for municipal use, for recreation, and for fish and wildlife, for intensive production. Drip irrigation is gaining
Erosion control practices provide surface cover, widespread use. The design of both the drainage and
reduce runoff, and increase infiltration, irrigation systems varies according to the kind of soil and
Wind erosion is a major hazard on sandy and organic citrus crops grown.
soils. Wind erosion can damage soils and tender crops Some soils have a weakly cemented subsoil which
in a few hours in unprotected areas if the winds are slows the movement of water through the soil. In this
strong and the soil is dry and bare of vegetation and category are the Jonathan, Lawnwood, Nettles, Salerno,
surface mulch. Maintaining plant cover and surface and Waveland soils. These soils are wetter during rainy
mulch minimizes wind erosion. seasons and remain wet long after the wet season is
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It over. Although the cemented subsoil is a severe
reduces soil fertility by removing finer soil particles and limitation to the soil drainage required for most uses, it
organic matter; damages or destroys crops by can be used to maintain a shallow water table for
sandblasting; spreads disease vectors, insects, and specific crops.
weed seeds; and creates health and cleaning problems. When organic soils are drained, the pore spaces fill
Control of wind erosion minimizes duststorms and with air and the organic material subsides and oxidizes.
improves air quality. Therefore, special drainage and irrigation systems are
Field windbreaks and stripcrops are narrow plantings needed to control the depth and period of drainage.
made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at Oxidation and subsidence of these soils can be
specific intervals across the field. The interval depends minimized by keeping the water table at the highest
on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the practical level for the crop and cultivation practices
crop to damage from sandblasting. Windbreaks and during the growing season, and by raising the water
stripcrops reduce the windspeed and reduce the table to the surface the rest of the time.
distance the wind blows across the field. Field Information on drainage and irrigation for each kind of
windbreaks of such adapted trees and shrubs as soil is contained in the Technical Guide avalable n local
eucalyptus, South Florida slash pine, southern redcedar, offices of the Soil Conservation Service.
and grafted non-fruiting and suckering varieties of Soil fertility is naturally low on most soils in the survey
and grafted non-fruiting and suckering varieties of area. M t al ss hava syi
Australian pine and stripcrops of millet, small grain, colored surface. Exceptions are the Chobee, Floridana,
sugarcane, and sunflowers are effective in reducing wind and Jupiter soils which have a dark surface. Organic
erosion and crop damage. soils, such as Gator, Hontoon, Okeelanta, and Samsula
Clearing and disturbing only the minimum area needed soils, have as Gator, Hontoon, keelanta and amsula
for works and improvements help reduce water runoff and The soils with a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40
wind erosion. Mulching also helps reduce damage from inches have a higher available water capacity and
water runoff and soil blowing and improves moisture respond better to fertilizers and management. In this
conditions for seedlings. category are Chobee soils that have a loamy surface
Information for the design of erosion control practices layer and subsoil and such soils as Floridana, Pineda,
for each kind of soil is contained in "Water and Wind Pinellas, Riviera, and Winder soils that have a sandy
Erosion Control Handbook for Florida" available in local surface layer and loamy subsoil.
offices of the Soil Conservation Service. Most other mineral soils have either a deep, sandy
Soil drainage is a major management concern on profile; a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches; or a
much of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the sandy subsoil weakly cemented with organic matter.
survey area. Under natural conditions, most areas of the These soils are leached of plant nutrients rapidly and do
soils are so wet that production of common crops and not respond so well as loamy soils to fertilizers and
pasture plants is generally not possible. In this category management. In this category are such soils as
are the very poorly drained Chobee, Floridana, Gator, Basinger, Hobe, Jonathan, Nettles, Oldsmar, Paola,
Okeelanta, and Winder soils and the poorly drained Salerno, St. Lucie, and Waveland soils. In addition,
Basinger, Oldsmar, Pineda, Wabasso, and Waveland Hobe, Jonathan, Paola, and St. Lucie soils are too
soils. In addition, most of these soils have low available drought and too low in fertility to be suitable for most
water capacity and are drought during dry periods, crops. The soils with organic accumulations in the
Therefore, a combination of drainage and irrigation subsoil also have iron and aluminum accumulations
systems is needed for intensive crop and pasture which interfere with the availability of other plant
production. The design of the drainage and irrigation nutrients and which can be toxic to some plants. In this
systems varies according to the kind of soil and the category are such soils as Lawnwood, Nettles, Oldsmar,
crops and pasture plants grown. Wabasso, and Waveland soils.
Successful citrus production requires more intensive Some soils, such as Hallandale soils, have a layer of
management on the poorly drained and very poorly hard limerock at a depth of less than 20 inches; some,







Martin County Area, Florida 55


such as Boca soils, have limerock at a depth of less If drainage and irrigation are adequate, the poorly
than 40 inches. These soils are saturated during rainy drained and the very poorly drained soils are well suited
periods and drought during dry periods. The presence to vegetable crops.
of rock makes the construction of a drainage and Oranges are the main citrus crop. Grapefruit and
irrigation system more difficult. specialty fruits are also grown. If drainage and irrigation
Most of the soils in the survey area have a surface are adequate, citrus crops can be grown on the poorly
layer that is strongly acid to very strongly acid. If they drained and very poorly drained soils. Citrus crops are
have never been limed, the soils require applications of more productive on soils, such as Pineda, Riviera, and
ground limestone to supply calcium and raise the pH Wabasso soils, that respond better to drainage, irrigation,
level sufficiently for good growth of crops, citrus fruits, and management.
and pasture. Levels of nitrogen, potassium, and available Soils in low lying areas where air drainage is poor
phosphorus are naturally low in most of the mineral soils. generally are poorly suited to early vegetables and citrus
The organic soils, such as Gator, Okeelanta, and fruits. This condition is more common in some of the
Samsula soils, are low in most plant nutrients except wetter soils in the western half of the survey area.
nitrogen. Fertilizers applied to these soils should contain Information and suggestions for growing specialty
minor elements, especially copper. On all soils, additions crops can be obtained from local offices of the
of lime and fertilizer should be based on the results of Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation
soil tests, the need of the crop, and the expected level Service.
of yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in Pasture in the soil survey area is used to produce
determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime forage for beef cattle and dairy cattle. Cow-calf
to apply to each crop. operations are the major beef cattle systems. Bahiagrass
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of and pangolagrass are the main pasture plants (fig. 10).
seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils that On soils that have subsurface irrigation, white clover is
have good tilth are granular and porous. Most of the grown in combination with grass for winter and spring
mineral soils in the survey area have a sandy surface grazing. Excess grass is harvested for hay (fig. 11) when
layer that is light in color and low in organic matter the weather is favorable. The dairies chop green feed
content. Chobee and Floridana soils are exceptions daily for feeding.
because they have a dark surface layer and medium If adequately drained, most of the poorly drained soils
organic matter content. The organic soils, such as Gator, are well suited to pasture. Some of the very poorly
Okeelanta, and Samsula soils, have a dark surface layer drained soils, such as Chobee, Floridana, and Gator
that is high in organic matter content. soils, are very well suited to pasture if drainage is
Generally, mineral soils have weak structure or are adequate. Hemarthriagrass is suited to the poorly
structureless. Intense rain on dry soils that are low in drained and very poorly drained soils. Subsurface
organic matter content causes the colloidal material to r n ve l dri soils. S ac
cement, forming a slight crust. The crust is hard when irrigation increases the length of the growing season and
dry and slightly impervious to water. Once the crust has the total forage production. Legumes, such as white
formed, it reduces infiltration and increases runoff. clover, are well suited to these soils if adequate lime,
Regular additions of crop residue, manure, and other fertilizer, and good management are used.
organic material can help improve soil structure and Pasture in many parts of the survey area has been
reduce crust formation. greatly depleted by continuous excessive grazing. Yields
Mineral soils generally should be plowed only a short from pasture can be increased by using lime, fertilizer,
time before planting. Most of these soils are sandy, and legumes, rotation, irrigation, and good management
are subject to damaging soil blowing if they are plowed practices.
several weeks before planting. Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields
Field crops suited to the soils and climate of the are related closely to the kind of soil. Pasture
survey area include several crops that are not now management is based on the relationship of soils,
commonly grown. The acreage of sugarcane, the only pasture plants, lime, fertilizer, and moisture.
field crop grown in the survey area, has remained Information and suggestions for pasture can be
constant over the past several years. The acreage of obtained from local offices of the Cooperative Extension
selected varieties of sugarcane suited to mineral soils Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
and of rice and sunflowers could be increased if Hay and pasture yields are predicted for varieties of
economic conditions are favorable. grasses and legumes suited to each soil under a high
Specialty crops grown commercially in the survey area level of management. The predicted yields are shown in
include citrus fruits; some vegetables, mainly cabbage, table 5 in animal unit months.
peppers, potatoes, and tomatoes; and flowers, mostly
chrysanthemums. If economic conditions are favorable,
cucumbers, eggplants, squash, sweet corn, and The average yields per acre that can be expected of
watermelons could be grown. the principal crops under a high level of management






56 Soil survey





























Figure 10.-Improved pasture in an area of poorly drained Lawnwood fine sand. This soil is well suited to pasture if grazing is
controlled.


are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
The yields are based mainly on the experience and Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension about the management and productivity of the soils.
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also land capability classification
considered. Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
The management needed to obtain the indicated the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil that require special management are excluded. The soils
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; way they respond to management. The grouping does
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant not take into account major and generally expensive
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability
residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and classification is not a substitute for interpretations
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of soils for rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely purposes.
to increase as new production technology is developed. In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
other soils, however, is not likely to change. class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in are defined in the following paragraphs.







Martin County Area, Florida 57


Capability classes, the broadest groups, are Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The them unsuitable for cultivation.
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
defined as follows: crop production.
I soils have slight limitations that restrict their Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
Class I soils have slight mutations that restrict their They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
use. c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
practices. water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
Soils have severe limitations that reduce the cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
Class II soils have severe limitations that reduce the corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
choice of plants or that require special conservation limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
practices, or both. and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
the choice of plants or that require very careful or very dry.
management, or both. In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
V soils are not likely to erode but have other this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
Class Vmt sons impractical to emove thiithsubclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use. class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
generally unsuitable for cultivation. rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.







.... . ... ..... .-._.



W ", '






58 Soil survey


Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The for plant growth. Moisture content in the plants varies as
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to the growing season progresses and is not a measure of
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar productivity. Forage refers to total vegetation produced
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability and does not reflect forage value or grazing potentials.
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic The productivity of the soil is closely related to the
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lle-4 or natural drainage. The wettest soils, for example those
Ille-6. soils in marshes, produce the most herbage. The deep,
The acreage of soils in each capability class and drought sandhills generally produce the least herbage
subclass is shown in table 6. The capability classification annually.
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed soil Management of the soils for range should be planned
map units." with potential productivity in mind. Soils that have the
highest production potential should be given highest
range and grazeable woodland priority if economic considerations are important. Major
management considerations are centered around
Clifford W. Carter, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, livestock grazing. The length of time that an area should
helped prepare this section. be grazed, the season it should be used, how long and
Native grasses are an important part of the overall, when the range should rest, the grazing pattern of
year-round supply of forage to livestock producers in the livestock within a pasture that contains more than one
Martin County area. This forage is readily available, it is soil, and the palatability of the dominant plants on the
economical, and it provides important roughage needed soil are basic considerations if range condition is to be
by cattle. About 100,000 acres, or 30 percent of the improved or maintained. Manipulation of range
survey area, is used as native grazing areas by domestic commonly involves the mechanical control of brush, the
livestock control of burning, and especially the control of livestock
The dominant native forage species that grow on a grazing. These practices are very important. Without
soil are generally the most productive and the most exception, the proper management of range results in
suitable for livestock. They maintain themselves as long water resources, and generally, improvement of the
as the environment does not change. The forage habitat for many kinds of wildlife.
species are grouped into three categories according to Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory
their response to grazing-decreasers, increases, and of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is
invaders. an integral part of the forest plant community. The native
Decreasers generally are the most palatable plants, plants can be grazed without significantly impairing other
and they decrease in abundance if the range is under forest values. On such forest land, grazing is compatible
continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are less palatable with timber management if it is controlled or managed in
to livestock; they increase for a while under continuous a manner that maintains or enhances timber and forage
heavy grazing but eventually decrease. A small number resources.
of invaders are native to the range. They have little value Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
as forage; consequently, they tend to increase after shrubs, and other plants used by livestock or by grazing
other vegetation has been grazed. or browsing wildlife. A well managed wooded area can
Range condition is a measure of the current produce enough understory vegetation to supply food to
productivity of the range, in kinds and amounts of plants, large numbers of livestock and wildlife.
in relation to its potential. Four classes are used to The amount of forage production varies according to
measure range condition. Range in excellent condition the different kinds of grazeable woodland, the amount of
produces 76 to 100 percent of its potential; range in shade cast by the canopy, the accumulation of fallen
good condition produces 51 to 75 percent; range in fair needles, and the influence of time and intensity of
condition produces 26 to 50 percent; and range in poor grazing on the grasses and forage. It also varies
condition produces 0 to 25 percent. Only about 15 according to the number, size, and spacing for tree
percent of the range in the Martin County Area is in plantings and the method of site preparation.
excellent condition; about 65 percent is in fair or poor
condition. woodland management and productivity
Table 7 shows the potential of each soil for the
production of livestock forage. Potential production is the Carl D. DeFazio, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and Roy D.
amount of herbage that can be expected to grow on well Hopke, forester, Florida Division of Forestry, helped prepare this
managed range. Yields are expressed in table 7 in terms section.
of pounds of air-dry herbage per acre for range in Approximately 49,000 acres, or 14 percent, of the
excellent condition in favorable, normal, and unfavorable Martin County Area is woodland. Most of the forest is on
years. Favorable years are those in which climatic Waveland, Wabasso, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Riviera soils.
factors, such as rainfall and temperature, are favorable Most of the woodland is privately owned. In addition to






