• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Errata
 Table of Contents
 How this soil survey was made
 General soil map
 Descriptions of the soils
 Use and management of the...
 Formation and classification of...
 General nature of the area
 Literature cited
 Glossary
 Guide to mapping units
 Index to map sheets
 Map
 General soil map






Title: Soil survey of Lake County area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025711/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Lake County area, Florida
Physical Description: i, 83 p., 41 fold. leaves of plates : ill., maps (1 fold. col. in pocket) ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Furman, Albert L., 1920-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: [1975]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Lake County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Lake County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 81-82.
Statement of Responsibility: by Albert L. Furman ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations."
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025711
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001619843
oclc - 01583535
notis - AHP4400
lccn - 75602000 //r882

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Errata
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
        Unnumbered ( 4 )
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    How this soil survey was made
        Page 1
    General soil map
        Page 2
        Pomello-Paola association
            Page 2
        Myakka-Paola-Tavares association
            Page 3
        Astatula-Apopka association
            Page 4
        Tavares-Myakka association
            Page 4
        Myakka-Placid-Swamp association
            Page 5
        Anclote-Iberia-Emeralda association
            Page 5
        Swamp association
            Page 6
    Descriptions of the soils
        Page 6
        Albany series
            Page 7
        Anclote series
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Apopka series
            Page 10
        Astatula series
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Brighton series
            Page 12
        Cassia series
            Page 12
        Emeralda series
            Page 13
        Eureka series
            Page 14
        Felda series
            Page 15
        Fellowship series
            Page 16
        Fill land, loamy materials
            Page 17
        Iberia series
            Page 17
        Immokalee series
            Page 18
        Lake series
            Page 19
        Lucy series
            Page 20
        Manatee series
            Page 21
        Montverde series
            Page 22
        Myakka series
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Ocilla series
            Page 25
        Ocoee series
            Page 26
        Oklawaha series
            Page 26
        Ona series
            Page 27
        Orlando series
            Page 28
        Paola series
            Page 29
        Pelham series
            Page 29
        Placid series
            Page 30
            Page 31
        Pomello series
            Page 32
        Pompano series
            Page 33
        St. Lucie series
            Page 34
        Swamp series
            Page 34
        Tavares series
            Page 34
        Tavares series, white subsurface variant
            Page 35
        Vaucluse series
            Page 36
        Wabasso series
            Page 36
        Wauchula series
            Page 37
            Page 38
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 39
        Cultivated crops and pasture
            Page 39
            Capability grouping
                Page 39
            Estimated yields
                Page 40
        Range and woodland grazing
            Page 41
            Range sites and condition classes
                Page 41
            Range management
                Page 41
                Page 42
                Page 43
        Woodland
            Page 44
            Woodland grouping
                Page 45
        Wildlife
            Page 46
        Town and country planning
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Use of the soils in engineering
            Page 58
            Engineering classification systems
                Page 59
                Page 60
                Page 61
                Page 62
                Page 63
                Page 64
                Page 65
                Page 66
                Page 67
                Page 68
                Page 69
                Page 70
                Page 71
            Engineering test data
                Page 72
            Estimated properties significant in engineering
                Page 72
            Engineering interpretations
                Page 73
    Formation and classification of the soils
        Page 74
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 74
            Parent material
                Page 74
            Climate
                Page 74
            Living organisms
                Page 75
            Relief
                Page 75
            Time
                Page 75
        Process of horizon formation
            Page 75
        Classification of the soils
            Page 76
    General nature of the area
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Farming
            Page 79
        Climate
            Page 79
        Geology
            Page 80
    Literature cited
        Page 81
    Glossary
        Page 82
        Page 83
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Index to map sheets
        Page 86
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    General soil map
        Page 77
Full Text


SOIL SURVEY OF

Lake County Area, Florida
























OUnited States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida
Agricultural Experiment Stations










Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in the period 1965-69. Soil names
and descriptions were approved in 1969. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in the
publication refer to conditions in the county in 1969. This survey was made cooperatively
by the Soil Conservation Service and the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Lake Soil and Water
Conservation District.
Either enlarged or reduced copies of the soil map in this publication can be made by
commercial photographers, or they can be purchased on individual order from the
Cartographic Division, Soil Conservation Service, United States Department of Agricul.
ture, Washington, D.C. 20250.


HOW TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY
THIS SOIL SURVEY contains infor- have the same limitation or suitability.
motion that can be applied in manag- For example, soils that have a slight limi-
ing farms and woodlands; in selecting station for a given use can be colored green,
sites for roads, ponds, buildings, and other those with a moderate limitation can be
structures; and in judging the suitability colored yellow, and those with a severe
of tracts of land for farming, industry, limitation can be colored red.
and recreation. Farmers and those who work with
farmers can learn about use and manage-
Loc n Soils ment of the soils from the soil descriptions.
Locating oils Foresters and others can refer to the
All the soils of the Lake County Area section "Woodland," where the soils of the
are shown on the detailed map at the back county are grouped according to their
of this publication. This map consists of suitability for trees.
many sheets made from aerial photo- Game managers, sportsmen, and others
graphs. Each sheet is numbered to corre- can find information about soils and wild-
spond with a number on the Index to Map life in the section "Wildlife."
Sheets. Ranchers and others can find, under
On each sheet of the detailed map, soil "Range and Woodland Grazing," group-
areas are outlined and are identified by wings of the soils according to their suit-
symbols. All areas marked with the same ability for range, and also the names of
symbol are the same kind of soil. The soil many of the plants that grow on each
symbol is inside the area if there is enough range site.
room; otherwise it is outside and a pointers sl a can
shows where he e symbol belongs. read about soil properties that affect the
shows where the symbol belongschoice of sites for nonindustrial buildings
and for recreation areas in the section
Finding and Using Information "Town and Country Planning."
Engineers and builders can find under
The "Guide to Mapping Units" can be "Use of the Soils in Engineering" tables
used to find information. This guide lists that contain test data, estimates of soil
all the soils of the area in alphabetic order properties, and information about soil
by map symbol and gives the capability features that affect engineering practices.
unit, range site, and woodland group of Scientists and others can read about
each. It also shows the page where each how the soils formed and how they are
soil is described, classified in the section "Formation and
Individual colored maps showing the Classification of the Soils."
relative suitability or degree of limitation Newcomers to the Lake County Area
of soils for many specific purposes can be may be especially interested in the section
developed by using the soil map and the "General Soil Map," where broad patterns
information in the text. Translucent ma- of soils are described. They may also be
trial can be used as an overlay over the interested in the information in the section
soil map and colored to show soils that "General Nature of the Area."

Cover: Lake Minnehaha, a natural lake lined with cypress
and typical of many lakes in the ridge section of the Lake
County Area, provides excellent fishing and boating.








ERRATA



Lake County Published Soil Survey




Map symbols are missing from several soil delineations. The map
sheet numbers and the approximate location of the missing symbols
are identified below. The appropriate symbols are also noted.


Map sheet number Location Appropriate symbol

20 Nft sec. 33 Mk
38 SWk sec. 18 On
40 NE% sec. 1 Mk
45 NW' sec. 7 Two symbols in same
delineation; delete PmA
50 NE sec. 23 Mk
SEL sec. 26 PmA

Map symbol S.M. appears on several sheets. The unit
name is "Marsh"; a description of the unit follows.



MARSH
Marsh (S.M.) consists of nearly level, very poorly drained
mineral and organic soils that have not been classified because
excess water makes detailed investigation impractical. Marsh
occurs as broad drainageways, as broad, poorly defined streams,
as large depressions having no outlets, and as large shallow grassy
ponds. The soils are flooded all the year in most years except
briefly during prolonged periods of little rainfall, usually in
late winter and early spring. Some places adjacent to the larger
lakes such as Lake Yale, Lake Griffin, Little Lake Harris and in
the Mascotte area are always covered with water.

Included in mapping are a few small islands of higher lying
soils. These inclusions make up no more than 4 percent of any
mapped area.

Marsh has a dense cover of wetland grasses. Establishing ade-
quate water control to prepare this soil for cultivated crops or
pasture would require extreme engineering measures and is considered
not feasible. Marsh provides food for cattle and shelter, food, and
resting places for wildlife and waterfowl; it is a good habitat for
waterfowl. The vegetation is maidencane, sawgrass and other wetland
plants like pickerelweed and lilies. Marsh is not assigned to a










woodland group since woodland production is not feasible due to
excessive wetness and flooding.

Marsh has very severe limitations for all the uses discussed
in the section "Town and Country Planning" and detailed in Table 6,
page 48. The limitations are flooding and high water table. In
many places, outlets are not available for removal of excess water.
(Capability unit VIIw-2, marsh range sites, no woodland classifica-
tion)












Contents
Page Page
How this survey was made 1----------- Descriptions of the soil-Continued
General soil map -------------------- 2 St. Lucie series -------------------- 34
1. Pomello-Paola association ------- 2 Swamp --------------------------- 34
2. Myakka-Paola-Tavares associa- Tavares series ------------ --------34
tion ..... ------------------- 3 Tavares series, white subsurface vari-
3. Astatula-Apopka association--.- 4 ant----------------------------- 35
4. Tavares-Myakka association- - 4 Vaucluse series -------------------- 36
5. Myakka-Placid-Swamp associa- Wabasso series-------------------- 36
tion .....---------------------- 5 Wauchula series ---------------. 37
6. Anclote-Iberia-Emeralda associa- Use and management of the soils ------ 39
tion ------------------------ 5 Cultivated crops and pasture -------- 39
7. Montverde-Ocoee-Brighton asso- Capability grouping -------------- 39
ciation--------------------- 5 Estimated yields----------------- 40
8. Swamp association ------------ 6 Range and woodland grazing-------- 41
Descriptions of the soils -------------- 6 Range sites and condition classes -- 41
Albany series---------------------- 7 Range management-------------- 41
Anclote series--------------------- 8 Woodland ----------------------- 44
Apopka series--------------------- 10 Woodland grouping -------------- 45
Astatula series -------------------- 10 Wildlife--------------------------- 46
Brighton series -------------------- 12 Town and country planning --------- 47
Cassia series ---------------------- 12 Use of the soils in engineering------- 58
Emeralda series ------------------- 13 Engineering classification systems.. 59
Eureka series --------------------- 14 Engineering test data-- ----------- 72
Felda series --------------------- 15 Estimated properties significant in
Fellowship series ------------------- 16 engineering ------------------.... 72
Fill land, loamy materials ---------- 17 Engineering interpretations .------- 73
Iberia series -------------------- 17 Formation and classification of the soils- 74
Immokalee series------------ 18 Factors of soil formation -----------.....74
Lake series----------------------- 19 Parent material------------------ 74
Lucy series-----------------------20 Climate ----------------------- 74
Manatee series-------------------- 21 Living organisms---------------- 75
Montverde series ...---------------- 22 Relief---------------------- 75
Myakka series------------------- 22 Time------------------------- 75
Ocilla series-------------------- 25 Processes of horizon formation- ------- 75
Ocoee series ---------- 26 Classification of the soils -------.----- 76
Oklawaha series------------------- 26 General nature of the Area------------ 77
Ona series---- ----------------- -- 27 -- -
Orlando series -------------------- 28 Farming ---------------- 79
Paolaseries-------------------- 29 Climate -----------.-------------- 79
Pelham series-------------------- 29 Geology------------------------- 80
Placid series---------------------- 30 Literature cited--- ----------------- 81
Pomello series-------------------- 32 Glossary -------------------------- 82
Pompano series-------------------- 33 Guide to mapping units----.... Following 83











Issued April 1975
i














SOIL SURVEY OF LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA

BY ALBERT L. FURMAN, HORACE 0. WHITE, ORLANDO E. CRUZ, WALTER E. RUSSELL, AND BUSTER P. THOMAS,
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE, IN COOPERATION WITH THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS



LAKE COUNTY, one of the largest counties in the tion on climate see the section "General Nature of the
State, is in the central part of Florida. It is bordered Area." Lake County has a total land area of 996 square
by Marion County on the north, Volusia County on the miles, or 637,440 acres. The survey area, which includes
north and east, Orange and Seminole Counties on the all of Lake County south of Florida Highway 42, has a
east, Sumter County on the west, and Polk County on total land area of about 857.6 square miles, or 548,964
the south. Tavares, the county seat, is in the north-central acres, and about 90,569 acres of lakes that are more than
part of the county at the south end of Lake Eustis and the 40 acres in size. Citrus is the county's main source of in-
extreme northwest end of Lake Dora. The distances from come and principal farm industry. Allied industries, such
Tavares to other cities in Florida are shown in figure 1. as citrus processing plants, are also important sources of
The Ocala National Forest in the northeastern part of income.
Lake County was not included in the area surveyed. Another important farm enterprise is truck cropping.
Corn, cabbage, carrots, celery, and lettuce are produced
in large quantities. Other farm industries are nurseries,
landscaping, sod production, and cut flowers and bulb
production. Cattle raising and dairying are also significant.
S TALLAASSEE JACKSONVILLE Lake County has many large lakes such as Lake Dorr,
Lake Harris, Lake Yale, Lake Griffin, Lake Eustis, Lake
S \ GAIN VILLE Dora, Lake Minneola, Little Lake Harris, Lake Minne-
a haha, and Lake Louisa. The St. Johns River borders the
0 County on the north and east.


