• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the survey...
 How this survey was made
 Detailed soil map units
 Hydric soils
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 Index to map sheets
 Maps






Title: Soil survey of Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025712/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 72 p., 30 p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hurt, G. Wade
Noble, Chris V
Drew, Robert W
United States -- Natural Resources Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: [1995]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Monroe County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Monroe County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 45-46) and index to map units.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "By G. Wade Hurt, Chris V. Noble, and Robert W. Drew"--P. 1.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 96-0089-P.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025712
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002075203
notis - AKR3559
oclc - 34059668
lccn - 96124574
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    General nature of the survey area
        Page 1
        Page 2
    How this survey was made
        Page 3
        Map unit composition
            Page 4
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Hydric soils
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 25
        Land capability classification
            Page 25
        Characteristic plant communities
            Page 26
        Recreation
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 29
        Engineering
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
    Soil properties
        Page 35
        Engineering index properties
            Page 35
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 36
        Soil and water features
            Page 37
            Page 38
    Classification of the soils
        Page 39
        Soil series and their morphology
            Page 39
            Bahiahonda series
                Page 39
            Cudjoe series
                Page 40
            Islamorada series
                Page 40
            Keylargo series
                Page 41
            Keyvaca series
                Page 41
            Keywest series
                Page 41
            Lignumvitae series
                Page 42
            Matecumbe series
                Page 42
            Pennekamp series
                Page 43
            Saddlebunch series
                Page 43
            Tavernier series
                Page 44
    Reference
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Glossary
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Tables
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Index to map sheets
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Maps
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
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        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text

United States
SDepartment of
Agriculture
Natural
Resources
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
the University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil
Science Department; and
the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services


Soil Survey of

Monroe County,

Keys Area,

Florida















How to Use This Soil Survey


The detailed soil maps are at the back of this survey. These maps can be
useful in planning the use and management of small areas. To find information
about your area of interest, locate that area on the Index to Map Sheets, which
precedes the soil maps. Note the number of the map sheet, and turn to that
sheet. Locate your area of interest on the map sheet. Note the map unit symbols
that are in that area. Turn to the Index to Map Units (see "Contents"), which
lists the map units by symbol and name and shows the page where each map
unit is described. The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a
specific land use for each detailed soil map unit. See Contents for sections of
this publication that may address your specific needs.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal
agencies, State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil
Conservation Service) has leadership for the Federal part of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1988. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1989. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1990. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service; the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Natural Resources Conservation Service are
offered on a nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national
origin, religion, sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: An area of the Udorthents-Urban land complex used for building site development.


I -

















Contents


Index to map units ............ ................. iv
Summary of tables ............................... v
Forew ord ............. ....................... vii
General nature of the survey area ................. 1
How this survey was made ........................ 3
Map unit composition ......................... 4
Detailed soil map units .............. ......... 5
Hydric soils .................................... 23
Use and management of the soils.............. 25
Land capability classification ................... 25
Characteristic plant communities............... 26
Recreation .................................... 27
Wildlife habitat ................................ 29
Engineering .................................. 30
Soil properties ................................. 35
Engineering index properties .................. 35
Physical and chemical properties .............. 36


Soil and water features .....................
Classification of the soils .......................
Soil series and their morphology .................
Bahiahonda series .............................
Cudjoe series................................
Islamorada series .............. .............
Keylargo series ..................... ..........
Keyvaca series ........... .....................
Keywest series ................... ...........
Lignumvitae series ............................
Matecumbe series ............... ............
Pennekamp series ...........................
Saddlebunch series ...........................
Tavernier series............................
References.................... ..................
Glossary....................................
Tables ................................... .. ....


Issued October 1995

















Index to Map Units


2-Pennekamp gravelly muck, 0 to 2 percent
slopes, extremely stony ....................... 5
3-Matecumbe muck, occasionally flooded .......... 7
4-Rock outcrop-Tavernier complex, tidal........... 7
5-Islamorada muck, tidal .......................... 9
6-Keylargo muck, tidal ............................ 9
7-Udorthents-Urban land complex .............. 11
8-Rock outcrop-Cudjoe complex, tidal............ 12
9-Lignumvitae marl, tidal ....................... 13
11- Urban land ................................ .. 14


12-Rock outcrop-Cudjoe complex, frequently
flooded..................................
13-Keyvaca very gravelly loam, extremely
stony ......................................
15- Cudjoe marl, tidal ....................... ..
16-Bahiahonda fine sand, 0 to 3 percent
slopes...................................
17-Keywest marl, tidal ...........................
18- Beaches................................ ...
19-Saddlebunch marl, occasionally flooded.......















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ............................... 54

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 2) .................... 55

Characteristic plant communities (table 3) ................................. 56

Recreational development (table 4) ................. ................... 58

Wildlife habitat (table 5) ................... ............ ................ 60

Building site development (table 6) ................ .................... 62

Sanitary facilities (table 7) ................. ....................... ..... 64

Engineering index properties (table 8) .................................... 66

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 9) .................... 68

Soil and water features (table 10) ....................................... 70

Classification of the soils (table 11) ...................................... 72
















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in the survey area. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Planners, community
officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey
to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices
needed to ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and
specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution
control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the
environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey
or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high
water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. The location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each
soil in the survey area is described. Information on specific uses is given for
each soil. Help in using this publication and additional information are available
at the local office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.


T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service













Soil Survey of

Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


By G. Wade Hurt, Chris V. Noble, and Robert W. Drew, Natural Resources
Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services



The survey area is the southernmost part of Florida
and the United States (fig. 1). It has a population of
about 80,000 (13). Key West is the southernmost city
and is the county seat. The total area of Monroe County 0 Tallahassee
is about 926,800 acres. The survey area is about
66,000 acres in size. It consists of nonfederally leased
or controlled land and federally owned land.
The survey area consists of a series of small islands
surrounded by the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic
Ocean. Key Largo is the northernmost and easternmost
island and Key West is the southernmost and
westernmost island. The distance from Key Largo to
Key West is about 110 miles.
The keys are underlain by coral limestone bedrock in
the north and east and by oolitic limestone bedrock in
the south and west. The bedrock is near the surface in
all areas except for some areas of mangrove swamps.
The highest elevation in the keys is about 16 feet above
sea level, according to National Geodetic Vertical
Datum of 1929 (7). The lowest elevation is below sea
level.

General Nature of the Survey Area
This section gives general information about the Figure 1.-Location of Monroe County, keys area, In Florida.
survey area. It describes farming, history, geology, and
climate.

Farming area (15). After the completion of U.S. Highway 1 and
the hurricane of 1935, however, the economic
Records indicate that bananas, citrus crops, and production of crops ceased. Currently, no agricultural
vegetable crops were once grown in the survey land is in the survey area (13).







Soil Survey


History
The Caloosa Indians were the first inhabitants of the
keys (15). Plantation Key was inhabited by the Caloosa
Indians centuries ago. A large midden of Caloosa origin
has been found on the bay in the northern part of
Plantation Key. A large Caloosa burial ground is on
Lignumvitae Key. The original name for Key West was
Cayo Hueso, Spanish for Island of Bones. The bones in
this area were of Caloosa origin.
Ponce de Leon came to the keys in 1513 while
searching for gold. In the 1600's, the Spanish logged
the mahogany trees that grew in the keys (15).
In 1821, Florida became part of the United States.
The first settlement was at Cayo Hueso, or Key West,
in 1822. Key West was settled by people from the
Bahamas and later by people from New England. These
people settled at Key West to salvage wrecked ships
after Florida had become part of the United States.
In 1842, after the end of the second Seminole war,
few Indians were left in the keys. Most were sent to live
in Oklahoma. Some moved north to the swamps of the
everglades.
The areas in the Florida Keys other than Key West
were inhabited by very few people until 1874, when the
government surveyed these areas and divided the land
for homesteading. During the period 1905-12, a railroad
was built from Homestead to Key West. In 1926, less
than 500 people were in Key West and only 17 were in
Marathon. The people of the keys were mainly farmers,
fishermen, and wreckers. Very few changes occurred in
the Florida Keys until the completion of U.S. Highway 1
in the 1930's and the completion of an 18-inch water
pipe throughout the keys in 1942. The hurricane of
1935 destroyed much of the keys and ended the
economic production of crops.
The 18-inch water pipe was replaced by a 36-inch
water pipe in 1982. At that time, housing development
also increased. About 80,000 people now live in the
keys. They are mostly retired people who live in the
keys during the winter.

Geology
The survey area consists of two distinct geologic
areas. The material in the area south from Key Largo to
Upper Matecumbe Key is coral and that in the area
south and west from Lower Matecumbe Key is oolite.

The Coral Keys
The coral keys probably were an active coral reef at
one time, possibly while they were emerging to form
mangrove islands. Currently, the coral keys have a
denuded surface, from which the original surface of the


coral reef has been completely removed. In the highest
parts of the coral keys that are mainly on Key Largo
east of where U.S. Highway 1 enters the coral keys
from the mainland and on Windley Key, no evidence of
resubmergence since the original emergence seems to
exist (14). The surface has some considerable local
relief and occasionally has the ragged, irregular
appearance of microkarst. Also, there are local
accumulations of residual soil. All of these features
suggest that these higher parts of the coral keys have
remained under conditions of subaerial exposure for the
greatest part of the 100,000 years since the coral of the
reef was formed.
The remaining part of the coral keys has a lower,
smoother surface that seems to have resulted from
marine denudation. Near the outer and inner edges of
the relict coral reef, the surface slopes gently down
toward the present shore, where it is being cut back by
wave splash in the current cycle of shoreline
denudation. This wave splash is forming a new, similar
surface directly offshore. The shore zone that is
repetitively wet by wave splash has an extremely
ragged, irregular surface of bare coral rock that is
honeycombed with solution holes. Most of these holes
are a few inches to a foot or so wide. They do not vary
greatly in depth.
The higher, rougher, soil-covered parts of the coral
keys, such as areas in the eastern part of Key Largo
and areas near the old quarry on Windley Key, were not
cut away by the wave splash that beveled the lower,
smoother, flatter parts.
The cresting of a transgression rather than an
interval of stability during a regression probably beveled
the coral keys. The Key Largo coral reef was probably
formed when the sea was at its Pamlico level. The
period of time between the regression of the sea from
this level to its 10-foot level rise, which beveled most of
the high coral keys, was probably much longer than the
later timespan since the sea regressed from that 10-foot
level and left the lower, smoother parts of the coral
keys exposed. This theory is supported by the presence
of an appreciable amount of residual soil in some areas
and a virtual absence of residual soil from the lower,
smoother, wave-beveled parts.
The brown residual soil that is in some areas attests
to the transgression that culminated in the 10-foot rise
in sea level. Old solution pits filled with this brown soil
and fragments of limestone are in the walls of two
widely separate cuts in the wave-beveled part of the
coral keys. Apparently, these pits were formed by fresh
ground water before the sea level rose to the 10-foot
level that beveled the surface of the lower, smoother
parts of the coral keys.








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


The Oolite Keys
The boundary between the coral keys and the oolite
keys is between Upper Matecumbe Key and Lower
Matecumbe Key. The oolite keys extend all the way to
the southwest end of the Florida Keys (3). The elevation
of the oblite keys is more than half that of the elevation
of the coral keys. The eastern part of the oolite keys
from Lower Matecumbe Key to Newfound Harbor Key is
very similar to the coral keys. The oolite keys are
elongated in the same direction as the coral keys and
generally are parallel to the coastline. They form the
western' coastline of the Florida Keys. This western
extension of the curving archipelago, however, curves
back northward a few miles and forms an abrupt break
in the westward trend of the coastline. As a group, the
oolite keys occur in an east to west direction, but
individually they tend to elongate perpendicular to this
direction, usually slightly to the northwest.
The oolite keys probably formed in the same manner
as the coral keys. They have the same low, eroded
surface as that of the coral keys. The surface is smooth
and flat in the center of an island and slopes gently
downward near the shore. Like the wave-beveled parts
of the coral keys, it has little, if any, residual soil. No
solution' pits that were made subaerially were observed,
but it is possible that these pits could be revealed by a
few cuts.
The surface of the oolite keys was probably beveled
by a sea level that was 4 or 5 feet higher than the
present sea level. Because relict subaerially made
features extending below this surface are absent, it is
unclear whether the sea rose to this level from a lower
stand or dropped to it directly from the higher stand that
beveled the lower part of the coral keys.

Climate
The survey area has long, hot, humid summers,
which a e frequently cooled by sea breezes. It has
warm w nters, which are occasionally cooled by
incursio is of air from the north. Rainfall occurs
throughout the year. Every few years a hurricane
crosses the area.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded at Key West, Florida, in
the period 1951 to 1986.
In winter, the average temperature is 70 degrees F
and the average daily minimum temperature is 65
degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which
occurred at Key West on January 13, 1981, is 41
degrees. In summer, the average temperature is 84
degrees and the average daily maximum temperature is
89 degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which
occurred on July 23, 1951, is 95 degrees.


The total annual precipitation is 40.09 inches. The
heaviest 1-day rainfall during the period of record was
22.75 inches at Key West on January 11, 1980.
Thunderstorms occur on about 74 days each year.
The average relative humidity in midafternoon is
about 60 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the
average at dawn is about 85 percent. The sun shines
75 percent of the time possible in summer and 65
percent in winter. The prevailing wind is from the east-
southeast. Average windspeed is highest, 10 miles per
hour, in spring.

How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of
crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface
down into the unconsolidated material from which the
soil formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of
roots and other living organisms and has not been
changed by other biological activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly
pattern that is related to the geology, landforms, relief,
climate, and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind of
soil is associated with a particular kind of landscape or
with a segment of the landscape. By observing the soils
in the survey area and relating their position to specific
segments of the landscape, a soil scientist develops a
concept, or model, of how the soils were formed. Thus,
during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to
predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind
of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and











other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
of the soils in the area are generally collected for
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of
the soils are field tested through observation of the soils
in different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and some new interpretations are developed to meet
local needs. Data are assembled from other sources,
such as research information, production records, and
field experience of specialists. For example, data on
crop yields under defined levels of management are
assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given
soil will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.


Map Unit Composition

A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong
to other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map
units, these latter soils are called inclusions or included
soils.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.

















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under the heading "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement. Typical
profiles of the soils in this survey area are described in
the section "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Cudjoe marl, tidal, is a
phase of the Cudjoe series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes. A soil
complex consists of two or more soils or miscellaneous
areas in such an intricate pattern or in such small areas
that they cannot be shown separately on the soil maps.
The pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat
similar in all areas. Rock outcrop-Tavernier complex,
tidal, is an example.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named.


Some of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
areas have little or no soil material and support little or
no vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
the soil maps.
Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The
"Glossary" defines many of the terms used in
describing the soils.


2-Pennekamp gravelly muck, 0 to 2 percent
slopes, extremely stony
Geographic Setting
This soil is on tropical hammocks in the uplands of
the upper keys. About 10 percent of the surface of this
soil is covered with stones that are dominantly 10 to 20
inches in diameter. Individual areas are subject to rare
flooding from hurricanes and other tropical storms.
Elevations are dominantly 5 to 15 feet above sea level,
according to National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929.
The mean annual temperature is about 78 degrees F,
and the mean annual precipitation is about 50 inches.
Map Unit Composition
The Pennekamp soil is dominant in this map unit.
Soils in areas on the keys between Upper Matecumbe
Key and Big Pine Key are more sandy than the
Pennekamp soil; however, uses and interpretations are
the same as those of the Pennekamp soil. Areas that
have different uses and interpretations are rare and
generally are adjacent to the boundaries of the map
unit.







Soil Survey


Figure 2.-Characteristic vegetation in an area of Pennekamp gravelly muck, 0 to 2 percent slopes, extremely stony.


Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Pennekamp soil
are the moderately well drained, organic Matecumbe
soils and somewhat poorly drained, marly Saddlebunch
soils in the slightly lower positions on the landscape
and the poorly drained, marly Cudjoe, Lignumvitae, and
Keywest soils and very poorly drained, organic
Islamorada, Keylargo, and Tavernier soils in the
significantly lower positions on the landscape.
Drainage and Permeability
The Pennekamp soil is well drained. It has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 3.5 to 5.0 feet
during the wet periods of most years. Permeability is
moderately rapid.


Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this soil support native vegetation and
are used as habitat for woodland wildlife (fig. 2). Some
areas have been developed for residential, urban, or
recreational use. Table 3 lists characteristic vegetation
for the soils in the survey area. Because the species
listed generally are more easily established and require
less maintenance than other species, they should be
selected for planting during beautification and
landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this soil may include the following-








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


Trees: Thatch palm, buccaneer-palm, Deering's tree
cactus
Shrubs: Pride-of-big-pine
Herbaceous plants: Spleenworts, orchids, ferns, twisted
air plant
Mammals: Key deer, Key Largo cotton mouse, Key
Largo woodrat, Big Cypress fox squirrel
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork
Interpretations
Depth to bedrock and the flooding are severe
limitations affecting most uses of this soil, including
most kinds of building site and recreational
development and sanitary facilities. Tables 4, 6, and 7
provide more detailed information about these
limitations.



3-Matecumbe muck, occasionally flooded
Geographic Setting
This soil is on tropical hammocks in the uplands
throughout the keys. Individual areas are subject to
occasional flooding from hurricanes and other tropical
storms. Elevations are less than 15 feet above sea
level, according to National Geodetic Vertical Datum of
1929. The mean annual temperature ranges from 74 to
78 degrees F, and the mean annual precipitation ranges
from 50 to 65 inches.
Map Unit Composition
The'Matecumbe soil is dominant in this map unit.
Areas that have different uses and interpretations are
rare and generally are adjacent to the boundaries of the
map unit.

Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Matecumbe soil are
the well drained, mineral Keyvaca and Pennekamp soils
in the higher positions on the landscape; the somewhat
poorly drained, marly Saddlebunch soils in landscape
positions similar to those of the Matecumbe soil; and
the poorly drained, marly Cudjoe, Keywest, and
Lignumvitae soils and very poorly drained, organic
Islamorada, Keylargo, and Tavernier soils in the lower
positions on the landscape.

Drainage and Permeability
The Matecumbe soil is moderately well drained. It
has a seasonal high water table at a depth of 1.5 to 3.0
feet during the wet periods of most years. Permeability
is rapid.


Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this soil support native vegetation and
are used as habitat for woodland wildlife. Some areas
have been developed for residential, urban, or
recreational use. Table 3 lists characteristic vegetation
for the soils in the survey area. Because the species
listed generally are more easily established and require
less maintenance than other species, they should be
selected for planting during beautification and
landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this soil may include the following-
Trees: Thatch palm, buccaneer-palm
Shrubs: Pride-of-big-pine
Herbaceous plants: Spleenworts, orchids, ferns, twisted
air plant
Mammals: Key deer, Key Largo cotton mouse, Key
Largo woodrat, Big Cypress fox squirrel
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork
Interpretations
Depth to bedrock, the flooding, and an excessive
amount of humus are severe limitations affecting most
uses of this soil, including most kinds of building site
and recreational development and sanitary facilities.
Tables 4, 6, and 7 provide more detailed information
about these limitations.


4-Rock outcrop-Tavernier complex, tidal
Geographic Setting
This map unit is in mangrove swamps throughout the
keys. Individual areas are subject to daily flooding by
tides. Elevations are less than 2 feet above sea level,
according to National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929.
The mean annual temperature is about 75 degrees F,
and the mean annual precipitation is about 55 inches.
Map Unit Composition
Approximately 60 percent of this map unit consists of
areas of exposed bedrock. These areas are dominantly
1 to 4 inches above the surface of the surrounding soil
and range from approximately 2 feet to more than 200
feet in diameter. The Tavernier soil is dominant in about
35 percent of this map unit. Areas that have different
uses and interpretations are rare and generally are
adjacent to the boundaries of the map unit.
Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Tavernier soil are
the very poorly drained, organic Islamorada and







Soil Survey


Figure 3.-An area of Rock outcrop-Tavernier complex, tidal. Black mangrove is the dominant vegetative species.


Keylargo soils in landscape positions similar to
those of the Tavernier soil; the poorly drained,
marly Cudjoe, Lignumvitae, and Keywest soils in the
slightly higher positions on the landscape; and the
moderately well drained, organic Matecumbe soils
and somewhat poorly drained, marly Saddlebunch
soils in the significantly higher positions on the
landscape.


Drainage and Permeability
The Tavernier soil is very poorly drained. The
seasonal high water table is at or near the surface
during much of the year. Permeability is rapid.
Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this map unit support native vegetation
and are used as habitat for wetland wildlife (fig. 3).








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


Some areas have been developed for residential, urban,
or recreational use. Table 3 lists characteristic
vegetation for the soils in the survey area. Because the
species listed generally are more easily established and
require less maintenance than other species, they
should be selected for planting during beautification and
landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this map unit may include the following-
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork
Reptiles: American crocodile
Interpretations
The flooding, the depth to bedrock, and the wetness
are severe limitations affecting most uses of this map
unit, including most kinds of building site and
recreational development and sanitary facilities. Tables
4, 6, and 7 provide more detailed information about
these limitations.