58 Soil survey


Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The for plant growth. Moisture content in the plants varies as
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to the growing season progresses and is not a measure of
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar productivity. Forage refers to total vegetation produced
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability and does not reflect forage value or grazing potentials.
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic The productivity of the soil is closely related to the
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lle-4 or natural drainage. The wettest soils, for example those
Ille-6. soils in marshes, produce the most herbage. The deep,
The acreage of soils in each capability class and drought sandhills generally produce the least herbage
subclass is shown in table 6. The capability classification annually.
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed soil Management of the soils for range should be planned
map units." with potential productivity in mind. Soils that have the
highest production potential should be given highest
range and grazeable woodland priority if economic considerations are important. Major
management considerations are centered around
Clifford W. Carter, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, livestock grazing. The length of time that an area should
helped prepare this section. be grazed, the season it should be used, how long and
Native grasses are an important part of the overall, when the range should rest, the grazing pattern of
year-round supply of forage to livestock producers in the livestock within a pasture that contains more than one
Martin County area. This forage is readily available, it is soil, and the palatability of the dominant plants on the
economical, and it provides important roughage needed soil are basic considerations if range condition is to be
by cattle. About 100,000 acres, or 30 percent of the improved or maintained. Manipulation of range
survey area, is used as native grazing areas by domestic commonly involves the mechanical control of brush, the
livestock control of burning, and especially the control of livestock
The dominant native forage species that grow on a grazing. These practices are very important. Without
soil are generally the most productive and the most exception, the proper management of range results in
suitable for livestock. They maintain themselves as long water resources, and generally, improvement of the
as the environment does not change. The forage habitat for many kinds of wildlife.
species are grouped into three categories according to Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory
their response to grazing-decreasers, increases, and of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is
invaders. an integral part of the forest plant community. The native
Decreasers generally are the most palatable plants, plants can be grazed without significantly impairing other
and they decrease in abundance if the range is under forest values. On such forest land, grazing is compatible
continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are less palatable with timber management if it is controlled or managed in
to livestock; they increase for a while under continuous a manner that maintains or enhances timber and forage
heavy grazing but eventually decrease. A small number resources.
of invaders are native to the range. They have little value Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
as forage; consequently, they tend to increase after shrubs, and other plants used by livestock or by grazing
other vegetation has been grazed. or browsing wildlife. A well managed wooded area can
Range condition is a measure of the current produce enough understory vegetation to supply food to
productivity of the range, in kinds and amounts of plants, large numbers of livestock and wildlife.
in relation to its potential. Four classes are used to The amount of forage production varies according to
measure range condition. Range in excellent condition the different kinds of grazeable woodland, the amount of
produces 76 to 100 percent of its potential; range in shade cast by the canopy, the accumulation of fallen
good condition produces 51 to 75 percent; range in fair needles, and the influence of time and intensity of
condition produces 26 to 50 percent; and range in poor grazing on the grasses and forage. It also varies
condition produces 0 to 25 percent. Only about 15 according to the number, size, and spacing for tree
percent of the range in the Martin County Area is in plantings and the method of site preparation.
excellent condition; about 65 percent is in fair or poor
condition. woodland management and productivity
Table 7 shows the potential of each soil for the
production of livestock forage. Potential production is the Carl D. DeFazio, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and Roy D.
amount of herbage that can be expected to grow on well Hopke, forester, Florida Division of Forestry, helped prepare this
managed range. Yields are expressed in table 7 in terms section.
of pounds of air-dry herbage per acre for range in Approximately 49,000 acres, or 14 percent, of the
excellent condition in favorable, normal, and unfavorable Martin County Area is woodland. Most of the forest is on
years. Favorable years are those in which climatic Waveland, Wabasso, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Riviera soils.
factors, such as rainfall and temperature, are favorable Most of the woodland is privately owned. In addition to







Martin County Area, Florida 59


this commercial woodland, a large percentage of land in management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates
the survey area has scattered trees, that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
South Florida slash pine, the major tree of the survey equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short
area, grows on all but the excessively drained and very seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in
poorly drained soils. Sand pine is economically management or in equipment; and severe indicates a
competitive along the coastal ridge in the eastern part of seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or
the survey area. Representative soils on which sand pine management, or a hazard in the use of equipment.
grows are Paola, St. Lucie, Hobe, and Jonathan soils. Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
Cypress is prevalent along the extreme southern the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
boundary of the survey area. Cabbage palm, live oak, competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
and laurel oak are along the St. Lucie and Loxahatchee apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly
Rivers. planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of
Timber management in the Martin County Area slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
generally consists of natural regeneration following 25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe,
harvest cutting. Prescribed burning plays an important more than 50 percent.
role in reducing "rough" and exposing mineral soil as a Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil
seedbed for natural reproduction. Fire also encourages characteristics that affect the development of tree roots
grasses and forbs which help support various wildlife, and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of
such as deer, turkey, and quail. slight indicates that a few trees may be blown down by
Wood products are periodically shipped from various normal winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown
points in the survey area. There are a few small down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
sawmills. The production of eucalyptus for pulpwood is a strong winds; and severe, that many trees are blown
potential wood crop. down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
Woodland in the Martin County Area has high value as moderate or strong winds.
building sites. Consequently, woodland acreage, Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to
particularly along the coast, is being lost to urban which undesirable plants are expected to invade where
development, there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading
More detailed information on woodland management plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A
can be obtained from the local offices of the Soil rating of slight indicates little or no competition from
Conservation Service, Florida Division of Forestry, and other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is
Florida Cooperative Extension Service. expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked
Table 8 can be used by woodland owners or forest stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops. competition is expected to prevent the establishment of
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared,
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol plants.
require the same general management and have about The potential productivity of merchantable or common
the same potential productivity, trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, the average height, in feet, that dominant and
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified
important trees. The number 1 indicates very high number of years. Site index was determined at 25 years
productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; of age for South Florida slash pine and at 50 years for
and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter, all other species. The site index applies to fully stocked,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter x even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees
indicates stoniness or rockiness; w, excessive water in or are those that woodland managers generally favor in
on the soil; t, toxic substances in the soil; d, restricted intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected
root depth; c, clay in the upper part of the soil; s, sandy on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and
texture; f, high content of coarse fragments in the soil marketability.
profile; and r, steep slopes. The letter o indicates that Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
limitations or restrictions are insignificant. If a soil has and to commercial wood production.
more than one limitation, the priority is as follows: x, w, t,
d, c, s, f, and r. windbreaks and environmental plantings
In table 8, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
management. from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens, and
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low- and
characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs
of the equipment generally needed in woodland provide the most protection.







60 Soil survey



Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops constructing campsites.
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife. Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock during the period of use, and do not have slopes or
of suitable species should be planted properly on a well stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
prepared site and maintained in good condition. sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
Service or from a nursery. and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
recreation considered.
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 9 Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and
according to limitations that affect their suitability for bicycling should require little or no cutting and filling. The
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not once a year during the period of use. They have
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the the surface.
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
vegetation, access to water, potential water some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning not considered in rating the soils.
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. wildlife habitat
In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
sg m d prepare this section.
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that Good wildlife habitat is widespread in Martin County
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, Area, except in the urbanized areas near the coast.
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil Wetland wildlife habitat is especially prevalent and
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be produces many species of wading birds, reptiles, and
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design, amphibians. The main game species are white-tailed
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination deer, bobwhite quail, and mourning doves. Other wildlife
of these measures. includes wild turkey, Florida mallard, raccoon, oppossum,
The information in table 9 can be supplemented by rabbit, feral hog, gray fox, tree squirrel, armadillo, and a
other information in this survey, for example, variety of songbirds, woodpeckers, and raptorial birds.
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table The most extensive areas of good habitat are in the
12 and interpretations for dwellings without basements undeveloped rangeland. Other important areas of smaller
and for local roads and streets in table 11. extent include the ocean beaches, which are used
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping extensively for nesting by endangered and threatened
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads sea turtles; the mangrove islands in Indian River,
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary Loxahatchee River, and St. Lucie River, which are
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to especially valuable as rookery and roosting areas for
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best wading birds and pelicans and as nursery areas for many
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to marine fish; and the higher, drier, still undeveloped ridge
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or areas near the coast. Important preserve areas are







60 Soil survey



Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops constructing campsites.
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife. Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock during the period of use, and do not have slopes or
of suitable species should be planted properly on a well stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
prepared site and maintained in good condition. sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
Service or from a nursery. and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
recreation considered.
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 9 Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and
according to limitations that affect their suitability for bicycling should require little or no cutting and filling. The
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not once a year during the period of use. They have
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the the surface.
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
vegetation, access to water, potential water some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning not considered in rating the soils.
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. wildlife habitat
In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
sg m d prepare this section.
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that Good wildlife habitat is widespread in Martin County
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, Area, except in the urbanized areas near the coast.
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil Wetland wildlife habitat is especially prevalent and
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be produces many species of wading birds, reptiles, and
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design, amphibians. The main game species are white-tailed
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination deer, bobwhite quail, and mourning doves. Other wildlife
of these measures. includes wild turkey, Florida mallard, raccoon, oppossum,
The information in table 9 can be supplemented by rabbit, feral hog, gray fox, tree squirrel, armadillo, and a
other information in this survey, for example, variety of songbirds, woodpeckers, and raptorial birds.
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table The most extensive areas of good habitat are in the
12 and interpretations for dwellings without basements undeveloped rangeland. Other important areas of smaller
and for local roads and streets in table 11. extent include the ocean beaches, which are used
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping extensively for nesting by endangered and threatened
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads sea turtles; the mangrove islands in Indian River,
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary Loxahatchee River, and St. Lucie River, which are
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to especially valuable as rookery and roosting areas for
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best wading birds and pelicans and as nursery areas for many
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to marine fish; and the higher, drier, still undeveloped ridge
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or areas near the coast. Important preserve areas are