How This Survey Was Made
TM A J Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
soil are in the Lake County Area, where they are located,
and how they can be used. The soil scientists went into
the county knowing they likely would find many soils
they had already seen and perhaps some they had not.
They observed the steepness, length, and shape of slopes,
the size and speed of streams, the kinds of native plants
'- or crops, and many facts about the soils. They dug many
MIAMI holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the sequence of
e natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it extends from the
surface down into the parent material that has not been
.. changed much by leaching or by the action of plant roots.
S,* **" The soil scientists made comparisons among the profiles
they studied, and they compared these profiles with those
Figure 1.--Location of the Lake County Area in Florida. in counties nearby and in places more distant. They clas-
sified and named the soils according to nationwide, uni-
The elevation above sea level is 63 to 75 feet at Tavares. form procedures. The soil series and the soil phase are
The highest point in the county is locally known as Sugar the categories of soil classification most used in a local
Loaf Mountain. It is approximately 315 feet above sea survey.
level. Average rainfall in the Lake County Area is about Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil
51 inches. The period of heaviest rainfall is June through series. Except for different texture in the surface layer,
September. The average temperature is approximately all the soils of one series have major horizons that are
500 F. in January and 910 in August. For more informa- similar in thickness, arrangement, and other important
1







2 SOIL SURVEY

characteristics. Each soil series is named for a town or On the basis of yield and practice tables and other data,
other geographic feature near the place where a soil of the soil scientists set up trial groups. They test these groups
that series was first observed and mapped. Astatula and by further study and by consultation with farmers, agron-
Orlando, for example, are the names of two soil series. omists, engineers, and others, then adjust the groups ac-
All the soils in the United States having the, same series cording to the results of their studies and consultation.
name are essentially alike in those characteristics that Thus, the groups that are finally evolved reflect up-to-date
affect their behavior in the undisturbed landscape. knowledge of the soils and their behavior under present
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface soil methods of use and management.
and in slope, stoniness, or some other characteristic that
affects use of the soils by man. On the basis of such differ-
ences, a soil series is divided into phases. The name of a soil General Soil Map
phase indicates a feature that affects management. For
example, Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is one of The general soil map at the back of this survey shows,
four phases within the Astatula series, in color, the soil associations in the Lake County Area. A
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils had soil association is a landscape that has a distinctive pro-
been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of portional pattern of soils. It normally consists of one or
the individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo- more major soils and at least one minor soil, and it is
graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, trees, and named for the major soils. The soils in one association may
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. occur in another, but in a different pattern.
The soil map in the back of this publication was prepared A map showing soil associations is useful to people who
from the aerial photographs. want a general idea of the soils in a survey area, who'want
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping to compare different parts of a survey area, or who want to
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in plan- to know the location of large tracts that are suitable for a
ning the management of farms and fields, a mapping unit certain kind of land use. Such a map is a useful general
is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not exactly equiva- guide in managing a watershed, a wooded tract, or a wild-
lent, because it is not practical to show on such a map life area, or in planning engineering works, recreational
all the small, scattered bits of soil of some other kind that facilities, and community developments. It is not a suita-
have been seen within an area that is dominantly of a ble map for planning the management of a farm or field,
recognized soil phase. or for selecting the exact location of a road, building, or
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different similar structure, because the soils in any one association
phases within one series. One such kind of mapping unit ordinarily differ in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, and
is shown on the soil map of the Lake County Area: an other characteristics that affect their management.
undifferentiated group. The eight soil associations in the Lake County Area are
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more described in the following pages. Table 1 shows the degree
soils that could be delineated individually but are shown of limitations and the chief limiting properties of the
as one unit because, for the purpose of the soil survey, soils, by soil association, for building construction, land-
there is little value in separating them. The pattern and scaping, sanitation, transportation, and recreation. For ad-
proportion of soils are not uniform. An area shown on the ditional information, see the section "Town and Country
map may be made up of only one of the dominant soils, Planning."
or of two or more. The name of an undifferentiated group
consists of the names of the dominant soils, joined by
"and." Anclote and Myakka soils is an example. 1. Pomello-Paola Association
In most areas surveyed there are places where the soil Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained and ex-
material is so shallow, so severely eroded, or so disturbed cessively drained, sandy soils on low ridges interspersed
that it cannot be classified by soil series. These places are with lakes and shallow depressions
shown on the soil map and are described in- the survey,
but they are called land types and are given descriptive Nearly level to sloping, drought, low sandy ridges in-
names. Fill land, loamy materials, is a land type in the terspersed with many lakes and small grassy ponds char-
Lake County Area. acterize this association. There are a few streams, but most
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are surface drainage is through the very porous soil.
taken, as needed, for laboratory measurements and for This association makes up about 4 percent of the Lake
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds County Area. About 40 percent is Pomello soils and 28
of soil in other places are assembled. Data on yields of percent is Paola soils. The rest consists of minor soils,
crops under defined practices are assembled from farm small lakes, and shallow ponds.
records and from field or plot experiments on the same Pomello soils are moderately well drained. They have
kinds of soil. Yields under defined management are esti- a surface layer of gray sand about 3 inches thick. Leached
mated for all the soils, white sand about 36 inches thick underlies the surface
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils layer. Below this and extending to a depth of 55 inches
have been named, described, land delineated on the map, is dark reddish-brown sand that is weakly cemented and
and the laboratory data and yield data have been assem- coated with organic matter. Below the cemented layer is
bled. The mass of detailed information then needs to be loose sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches. The water
organized in such a way as to be readily useful to different table is normally at a depth of about 40 to 60 inches, but
groups of users, among them farmers, managers of wood- it fluctuates between depths of 30 and 40 inches for about
land and rangeland, and engineers. 4 months during the year.







2 SOIL SURVEY

characteristics. Each soil series is named for a town or On the basis of yield and practice tables and other data,
other geographic feature near the place where a soil of the soil scientists set up trial groups. They test these groups
that series was first observed and mapped. Astatula and by further study and by consultation with farmers, agron-
Orlando, for example, are the names of two soil series. omists, engineers, and others, then adjust the groups ac-
All the soils in the United States having the, same series cording to the results of their studies and consultation.
name are essentially alike in those characteristics that Thus, the groups that are finally evolved reflect up-to-date
affect their behavior in the undisturbed landscape. knowledge of the soils and their behavior under present
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface soil methods of use and management.
and in slope, stoniness, or some other characteristic that
affects use of the soils by man. On the basis of such differ-
ences, a soil series is divided into phases. The name of a soil General Soil Map
phase indicates a feature that affects management. For
example, Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is one of The general soil map at the back of this survey shows,
four phases within the Astatula series, in color, the soil associations in the Lake County Area. A
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils had soil association is a landscape that has a distinctive pro-
been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of portional pattern of soils. It normally consists of one or
the individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo- more major soils and at least one minor soil, and it is
graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, trees, and named for the major soils. The soils in one association may
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. occur in another, but in a different pattern.
The soil map in the back of this publication was prepared A map showing soil associations is useful to people who
from the aerial photographs. want a general idea of the soils in a survey area, who'want
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping to compare different parts of a survey area, or who want to
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in plan- to know the location of large tracts that are suitable for a
ning the management of farms and fields, a mapping unit certain kind of land use. Such a map is a useful general
is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not exactly equiva- guide in managing a watershed, a wooded tract, or a wild-
lent, because it is not practical to show on such a map life area, or in planning engineering works, recreational
all the small, scattered bits of soil of some other kind that facilities, and community developments. It is not a suita-
have been seen within an area that is dominantly of a ble map for planning the management of a farm or field,
recognized soil phase. or for selecting the exact location of a road, building, or
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different similar structure, because the soils in any one association
phases within one series. One such kind of mapping unit ordinarily differ in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, and
is shown on the soil map of the Lake County Area: an other characteristics that affect their management.
undifferentiated group. The eight soil associations in the Lake County Area are
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more described in the following pages. Table 1 shows the degree
soils that could be delineated individually but are shown of limitations and the chief limiting properties of the
as one unit because, for the purpose of the soil survey, soils, by soil association, for building construction, land-
there is little value in separating them. The pattern and scaping, sanitation, transportation, and recreation. For ad-
proportion of soils are not uniform. An area shown on the ditional information, see the section "Town and Country
map may be made up of only one of the dominant soils, Planning."
or of two or more. The name of an undifferentiated group
consists of the names of the dominant soils, joined by
"and." Anclote and Myakka soils is an example. 1. Pomello-Paola Association
In most areas surveyed there are places where the soil Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained and ex-
material is so shallow, so severely eroded, or so disturbed cessively drained, sandy soils on low ridges interspersed
that it cannot be classified by soil series. These places are with lakes and shallow depressions
shown on the soil map and are described in- the survey,
but they are called land types and are given descriptive Nearly level to sloping, drought, low sandy ridges in-
names. Fill land, loamy materials, is a land type in the terspersed with many lakes and small grassy ponds char-
Lake County Area. acterize this association. There are a few streams, but most
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are surface drainage is through the very porous soil.
taken, as needed, for laboratory measurements and for This association makes up about 4 percent of the Lake
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds County Area. About 40 percent is Pomello soils and 28
of soil in other places are assembled. Data on yields of percent is Paola soils. The rest consists of minor soils,
crops under defined practices are assembled from farm small lakes, and shallow ponds.
records and from field or plot experiments on the same Pomello soils are moderately well drained. They have
kinds of soil. Yields under defined management are esti- a surface layer of gray sand about 3 inches thick. Leached
mated for all the soils, white sand about 36 inches thick underlies the surface
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils layer. Below this and extending to a depth of 55 inches
have been named, described, land delineated on the map, is dark reddish-brown sand that is weakly cemented and
and the laboratory data and yield data have been assem- coated with organic matter. Below the cemented layer is
bled. The mass of detailed information then needs to be loose sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches. The water
organized in such a way as to be readily useful to different table is normally at a depth of about 40 to 60 inches, but
groups of users, among them farmers, managers of wood- it fluctuates between depths of 30 and 40 inches for about
land and rangeland, and engineers. 4 months during the year.








LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

TABLE 1.-Summary of limitations by soil associations for selected nonfarm uses

Degree and kind of limitation for-
Soil association
Building Landscaping Sanitation Transportation Recreation
construction

Pomello-Paola Moderate: Moderate: very Moderate: Slight ------------- Severe: loose
association, seasonal high low available seasonal high sand.
water table, water capacity; water table.
very low natural
fertility.
Myakka-Paola- Severe: high water Moderate: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high
Tavares table, water table. table. table, water table;
association, loose sand.
Astatula-Apopka Slight -------------Moderate: very Slight -------------.. Slight -------------- Severe: loose
association, low available sand.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.
Tavares-Myakka Slight -------------- Moderate: very Severe: hazard of Slight -------------- Moderate: sand
association, low available contamination of texture.
water capacity; water supplies.
low natural
fertility.
Myakka-Placid- Severe: high Moderate: high Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high
Swamp association, water table, water table. water table, water table, water table.
Anclote-Iberia- Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high
Emeralda table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding; water table;
association. low traffic- flooding.
supporting
capacity.
Montverde-Ocoee- Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe:
Brighton water table; water table; water table; water table; high water
association. flooding; high flooding. flooding, flooding; high table; flooding.
potential potential sub-
subsidence. sidence; very low
traffic-supporting
capacity.
Swamp association ----.. Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe:
flooding; high flooding; high flooding; high flooding; high high water
water table, water table. water table. water table, table; flooding.