5-Islamorada muck, tidal
Geographic Setting
This soil is dominantly on the upper keys in
mangrove swamps. Individual areas are subject to daily
flooding by tides. Elevations are dominantly at or below
sea level, according to National Geodetic Vertical
Datum of 1929. The mean annual temperature is about
75 degrees F, and the mean annual precipitation is
about 50 inches.
Map Unit Composition
The Islamorada soil is dominant in this map unit.
Areas of the Tavernier soils are also included. These
soils have bedrock within a depth of 20 inches. Other
areas that have different uses and interpretations are
rare and generally are adjacent to the boundaries of the
map unit.
Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Islamorada soil are
the very poorly drained, organic Keylargo and Tavernier
soils in landscape positions similar to those of the
Islamorada soil; the poorly drained, marly Cudjoe,
Lignumvitae, and Keywest soils in the slightly higher
positions on the landscape; and the moderately well
drained, organic Matecumbe soils and somewhat poorly
drained, marly Saddlebunch soils in the significantly
higher positions on the landscape.
Drainage and Permeability
The Islamorada soil is very poorly drained. The
seasonal high water table is at or near the surface


during much of the year. Permeability is rapid.
Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this soil support native vegetation and
are used as habitat for wetland wildlife. Some areas
have been developed for residential or recreational use.
Table 3 lists characteristic vegetation for the soils in the
survey area. Because the species listed generally are
more easily established and require less maintenance
than other species, they should be selected for planting
during beautification and landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this soil may include the following-
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork
Reptiles: American crocodile
Interpretations
The wetness, the flooding, and depth to bedrock are
severe limitations affecting most uses of this soil,
including most kinds of building site and recreational
development and sanitary facilities. Tables 4, 6, and 7
provide more detailed information about these
limitations.


6-Keylargo muck, tidal
Geographic Setting
This soil is dominantly on the upper keys but can
occur throughout the keys. It is in mangrove swamps
(fig. 4). Individual areas are subject to daily flooding by
tides. Elevations are dominantly at or below sea level,
according to National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929.
The mean annual temperature is about 75 degrees F,
and the mean annual precipitation is about 50 inches.
Map Unit Composition
The Keylargo soil is dominant in this map unit. Areas
that have different uses and interpretations are very
rare and generally are adjacent to the boundaries of the
map unit.
Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Keylargo soil are
the very poorly drained, organic Islamorada and
Tavernier soils in landscape positions similar to those of
the Keylargo soil; the poorly drained, marly Cudjoe,
Lignumvitae, and Keywest soils in the slightly higher
positions on the landscape; and the moderately well
drained, organic Matecumbe soils and somewhat poorly
drained, marly Saddlebunch soils in the significantly
higher positions on the landscape.








Soil Survey


Figure 4.-An area of Keylargo muck, tidal. This map unit is adjacent to open water throughout much of the survey area.


Drainage and Permeability
The Keylargo soil is very poorly drained. The
seasonal high water table is at or near the surface
during much of the year. Permeability is rapid.

Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this soil support native vegetation and
are used as habitat for wetland wildlife (fig. 5). A few
areas have been developed for recreational use. Table
3 lists characteristic vegetation for the soils in the
survey area. Because the species listed generally are


more easily established and require less maintenance
than other species, they should be selected for planting
during beautification and landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this soil may include the following-
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork
Reptiles: American crocodile
Interpretations
The wetness, an excessive amount of humus, and








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


the flooding are severe limitations affecting most uses
of this soil, including most kinds of building site and
recreational development and sanitary facilities. Tables
4, 6, and 7 provide more detailed information about
these limitations.


7-Udorthents-Urban land complex
Geographic Setting
This map unit is in constructed upland areas adjacent
to areas of water throughout the keys. Individual areas


Figure 5.-Vegetation In an area of Keylargo muck, tidal. Prop roots are characteristic of the red mangrove.







Soil Survey


are subject to rare flooding from hurricanes and other
tropical storms. Elevations vary, depending on the
thickness of the fill material, but they are dominantly 3
to 10 feet above sea level, according to National
Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929.

Map Unit Composition
The Udorthents dominantly consist of crushed oolitic
limestone or coral bedrock that has been spread over
the original soil material. They commonly are about 32
inches of extremely gravelly sand underlain by about 40
inches of marl. The marl is underlain by coral bedrock.
Other areas of soils are underlain by muck and other
soil material. Houses and other urban structures cover
up to 40 percent of most areas of the Udorthents;
however, the soils can still be observed.
Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated in this map unit are all of
the other soils that are in the keys.
Drainage and Permeability
The Udorthents are moderately well drained. They
have a seasonal high water table at a depth of 2 to 4
feet during the wet periods of most years. Permeability
is variable.
Use and Vegetation
This map unit generally supports no vegetation. The
stones and droughtiness are severe limitations affecting
any kind of landscaping activity. The Udorthents were
developed for urban use, and many areas are being
used for this purpose (fig. 6).
Interpretations
The stones, seepage, and the wetness are moderate
or severe limitations affecting most uses of this map
unit, including most kinds of building site and
recreational development and sanitary facilities. Tables
4, 6, and 7 provide more detailed information about
these limitations.



8-Rock outcrop-Cudjoe complex, tidal
Geographic Setting
This map unit is in mangrove swamps throughout the
keys. Individual areas are frequently flooded by tides.
Elevations are 0 to 1 foot above sea level, according to
National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. The mean
annual temperature ranges from 75 to 78 degrees F,
and the mean annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 50
inches.


Map Unit Composition
Approximately 60 percent of this map unit consists of
areas of exposed bedrock. These areas are dominantly
1 to 4 inches above the surface of the surrounding soil
and range from approximately 2 feet to more than 200
feet in diameter. The Cudjoe soil is dominant in about
40 percent of this map unit. Areas that have different
uses and interpretations are rare and generally are
adjacent to the boundaries of the map unit.
Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Cudjoe soil are the
well drained, mineral Keyvaca and Pennekamp soils,
moderately well drained, organic Matecumbe soils, and
somewhat poorly drained, marly Saddlebunch soils in
the higher positions on the landscape; the poorly
drained, marly Keywest and Lignumvitae soils in
landscape positions similar to those of the Cudjoe soil;
and the very poorly drained, organic Islamorada,
Keylargo, and Tavernier soils in the lower positions on
the landscape.
Drainage and Permeability
The Cudjoe soil is poorly drained. The seasonal high
water table is within a depth of 6 inches during the wet
periods of most years. Permeability is moderate or
moderately rapid.
Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this map unit support native vegetation
and are used as habitat for wetland wildlife. Some
areas have been developed for residential, urban, or
recreational use. Table 3 lists characteristic vegetation
for the soils in the survey area. Because the species
listed generally are more easily established and require
less maintenance than other species, they should be
selected for planting during beautification and
landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this map unit may include the following-
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork,
peregrine falcon
Reptiles: American crocodile, striped mud turtle
Interpretations
The flooding, the depth to bedrock, and the wetness
are severe limitations affecting most uses of this map
unit, including most kinds of building site and
recreational development and sanitary facilities. Tables
4, 6, and 7 provide more detailed information about
these limitations.








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


Figure 6.-Residential development in an area of Udorthents-Urban land complex adjacent to water.


9-Lignumvitae marl, tidal
Geographic Setting
This soil is dominantly on the middle and lower keys
in mangrove swamps. Individual areas are frequently
flooded by tides. Elevations are dominantly at sea level,
according to National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929.
The mean annual temperature ranges from 75 to 78
degrees F, and the mean annual precipitation ranges
from 40 to 50 inches.
Map Unit Composition
The Lignumvitae soil is dominant in this map unit.
Areas that have different uses and interpretations are
rare and generally are adjacent to the boundaries of the
map unit.


Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Lignumvitae soil
are the well drained, mineral Keyvaca and Pennekamp
soils, moderately well drained, organic Matecumbe
soils, and somewhat poorly drained, marly Saddlebunch
soils in the higher positions on the landscape; the
poorly drained, marly Cudjoe and Keywest soils in
landscape positions similar to those of the Lignumvitae
soil; and the very poorly drained, organic Islamorada,
Keylargo, and Tavernier soils in the lower positions on
the landscape.
Drainage and Permeability
The Lignumvitae soil is poorly drained. The seasonal
high water table is within a depth of 6 inches during the








Soil Survey


Figure 7.-Lignumvitae marl, tidal, provides anhingas with habitat
for nesting and an access area for feeding.



wet periods of most years. Permeability is moderate or
moderately rapid.

Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this soil support native vegetation and
are used as habitat for wetland wildlife (fig. 7). Some
areas have been developed for residential, urban, or
recreational use. Table 3 lists characteristic vegetation
for the soils in the survey area. Because the species
listed generally are more easily established and require
less maintenance than other species, they should be
selected for planting during beautification and
landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this soil may include the following-
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork
Reptiles: American crocodile, striped mud turtle


Interpretations
Depth to bedrock, the flooding, and the wetness are
severe limitations affecting most uses of this soil,
including most kinds of building site and recreational
development and sanitary facilities. Tables 4, 6, and 7
provide more detailed information about these
limitations.


11-Urban land
Geographic Setting
This map unit is on Key West and the adjacent,
smaller keys. Individual areas are subject to rare
flooding from hurricanes and other tropical storms.
Elevations are dominantly 3 to 10 feet above sea level,
according to National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929.
Map Unit Composition
This map unit is covered by asphalt, concrete,
buildings, and other impervious surfaces. The natural
soil is covered and cannot be readily observed. Urban
land makes up about 80 percent of most areas of this
map unit. The undeveloped areas of this map unit
include Udorthents, which were developed by spreading
crushed bedrock over the original soil material.
Geographically Associated Soils
The Urban land is associated with Udorthents and
Beaches.
Drainage and Permeability
The drainage and permeability of the Urban land are
variable.
Use and Vegetation
Most areas of Urban land are covered by impervious
surfaces. Grasses and other plants selected for planting
during landscaping are dominant in the areas that
support vegetation.
Interpretations
Soil properties in this map unit are variable;
therefore, careful onsite investigation is needed to
determine the limitations for any proposed use.


12-Rock outcrop-Cudjoe complex,
frequently flooded
Geographic Setting
This map unit is on low tropical hammocks and in
sawgrass marshes in the uplands throughout the keys.








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


Individual areas are subject to frequent flooding from
hurricanes and other tropical storms. Elevations range
from 1 to 3 feet above sea level, according to National
Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929. The mean annual
temperature ranges from 75 to 78 degrees F, and the
mean annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 50 inches.
Map Unit Composition
Approximately 55 percent of this map unit consists of
areas of exposed bedrock. These areas are dominantly
1 to 4 inches above the surface of the surrounding soil
and range from approximately 2 feet to more than 200
feet in diameter. The Cudjoe soil is dominant in about
45 percent of this map unit. Areas that have different
uses and interpretations are rare and generally are
adjacent to the boundaries of the map unit.
Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Cudjoe soil are the
well drained, mineral Keyvaca and Pennekamp soils,
moderately well drained, organic Matecumbe soils, and
somewhat poorly drained, marly Saddlebunch soils in
the higher positions on the landscape; the poorly
drained, marly Keywest and Lignumvitae soils in
landscape positions similar to those of the Cudjoe soil;
and the very poorly drained, organic Islamorada,
Keylargo, and Tavernier soils in the lower positions on
the landscape.
Drainage and Permeability
The Cudjoe soil is poorly drained. The seasonal high
water table is within a depth of 6 inches during the wet
periods of most years. Permeability is moderate or
moderately rapid.
Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this map unit support native vegetation
and are used as habitat for wetland and woodland
wildlife. Some areas have been developed for
residential, urban, or recreational use. Table 3 lists
characteristic vegetation for the soils in the survey area.
Because the species listed generally are more easily
established and require less maintenance than other
species, they should be selected for planting during
beautification and landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this map unit may include the following-
Mammals: Key deer, Big Cypress fox squirrel
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork
Interpretations
The flooding, the depth to bedrock, and the wetness
are severe limitations affecting most uses of this map
unit, including most kinds of building site and


recreational development and sanitary facilities. Tables
4, 6, and 7 provide more detailed information about
these limitations.


13-Keyvaca very gravelly loam, extremely
stony
Geographic Setting
This soil is on everglade flatwoods in the uplands of
Big Pine Key and the adjacent keys. About 10 percent
of the surface of this soil is covered with stones that are
dominantly 10 to 20 inches in diameter. Individual areas
are subject to rare flooding from hurricanes and other
tropical storms. Elevations are dominantly 4 to 6 feet
above sea level, according to National Geodetic Vertical
Datum of 1929. The mean annual temperature is about
78 degrees F, and mean annual precipitation is about
50 inches.
Map Unit Composition
The Keyvaca soil is dominant in this map unit. Areas
that have different uses and interpretations are rare and
generally are adjacent to the boundaries of the map
unit.
Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Keyvaca soil are
the moderately well drained, organic Matecumbe soils
and somewhat poorly drained, marly Saddlebunch soils
in the slightly lower positions on the landscape and the
poorly drained, marly Cudjoe, Lignumvitae, and
Keywest soils and very poorly drained, organic
Islamorada, Key Largo, and Tavernier soils in the
significantly lower positions on the landscape.
Drainage and Permeability
The Keyvaca soil is well drained. It has a seasonal
high water table at a depth of 3 to 5 feet during the wet
periods of most years. Permeability is moderately rapid.
Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this soil support native vegetation and
are used as habitat for woodland wildlife (fig. 8). Some
areas have been developed for residential, urban, or
recreational use. Table 3 lists characteristic vegetation
for the soils in the survey area. Because the species
listed generally are more easily established and require
less maintenance than other species, they should be
selected for planting during beautification and
landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this soil may include the following-








Soil Survey


Figure 8.-Characteristic vegetation In an area of Keyvaca very gravelly loam, extremely stony.


Trees: Thatch palm, buccaneer-palm, Deering's tree
cactus
Shrubs: Pride-of-big-pine
Herbaceous plants: Spleenworts, orchids, ferns, twisted
air plant
Mammals: Key deer, Key Largo cotton mouse, Key
Largo woodrat, Big Cypress fox squirrel
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork
Interpretations
Depth to bedrock and the flooding are severe
limitations affecting most uses of this soil, including
most kinds of building site and recreational


development and sanitary facilities. Tables 4, 6, and 7
provide more detailed information about these
limitations.


15-Cudjoe marl, tidal
Geographic Setting
This soil is dominantly on the lower keys in mangrove
swamps. Individual areas are frequently flooded by
tides. Elevations are 0 to 1 foot above sea level,
according to National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929.
The mean annual temperature ranges from 75 to 78








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


degrees F, and the mean annual precipitation ranges
from 40 to 50 inches.

Map Unit Composition
The Cudjoe soil is dominant in this map unit. Areas
that have different uses and interpretations are rare and
generally are adjacent to the boundaries of the map
unit.

Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Cudjoe soil are the
well drained, mineral Keyvaca and Pennekamp soils,
moderately well drained, organic Matecumbe soils, and
somewhat poorly drained, marly Saddlebunch soils in
the higher positions on the landscape; the poorly
drained, marly Keywest and Lignumvitae soils in
landscape positions similar to those of the Cudjoe soil;
and the very poorly drained, organic Islamorada,
Keylargo, and Tavernier soils in the lower positions on
the landscape.

Drainage and Permeability
The Cudjoe soil is poorly drained. The seasonal high
water table is within a depth of 6 inches during the wet
periods of most years. Permeability is moderate or
moderately rapid.

Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this soil support native vegetation and
are used as habitat for wetland wildlife. Some areas
have been developed for residential, urban, or
recreational use. Table 3 lists characteristic vegetation
for the soils in the survey area. Because the species
listed generally are more easily established and require
less maintenance than other species, they should be
selected for planting during beautification and
landscaping.

Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants or animals in areas
of this soil may include the following-
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork,
peregrine falcon
Reptiles: American crocodile, striped mud turtle

Interpretations
The flooding, depth to bedrock, and the wetness are
severe limitations affecting most uses of this soil,
including most kinds of building site and recreational
development and sanitary facilities. Tables 4, 6, and 7
provide more detailed information about these
limitations.


16-Bahiahonda fine sand, 0 to 3 percent
slopes
Geographic Setting
This soil is on coastal strands and tropical hammocks
in the uplands on Bahia Honda Key and Long Key.
Individual areas are subject to rare flooding from
hurricanes and other tropical storms. Elevations are
dominantly 4 to 7 feet above sea level, according to
National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929.
Map Unit Composition
The Bahiahonda soil is dominant in this map unit.
Soils in areas on Long Key are wetter than the
Bahiahonda soil and have slightly more limitations.
They have a high water table at a depth of 1.5 to 2.5
feet. Areas that have different uses and interpretations
are rare and generally are adjacent to the boundaries of
the map unit.
Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Bahiahonda soil
are the moderately well drained, organic Matecumbe
soils in landscape positions similar to those of the
Bahiahonda soil; the poorly drained, marly Cudjoe soils
in the slightly lower positions on the landscape; and the
very poorly drained, organic Islamorada and Keylargo
soils and Beaches in the significantly lower positions on
the landscape.
Drainage and Permeability
The Bahiahonda soil is moderately well drained. It
has a seasonal high water table at a depth of 2.5 to 3.5
feet during the wet periods of most years. Permeability
is rapid.
Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this soil support native vegetation and
are used as habitat for woodland wildlife. A few areas
have been developed for recreational use. Some areas
support invader, or exotic, species. These invader
species are dominantly Australian pine. Table 3 lists
characteristic vegetation for the soils in the survey area.
Because the species listed generally are more easily
established and require less maintenance than other
species, they should be selected for planting during
beautification and landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this soil may include the following-
Trees: Deering's tree cactus
Shrubs: Pride-of-big-pine
Herbaceous plants: Twisted air plant, small-flowered lily-
thorn, young-palm orchid








Soil Survey


Mammals: Big Cypress fox squirrel
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork
Interpretations
The wetness, the flooding, and seepage are severe
limitations affecting most uses of this soil, including
most kinds of building site and recreational
development and sanitary facilities. Tables 4, 6, and 7
provide more detailed information about these
limitations.


17-Keywest marl, tidal
Geographic Setting
This soil is dominantly on the lower keys in mangrove
swamps. Individual areas are frequently flooded by
tides. Elevations are dominantly 0 to 1 foot above sea
level, according to National Geodetic Vertical Datum of
1929. The mean annual temperature ranges from 75 to
78 degrees F, and the mean annual precipitation ranges
from 40 to 50 inches.
Map Unit Composition
The Keywest soil is dominant in this map unit. Soils
in areas on Boot Key do not have a layer of muck;
whereas, the Keywest soil generally has a layer of
muck. This difference, however, does not affect the
uses and interpretations of the soils. Areas that have
different uses and interpretations are rare and generally
are adjacent to the boundaries of the map unit.
Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Keywest soil are
the well drained, mineral Keyvaca and Pennekamp
soils, moderately well drained, organic Matecumbe
soils, and somewhat poorly drained, marly Saddlebunch
soils in the higher positions on the landscape and the
very poorly drained, organic Islamorada, Keylargo, and
Tavernier soils in the lower positions on the landscape.
Drainage and Permeability
The Keywest soil is poorly drained. The seasonal
high water table is within a depth of 6 inches during the
wet periods of most years. Permeability is moderate or
moderately rapid.
Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this soil support native vegetation and
are used as habitat for wetland wildlife. Some areas
have been developed for residential, urban, or
recreational use. Table 3 lists characteristic vegetation
for the soils in the survey area. Because the species
listed generally are more easily established and require
less maintenance than other species, they should be


selected for planting during beautification and
landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in
areas of this soil may include the following-
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork,
peregrine falcon
Reptiles: American crocodile, striped mud turtle
Interpretations
The flooding and the wetness are severe limitations
affecting most uses of this soil, including most kinds of
building site and recreational development and sanitary
facilities. Tables 4, 6, and 7 provide more detailed
information about these limitations.



18-Beaches

Geographic Setting
This map unit consists of barren areas adjacent to
the Atlantic Ocean on the lower keys. Individual areas
are subject to shallow flooding by tides and to deep
flooding from hurricanes and other tropical storms.
Elevations are at or near sea level, according to
National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929.
Map Unit Composition
The Beaches are miscellaneous areas that have
been reworked by the tides. They commonly consist of
about 16 inches of sand underlain by about 44 inches
of fine sand. The fine sand is underlain by muck and
other soil or nonsoil material at a depth of about 60
inches. The width and shape of the Beaches can
change during each major storm.
Geographically Associated Soils
The Beaches are adjacent to Bahiahonda soils
(fig. 9). They are also adjacent to Urban land and water.
The Bahiahonda soils and the Urban land are in the
higher positions on the landscape.
Drainage and Permeability
This map unit is poorly drained. It has a seasonal
high water table at the surface. Permeability is rapid or
very rapid.
Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this map unit are not vegetated. The
Beaches are used for recreational activities, such as
sunbathing and fishing, and as access areas for
swimming and wading.









Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


mdp~i


.iMe-


-rc-k
-i~ -.-

.r. s'--




e~.j- r ~ '~







L


-r~

~i-
.AV
e_ tv -


Figure 9.-An area of Bahiahonda soils in the background and an area of Beaches In the foreground. Both areas are used for recreation.


Interpretations
Because of the unique location of the Beaches and
their value for recreational activities, other uses are not
practical and interpretations have not been provided.