Martin County Area, Florida 61



Jonathan Dickinson State Park and Hobe Sound and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
National Wildlife Refuge. considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
One endangered plant, the beach star, and a number pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover.
of endangered or threatened animals, ranging from the Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
little-known and seldom-seen Florida mouse to such established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
commonly seen species as the alligator and brown properties and features that affect the growth of these
pelican, are found in the survey area. A detailed listing plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
with information on range and habitat can be obtained layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
from the local district conservationist. stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, and
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and beggarweed.
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
be created or improved by planting appropriate properties and features that affect the growth of
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants, the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
In table 10, the soils in the survey area are rated these plants are oak, sawpalmetto, cabbage palm,
according to their potential for providing habitat for elderberry, blackberry, huckleberry, grape, and
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in waxmyrtle.
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and Coniferous plants furnish browse, seeds, and cones.
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
the intensity of management needed for each element of Examples of coniferous plants are pine and cypress.
the habitat. Wet/andplants are annual and perennial wild
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or properties and features affecting wetland plants are
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be plants are smartweed, wild millet, maidencane, cattail,
established, improved, or maintained in most places. cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
Moderately intensive management is required for Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind created by dams, levees, or other water-control
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
maintained in most places, but management is difficult water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be ponds.
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
impractical or impossible. the following paragraphs.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the Habitat for open/and wildlife consists of cropland,
following paragraphs. pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, include bobwhite quail, meadowlark, field sparrow,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface cottontail, and red fox.
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
seed crops are corn, cowpeas, sunflowers, and millet. associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth fox, raccoon, and deer.
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard, swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife







62 Soil survey



attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, shore birds, table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
alligators, and otter, aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
wildlife management fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
Wildlife habitat management thrives on such were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
disturbances as controlled burning, grazing, chopping, swell potential, available water capacity, and other
cultivation, water level manipulation, mowing, and behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
sometimes the use of pesticides. Each species of wildlife This information can be used to (1) evaluate the
occupies a niche in a vegetative type. If management is potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
for a particular species, an attempt is made to keep the and recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of
vegetative community in the stage or stages that favor construction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative routes
that species. for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is plant cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
diversity. A wide range in vegetative types or age septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5)
classes is generally favorable to wildlife. Increasing plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
dominance by a few plant species is commonly (6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
accompanied by a corresponding decrease in numbers topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
of wildlife, ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed
engineering small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same or
Bishop C. Beville, environmental engineer, Soil Conservation Service, similar soils.
helped prepare this section. The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
This section provides information for planning land the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
uses related to urban development and to water survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
given in the following tables: Building site development, Glossary.
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water building site development
management. The ratings are based on observed building site development
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and Table 11 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
test data in the "Soil properties" section. that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
Information in this section is intended for land use without basements, small commercial buildings, local
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
planning site investigations prior to design and limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
construction. The information, however, has limitations, features are generally favorable for the indicated use
For example, estimates and other data generally apply and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils indicated use and special planning, design, or
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
soil. limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
The information is not site specific and does not are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or special design, significant increases in construction
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
design and construction of engineering works. Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict limitations are severe.
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
not considered in preparing the information in this maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
section. Local ordinances and regulations need to be utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
Soil properties, site features, and observed observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
performance were considered in determining the ratings filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer;
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to year that excavations can be made is affected by the
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the depth to a seasonal high water table and the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the






Martin County Area, Florida 63


excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table. and good performance and low maintenance can be
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family more soil properties or site features make the soil less
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
for small commercial buildings without basements, for that one or more soil properties or site features are
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high costly alteration.
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered. features, and observed performance of the soils.
Local roads andstreets have an all-weather surface Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of interfere with installation.
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
properties, site features, and observed performance of public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil), surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high water table the absorption field to effectively filter the effluent. Many
affect the traffic supporting capacity. local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and thickness.
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic required to minimize seepage and contamination of
matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after ground water.
vegetation is established. Table 12 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
sanitary facilities or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
shows the degree and the kind of soil excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
Table 12 shows the degree and the kind of soil ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
are considered slight if soil properties and site features to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
are generally favorable for the indicated use and and content of organic matter.
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level
indicated use and special planning, design, or of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
special design, significant increases in construction lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope,
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required. bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction
Table 12 also shows the suitability of the soils for use problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that the lagoon floor.






64 Soil survey


Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is exacting in design than higher embankments.
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source their profile. The table showing engineering index
away from the site. properties provides detailed information about each soil
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy layer. This information can help determine the suitability
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
needs to be considered. in the ratings.
The ratings in table 12 are based on soil properties, The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
site features, and observed performance of the soils. and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of excavation is affected by large stones, a high water
landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place
landfyers, soil. Textureac, stones and content of salts and sodium after it has been compacted and drained is determined

affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
is needed. stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
to the landfill, and spread over the waste. shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
during wet and dry periods. Loamy soils that are free of a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
large stones or excess gravel are the best cover for a more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are difficult the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing, of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
After soil material has been removed, the soil material thick.
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 13, only
generally has the best workability, more organic matter, the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
and the best potential for plants. Material from the evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
cover. excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
construction materials sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
by the engineering classification of the soil), the
Table 13 gives information about the soils as a source thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil. given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of sizes is given in the table on engineering index
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil properties.
properties and site features that affect the removal of A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
compaction, minor processing, and other standard 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as
and used in road embankments in another place. In this limestone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.







Martin County Area, Florida 65



Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches of the reservoir area.
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
the reclamation potential of the borrow area. of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such constructed to impound water or to protect land against
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, and compacted during construction.
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material. The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and depth even greater than the height of the embankment
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts, Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are determine these properties.
not so wet that excavation is difficult. Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
not so wet that excavation is difficult. It also affects trafficability.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
near the surface. impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to
moisture and nutrients for plant growth. bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease
of excavation.
water management Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
Table 14 gives information on the soil properties and effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
site features that affect water management. The degree bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding; and
properties and site features are generally favorable for subsidence of organic layers. Excavating and grading
the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily and the stability of ditchbanks are affected by depth to
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones, slope, and
not favorable for the indicated use and special planning, the hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of the
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or soil after drainage is adversely affected by extreme
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or acidity or by toxic substances in the root zone, such as
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is
overcome that special design, significant increase in not considered in the ratings.
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
are required. supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive and management of an irrigation system are affected by
features that affect drainage, irrigation, and grassed depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
waterways. available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable sodium, and soil reaction.







66



Grassed waterways are natural or constructed waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed construction.






67








soil properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the adopted by the American Association of State Highway
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of and Transportation Officials (1).
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on The Unified system classifies soils according to
the following pages. properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to soils as Pt. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in SM.
table 22. The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
Estimates of soil properties are based on field those properties that affect roadway construction and
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
accurately by field observation, and help characterize Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
key soils. of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
engineering index properties can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
Table 15 gives estimates of the engineering 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
classification and of the range of index properties for the for soils tested, with group index numbers in
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils parentheses, is given in table 22.
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
or 6 feet. indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
properties of each layer are given for each soil series weight percentage.
under "Soil series and their morphology." Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined inches in diameter based on an oven-dry weight. The
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary, indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
Classification of the soils is determined according to estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system from nearby areas and on field examination.






67








soil properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the adopted by the American Association of State Highway
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of and Transportation Officials (1).
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on The Unified system classifies soils according to
the following pages. properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to soils as Pt. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in SM.
table 22. The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
Estimates of soil properties are based on field those properties that affect roadway construction and
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
accurately by field observation, and help characterize Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
key soils. of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
engineering index properties can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
Table 15 gives estimates of the engineering 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
classification and of the range of index properties for the for soils tested, with group index numbers in
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils parentheses, is given in table 22.
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
or 6 feet. indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
properties of each layer are given for each soil series weight percentage.
under "Soil series and their morphology." Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined inches in diameter based on an oven-dry weight. The
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary, indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
Classification of the soils is determined according to estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system from nearby areas and on field examination.







68 Soil survey



physical and chemical properties each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
Table 16 shows estimates of some characteristics and analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
The estimates are based on field observations and on corrosion.
test data for these and similar soils. Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil laboratory measurements at representative sites of
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential, given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in construction material, and the potential of the soil to
a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations. corrode metal and concrete.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density measurements of similar soils.
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems, less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
rate of water movement under saturated conditions is sometimes used.
affects behavior. Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies, and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
depending on soil properties that affect the retention of are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
water and the depth of the root zone. The most organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
important properties are the content of organic matter, and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to
water capacity is an important factor in the choice of sheet and rill erosion by water.
plants or crops to be grown and in the design and Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
management of irrigation systems. Available water average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
actually available to plants at any given time. sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of similar properties affecting their resistance to wind






Martin County Area, Florida 69



erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
distinctions: according to the intake of water when the soils are
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
sands. These soils are generally less suitable for crops. duration storms.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to The four hydrologic soil groups are:
establish. Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
erosion are used. transmission.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
control wind erosion are used. that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided transmission.
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
are used. layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
control wind erosion are used. runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
control wind erosion are used. Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly rainfall and water in swamps and marshes are not
erodible. Crops can easily be grown. considered flooding.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay Table 17 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
be grown. are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
to wind erosion. flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the possible under unusual weather conditions; common that
soil at various stages of decomposition. it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it
In table 16, the estimated content of organic matter of occurs on an average of once or less in 2 years; and
the plow layer is expressed as a percentage, by weight, frequent that it occurs on an average of more than once
of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if less
diameter, than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more than 7
The content of organic matter of a soil can be days. Probable dates are expressed in months;
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the November-May, for example, means that flooding can
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity, occur during the period November through May.
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and The information is based on evidence in the soil
other nutrients for crops. profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
soil and water features matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject
Table 17 and table 18 give estimates of various soil to flooding.
and water features. The estimates are used in land use Also considered are local information about the extent
planning that involves engineering considerations, and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on






70 Soil survey



the landscape to historic floods. Information on the water throughout an extensive area as a result of
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than lowering the water table.
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
levels. weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
soil. Indicated in table 17 are the depth to the seasonal Special site examination and design may be needed if
high water table; the kind of water table-that is, the combination of factors creates a severe corrosion
perched or apparent; and the months of the year that environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
the water table commonly is high. A water table that is boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
table 17. of soil or within one soil layer.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
water table is water standing above an unsaturated For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
separated from a lower one by a dry zone. acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth physical, chemical, and mineralogical
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the
soil and the soil is ponded. The first numeral in the range analyses of selected soils
indicates how high the water rises above the surface. By V. W. Carlisle, C. T. Hallmark, and R. E. Caldwell, Soil Science
The second numeral indicates the depth below the Department, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
surface.
Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth The results of physical, chemical, and mineralogical
of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and analyses of representative pedons in Martin County Area
on observations during soil mapping. The rock is are given in tables 19, 20, and 21. The analyses are by
specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or the Soil Characterization Laboratory at the University of
fractured, excavations can be made with trenching Florida. Detailed profile descriptions of soils analyzed are
machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard given in alphabetical order in the section "Classification
or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is of the soils." Laboratory data and profile information for
needed for excavation, other soils in the Martin County Area and for other
Cemented pans are cemented or indurated subsurface counties in Florida are on file at the Soil Science
layers within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Such pans cause Department, University of Florida.
difficulty in excavation. Pans are classified as thin or Samples of soil for analyses were removed from
thick. A thin pan is less than 3 inches thick if continuously carefully selected pits. The samples were air-dried,
indurated or less than 18 inches thick if discontinuous or crushed, and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most
fractured. Excavations can be made by trenching analytical methods used are outlined in Soil Survey
machines, backhoes, or small rippers. A thick pan is Investigations Report No. 1 (10).
more than 3 inches thick if continuously indurated or more In table 19, particle size distribution was determined by
than 18 inches thick if discontinuous or fractured. Such a a modified pipette method using sodium
pan is so thick or massive that special equipment is hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
frequently needed in excavation, and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
of organic material, or both, following drainage. 100 centimeters water (1/10 bar) and 345 centimeters
Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water
of several years. Table 18 shows the expected initial percentages divided by bulk density. The oven-dried,
subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and sieved samples were used to determine the 15-bar water
annual subsidence, which usually is a result of oxidation. retention.
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an In table 20 extractable bases were obtained by
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground leaching the soil samples with normal ammonium