Paola soils are excessively drained. They have a surface and woodland. Also, under present conditions, the wet,
layer of gray sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface less extensive soils in this association are of little value
layer is white sand about 20 inches thick. Below this are for farming.
layers of brownish-yellow and light yellowish-brown sand
that extend to a depth of 90 inches. The water table is at 2. Myakka-Paola-Tavares Association
a depth of more than 90 inches.
Among the minor soils in this association are the poorly Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils interspersed with
drained to very poorly drained Myakka and Placid soils excessively drained to moderately well drained sandy soils
in depressions and low-lying areas and the excessively on low knolls
drained St. Lucie soils on knolls and ridges. Broad, nearly level, periodically wet areas and nearly
Only a small part of this association is used for farm- level to undulating, low sandy ridges and knolls char-
ing. In most areas the vegetation is sand pine, scrub oak, acterize this association. There are a few, narrow swamps.
turkey oak, palmetto rosemary, sparse shrubs, and native This association makes up about 1 percent of the sur-
grasses. Bay trees, other water-tolerant hardwoods, and vey area. Myakka soils are dominant and make up about
cypress grow in the depressions and around the lakes. 40 percent of the association. About 30 percent is Paola
Mainly water-tolerant grasses grow in the shallow ponds soils, 15 percent is Tavares soils, and the rest is minor
and marshes. Areas near small communities are being soils.
cleared and developed for housing and commercial uses. Myakka soils are poorly drained. They have a black sand
The Pomello and Paola soils are poorly suited to cul- surface layer about 6 inches thick. The next layer is
tivated crops and have only limited use for pasture, range, leached white sand about 14 inches thick. Below this is







4 SOIL SURVEY

a layer of sand about 16 inches thick that is black to dark They are in depressions and around some of the large
reddish brown and weakly cemented with organic matter. lakes. Other minor soils are the excessively drained and
It is underlain by dark-brown to dark grayish-brown well-drained Lake and Orlando soils that are intermixed
sand. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches with the dominant soils in the higher areas.
for about 6 months during the year. It sometimes rises to The Astatula and Apopka soils in this association are
the surface during wet seasons and drops to a depth below planted mainly to citrus. Soils not in citrus generally are
40 inches during dry periods. undeveloped and are covered with scrub oak, saw-pal-
Paola soils are excessively drained. They have a gray metto, and other shrubs and grasses. Vegetation in the wet
sand surface layer about 4 inches thick. A white sand depressions and shallow ponds is mainly water grasses.
layer about 20 inches thick underlies the surface layer. Where the climate is favorable, the Astatula and
Below this, to a depth of 90 inches, are layers of brownish- Apopka soils are suited to citrus. These soils have some
yellow and light yellowish-brown sand. The water table potential for improved pastures. Under natural condi-
is at a depth of more than 80 inches. tions, the wet, less extensive soils in this association are of
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. They have little value for farming.
a very dark grayish-brown sand surface layer about 7
inches thick. Below this are layers of faintly mottled,
mainly very pale brown sand that extend to a depth of 4- Tavares-Myakka Association
about 61 inches. The underlying layer is white sand mot- Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
tled with very pale brown. The water table is at a depth sandy soils on low ridges interspersed with'nearly level
of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6 months, and during poorly drained sandy soils
periods of drought, it is at a depth of more than 60 inches.
Among the minor soils in this association are the exces- This association is characterized by low, nearly level to
sively drained St. Lucie soils on knolls and ridges and gently undulating sandy ridges or knolls and broad, nearly
the poorly drained Placid soils in the narrow swamps. level periodically wet areas. There are a few narrow
Part of the association is used for improved pasture; swamps and marshes.
only a small part is farmed. In most areas the vegetation This association makes up about 8 percent of the survey
is pine, saw-palmetto, gallberry, and native grass. In area. Tavares soils are dominant and make up about 50
drought areas the vegetation is mostly scrub oak and a percent of the association. About 25 percent is Myakka
sparse undergrowth, soils, and the rest is minor soils.
The Myakka soils have potential for improved npsture Tavares soils are moderately well drained. They have
and truck crops. Good water control practices and applica- a very dark grayish-brown sand surface layer about 7
tions of lime and fertilizer are needed. The Paola soils inches thick. Below this and extending to a depth of about
have limited potential for farming. The Tavares soils 61 inches are layers of faintly mottled, mainly very pale
have potential for citrus and improved pasture. brown sand. Below a depth of 61 inches is white sand mot-
tled with very pale brown. The water table is at a depth
3. Astatula-Apopka Association of 40 to 60 inches for more than half the year. During
periods of drought it is at a depth of more than 60 inches.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and Myakka soils are poorly drained. They have a black
well-drained sandy soils on broad ridges interspersed with sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The next layer is
large lakes, ponds, and wet depressions leached white sand about 14 inches thick. Below this is a
Broad, undulating, low, drought ridges make up most layer of sand about 16 inches thick that is black to dark
of this association. There are a few short, steep slopes ad- reddish brown and weakly cemented with organic matter.
jacent to streams and around sinks. There are few streams. It is underlain by dark-brown to dark grayish-brown sand.
Surface drainage is mostly through the very porous soil. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about
Many large lakes, ponds, depressions, and sinks occur half the year. It sometimes rises to the surface during wet
throughout this association, seasons and drops to a depth below 40 inches during dry
This association makes up about 47 percent of the Lake periods.
County Area. Astatula soils are dominant and make up Among the minor soils in this association are the poorly
about 58 percent of the association. Apopka soils make up drained Wauchula, Ona, and Pompano soils on low ridges
about 7 percent. The rest is minor soils, small lakes, and and in depressions; the very poorly drained Placid soils
shallow ponds. in low, wet areas; and the very poorly drained organic
Astatula soils are excessively drained. They have a dark- and mineral soils that are in inaccessible areas of swamp.
gray sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. Below this Much of the acreage of Tavares soils and soils that have
and extending to a depth of 80 inches are layers of brown similar or. better drainage are in citrus. In the somewhat
and yellowish-brown sand. The water table is at a depth poorly drained areas, the vegetation is scrub oak and scat-
of more than 120 inches. poorly rained areasthe vegetation is c-
Apopka soils are well drained. They have a very dark tered pine. In poorly drained areas the vegetation is corn-
gray sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. They have only pine, saw-palmetto, gallberry, and native grasses.
subsurface layers of yellowish-brown and light yellowish- In swampy areas the vegetation is bay, other wetland hard-
brown sand to a depth of about 55 inches. The next layer, woods, and cypress.
to a depth of 84 inches, is red sandy clay loam. The water Most of this association has some potential for improved
table is at a depth of more than 84 inches. pasture. The better drained soils are suited to citrus. The
The poorly drained and very poorly drained Placid and poorly drained Myakka soils have good potential for
Myakka soils are among the minor soils in this association, truck crops and improved pasture.







4 SOIL SURVEY

a layer of sand about 16 inches thick that is black to dark They are in depressions and around some of the large
reddish brown and weakly cemented with organic matter. lakes. Other minor soils are the excessively drained and
It is underlain by dark-brown to dark grayish-brown well-drained Lake and Orlando soils that are intermixed
sand. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches with the dominant soils in the higher areas.
for about 6 months during the year. It sometimes rises to The Astatula and Apopka soils in this association are
the surface during wet seasons and drops to a depth below planted mainly to citrus. Soils not in citrus generally are
40 inches during dry periods. undeveloped and are covered with scrub oak, saw-pal-
Paola soils are excessively drained. They have a gray metto, and other shrubs and grasses. Vegetation in the wet
sand surface layer about 4 inches thick. A white sand depressions and shallow ponds is mainly water grasses.
layer about 20 inches thick underlies the surface layer. Where the climate is favorable, the Astatula and
Below this, to a depth of 90 inches, are layers of brownish- Apopka soils are suited to citrus. These soils have some
yellow and light yellowish-brown sand. The water table potential for improved pastures. Under natural condi-
is at a depth of more than 80 inches. tions, the wet, less extensive soils in this association are of
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. They have little value for farming.
a very dark grayish-brown sand surface layer about 7
inches thick. Below this are layers of faintly mottled,
mainly very pale brown sand that extend to a depth of 4- Tavares-Myakka Association
about 61 inches. The underlying layer is white sand mot- Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
tled with very pale brown. The water table is at a depth sandy soils on low ridges interspersed with'nearly level
of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6 months, and during poorly drained sandy soils
periods of drought, it is at a depth of more than 60 inches.
Among the minor soils in this association are the exces- This association is characterized by low, nearly level to
sively drained St. Lucie soils on knolls and ridges and gently undulating sandy ridges or knolls and broad, nearly
the poorly drained Placid soils in the narrow swamps. level periodically wet areas. There are a few narrow
Part of the association is used for improved pasture; swamps and marshes.
only a small part is farmed. In most areas the vegetation This association makes up about 8 percent of the survey
is pine, saw-palmetto, gallberry, and native grass. In area. Tavares soils are dominant and make up about 50
drought areas the vegetation is mostly scrub oak and a percent of the association. About 25 percent is Myakka
sparse undergrowth, soils, and the rest is minor soils.
The Myakka soils have potential for improved npsture Tavares soils are moderately well drained. They have
and truck crops. Good water control practices and applica- a very dark grayish-brown sand surface layer about 7
tions of lime and fertilizer are needed. The Paola soils inches thick. Below this and extending to a depth of about
have limited potential for farming. The Tavares soils 61 inches are layers of faintly mottled, mainly very pale
have potential for citrus and improved pasture. brown sand. Below a depth of 61 inches is white sand mot-
tled with very pale brown. The water table is at a depth
3. Astatula-Apopka Association of 40 to 60 inches for more than half the year. During
periods of drought it is at a depth of more than 60 inches.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and Myakka soils are poorly drained. They have a black
well-drained sandy soils on broad ridges interspersed with sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The next layer is
large lakes, ponds, and wet depressions leached white sand about 14 inches thick. Below this is a
Broad, undulating, low, drought ridges make up most layer of sand about 16 inches thick that is black to dark
of this association. There are a few short, steep slopes ad- reddish brown and weakly cemented with organic matter.
jacent to streams and around sinks. There are few streams. It is underlain by dark-brown to dark grayish-brown sand.
Surface drainage is mostly through the very porous soil. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about
Many large lakes, ponds, depressions, and sinks occur half the year. It sometimes rises to the surface during wet
throughout this association, seasons and drops to a depth below 40 inches during dry
This association makes up about 47 percent of the Lake periods.
County Area. Astatula soils are dominant and make up Among the minor soils in this association are the poorly
about 58 percent of the association. Apopka soils make up drained Wauchula, Ona, and Pompano soils on low ridges
about 7 percent. The rest is minor soils, small lakes, and and in depressions; the very poorly drained Placid soils
shallow ponds. in low, wet areas; and the very poorly drained organic
Astatula soils are excessively drained. They have a dark- and mineral soils that are in inaccessible areas of swamp.
gray sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. Below this Much of the acreage of Tavares soils and soils that have
and extending to a depth of 80 inches are layers of brown similar or. better drainage are in citrus. In the somewhat
and yellowish-brown sand. The water table is at a depth poorly drained areas, the vegetation is scrub oak and scat-
of more than 120 inches. poorly rained areasthe vegetation is c-
Apopka soils are well drained. They have a very dark tered pine. In poorly drained areas the vegetation is corn-
gray sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. They have only pine, saw-palmetto, gallberry, and native grasses.
subsurface layers of yellowish-brown and light yellowish- In swampy areas the vegetation is bay, other wetland hard-
brown sand to a depth of about 55 inches. The next layer, woods, and cypress.
to a depth of 84 inches, is red sandy clay loam. The water Most of this association has some potential for improved
table is at a depth of more than 84 inches. pasture. The better drained soils are suited to citrus. The
The poorly drained and very poorly drained Placid and poorly drained Myakka soils have good potential for
Myakka soils are among the minor soils in this association, truck crops and improved pasture.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 5