19-Saddlebunch marl, occasionally flooded

Geographic Setting
This soil is on low tropical hammocks on Big Pine
Key and the adjacent keys. Approximately 8 percent of
this map unit consists of areas where limestone bedrock
is exposed at the surface. Individual areas are subject


to flooding from storm tides, hurricanes, and runoff from
the adjacent, higher areas. The mean annual
temperature ranges from 75 to 78 degrees F, and the
mean annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 50 inches.
Map Unit Composition
The Saddlebunch soil is dominant in this map unit.
Areas that have different uses and interpretations are
rare and generally are adjacent to the boundaries of the
map unit.
Geographically Associated Soils
Soils that are associated with the Saddlebunch soil
are the well drained, mineral Keyvaca and Pennekamp
soils in the higher positions on the landscape; the


* .' ?*'








Soil Survey


moderately well drained, organic Matecumbe soils in
landscape positions similar to those of the Saddlebunch
soil; the poorly drained, marly Cudjoe, Lignumvitae, and
Keywest soils in the slightly lower positions on the
landscape; and the very poorly drained, organic
Tavernier, Islamorada, and Keylargo soils in the
significantly lower positions on the landscape.
Drainage and Permeability
The Saddlebunch soil is somewhat poorly drained. It
has a seasonal high water table at a depth of 6 to 12
inches during the wet periods of most years.
Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid.


Use and Vegetation
Most areas of this soil support native vegetation and
are used as habitat for woodland wildlife (fig. 10). Some
areas have been developed for residential, urban, or
recreational use. Table 3 lists characteristic vegetation
for the soils in the survey area. Because the species
listed generally are more easily established and require
less maintenance than other species, they should be
selected for planting during beautification and
landscaping.
Threatened or Endangered Plants and Animals
Threatened or endangered plants and animals in


Figure 10.-Characteristic vegetation in an area of Saddlebunch marl, occasionally flooded.








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


areas of this soil may include the following-
Trees: Thatch palm
Herbaceous plants: Spleenworts, orchids, ferns, twisted
air plant
Mammals: Key deer, Big Cypress fox squirrel
Birds: Bald eagle, white-crowned pigeon, wood stork,
peregrine falcon


Interpretations
Depth to bedrock, the flooding, and the wetness are
severe limitations affecting most uses of this map unit,
including most kinds of building site and recreational
development and sanitary facilities. Tables 4, 6, and 7
provide more detailed information about these
limitations.

















Hydric Soils


In this section, hydric soils are defined and described
and the hydric soils in the survey area are listed.
The three essential characteristics of wetlands are
hydrophytic vegetation, hydric soils, and wetland
hydrology (4, 6). Criteria for each of the characteristics
must be met for areas to be identified as wetlands.
Undrained hydric soils that have natural vegetation
should support a dominant population of ecologically
facultative wetland plant species and obligate wetland
plant species.
Hydric soils are defined by the National Technical
Committee for Hydric Soils (NTCHS) as soils that are
saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during the
growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the
upper part of the soil (11). These soils are either
saturated or inundated long enough during the growing
season to support the growth and reproduction of
hydrophytic vegetation.
The NTCHS definition identifies general soil
properties that are associated with wetness. In order to
determine whether a specific soil is a hydric soil or a
nonhydric soil, however, more specific information, such
as information about the depth and duration of the
water table, is needed. Thus, criteria which identify
those soil properties unique to hydric soils have been
established (11). These criteria are used to identify a
phase of a soil series that normally is associated with
wetlands. The criteria used are selected soil properties
that are documented in "Soil Taxonomy" (9) and in the
"Soil Survey Manual" (12). They are listed in "Hydric
Soils of the United States" (11).
If soils are wet enough for a long enough duration to
be considered hydric, they should exhibit certain
properties that can be easily observed in the field.
These visible properties are indicators of hydric soils.
The list of hydric soil indicators can be used to make


onsite determinations of hydric soils (8). All hydric soil
determinations should be based on observations made
in the field.
Hydric soils are identified by examining the upper 12
inches of a soil in a freshly dug soil pit and checking for
hydric indicators. The presence of one of the indicators
(8) provides evidence that the soil is saturated at or
near the surface at least seasonally or that it is
inundated at least seasonally. The soil can be classified
as a hydric soil when only one positive indicator is
found.
The following map units meet the criteria for hydric
soils (11) and, in addition, have at least one of the
hydric soil indicators (8). This list can help in planning
land uses; however, onsite investigation is needed to
determine the hydric soils on a specific site.


Rock outcrop-Tavernier complex, tidal
Islamorada muck, tidal
Keylargo muck, tidal
Rock outcrop-Cudjoe complex, tidal
Lignumvitae marl, tidal
Rock outcrop-Cudjoe complex, frequently
flooded
Cudjoe marl, tidal
Keywest marl, tidal
Beaches


This soil survey can be used to locate probable areas
of hydric soils. Map units that are made up of hydric
soils, however, may have small areas, or inclusions, of
nonhydric soils in the higher positions on the landscape,
and map units made up of nonhydric soils may have
inclusions of hydric soils in the lower positions on the
landscape.

















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to
prevent soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils as sites for buildings,
sanitary facilities, highways and other transportation
systems, and parks and other recreational facilities and
for wildlife habitat. It can be used to identify the
potentials and limitations of each soil for specific land
uses and to help prevent construction failures caused
by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with
nature.
Contractors can use this survey to identify areas
where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil layers can
cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The
soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,


and the way they respond to management. The criteria
used in grouping the soils do not include major and
generally expensive landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit.
These levels are defined in the following paragraphs.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
erosion unless a close-growing plant cover is
maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil

















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to
prevent soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils as sites for buildings,
sanitary facilities, highways and other transportation
systems, and parks and other recreational facilities and
for wildlife habitat. It can be used to identify the
potentials and limitations of each soil for specific land
uses and to help prevent construction failures caused
by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with
nature.
Contractors can use this survey to identify areas
where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil layers can
cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The
soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,


and the way they respond to management. The criteria
used in grouping the soils do not include major and
generally expensive landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit.
These levels are defined in the following paragraphs.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
erosion unless a close-growing plant cover is
maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil








Soil Survey


interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils
the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial
drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly
because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in
only some parts of the United States, shows that the
chief limitation is climate that is very cold or very dry.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland,
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V
contains only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c.
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar
management, and to have similar productivity.
Capability units are generally designated by adding an
Arabic numeral to the subclass symbol, for example,
lle-4 and llle-6.

Characteristic Plant Communities
In areas that have similar climate and topography,
differences in the kind of vegetation produced in natural
areas are closely related to the kind of soil. Effective
establishment and maintenance are based on the
relationships between the kind of soils, the kind of
vegetation, and water.
Table 3 shows, for nearly all soils, the ecological
community, the characteristic vegetation, and the
average percentage of each species. Only those soils
that have natural vegetation or can support natural
vegetation are listed. Explanation of the column
headings in table 3 follows.
An ecological community produces characteristic
vegetation that differs from the characteristic vegetation
of other ecological communities in kind, amount, or
proportion of plants. The relationship between soils and
vegetation was ascertained during this survey; thus,
ecological communities can be determined directly from
the soil map.
Characteristic vegetation-the grasses, forbs, trees,
and shrubs that make up most of the potential climax
plant community on each soil-is listed by common
name. Under composition, the percentage of the total is
given for each species making up the characteristic
vegetation.
Ecological Communities
The concept of ecological communities is based on
the awareness that a specific soil type commonly
supports a specific vegetative community, which in turn
provides the habitat needed by a specific wildlife
species (10). Recognizing the characteristics and values
of the ecological communities can help in planning use


and management of these communities (5).
The following paragraphs describe the ecological
communities in the survey area. The names of these
communities are Coastal Strand, Everglade Flatwoods,
Tropical Hammocks, Mangrove Swamp, and Sawgrass
Marsh.

Coastal Strand ecological community. This
community occurs along the Atlantic Ocean from south
of Lower Matecumbe Key to east of Key West. It
generally encompasses the area that is affected by salt
spray from the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and
saltwater bays.
This community is in nearly level to gently sloping
areas. It is easily identified by its location adjacent to
the Atlantic Ocean and by plants that are adapted to or
influenced by the salty environment. The more inland
parts of this community may include small areas of
hammocks.
The Coastal Strand ecological community is highly
endangered. Privately owned areas that are
undeveloped are in demand for residences, hotels, and
motels. This urban development can seriously affect the
ecological community. Coastal strands play an
important role in regulating wave action along the coast.
This action tends to break away part of one beach and
build up another. Structures and development that are
not planned can alter this process and accelerate the
erosion of beaches and coastal dunes. The clearing and
leveling of dunes for development also can cause
erosion because of the removal of the native vegetation
that helps to hold the dune together and because of the
removal of sand from the offshore transport system.
The coastal strand is an important area for
recreational uses and wildlife habitat. These areas are
in demand for recreational uses, but trampling can
damage and destroy vegetation. When the plants die,
their extensive root systems are no longer available to
hold the dunes together. Even occasional use may
degrade this fragile community. Coastal strands
generally are not used for agriculture or as woodland.

Everglade Flatwoods ecological community. This
community occurs on Big Pine Key and on the adjacent
keys. Areas of the Tropical Hammocks ecological
community generally are interspersed throughout this
community.
This community occurs in nearly level areas. Porous
pinnacle limestone bedrock is at a shallow depth. In
many areas, there is little or no soil and the bedrock is
at the surface. Water moves rapidly through the porous
limestone; consequently, the sites are wet for only short
periods following heavy rainfall.
Fire plays an important role in controlling hardwoods.








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


The prevention of fire can cause a successional move
to a hardwood community. Building roads and canals
can produce natural firebreaks that endanger areas of
pine.
Decaying plant material is important because it
produces weak acid. This acid dissolves the rock and,
in time, helps in the formation of soil used during seed
germination.
The Everglade Flatwoods ecological community is a
good producer of cellulose, but the distance to
woodland markets generally limits commercial
production. If this ecological community is properly
managed, native forage production and wildlife habitat
are good. This ecological community provides a drier
habitat for the wildlife that inhabit adjacent areas and
serves as a buffer for wildlife in the area between the
wetlands and the urban development near the coast.

Tropical Hammocks ecological community. This
community occurs in elevated areas along the limestone
ridges of the keys. Individual communities range from
less than 1 acre to several acres in size.
This community generally is made up of thick clumps
or stands of small- to medium-sized trees. Sites where
disturbances have not occurred for several years have
a more junglelike appearance. A heavy canopy closure,
which causes deep interior shade, is prevalent. It
moderates temperatures and helps to conserve
moisture. Trees in this ecological community commonly
have dense, heavy, strong wood and shallow, spreading
root systems. These characteristics help the trees to
adapt to a harsh environment that includes wind,
periodic drought, and salt spray.
The Tropical Hammocks ecological community is
probably the most endangered ecological community in
the keys. It is endangered because it is not widespread
and because it has received considerable pressure for
other land uses. Incorporating all existing Tropical
Hammocks ecological communities into an overall land
use plan help to ensure the continued use of these
communities as areas for hurricane protection,
landscaping, greenbelts, parks, and wildlife habitat.

Mangrove Swamp ecological community. This
community occurs primarily along saltwater shorelines
on most of the keys. The coastlines are subject to mild
wave action. They are along back bays and the fringes
of estuaries.
Mangroves grow in thickets in coastal areas. They
are woody plants that have fleshy leaves and grow to a
medium height. In areas of marly soils they range from
3 to 10 feet in height, and in areas of organic soils they
range from 10 to 20 feet in height. In most areas the
red mangrove is nearest the shoreline. Prop roots are


characteristic of this species. The black mangrove and
the white mangrove, however, have modified vertical
roots to facilitate in respiration.
This ecological community plays an especially
important role in protecting and stabilizing shorelines.
Some evidence exists that mangroves can contribute to
land building by trapping sediments. This ecological
community buffers the wind and waves during storm
tides. The most important function of this community
probably is to change the detrital base that has
accumulated beneath it into estuarine deposits. The
estuaries support higher marine life. Many mangrove
swamps have been destroyed or altered when dredging
and filling for urban development. Human activities in
adjacent areas can change waterflow patterns and
affect the plant composition of this ecological
community.

Sawgrass Marsh ecological community. This
community occurs on Big Pine Key and on the adjacent
keys.
This community occurs as a partially open expanse
of sawgrass and scattered trees in areas where the soil
is saturated or covered with surface water during part of
the year.
The sawgrass marshes serve as a filter system for
water. They protect natural bodies of water from
eutrophication. Marshes retain water during drought
periods and also slow down the movement of water
during flooding. Their principal environmental value is
related to water quality and water quantity.
The installation of drainage systems, subsidence of
organic soils, and fires have reduced the quantity of
sawgrass and promoted the growth of other plants in
many areas.
Under natural conditions, the Sawgrass Marsh
ecological community is one of the ecological
communities least resistant to change. Fires and
drainage systems can completely alter the
characteristics of this community within 10 to 20 years.

Recreation
In table 4, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. Although Beaches generally are not rated for
recreational suitability, they provide excellent
opportunities for recreation in the survey area (fig. 11).
The ratings are based on restrictive soil features, such
as wetness, slope, and texture of the surface layer.
Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not considered
in the ratings, but important in evaluating a site, are the
location and accessibility of the area, the size and
shape of the area and its scenic quality, vegetation,
access to water, potential water impoundment sites,

























.,.JU
-i s. -: I ~ -cy~
~"-. C



~'~-. .-C -.r





.


Figure 11.-Beaches provide excellent access to water-related recreational activities.


and access to public sewer lines. The capacity of the
soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the ability of the
soil to support vegetation are also important. Soils
subject to flooding are limited for recreational uses by
the duration and intensity of flooding and the season
when flooding occurs. In planning recreational facilities,
onsite assessment of the height, duration, intensity, and
frequency of flooding is essential.
In table 4, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 4 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,


interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 7
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
for local roads and streets in table 6.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping


Soil Survey


* .;


.'- --
L t.



'P'- -.








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
plants.
In table 5, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element
of the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or


kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
beggarweed, partridge pea, and switchgrass.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are mangrove, stopper, poisonwood,
gumbo-limbo, strangler fig, and locustberry. Examples
of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on
soils rated good are wild plum, autumn-olive, and
crabapple.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
An example of coniferous plants is pine.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
plants are sawgrass, saltwort, and glasswort.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
in the following paragraphs.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous








Soil Survey


Figure 12.-An area of Keyvaca very gravelly loam, extremely stony, which provides excellent wildlife habitat for key deer.


plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include eagles,
falcons, mice, squirrels, and deer (fig. 12).
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
birds, alligators, mink, and beaver.


Engineering

This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. Ratings are given








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


for building site development and sanitary facilities. The
ratings are based on observed performance of the soils
and on the estimated data and test data in the "Soil
Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet,
and because of the map scale, small areas of different
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a
specific soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations should be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 or 6 feet of the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
fractions, and the kinds of adsorbed cations. Estimates
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity,
shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, and
other behavioral characteristics affecting engineering
uses.
This information can be used to evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same
or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in


this survey, can be used to make additional
interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
"Glossary."
Building Site Development
Table 6 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect dwellings without basements, small
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and
lawns and landscaping. The limitations are considered
slight if soil properties and site features are generally
favorable for the indicated use and limitations are minor
and easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
features are not favorable for the indicated use and
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
difficult to overcome that special design, significant
increases in construction costs, and possibly increased
maintenance are required. Special feasibility studies
may be required where the soil limitations are severe
(fig. 13).
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
made for small commercial buildings without basements
and for dwellings without basements. The ratings are
based on soil properties, site features, and observed
performance of the soils. A high water table, flooding,
shrinking and swelling, and organic layers can cause
the movement of footings. Depth to a high water table,
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones,
and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
and fills of more than 5 or 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, depth
to a high water table, flooding, large stones, and slope
affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength
(as inferred from the engineering classification of the
soil), shrink-swell potential, frost-action potential, and
depth to a high water table affect the traffic-supporting
capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil








Soil Survey


Figure 13.-Udorthents are dominant in areas used for building sites because most soils in the survey area have severe limitations
affecting building site development.


properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table,
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, the available
water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content
of salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect plant
growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, stoniness, and the
amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface
layer affect trafficability after vegetation is established.
Sanitary Facilities
Table 7 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields and
sanitary landfills. The limitations are considered slight if
soil properties and site features are generally favorable


for the indicated use and limitations are minor and
easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
features are not favorable for the indicated use and
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
difficult to overcome that special design, significant
increases in construction costs, and possibly increased
maintenance are required.
Table 7 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfill. A rating of good indicates that
soil properties and site features are favorable for the
use and that good performance and low maintenance
can be expected; fair indicates that soil properties and








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


site features are moderately favorable for the use and
one or more soil properties or site features make the
soil less desirable than the soils rated good; and poor
indicates that one or more soil properties or site
features are unfavorable for the use and overcoming
the unfavorable properties requires special design, extra
maintenance, or costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to
bedrock or to a cemented pan, and flooding affect
absorption of the effluent. Large stones and bedrock or
a cemented pan interfere with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material
beneath the absorption field to filter the effluent
effectively. Many local ordinances require that this
material be of a certain thickness.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
layer of soil from a source away from the site. Because


of the shallow depth to bedrock in the survey area,
trench landfills are not rated in the table.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground-
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
should be considered.
The ratings in table 7 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
depth to a water table, slope, and flooding affect both
types of landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly
organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and
sodium affect trench landfills. Unless otherwise stated,
the ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a
depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation
rated slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite
investigation is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil
blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
enough over bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water
table to permit revegetation. The soil material used as
final cover for a landfill should be suitable for plants.
The surface layer generally has the best workability,
more organic matter, and the best potential for plants.
Material from the surface layer should be stockpiled for
use as the final cover.

















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help to characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 8 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under the heading "Soil Series and Their
Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27


percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the "Glossary."
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20, or higher, for the poorest.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates
determined mainly by converting volume percentage in
the field to weight percentage.

















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help to characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 8 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under the heading "Soil Series and Their
Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27


percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the "Glossary."
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20, or higher, for the poorest.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates
determined mainly by converting volume percentage in
the field to weight percentage.








Soil Survey


Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area
or from nearby areas and on field examination.
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit,
and plasticity index generally are rounded to the
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and
Atterberg limits extend a marginal amount (1 or 2
percentage points) across classification boundaries, the
classification in the marginal zone is omitted in the
table.

Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 9 shows estimates of some characteristics and
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey
area. The estimates are based on field observations
and on test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, the
shrink-swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease
of soil dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount
and kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and
earthmoving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at
1/3-bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and
root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by


texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
movement of water through the soil when the soil is
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
drainage systems and septic tank absorption fields.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
plants. The capacity for water storage in each major soil
layer is stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The
capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
design and management of irrigation systems. Available
water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
water actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
laboratory measurements at representative sites of
nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
construction material, and the potential of the soil to
corrode metal and concrete.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
per year. These estimates are based primarily on
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values
of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by
water.








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


Erosion factor Tis an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water
that can occur over a sustained period without affecting
crop productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre
per year.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 9, the
estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a
percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less
than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter in a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features
Table 10 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
groups. They are grouped according to the infiltration of
water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
precipitation from long-duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
water transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
moderate rate of water transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate
of water transmission.
Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface
by flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high


tides. Shallow water standing or flowing for short
periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered
flooding. Standing water in swamps and marshes or in
a closed depression is considered ponding.
Table 10 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of
occurrence are estimated. Frequency generally is
expressed as none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None
means that flooding is not probable. Rare means that
flooding is unlikely but possible under unusual weather
conditions (the chance of flooding is nearly 0 percent to
5 percent in any year). Occasional means that flooding
occurs infrequently under normal weather conditions
(the chance of flooding is 5 to 50 percent in any year).
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal
weather conditions (the chance of flooding is more than
50 percent in any year). Duration is expressed as very
brief (less than 2 days), brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days
to 1 month), and very long (more than 1 month). The
time of year that floods are most likely to occur is
expressed in months. About two-thirds to three-fourths
of all flooding occurs during the stated period.
The information on flooding is based on evidence in
the soil profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or
clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in
organic matter content with increasing depth; and little
or no horizon development.
Also considered is local information about the extent
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The estimates
are based mainly on the evidence of a saturated zone,
namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil. Indicated in
table 10 are the depth to the seasonal high water table,
the kind of water table, and the months of the year that
the water table commonly is highest. A water table that
is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated
in table 10. An apparent water table is a thick zone of
free water in the soil. It is indicated by the level at
which water stands in an uncased borehole after
adequate time is allowed for adjustment in the
surrounding soil.
Two numbers in the column showing depth to the
water table indicate the normal range in depth to a
saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
water level. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water
table is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a












depth of 6 feet for less than a month.
Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
needed for excavation.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
generally results from either desiccation and shrinkage
or oxidation of organic material, or both, following
drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
over a period of several years. Table 10 shows the
expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
combination of factors.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of


corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
soil. Special site examination and design may be
needed if the combination of factors results in a severe
hazard of corrosion. The steel in installations that
intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage
class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation
extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
extract.

