Martin County Area, Florida 71



acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium and potassium in the common characteristic of sandy soils, particularly those
extract were determined by flame emission, and calcium that are moderately well drained, well drained, or
and magnesium were determined by atomic absorption excessively drained.
spectrophotometry. Extractable acidity was determined Hydraulic conductivity in the Palm Beach and Satellite
by the barium chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Variant soils is unusually high. These soils also retain
Cation exchange capacity was calculated by summation very low amounts of plant available water. Hydraulic
of extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base conductivity in the spodic horizons and argillic horizons
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation of most Alfisols, Spodosols, and Ultisols rarely exceeds
exchange capacity expressed in percent. Organic carbon 5 centimeters per hour and frequently is near zero.
was determined by modification of the Walkley-Black wet Generally, sand horizons exhibit higher hydraulic
combustion method. conductivities than finer textured horizons; however, soil
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with structure also affects hydraulic conductivity values, as
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil-water mixtures. The pH shown by the extremely low values of spodic horizons in
measurements were made with a glass electrode using a the Hobe, Jonathan, Lawnwood, Nettles, Salerno,
soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride Wabasso, and Waveland soils.
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal potassium The plant available water in a soil can be estimated
chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio. Aluminum, from bulk density and water content data. Generally,
carbon, and iron were extracted from probable spodic horizons that have 95 percent or more sand and low
horizons with 0.1 molar sodium pyrophosphate. organic matter content retain low amounts of water.
Determination of the aluminum and iron was by atomic Organic horizons in Bessie, Chobee, and Gator soils
absorption, and the extracted carbon was by the retain by far the greatest amount of plant available
Walkley-Black wet combustion method. Iron and water.
aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate were Generally, low values for extractable bases and cation
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. exchange capacities (table 20) are indicative of low
Mineralogy of the clay fraction (less than 2 microns) inherent soil fertility. The amount of organic matter, clay
shown in table 21 was ascertained by X-ray diffraction. content, and type of clay present largely determine the
Peak heights at 18 angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, 4.83 cation exchange capacity of a soil. The cation exchange
angstrom, and 4.31 angstrom positions represent capacity is generally highest in surface, spodic, and
montmorillonite, interstratified expandable vermiculite or argillic horizons. Only Bessie, Chobee, Gator, Jupiter,
14-angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz, and Palm Beach soils have cation exchange capacities
respectively. Peaks were measured, summed, and throughout their profiles in excess of 10 milliequivalents
normalized to give percent soil minerals identified in the per 100 grams. Higher amounts of extractable bases
X-ray diffractograms. These percentage values do not also occur in the B2t, B2ca, and Cca horizons of the
indicate absolute determined quantities of soil minerals, Boca, Ft. Drum, Pinellas, Riviera, Tuscawilla, Wabasso,
but they do imply a relative distribution of minerals in a and Winder soils. Calcium and magnesium are the
particular mineral suite. Absolute percentages would dominant bases. Bessie and Ft. Drum soils and the lower
require additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, horizons of the Tuscawilla soil contain appreciable
unit structure substitution, and matrix problems. amounts of sodium. Potassium occurs only in trace
Sands are by far the major particle-size fraction in all amounts throughout all horizons of all pedons,
horizons in all pedons (table 19) except in the IIC supporting the absence of weatherable minerals in
horizon of the Bessie soil and the IIC2ca horizon of the Martin County Area soils.
Chobee soil. Palm Beach, Satellite Variant, and Organic carbon content is generally low, with the
Waveland pedons contain less than 5 percent clay surface horizon of Hobe, Jonathan, Lawnwood, Malabar,
throughout their profiles to a depth of 2 meters. Silt Pineda, Riviera, Satellite Variant, Waveland, and Winder
content of these soils is also less than 5 percent. Hobe soils containing less than 1 percent. Organic carbon
and Salerno soils are inherently sandy to a depth of content decreases rapidly as depth increases in all
more than 1.5 meters but have slight increases in clay pedons, except in the Hobe, Jonathan, Lawnwood,
content in lower horizons. Jonathan, Lawnwood, Nettles, Salerno, Wabasso, and Waveland soils. These
Malabar, and Nettles soils are sandy to a depth of more soils have a Bh horizon commonly containing 2 to 4
than 1 meter but also have slightly increased clay percent organic carbon. The greatest amounts of organic
content in lower horizons. Other soils, such as Boca, carbon occur in the Oa horizon of Bessie, Chobee, and
Hallandale, Jupiter, Pineda, Pinellas, Tuscawilla, Gator soils. Since organic carbon is directly responsible
Wabasso, and Winder soils, contain horizons that have for soil nutrient and water retention capacities of sandy
13 to 25 percent clay content within a depth of 1 meter. soils, management practices that conserve and maintain
Except in a few horizons in the Chobee and Jupiter soils, organic carbon are highly desirable.
silt content is generally well under 10 percent. The sand Only Bessie, Chobee, Ft. Drum, and Gator soils have
fraction of many soils along the coast and Allapatah appreciable electrical conductivity values. Electrical
Flats is dominated by medium sand. Droughtiness is a conductivity reflects the amount of free salts in the soil







72


solution. These values generally have to be in excess of or more montmorillonite contain little or no 14-angstrom
3 millimhos per centimeter before growth of salt intergrade minerals and frequently contain rather small
sensitive plants is affected. Free salt content is very low amounts of kaolinite. Soils containing montmorillonite
in most Martin County Area soils. and 14-angstrom intergrade minerals have higher cation
Soil reaction in water exceeds pH 7.0 in at least one exchange capacities and retain more plant nutrients than
horizon of all but the Hobe, Jonathan, Lawnwood, soils dominated by kaolinite and quartz.
Nettles, Salerno, Satellite Variant, and Waveland soils.
The entire pedons of Boca, Jupiter, and Palm Beach
soils are alkaline, and a reaction of pH 7.0 or above engineering index test data
occurs in all but a few horizons of Chobee, Ft. Drum,
Pinellas, Tuscawilla, and Winder soils. Soil reaction is
generally 0.5 to 1.5 units lower in calcium chloride and Table 22 contains engineering test data made by the
potassium chloride solutions than in water. Nutrient Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
availability generally is greatest in soil when the reaction Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major
is between pH 6 and 7. soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to
Iron extracted by sodium pyrophosphate was 0.15 help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
percent or less in selected horizons of Spodosols. The classifications given are based on data obtained by
ratio of pyrophosphate extractable carbon and aluminum mechanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid
to clay in Hobe, Jonathan, Lawnwood, Nettles, Salerno, limits and plastic limits.
Wabasso, and Waveland soils was sufficient to meet the The mechanical analyses were made by combined
chemical criteria for spodic horizons. The relationship of sieve and hydrometer methods (4). In this method, the
pyrophosphate-extractable iron plus aluminum and the various grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis
combined index of accumulation for these soils also met of all the material in the soil sample, including that
the criteria established for spodic horizons. Soils coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The mechanical
containing high amounts of citrate-dithionite extractable analyses used in this method should not be used in
aluminum and iron detrimentally affect plant available naming textural classes of soils.
phosphorus. In addition to spodic horizons, subsoils of Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
Boca and Pineda soils contain appreciable amounts of water on the strength and consistence of the soil
iron capable of absorbing considerable amounts of material. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is
phosphorus, increased from a dry state, the material changes from a
Sand fraction (2-0.05 millimeters) mineralogy is semisolid to a plastic state.
siliceous, and quartz is dominant in all pedons. Small If the moisture content is further increased, the
amounts of heavy minerals are in most horizons, material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
Crystalline mineral components of the clay fractions plastic limit is the moisture content at which the so
(0.002 millimeter) are given in table 21 for specific plastic limit i changes frthe moisture content at whplastich the soiland
horizons of selected pedons. In general, the clay material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state, and
mineralogical suite consists of montmorillonite, a 14- the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil
angstrom intergrade, kaolinite, and quartz. material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
Montmorillonite is in all but the Palm Beach and plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
Waveland soils. It dominated the clay fraction in lower liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
horizons of the Boca, Chobee, Ft. Drum, Hallandale, moisture content within which a soil material is plastic.
Jupiter, Lawnwood, Nettles, Pineda, Pinellas, Riviera, The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table
Salerno, Tuscawilla, and Winder soils. About one-half of are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.
the soils contained detectable amounts of 14-angstrom Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in
intergrade. Kaolinite was detected in all but the Jonathan earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively
and Palm Beach soils. Quartz occurred in all pedons. higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
Montmorillonite, least stable of the mineral effort remains constant, the density of the compacted
components in the present environment, appears to material increases until the optimum moisture content is
have been inherited, as evidenced by frequent increases reached. After that, density decreases with increase in
with profile depth. Considerable volume changes could moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the
result from shrinkage upon drying and swelling upon compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a
wetting of soils containing appreciable amounts of rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the
montmorillonitic clays. Soil horizons that have 50 percent soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.







73








classification of the soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (11). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
or from laboratory measurements. In table 23, the soils Psammaquents.
of the survey area are classified according to the SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
system. The categories are defined in the following horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
paragraphs. texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. differ within a series.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/l. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders SOil series and their morphology
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the
that reflect the most important variables within the survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder in alphabetic order.
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
water, plus ent, from Entisol). formed are identified for each series. The soil is
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
base status. Each great group is identified by the name follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (9). Many of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, in Soil Taxonomy (11). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime). description is the range of important characteristics of
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. the soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The The map units of each soil series are described in the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not section "Detailed soil map units."
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Adamsville Variant
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Soils of the Adamsville Variant are hyperthermic,
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. They consist of
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives somewhat poorly drained, moderately permeable sandy
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective material that overlies well decomposed organic material.
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on low,
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. wave-built ridges that form a natural dike along the shore
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on of Lake Okeechobee. Slopes are dominantly 2 to 3
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other percent but range from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where years and between a depth of 40 and 60 inches for most
there is much biological activity. Among the properties of the rest of the year.







73








classification of the soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (11). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
or from laboratory measurements. In table 23, the soils Psammaquents.
of the survey area are classified according to the SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
system. The categories are defined in the following horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
paragraphs. texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. differ within a series.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/l. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders SOil series and their morphology
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the
that reflect the most important variables within the survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder in alphabetic order.
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
water, plus ent, from Entisol). formed are identified for each series. The soil is
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
base status. Each great group is identified by the name follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (9). Many of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, in Soil Taxonomy (11). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime). description is the range of important characteristics of
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. the soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The The map units of each soil series are described in the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not section "Detailed soil map units."
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Adamsville Variant
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Soils of the Adamsville Variant are hyperthermic,
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. They consist of
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives somewhat poorly drained, moderately permeable sandy
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective material that overlies well decomposed organic material.
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on low,
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. wave-built ridges that form a natural dike along the shore
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on of Lake Okeechobee. Slopes are dominantly 2 to 3
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other percent but range from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where years and between a depth of 40 and 60 inches for most
there is much biological activity. Among the properties of the rest of the year.