5. Myakka-Placid-Swamp Association covered with shallow water for part of the year, and
some are covered most of the year. The association is
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils on broad lowlands subject to flooding.
interspersed with very poorly drained sandy soils and This association makes up about 4 percent of the sur-
swamps in large depressions vey area. Anclote soils are dominant and make up about
This association is made up mainly of nearly level, 45 percent of the association. Iberia and Emeralda soils
periodically wet, large, shallow depressions, few grassy each make up about 15 percent. The rest is minor soils.
ponds or lakes, many isolated swamps, and swamps that Anclote soils are very poorly drained. They have a black
are connected by narrow, wet drainageways. and very dark gray sand surface layer about 12 inches
This association makes up about 20 percent of the survey thick. The next layer is faintly mottled, grayish-brown
area. Myakka soils are dominant and make up about 40 and light brownish-gray fine sand about 34 inches thick.
percent of the association. Placid soils make up about 18 Below this and extending to a depth of 82 inches is
percent, and Swamp about 8 percent. The rest is minor faintly mottled, dark-gray loamy fine sand. The water
soils. table is at or near the surface during the wet season and
Myakka soils are poorly drained. They have a black is at a depth of about 20 to 30 inches during the dry
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. A laver of season.
leached white sand about 14 inches thick underlies the Iberia soils are poorly drained. They have a black sandy
surface layer. Below this is a layer of sand about 16 inches clay surface layer about 15 inches thick. The subsoil is
thick that is black to dark reddish brown and weakly ce- dark-gray sandy clay to a depth of about 40 inches and
mented with organic matter. It is underlain by dark- is heavy sandy clay mottled with various shades of gray,
brown to dark grayish-brown sand. The water table is at yellowish brown, and yellowish red between depths of
a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6 months of most 40 and 54 inches. Below the subsoil and extending to a
years. It sometimes rises to the surface during wet sea- depth of 60 inches is a layer of white chalky marl and
sons and drops to a depth below 40 inches during dry mottled sandy clay. The water table is at the surface or
periods. just below the surface most of the year. During periods
The Placid soils in this association are very poorly of drought it is at a depth of about 6 inches. The surface
drained. The surface layer is about 18 inches thick and layer is frequently covered with shallow water.
is black in the upper part and very dark gray in the lower Emeralda soils are poorly drained. They have a very
part. The next layer is about 20 inches of grayish-brown dark gray fine sand surface layer about 6 inches thick.
sand mottled with dark grayish brown and very dark Their subsurface layer is grayish-brown fine sand about
grayish brown. Below this and extending to a depth of 5 inches thick. The subsoil between depths of 11 and 26
80 inches is light brownish-gray sand. The water table inches is mottled gray sandy clay. Below this is mottled
is at the surface most of the year. During extended dry light-gray sandy clay that extends to a depth of about
periods it is 1 to 15 inches below the surface. 66 inches. The water table is at the surface most of the
Swamp consists of very poorly drained mineral and year. The soils are generally flooded during periods of
organic soils that are flooded all year except during ex- average rainfall.
tended periods of low rainfall. Among the minor soils in this association are the poorly
Among the minor soils in this association are the poorly drained Eureka soils in low areas and depressions, the
drained Immokalee, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils on low very poorly drained Oklawaha soils in depressions and
ridges, the very poorly drained Anclote soils in low areas marshy areas, and the somewhat poorly drained Ocilla
and depressions, and the excessively drained Astatula soils on knolls and ridges.
soils and moderately well drained Pomello soils in higher Drained areas are used extensively for cultivated crops
areas. and improved pasture. Where the soils are not cultivated,
Only about 15 percent of this association is cultivated. the vegetation consists of hammock growth and cabbage
The rest is covered with native vegetation. In the poorly palm. There are also some treeless, grassy spots. During
drained areas, the vegetation is mostly pine, saw-palmetto, dry periods, some areas of the association are used for
gallberry, and native grass. In the very poorly drained range.
areas, the vegetation is bay and other water-tolerant hard- Soils in this association are not suited to citrus. If in-
woods. The areas of Swamp are covered with a dense stand tensive water-control measures can be developed and main-
of cypress, bay, and other water-tolerant hardwoods. tained, the soils have good potential for cultivated crops,
The poorly drained soils in this association are generally special crops, and improved pasture.
not suited to citrus but are suited to vegetables, improved
pasture, native range, and pine trees. Water control is 7. Montverde-Ocoee-Brighton Association
needed. The very poorly drained soils and Swamp have Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils on broad
little potential for farming. low areas that are subject to flooding

6. Anclote-Iberia-Emeralda Association This association consists of broad, low, relatively uni-
form marshy areas that are subject to flooding.
Nearly level, very poorly drained to poorly drained sandy This association makes up about 11 percent of the sur-
and clayey soils on broad lowlands that are subject to vey area. Montverde soils are dominant and make up about
flooding 38 percent of the association. About 17 percent is Ocoee
This association is characterized by broad, nearly level soils, 7 percent is Brighton soils, and the rest is minor soils.
lowlands that are wet most of the time. Many areas are Montverde soils are very poorly drained. They have a







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 5

5. Myakka-Placid-Swamp Association covered with shallow water for part of the year, and
some are covered most of the year. The association is
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils on broad lowlands subject to flooding.
interspersed with very poorly drained sandy soils and This association makes up about 4 percent of the sur-
swamps in large depressions vey area. Anclote soils are dominant and make up about
This association is made up mainly of nearly level, 45 percent of the association. Iberia and Emeralda soils
periodically wet, large, shallow depressions, few grassy each make up about 15 percent. The rest is minor soils.
ponds or lakes, many isolated swamps, and swamps that Anclote soils are very poorly drained. They have a black
are connected by narrow, wet drainageways. and very dark gray sand surface layer about 12 inches
This association makes up about 20 percent of the survey thick. The next layer is faintly mottled, grayish-brown
area. Myakka soils are dominant and make up about 40 and light brownish-gray fine sand about 34 inches thick.
percent of the association. Placid soils make up about 18 Below this and extending to a depth of 82 inches is
percent, and Swamp about 8 percent. The rest is minor faintly mottled, dark-gray loamy fine sand. The water
soils. table is at or near the surface during the wet season and
Myakka soils are poorly drained. They have a black is at a depth of about 20 to 30 inches during the dry
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. A laver of season.
leached white sand about 14 inches thick underlies the Iberia soils are poorly drained. They have a black sandy
surface layer. Below this is a layer of sand about 16 inches clay surface layer about 15 inches thick. The subsoil is
thick that is black to dark reddish brown and weakly ce- dark-gray sandy clay to a depth of about 40 inches and
mented with organic matter. It is underlain by dark- is heavy sandy clay mottled with various shades of gray,
brown to dark grayish-brown sand. The water table is at yellowish brown, and yellowish red between depths of
a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6 months of most 40 and 54 inches. Below the subsoil and extending to a
years. It sometimes rises to the surface during wet sea- depth of 60 inches is a layer of white chalky marl and
sons and drops to a depth below 40 inches during dry mottled sandy clay. The water table is at the surface or
periods. just below the surface most of the year. During periods
The Placid soils in this association are very poorly of drought it is at a depth of about 6 inches. The surface
drained. The surface layer is about 18 inches thick and layer is frequently covered with shallow water.
is black in the upper part and very dark gray in the lower Emeralda soils are poorly drained. They have a very
part. The next layer is about 20 inches of grayish-brown dark gray fine sand surface layer about 6 inches thick.
sand mottled with dark grayish brown and very dark Their subsurface layer is grayish-brown fine sand about
grayish brown. Below this and extending to a depth of 5 inches thick. The subsoil between depths of 11 and 26
80 inches is light brownish-gray sand. The water table inches is mottled gray sandy clay. Below this is mottled
is at the surface most of the year. During extended dry light-gray sandy clay that extends to a depth of about
periods it is 1 to 15 inches below the surface. 66 inches. The water table is at the surface most of the
Swamp consists of very poorly drained mineral and year. The soils are generally flooded during periods of
organic soils that are flooded all year except during ex- average rainfall.
tended periods of low rainfall. Among the minor soils in this association are the poorly
Among the minor soils in this association are the poorly drained Eureka soils in low areas and depressions, the
drained Immokalee, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils on low very poorly drained Oklawaha soils in depressions and
ridges, the very poorly drained Anclote soils in low areas marshy areas, and the somewhat poorly drained Ocilla
and depressions, and the excessively drained Astatula soils on knolls and ridges.
soils and moderately well drained Pomello soils in higher Drained areas are used extensively for cultivated crops
areas. and improved pasture. Where the soils are not cultivated,
Only about 15 percent of this association is cultivated. the vegetation consists of hammock growth and cabbage
The rest is covered with native vegetation. In the poorly palm. There are also some treeless, grassy spots. During
drained areas, the vegetation is mostly pine, saw-palmetto, dry periods, some areas of the association are used for
gallberry, and native grass. In the very poorly drained range.
areas, the vegetation is bay and other water-tolerant hard- Soils in this association are not suited to citrus. If in-
woods. The areas of Swamp are covered with a dense stand tensive water-control measures can be developed and main-
of cypress, bay, and other water-tolerant hardwoods. tained, the soils have good potential for cultivated crops,
The poorly drained soils in this association are generally special crops, and improved pasture.
not suited to citrus but are suited to vegetables, improved
pasture, native range, and pine trees. Water control is 7. Montverde-Ocoee-Brighton Association
needed. The very poorly drained soils and Swamp have Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils on broad
little potential for farming. low areas that are subject to flooding

6. Anclote-Iberia-Emeralda Association This association consists of broad, low, relatively uni-
form marshy areas that are subject to flooding.
Nearly level, very poorly drained to poorly drained sandy This association makes up about 11 percent of the sur-
and clayey soils on broad lowlands that are subject to vey area. Montverde soils are dominant and make up about
flooding 38 percent of the association. About 17 percent is Ocoee
This association is characterized by broad, nearly level soils, 7 percent is Brighton soils, and the rest is minor soils.
lowlands that are wet most of the time. Many areas are Montverde soils are very poorly drained. They have a







6 SOIL SURVEY

black muck surface layer about 11 inches thick. Below necessary to read both the description of the mapping unit
this and extending to a depth of 80 inches are layers of and the description of the soil series to which it belongs.
dark reddish-brown or mixed black and dark reddish- An important part of the description of each soil series
brown peat. The water table is at the surface and the soils is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers from the
are covered with shallow water, except during extended surface downward to rock or other underlying material.
dry periods. Each series contains two descriptions of this profile. The
Ocoee soils are very poorly drained. They have a dark first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman. The
reddish-brown peat surface layer about 7 inches thick. second, detailed and in technical terms, is for scientists,
The surface layer is underlain by layers of reddish-brown engineers, and others who need to make thorough and
or dark reddish-brown peat that extend to a depth of 38 precise studies of soils. Unless it is otherwise stated, the
inches. Grayish-brown sand is at a depth of 38 to 75 inches. colors given in the descriptions are those of a moist soil.
The water table is at the surface except during extended As mentioned in the section "How This Survey Was
dry periods. Made," not all mapping units are members of a soil series.
Brighton soils are very poorly drained. They have a Swamp, for example, does not belong to a soil series, but
dark reddish-brown peat surface layer about 9 inches nevertheless is listed in alphabetic order along with the
thick. The surface layer is underlain by layers of dark soil series.
yellowish-brown and dark-brown peat that extend to a Following the name of each mapping unit is a symbol
depth of about 63 inches. Below the peat layers and ex- in parentheses. This symbol identifies the mapping unit
tending to a depth of 75 inches is grayish-brown coarse on the detailed soil map. Listed at the end of each descrip-
sand. The water table is at the surface, and the soils are tion of a mapping unit is the capability unit, range site,
covered with water most of and time. and woodland group in which the mapping unit has been
Among the minor soils in this association are the poorly placed. The capability unit, range site, and woodland
drained Emeralda, Eureka, and Iberia soils and the very designation for each soil can be found by referring to the
drained Emeralda, Eureka, and lberiz soils and the very "Guide to Mapping Units" at the back of this survey.
poorly drained Oklawaha soils. These soils are in low, wet Guide to Mapping Units" at the back of his survey.
areas and are subject to flooding. The acreage and proportionate extent of each mapping
S. a unit are shown in table 2. Many of the terms used in de-
Most of this association is undeveloped and is used to a scribing soils can be found in the Glossary at the end of
limited extent for range and as wildlife habitat. The veg- this survey, and more detailed information about the
etation is a heavy hammock growth of bay, magnolia, and terminology and methods of soil mapping can be obtained
maple. In treeless areas it is lilies, sedges, sawgrass, flags, from the Soil Survey Manual (6).1
and other water-tolerant plants and grasses.
Soils in this association have a good potential for spe- 'Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 81.
cial truck crops. Water-control measures are needed.
TABLE 2.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent
8. Swamp Association of the soils
Level, poorly drained soils that are subject to prolonged
flooding Soil Area Extent
This is an association of level swamps and a few small -
marshes, lakes, and long, narrow, very wet areas along Acres Percent
creeks and poorly defined drainageways. Albany sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes---.......--------. 9, 035 1. 6
Albany sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ----------- 561 .1
This association makes up about 5 percent of the survey Anclote fine sand -------------------------- 5, 124 .9
area. Anelote and Myakka soils ------------------ 21, 960 4. 0
Soils in this association are very poorly drained and are Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ----------- 11, 520 2. 1
Apopka sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ----------8,127 1.5
in irregular patterns. They are flooded most of the time Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -----------1, 720 .3
and are covered with a dense growth of water-tolerant Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 5 percent
trees. Most areas generally are too wet and inaccessible slopes ----------------------------------109, 353 19. 9
to permit detailed investigation of the soils. A few small Astatula sand, dark surface, 5 to 12 percent
slopes ---. -- -- -- ---.- 37,687 ] 6. 9
areas of better drained soils are included in this association. Astatula sand, dark surface, 12to 340 percent
This association is undeveloped and is severely limited slopes -------------------------------- 4, 374 8
for farming. The vegetation is bay, other wetland hard- Brighton soils ----------------------- 4, 589 .8
Cassia sand -------------------------------- 7, 952 1.5
woods, and cypress. Even during dry periods there is only Emeralda fine sand------------------------- 4, 089 .8
a small amount of forage for cattle. Eureka loamy fine sand ---------------------2, 025 .4
Felda fine sand ---------------------------1,745 .3
Fellowship fine sandy loam, ponded ----------- 802 1
Descriptions of the Soils Fill land, loamy materials------------------- 9,674 1.8
Descriptions of the Soils Iberia sandy clay ------------------------- 2, 449 .4
Iberia and Manatee soils -------------------- 6,766 1. 2
This section describes the soil series and mapping units Immokalee sand ------------------------- 13, 377 2. 4
in the Lake County Area. Each soil -series is described in Lake sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -------------9, 927 1. 8
considerable detail, and then, briefly, each mapping unit Lake sand, to 12 percent slopes .------------ 3, 597 .7
in that series. Unless it is specifically mentioned otherwise, Lucy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------------ 2, 000 .4
it is to be assumed that what is stated about the soil series Lucy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------- 1, 092 2
holds true for the mapping units in that series. Thus, to Monterde mucksa ------------------------ 23, 376 4. 3
get full information about any one mapping unit, it is Myakka sand --------------------------- 45, 858 8. 4