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (9).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 11 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Fluvaquents (Fluv, meaning
fluvial, flood plain, or delta deposition, plus aquent, the
suborder of the Entisols that has an aquic moisture
regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Tropic identifies the subgroup that differs from the
typical subgroup by having a tropical or subtropical


climate. An example is Tropic Fluvaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is coarse-silty, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Tropic Fluvaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the underlying material within
a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. A pedon, a small
three-dimensional area of soil, that is typical of the
series in the survey area is described. The detailed
description of each soil horizon follows standards in the
"Soil Survey Manual" (12). Many of the technical terms
used in the descriptions are defined in "Soil Taxonomy"
(9). Unless otherwise stated, colors in the descriptions
are for moist soil. Following the pedon description is the
range of important characteristics of the soils in the
series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Bahiahonda Series
The Bahiahonda series consists of moderately well
drained soils that are deep to rippable coral limestone

















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (9).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 11 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Fluvaquents (Fluv, meaning
fluvial, flood plain, or delta deposition, plus aquent, the
suborder of the Entisols that has an aquic moisture
regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Tropic identifies the subgroup that differs from the
typical subgroup by having a tropical or subtropical


climate. An example is Tropic Fluvaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is coarse-silty, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Tropic Fluvaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the underlying material within
a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. A pedon, a small
three-dimensional area of soil, that is typical of the
series in the survey area is described. The detailed
description of each soil horizon follows standards in the
"Soil Survey Manual" (12). Many of the technical terms
used in the descriptions are defined in "Soil Taxonomy"
(9). Unless otherwise stated, colors in the descriptions
are for moist soil. Following the pedon description is the
range of important characteristics of the soils in the
series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Bahiahonda Series
The Bahiahonda series consists of moderately well
drained soils that are deep to rippable coral limestone

















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (9).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 11 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Fluvaquents (Fluv, meaning
fluvial, flood plain, or delta deposition, plus aquent, the
suborder of the Entisols that has an aquic moisture
regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Tropic identifies the subgroup that differs from the
typical subgroup by having a tropical or subtropical


climate. An example is Tropic Fluvaquents.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is coarse-silty, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Tropic Fluvaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the underlying material within
a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. A pedon, a small
three-dimensional area of soil, that is typical of the
series in the survey area is described. The detailed
description of each soil horizon follows standards in the
"Soil Survey Manual" (12). Many of the technical terms
used in the descriptions are defined in "Soil Taxonomy"
(9). Unless otherwise stated, colors in the descriptions
are for moist soil. Following the pedon description is the
range of important characteristics of the soils in the
series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Bahiahonda Series
The Bahiahonda series consists of moderately well
drained soils that are deep to rippable coral limestone







Soil Survey


bedrock. These soils formed in sandy marine material
and shells overlying the limestone bedrock. They are on
uplands. Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent.
Taxonomic class: Isohyperthermic, uncoated Aquic
Quartzipsamments
Typical Pedon
Bahiahonda fine sand, in an area of Bahiahonda fine
sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes, on Bahia Honda Key; 800
feet south of U.S. Highway 1 from the entrance to Bahia
Honda State Park; NE/4SW/4 sec. 25, T. 66 S., R. 30
E.
A-0 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
Bw-8 to 35 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
Cgl-35 to 68 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; mildly alkaline; clear
smooth boundary.
Cg2-68 to 82 inches; white (10YR 8/1) very gravelly
sand; single grained; loose; about 40 percent, by
volume, limestone and shell fragments less than 1
inch in size; moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth
boundary.
2R-82 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 60 to 90 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is sand or fine sand.
Reaction is neutral or mildly alkaline.
The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 2 or 3. The texture is sand or fine sand.
The content of shell fragments is less than 10 percent,
by volume. Reaction is neutral or mildly alkaline.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture of the upper part of
the Cg horizon is sand or fine sand. The content of
shells is less than 10 percent. The texture of the lower
part of the Cg horizon is gravelly sand or very gravelly
sand. The content of shells that are dominantly less
than 1 inch in size is 25 to 60 percent. Reaction in the
lower part of the Cg horizon ranges from neutral to
moderately alkaline.

Cudjoe Series
The Cudjoe series consists of poorly drained soils
that are shallow to rippable coral or oolitic limestone
bedrock. These soils formed in calcareous marl. They
are in tidal areas and other flooded areas. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent.


Taxonomic class: Loamy, carbonatic, isohyperthermic,
shallow Tropic Fluvaquents
Typical Pedon
Cudjoe marl, in an area of Cudjoe marl, tidal, on
Plantation Key; 0.25 mile southwest of Treasure Harbor
and 200 feet south of U.S. Highway 1; NW1/4NW/4NW1/4
sec. 24, T. 63 S., R. 37 E.
A1-0 to 9 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that has a
texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy structure
parting to weak fine subangular blocky; very friable;
common fine and medium roots; common fine and
very fine pores; strongly alkaline, calcareous, and
effervescent; clear smooth boundary.
A2-9 to 16 inches; white (10YR 8/1) marl that has a
texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy structure
parting to weak fine subangular blocky; very friable;
common fine roots; common fine and very fine
pores; strongly alkaline, calcareous, and
effervescent; about 5 percent limestone flags and
pebbles in the lower 2 inches; abrupt smooth
boundary.
2R-16 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 3 to 20 inches. Reaction
ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline. The soils
are calcareous and effervescent. The content of calcium
carbonate is more than 90 percent. The content of coral
or limestone fragments is less than 10 percent, by
volume.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to
8, and chroma of 1 or 2. If value is 4 or 5, chroma is 1.
This horizon is marl that has a carbonate-free texture of
silt or silt loam. In some pedons the lower part of the
profile is a massive C horizon. This horizon has the
same ranges in hue, value, chroma, and texture as the
A horizon. In some pedons a sapric Oa horizon, which
is less than 3 inches thick, overlies the bedrock.

Islamorada Series
The Islamorada series consists of very poorly drained
soils that are moderately deep to rippable coral or
oolitic limestone bedrock. These soils formed in sapric
material. They are in tidal areas. Slopes are less than 1
percent.
Taxonomic class: Euic, isohyperthermic Lithic
Troposaprists
Typical Pedon
Islamorada muck, in an area of Islamorada muck, tidal,
on Lower Matecumbe Key; 1 mile southeast of Lignuum







Soil Survey


bedrock. These soils formed in sandy marine material
and shells overlying the limestone bedrock. They are on
uplands. Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent.
Taxonomic class: Isohyperthermic, uncoated Aquic
Quartzipsamments
Typical Pedon
Bahiahonda fine sand, in an area of Bahiahonda fine
sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes, on Bahia Honda Key; 800
feet south of U.S. Highway 1 from the entrance to Bahia
Honda State Park; NE/4SW/4 sec. 25, T. 66 S., R. 30
E.
A-0 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
Bw-8 to 35 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
Cgl-35 to 68 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; mildly alkaline; clear
smooth boundary.
Cg2-68 to 82 inches; white (10YR 8/1) very gravelly
sand; single grained; loose; about 40 percent, by
volume, limestone and shell fragments less than 1
inch in size; moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth
boundary.
2R-82 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 60 to 90 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is sand or fine sand.
Reaction is neutral or mildly alkaline.
The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 2 or 3. The texture is sand or fine sand.
The content of shell fragments is less than 10 percent,
by volume. Reaction is neutral or mildly alkaline.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture of the upper part of
the Cg horizon is sand or fine sand. The content of
shells is less than 10 percent. The texture of the lower
part of the Cg horizon is gravelly sand or very gravelly
sand. The content of shells that are dominantly less
than 1 inch in size is 25 to 60 percent. Reaction in the
lower part of the Cg horizon ranges from neutral to
moderately alkaline.

Cudjoe Series
The Cudjoe series consists of poorly drained soils
that are shallow to rippable coral or oolitic limestone
bedrock. These soils formed in calcareous marl. They
are in tidal areas and other flooded areas. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent.


Taxonomic class: Loamy, carbonatic, isohyperthermic,
shallow Tropic Fluvaquents
Typical Pedon
Cudjoe marl, in an area of Cudjoe marl, tidal, on
Plantation Key; 0.25 mile southwest of Treasure Harbor
and 200 feet south of U.S. Highway 1; NW1/4NW/4NW1/4
sec. 24, T. 63 S., R. 37 E.
A1-0 to 9 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that has a
texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy structure
parting to weak fine subangular blocky; very friable;
common fine and medium roots; common fine and
very fine pores; strongly alkaline, calcareous, and
effervescent; clear smooth boundary.
A2-9 to 16 inches; white (10YR 8/1) marl that has a
texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy structure
parting to weak fine subangular blocky; very friable;
common fine roots; common fine and very fine
pores; strongly alkaline, calcareous, and
effervescent; about 5 percent limestone flags and
pebbles in the lower 2 inches; abrupt smooth
boundary.
2R-16 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 3 to 20 inches. Reaction
ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline. The soils
are calcareous and effervescent. The content of calcium
carbonate is more than 90 percent. The content of coral
or limestone fragments is less than 10 percent, by
volume.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to
8, and chroma of 1 or 2. If value is 4 or 5, chroma is 1.
This horizon is marl that has a carbonate-free texture of
silt or silt loam. In some pedons the lower part of the
profile is a massive C horizon. This horizon has the
same ranges in hue, value, chroma, and texture as the
A horizon. In some pedons a sapric Oa horizon, which
is less than 3 inches thick, overlies the bedrock.

Islamorada Series
The Islamorada series consists of very poorly drained
soils that are moderately deep to rippable coral or
oolitic limestone bedrock. These soils formed in sapric
material. They are in tidal areas. Slopes are less than 1
percent.
Taxonomic class: Euic, isohyperthermic Lithic
Troposaprists
Typical Pedon
Islamorada muck, in an area of Islamorada muck, tidal,
on Lower Matecumbe Key; 1 mile southeast of Lignuum







Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


Vitae Channel and 200 feet northwest of U.S. Highway
1; SW/NE1/ sec. 15, T. 64 S., R. 36 E.
Oal-0 to 5 inches; muck, black (5YR 2/1) rubbed and
unrubbed; about 15 percent fiber, less than 5
percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky; about 40
percent, by volume, fine and medium live roots;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Oa2-5 to 35 inches; muck, very dark gray (5YR 3/1)
rubbed and unrubbed; about 35 percent fiber, less
than 10 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky; about
30 percent, by volume, fine and medium live roots;
neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
2R-35 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 20 to 50 inches. Reaction
ranges from slightly acid to mildly alkaline.
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is 15 to 35
percent before rubbing and less than 15 percent after
rubbing.

Keylargo Series
The Keylargo series consists of very poorly drained
soils that are deep to rippable coral or oolitic limestone
bedrock. These soils formed in sapric material. They
are in tidal areas. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Euic, isohyperthermic Typic
Troposaprists
Typical Pedon
Keylargo muck, in an area of Keylargo muck, tidal, on
Key Largo; 1 mile east of Steamboat Creek on Card
Sound Road and 75 feet south of the road; SW1/4NE1/4
sec. 28, T. 59 S., R. 40 E.
Oal-0 to 6 inches; muck, very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
rubbed and unrubbed; about 20 percent fiber, less
than 5 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky; about
20 percent, by volume, fine and medium live roots;
about 5 percent, by volume, mineral material;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Oa2-6 to 70 inches; muck, dark reddish brown (5YR
3/2) rubbed and unrubbed; about 30 percent fiber,
less than 5 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky;
about 20 percent, by volume, fine and medium live
roots; about 2 percent, by volume, mineral material;
neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
2R-70 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 50 to 90 inches. Reaction
ranges from slightly acid to mildly alkaline.


The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fiber is 15 to
30 percent before rubbing and less than 15 percent
after rubbing.

Keyvaca Series

The Keyvaca series consists of well drained soils that
are shallow to rippable oolitic limestone bedrock. These
soils formed in material weathered from the oolitic
limestone bedrock. They are on uplands. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Lithic Rendolls
Typical Pedon
Keyvaca very gravelly loam, in an area of Keyvaca very
gravelly loam, extremely stony, on Big Pine Key; 2.2
miles northwest of U.S. Highway 1 on Key Deer
Boulevard and 200 feet southwest of the road;
SE1SE1/NE1/ sec. 22, T. 66 S., R. 29 E.
A-0 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR 3/3) very
gravelly loam; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; many fine, medium, and large roots; about 5
percent, by volume, limestone fragments more than
3 inches in size and about 40 percent, by volume,
limestone fragments less than 3 inches in size;
moderately alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
R-4 inches; soft to hard, rippable oolitic limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 3 to 6 inches. The content of
stones, cobbles, and pebbles ranges from 35 to 55
percent, by volume.
The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR and value
and chroma of 2 or 3. The texture is gravelly sandy
loam, gravelly loam, very gravelly sandy loam, and very
gravelly loam or the cobbly and very cobbly analogs of
those textures. The content of gravel-sized oolitic
limestone fragments is 20 to 50 percent, and the
content of cobble-sized fragments is 10 to 25 percent.
The content of silt is less than 45 percent. Reaction is
mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline.

Keywest Series
The Keywest series consists of poorly drained soils
that are deep to rippable coral or oolitic limestone
bedrock. These soils formed in calcareous marl. They
are in tidal areas. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Coarse-silty, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Thapto-Histic Tropic Fluvaquents







Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


Vitae Channel and 200 feet northwest of U.S. Highway
1; SW/NE1/ sec. 15, T. 64 S., R. 36 E.
Oal-0 to 5 inches; muck, black (5YR 2/1) rubbed and
unrubbed; about 15 percent fiber, less than 5
percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky; about 40
percent, by volume, fine and medium live roots;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Oa2-5 to 35 inches; muck, very dark gray (5YR 3/1)
rubbed and unrubbed; about 35 percent fiber, less
than 10 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky; about
30 percent, by volume, fine and medium live roots;
neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
2R-35 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 20 to 50 inches. Reaction
ranges from slightly acid to mildly alkaline.
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is 15 to 35
percent before rubbing and less than 15 percent after
rubbing.

Keylargo Series
The Keylargo series consists of very poorly drained
soils that are deep to rippable coral or oolitic limestone
bedrock. These soils formed in sapric material. They
are in tidal areas. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Euic, isohyperthermic Typic
Troposaprists
Typical Pedon
Keylargo muck, in an area of Keylargo muck, tidal, on
Key Largo; 1 mile east of Steamboat Creek on Card
Sound Road and 75 feet south of the road; SW1/4NE1/4
sec. 28, T. 59 S., R. 40 E.
Oal-0 to 6 inches; muck, very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
rubbed and unrubbed; about 20 percent fiber, less
than 5 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky; about
20 percent, by volume, fine and medium live roots;
about 5 percent, by volume, mineral material;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Oa2-6 to 70 inches; muck, dark reddish brown (5YR
3/2) rubbed and unrubbed; about 30 percent fiber,
less than 5 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky;
about 20 percent, by volume, fine and medium live
roots; about 2 percent, by volume, mineral material;
neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
2R-70 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 50 to 90 inches. Reaction
ranges from slightly acid to mildly alkaline.


The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fiber is 15 to
30 percent before rubbing and less than 15 percent
after rubbing.

Keyvaca Series

The Keyvaca series consists of well drained soils that
are shallow to rippable oolitic limestone bedrock. These
soils formed in material weathered from the oolitic
limestone bedrock. They are on uplands. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Lithic Rendolls
Typical Pedon
Keyvaca very gravelly loam, in an area of Keyvaca very
gravelly loam, extremely stony, on Big Pine Key; 2.2
miles northwest of U.S. Highway 1 on Key Deer
Boulevard and 200 feet southwest of the road;
SE1SE1/NE1/ sec. 22, T. 66 S., R. 29 E.
A-0 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR 3/3) very
gravelly loam; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; many fine, medium, and large roots; about 5
percent, by volume, limestone fragments more than
3 inches in size and about 40 percent, by volume,
limestone fragments less than 3 inches in size;
moderately alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
R-4 inches; soft to hard, rippable oolitic limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 3 to 6 inches. The content of
stones, cobbles, and pebbles ranges from 35 to 55
percent, by volume.
The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR and value
and chroma of 2 or 3. The texture is gravelly sandy
loam, gravelly loam, very gravelly sandy loam, and very
gravelly loam or the cobbly and very cobbly analogs of
those textures. The content of gravel-sized oolitic
limestone fragments is 20 to 50 percent, and the
content of cobble-sized fragments is 10 to 25 percent.
The content of silt is less than 45 percent. Reaction is
mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline.

Keywest Series
The Keywest series consists of poorly drained soils
that are deep to rippable coral or oolitic limestone
bedrock. These soils formed in calcareous marl. They
are in tidal areas. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Coarse-silty, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Thapto-Histic Tropic Fluvaquents







Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


Vitae Channel and 200 feet northwest of U.S. Highway
1; SW/NE1/ sec. 15, T. 64 S., R. 36 E.
Oal-0 to 5 inches; muck, black (5YR 2/1) rubbed and
unrubbed; about 15 percent fiber, less than 5
percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky; about 40
percent, by volume, fine and medium live roots;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Oa2-5 to 35 inches; muck, very dark gray (5YR 3/1)
rubbed and unrubbed; about 35 percent fiber, less
than 10 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky; about
30 percent, by volume, fine and medium live roots;
neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
2R-35 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 20 to 50 inches. Reaction
ranges from slightly acid to mildly alkaline.
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is 15 to 35
percent before rubbing and less than 15 percent after
rubbing.

Keylargo Series
The Keylargo series consists of very poorly drained
soils that are deep to rippable coral or oolitic limestone
bedrock. These soils formed in sapric material. They
are in tidal areas. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Euic, isohyperthermic Typic
Troposaprists
Typical Pedon
Keylargo muck, in an area of Keylargo muck, tidal, on
Key Largo; 1 mile east of Steamboat Creek on Card
Sound Road and 75 feet south of the road; SW1/4NE1/4
sec. 28, T. 59 S., R. 40 E.
Oal-0 to 6 inches; muck, very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
rubbed and unrubbed; about 20 percent fiber, less
than 5 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky; about
20 percent, by volume, fine and medium live roots;
about 5 percent, by volume, mineral material;
neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Oa2-6 to 70 inches; muck, dark reddish brown (5YR
3/2) rubbed and unrubbed; about 30 percent fiber,
less than 5 percent rubbed; massive; nonsticky;
about 20 percent, by volume, fine and medium live
roots; about 2 percent, by volume, mineral material;
neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
2R-70 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 50 to 90 inches. Reaction
ranges from slightly acid to mildly alkaline.


The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fiber is 15 to
30 percent before rubbing and less than 15 percent
after rubbing.

Keyvaca Series

The Keyvaca series consists of well drained soils that
are shallow to rippable oolitic limestone bedrock. These
soils formed in material weathered from the oolitic
limestone bedrock. They are on uplands. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Lithic Rendolls
Typical Pedon
Keyvaca very gravelly loam, in an area of Keyvaca very
gravelly loam, extremely stony, on Big Pine Key; 2.2
miles northwest of U.S. Highway 1 on Key Deer
Boulevard and 200 feet southwest of the road;
SE1SE1/NE1/ sec. 22, T. 66 S., R. 29 E.
A-0 to 4 inches; very dark brown (10YR 3/3) very
gravelly loam; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; many fine, medium, and large roots; about 5
percent, by volume, limestone fragments more than
3 inches in size and about 40 percent, by volume,
limestone fragments less than 3 inches in size;
moderately alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
R-4 inches; soft to hard, rippable oolitic limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 3 to 6 inches. The content of
stones, cobbles, and pebbles ranges from 35 to 55
percent, by volume.
The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR and value
and chroma of 2 or 3. The texture is gravelly sandy
loam, gravelly loam, very gravelly sandy loam, and very
gravelly loam or the cobbly and very cobbly analogs of
those textures. The content of gravel-sized oolitic
limestone fragments is 20 to 50 percent, and the
content of cobble-sized fragments is 10 to 25 percent.
The content of silt is less than 45 percent. Reaction is
mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline.