74 Soil survey



Adamsville Variant soils are geographically closely stainings on sand grains. The IIIC horizon is sand or fine
associated with Canova Variant, Floridana, Okeelanta, sand. It extends below a depth of 80 inches. In some
and Pompano soils. All of these soils are more poorly pedons this horizon is absent.
drained than Adamsville Variant soils. Canova Variant
soils have a histic epipedon and an argillic horizon.
Floridana soils have a mollic epipedon and an argillic Aquents
horizon. Okeelanta soils are organic. Pompano soils Aquents in this survey area are very poorly drained
have sandy material to a depth of 80 inches or more. soils that consist of stratified marine sediment in tidal
Typical pedon of Adamsville Variant sand, 0 to 5 soils that consist of stratified marine sediment in tidal
percent slopes, in an area of natural vegetation; about swamps. The color, texture, shell content, and sequence
1.8 miles north of St. Lucie Canal and 250 feet east of of layers vary among the layers and from one pedon to
U.S. Highway 441, NE1/4SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 10, T. 40 S., another, but color and texture are generally uniform
R. 37 E. within any one layer. Sandy material is dominant and
makes up about 60 percent of these soils, but loamy and
A-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single clayey material occurs in the upper part of some pedons.
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots; Slopes are less than 1 percent. These soils are flooded
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. by daily tides or by storm tides.
C1-3 to 15 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single Reference pedon of Aquents in a mangrove swamp on
grained; loose; neutral; clear wavy boundary. a small island on east side of the Intracoastal Waterwa
C2-15 to 40 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single a small island oneast side of the Intracoastal Waterway
grained; loose; about 40 percent fine shell and just north of Long Island; about 1.75 miles northeast
fragments; moderately alkaline; weakly calcareous; of Port Salerno in the Hanson Grant:
gradual wavy boundary. A-0 to 12 inches; dark grayish brown (
C3-40 to 54 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single A-0 to 12 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loamy
grained; loose; few to common white shell fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
fragments; moderately alkaline; weakly calcareous; few fine medium roots; common sand size shell
abrupt wavy boundary. fragments; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear
IIOa-54 to 70 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; massive; smooth boundary.
firm to friable; few dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand C1-12 to 20 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
pockets in lower few inches; neutral; gradual diffuse grained; loose; few fine and coarse roots, common
boundary. sand size shell fragments; moderately alkaline;
IIIC-70 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
sand; single grained; loose; few pockets and streaks C2-20 to 32 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/
of black sand; neutral. 2) and dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loamy fine
Thickness of sandy material above the buried organic sand; few small shell fragments; moderately alkaline;
material depends on the position of the pedon on the calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
natural dike. It ranges primarily from 24 to 60 inches. C3-32 to 60 inches; gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1) fine sand;
Pedons on the crest of the ridge may be more than 60 single grained; loose; moderately alkaline;
inches deep to the organic layer. Pedons near the base calcareous.
of the ridge are commonly less than 24 inches deep to
the organic layer on either side. Reaction ranges from Reaction ranges from mildly alkaline to strongly
medium acid to moderately alkaline throughout the alkaline throughout the pedon. Most pedons are
pedon. If the C horizon contains shells, it is calcareous. calcareous.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
chroma of 2 or less. It is 2 to 5 inches thick. chroma of 2 or less. It is sand, fine sand, loamy sand,
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and loamy fine sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or clay.
chroma of 2 or less. The content of fine shell fragments The sandier layers commonly vary in content of shell
varies, ranging from few to none to lenses or pockets fragments, but the fine textured layers have few or no
that have a high shell content. The C horizon is sand or shell fragments. Thickness is variable but commonly
fine sand.
The llOa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and ranges from 8 to 20 inches. In some pedons, thin layers
chroma of 2 or less; or it is neutral and value is 2. In of muck are above the A horizon.
some pedons, the lower part of the horizon may consist The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and
of more fibrous, browner, less well decomposed organic chroma of 1 to 3; or it is neutral and value is 4 or 5. It is
material than is typical. Thickness of the IIOa horizon sand, fine sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand, with or
ranges from 12 to 36 inches. without shell fragments. Subhorizons of the C horizon
The IIIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and differ among each other primarily in color and texture.
chroma of 3 or less. Chroma of 3 is due to organic These differences may occur in any sequence.






Martin County Area, Florida 75



Arents value of 2 to 6, and chroma of 2 or less. Below this layer
is dark to light colored, dominantly sandy material.
Arents in this survey area are somewhat poorly The range of characteristics used in describing this
drained to excessively drained soils consisting of variable unit is broad and reflects the general nature of the unit.
textured fill material that has been reworked by For the objectives of this survey, it was important to
earthmoving equipment and deposited over undisturbed recognize the heterogeneity of the overburden material
natural soils, mostly in the low lying areas. This fill because characteristics of the material vary too much to
material contains fragments of former subsoils or organic make accurate interpretations. It was not important to
soils. It has been excavated from soils having sandy, separate these soils into texture, color, and thickness of
loamy, or clayey subsoils or consisting of organic horizons. Map units have been separated to identify
material. Shell or limestone fragments are in some areas where the land has been filled over and smoothed,
places. The material was excavated nearby, or it was areas where the mixed material overlies organic material,
transported from distant areas. Most areas have been and areas of better drained spoil banks and constructed
smoothed or shaped to suit the desired use. Thickness dikes.
of the material varies from a few feet to many feet.
Slopes range from 0 to 35 percent. The water table Basinger series
ranges from a depth of about 20 to 72 inches or more.
Arents are closely associated with many of the soils in Soils of the Basinger series are siliceous, hyperthermic
the survey area. They differ from the associated soils in Spodic Psammaquents. They are poorly drained, very
not having an orderly sequence of soil horizons, rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick beds of
Reference pedon of Arents, 0 to 2 percent slopes, on sandy marine sediment. These nearly level soils are in
the edge of the St. Lucie River; about 0.25 mile north of sloughs, depressional areas, or poorly defined
the mouth of Bessie Creek, NW1 /4NW1 /4NW1 /4 sec. drainageways. They are saturated for long periods during
6, T. 38 S., R. 41 E. the wet season and following heavy rainfall. Depressions
are ponded most of the year. Slopes are less than 2
C-0 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine percent.
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; numerous Basinger soils are geographically closely associated
small to large lumps of dark grayish brown (10YR 4/ with Jonathan, Lawnwood, Placid, Salerno, St. Johns
2) sandy loam and sandy clay loam; few to common Variant, and Waveland soils. Except for Placid soils,
black (10YR 2/1) and dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) these soils have a well developed spodic horizon.
weakly cemented spodic horizon fragments; neutral; Jonathan soils are on slightly elevated knolls and ridges
clear wavy boundary. and are moderately well drained. Lawnwood, Salerno,
IIAlb-30 to 36 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine and Waveland soils are in the flatwoods. Placid and St.
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; Johns Variant soils are generally in depressional areas
many medium and coarse roots; common pockets of and have an umbric epipedon.
very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and dark gray (10YR 4/1) Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand in an area of
ner d; gra; cleOY31 a d y (y 4) native range; about 0.5 mile south of Cove Road and 1
fine sand; neutral; clear wavy boundary mile north of where Florida Highway AlA crosses over
IIA2b-36 to 60 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) the Florida East Coast Railroad, SE1/4NE1/4NW1/4
fine sand; single grained; loose; few lenses of very sec. 29, T. 38 S., R. 42 E1
dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; few pockets of dark sec. 29, T. 38 S., R. 42 E.
gray (10YR 4/1) and light gray (10YR 7/1) fine A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
sand; neutral. weak fine granular structure; very friable; many
uncoated sand grains; many fine and medium roots;
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to moderately very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
acid. Thickness of the mixed material ranges from about A21-6 to 12 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
20 to 50 inches in numerous small areas but is many sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
feet thick in areas that make up spoil banks and dikes, medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
In some pedons, the mixed material overlies organic boundary.
material that ranges in thickness from 6 to 50 inches or A22-12 to 28 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
more. In other pedons, the overburden rests on sand or fine sand; few coarse distinct very dark grayish
fine sand or sand overlying loamy material. The mixed brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; single grained; loose;
surface layer material is dominantly fine sand or sand few fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear
ranging to loamy fine sand with few to common wavy boundary.
fragments or lumps of finer textured material, Bh Bh-28 to 42 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
fragments, organic matter, or shell fragments. Matrix sand; single grained; loose; common medium to
colors are dominantly in shades of gray and brown. coarse pockets of noncemented very dark grayish
The buried surface layer of the underlying natural soil brown (10YR 3/2) fine sand; few medium roots; very
may be thin or thick sand or fine sand, in hue of 10YR, strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.






76 Soil survey


C1-42 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine II1C-18 to 44 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/
sand; common coarse faint dark grayish brown 2) clay; massive; very sticky, very plastic; few fine
(10YR 4/2) brown (10YR 4/3) and few medium medium and coarse roots; soil flows easily between
distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; fingers when squeezed; n value is 1.039; few
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual pockets dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muck in
wavy boundary. upper part of horizon; texture slightly coarser in
C2--60 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; lower part; pockets of dark gray and dark grayish
common coarse distinct gray (10YR 6/1) and many brown fine sandy loam at a depth of about 36
coarse faint brown (10YR 4/3) mottles; single inches increase in size and number as depth
grained; loose; very strongly acid. increases; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
IIIC-44 to 80 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) fine sand; single
Thickness of the sandy material is more than 80 grained; loose; common fine white shell fragments;
inches. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to medium few whole shells; horizon grades to gray (N 5/0) as
acid throughout the pedon. depth increases; fewer shell fragments in lower part;
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and strongly alkaline; calcareous; strong effervescence
chroma of 2 or less. The Al horizon is 2 to 8 inches in dilute HCI.
thick. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
and chroma of 3 or less. The A2 horizon ranges from Reaction in.the Oa horizon ranges from strongly acid
about 6 to 30 inches in thickness. to neutral in the calcium chloride solution. Reaction
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline in the II1C
chroma of 2 or 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma horizon, and it is moderately alkaline to strongly alkaline
of 2; or value of 4 and chroma of 2 or 4; or hue of 5YR, in the IIIC horizon.
value of 3, and chroma of 3 or 4. Many pedons have an The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR and 10YR, value of 2,
A&Bh horizon of mixed Bh and A2 horizon material. This and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sapric, and texture is muck.
horizon ranges from 6 to 20 inches in thickness. The content of fine mineral material ranges from 40 to
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and 70 percent. The Oa horizon ranges from 16 to 40 inches
chroma of 3 or less. It extends to a depth of 80 inches in thickness but is generally less than 30 inches.
or more. The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It is clay or sandy clay. Pockets of
Bessie series organic material are common in the upper part of the
horizon, and pockets or lenses of coarser material are
Soils of the Bessie series are clayey, montmorillonitic, common in the lower part. The IIC horizon ranges from 8
euic, hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists. They are very to more than 40 inches in thickness but is commonly 10
poorly drained, slowly to very slowly permeable soils that to 30 inches.
formed in thick accumulations of hydrophitic plant The IIIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
remains overlying clayey sediment. These nearly level chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 5, and
soils are in tidal swamps and most areas are flooded chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and value is 4 or 5. It is
daily during periods of normal high tide. Slopes are less fine sand, loamy fine sand, or fine sandy loam, with or
than 1 percent. without shell fragments.
Bessie soils are geographically closely associated with
Aquents and with Canaveral and Okeelanta Variant soils. Boca series
Canaveral soils are better drained than Bessie soils and
are mineral. Aquents soils are mineral. Okeelanta Variant Soils of Boca series are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
soils are sandy below the organic material. Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are poorly drained, moderately
Typical pedon of Bessie muck in a mangrove tidal permeable soils that formed in moderately thick beds of
swamp on Hutchinson Island; 2 miles south of the St. sandy and loamy marine sediment overlying a hard
Lucie County line, 300 feet west of Florida Highway AlA, limestone ledge that has numerous fractures and
and 100 feet south of road to Joe's Point, SE1/4 sec. solution holes. These nearly level soils are in the
24, T. 37 S., R. 41 E. flatwoods. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches
for 2 to 4 months during the rainy season in most years.
Oa-0 to 18 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
muck; massive; sticky; estimated 25 percent fiber Boca soils are geographically closely associated with
unrubbed, 5 to 10 percent rubbed; estimated 60 Hallandale, Pineda, Pinellas, Riviera, and Wabasso soils.
percent fine mineral material; pale brown (10YR 6/ Hallandale soils do not have an argillic horizon and have
3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; common fine and limestone at a depth of less than 20 inches. Pineda soils
medium roots in upper half of horizon; medium acid; have a Bir horizon and do not have limestone. Pinellas
pH 5.6 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride solution; soils have an Aca horizon and do not have limestone.
gradual wavy boundary. Riviera and Wabasso soils have an argillic horizon that