6 SOIL SURVEY

black muck surface layer about 11 inches thick. Below necessary to read both the description of the mapping unit
this and extending to a depth of 80 inches are layers of and the description of the soil series to which it belongs.
dark reddish-brown or mixed black and dark reddish- An important part of the description of each soil series
brown peat. The water table is at the surface and the soils is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers from the
are covered with shallow water, except during extended surface downward to rock or other underlying material.
dry periods. Each series contains two descriptions of this profile. The
Ocoee soils are very poorly drained. They have a dark first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman. The
reddish-brown peat surface layer about 7 inches thick. second, detailed and in technical terms, is for scientists,
The surface layer is underlain by layers of reddish-brown engineers, and others who need to make thorough and
or dark reddish-brown peat that extend to a depth of 38 precise studies of soils. Unless it is otherwise stated, the
inches. Grayish-brown sand is at a depth of 38 to 75 inches. colors given in the descriptions are those of a moist soil.
The water table is at the surface except during extended As mentioned in the section "How This Survey Was
dry periods. Made," not all mapping units are members of a soil series.
Brighton soils are very poorly drained. They have a Swamp, for example, does not belong to a soil series, but
dark reddish-brown peat surface layer about 9 inches nevertheless is listed in alphabetic order along with the
thick. The surface layer is underlain by layers of dark soil series.
yellowish-brown and dark-brown peat that extend to a Following the name of each mapping unit is a symbol
depth of about 63 inches. Below the peat layers and ex- in parentheses. This symbol identifies the mapping unit
tending to a depth of 75 inches is grayish-brown coarse on the detailed soil map. Listed at the end of each descrip-
sand. The water table is at the surface, and the soils are tion of a mapping unit is the capability unit, range site,
covered with water most of and time. and woodland group in which the mapping unit has been
Among the minor soils in this association are the poorly placed. The capability unit, range site, and woodland
drained Emeralda, Eureka, and Iberia soils and the very designation for each soil can be found by referring to the
drained Emeralda, Eureka, and lberiz soils and the very "Guide to Mapping Units" at the back of this survey.
poorly drained Oklawaha soils. These soils are in low, wet Guide to Mapping Units" at the back of his survey.
areas and are subject to flooding. The acreage and proportionate extent of each mapping
S. a unit are shown in table 2. Many of the terms used in de-
Most of this association is undeveloped and is used to a scribing soils can be found in the Glossary at the end of
limited extent for range and as wildlife habitat. The veg- this survey, and more detailed information about the
etation is a heavy hammock growth of bay, magnolia, and terminology and methods of soil mapping can be obtained
maple. In treeless areas it is lilies, sedges, sawgrass, flags, from the Soil Survey Manual (6).1
and other water-tolerant plants and grasses.
Soils in this association have a good potential for spe- 'Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 81.
cial truck crops. Water-control measures are needed.
TABLE 2.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent
8. Swamp Association of the soils
Level, poorly drained soils that are subject to prolonged
flooding Soil Area Extent
This is an association of level swamps and a few small -
marshes, lakes, and long, narrow, very wet areas along Acres Percent
creeks and poorly defined drainageways. Albany sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes---.......--------. 9, 035 1. 6
Albany sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ----------- 561 .1
This association makes up about 5 percent of the survey Anclote fine sand -------------------------- 5, 124 .9
area. Anelote and Myakka soils ------------------ 21, 960 4. 0
Soils in this association are very poorly drained and are Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ----------- 11, 520 2. 1
Apopka sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ----------8,127 1.5
in irregular patterns. They are flooded most of the time Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -----------1, 720 .3
and are covered with a dense growth of water-tolerant Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 5 percent
trees. Most areas generally are too wet and inaccessible slopes ----------------------------------109, 353 19. 9
to permit detailed investigation of the soils. A few small Astatula sand, dark surface, 5 to 12 percent
slopes ---. -- -- -- ---.- 37,687 ] 6. 9
areas of better drained soils are included in this association. Astatula sand, dark surface, 12to 340 percent
This association is undeveloped and is severely limited slopes -------------------------------- 4, 374 8
for farming. The vegetation is bay, other wetland hard- Brighton soils ----------------------- 4, 589 .8
Cassia sand -------------------------------- 7, 952 1.5
woods, and cypress. Even during dry periods there is only Emeralda fine sand------------------------- 4, 089 .8
a small amount of forage for cattle. Eureka loamy fine sand ---------------------2, 025 .4
Felda fine sand ---------------------------1,745 .3
Fellowship fine sandy loam, ponded ----------- 802 1
Descriptions of the Soils Fill land, loamy materials------------------- 9,674 1.8
Descriptions of the Soils Iberia sandy clay ------------------------- 2, 449 .4
Iberia and Manatee soils -------------------- 6,766 1. 2
This section describes the soil series and mapping units Immokalee sand ------------------------- 13, 377 2. 4
in the Lake County Area. Each soil -series is described in Lake sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -------------9, 927 1. 8
considerable detail, and then, briefly, each mapping unit Lake sand, to 12 percent slopes .------------ 3, 597 .7
in that series. Unless it is specifically mentioned otherwise, Lucy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------------ 2, 000 .4
it is to be assumed that what is stated about the soil series Lucy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-------------- 1, 092 2
holds true for the mapping units in that series. Thus, to Monterde mucksa ------------------------ 23, 376 4. 3
get full information about any one mapping unit, it is Myakka sand --------------------------- 45, 858 8. 4







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 7

TABLE 2.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent A22-11 to 31 inches, very pale brown (10YR 8/3, 7/3) sand;
of the soils-Continued few, medium, faint mottles of gray (10YR 5/1) and
dark gray (10YR 4/1) and few, fine, faint, white
mottles; single grain; loose; few fine roots; sand
grains uncoated; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Soil Area Extent A23-31 to 52 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; few,
fine, faint mottles of gray and dark gray; single
Acres Percent grain; loose; few fine roots; sand grains uncoated;
Myakka and Placid sands, 2 to 8 percent slopes. 3,856 .7 strongly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary.
Ocila sand_ 3,097 .6 B21tg-52 to 62 inches, very pale brown (10YR 8/3) sandy
Ocoee peat 10, 742 2. --------------------- cay loam; many, coarse, faint mottles of white
Oklawaha muck----------------------- 5, 674 1. 0 (10YR 8/2) and common, medium, distinct mottles of
Ona fine sand 1, 407 3 strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) or reddish yellow (7.5YR
Orlando fine sand ------ 1,671 .3 7/8) ; weak, fine and medium, subangular blocky
Paola sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......------------- 7, 308 1. 3 structure; friable; sand grains coated and bridged
Paola sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes------------- 789 1 with clay; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy
Pelham sand----------------------------- 1,966 .4 boundary.
Placid sand 10,710 2.0 B22tg-62 to 70 inches, white (10YR 8/2) sandy clay loam;
Placid sand, slightly wet -------------------- 2, 998 .5 common, fine and medium, distinct mottles of yellow
Placid and Myakka sands, 0 to 2 percent slopes- 23, 735 4. 3 (10YR 8/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), reddish yellow
Pomello sand ----------------------------- 9, 967 1. 8 (7.5YR 7/8), and yellowish red (5YR 5/8) ; weak, me-
Pompano sand, acid ----------------------- 6, 251 1. 1 dium, subangular blocky structure; friable; sand
St. Lucie sand ------------------------ 6, 808 1. 2 grains coated and bridged with clay; few lenses of
Swamp --------------------- --------......... ..- 36,527 6.7 sandy loam; very strongly acid; clear, smooth
Tavares sand ----------------------------34,721 6.3 boundary.
Tavares sand, white subsurface variant -------- 1, 962 .4 B23tg-70 to 85 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sandy clay loam;
Vaucluse sand ----------------------------- 1, 160 .2 common, medium, distinct mottles of red (2.5YR 4/8),
Wabasso sand ------------------------------ 133 .2 yellowish red (5YR 5/8), brownish yellow (10YR 6/8),
Wauchula sand ----------------------------- 11, 869 2. 2 and yellow (10YR 8/8) ; mottles decrease in number
with depth; weak, fine, subangular blocky structure;
Total I -------------------------------- 548, 964 100. 0 friable; few mica flakes; very strongly acid.
____ All layers are strongly acid or very strongly acid. The upper
Includes water areas that are less than 40 acres in size; 12,747 layers are not so acid where limed. The Al and Ap horizons
acres of Marsh (indicated by marsh symbols on the soil map); and are dark grayish brown to very dark gray and 5 to 11 inches
1,266 acres of mine pits and dumps (indicated by appropriate thick. The A2 horizon is white to yellow and normally is mot-
symbols on the soil map). Does not include 90,569 acres of lakes tled with gray, brown, yellow, and white; it is 34 to 57 inches
more than 40 acres in size. thick. In places the A2 horizon is free of mottles. A Blt hori-
zon of loamy sand or sandy loam, 3 to 5 inches thick, occurs
in places. This horizon is very pale brown to yellow and is
faintly mottled with gray, brown, yellow, red, and white. The
Albany Series B22tg and B23tg horizons are highly mottled with gray, yel-
low, red, and brown. Mottles commonly decrease in number
The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly drained with increasing depth, and white becomes the dominant color.
sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. These soils are on The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches most of the
the upland ridge and have slopes of 0 to 12 percent. They time, but it is within a depth of 40 inches for I or 2 months
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediment. during wet seasons and below 60 inches during prolonged
droughts.
In a representative profile, the surface layer is very The Albany soils in the Lake County Area have a slightly
dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer higher temperature than is defined for the Albany series, but
is sand that extends to a depth of about 52 inches. It is this difference does not alter their usefulness and behavior.
gray in the upper few inches and very pale brown in the Albany soils occur in association with Astatula, Apopka,
ray in e upper Oew inches and very pale rown te cilla, Lucy, and Vaucluse soils. They are not so well drained
lower part. The subsoil is about 35 inches thick. The upper as Astatula, Apopka, Lucy, and Vaucluse soils. They have a
10 inches is very pale brown sandy clay loam that has loamy Bt horizon at a depth of 40 inches, whereas the loamy
distinct mottles of strong brown and reddish yellow and horizon of Ocilla, Lucy, and Vaucluse soils is at a depth of
faint mottles of white. The lower 23 inches is white sandy less than 40 inches.
clay loam that has distinct mottles of yellow, reddish Albany sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (AbB).-This is a
yellow, yellowish red, and strong brown. The surface and nearly level to sloping, somewhat poorly drained sandy
subsurface layers are strongly acid except where limed, soil that has a sandy clay loam subsoil. This soil has the
and the other layers are very strongly acid. The water table profile described as representative for the series. The water
is normally at a depth of about 50 inches. table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6
Albany soils are rapidly permeable in the sandy layers months each year. During the wet season, it is at a depth
and moderately permeable in the subsoil. Available water of 15 to 40 inches for 1 to 2 months.
capacity is low in the surface layer and subsurface layers The sandy surface and subsurface layers are rapidly
and moderate in the subsoil. The organic-matter content permeable and have very low available water capacity and
and natural fertility are low. low organic-matter content. The loamy subsoil is moder-
Representative profile of Albany sand, 0 to 5 percent ately permeable and has medium available water capacity.
slopes: Natural fertility is low.
p Included in mapping are small areas that are more
Ap-0 to 7 inches, very dark gray (0YR 3/1) sand; weak, poorly drained than Albany sand, a few small areas of
fine, granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; Ocilla sand and Tavares sand, small areas of soils that
slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary. Ocilla sand and Tavares sand, small areas of soils that
A21-7 to 11 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few, fine, faint have weakly cemented lumps of dark-brown sand at a
mottle sery pale rown and; dar grayin ; single depth of 40 to 60 inches, and some areas where the texture
medium acid; clear, wavy boundary, is fine sand.