Keywest Series
The Keywest series consists of poorly drained soils
that are deep to rippable coral or oolitic limestone
bedrock. These soils formed in calcareous marl. They
are in tidal areas. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Coarse-silty, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Thapto-Histic Tropic Fluvaquents








Soil Survey


Typical Pedon
Keywest marl, in an area of Keywest marl, tidal, on
Boot Key; 1.4 miles southeast of U.S. Highway 1 on
County Road 931 and 50 feet northwest of the road;
SE1/4SE1/4SW14 sec. 16. T. 66 S., R. 32 E.
A-0 to 9 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that has a
texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy structure
parting to weak fine granular; very friable; common
medium roots; common fine and very fine pores;
about 5 percent, by volume, shell fragments; mildly
alkaline, calcareous, and effervescent; abrupt
smooth boundary.
Oa-9 to 15 inches; muck, dark brown (7.5YR 3/2)
rubbed and unrubbed; about 30 percent, by volume,
live roots; massive; very friable; neutral in calcium
chloride; abrupt smooth boundary.
A/Oa-15 to 27 inches; gray and brown mucky marl; 70
percent, by volume, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
marl and 30 percent, by volume, dark brown (10YR
4/3) muck; massive; very friable; about 3 percent,
by volume, shell fragments; neutral in calcium
chloride and moderately alkaline in water; clear
smooth boundary.
Cg-27 to 65 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that
has a texture of silt loam; massive; friable; few fine
roots; few fine pores; thin strata of dominantly sand-
sized shells; strongly alkaline; abrupt smooth
boundary.
2R-65 inches; soft to hard, rippable oolitic limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is more than 50 inches.
Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline.
The soils are calcareous and effervescent. The content
of calcium carbonate in the marl layers is more than 90
percent. The content of gravel-sized fragments is less
than 10 percent, by volume, throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to
8, and chroma of 1 or 2. If value is 4 or 5, chroma is 1.
The horizon is marl that has a carbonate-free texture of
silt or silt loam.
The Oa horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 5YR to
10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. The
content of fiber is 20 to 50 percent before rubbing and
less than 10 percent after rubbing. Reaction is slightly
acid to mildly alkaline in calcium chloride.
The A/Oa horizon, if it occurs, is neutral to
moderately alkaline. The A part of this horizon has the
same ranges in color and texture as the A horizon. The
Oa portion has the same ranges in color and texture as
the Oa horizon.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6
to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is marl that has a


carbonate-free texture of silt or silt loam. In some
pedons the Cg horizon is stratified marl and sand-sized
shell fragments.

Lignumvitae Series
The Lignumvitae series consists of poorly drained
soils that are moderately deep to rippable coral or
oolitic limestone bedrock. These soils formed in
calcareous marl. They are in tidal areas. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Coarse-silty, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Tropic Fluvaquents
Typical Pedon
Lignumvitae marl, in an area of Lignumvitae marl, tidal,
on Windley Key; 0.1 mile southwest of Snake Creek
Bridge and 200 feet north of U.S. Highway 1;
NE1/NE1/NE1/ sec. 23, T. 63 S., R. 37 E.
A1-0 to 4 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) marl
that has a texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy
structure parting to moderate medium granular; very
friable; common fine and very fine pores; neutral,
calcareous, and effervescent; clear wavy boundary.
A2-4 to 32 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that has
a texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy structure
parting to weak fine granular; very friable; common
fine and very fine pores; slightly alkaline,
calcareous, and effervescent; abrupt irregular
boundary.
2R-32 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is dominantly 25 to 35 inches
but can range from 20 to 40 inches. Reaction ranges
from neutral to moderately alkaline. The soils are
calcareous and effervescent. The content of calcium
carbonate is more than 90 percent.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y. value of 4 to
8, and chroma of 1 or 2. If value is 4 or 5, chroma is 1.
The horizon is marl that has a carbonate-free texture of
silt or silt loam. In some pedons the lower part of the
profile is a massive C horizon. The content of coral or
limestone fragments is less than 15 percent, by volume.

Matecumbe Series
The Matecumbe series consists of moderately well
drained soils that are very shallow to rippable coral or
oolitic limestone bedrock. These soils formed in organic
material in varying stages of decomposition. They are
on tropical hammocks. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Euic, isohyperthermic Lithic
Tropofolists








Soil Survey


Typical Pedon
Keywest marl, in an area of Keywest marl, tidal, on
Boot Key; 1.4 miles southeast of U.S. Highway 1 on
County Road 931 and 50 feet northwest of the road;
SE1/4SE1/4SW14 sec. 16. T. 66 S., R. 32 E.
A-0 to 9 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that has a
texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy structure
parting to weak fine granular; very friable; common
medium roots; common fine and very fine pores;
about 5 percent, by volume, shell fragments; mildly
alkaline, calcareous, and effervescent; abrupt
smooth boundary.
Oa-9 to 15 inches; muck, dark brown (7.5YR 3/2)
rubbed and unrubbed; about 30 percent, by volume,
live roots; massive; very friable; neutral in calcium
chloride; abrupt smooth boundary.
A/Oa-15 to 27 inches; gray and brown mucky marl; 70
percent, by volume, light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
marl and 30 percent, by volume, dark brown (10YR
4/3) muck; massive; very friable; about 3 percent,
by volume, shell fragments; neutral in calcium
chloride and moderately alkaline in water; clear
smooth boundary.
Cg-27 to 65 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that
has a texture of silt loam; massive; friable; few fine
roots; few fine pores; thin strata of dominantly sand-
sized shells; strongly alkaline; abrupt smooth
boundary.
2R-65 inches; soft to hard, rippable oolitic limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is more than 50 inches.
Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline.
The soils are calcareous and effervescent. The content
of calcium carbonate in the marl layers is more than 90
percent. The content of gravel-sized fragments is less
than 10 percent, by volume, throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to
8, and chroma of 1 or 2. If value is 4 or 5, chroma is 1.
The horizon is marl that has a carbonate-free texture of
silt or silt loam.
The Oa horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 5YR to
10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. The
content of fiber is 20 to 50 percent before rubbing and
less than 10 percent after rubbing. Reaction is slightly
acid to mildly alkaline in calcium chloride.
The A/Oa horizon, if it occurs, is neutral to
moderately alkaline. The A part of this horizon has the
same ranges in color and texture as the A horizon. The
Oa portion has the same ranges in color and texture as
the Oa horizon.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6
to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is marl that has a


carbonate-free texture of silt or silt loam. In some
pedons the Cg horizon is stratified marl and sand-sized
shell fragments.

Lignumvitae Series
The Lignumvitae series consists of poorly drained
soils that are moderately deep to rippable coral or
oolitic limestone bedrock. These soils formed in
calcareous marl. They are in tidal areas. Slopes are 0
to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Coarse-silty, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Tropic Fluvaquents
Typical Pedon
Lignumvitae marl, in an area of Lignumvitae marl, tidal,
on Windley Key; 0.1 mile southwest of Snake Creek
Bridge and 200 feet north of U.S. Highway 1;
NE1/NE1/NE1/ sec. 23, T. 63 S., R. 37 E.
A1-0 to 4 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) marl
that has a texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy
structure parting to moderate medium granular; very
friable; common fine and very fine pores; neutral,
calcareous, and effervescent; clear wavy boundary.
A2-4 to 32 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that has
a texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy structure
parting to weak fine granular; very friable; common
fine and very fine pores; slightly alkaline,
calcareous, and effervescent; abrupt irregular
boundary.
2R-32 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is dominantly 25 to 35 inches
but can range from 20 to 40 inches. Reaction ranges
from neutral to moderately alkaline. The soils are
calcareous and effervescent. The content of calcium
carbonate is more than 90 percent.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y. value of 4 to
8, and chroma of 1 or 2. If value is 4 or 5, chroma is 1.
The horizon is marl that has a carbonate-free texture of
silt or silt loam. In some pedons the lower part of the
profile is a massive C horizon. The content of coral or
limestone fragments is less than 15 percent, by volume.

Matecumbe Series
The Matecumbe series consists of moderately well
drained soils that are very shallow to rippable coral or
oolitic limestone bedrock. These soils formed in organic
material in varying stages of decomposition. They are
on tropical hammocks. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Euic, isohyperthermic Lithic
Tropofolists








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


Typical Pedon
Matecumbe muck, in an area of Matecumbe muck,
occasionally flooded, on Key Largo; SW/4SW1/SW1/4
sec. 3, T. 59 S., R. 40 E.
Oa-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 15
percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; about 5
percent, by weight, sandy and loamy material;
structureless; very friable; about 30 percent, by
volume, live roots; about 10 percent, by volume,
limestone fragments less than 3 inches in size;
medium acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
2R-6 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to limestone or coral limestone bedrock is
2 to 9 inches. The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR,
value of 3 or less, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is muck,
mucky peat, or gravelly muck that has a mineral content
of less than 20 percent. The content of gravel-sized
limestone or coral fragments ranges from 5 to 35
percent, by volume. Reaction ranges from medium acid
to neutral.

Pennekamp Series
The Pennekamp series consists of well drained soils
that are shallow to rippable coral limestone bedrock.
These soils formed in material weathered from the coral
limestone bedrock. They generally have a thin
overburden of sapric material. They are on uplands.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Lithic Rendolls
Typical Pedon
Pennekamp gravelly muck, in an area of Pennekamp
gravelly muck, 0 to 2 percent slopes, extremely stony,
on Key Largo; 600 feet east of U.S. Highway 1, about
100 feet south of the service road entrance at
Pennekamp State Park; 800 feet north and 150 feet
east of the southwest corner of sec. 14, T. 61 S.,
R. 39 E.
Oa-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) gravelly muck;
about 15 percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed;
about 40 percent, by weight, mineral material;
structureless; very friable; many fine, medium, and
large roots; about 5 percent, by volume, coral
fragments more than 3 inches in size and about 15
percent, by volume, coral fragments less than 3
inches in size; medium acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
A-3 to 8 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) very
gravelly loam; weak fine granular structure; very


friable; about 50 percent, by volume, coral
fragments less than 3 inches in size and about 10
percent, by volume, coral fragments more than 3
inches in size; many fine and medium roots; mildly
alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
R-8 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 4 to 16 inches.
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is muck or gravelly muck.
The content of coral fragments is 5 to 25 percent, by
volume. Reaction is medium acid or slightly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is very gravelly
loam, very gravelly silt loam, extremely gravelly loam, or
extremely gravelly silt loam. The content of coral
fragments is 35 to 75 percent, by volume, and the
content of silt is more than 45 percent. Reaction is
mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline.

Saddlebunch Series
The Saddlebunch series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that are shallow to rippable coral or oolitic
limestone bedrock. These soils formed in calcareous
marl. They are on uplands that are flooded. Slopes are
0 to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Loamy, carbonatic, isohyperthermic,
shallow Tropic Fluvaquents
Typical Pedon
Saddlebunch marl, in an area of Saddlebunch marl,
occasionally flooded, on Sugarloaf Key; 2.7 miles south
on County Road 939 from its junction with U.S.
Highway 1, about 0.8 miles east and 1.05 miles north
on County Road 939A and 100 feet west of the road.
A1-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) marl that
has a texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy
structure parting to moderate fine granular; very
friable; mildly alkaline, calcareous, and effervescent;
clear smooth boundary.
A2-5 to 17 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that has
a texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy structure
parting to weak fine granular; very friable; few fine
and very fine pores; moderately alkaline,
calcareous, and effervescent; abrupt irregular
boundary.
2R-17 inches; soft to hard, rippable oolitic limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The thickness of the solum and the depth to oolitic
limestone or coral bedrock are 4 to 20 inches. Reaction








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


Typical Pedon
Matecumbe muck, in an area of Matecumbe muck,
occasionally flooded, on Key Largo; SW/4SW1/SW1/4
sec. 3, T. 59 S., R. 40 E.
Oa-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 15
percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; about 5
percent, by weight, sandy and loamy material;
structureless; very friable; about 30 percent, by
volume, live roots; about 10 percent, by volume,
limestone fragments less than 3 inches in size;
medium acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
2R-6 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to limestone or coral limestone bedrock is
2 to 9 inches. The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR,
value of 3 or less, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is muck,
mucky peat, or gravelly muck that has a mineral content
of less than 20 percent. The content of gravel-sized
limestone or coral fragments ranges from 5 to 35
percent, by volume. Reaction ranges from medium acid
to neutral.

Pennekamp Series
The Pennekamp series consists of well drained soils
that are shallow to rippable coral limestone bedrock.
These soils formed in material weathered from the coral
limestone bedrock. They generally have a thin
overburden of sapric material. They are on uplands.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Taxonomic class: Loamy-skeletal, carbonatic,
isohyperthermic Lithic Rendolls
Typical Pedon
Pennekamp gravelly muck, in an area of Pennekamp
gravelly muck, 0 to 2 percent slopes, extremely stony,
on Key Largo; 600 feet east of U.S. Highway 1, about
100 feet south of the service road entrance at
Pennekamp State Park; 800 feet north and 150 feet
east of the southwest corner of sec. 14, T. 61 S.,
R. 39 E.
Oa-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) gravelly muck;
about 15 percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed;
about 40 percent, by weight, mineral material;
structureless; very friable; many fine, medium, and
large roots; about 5 percent, by volume, coral
fragments more than 3 inches in size and about 15
percent, by volume, coral fragments less than 3
inches in size; medium acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
A-3 to 8 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) very
gravelly loam; weak fine granular structure; very


friable; about 50 percent, by volume, coral
fragments less than 3 inches in size and about 10
percent, by volume, coral fragments more than 3
inches in size; many fine and medium roots; mildly
alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
R-8 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is 4 to 16 inches.
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is muck or gravelly muck.
The content of coral fragments is 5 to 25 percent, by
volume. Reaction is medium acid or slightly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is very gravelly
loam, very gravelly silt loam, extremely gravelly loam, or
extremely gravelly silt loam. The content of coral
fragments is 35 to 75 percent, by volume, and the
content of silt is more than 45 percent. Reaction is
mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline.

Saddlebunch Series
The Saddlebunch series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that are shallow to rippable coral or oolitic
limestone bedrock. These soils formed in calcareous
marl. They are on uplands that are flooded. Slopes are
0 to 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Loamy, carbonatic, isohyperthermic,
shallow Tropic Fluvaquents
Typical Pedon
Saddlebunch marl, in an area of Saddlebunch marl,
occasionally flooded, on Sugarloaf Key; 2.7 miles south
on County Road 939 from its junction with U.S.
Highway 1, about 0.8 miles east and 1.05 miles north
on County Road 939A and 100 feet west of the road.
A1-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) marl that
has a texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy
structure parting to moderate fine granular; very
friable; mildly alkaline, calcareous, and effervescent;
clear smooth boundary.
A2-5 to 17 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) marl that has
a texture of silt loam; weak coarse platy structure
parting to weak fine granular; very friable; few fine
and very fine pores; moderately alkaline,
calcareous, and effervescent; abrupt irregular
boundary.
2R-17 inches; soft to hard, rippable oolitic limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The thickness of the solum and the depth to oolitic
limestone or coral bedrock are 4 to 20 inches. Reaction












ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4
or 5, and chroma of 2 or 3. The A2 horizon has hue of
10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2.
The A horizon is marl that has a carbonate-free texture
of silt or silt loam. It is calcareous and effervescent. The
content of calcium carbonate is more than 90 percent,
by volume. The content of coral or limestone fragments
is less than 15 percent, by volume.

Tavernier Series
The Tavernier series consists of very poorly drained
soils that are shallow to rippable coral limestone
bedrock. These soils formed in sapric material. They
are in tidal areas. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Taxonomic class: Euic, isohyperthermic, shallow Lithic
Troposaprists
Typical Pedon
Tavernier muck, in an area of Rock outcrop-Tavernier
complex, tidal, on Key Largo; 0.25 mile east of


Crocodile Lake and 150 feet south of State Road 905;
SE/4SE/4 sec. 23, T. 59 S., R. 40 E.
Oa-0 to 8 inches; muck, very dark grayish brown
(10YR 3/2) rubbed and unrubbed; about 20 percent
fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; massive;
nonsticky; about 30 percent, by volume, fine and
medium live roots; about 10 percent, by volume,
limestone fragments less than 3 inches in size;
slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
2R-8 inches; soft to hard, rippable coral limestone
bedrock.
Range in Characteristics
The depth to bedrock is dominantly 3 to 16 inches
but ranges to 20 inches. Reaction ranges from slightly
acid to mildly alkaline. The content of gravel-sized coral
or limestone fragments ranges from 0 to 20 percent, by
volume.
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The content of fiber is 15 to
50 percent before rubbing and less than 10 percent
after rubbing.

















References


(1) American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
1986. Standard specifications for highway materials and methods of
sampling and testing. Ed. 14, 2 vols.

(2) American Society for Testing and Materials. 1993. Standard
classification of soils for engineering purposes. ASTM Stand. D 2487.

(3) Cooke, C. Wythe. 1945. Geology of Florida. Fla. State Dep. Conserv.
and Fla. Geol. Surv. Geol. Bull. 29.

(4) Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979.
Classification of wetlands and deep-water habitats of the United States.
U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. FWS/OBS-79/31.

(5) Craig, Robert M., Louie P. Heard, and John F. Vance. 1980. Using
ecological communities in landscaping. Proc. Fla. State Hortic. Soc. 93:
96-97.

(6) Federal Interagency Committee for Wetland Delineation. 1989. Federal
manual for identifying and delineating jurisdictional wetlands. U.S. Army
Corps of Eng.; U.S. Environ. Prot. Agency; U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv.;
and U.S. Dep. Agric., Soil Conserv. Serv.

(7) Gunter, Herman. 1948. Elevations in Florida. Fla. State Dep. Conserv.
and Fla. Geol. Surv. Geol. Bull. 32.

(8) Hurt, G.W., W.H. Henderson, and W.E. Puckett. 1990. Field
identification of hydric soils. In Hydric soils of Florida handbook, pp.
45-47.

(9) United States Department of Agriculture. 1975. Soil taxonomy: A basic
system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil
Conserv. Serv., Agric. Handb. 436.

(10) United States Department of Agriculture. 1987. Technical guides. Soil
Conserv. Serv.

(11) United States Department of Agriculture. 1991. Hydric soils of the
United States. Soil Conserv. Serv. and Natl. Tech. Comm. for Hydric
Soils.









46


(12) United States Department of Agriculture. 1993. Soil survey manual. U.S.
Dep. Agric. Handb. 18.

(13) University of Florida. 1988. Florida statistical abstract. Coll. of Bus.
Admin.

(14) White, William A. 1970. The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula.
Fla. Dep. Natur. Resour., Bur. of Geol. Bull. 51.

(15) Williams, Joy. 1988. The Florida keys.

















Glossary


Available water capacity (available moisture
capacity). The capacity of soils to hold water
available for use by most plants. It is commonly
defined as the difference between the amount of
soil water at field moisture capacity and the
amount at wilting point. It is commonly expressed
as inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity, in
inches, in a 60-inch profile or to a limiting layer is
expressed as:
Very low ............. ............... to 3
Low .................................... '3 to 6
Moderate ......................... 6 to 9
High ................................... 9 to 12
Very high ........................ more than 12
Bedrock. The solid rock that underlies the soil and
other unconsolidated material or that is exposed at
the surface.
Boulders. Rock fragments larger than 2 feet (60
centimeters) in diameter.
Cation-exchange capacity. The total amount of
exchangeable cations that can be held by the soil,
expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100
grams of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some
other stated pH value. The term, as applied to
soils, is synonymous with base-exchange capacity
but is more precise in meaning.
Climax vegetation. The stabilized plant community on a
particular site. The plant cover reproduces itself
and does not change so long as the environment
remains the same.
Coarse fragments. If round, mineral or rock particles 2
millimeters to 25 centimeters (10 inches) in
diameter; if flat, mineral or rock particles
(flagstone) 15 to 38 centimeters (6 to 15 inches)
long.
Coarse textured soil. Sand or loamy sand.
Complex, soil. A map unit of two or more kinds of soil
in such an intricate pattern or so small in area that
it is not practical to map them separately at the
selected scale of mapping. The pattern and
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all
areas.
Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease
with which a lump can be crushed by the fingers.


Terms commonly used to describe consistence
are:
Loose.-Noncoherent when dry or moist; does not
hold together in a mass.
Friable.-When moist, crushes easily under gentle
pressure between thumb and forefinger and can
be pressed together into a lump.
Firm.-When moist, crushes under moderate
pressure between thumb and forefinger, but
resistance is distinctly noticeable.
Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate
pressure but can be pressed into a lump; will form
a "wire" when rolled between thumb and
forefinger.
Sticky.-When wet, adheres to other material and
tends to stretch somewhat and pull apart rather
than to pull free from other material.
Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to
pressure; can be broken with difficulty between
thumb and forefinger.
Soft.-When dry, breaks into powder or individual
grains under very slight pressure.
Cemented.-Hard; little affected by moistening.
Control section. The part of the soil on which
classification is based. The thickness varies
among different kinds of soil, but for many it is that
part of the soil profile between depths of 10 inches
and 40 or 80 inches.
Depth to rock (in tables). Bedrock is too near the
surface for the specified use.
Drainage class (natural). Refers to the frequency and
duration of periods of saturation or partial
saturation during soil formation, as opposed to
altered drainage, which is commonly the result of
artificial drainage or irrigation but may be caused
by the sudden deepening of channels or the
blocking of drainage outlets. Seven classes of
natural soil drainage are recognized:
Excessively drained.-Water is removed from the
soil very rapidly. Excessively drained soils are
commonly very coarse textured, rocky, or shallow.
Some are steep. All are free of the mottling related
to wetness.