Martin County Area, Florida 77



does not rest on limestone. In addition, Wabasso soils horizon is sand or fine sand. Reaction ranges from
have a Bh horizon. strongly acid to slightly acid.
Typical pedon of Boca fine sand in an area in natural Some pedons have a discontinuous B1 horizon that
vegetation; about 0.9 mile south of Clements Road, 1.1 has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 or 3;
miles southwest of Florida Highway 710, and about 300 or value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 3 or more, with or
feet north of small graded road, NW1/4SW1/4SE1/4 without mottles of gray, yellow, or brown. The B1 horizon
sec. 11, T. 39 S., R. 37 E. is sand or fine sand that has at least 3 percent increase
in clay content from the horizon above, or, in places, it is
Aff-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; loamy fine sand. It ranges from 0 to 14 inches in
weak fine granular structure; very friable; slightly thickness. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to mildly
acid; gradual wavy boundary. alkaline.
A12-4 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to
weak fine granular structure; very friable; common 7, and chroma of 2 or less, with mottles of gray, yellow,
medium splotches of gray (10YR 6/1); neutral; clear brown, or olive. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
wavy boundary. sandy clay loam. Reaction ranges from neutral to
A21-8 to 16 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; moderately alkaline. In some pedons, it is calcareous.
common coarse distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3) The Btg horizon ranges from 4 to 20 inches in thickness.
mottles; single grained; loose; neutral; gradual wavy In some pedons a layer of mixed decomposed
boundary. fragments of rock, marl, sand, or fine sand ranges from
A22-16 to 25 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; 1 inch to 5 inches in thickness. This layer has pockets of
single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy finer material between the Btg horizon and the limestone
boundary. strata. It is variable in color, or it is highly mottled.
B2tg-25 to 32 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1 and 2.5Y 7/2) The layer of hard limestone has many fractures and
fine sandy loam; many medium distinct light olive solution holes, or it is made up of large flat boulders with
brown (2.5Y 5/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular solution holes. The rock ranges from 6 to 18 inches
blocky structure; friable; sand grains coated and thick. Layers of sand to sandy loam, some of which have
bridged with clay; few to common pockets of light a variable content of shell fragments, are below the rock.
gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; mildly alkaline; abrupt
wavy to irregular boundary. Canaveral series
IIR-32 to 40 inches; hard limestone containing fractures
and solution holes; calcareous; abrupt wavy Soils of the Canaveral series are hyperthermic,
boundary. uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. They are somewhat
IIIC1-40 to 45 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; poorly drained to moderately well drained, very rapidly
few medium to coarse dark grayish brown (10 YR 4/ permeable soils that formed in thick deposits of sand
2) and grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; single and fine shell fragments. These nearly level to gently
grained; loose; mildly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. sloping soils are in coastal areas on low dunelike ridges
IIIC2-45 to 50 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) loamy and on side slopes bordering sloughs and mangrove
fine sand; few fine to coarse distinct olive brown swamps. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The water
2.5Y 4/4) mottles; single grained; loose; moderately table is between a depth of 10 and 40 inches for 2 to 6
alkaline; noncalcareous; clear wavy boundary. months in most years.
IVC3-50 to 60 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand and Canaveral soils are geographically associated with
white shell fragments; single grained; loose; few Palm Beach, Cocoa Variant, and Bessie soils. Palm
small unbroken shells; moderately alkaline; Beach soils are excessively drained. Cocoa Variant soils
calcareous. have lime rock between a depth of 20 and 50 inches.
Bessie soils are organic and very poorly drained.
Thickness of the solum and depth to limestone within Typical pedon of Canaveral sand on Hutchinson Island
the dominant part of a pedon ranges from 24 to 40 at Sailfish Point; 0.25 mile north of St. Lucie Inlet and
inches, but in solution holes and fractures, the depth to 600 feet west of beach bordering the ocean, NE1/
limestone ranges to 50 inches or more. Depth to the 4NE1/4 sec. 17, T. 38 S., R. 42 E.
argillic horizon ranges from 20 to 36 inches in more than
half of the pedons. In the rest of the pedons, the argillic A-0 to 6 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; single
horizon ranges to a depth of 40 inches or more. grained; loose; few fine roots; about 15 percent
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and sand size shell fragments; neutral; clear wavy
chroma of 1; or value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 2 or less. boundary.
It is 3 to 9 inches thick. The Al or Ap horizon having C1-6 to 38 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
value of less than 3.5 is less than 6 inches thick. The A2 sand; single grained; loose; many multicolored fine
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of shell fragments; moderately alkaline; calcareous;
3 or less; or value of 7 and chroma of 4 or less. The A gradual wavy boundary.






78 Soil survey



C2-38 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; single grained;
sand; single grained; loose; many multicolored fine loose; few streaks of very dark gray (10YR 3/1) in
shell fragments and a few large white shells; old root channels; strongly acid; clear wavy
moderately alkaline; calcareous. boundary.
Btg-18 to 24 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline in all clay loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
horizons to a depth of 60 inches or more. Shell 5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; weak
fragments are calcareous. All horizons are sand or fine coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky,
sand mixed with varying amounts of shell fragments. slightly plastic; sand grains coated and bridged with
The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and clay; few to common medium krotovinas of light
chroma of 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and chroma brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and gray (10YR 6/1) fine
of 2. sand; slightly acid; gradual irregular boundary.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and IIC-24 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
chroma of 2; or value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 3 or 4; or sandy loam; massive; sticky and plastic; few to
value of 5 or 7 and chroma of 4. Sand grains are common shell fragments; common small soft white
uncoated and color depends largely on the multicolored nodules of secondary carbonates; moderately
shell fragments. Content of shell fragments ranges from alkaline; calcareous; abrupt irregular boundary.
10 to 60 percent. In some places, where these soils have IIIR-30 inches; hard limestone that has numerous
been dredged and deposited as fill, color and sequence of fractures and a few solution holes filled with
layers vary. calcareous sandy loam or shell material.

Canova Variant Depth to the Btg horizon from the surface of the
mineral soil is less than 20 inches except in fractures
Soils of the Canova Variant are fine-loamy, siliceous, and solution holes in the limestone rock where depth
hyperthermic Typic Ochraqualfs. They are very poorly ranges to 30 inches or more. Reaction ranges from
drained, moderately slowly to slowly permeable soils that slightly acid to strongly acid in the Oa and A horizons
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediment overlying and from slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the Btg
limestone under conditions favorable for the horizon.
accumulation of organic material. These nearly level soils The Oap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
are in low lying areas adjacent to Lake Okeechobee. chroma of 1. It ranges from 6 to 16 inches in thickness
Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Under natural conditions the but is most commonly 8 to 12 inches thick. The Oap
water table is above the surface most of the time. but is most commonly 8 to 12 inches thick. The ap
horizon is well decomposed sapric material.
Canova Variant soils are geographically closely The Al horizon has hue of 1 YR, value of 2 to 5, and
associated with Jupiter, Floridana, and Okeelanta soils. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
Jupiter and Floridana soils do not have a histic epipedon. chroma of 1 or 2. The darker shades are dominant but
In addition, Jupiter soils have limestone within a depth of lenses of gray and light gray fine sand are common.
20 inches and Floridana soils do not have limestone. Thickness ranges from about 4 to 9 inches. The A2
Okeelanta soils have more than 16 inches of organic horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of
material overlying the mineral material. 1 or 2, with or without mottles in shades of gray, brown,
Typical pedon of Canova Variant muck in an area and yellow. Thickness ranges from 4 to 16 inches.
planted to sugarcane in western Martin County; about The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, and 5Y,
9.5 miles west of Indiantown, 2.75 miles north of the St. value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and
Lucie Canal, and 0.5 mile east of U.S. Highway 441, value is 5. Mottles in shades of gray, brown, or olive are
NE1/4NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 3, T. 40 S., R. 37 E. in some pedons. Thickness of the Btg horizon is
generally 6 to 12 inches, but it ranges from 4 to 20
Oap-12 inches to 0; black (10YR 2/1) muck, unrubbed inches. Few to common pockets or krotovinas of A2
and rubbed; about 10 percent fiber, less than 5 horizon material are in most pedons. The Btg horizon is
percent fiber rubbed; weak medium granular dominantly sandy clay loam. In some pedons there is a
structure in upper part grading to massive; dark thin subhorizon, the upper part of which is fine sandy
brown (10YR 4/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; loam.
many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 or
smooth boundary. 6, and chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral and value is 5 or 6.
A1-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak It ranges from sand to fine sandy loam. It has few to
fine granular structure; very friable; few fine and many shell fragments, secondary carbonate nodules, or
medium roots; discontinuous lenses and pockets of rock fragments. The IIC horizon is moderately alkaline
gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; strongly acid; gradual and calcareous. It is absent in some pedons.
wavy boundary. The underlying limestone is discontinuous because of
A2-5 to 18 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; common numerous fractures and solution holes. Depth to the
fine and medium grayish brown (10YR 5/2) and light limestone is dominantly 24 to 40 inches below the







Martin County Area, Florida 79



surface, but it varies within short distances because of
the fractures and solution holes.

Chobee series
Soils of the Chobee series are fine-loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. They are very poorly
drained, slowly to very slowly permeable soils that
formed in thick beds of moderately fine marine sediment
(fig. 12). These nearly level soils are in small to large
depressional areas, in poorly defined drainageways, and
on broad, low flats. They are saturated during the rainy
season and after periods of heavy rainfall. Slopes are
generally less than 1 percent, but range to 2 percent in
places.
Chobee soils are geographically closely associated
with Floridana, Gator, Riviera, Tequesta Variant, and
Winder soils. Floridana soils have an argillic horizon
between a depth of 20 and 40 inches. Gator soils are
organic. Riviera and Winder soils do not have a mollic
epipedon. Tequesta Variant soils have a histic epipedon.
Typical pedon of Chobee loamy sand in improved
pasture; 2.75 miles west of Florida Highway 609, 1.2
miles south of Florida Highway 714, and about 1 mile
southwest of ranch headquarters:

Oap-3 inches to 0; black (10OYR 2/1) muck; less than 5
percent fiber rubbed; weak fine and medium
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; up
to 50 percent uncoated sand grains; medium acid;
clear smooth boundary.
A-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy sand; weak
fine granular structure; friable; common fine roots; .
many uncoated sand grains; neutral; clear wavy
boundary.
B21t&A-6 to 19 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy loam;
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; firm to .
friable; common fine roots; sand grains coated and
bridged with clay; many fine and medium pockets of
dark grayish brown (10 OYR 4/2) loamy sand;
moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
B22t-19 to 24 inches; black (10OYR 2/1) sandy clay
loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
sticky and plastic; common fine roots; sand grains Figure 12.-Chobee fine sandy loam. Tongues formed in the sandy clay
loam subsoil when dark colored surface material filled old
coated and bridged with clay; common fine pockets crayfish burrows. Depths are shown in meters and feet.
of dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loamy sand; mildly Multiply figure on the left by 100 to determine the depth in
alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary. centimeters.
B23tca-24 to 42 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky and plastic; common fine and medium IIC2-49 to 58 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) clay
roots; few white shell fragments; sand grains coated loam; massive; slightly sticky and plastic; many
and bridged with clay and calcium carbonate; mildly white shell fragments and soft carbonate nodules;
alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary. moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy
IlC1-42 to 49 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy boundary.
loam mixed with many fine and medium shell IIC3-58 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) sandy
fragments; massive; slightly sticky; moderately clay loam; massive; sticky and plastic; many white
alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary. shell fragments and soft carbonate nodules;