8 SOIL SURVEY

This soil is poorly suited to vegetables, flowers, and Anclote Series
other shallow-rooted plants that have high moisture and
fertility requirements. Irrigation of these crops is gener- The Anelote series consists of nearly level, very poorly
ally not feasible. Watermelons can be grown successfully, drained sandy soils that have a thick dark-colored sur-
but they require contour cultivation with alternate strips face layer. These soils are in low areas and depressions on
of tall grain, adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime, and the flood plains. They formed in sandy marine sediments.
irrigation. This soil is well suited to citrus. The water In a representative profile, the surface layer is black
table is near enough to the surface to supply some water and very dark gray fine sand about 12 inches thick. Below
to the tree roots in dry seasons. Management should in- this is faintly mottled grayish-brown and light brownish-
clude provisions for removing excess surface water during gray fine sand about 34 inches thick. The next layer is
prolonged wet seasons, growing cover crops between rows, faintly mottled, dark-gray loamy fine sand that extends
minimum cultivation, applying proper amounts of fertil- to a depth of 82 inches. These soils are slightly acid in the
izer and lime, and irrigating when needed. Deep-rooted upper 3 inches of the surface layer, neutral between depths
tame grasses make good improved pasture if they are of 3 and 24 inches, and moderately alkaline throughout
properly fertilized and limed and grazing is controlled, the rest of the profile. The water table is at a depth of
Areas that have not been farmed are either open pine about 6 inches. Many areas are covered with shallow water
forest or, if the trees have been removed, open grassland. in wet seasons.
Some of these areas are used for range. Understory plants Anclote soils have rapid permeability and medium avail-
provide good forage for cattle and wildlife. Major de- able water capacity. The organic-matter content and
creaser and increase forage plants are creeping bluestem, natural fertility are high.
pineland three-awn, indiangrass, splitbeard bluestem, Representative profile of Anclote fine sand:
broomsedge bluestem, and runner oak. Under continuous All-0 to 3 inches, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed fine sand; single
heavy grazing, these plants are subdued and pricklypear grain; loose many fine and medium roots; slightly
cactus, post oak, blackjack oak, natalgrass, dogfennel, a A12-3 to 12 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed fine
variety of annual grasses, and other less desirable plants sand; common, fine and medium, faint, dark-gray
varet (10YR 4/1), gray (10YR 5/1), and black (10YR 2/1)
and weeds become dominant. Capability unit IIIw-3; mott'es; single grain; loose; many fine and medium
Sandhills range site; woodland group 3w2. roots; neutral; clear, wavy boundary.
Albany sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (AbD).-This is l01g-12 to 24 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
many, fine, faint mottles of light brownish gray, dark
a sloping and strongly sloping, somewhat poorly drained grayish brown, and gray; single grain; loose; common
sandy soil that has a sandy clay loam subsoil at a depth of fine and medium roots; neutral; clear, wavy boundary.
about 50 inches. The profile of this soil is similar to that C2g-24 to 46 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; many, medium, faint mottles of grayish brown
described as representative for the series, but the surface (10YR 5/2), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), and
layer is 1 to 2 inches thinner, and the sandy clay loam sub- gray (10YR 6/1); few, fine, faint mottles of yellowish
soil is about 45 inches thick. In some places slopes are short brown along root channels; single grain; loose; few
fine and medium roots; moderately alkaline; clear,
and choppy; in other places they are fairly long and uni- wavy boundary.
form. The water table is at a depth of more than 40 inches C3g-46 to 82 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine sand;
for more than 6 months each year. For 1 or 2 months dur- few to many, medium, faint mottles of gray (10YR
5/1); single grain; loose; moderately alkaline.
* ing the wet season, it is at a depth of 15 to 40 inches.
ing the wet season, i is at a depth of 15 to 40 inches. Anclote soils are slightly acid to moderately alkaline through-
The surface and subsurface layers have very low avail- out the profile. The All and A12 horizons are black to very
able water capacity, low organic-matter content, and rapid dark gray. Combined, they are 10 to 24 inches thick. The Cig
permeability. The loamy subsoil has medium available and C2g horizons are gray to light brownish-gray sand that
Contains few to many streaks and mottles of gray and brown.
water capacity and moderate permeability. This soil has The C3g horizon is gray to dark-gray loamy sand or loamy
low natural fertility. It is subject to blowing and water fine sand mottled with lighter shades of gray. The water table
erosion unless protected by a cover of vegetation. is at or near the surface during the wet season and is at a
depth of about 20 to 30 inches during the dry season. Low
Included in mapping are small areas of Tavares sand areas are covered with shallow water much of the time.
and some areas where the texture is fine sand. Anclote soils are associated with Emeralda, Iberia, Mana-
This soil is suited to about the same plants as Albany tee, and Myakka soils. They are deep sandy soils that do not
Shave a clayey or loamy B horizon within a depth of 40 inches
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, but it is erodible. Slopes inter- as do Emeralda, Iberia, and Manatee soils. They do not have
fere with tillafe, irrigation, and harvest. More intensive the Bh horizon that is typical of Myakka soils.
use of the practices described for the less sloping soil is Anclote fine sand (Ac).-This is a nearly level, very
needed. poorly drained sandy soil that has a thick dark-colored
Areas that have been farmed are open pine forest. Some surface layer. It is in fairly large areas on flood plains.
of these areas are used for range. Understory plants pro- The water table is -at or near the surface during the wet
vide good forage for cattle and wildlife. Major decreaser season and is about 20 to 30 inches beneath the surface
and increase forage plants are creeping bluestem, pine- during the dry season. Low areas are covered with shal-
land three-awn, indiangrass, splitbeard bluestem, broom- low water much of the time.
sedge bluestem, and runner oak. Major invader plants are Anclote fine sand has rapid permeability and medium
pricklypear cactus, post oak, blackjack oak, natalgrass, available water capacity. It has a high organic-matter
dogfennel, and a variety of annual grasses and weeds. content in the surface layer and high natural fertility.
Capability unit IVs-2; Sandhills range site; woodland Included in mapping are small areas of soils that have
group 3w2. layers stained with organic matter within a depth of 45







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 9

inches, small areas of soils that have a loamy fine sand sions and poorly defined drainageways. The composition
or fine sandy loam layer at depths of 20 to 40 inches, areas of this unit is more variable than that of most other units
of medium sand. and small areas where the surface layer in the county, but the soils are similar enough to permit
is less than 10 inches thick. common interpretations for most expected uses.
This soil is suited to vegetables (fig. 2), flowers, and This unit is about 35 percent Anclote sand, 30 percent
other shallow-rooted crops that are tolerant of wetness. Mvakka sand. 20 percent Felda sand, and 15 percent minor
Water control is essential to remove excess surface water soils. Each of these soils occurs in most of the areas
rapidly after a heavy rain and to provide subsurface delineated. The profile of the Myakka soil in this unit is
irrigation in times of drought. This soil is very poorly similar to that described as representative for the Myakka
suited to citrus. Tame grasses and clovers grow well if series, but the water table is higher and the soil is less acid.
surface drainage and fertilizer are provided. The Felda soil has the profile described as representative
The native vegetation is mainly grasses. Many areas are for the Felda series. Some of the minor soils have a thick,
used for range that produces forage for cattle and wild- dark colored surface layer over sandy layers. Some are
life when properly managed. Important decreaser and in- organic. The water table is at the surface, and the soils
creaser forage plants are maidencane, cutgrass. beaked are covered with water most of the year.
panicums, and sand cordgrass. Under continuous heavy These soils are covered with dense wetland forest. They
grazing, annual grasses and weeds, pickerelweed, red- are not suited to cultivated crops or pasture because ade-
root, smartweed, iris, broadleaf carpetgrass, and other less quate water control and the removal of dense vegetation
desirable invader plants become dominant. Capability are not feasible. They provide shelter and some browse for
unit IIIw-1; Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; wood- cattle and wildlife. The vegetation consists of a variety of
land group 2w3. wetland hardwoods, cypress, black pine, cabbage palms,
Anclote and Myakka soils (Am).-This mapping unit and numerous kinds of shrubs, vines, and grasses. Capa-
consists of nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly ability unit VIIw-1; Swamp range site; woodland group
drained sandy soils. These soils are in low, large depres- 2w3.


































Figure 2.-Setting out young vegetable plants on Anclote fine sand.







10 SOIL SURVEY

Apopka Series small areas that are sandy to a depth of more than 80
inches, small areas around sinks or on short breaks where
The Apopka series consists of nearly level to strongly slopes are more than 5 percent. and areas of fine sand.
sloping. well-drained sandy soils that have a loamy sub- This soil is poorly suited to shallow-rooted truck crops.
soil. These soils occur throughout the upland ridge. They flowers, and other annual crops that have high moisture
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediment. and fertility requirements. Irrigation of these crops gen-
In a representative profile, the surface layer is very rally is not feasible. Watermelons are well suited, but
dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layers they require contour cultivation with alternate strips of
are yellowish-brown and light yellowish-brown sand to tall grain, adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime. and
a depth of about 55 inches. The subsoil is red sandy clay occasional irrigation. This soil is well suited to citrus.
loam to a depth of about 84 inches. Reaction is medium Cover crops should be grown between the trees. Irrigation
acid to a depth of about 40 inches, strongly acid to about is beneficial. If adequately fertilized and limed, deep-
55 inches. and very strongly acid in the subsoil. The water rooted tame grasses make good pasture. Grazing should be
table is at a depth of more than 84 inches. carefully controlled.
Apopka soils are rapidly permeable in the sandy hori- Areas that have not been farmed are either open pine
zons and moderately permeable in the loamy subsoil. forest or. if trees have been removed, open grassland.
Available water capacity is very low in the sandy horizons Some of these areas are used for range. The understory
and medium to high in the loamy subsoil. The organic- plants provide good forage for cattle and wildlife. Major
matter content and natural fertility are low. decreaser and increase forage plants are creeping blue-
Representative profile of Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent stem, pineland three-awn. indiangrass, splitbeard blue-
slopes: stem, broomsedge bluestem. and runner oak. Under con-
Ap-0 to 6 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand: weak. tinuous heavy grazing, pricklypear, post oak, blackjack
fine, crumb structure; friable; few fine roots; medium oak. natalgrass, dogfennel. annual grasses, weeds, and other
acid; clear, wavy boundary. less desirable invader plants become dominant. Capability
A21-6 to 40 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) sand; single unit Ills-1: Sandhills range site: woodland group 3s2.
grain: loose; few fine roots; common fine carbon par-
ticles; many uncoated sand grains; medium acid; Apopka sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (ApD).-This is a
gradual, wavy boundary. sloping to strongly sloping, well-drained sandy soil. I'n-
A22-40 to 55 inche-. light ye lowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand; less protected by vegetation, it is readily credible by wind
single grain: loose; many fine roots; few fine carbon an( water. The water table is at a depth of more than
particles; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; 84 .
abrupt, wavy boundary. 84 inches.
Bt-55 to f4 inches, red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; few, The sandy surface and subsurface layers are rapidly
medium, faint mottles of red (10YR 4/8) ; weak, fine, permeable. Available water capacity is very low, and the
subangular blocky structu friale when moist hard organic-matter content is low. The loamy subsoil is mod-
when dry: few fine roots; few discontinuous clay films
on surfaces of peds and pore walls; sand grains are erately permeable or moderately rapidly permeable and
coated and bridged with clay; few fine gravel 2 milli- has medium to high available water capacity. Natural
meters to 10 millimeters; very strongly acid. fertility is low.
Apopka soils are medium acid to very strongly acid through- Included in mapping are small areas of Lucy sand and
out the profile. The Ap and Al horizons are gray to black or Vaucluse sand. small areas of Apopka sand. 0 to 5 percent
grayish brown to very dark grayish brown and 2 to 8 inches slopes, and some areas of fine sand
thick. The A2 horizon is light gray through yellowish brown slopes, and someareas of fine sand.
and reddish yellow to strong brown. It is 38 to 72 inches thick. This soil is suited to most of the same plants that are
The Bt horizon is red to light yellowish-brown sandy loam grown on Apopka sand. 0 to 5 percent slopes. but it is easily
and sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of 80 inches or eroded and requires more intensive management. Slopes
more. Mottling, if present, ranges from few, fine to common, interfere with tillage. irrio action and harvest.
coarse, distinct mottles of red, yellow, and brown. Permeabil- interfere with tillage, irrigation, and harvest
ity in the Bt horizon is moderate to moderately rapid. Areas that have not been farmed are either open pine
Apopka soils are associated with Astatula, Lake, Lucy, forest or. if the trees have been removed, open grassland.
Ocilla, Orlando, Pelham, and Vaucluse soils. The loamy sub- Capability unit IVs-3; Sandhills range site: woodland
soil in Apopka soils is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. It is at a
depth of only 20 to 40 inches in Pelham, Lucy, and Ocilla soils, group 3s2.
and within a depth of 20 inches in Vaucluse soils. Astatula,
Lake. and Orlando soils, in contrast, do not have a loamy sub- Astatula Series
soil. The depth to the water table in Apopka soils is greater
than it is in Pelham or Ocilla soils. The Astatula series consists of excessively drained sandy
Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (ApB).-This is a soils that are on rolling uplands of the central ridge. These
nearly level to gently sloping, well-drained sandy soil that soils formed in thick beds of marine sands.
has a sandy clay loam subsoil at a depth of about 55 inches. In a representative profile, the surface layer is dark-
This soil has the profile described as representative for gray sand about 7 inches thick. The next laver is brown
the series. The water table is at a depth of more than 84 sand to a depth of about 24 inches. It is underlain by
inches. yellowish-brown sand that extends to a depth of 86 inches.
The sandy surface and subsurface layers are rapidly Reaction is medium acid in the surface layer, strongly
permeable and have very low available water capacity acid below this to a depth of about 62 inches, and very
and low organic-matter content. Permeability in the sub- strongly acid at depths between 62 and 86 inches. The
soil is moderate or moderately rapid, and available water water table is at a depth of more than 120 inches.
capacity is medium to high. Natural fertility is low. Astatula soils are rapidly permeable in all layers. Avail-
Included in mapping are small areas that have a sandy able water capacity is very low. The organic-matter con-
clav loam subsoil at a depth of less than 40 inches, a few tent and natural fertility are low.