Soil Survey


Somewhat excessively drained.-Water is removed
from the soil rapidly. Many somewhat excessively
drained soils are sandy and rapidly pervious.
Some are shallow. Some are so steep that much
of the water they receive is lost as runoff. All are
free of the mottling related to wetness.
Well drained.-Water is removed from the soil
readily, but not rapidly. It is available to plants
throughout most of the growing season, and
wetness does not inhibit growth of roots for
significant periods during most growing seasons.
Well drained soils are commonly medium textured.
They are mainly free of mottling.
Moderately well drained.-Water is removed from
the soil somewhat slowly during some periods.
Moderately well drained soils are wet for only a
short time during the growing season, but
periodically they are wet long enough that most
mesophytic crops are affected. They commonly
have a slowly pervious layer within or directly
below the solum or periodically receive high
rainfall, or both.
Somewhat poorly drained.-Water is removed
slowly enough that the soil is wet for significant
periods during the growing season. Wetness
markedly restricts the growth of mesophytic crops
unless artificial drainage is provided. Somewhat
poorly drained soils commonly have a slowly
pervious layer, a high water table, additional water
from seepage, nearly continuous rainfall, or a
combination of these.
Poorly drained.-Water is removed so slowly that
the soil is saturated periodically during the growing
season or remains wet for long periods. Free
water is commonly at or near the surface for long
enough during the growing season that most
mesophytic crops cannot be grown unless the soil
is artificially drained. The soil is not continuously
saturated in layers directly below plow depth. Poor
drainage results from a high water table, a slowly
pervious layer within the profile, seepage, nearly
continuous rainfall, or a combination of these.
Very poorly drained.-Water is removed from the
soil so slowly that free water remains at or on the
surface during most of the growing season. Unless
the soil is artificially drained, most mesophytic
crops cannot be grown. Very poorly drained soils
are commonly level or depressed and are
frequently ponded. Yet, where rainfall is high and
nearly continuous, they can have moderate or high
slope gradients.
Erosion. The wearing away of the land surface by
water, wind, ice, or other geologic agents and by
such processes as gravitational creep.


Erosion (geologic)-Erosion caused by geologic
processes acting over long geologic periods and
resulting in the wearing away of mountains and
the building up of such landscape features as
flood plains and coastal plains. Synonym: natural
erosion.
Erosion (accelerated)-Erosion much more rapid
than geologic erosion, mainly as a result of human
or animal activities or of a catastrophe in nature,
such as fire, that exposes the surface.
Eutrophication. The process by which a body of water
becomes either naturally or by pollution rich in
dissolved nutrients (as phosphates) and often
shallow with a seasonal deficiency in dissolved
oxygen.
Excess salt (in tables). Excess water-soluble salts in
the soil that restrict the growth of most plants.
Facultative wetland plants. Plants that generally grow
(estimated probability of more than 67 percent to
99 percent) in wetlands but also (estimated
probability of 1 percent to 33 percent) in
nonwetlands.
Genesis, soil. The mode of origin of the soil. Refers
especially to the processes or soil-forming factors
responsible for the formation of the solum, or true
soil, from the unconsolidated parent material.
Gravel. Rounded or angular fragments of rock up to 3
inches (2 millimeters to 7.6 centimeters) in
diameter. An individual piece is a pebble.
Gravelly soil material. Material that is 15 to 50 percent,
by volume, rounded or angular rock fragments, not
prominently flattened, up to 3 inches (7.6
centimeters) in diameter.
Ground water (geology). Water filling all the unblocked
pores of the material below the water table.
Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to
the surface, having distinct characteristics
produced by soil-forming processes. In the
identification of soil horizons, an uppercase letter
represents the major horizons. Numbers or
lowercase letters that follow represent subdivisions
of the major horizons. An explanation of the
subdivisions is given in the "Soil Survey Manual."
The major horizons of mineral soil are as follows:
0 horizon.-An organic layer of fresh and
decaying plant residue at the surface of a mineral
soil.
A horizon.-The mineral horizon at or near the
surface in which an accumulation of humified
organic matter is mixed with the mineral material.
Also, a plowed surface horizon, most of which was
originally part of a B horizon.
E horizon.-The mineral horizon in which the main







Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


feature is loss of silicate clay, iron, aluminum, or
some combination of these.
B horizon.-The mineral horizon below an O, A, or
E horizon. The B horizon is, in part, a layer of
transition from the overlying horizon to the
underlying C horizon. The B horizon also has
distinctive characteristics, such as accumulation of
clay, sesquioxides, humus, or a combination of
these; prismatic or blocky structure; redder or
browner colors than those in the A horizon; or a
combination of these. The combined A and B
horizons are generally called the solum, or true
soil. If a soil does not have a B horizon, the A
horizon alone is the solum.
C horizon.-The mineral horizon or layer,
excluding indurated bedrock, that is little affected
by soil-forming processes and does not have the
properties typical of the A or B horizon. The
material of a C horizon may be either like or unlike
that in which the solum formed. If the material is
known to differ from that in the solum, the Arabic
numeral 2 precedes the letter C.
Cr horizon.-Soft, consolidated bedrock beneath
the soil.
R layer.-Consolidated rock unweatheredd
bedrock) beneath the soil. The bedrock commonly
underlies a C horizon but can be directly below an
A or a B horizon.
Humus. The well decomposed, more or less stable part
of the organic matter in mineral soils.
Hydrologic soil groups. Refers to soils grouped
according to their runoff-producing characteristics.
The chief consideration is the inherent capacity of
soil bare of vegetation to permit infiltration. The
slope and the kind of plant cover are not
considered but are separate factors in predicting
runoff. Soils are assigned to four groups. In group
A are soils having a high infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet and having a low runoff potential.
They are mainly deep, well drained, and sandy or
gravelly. In group D, at the other extreme, are
soils having a very slow infiltration rate and thus a
high runoff potential. They have a claypan or clay
layer at or near the surface, have a permanent
high water table, or are shallow over nearly
impervious bedrock or other material. A soil is
assigned to two hydrologic groups if part of the
acreage is artificially drained and part is
undrained.
Infiltration. The downward entry of water into the
immediate surface of soil or other material. This
contrasts with percolation, which is movement of
water through soil layers or material.
Infiltration rate. The rate at which water penetrates the


surface of the soil at any given instant, usually
expressed in inches per hour. The rate can be
limited by the infiltration capacity of the soil or the
rate at which water is applied at the surface.
Intake rate. The average rate of water entering the soil
under irrigation. Most soils have a fast initial rate;
the rate decreases with application time.
Therefore, intake rate for design purposes is not a
constant but is a variable depending on the net
irrigation application. The rate of water intake, in
inches per hour, is expressed as follows:
Less than 0.2 ......................... very low
0.2 to 0.4 ................................ low
0.4 to 0.75 .................... moderately low
0.75 to 1.25............ .......... moderate
1.25 to 1.75 .................. moderately high
1.75 to 2.5 .............................. high
More than 2.5 ....................... very high
Irrigation. Application of water to soils to assist in
production of crops. Methods of irrigation are:
Basin.-Water is applied rapidly to nearly level
plains surrounded by levees or dikes.
Border.-Water is applied at the upper end of a
strip in which the lateral flow of water is controlled
by small earth ridges called border dikes, or
borders.
Controlled flooding.-Water is released at intervals
from closely spaced field ditches and distributed
uniformly over the field.
Corrugation.-Water is applied to small, closely
spaced furrows or ditches in fields of close-
growing crops or in orchards so that it flows in
only one direction.
Drip (or trickle).-Water is applied slowly and
under low pressure to the surface of the soil or
into the soil through such applicators as emitters,
porous tubing, or perforated pipe.
Furrow.-Water is applied in small ditches made
by cultivation implements. Furrows are used for
tree and row crops.
Sprinkler.-Water is sprayed over the soil surface
through pipes or nozzles from a pressure system.
Subirrigation.-Water is applied in open ditches or
tile lines until the water table is raised enough to
wet the soil.
Wild flooding.-Water, released at high points, is
allowed to flow onto an area without controlled
distribution.
Large stones (in tables). Rock fragments that are 3
inches (7.6 centimeters) or more across. Large
stones adversely affect the specified use of the
soil.
Liquid limit. The moisture content at which the soil
passes from a plastic to a liquid state.








Soil Survey


Low strength. The soil is not strong enough to support
loads.
Medium textured soil. Very fine sandy loam, loam, silt
loam, or silt.
Mineral soil. Soil that is mainly mineral material and
low in organic material. Its bulk density is more
than that of organic soil.
Miscellaneous area. An area that has little or no
natural soil and supports little or no vegetation.
Morphology, soil. The physical makeup of the soil,
including the texture, structure, porosity,
consistence, color, and other physical, mineral,
and biological properties of the various horizons,
and the thickness and arrangement of those
horizons in the soil profile.
Muck. Dark, finely divided, well decomposed organic
soil material. (See Sapric soil material.)
Munsell notation. A designation of color by degrees of
the three simple variables-hue, value, and
chroma. For example, a notation of 10YR 6/4 is a
color with hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of
4.
Neutral soil. A soil having a pH value between 6.6 and
7.3. (See Reaction, soil.)
Nutrient, plant. Any element taken in by a plant
essential to its growth. Plant nutrients are mainly
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium,
magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper,
boron, and zinc obtained from the soil and carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen obtained from the air and
water.
Obligate wetland plants. Plants that almost always
grow (estimated probability of more than 99
percent) in wetlands under natural conditions but
which may also rarely grow (estimated probability
of less than 1 percent) in nonwetlands.
Organic matter. Plant and animal residue in the soil in
various stages of decomposition.
Parent material. The unconsolidated organic and
mineral material in which soil forms.
Pedon. The smallest volume that can be called "a soil."
A pedon is three dimensional and large enough to
permit study of all horizons. Its area ranges from
about 10 to 100 square feet (1 square meter to 10
square meters), depending on the variability of the
soil.
Percolation. The downward movement of water through
the soil.
Permeability. The quality of the soil that enables water
to move through the profile. Permeability is
measured as the number of inches per hour that
water moves through the saturated soil. Terms
describing permeability are:


Very slow ................. less than 0.06 inch
Slow ........................ 0.06 to 0.2 inch
Moderately slow ................ 0.2 to 0.6 inch
Moderate .............. 0.6 inch to 2.0 inches
Moderately rapid .............. 2.0 to 6.0 inches
Rapid ......................... 6.0 to 20 inches
Very rapid ................ more than 20 inches
pH value. A numerical designation of acidity and
alkalinity in soil. (See Reaction, soil.)
Plasticity index. The numerical difference between the
liquid limit and the plastic limit; the range of
moisture content within which the soil remains
plastic.
Poor filter (in tables). Because of rapid permeability,
the soil may not adequately filter effluent from a
waste disposal system.
Profile, soil. A vertical section of the soil extending
through all its horizons and into the parent
material.
Reaction, soil. A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of
a soil expressed in pH values. A soil that tests to
pH 7.0 is described as precisely neutral in reaction
because it is neither acid nor alkaline. The
degrees of acidity or alkalinity, expressed as pH
values, are:
Extremely acid ..................... below 4.5
Very strongly acid ................... 4.5 to 5.0
Strongly acid ........................ 5.1 to 5.5
Medium acid........... ............. 5.6 to 6.0
Slightly acid ......................... 6.1 to 6.5
Neutral ............................... 6.6 to 7.3
Mildly alkaline ....................... 7.4 to 7.8
Moderately alkaline ................. 7.9 to 8.4
Strongly alkaline ..................... 8.5 to 9.0
Very strongly alkaline ............ 9.1 and higher
Residuum (residual soil material). Unconsolidated,
weathered or partly weathered mineral material
that accumulated as consolidated rock
disintegrated in place.
Rippable. Rippable bedrock or hardpan can be
excavated using a single-tooth ripping attachment
mounted on a tractor with a 200-300 draw bar
horsepower rating.
Rock fragments. Rock or mineral fragments having a
diameter of 2 millimeters or more; for example,
pebbles, cobbles, stones, and boulders.
Root zone. The part of the soil that can be penetrated
by plant roots.
Runoff. The precipitation discharged into stream
channels from an area. The water that flows off
the surface of the land without sinking into the soil
is called surface runoff. Water that enters the soil
before reaching surface streams is called ground-
water runoff or seepage flow from ground water.
Saline soil. A soil containing soluble salts in an amount
that impairs the growth of plants. A saline soil








Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


does not contain excess exchangeable sodium.
Sand. As a soil separate, individual rock or mineral
fragments from 0.05 millimeter to 2.0 millimeters in
diameter. Most sand grains consist of quartz. As a
soil textural class, a soil that is 85 percent or more
sand and not more than 10 percent clay.
Sapric soil material (muck). The most highly
decomposed of all organic soil material. Muck has
the least amount of plant fiber, the highest bulk
density, and the lowest water content at saturation
of all organic soil material.
Seepage (in tables). The movement of water through
the soil adversely affects the specified use.
Series, soil. A group of soils that have profiles that are
almost alike, except for differences in texture of
the surface layer or of the underlying material. All
the soils of a series have horizons that are similar
in composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Silt. As a soil separate, individual mineral particles that
range in diameter from the upper limit of clay
(0.002 millimeter) to the lower limit of very fine
sand (0.05 millimeter). As a soil textural class, soil
that is 80 percent or more silt and less than 12
percent clay.
Slope. The inclination of the land surface from the
horizontal. Percentage of slope is the vertical
distance divided by horizontal distance, then
multiplied by 100. Thus, a slope of 20 percent is a
drop of 20 feet in 100 feet of horizontal distance.
Small stones (in tables). Rock fragments less than 3
inches (7.6 centimeters) in diameter. Small stones
adversely affect the specified use of the soil.
Soil. A natural, three-dimensional body at the earth's
surface. It is capable of supporting plants and has
properties resulting from the integrated effect of
climate and living matter acting on earthy parent
material, as conditioned by relief over periods of
time.
Soil separates. Mineral particles less than 2 millimeters
in equivalent diameter and ranging between
specified size limits. The names and sizes, in
millimeters, of separates recognized in the United
States are as follows:


Very coarse sand..................... 2.0 to 1.0
Coarse sand ......................... 1.0 to 0.5
Medium sand ....................... 0.5 to 0.25
Fine sand ........................ 0.25 to 0.10
Very fine sand ................... 0.10 to 0.05
Silt ............................... 0.05 to 0.002
Clay .......................... less than 0.002
Stones. Rock fragments 10 to 24 inches (25 to 60
centimeters) in diameter if rounded or 15 to 24
inches (38 to 60 centimeters) in length if flat.
Stony. Refers to a soil containing stones in numbers
that interfere with or prevent tillage.
Structure, soil. The arrangement of primary soil
particles into compound particles or aggregates.
The principal forms of soil structure are-platy
(laminated), prismatic (vertical axis of aggregates
longer than horizontal), columnar (prisms with
rounded tops), blocky (angular or subangular), and
granular. Structureless soils are either single
grained (each grain by itself, as in dune sand) or
massive (the particles adhering without any regular
cleavage, as in many hardpans).
Surface layer. The soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or its
equivalent in uncultivated soil, ranging in depth
from 4 to 10 inches (10 to 25 centimeters).
Frequently designated as the "plow layer," or the
"Ap horizon."
Texture, soil. The relative proportions of sand, silt, and
clay particles in a mass of soil. The basic textural
classes, in order of increasing proportion of fine
particles, are sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, loam,
silt loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay loam, silty clay
loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and clay. The sand,
loamy sand, and sandy loam classes may be
further divided by specifying "coarse," "fine," or
"very fine."
Topsoil. The upper part of the soil, which is the most
favorable material for plant growth. It is ordinarily
rich in organic matter and is used to topdress
roadbanks, lawns, and land affected by mining.
Upland (geology). Land at a higher elevation, in
general, than the alluvial plain or stream terrace;
land above the lowlands along streams.






53





Tables










Soil Survey


TABLE 1.--TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION

(Recorded in the period 1951-86 at Key West, Florida)


Temperature Precipitation

I | | | 2 years in 12 years in 10 I
Month IAverage IAveragelAveragel 10 will have-- | will have-- I Average
I daily I daily I daily I Maximum I Minimum (Averagel I number of
Maximum Iminimumi Itemperatureltemperaturel I Less I More I days with
I I I I higher lower I than-- Ithan--I 0.10 inch
I I I I than-- Ithan-- I I I or more
o o o o o I I I I
F F F F F In In In

January----I 74.3 64.3 69.3 83 48 2.24 0.22 3.691 3

February---l 75.0 65.1 70.1 83 50 I 1.89 1 .80 2.801 4

March------ 78.6 69.0 73.8 86 55 1.54 .33 2.49| 3

April------ 81.8 72.5 77.2 87 63 1.77 .27 2.901 2

May--------. 85.0 175.8 80.4 I 90 68 3.27 I .96 5.131 5

June------- 87.6 78.2 82.9 92 71 5.14 2.20 7.63| 8

July-------I 89.1 79.7 84.4 1 93 72 I 3.64 I 1.72 5.301 7

August-----I 89.2 79.3 84.3 I 92 72 I 5.09 I 3.00 6.951 9

September--I 87.9 78.4 83.2 91 72 6.22 3.38 8.711 10
I I I I I I I I I
October----I 84.5 75.7 80.1 90 68 4.51 1.76 6.811 7

November---I 79.9 71.1 75.5 86 57 2.65 .43 4.331 4

December---1 75.9 66.6 71.3 84 49 1 2.13 .45 3.431 3


Yearly: I

Average--I 82.4 73.0 77.7 --- --- --- --- ---I
I I I I I I I I I
Extreme--I --- --- --- 93 46 --- -- --- --
T I I I I I I I I
Total---- --- --- --- --- --- 1 40.09 1 30.47 1 48.761 65
I I I I I I I I I










Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


TABLE 2.--ACREAGE AND PROPORTIONATE EXTENT OF THE SOILS


II I
Map I Soil name I Acres IPercent
symbol


2 IPennekamp gravelly muck, 0 to 2 percent slopes, extremely stony-------------------- 6,980 10.6
3 IMatecumbe muck, occasionally flooded----------------------------------------------- 5,430 8.2
4 IRock outcrop-Tavernier complex, tidal---------------------------------------------- 920 1.4
5 IIslamorada muck, tidal---------------------------------------------------------- 5,890 8.9
6 IKeylargo muck, tidal--------------------------------------------------------------- 12,240 18.5
7 lUdorthents-Urban land complex------------------------------------------------------ 10,940 16.6
8 IRock outcrop-Cudjoe complex, tidal------------------------------------------------ 5,750 8.7
9 lLignumvitae marl, tidal------------------------------------------------------------ 1,360 2.1
11 lUrban land---------------------------------------------------------------------- 3,080 4.7
12 |Rock outcrop-Cudjoe complex, frequently flooded------------------------------------ 1,840 2.8
13 IKeyvaca very gravelly loam, extremely stony--------------------------------------- 2,780 4.2
15 ICudjoe marl, tidal----------------------------------------------------------------- 3,410 5.2
16 IBahiahonda fine sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes-------------------------------------- 240 0.4
17 IKeywest marl, tidal---------------------------------------------------------------- 450 0.7
18 |Beaches----------------------------------------------------------------------------I 100 I 0.1
19 ISaddlebunch marl, occasionally flooded--------------------------------------------- 1,140 1.7
W ater------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3,450 5.2
Total---------I-------
I Total-------------------------------------------------------------------- 66,000 I 100.0
II I










Soil Survey


TABLE 3.--CHARACTERISTIC PLANT COMMUNITIES

(Only the soils that support natural vegetation are listed)


II
Soil name and Ecological community Characteristic vegetation Composition
map symbol I
I Pct
I I Pet
II
2------------------ Tropical Hammocks------------- Poisonwood-------------------- 30
Pennekamp I |Wild tamarind----------------- 10
|Gumbo-limbo------------------ 10
IStrangler fig-----------------I 10
IWild coffee-------------------- 5
ICanella-----------------------I 5

3------------------ Tropical Hammocks------------ IPoisonwood-------------------- 15
Matecumbe I Wild tamarind----------------- 10
IMahogany--------------------- 10
IDeering's tree cactus--------- 5
ICrabwood--------------------- 1 5
IThatch palm------------------- 5
ILocustberry-------------------I 5
IParadise tree-----------------I 5
ISatinleaf--------------------- 5
IStopper----------------------- 5
I
4*:
Rock outcrop. I


Tavernier--------- IMangrove
I
I

5------------------Mangrove
Islamorada


6------------------ Mangrove
Keylargo
I


I
Swamp---------------- Red mangrove------------------I
IBlack mangrove----------------I
IGlasswort---------------------I
I I
Swamp---------------- IRed mangrove------------------I
IBlack mangrove----------------
I
I
Swamp---------------- IRed mangrove------------------I
IBlack mangrove----------------I
I I


8*:
Rock outcrop.

Cudjoe------------ Mangrove Swamp---------------- Black mangrove----------------I
IRed mangrove------------------I
SISaltwort----------------------I
IGlasswort---------------------I
I I
9------------------ IMangrove Swamp---------------- IBlack mangrove----------------I
Lignumvitae I Red mangrove------------------I
|White mangrove----------------I
IButtonwood--------------------I
IGlasswort---------------------I
IWild tamarind-----------------
I
12*:
Rock outcrop. I

Cudjoe------------ ISawgrass Marsh---------------- ISawgrass----------------------I
IButtonwood--------------------I
ILocustberry-------------------I
IWhite mangrove----------------I
IPoisonwood--------------------I
ISeagrape----------------------I
IFlameleaf sumac---------------I
I ~II


See footnote at end of table.










Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida




TABLE 3.--CHARACTERISTIC PLANT COMMUNITIES--Continued


Soil name and Ecological community | Characteristic vegetation Composition
map symbol I

IIPct

13----------------- IEverglade Flatwoods----------- ISouth Florida slash pine------ 25
Keyvaca I ILocustberry-------------------I 15
IPoisonwood-------------------- 10
ISilver palm------------------- 10
ISatinleaf--------------------- 5
IThreeawn---------------------- 5
15 -------------- IMangrove Swamp---------------- Black mangrove---------------- 50
Cudjoe I IRed mangrove------------------ 10
IISaltwort---------------------- 10
IGlasswort--------------------- 10
I 1 I
16----------------- Coastal Strand---------------- IPoisonwood-------------------- 15
Bahiahonda I ICrabwood---------------------- 10
IWild tamarind----------------- 10
IBuccaneer-palm---------------- 5
IStopper-----------------------I 5
IGumbo-limbo------------------ 5
IDeering's tree cactus--------- 5
17----------------- IMangrove Swamp---------------- Black mangrove---------------- 40
Keywest I Red mangrove------------------ 10
I White mangrove---------------- 10
I IButtonwood-------------------- 10
II Glasswort--------------------- 10
I I
19---------------- ITropical Hammocks------------- Wild tamarind----------------- 10
Saddlebunch I IPoisonwood-------------------- 10
IButtonwood-------------------- 10
IWhite mangrove---------------- 10
IMahogany---------------------- 5
IWild tamarind----------------- 5
ICrabwood---------------------- 5
IThatch palm------------------- 5
ILocustberry------------------- 5
I

See description of the map unit for composition and behavior characteristics of the map
unit.











58 Soil Survey


TABLE 4.--RECREATIONAL DEVELOPMENT


(Some terms that describe restrictive soil features are
definitions of "slight," "moderate," and "severe")


defined in the "Glossary." See text for


I II I I
Soil name and I Camp areas I Picnic areas Playgrounds IPaths and trails Golf fairways
map symbol I I
I I I


I I


2--------------------- ISevere:
Pennekamp flooding,
Excess humus,
depth to rock.

3--------------------- Severe:
Matecumbe Iflooding,
Depth to rock.

4*:
Rock outcrop--------- Severe:
Flooding,
Depth to rock.

Tavernier------------ ISevere:
flooding,
Sweetness,
excess humus.

5--------------------- Severe:
Islamorada flooding,
wetness,
excess humus.

6--------------------- Severe:
Keylargo Iflooding,
Iwetness,
Excess humus.

7*:
Udorthents----------- Severe:
Flooding,
Small stones,
I too sandy.


ISevere:
Excess humus,
Depth to rock.


ISevere:
depth to rock.



ISevere:
Depth to rock.


ISevere:
Iwetness,
|Severe:




Excess humus,
Excess salt.

ISevere:
Iwetness,
Excess humus,
Excess salt.

SSevere:
Iwetness,
Excess humus,
Excess salt.


ISevere:
I wetness,
I excess humus,
I excess salt.


SSevere:
Itoo sandy,
Small stones.
I


ISevere:
Excess humus,
Depth to rock.


ISevere:
depth to rock.



ISevere:
Depth to rock.


ISevere:

excess humus,
wetness,
flooding.
ISevere:
Excess humus,
I wetness,
Flooding.

SSevere:
Excess humus,
wetness,
flooding.


ISevere:
I excess humus,
I wetness,
I flooding.


ISevere:
Small stones,
Itoo sandy.


ISevere:
Excess humus.



IModerate:
Iwetness.



IModerate:
Flooding.


ISevere:
Iwetness,
Excess humus.

ISevere:

wetness,
excess humus.
ISevere:
I wetness,
Excess humus.



ISevere:
f wetness,
I excess humus,



ISevere:
Itoo sandy,
Small stones.


ISevere:
Depth to rock,
Excess humus.


ISevere:
Depth to rock,
I excess humus.


ISevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock.

ISevere:
Excess salt,
I wetness,
Flooding.

ISevere:
Excess salt,
wetness,
Flooding.

ISevere:
I excess salt,
I wetness,
I flooding,


ISevere:
small stones,
Large stones,


I I I drought~


Urban landVariableVariable Variable Variable I able
Urban land------------IVariable--------IVariable---------IVariable--------IVariable--------IVariable
I I I I I


Rock outcrop--------- Severe:
Flooding,
I depth to rock.

Cudjoe--------------- Severe:
flooding,
Iwetness,
Depth to rock.

9 -------------------- ISevere:
Lignumvitae I flooding,
wetness,


I
ISevere:
Depth to rock.


ISevere:
Iwetness,
excess salt,
Depth to rock.

ISevere:
Iwetness,
Excess salt.


I
ISevere:
Depth to rock.


ISevere:
Iwetness,
Flooding,
Depth to rock.

ISevere:
wetness,
flooding,


IModerate:
flooding.


SSevere:
wetness.


Severe:
wetness.
I


I
ISevere:
I flooding,
depth to rock.

Severe:
excess salt,
wetness,
flooding.

ISevere:
excess salt,
wetness,
I flooding.


Excess salt. excess

11*------------------- IVariable-------- Variable-------- IVariable-------- Variable-------- Variable.
Urban land I


See footnote at end of table.


I


y-










Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


TABLE 4.--RECREATIONAL DEVELOPMENT--Continued

iI I i I
Soil name and I Camp areas | Picnic areas | Playgrounds IPaths and trails) Golf fairways
map symbol I I I I
I I I I I


12*:
Rock outcrop--------- Severe:
Flooding,
I depth to rock.

Cudjoe--------------- Severe:
Flooding,
I wetness,
I depth to rock.

13--------------------ISevere:
Keyvaca I flooding,
I depth to rock.

15-------------------- Severe:
Cudjoe Iflooding,
I wetness,
I depth to rock.

16-------------------- Severe:
Bahiahonda I flooding,
I too sandy.

17-------------------- Severe:
Keywest Iflooding,
Iwetness,
Excess salt.

18*-------------------- Severe:
Beaches flooding,
Iwetness,
I too sandy.

19-------------------- ISevere:
Saddlebunch I flooding,
I wetness,
I depth to rock.
I


ISevere:
depth to rock.


ISevere:
wetness,
excess salt,
Depth to rock.

ISevere:
depth to rock.


ISevere:
Iwetness,
Excess salt,
Depth to rock.

ISevere:
Itoo sandy.


ISevere:
wetness,
Excess salt.


ISevere:
wetness,
Itoo sandy,
excess salt.

ISevere:
I wetness,
Excess salt,
Idepth to rock.


ISevere:
Depth to rock.


ISevere:
Iwetness,
Flooding,
Depth to rock.

ISevere:
Small stones,
Depth to rock.

ISevere:
Iwetness,
Flooding,
Depth to rock.

ISevere:
Itoo sandy.


ISevere:
Iwetness,
Flooding,
Excess salt.

ISevere:
too sandy,
Iwetness,
Flooding.

ISevere:
Iwetness,
Depth to rock,
Excess salt.
I


IModerate: ISevere:
I flooding. I flooding,
I depth to rock.

ISevere: ISevere:
I wetness. I excess salt,
I wetness,
Flooding.

ISlight---------- ISevere:


ISevere:
I wetness.



Severe:
I too sandy.


ISevere:
I wetness.



ISevere:
wetness,
too sandy.


Severe:
I wetness.


Depth to rock.


SSevere:
I excess salt,
I wetness,
Flooding.

ISevere:
I drought.


ISevere:
I excess salt,
I wetness,
Flooding.

ISevere:
I excess salt,
Sweetness,
Sdroughty.

ISevere:
I excess salt,
Iwetness,
I depth to rock.
I


* See description of the map unit for composition and behavior characteristics of the map unit.











Soil Survey


TABLE 5.--WILDLIFE HABITAT

(See text for definitions of "good," "fair," "poor," and "very poor." Absence of an entry
indicates that the soil was not rated)


I Potential for habitat elements I Potential as habitat for-


Soil name and Wild
map symbol herba-
ceous
Plants


2------------------ Poor
Pennekamp I
I
3------------------IPoor
Matecumbe I

4*:
Rock outcrop------IVery
I poor.

Tavernier---------IVery
I poor.
I
5------------------ IVery
Islamorada I poor.

6------------------ Very
Keylargo I poor.

7*:
Udorthents.

Urban land.

8*:
Rock outcrop------IVery
I poor.
I
Cudjoe------------ IVery
I poor.
I
9----------------- IVery
Lignumvitae I poor.
III*
11*. I
Urban land I

12*:
Rock outcrop------ Very
I poor.
I
Cudjoe------------ IPoor
I

13-----------------IPoor
Keyvaca I
I
15----------------- IVery
Cudjoe I poor.
I
16-----------------IPoor
Bahiahonda I

17----------------- JVery
Keywest I poor.
I


I Conif- wetland Shallow Woodland wetland
IHardwoodl Conif- IWetland Ishallow I Woodland I Wetland


I trees
I


Fair


(Fair



Iery
I poor.
IVery


I poor.
IVery
I poor.
I


IVery
I poor.
I


IVery
Poor.











IVery
Poor.
IVery
I poor.
I










IVery
poor.






IPoor
IVery
I poor.
I r
IVery












Spoor





IVery
I poor.
I poor
I
I Poor
I




[Very
I poor.
I
IPoor
I
I
IVery
I poor.


erous plants
Plants


IVery |Poor
I poor. I
I I
IVery IPoor
I poor. I
I I
I I
Very IVery
I poor. I poor.
I I
Very IPoor
I pdor. I
I I
IVery IPoor
I poor.
I I
IVery |Poor
I poor. I



IVery IVery




poor. | poor.
I I



IVery IPoor
Spoor.
I I







IVery |Poor
poor.
I I






IVery IVery
I poor. I poor.
I I






IVery |Poor
I poor. I
I I













IFair |Poor
IVery IPoor
I poor.
I I








IPoo IVery
I poo
I I
I I
|Very IVery
I poor. I poor.
I I






IVery IPoor
I poor. I
I I
hFair Ipoor
I I

IVery IPoor
I poor. I
I I
Poor Ivery
I I poor.

|Very IPoor
I poor. I
I I


e


See footnote at end of table.


water
areas


IVery
I poor.

Very
Spoor.


IVery
poor.

Good


Good


Good








I ery
poor.
Good


IGood






IVery
Spoor.

I Good

IVery

I poor.
IGood
I
I
I
I












IVery
I poor.
IGood
I Good
I
I


wildlife



Fair


Fair



IVery poor
I
I

IVery poor
I

Iery poor

IVery poor
I






Iery poor

IVery poor
I












IVery poor
I
I
















IVery poor
I r
ai


IVery poor
IPoor
IVy poo
IVery poor







I
I
IVery poor








I
I


I
I


wildlife



IVery poor.
I

Iry poor.

IVery poor.

Fair.

Fair.






Fair.
Very poor.
Fair.


Fair.















IFair.









IVery poor.
air.


















IFair.











Very poor.
air.
iFair.

I
i



I
I

I
I

I
I
iFair.
I
I


-










Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


TABLE 5.--WILDLIFE HABITAT--Continued

I Potential for habitat elements Potential as habitat for--
Soil name and Wild I 1 I I
map symbol I herba- |Hardwoodl Conif- IWetland (Shallow Woodland Wetland
Sceous trees Ierous I plants Iwater wildlife I wildlife
Plants I plants areas
I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I
18*----------------IVery IVery IVery IVery IVery IVery poor lVery poor.
Beaches I poor. I poor. I poor. I poor. I poor. I
I I I I I I I
19----------------- Poor IFair IVery IFair IGood IFair IFair.
Saddlebunch I I I poor. I I I
I I I I I I I

See description of the map unit for composition and behavior characteristics of the
map unit.











62 Soil Survey




TABLE 6.--BUILDING SITE DEVELOPMENT

(Some terms that describe restrictive soil features are defined in the "Glossary." See
text for definitions of "moderate" and "severe." The information in this table
indicates the dominant soil condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite
investigation)


I I I I
Soil name and I Dwellings ISmall commercial I Local roads I Lawns and
map symbol |without basements buildings I and streets I landscaping
I I I I


2----------------- Severe:
Pennekamp flooding.


3----------------- Severe:
Matecumbe Iflooding.


4*:
Rock outcrop-----ISevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock.

Tavernier-------- Severe:
Flooding,
wetness.


5-----------------ISevere:
Islamorada subsides,
flooding,
wetness.

6----------------- Severe:
Keylargo Isubsides,
Flooding,
I wetness.

7*:
Udorthents-------ISevere:
Flooding.
I


ISevere:
I flooding.
I

ISevere:
I flooding.



ISevere:
Flooding,
I depth to rock.

Severe:
Flooding,
I wetness.


ISevere:
Subsides,
Flooding,
I wetness.

SSevere:
I subsides,
I flooding,
wetness.


ISevere:
I flooding.
I


(Moderate:
depth to rock,
flooding.

ISevere:
Flooding.



ISevere:
Depth to rock.


ISevere:
Iwetness,
Flooding.


ISevere:
Subsides,
I wetness,
Flooding.

SSevere:
Subsides,
I wetness,
Flooding.


IModerate:
I wetness,
Flooding,


Large stones.

Urban land------- Variable------ ---Variable--------- Variable--------
*I I I


Rock outcrop----- -Severe:
| flooding,
I depth to rock.


Cudjoe-----------ISevere:
Flooding,
wetness,
Slow strength.

9----------------- Severe:
Lignumvitae I flooding,
wetness,
low strength.

11*--------------- -Variable---------
Urban land I


See footnote at end of table.


SSevere:
| flooding,
I depth to rock.
I
ISevere:
I flooding,
I wetness,
I low strength.

SSevere:
I flooding,
I wetness,
Slow strength.


I Severe:
depth to rock.


ISevere:
I wetness,
flooding.


Severe:
wetness,
flooding.


ISevere:
Depth to rock,
Excess humus.

ISevere:
Depth to rock,
Excess humus.


ISevere:
Flooding,
depth to rock.

ISevere:
Excess salt,
wetness,
Flooding.

ISevere:
Excess salt,
I wetness,
Flooding.

SSevere:
Excess salt,
Iwetness,
Flooding.


ISevere:
Small stones,
Large stones,
Idroughty.

IVariable.


ISevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock.

SSevere:
Excess salt,
Iwetness,
Flooding.

Severe:
excess salt,
Iwetness,
flooding.


IVariable--------- lVariable--------- Variable.
I I I


I I











Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


TABLE 6.--BUILDING SITE DEVELOPMENT--Continued


Soil name and I Dwellings ISmall commercial I Local roads I Lawns and
map symbol Iwithout basements buildings I and streets I landscaping
I I I I


12*:
Rock outcrop---- ISevere: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere:
Flooding, Iflooding, Idepth to rock. flooding,
Depth to rock. Depth to rock. I I depth to rock.

Cudjoe----------- ISevere: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere:
Flooding, Iflooding, Iwetness, I excess salt,
Iwetness, I wetness, Iflooding. I wetness,
Ilow strength. low strength. I flooding.

13---------------- Severe: Severe: IModerate: ISevere:
Keyvaca Iflooding. Flooding, Idepth to rock, Idepth to rock.
I I flooding. I

15---------------- Severe: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere:
Cudjoe Iflooding, Iflooding, Iwetness, Iexcess salt,
I wetness, Iwetness, Iflooding. I wetness,
Ilow strength. low strength. flooding.
II I
16---------------- Severe: Severe: IModerate: ISevere:
Bahiahonda flooding, flooding. Flooding. Idroughty.

17---------------- Severe: Severe: Severe: ISevere:
Keywest Iflooding, Iflooding, I wetness, Iexcess salt,
Iwetness, I wetness, Iflooding. Iwetness,
Ilow strength. Ilow strength. I I flooding.

18*---------------- Severe: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere:
Beaches I flooding, Iflooding, wetness, Iexcess salt,
I wetness. I wetness. Flooding. I wetness,
Sdroughty.

19---------------- Severe: ISevere: ISevere: ISevere:
Saddlebunch I flooding, I flooding, I wetness, Iexcess salt,
I wetness, I wetness, Iflooding, Iwetness,
Ilow strength. Ilow strength. depth to rock.
I I I I


See description of the map unit for composition
map unit.


and behavior characteristics of the











4 Soil Survey




TABLE 7.--SANITARY FACILITIES

(Some terms that describe restrictive soil features are defined in the "Glossary." See text for definitions
of "severe," "poor," and other terms. The information in this table indicates the dominant soil
condition but does not eliminate the need for onsite investigation)



Soil name and I
map symbol ISeptic tank absorption fields Area sanitary landfill I Daily cover for landfill

I I I
I I I


2------------------ Severe:
Pennekamp depth to rock,
wetness.

3------------------- Severe:
Matecumbe I flooding,
Depth to rock,
Sweetness.

4*:
Rock outcrop------- Severe:
flooding,
depth to rock.

Tavernier---------- ISevere:
flooding,
Depth to rock,
Iwetness.

5------------------- Severe:
Islamorada flooding,
depth to rock,
wetness.

6------------------- Severe:
Keylargo Isubsides,
flooding,
wetness.

7*:
Udorthents--------- Severe:
wetness,
poor filter.


ISevere:
Depth to rock.


ISevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock,
Iwetness.


ISevere:
Flooding,
, depth to rock.

SSevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock,
Iwetness.

SSevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock,
Seepage.

SSevere:
Flooding,
Seepage,
Iwetness.


ISevere:
Seepage,
wetness.
I


IPoor:
depth to rock.


Poor:
depth to rock.




IPoor:
Depth to rock.


IPoor:
depth to rock,
wetness,
excess salt.

IPoor:
depth to rock,
wetness,
excess humus.

IPoor:
I wetness,
excess humus,
excess salt.


IFair:
I wetness.


Urban land--------- Variable--------------------- IVariable--------------------- IVariable.

8*: .. ..


Rock outcrop-------ISevere:
flooding,
I depth to rock.

Cudjoe------------- Severe:
Flooding,
I depth to rock,
I wetness.


I Severe:
flooding,
depth to rock.

ISevere:
flooding,
depth to rock,
wetness.


IPoor:
depth to rock.


IPoor:
depth to rock,
hard to pack,
wetness.


9------------------- ISevere: Severe: P toor:
Lignumvitae I flooding, I flooding, I depth to rock,
I depth to rock, I depth to rock, I hard to pack,
I wetness. I seepage.
I I .................... Variable.
11*----------------- Variable--------------------- Variabl---------------------ariable.
Urban land I


See footnote at end of table.










Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


TABLE 7.--SANITARY FACILITIES--Continued

I I I
Soil name and I
map symbol ISeptic tank absorption fields Area sanitary landfill I Daily cover for landfill
I I I


12*:
Rock outcrop------- ISevere:
Flooding,
depth to rock.

Cudjoe------------- ISevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock,
Iwetness.

13----------------- -Severe:
Keyvaca depth to rock,
wetness.

15------------------ISevere:
Cudjoe Iflooding,
depth to rock,
Iwetness.

16--------------- -Severe:
Bahiahonda Iwetness,
Poor filter.

17------------------ Severe:
Keywest Iflooding,
Iwetness.


18*----------------- ISevere:
Beaches Iflooding,
Iwetness,
Poor filter.

19------------------ Severe:
Saddlebunch Iflooding,
Depth to rock,
Iwetness.
I


ISevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock.

ISevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock,
Iwetness.

ISevere:
Depth to rock,
Iwetness.

ISevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock,
Sweetness.

ISevere:
Seepage,
Iwetness.

ISevere:
Flooding,
Seepage,
Sweetness.

ISevere:
Flooding,
Seepage,
Iwetness.

ISevere:
Flooding,
Depth to rock,
I wetness.
I


IPoor:
I depth to rock.


IPoor:
I depth to rock,
Hard to pack,
Iwetness.

IPoor:
Depth to rock.


IPoor:
depth to rock,
hard to pack,
wetness.

IPoor:
seepage,
too sandy.

IPoor:
Hard to pack,
wetness,
excess salt.

IPoor:
Seepage,
Itoo sandy,
wetness.

IPoor:
Depth to rock,
hard to pack,
wetness.