80 Soil survey



common pockets of loamy sand; moderately A12-8 to 14 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand;
alkaline; calcareous. single grained; loose; estimated 10 percent fine shell
fragments; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear
Thickness of the solum is more than 40 inches. A thin smooth boundary.
Oa or Oap horizon is on the surface of most pedons. It B-14 to 20 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) sand; single
has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or grained; loose; estimated 50 percent shell
2. It is well decomposed organic material and is 0 to 5 fragments; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear
inches thick. smooth boundary.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and C-20 to 25 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand;
chroma of 1 or 2. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to single grained; loose; more than 50 percent shell
moderately alkaline. Thickness ranges from 4 to 18 fragments; moderately alkaline; calcareous; abrupt
inches. wavy boundary.
The Bt and Btca horizons have hue of 10YR or they IIR-25 inches; coquina limestone.
are neutral, value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 or less; or
hue of 5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2, with Depth to limestone ranges from 20 to 40 inches. The
or without mottles of gray or brown; or hue of 2.5Y, depth varies sharply within short distances. The pedon is
value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2, with mottles. These mildly calcareous to moderately calcareous throughout.
horizons are sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Clay Sand is throughout the pedon. Content of shell
content in the upper 20 inches of the argillic horizon fragments ranges from 10 to 50 percent, but weighted
ranges from 18 to 35 percent. Reaction ranges from content in the control section is less than 40 percent.
neutral to moderately alkaline. The Btca horizon is The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
calcareous. chroma of 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2;
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and or hue of 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2; or value
chroma of 1; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of of 3 and chroma of 3. It is commonly 10 to 14 inches
2; hue of 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or thick but ranges to 18 inches.
hue of 5GY, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1, with or The B horizon has hues of 7.5YR and 5YR, value of 5,
without mottles. The IIC horizon ranges from loamy sand and chroma of 4; or hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
or loamy fine sand to clay loam. Reaction ranges from chroma of 3 or 4. It is sand but is slightly sticky in some
neutral to moderately alkaline and calcareous. Shell pedons where the soil is wet. It ranges from 4 to 18
fragments are absent in some pedons (see fig. 12). inches in thickness.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and
Cocoa Variant chroma of 3 or 4. It ranges from 12 to 20 inches in
thickness.
Soils of the Cocoa Variant are sandy, siliceous, The coquina limestone ranges from soft to hard, but it
hyperthermic Entic Hapludolls. They are moderately well is moderately cemented in most pedons.
drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in sandy
and shelly marine sediment overlying coquina limestone. EauGallie series
These nearly level soils are on ridges on barrier islands
along the Atlantic coast. The water table is between a Soils of the EauGallie series are sandy, siliceous,
depth of 30 and 40 inches for brief periods during the hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods. They are poorly drained,
rainy season. Slopes are smooth to convex and range moderate to moderately rapidly permeable soils that
from 0 to 2 percent. formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine
Cocoa Variant soils are geographically closely sediment. These nearly level soils are in broad areas of
associated with Bessie, Canaveral, and Palm Beach flatwoods. A water table is within a depth of 10 inches
soils. Bessie soils are organic and are in mangrove for 2 to 4 months in wet seasons and within a depth of
swamps. Canaveral and Palm Beach soils do not have a 40 inches for more than 6 months in most years. Slopes
mollic epipedon or limestone within a depth of 80 inches. range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typical pedon of Cocoa Variant sand in a formerly EauGallie soils are geographically closely associated
cultivated area on Joe's Point on Hutchinson Island; with Waveland, Lawnwood, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils.
slightly over 1 mile south of the Jensen Beach Waveland soils are deeper to the Bh horizon than
Causeway, about 0.5 mile west of Florida Highway A1A, EauGallie soils and do not have a Bt horizon. Lawnwood
and 700 feet east southeast of north end of the Point, soils do not have a Bt horizon. Oldsmar soils have a Bh
sec. 13, T. 38 S., R. 41 E. horizon at a greater depth than EauGallie soils. Wabasso
soils have a Bt horizon at a shallower depth.
A11-0 to 8 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) sand; Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand in an area of
weak fine granular structure; very friable; common native range; about 3.5 miles north of Florida Highway
fine roots; few fine shell fragments; moderately 708, and 1.25 miles west-southwest of U.S. Highway 1
alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary. and Poinciana Gardens in the Gomez Grant:






Martin County Area, Florida 81


A1-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; Electra series
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
and few medium roots; mixture of light gray sand Soils of the Electra series are sandy, siliceous,
grains and black organic matter granules; very hyperthermic Arenic Ultic Haplohumods. They are
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, somewhat poorly drained, slowly or very slowly
A21-5 to 12 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine permeable soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium loamy marine sediment. These nearly level soils are on
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, low ridges and knolls in the flatwoods and adjacent to
A22-12 to 28 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) drainageways. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. A water
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and table is between a depth of 25 and 40 inches for
medium roots; few medium distinct grayish brown cumulative periods of 4 months in most years and below
(10YR 5/2) mottles; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy a depth of 40 inches in dry periods.
boundary. Electra soils are geographically associated with
B2h-28 to 42 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; Waveland, Nettles, and Pomello soils. Waveland and
massive in place, crushes to moderate medium Pomello soils do not have a Bt horizon. Waveland and
granular structure; firm sand grains coated with Nettles soils are more poorly drained than Electra soils
organic matter; few fine and medium roots; very and have an ortstein.
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Electra fine sand in an undisturbed
Btg-42 to 50 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy flatwoods area; about 0.3 mile west of Florida Highway
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky 76 and about 0.2 mile south of Locks Road, NW1/
structure; firm and slightly sticky; few fine and 4NE1/4 sec. 7, T. 39 S., R. 41 E.
medium roots; sand grains coated and bridged with
clay; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. A1-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
C-50 to 65 inches; mixed lenses and pockets of grayish fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and
brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand, loamy fine sand, and medium roots; mixture of light gray sand grains and
fine sandy loam; massive; friable; few pockets of black organic matter; very strongly acid; clear
grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy clay loam; slightly smooth boundary.
acid. A21-6 to 12 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;

Thickness of the A horizon is less than 30 inches. The roots; common thin dark gray streaks in old root
Btg horizon is below a depth of 40 inches. The A and Bh channels; very strongly acid; gradual smooth
horizons are sand or fine sand. boundary.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and A22-12 to 40 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
chroma of 1. It ranges from 3 to 9 inches in thickness. single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and few thin dark grayish brown streaks in old root
chroma of 2 or less. The A horizon is very strongly acid channels; grayish brown transition to Bh horizon in
or strongly acid. lower 2 or 3 inches; very strongly acid; abrupt
The B2h horizon is neutral and value is 2; or it has hue irregular boundary.
of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2; hues B2h-40 to 48 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine
of 5YR and 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue sand; massive; weakly cemented in less than 50
of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 3. The sand grains percent of pedon; friable; common fine and medium
are coated with organic matter. Reaction ranges from roots; most sand grains well coated with organic
very strongly acid to slightly acid. A B3 horizon that has matter, some sand grains uncoated; few tongues
hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 3 commonly and pockets of light gray (10YR 6/1, 7/1) fine sand;
is below the Bh horizon. It is sand or fine sand. In some very strongly acid; clear irregular boundary.
pedons there is an A'2 horizon in hue of 10YR, value of B21tg-48 to 56 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) fine sandy
4 or 5, and chroma of 1; or hues of 10YR and 2.5Y, loam; many fine and medium distinct brownish
value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2. yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8) and few fine distinct strong
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 brown (7.5YR 5/6) and yellowish red (5YR 5/6)
to 6, and chroma of 2 or less, with or without mottles in mottles; weak medium and coarse subangular
shades of brown, yellow, or gray. It is sandy loam or blocky structure; friable; slightly sticky when wet; few
sandy clay loam and has pockets of sand or loamy sand. fine and medium roots; sand grains coated and
Reaction is medium acid to mildly alkaline, bridged with clay; very strongly acid; gradual smooth
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 or boundary.
6, and chroma of 2 or less, with or without mottles in B22tg-56 to 68 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sandy
shades of yellow or brown. It is fine sand, loamy fine loam; many medium and coarse brownish yellow
sand, or sandy loam and has pockets of finer material. (10YR 6/8) and reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8; 5YR 6/
Reaction is slightly acid to mildly alkaline. 8), common medium distinct very pale brown (10YR






82 Soil survey


7/3), and few fine and medium prominent red and Winder soils. Chobee soils have a Bt horizon at a
(2.5YR 4/6) mottles; weak fine and medium granular depth of less than 20 inches. Pineda and Riviera soils do
structure; very friable; slightly sticky; few fine and not have a mollic epipedon. Tequesta Variant soils have
medium roots; sand grains thinly coated and bridged a histic epipedon. Wabasso and Winder soils do not
with clay; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. have a mollic epipedon. In addition, Wabasso soils have
C-68 to 80 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) loamy fine a spodic horizon and Winder soils have a Bt horizon at a
sand, becoming sandier as depth increases; many depth of less than 20 inches.
fine and medium distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8; Typical pedon of Floridana fine sand in a cypress
5YR 6/8) and yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; weak pond; about 1.5 miles north of Palm Beach County line
fine granular structure; very friable; slightly sticky; and 3 miles east of Florida Highway 711, 300 feet north
very strongly acid. of grade, SE1/4SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 22, T. 40 S., R. 41 E.
Thickness of the solum is more than 60 inches. A1-0 to 15 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand rubbed;
Reaction ranges from extremely acid through strongly weak medium granular structure; very friable;
acid, but most pedons are very strongly acid throughout. estimated 10 percent organic matter; many gray
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and (10YR 5/1) pockets of fine sand; many fine and
chroma of 1. It ranges from 2 to 7 inches in thickness. medium roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and A2-15 to 27 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) fine
chroma of 1 or 2. Total thickness of the A horizon sand rubbed; many fine and medium faint gray
ranges from 30 to 50 inches. In many pedons, a thin (10YR 5/1, 6/1) and grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
transitional horizon is between the A2 and the Bh mottles; single grained; loose; few pockets of black
horizon. (10YR 2/1) organic matter; few medium roots;
The B2h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma B2tg-27 to 37 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or clay loam; common medium distinct olive brown
2. Some pedons have many light gray pockets or (2.5Y 4/4) mottles; massive to weak coarse
tongues from the A horizon. The B2h horizon ranges subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky, slightly
from 4 to 18 inches in thickness, but it is generally less plastic; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
than 10 inches. In some pedons, there is a thin 83 few medium roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
horizon of dark brown fine sand or a B3&Bh horizon B3g-37 to 50 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine
which has a dark brown matrix with black or dark reddish B3g-37 to 50 inch es; grayish browangular blocky
brown, weakly cemented fragments of the Bh horizon. structure; slightly sticky; neutral; gradual wavy
In some pedons, there is a thin A'2 horizon of sand or ucre
fine sand that has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and C-5boundary.ches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
chroma of 1; or value of 5, and chroma of 2 below the Bh -50 to 62 inches; light gray (oYR 7/1) fine sand;
horizon, single grained; loose; common pockets of grayish
The Btg or B'tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine sandy loam; neutral.
7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or value of 4 and chroma of 3 or Thickness of the solum is more than 48 inches.
4; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2, with Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately
mottles in shades of gray, brown, yellow, and red. The alkaline throughout the pedon.
B2tg horizon is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6 or chroma of 2 or less. It ranges from 10 to 24 inches in
7, and chroma of 1 or 2, with mottles of higher chroma. thickness. Some pedons have a thin surface layer of
It is loamy fine sand or fine sand. The C horizon is at a muck. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
depth of more than 60 inches. and chroma of 2 or less; or hue of 2.5YR, value of 5 or
Floridana series 6, and chroma of 2 or less, with or without mottles in
shades of gray, brown, or yellow. Total thickness of the
Soils of the Floridana series are loamy, siliceous, A horizon is 20 to 40 inches.
hyperthermic Arenic Argiaquolls. They are nearly level, The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
very poorly drained, slowly to very slowly permeable soils chroma of 1; or value of 5 or 6 and chroma 1 or 2; or it
that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine is neutral and value is 4 to 7; or it has hue of 2.5Y, value
sediment. These nearly level soils are in low sloughs and of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2, with or without mottles in
depressional areas. In most years, these soils are shades of gray, yellow, brown, or olive. It ranges from
ponded for more than 6 months, and the water table is sandy clay loam to sandy loam. In most pedons this
at a depth of less than 10 inches for much of the rest of horizon has pockets of fine sand and loamy fine sand.
the year. Slopes are less than 2 percent. The B2tg horizon ranges from 6 to 20 inches in
Floridana soils are geographically associated with thickness. The B3g horizon has a color range similar to
Chobee, Pineda, Riviera, Tequesta Variant, Wabasso, that of the B2tg horizon. It ranges from loamy fine sand