10 SOIL SURVEY

Apopka Series small areas that are sandy to a depth of more than 80
inches, small areas around sinks or on short breaks where
The Apopka series consists of nearly level to strongly slopes are more than 5 percent. and areas of fine sand.
sloping. well-drained sandy soils that have a loamy sub- This soil is poorly suited to shallow-rooted truck crops.
soil. These soils occur throughout the upland ridge. They flowers, and other annual crops that have high moisture
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediment. and fertility requirements. Irrigation of these crops gen-
In a representative profile, the surface layer is very rally is not feasible. Watermelons are well suited, but
dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layers they require contour cultivation with alternate strips of
are yellowish-brown and light yellowish-brown sand to tall grain, adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime. and
a depth of about 55 inches. The subsoil is red sandy clay occasional irrigation. This soil is well suited to citrus.
loam to a depth of about 84 inches. Reaction is medium Cover crops should be grown between the trees. Irrigation
acid to a depth of about 40 inches, strongly acid to about is beneficial. If adequately fertilized and limed, deep-
55 inches. and very strongly acid in the subsoil. The water rooted tame grasses make good pasture. Grazing should be
table is at a depth of more than 84 inches. carefully controlled.
Apopka soils are rapidly permeable in the sandy hori- Areas that have not been farmed are either open pine
zons and moderately permeable in the loamy subsoil. forest or. if trees have been removed, open grassland.
Available water capacity is very low in the sandy horizons Some of these areas are used for range. The understory
and medium to high in the loamy subsoil. The organic- plants provide good forage for cattle and wildlife. Major
matter content and natural fertility are low. decreaser and increase forage plants are creeping blue-
Representative profile of Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent stem, pineland three-awn. indiangrass, splitbeard blue-
slopes: stem, broomsedge bluestem. and runner oak. Under con-
Ap-0 to 6 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand: weak. tinuous heavy grazing, pricklypear, post oak, blackjack
fine, crumb structure; friable; few fine roots; medium oak. natalgrass, dogfennel. annual grasses, weeds, and other
acid; clear, wavy boundary. less desirable invader plants become dominant. Capability
A21-6 to 40 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) sand; single unit Ills-1: Sandhills range site: woodland group 3s2.
grain: loose; few fine roots; common fine carbon par-
ticles; many uncoated sand grains; medium acid; Apopka sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (ApD).-This is a
gradual, wavy boundary. sloping to strongly sloping, well-drained sandy soil. I'n-
A22-40 to 55 inche-. light ye lowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand; less protected by vegetation, it is readily credible by wind
single grain: loose; many fine roots; few fine carbon an( water. The water table is at a depth of more than
particles; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; 84 .
abrupt, wavy boundary. 84 inches.
Bt-55 to f4 inches, red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; few, The sandy surface and subsurface layers are rapidly
medium, faint mottles of red (10YR 4/8) ; weak, fine, permeable. Available water capacity is very low, and the
subangular blocky structu friale when moist hard organic-matter content is low. The loamy subsoil is mod-
when dry: few fine roots; few discontinuous clay films
on surfaces of peds and pore walls; sand grains are erately permeable or moderately rapidly permeable and
coated and bridged with clay; few fine gravel 2 milli- has medium to high available water capacity. Natural
meters to 10 millimeters; very strongly acid. fertility is low.
Apopka soils are medium acid to very strongly acid through- Included in mapping are small areas of Lucy sand and
out the profile. The Ap and Al horizons are gray to black or Vaucluse sand. small areas of Apopka sand. 0 to 5 percent
grayish brown to very dark grayish brown and 2 to 8 inches slopes, and some areas of fine sand
thick. The A2 horizon is light gray through yellowish brown slopes, and someareas of fine sand.
and reddish yellow to strong brown. It is 38 to 72 inches thick. This soil is suited to most of the same plants that are
The Bt horizon is red to light yellowish-brown sandy loam grown on Apopka sand. 0 to 5 percent slopes. but it is easily
and sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of 80 inches or eroded and requires more intensive management. Slopes
more. Mottling, if present, ranges from few, fine to common, interfere with tillage. irrio action and harvest.
coarse, distinct mottles of red, yellow, and brown. Permeabil- interfere with tillage, irrigation, and harvest
ity in the Bt horizon is moderate to moderately rapid. Areas that have not been farmed are either open pine
Apopka soils are associated with Astatula, Lake, Lucy, forest or. if the trees have been removed, open grassland.
Ocilla, Orlando, Pelham, and Vaucluse soils. The loamy sub- Capability unit IVs-3; Sandhills range site: woodland
soil in Apopka soils is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. It is at a
depth of only 20 to 40 inches in Pelham, Lucy, and Ocilla soils, group 3s2.
and within a depth of 20 inches in Vaucluse soils. Astatula,
Lake. and Orlando soils, in contrast, do not have a loamy sub- Astatula Series
soil. The depth to the water table in Apopka soils is greater
than it is in Pelham or Ocilla soils. The Astatula series consists of excessively drained sandy
Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (ApB).-This is a soils that are on rolling uplands of the central ridge. These
nearly level to gently sloping, well-drained sandy soil that soils formed in thick beds of marine sands.
has a sandy clay loam subsoil at a depth of about 55 inches. In a representative profile, the surface layer is dark-
This soil has the profile described as representative for gray sand about 7 inches thick. The next laver is brown
the series. The water table is at a depth of more than 84 sand to a depth of about 24 inches. It is underlain by
inches. yellowish-brown sand that extends to a depth of 86 inches.
The sandy surface and subsurface layers are rapidly Reaction is medium acid in the surface layer, strongly
permeable and have very low available water capacity acid below this to a depth of about 62 inches, and very
and low organic-matter content. Permeability in the sub- strongly acid at depths between 62 and 86 inches. The
soil is moderate or moderately rapid, and available water water table is at a depth of more than 120 inches.
capacity is medium to high. Natural fertility is low. Astatula soils are rapidly permeable in all layers. Avail-
Included in mapping are small areas that have a sandy able water capacity is very low. The organic-matter con-
clav loam subsoil at a depth of less than 40 inches, a few tent and natural fertility are low.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 11

Representative profile of Astatula sand, dark surface, some areas of loose fine sand in the northern and eastern
0 to 5 percent slopes: parts of the area; some small areas in slight depressions
Ap-0 to 7 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single grain; that have a water table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches; and
loose; common very fine to fine roots; medium acid; small areas where slopes are 5 to 8 percent.
clear, wavy boundary. This soil is poorly suited to shallow-rooted field and
01-7 to 24 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single grain; truck crops and other annual crops that have high mois-
loose; very few medium to fine roots; many uncoated
sand grains; a few very dark grayisli-brown (10YR ture and fertility requirements. It is well suited to water-
3/2) old root channels 1/2 inch to 1 inch in diameter; melons. Melons should be planted on the contour in alter-
few carbon particles; strongly acid; gradual, wavy nate strips with tall grain. They should be fertilized and
2-24 t 6oundarys, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) sand; sing limed and should be irrigated during dry seasons. If well
grain; loose; few fine and medium carbon particles; managed, citrus trees grow well. Much of the acreage is
many uncoated sand grains; a few very dark grayish- planted to citrus. The trees need irrigation, soil improving
brown (10YR 3/2) o'd root channels 1/. inch to 1 cover crops between the trees, and adequate fertilization
inch in diameter; strongly acid; gradual, wavy and lime. The soil is suited to deep-rooted tame grasses, but
boundary.
C3-62 to 86 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) sand; single drought restricts their growth in dry seasons and fertilizer
grain; loose; many uncoated sand grains; very is leached away rapidly by heavy rain. Good pasture
strongly acid. management includes controlled grazing, fertilization,
Astatula soils are very strongly acid to medium acid through- and lime.
out the profile. The Ap and Al horizons are gray to very dark In the few small areas that are not cultivated, the vege-
grayish brown and are 3 to 8 inches thick. In some areas there station is turkey oak, a few scattered longleaf pines, and an
rois and A horizon 3 to 5 nches thick that is mixed gray, understory of grasses and shrubs. The understory plants
brown to yellowish brown. In some areas it is mottled with provide fair forage for cattle and wildlife. Major de-
yellow, brown or red, and in others it contains white sand creaser and increase forage plants are creeping bluestem,
grains and has common to many, fine to coarse mottles of pineland three-awn, indiangrass, splitbeard bluestem,
igrayo white. The combined thickness of the A and C horizons broomsedge bluestem, and runner oak. Pricklypear cactus,
Astatula soi's are associated with Apopka, Lake, Lucy, natalgrass, dogfennel, a variety of annual grasses and
Orlando, Ocilla, Paola, Pelham, and Vaucluse soils. They are weeds, and other less desirable plants become dominant
sandy throughout and do not have the loamy Bt horizon under continuous heavy grazing. Capability unit IVs-1;
within a depth of 80 inches that is present in Apopka, Ocilla, Sandhills range site woodland group 4s3.
Pelham, Lucy, and Vaucluse soils. They do not have the white
A2 horizon that distinguishes Paola soils. They are lighter Astatula sand, dark surface, 5 to 12 percent slopes
colored than Lake soils and do not have as much si't and (AtD).-This is a sloping to strongly sloping, excessively
clay in the uppermost 40 inches. They do not have the thick, drained sandy soil. Its profile is similar to that described
dark-colored A horizon that is typical of Orlando soils, as representative for the series, but the surface layer is
Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (AsB).-This is a generally 1 to 2 inches thinner and in some unprotected
nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil. areas, it is eroded. The water table is at a depth of more
The profile of this soil is similar to that described as rep- than 120 inches.
resentative for the series, but the surface layer is gray sand Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile, and
about 4 inches thick. The water table is at a depth of more available water capacity is very low. The organic-matter
than 120 inches. content and natural fertility are low. The soil is readily
Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile. Avail- erodible by wind and water if it is left without protective
able water capacity and natural fertility are very low. vegetation.
Organic-matter content is low. Included in mapping are small areas of Apopka sand,
Included in mapping are small areas of Paola sand Lake sand, and Lucy sand and in the northern and eastern
and Apopka sand and some areas of fine sand. parts of the Area, some areas of fine sand.
This soil is too porous and dry for most crops. A few This soil is suited to most of the same plants that are
areas are suitable for watermelons, but unless irrigated, grown on Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 5 percent
the crop is seriously affected by drought. This soil is poorly slopes, but it is easily erodible if left unprotected. More
suited to citrus trees and tame grasses. Only a small careful attention to maintenance of a good ground cover
acreage is used for pasture. is needed.
Only a small part is cultivated. The vegetation is sand Slopes complicate cultivation, irrigation, and harvest-
pine, scrub oaks, saw-palmetfos, rosemary, and a sparse ing. This soil is used principally for citrus and improved
growth of the native grasses. This sparse vegetation is of pasture. Only a small acreage is in native vegetation. It
little value for range. Capability unit VIs-1; Sand Scrub is poorly suited to range. Capability unit VIs-2; Sand-
range site; woodland group 5s3. hills range site; woodland group 4s3.
Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 5 percent slopes Astatula sand, dark surface, 12 to 40 percent slopes
(AtB).-This is a nearly level to gently sloping, excessively (AtF).-This is a very steep, excessively drained sandy soil.
drained sandy soil. It is on the undulating upland ridge. It has a profile similar to that described as representative
It has the profile described as representative for the series, for the series, but the surface layer is about 4 inches thin-
The water table is at a depth of more than 120 inches. ner. The water table is at a depth of more than 120 inches.
Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile, and Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile, and
available water capacity is very low. Organic-matter con- available water capacity is very low. The organic-matter
tent and natural fertility are low. content and natural fertility are low. This soil is readily
Included in mapping are small areas of Apopka sand, erodible by wind and water unless it has a protective cover
Lake sand, Lucy sand, Orlando sand, and Vaucluse sand; of vegetation.