* See description of the map unit for composition and behavior characteristics of the map unit.










i6 Soil Survey




TABLE 8.--ENGINEERING INDEX PROPERTIES

(The symbol < means less than; > means more than. Absence of an entry indicates that data were not estimated)


I I
Soil name and IDepthl USDA texture
map symbol I I
I I
SIn I


2--------------
Pennekamp






3-------------
Matecumbe


4*:
Rock outcrop--


Tavernier----


5--------------
Islamorada

6--------------
Keylargo

7*:
Udorthents ----



Urban land----

8*:
Rock outcrop--


Cudjoe--------


9--------------
Lignumvitae

11*------------
Urban land

12*:
Rock outcrop--


Cudjoe--------


13------------
Keyvaca


)-3 IGravelly muck----
3-8 IVery gravelly
| loam, very
I gravelly silt
I loam, extremely
| gravelly loam.
8 |Weathered bedrock
I


S0-6 IMuck, gravelly
I muck.
6 IWeathered bedrock
I I

I 0-60 Unweathered
I I bedrock.
I I
0-8 IMuck-------------
S8 Weathered bedrock
I I
I 0-35IMuck-------------
S35 IWeathered bedrock
I I
0-70 Muck-------------
S70 (Weathered bedrock
I I
I I
I 0-32|Extremely
S I gravelly sand.
132-60 Marl------------
I I .
0-6 IVariable--------
I I
I I
I 0-60 Unweathered
I I bedrock.
I I
0-16 Marl------------
S16 |Weathered bedrock
I I
0-32|Marl------------
S32 IWeathered bedrock
I I
1 0-6 Ivariable---------
I I
I I
I I
- 0-60 Unweathered
S I bedrock.
I I
I 0-161Marl-------------
S16 Weathered bedrock

0-4 IVery gravelly
I loam.
Weathered bedrock
4 Weathered bedrock
I


I
j



I

|
I


ge passiI


umber--


I Classification [Frag- | Percenta
I |Iments I sieve n
Unified AASHTO | > 3 I I
Inches| 4 I 10 I
SPct I I I
I I I I I I
IPT IA-8 0-5 I --- I ---
IGM, GC, IA-1, A-2,I 0-20 145-75 120-50
SGM-GC, SM| A-4, A-61
I I I I | I




JOL, OH A-8 1-3 ..
I I I I I I











PT A-8 0 --- ---


IPT IA-8 0


SPT IA-8 0 --- ---



GP, GP-GM A-l-a 5-35 110-35 110-30
ML IA-4 I --- 100 1 00







OH A-5 0-2 98-100 95-100
I I I I I I
I --- --- --- .--- --- I


























IOH IA-5 0-2 98-100190-100









OH A-5 1 0-2 98-100 95-100


IGM, GC, IA-l-b, 1 5-25 160-90 50-75
GM-GC, SMI A-2-4,I I I I
I I A-4I I I
I I I I I I.












i --- i --- i --- I --- ---








I --- I--- I--- I--- I







| --- I --- I--- I--- I--





I I I I I


See footnote at end of table.


f


40


--- I
18-45




--- I

---I






--- I










10-25
---I)


















90-100
--- I
|- I























90-100
I

--- |



























90-1001


30-60
I
--- 1

--- |


g I


200



--- 1
16-40




--- I

--- I


















2-12

85-95







85-99
--- I



















85-99
--- I
--- I






--- I


--- I















85-99


20-50
--- |




--- 1


I
Liquid Plas-
limit Iticit3
index
Pet

I- ---
10-26 NP-16

























-- NP

<35 NP-5







<60 NP-
---I-












<60 NP-










<60 NP-


12-24 NP-10
--- 1---


--- | ---

--- | ---


--- ---


-- ---



--- | ---





I-










Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


TABLE 8.--ENGINEERING INDEX PROPERTIES--Continued

I | Classification IFrag- I Percentage passing I I
Soil name and IDepthl USDA texture I I Iments I sieve number-- I Liquidl Plas-
map symbol I I Unified AASHTO I > 3 I I I limit ticity
|I I linchesl 4 I 10 40 | 200 I index
In I I Pct I I I I Pet
I I I I I I I I I I
15-------------I 0-161Marl----------- -OH IA-5 0-2 198-100195-1001 90-1001 85-99 <60 NP-5
Cudjoe 16 IWeathered bedrock -- --- --- --- --- --- 1 --- ---
I I I I I I I I I I I
16------------- 0-8 IFine sand--------ISP, SP-SM IA-3 0 195-100190-1001 80-90 | 2-7 I --- INP
Bahiahonda I8-681Sand, fine sand ISP, SP-SM IA-3 0 195-100190-1001 80-90 I 2-7 --- INP
168-821Gravelly sand, ISP, GP IA-l-b, 0 150-80 130-60 | 30-60 | 2-4 I --- INP
I very gravelly I IA-2-4, I I I
I sand. I I A-3 I I I
S82 IWeathered bedrock --- I --- I --- | I --- --- --

17-------------I 0-9 IMarl-------------OH B A-5 0-2 198-100190-1001 90-1001 85-99 <60 I NP-5
Keywest 9-151Muck------------- IPT (A-8 --- --- I --- I --- --- I --- --
115-271Mucky marl-------IOL IA-4 0 198-100195-1001 90-1001 85-99 --- I NP
127-651Marl------------- JOH A-5 0-2 198-100190-1001 90-100) 85-99 <60 I NP-5
65 IWeathered bedrock --- --- --- I --- --- I --- --- ---
I I I I I I I I I I I
18*------------I 0-6 ISand------------ISP IA-1, A-3 0 I 100 175-1001 5-85 I 0-5 1 --- NP
Beaches I6-60ICoarse sand, ISP IA-1, A-3 0 I 100 175-1001 5-85 I 0-5 -- NP
I sand, fine sand. I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I
19------------- 0-17 Marl------------- oH IA-5 0-2 198-100190-1001 90-1001 85-99 <60 I NP-5
Saddlebunch 17 IWeathered bedrock --- I --- --- --- --- I --- --- --- ---
I I I I I I I I I I I

See description of the map unit for composition and behavior characteristics of the map unit.










Soil Survey


TABLE 9.--PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOILS

(The symbol < means less than; > means more than. Entries under "Erosion factors--T" apply to the entire
profile. Entries under "Organic matter" apply only to the surface layer. Absence of an entry
indicates that data were not available or were not estimated)


I I I I I I I
Soil name and IDepthlClay Moist I Permea- IAvailablel Soil ISa
map symbol I I bulk I ability I water Ireactionl
I I density I Icapacity I I
| In | Pet g/cc In/hr In/in pH Im
I I I I I I II


2---------------
Pennekamp


3----------------
Matecumbe

4*:
Rock outcrop----

Tavernier-------


5----------------
Islamorada

6----------------
Keylargo

7*:
Udorthents------I


Urban land------

8*:
Rock outcrop----

Cudjoe---------- I


9-----------------I
Lignumvitae

11*--------------
Urban land

12*:
Rock outcrop----l

Cudjoe----------


13---------------
Keyvaca


0-3 I --- 10.40-0.601 2.0-6.0 10.15-0.20


5-1011.35-1.551
--- --- I

2-7 10.30-0.601


--- 0.20-0.30
I I




--- 0.20-0.30

-- 0.20-0.30
--- 10.20-0.301
--- | --- I
I I
--- 10.20-0.301
--- -


I- --- I
I I


2.0-6.0 10.07-0.16
2.0-20.01 ---


3-8
8

0-6
6


0-601

0-8
8

0-351
35

0-701
70
I


I I I
0-321 1-5 11.35-1.501
32-601 5-2510.90-1.201

0-6 ---


0-601 --- ---
I I I
0-16111-2810.90-1.20
16 --- ---
I I I
0-32111-2810.90-1.201
32 I ---

0-6 --.



0-601 --. ..
016 --- I ---
I I I
0-16111-2810.90-1.201
16 I --- I --- |

0-4 1 3-8 11.40-1.60
4 1 --- I --- I


I I I I
15------------ 0-16111-2810.90-1.201
Cudjoe 1 16 --- I

16-------------- 0-8 1-5 11.40-1.601
Bahiahonda 8-681 1-5 11.50-1.70|
168-821 1-3 11.40-1.601
S82 I --- --


See footnote at end of table.


|5.6-6.5
17.4-8.4
1 ---


6.0-20.0 0.16-0.2015.6-7.3
2.0-20.01 --- --
I I
I I
-- --- |I --

6.0-20 10.20-0.2516.1-7.8
2.0-20.01 --- I
I I
6.0-20.010.20-0.2516.1-7.8
2.0-20.01 -- --
I I
6.0-20 10.20-0.2516.1-7.8
2.0-20.01 -- --
I I
I I
6.0-20 10.01-0.0317.4-8.4
0.6-6.0 10.15-0.2016.6-8.4






0.6-6.0 10.15-0.2016.6-8.4
2.0-20.01 --- --
I I






0.6-6.0 10.15-0.20 6.6-8.4
2.0-20.01 -- --








0.6-6.0 10.15-0.2016.6-8.4
2.0-20.01 --- I
I I













2.0-6.0 10.05-0.12 7.4-8.4
2.0-20.01 -- --
0.6-6.0 10.15-0.2016.6-8.4
2.0-20.01 --- I
I I
















6.0-20 10.04-0.086.6-7.8
6.0-20 10.04-0.0816.6-7.8
I- --- I --












>20 10.02-0.0517.4-8.4
2.0-20.01 --- I
I I




I I


I I Erosionl
ilinityl Shrink- I factorslOrganic
I swell I I I matter
Potential I K I T
hos/cml I I Pet
I I I I
2-4 Low------- ---- --1 40-70
2-4 Low------- 10.101
----------I---

4-8 ILow------l---- --1 80-90
-- ---------- ----


<2 1----------I-------I ---
I I I I
>16 ILow------- I--- ---1 70-85
-------------- I

>16 ILow------- ----l---1 75-90
-- ---------- ---

>16 ILow------- ------- 175-90
----------1---


2-4 Low------- 10.021 5 1-2
4-8 ILow-------10.321 1

<2 -----------------I ---
I I o.
I I I I
<2 -------------
I I I I
>16 ILow------- 10.321 1 1-5
----------1----
I I I I
>16 ILow-------10.321 2 1 1-5
---------- ----
I I I I
<2 -------------



<2 I----------I----I---I ---
I I I I
>16 ILow-------10.321 1 1 1-5
I--------------I I

2-4 ILow------- 10.051 1 2-6
I- --------------I I

>16 ILow-------10.321 1 1-5
I------------- I
I I I
4-8 ILow-------10.051 5 1-3
4-8 ILow------- 10.051 I
4-8 ILow-------10.021 1
--- I--------------I I
I I I I










Monroe County, Keys Area, Florida


TABLE 9.--PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOILS--Continued

I I I I I I I I Erosion
Soil name and IDepthlClay I Moist I Permea- jAvailablel Soil ISalinityj Shrink- factors|Organic
map symbol I bulk I ability | water Ireaction |I swell I I matter
S I density I Icapacity I I (potential IK I T
I In I Pct g/cc In/hr I In/in pH nmmhos/cm I I Pct
I I I I I I I I I I
17--------------- 0-9 111-2810.90-1.201 0.6-6.0 10.15-0.2016.6-8.4 >16 ILow-------10.321 4 1-5
Keywest I 9-151 0-2 10.10-0.401 6.0-20 |0.20-0.2516.1-7.8 >16 ILow-------10.051
115-271 7-1710.70-1.001 2.0-6.0 10.20-0.2516.6-8.4 >16 ILow-------10.281
127-65111-2810.90-1.201 0.6-6.0 10.15-0.2016.6-8.4 >16 ILow-------10.32)
65 l --- I --- 2.0-20.01 --- I --- --- I----------[---I I
I I I I I I I I I I I
18*--------------1 0-6 I 0-1 11.35-1.851 >6.0 10.03-0.0515.1-7.8 >4 ILow-------10.051 5 <.1
Beaches 6-601 0-1 11.35-1.851 >6.0 10.03-0.0515.1-7.8 >4 (Low-------10.051
I I I I I I I I I I I
19--------------- 0-17111-2810.90-1.201 0.6-6.0 10.15-0.2016.6-8.4 8-16 (Low-------10.321 1 1-5
Saddlebunch 17 --- I --- | 2.0-20.01 --- I --- I --- I--------------I I
I I I I I I I I I I I

See description of the map unit for composition and behavior characteristics of the map unit.






TABLE 10.--SOIL AND WATER FEATURES

("Flooding" and "water table" and terms such as "rare," "brief," and "apparent" are explained in the text. The symbol < means
less than; > means more than. Absence of an entry indicates that the feature is not a concern or that data were not
estimated)


Soil name and I Byd
map symbol I l
I gr


2-----------------
Pennekamp

3-----------------
Matecumbe

4*:
Rock outcrop-----

Tavernier--------

5-----------------
Islamorada

6----------------
Keylargo

7*:
Udorthents-------.

Urban land-------

8*:
Rock outcrop-----

Cudjoe-----------

9-----------------
Lignumvitae

11*---------------
Urban land

12*:
Rock outcrop-----

Cudjoe-----------

13----------------
Keyvaca

15---------------
Cudjoe


I Flooding
Lro- I
gic I Frequency IDuration
:oup



I I
D Rare-------- --




I I
I I
D |Occasional Brief---..



D IFrequent---- --
I I
D IFrequent---- Very long
I I
D [Frequent----IVery long
I I

D IFrequent---- Very long
I I


B IRare------- --
I I
D IFrequent-----I
I I
I I
D I Frequent---- Long---
I I





D IRare------- --
I I

I I





D IFrequent---- ---
I I






D I Frequent----L Bief-----
I I


D IFrequent---- ---
I I
D [ Frequent ---- I Brief -----
I 1
D IRare -------- I ---
I I
I I
D IFrequent---- Long---
I I
I I


I High water table I Bedrock | Subsidencel Risk of corrosion
I I I I I I I I I I
IMonths I Depth I Kind IMonths IDepthlHard- IIni- ITotallUncoated |Concrete
I I I I I I ness I tiall I steel I
I I Ft I I I I I I

S--- 13.5-5.OlApparentlJun-Novi 4-161Soft 1-4 3-8 IModerate |Moderate.
I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I
IJul-Decll.5-3.01ApparentlJul-DecI 2-9 ISoft 1-3 5-9 IModerate ILow.
I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I
S--- >6.0 | --- I --- 0 IHard --- --- ---
I I I I I I I I I I
IJan-Decl 0 lApparent Jan-DecI 3-20ISoft 1-7 2-14|High----- High.
I I I I I I I I I I
IJan-Dec 0 IApparentlJan-Decl20-501Soft I7-17113-33IHigh----- High.
I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I
IJan-Decl 0 lApparent Jan-Decl50-901Soft 117-30133-601High----- High.
I I I I I I I I I I



I I I I I I I I I I

I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I


Jan-Dec- 0-0.5lApparentlJan-Decl 3-20|Soft --- --- Heigh---r Low.
I I I I I I I I I I
IJan-Decl 0-0.5lApparentlJan-Decl2O-40 Soft I --- I --- lHigh-----Low.
I I II 1 I I I I
I I I I I I
I --- 1>2.0 1--- I--- >10 1 --- I --- I ---



S--- >6.0 1 --- -- 0 IHard --- --- I --
I I I 1 I I I I I I
IJan-Decl 0-0.5lApparentlJan-Deci 3-20|Soft I --- I --- High----- Low.
I I I I I I I I I I
I --- 13.0-5.OlApparent Jun-Novi 3-6 |Soft I --- I --- IModerate IModerate.
I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I
IJan-Decl 0-0.5lApparentiJan-Deci 3-20ISoft I --- I --- lHigh----- ILow.
I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I


See footnote at end of table.







TABLE 10.--SOIL AND WATER FEATURES--Continued

I I Flooding I High water table I Bedrock I Subsidencel Risk of corrosion
Soil name and Hydro- | I I I I I I I I
map symbol logic | Frequency I Duration IMonths I Depth I Kind IMonths lDepthlHard- lIni- ITotallUncoated IConcrete
Group I I I I I I ness I tiall I steel I
I I I Ft I I I In I In In
I I I I 1 I I I
16---------------- B (Rare------ --- --- 12.5-3.51Apparent Jun-Nov 60-901Soft -- --- IModerate |Low.
Bahiahonda |I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I
17---------------- D IFrequent---- Long------ Jan-Decl 0-0.51Apparent lJan-Dec 40-90 Soft I --- I --- IHigh-----(Low.
Keywest I I 1
I I I I I I I I I I
18*---------------I D IFrequent---- Long------ Jan-Dec 0-6.01Apparent Jan-Decl >60 1 --- I --- I --- lHigh----- High.
Beaches | I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I
19---------------- I D Occasional ILong------ Jun-Nov 0.5-1.01Apparent Jun-Novl 4-20 Soft I --- I --- lHigh-----ILow.
Saddlebunch I I I I

See description of the map unit for composition and behavior characteristics of the map unit.
See description of the map unit for composition and behavior characteristics of the map unit.
















TABLE 11.--CLASSIFICATION OF THE SOILS


Soil name Family or higher taxonomic class




Bahiahonda---------------- Isohyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments
Cudjoe--------------------I Loamy, carbonatic, isohyperthermic, shallow Tropic Fluvaquents
Islamorada---------------- Euic, isohyperthermic Lithic Troposaprists
Keylargo------------------ Euic, isohyperthermic Typic Troposaprists
Keyvaca------------------- Loamy-skeletal, carbonatic, isohyperthermic Lithic Rendolls
Keywest------------------- Coarse-silty, carbonatic, isohyperthermic Thapto-Histic Tropic Fluvaquents
Lignumvitae--------------- Coarse-silty, carbonatic, isohyperthermic Tropic Fluvaquents
Matecumbe----------------- Euic, isohyperthermic Lithic Tropofolists
Pennekamp----------------- Loamy-skeletal, carbonatic, isohyperthermic Lithic Rendolls
Saddlebunch--------------- Loamy, carbonatic, isohyperthermic, shallow Tropic Fluvaquents
Tavernier-----------------I Euic, isohyperthermic, shallow Lithic Troposaprists
Udorthents---------------- Udorthents


* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1995-386-441/20005/SCS






























































INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
MONROE COUNTY, KEYS AREA, FLORIDA
Scale 1:316,800
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Mi
I,, I I I I I
1 0 5 10 Km
Irl I I I I I I I I I I


CO LGUVTE4 SR1


1 l19
of HOW EY se sheet 7
or.A o 4- ,.
nset, sheet3NET KEYLORIDA8ALao
outI LITTLE PINE KEY

940 8o020' /"set h
sseets
\E~O~ 16Iq1 81.00,
O GE > CUrtDJ KEY o010
xv'et L g Sugarloaf eS e 10, M marathon
7 9' XVV aerland nish 5DOoT KEY e each
939 Key RAMROD KEY rborN
A Choanee
63 SUAROA ",AAC
K ey W e 's t TOCK KEY ex",G=~ $3 L O ID

ASLTwnF LO RID A
OF
STRAITS












UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE


MONROE COUNTY, KEYS AREA, FLORIDA


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER SERVICES


SOIL LEGEND


Map unit names without a slope range have 0 to 1 percent slopes. If the map
unit name includes tidal, the unit is frequently flooded by tides. If the map unit
name does not include a reference to flooding, it is rarely flooded. Beaches are
subject to shallow flooding by tides or to deep flooding from hurricanes and other
tropical storms.


SYMBOL



2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
11
12
13
15
16
17
18
19


NAME


Pennekamp gravelly muck, 0 to 2 percent slopes, extremely stony
Matecumbe muck, occasionally flooded
Rock outcrop, Tavemier complex, tidal
Islamorada muck, tidal
Keylargo muck, tidal
Udorthents-Urban land complex
Rock outcrop-Cudjoe complex, tidal
Ugnumvitae marl, tidal
Urban land
Rock outcrop-Cudjoe complex, frequently flooded
Keyvaca very gravelly loam, extremely stony
Cudjoe mar, tidal
Bahiahonda fine sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes
Keywest marl, tidal
Beaches
Saddlebunch mart, occasionally flooded


CONVENTIONAL AND SPECIAL

SYMBOLS LEGEND


BOUNDARIES

National, state, or province

County or parish

Minor civil division

Reservation (national forest or park, state
forest or park, and large airport)

Land grant
Limit of soil survey (label)

Field sheet matchline and neatline

AD HOC BOUNDARY (label)

Small airport, airfield, park, oilfield,
cemetery, or flood pool

STATE COORDINATE TICK
1 890 000 FEET
LAND DIVISION CORNER
(sections and land grants)

ROADS

Divided (median shown if scale permits)

Other roads

Trail

ROAD EMBLEM & DESIGNATIONS


Interstate

Federal

State

County

RAILROAD

POWER TRANSMISSION LINE
(normally not shown)

PIPE LINE (normally not shown)

FENCE (normally not shown)

LEVEES

Without road

With road

With railroad

DAMS

Large (to scale)

Medium or Small
(Named where applicable)
PITS

Gravel pit

Mine or quarry


CULTURAL FEATURES

MISCELLANEOUS CULTURAL FEATURES

S- Farmstead, house (omit in urban area)
(occupied)
Church


School

Indian mound (label)

- Located object (label)

Tank (label)

Wells, oil or gas

Windmill

Kitchen midden


L -L + +


Tower


0
Ga






ri


WATER FEATURES


DRAINAGE

Perennial, double line

Perennial, single line

Intermittent

Drainage end

Canals or ditches

SDouble-line (label)

) Drainage and/or irrigation

S LAKES, PONDS AND RESERVOIRS

-i Perennial

Intermittent

MISCELLANEOUS WATER FEATURES
P-
Marsh or swamp

Spring

Well, artesian

Well, irrigation

Wet spot


I'


SPECIAL SYMBOLS FOR
SOIL SURVEY

SOIL DELINEATIONS AND SYMBOLS 2 1

ESCARPMENTS

Bedrock (points down slope) v v v v v v v

Other than bedrock (points down slope) '" v 7 v v v

SHORT STEEP SLOPE ..........

GULLY v\A

DEPRESSION OR SINK

SOIL SAMPLE (normally not shown) (

MISCELLANEOUS

Blowout

Clay spot X.

Gravelly spot o

Gumbo, slick or scabby spot (sodic) 0

Dumps and other similar non soil areas

Prominent hill or peak 0

Rock outcrop (indudes sandstone V
and shale)

Saline spot +

Sandy spot .

Severely eroded spot

Slide or slip (tips point upslope) )

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