Martin County Area, Florida 83


to fine sandy loam. In some pedons the B3 horizon may yellow (2.5Y 6/6) and yellow (10YR 7/8) mottles;
be absent. weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
The C horizon is below a depth of 48 inches or may few fine roots; sand grains coated with carbonates;
be absent. It has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and strongly alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary.
chroma of 2 or less. The C horizon is fine sand or loamy C1-33 to 51 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
fine sand, with common pockets of fine sandy loam or sand; many medium pockets of light gray (10YR 7/
sandy clay loam. In many pedons, white shell fragments 2) fine sand; massive; slightly sticky; strongly
are in this horizon. alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
C2-51 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand; single
Ft. Drum series grained; nonsticky; strongly alkaline.
Soils of the Ft. Drum series are sandy, siliceous, Thickness of the solum ranges from 24 to 52 inches.
hyperthermic Aeric Haplaquepts. They are poorly Depth to the Bca horizon ranges from 6 to 20 inches.
drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in The All horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5,
sandy marine sediment. These nearly level soils are on and chroma of 1 or 2. If value is less than 4, thickness is
low ridges and flats bordering sloughs and depressional less than 6 inches.
areas. A water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 The A12 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
to 2 months during wet seasons and between a depth of and chroma of 2 or 3. Some pedons have an A2 horizon
10 and 40 inches for 9 months or more in most years. that has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. or 2. Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately
Ft. Drum soils are geographically closely associated alkaline.
with the Jupiter, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pinellas, and Valkaria The Bca horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
soils. Jupiter soils have limestone within a depth of 20 chroma of 1, or chroma of 1 or 2 if mottled. Mottles are
inches. Malabar and Oldsmar soils have a Bt horizon. In brownish yellow, yellow, light gray, or pale brown. The
addition, Malabar soils have a Bir horizon and Oldsmar Bca horizon is loamy fine sand or fine sand that has
soils have a Bh horizon. Pinellas soils have a Bt horizon coatings of secondary carbonates. It is generally friable
underlying the Bca horizon. Valkaria soils have a Bir or firm, but in some pedons it is very friable in the lower
horizon and do not have a Bca horizon, part of the horizon. Thickness of the Bca horizon ranges
Typical pedon of Ft. Drum fine sand in an open from 4 to 24 inches or more. Reaction is mildly alkaline
hammock of cabbage palm within an improved pasture; to strongly alkaline.
about 75 feet west of the section line road; 1.25 miles The C1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
north of Florida Highway 714, about 2 miles west of the chroma of 3 to 8, with or without mottles of gray, brown,
intersection of Florida Highway 714 and Florida East and yellow. It is fine sand or loamy fine sand. This
Coast Railroad, SE1/4NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 7, T. 37 S., R. horizon is discontinuous. Pockets of grayish, coarser or
37 E. finer material are common. The C2 horizon has hue of
10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or 3, with
Al11-0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; or without mottles. It is sand or fine sand. The C horizon
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
A12-7 to 14 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; weak Gator series
fine granular structure; very friable; common fine
and medium roots; moderately alkaline; clear wavy Soils of the Gator series are loamy, siliceous, euic,
boundary. hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists. They are very poorly
B1ca-14 to 18 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in
fine sand; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/ moderately thick deposits of decomposed organic
6) mottles; weak fine and medium subangular blocky material and underlying loamy material. These nearly
structure; friable; few fine roots; sand grains coated level soils are in marshes and wet depressional areas.
with carbonates; strongly alkaline; calcareous; clear They are saturated or covered with water except during
wavy boundary. extended dry periods. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
B21ca-18 to 28 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; Gator soils are closely associated with Chobee,
few medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) Floridana, Jupiter, and Winder soils. All of these soils are
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky mineral. An argillic horizon is within a depth of 20 inches
structure; firm and slightly cemented, strongest in the Chobee and Winder soils and between a depth of
cementation in upper few inches; sand grains 20 and 40 inches in the Floridana soils. Jupiter soils
coated with carbonates; few fine roots; strongly have limestone within a depth of 20 inches.
alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Gator muck in an area of improved
B22ca-28 to 33 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; pasture; about 8 miles north-northwest of Indiantown; 2
common fine and medium, few coarse distinct olive miles south of Florida Highway 714 and 1 mile west of







84 Soil survey



Florida Highway 609, NE1/4NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 35, T. 32 Hallandale series
S., R. 38 E.
Soils of the Hallandale series are siliceous,
Oap-0 to 11 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 15 hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents. They are poorly
percent fiber unrubbed, less than 10 percent rubbed; drained, moderately to moderately rapidly permeable
moderate medium granular structure in upper part, soils that formed in thin beds of sandy marine sediment
grading to coarse subangular blocky structure in overlying hard, fractured limestone. These nearly level
lower part; friable; many fine, few medium and soils are on broad, low flats. They are periodically
coarse roots; about 35 percent mineral material; saturated during the wet season. Slopes are less than 1
dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) sodium percent.
pyrophosphate extract; extremely acid (pH 4.3 in Hallandale soils are geographically closely associated
0.01 molar calcium chloride solution); clear wavy with Boca, Jupiter, Pineda, Pinellas, Riviera, and
boundary. Wabasso soils. Except for Boca and Jupiter soils, these
Oa2-11 to 24 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) soils do not have limestone. Boca soils have an argillic
muck; about 30 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 15 horizon. Jupiter soils have a mollic epipedon, and
percent rubbed; massive in place, crushes to weak Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon.
medium and coarse subangular blocky structure; Typical pedon of Hallandale sand in pasture; about 10
friable; common fine and medium roots; estimated miles north-northwest of Indiantown, 2.25 miles west of
40 percent mineral material; very dark brown (10YR Florida Highway 609, and about 600 feet south of Florida
2/2) sodium pyrophosphate extract; very strongly Highway 714, NE1/4NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 35, T. 38 S., R.
acid (pH 4.7 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride solution); 38 E.
gradual wavy boundary.
IIC1-24 to 48 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine Ap-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
sandy loam; massive in places, crushes to weak granular structure; very friable; many fine roots;
coarse subangular blocky structure; sticky and medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
plastic; many fine roots; sand grains coated and C1-4 to 8 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand;
bridged with clay; neutral; clear wavy boundary. few fine faint yellowish brown mottles; single
IIC2-48 to 56 inches; gray (N 5/0) and grayish brown grained; loose; few fine roots; few small pockets of
(2.5Y 5/2) sand; single grained; loose; few pockets very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) sand; medium
of light brownish gray (10YR 6/2); common white acid; clear wavy boundary.
shell fragments; mildly alkaline; calcareous. C2-8 to 13 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand
The Oa horizon dominantly has pH value of more than highly mixed or mottled with gray (10YR 5/1) sand;
4.5 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride solution, but pH of single grained; loose; thin root mat at base of
less than 4.5 in the upper part of the horizon in some horizon overlying limestone; few thin strong brown
places. Reaction of the IIC horizon ranges from slightly (7.5YR 5/8) coatings on soft to hard yellow (10YR
acid to moderately alkaline and calcareous. 7/8) concretions; slightly acid; abrupt irregular
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and boundary.
chroma of 1; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; IIR-13 to 20 inches; hard fractured limestone; fractures
hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 through 3; 1 inch to 4 inches wide, filled with grayish brown
or it is neutral and value is 3. The fiber content after (10YR 5/2) sandy loam mixed with carbonates in
rubbing is less than 15 percent of the soil volume. some parts; very hard rock in upper part, much
Mineral content ranges from about 10 to 40 percent. softer rock in lower part; surface of rock is smooth to
The IIC1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through wavy; clear irregular boundary.
4, and chroma of 2 or less; hue of 2.5Y, value of 2 IIC1-20 to 41 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) and white
through 4, and chroma of 2; or it is neutral and value is 2 (N 8/0) sandy clay loam; few fine faint yellowish
through 5, with or without mottles of brown, olive, or brown mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
gray. It ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay. Pockets structure; very sticky; common small limestone
or tongues of dark grayish brown, grayish brown, or light fragments; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear
brownish gray sand, loamy sand, or fine sandy loam are wavy boundary.
in this horizon in places. The IIC1 horizon is more than IIC2-41 to 58 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
20 inches thick and extends below a depth of 40 inches. sandy loam; few fine faint olive brown mottles; weak
The IIIC2 horizon has hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 through medium subangular blocky structure; sticky; many
6, and chroma of 2; hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and soft to hard carbonate nodules; moderately alkaline;
chroma of 1; or it is neutral and value is 5 or 6, with or calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
without brown, olive, or gray mottles. It is sand or loamy IIC3-58 to 76 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) fine
sand. Few to many white shell fragments are in this sandy loam; common medium distinct yellowish
horizon in places. The IIIC2 horizon is absent in some brown (10YR 5/6), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4),
pedons. and brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; massive;







Martin County Area, Florida 85



friable; common small pockets of soft carbonates; are dominantly less than 1 percent but range to 2
moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy percent.
boundary. Hilolo soils are geographically closely associated with
IIC4-76 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) fine Boca, Chobee, Hallandale, Jupiter, Pinellas, and Riviera
sandy loam mixed with many white shell fragments; soils. Boca soils have limestone below the argillic
massive; friable; moderately alkaline; calcareous. horizon. Chobee soils have a mollic epipedon and are
more poorly drained than Hilolo soils. Hallandale and
Depth to limestone ranges from 6 to 20 inches in the Jupiter soils have limestone at a depth of less than 20
main part of each pedon but is more than 20 inches inches. Pinellas and Riviera soils have an argillic horizon
where fractures occur. Reaction ranges from strongly between a depth of 20 and 40 inches, and, in addition,
acid to slightly acid in the A horizon and from medium Pinellas soils have a calcareous A2 horizon.
acid to moderately alkaline in the C horizon. Reaction in Typical pedon of Hilolo fine sand in a palm hammock;
the IIC horizon is mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline. 2.5 miles south of Florida Highway 714, and slightly
The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to more than 0.5 mile east of Florida Highway 609, SW1/
5, and chroma of 1. It ranges from 2 to 6 inches in 4SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 31, T. 38 S., R. 39 E.
thickness. In some pedons there is an A2 horizon that
has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1; or A11-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
value of 5 and 6 and chroma of 2. It is sand or fine sand fine granular structure; very friable; many fine roots,
and ranges from 0 to 8 inches in thickness. few medium and coarse roots; many uncoated sand
Pedons having an A2 horizon also have a B horizon, grains; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
The B1 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, value A12-3 to 8 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine
of 5 or 6, and chroma of 3, with or without mottles of sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
gray, brown, or yellow. It is sand or fine sand. The B2 many medium and few coarse roots; few medium
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of grayish brown (10YR 5/2) pockets of sand coated
4; or value of 5 and chroma of 6, with or without gray, with carbonates; mildly alkaline; clear wavy
brown; or yellow mottles. It is sand or fine sand and has boundary.
a 1 to 3 percent increase in content of clay. The B B21tgca-8 to 18 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
horizon ranges from 0 to 8 inches in thickness. Reaction loam; few fine faint olive mottles; weak medium
ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline, subangular blocky structure; friable; few medium
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and roots; sand grains bridged and coated with clay;
chroma of 1 or 2; or value of 5 to 8 and chroma of 3; or common streaks and nodules of carbonate
value of 7 or 8 and chroma of 4. It is generally mottled in accumulations; moderately alkaline; calcareous;
shades of yellow and brown. The C horizon is sand or clear wavy boundary.
fine sand. B22tgca-18 to 40 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
The IIR horizon is a layer of hard limestone boulders loam; common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
that has fractures a few feet apart and few to common 5/8), brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), and yellow (10YR
solution holes that range from a few inches to 36 inches 7/6) mottles, common medium faint very pale brown
in diameter. The fractures and solution holes commonly (10YR 8/4) mottles; moderate coarse subangular
penetrate the rock and are filled with loamy Bt material, blocky structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
They generally have accumulations of secondary sand grains coated and bridged with clay; common
carbonates. The limestone ranges from 6 to 24 inches or white nodules of carbonate accumulations;
more in thickness. moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, and 5Y, value boundary.
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less; or hue of 5GY, value B23tgca-40 to 56 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sandy clay
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1. In most pedons, this horizon loam; many coarse distinct very pale brown (10YR
has mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or olive. Shell 7/4) and few fine and medium prominent yellowish
fragments are not present in all pedons. The IIC horizon brown mottles; moderate coarse subangular blocky
ranges from sand or loamy sand to sandy clay loam. structure; very sticky and plastic; common medium
to coarse black streaks in old root channels; sand
Hilolo series grains coated and bridged with clay; moderately
alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
Soils of the Hilolo series are fine-loamy, siliceous, Cg-56 to 66 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sandy
hyperthermic Mollic Ochraqualfs. They are poorly loam; massive; slightly sticky; moderately alkaline;
drained, slowly to very slowly permeable soils that calcareous.
formed in beds of sandy and loamy marine sediment that
is influenced by the underlying alkaline material. These Thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to 60 inches.
nearly level soils are on low palm hammocks and along The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
the borders of depressional areas and sloughs. Slopes chroma of 1 or 2. It is rfeutral to moderately alkaline. The




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