12 SOIL SURVEY

Included in mapping are small areas where slopes are as shallow water except during extended dry periods, when the
much as 5 percent, a few small areas of Apopka sand and water table falls to a depth of about 6 inches. In drained areas,
an efficient water-control system maintains the level of the
Lucy sand, and some areas of fine sand. water table at a depth of 12 to 48 inches.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Unprotected Brighton soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka,
areas erode rapidly. Much of the acreage is in small areas Ocoee, and Placid soils. They are organic, whereas Immokalee,
within citrus groves that have been planted on a similar, Myakka, and Placid soils are mineral. They have a fibrous
but less steep soil. These areas are difficult to cultivate, ir- with the organic surface layer of Ocoee soils that is less than
rigate, fertilize, and harvest. Erosion is severe in unpro- 52 inches thick.
tected areas. A close-growing cover crop should be main- Brighton soils (Br).-These are nearly level, very poorly
trained between the trees at all times. Part of the acre- drained, fibrous organic soils. The surface layer is peat
age is in tame grass pasture. The soil is very drought, and and muck. The soils are in low, broad wet areas. They
fertility is difficult to maintain. The native vegetation is have the profile described as representative for the series,
mostly scrub oak and an understory of native grasses and but the surface layer is muck in some places. The water
shrubs. It is of little value for range. Capability unit table is at the surface, and the soils are covered with
VIIs-2; Sandhills range site; woodland group 4s3. shallow water except during extended dry periods, when
the water table falls to a depth of about 6 inches. In drained
Brighton Series areas, the water table is generally maintained at depths
The Brighton series consists of nearly level, very poorly between 12 and 48 inches, depending upon need.
drained, fibrous, organic soils. These soils are in marshes Permeability is rapid, and available water capacity
and swamps and in depressions. Unless drained, they are is very high. Organic-matter content is very high, and
covered with water most of the time. They formed in the natural fertility is moderate. The soils are high in nitro-
remains of fibrous, nonwoody, aquatic plants. gen content but low in other plant nutrients.
In a representative profile, the surface layer is dark Included in mapping are small areas of organic soils
reddish-brown peat about 9 inches thick. It is underlain that have organic layers less than 52 inches thick and
by dark yellowish-brown peat that extends to a depth of small areas of mineral soils.
18 inches. The next layer is dark-brown peat about 22 Excess water is the main limitation. The soils are well
inches thick. It is underlain by dark yellowish-brown peat suited to truck crops and flowers if surface water is con-
that extends to a depth of about 63 inches. Below the peat trolled. Water control provides for removal of excess sur-
face water in wet seasons and supplies subsurface irriga-
layers, and extending to a depth of 75 inches, is grayish- tion in dry seasons. The water table should be lowered
brown coarse sand. The water table is at the surface. only enough to permit healthy root development during
Permeability is rapid, and available water capacity is cropping seasons, and it should be raised again when
very high. The organic-matter content is very high, and crops have been harvested. This practice reduces the rate
natural fertility is moderate. of subsidence by oxidation. These soils are not suited to
Representative profile of Brighton peat: citrus. Tame grasses and clovers grow well, and excellent
Oil-0 to 9 inches, undecomposed organic material (peat), pastures can be maintained. Pastures require surface
dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) rubbed; about 80 drainage, fertilization, lime, and controlled grazing.
percent unrubbed. 40 percent rubbed: massive; sodium Undeveloped areas are natural grasslands. Some are
pyrophosphate extract is light gray (10YR 7/1) ; used for range and produce forage for cattle and wildlife.
estimated 95 percent herbaceous organic material; I orane and ceaer at ar icae
strongly acid; diffuse, wavy boundary. Important decrease and increase plants are maidencane,
0i2-9 to 18 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 3/4) unde- cutgrass, pickerelweed, duckpotato, sedges, rushes, and
composed organic material (peat). dark brown (7.5YR sawgrass. Under continuous heavy grazing, the more de-
3/2) rubbed; about 80 percent fiber unrubbed, 50 per- sirable plants are weakened and replaced by the less de-
cent fiber rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophoslphate sizable ones. Some invaders in heavily grazed areas are
extract is light gray (10YR 7/1) ; estimated 90 percent srable ones. Some invaders in heavily grazed areas are
herbaceous organic material; many fine roots; strongly redroot, willow primrose, Ft. Thompson grass, lizardtail,
acid; diffuse, wavy boundary, and numerous annual grasses and weeds. Sawgrass nat-
Oi3-18 to 40 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2), unrubbed and rally dominates the vegetation in some places. It has
rubbed, undecomposed organic material (peat) ; about little value for range. Capability unit IIIw-2; Fresh
90 percent fiber unrubbed. 45 percent rubbed; massive; little value for range. Capability unit IIIw-2; Fresh
sodium pyrophosphate extract is light gray (10YR Marsh (organic) range site; no woodland classification.
7/1) ; about 90 percent herbaceous material; strongly
acid; diffuse, wavy boundary.
0i4-40 to 63 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 3/4), unde- Cassia Series
composed organic material (peat), very dark brown
(10YR 2/2) rubbed; about 80 percent fiber unrubbed The Cassia series consists of nearly level, somewhat
60 percent fiber rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophos- poorly drained sandy soils that have a layer stained by
phate is light gray (10YR 7/1); about 95 percent or- organic matter. These soils are on low ridges in the flat-
gancid: abrupt smooth boundary.cent herbaceous woods and in depressions or low level areas on the upland
aci:iarts. m u formed r thick beds of sandy marine
IICg--63 to 75 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) coarse sand; ridge. They formed in thick beds of sandy marine
single grain; loose; strongly acid. sediment.
Brighton soils are extremely acid to strongly acid through- In a representative profile, the surface layer is gray
out the profile. The surface layer is 4 to 10 inches thick and is sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light-
black, dark reddish brown, and very dark gray to black. The gray sand to a depth of about 25 inches. The subsoil is
peat horizons below the surface layer are dark reddish brown dray sand toawn sand coated with organic matter and
to dark brown. The organic material extends to a depth of dark reddish-brown sand coated with organic matter and
52 inches or more. The underlying layer is sand to coarse sand. is weakly cemented. It is about 12 inches thick. Below
The water table is at the surface. The soil is covered with this is mottled very pale brown sand to a depth of 80







12 SOIL SURVEY

Included in mapping are small areas where slopes are as shallow water except during extended dry periods, when the
much as 5 percent, a few small areas of Apopka sand and water table falls to a depth of about 6 inches. In drained areas,
an efficient water-control system maintains the level of the
Lucy sand, and some areas of fine sand. water table at a depth of 12 to 48 inches.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Unprotected Brighton soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka,
areas erode rapidly. Much of the acreage is in small areas Ocoee, and Placid soils. They are organic, whereas Immokalee,
within citrus groves that have been planted on a similar, Myakka, and Placid soils are mineral. They have a fibrous
but less steep soil. These areas are difficult to cultivate, ir- with the organic surface layer of Ocoee soils that is less than
rigate, fertilize, and harvest. Erosion is severe in unpro- 52 inches thick.
tected areas. A close-growing cover crop should be main- Brighton soils (Br).-These are nearly level, very poorly
trained between the trees at all times. Part of the acre- drained, fibrous organic soils. The surface layer is peat
age is in tame grass pasture. The soil is very drought, and and muck. The soils are in low, broad wet areas. They
fertility is difficult to maintain. The native vegetation is have the profile described as representative for the series,
mostly scrub oak and an understory of native grasses and but the surface layer is muck in some places. The water
shrubs. It is of little value for range. Capability unit table is at the surface, and the soils are covered with
VIIs-2; Sandhills range site; woodland group 4s3. shallow water except during extended dry periods, when
the water table falls to a depth of about 6 inches. In drained
Brighton Series areas, the water table is generally maintained at depths
The Brighton series consists of nearly level, very poorly between 12 and 48 inches, depending upon need.
drained, fibrous, organic soils. These soils are in marshes Permeability is rapid, and available water capacity
and swamps and in depressions. Unless drained, they are is very high. Organic-matter content is very high, and
covered with water most of the time. They formed in the natural fertility is moderate. The soils are high in nitro-
remains of fibrous, nonwoody, aquatic plants. gen content but low in other plant nutrients.
In a representative profile, the surface layer is dark Included in mapping are small areas of organic soils
reddish-brown peat about 9 inches thick. It is underlain that have organic layers less than 52 inches thick and
by dark yellowish-brown peat that extends to a depth of small areas of mineral soils.
18 inches. The next layer is dark-brown peat about 22 Excess water is the main limitation. The soils are well
inches thick. It is underlain by dark yellowish-brown peat suited to truck crops and flowers if surface water is con-
that extends to a depth of about 63 inches. Below the peat trolled. Water control provides for removal of excess sur-
face water in wet seasons and supplies subsurface irriga-
layers, and extending to a depth of 75 inches, is grayish- tion in dry seasons. The water table should be lowered
brown coarse sand. The water table is at the surface. only enough to permit healthy root development during
Permeability is rapid, and available water capacity is cropping seasons, and it should be raised again when
very high. The organic-matter content is very high, and crops have been harvested. This practice reduces the rate
natural fertility is moderate. of subsidence by oxidation. These soils are not suited to
Representative profile of Brighton peat: citrus. Tame grasses and clovers grow well, and excellent
Oil-0 to 9 inches, undecomposed organic material (peat), pastures can be maintained. Pastures require surface
dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) rubbed; about 80 drainage, fertilization, lime, and controlled grazing.
percent unrubbed. 40 percent rubbed: massive; sodium Undeveloped areas are natural grasslands. Some are
pyrophosphate extract is light gray (10YR 7/1) ; used for range and produce forage for cattle and wildlife.
estimated 95 percent herbaceous organic material; I orane and ceaer at ar icae
strongly acid; diffuse, wavy boundary. Important decrease and increase plants are maidencane,
0i2-9 to 18 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 3/4) unde- cutgrass, pickerelweed, duckpotato, sedges, rushes, and
composed organic material (peat). dark brown (7.5YR sawgrass. Under continuous heavy grazing, the more de-
3/2) rubbed; about 80 percent fiber unrubbed, 50 per- sirable plants are weakened and replaced by the less de-
cent fiber rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophoslphate sizable ones. Some invaders in heavily grazed areas are
extract is light gray (10YR 7/1) ; estimated 90 percent srable ones. Some invaders in heavily grazed areas are
herbaceous organic material; many fine roots; strongly redroot, willow primrose, Ft. Thompson grass, lizardtail,
acid; diffuse, wavy boundary, and numerous annual grasses and weeds. Sawgrass nat-
Oi3-18 to 40 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2), unrubbed and rally dominates the vegetation in some places. It has
rubbed, undecomposed organic material (peat) ; about little value for range. Capability unit IIIw-2; Fresh
90 percent fiber unrubbed. 45 percent rubbed; massive; little value for range. Capability unit IIIw-2; Fresh
sodium pyrophosphate extract is light gray (10YR Marsh (organic) range site; no woodland classification.
7/1) ; about 90 percent herbaceous material; strongly
acid; diffuse, wavy boundary.
0i4-40 to 63 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 3/4), unde- Cassia Series
composed organic material (peat), very dark brown
(10YR 2/2) rubbed; about 80 percent fiber unrubbed The Cassia series consists of nearly level, somewhat
60 percent fiber rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophos- poorly drained sandy soils that have a layer stained by
phate is light gray (10YR 7/1); about 95 percent or- organic matter. These soils are on low ridges in the flat-
gancid: abrupt smooth boundary.cent herbaceous woods and in depressions or low level areas on the upland
aci:iarts. m u formed r thick beds of sandy marine
IICg--63 to 75 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) coarse sand; ridge. They formed in thick beds of sandy marine
single grain; loose; strongly acid. sediment.
Brighton soils are extremely acid to strongly acid through- In a representative profile, the surface layer is gray
out the profile. The surface layer is 4 to 10 inches thick and is sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light-
black, dark reddish brown, and very dark gray to black. The gray sand to a depth of about 25 inches. The subsoil is
peat horizons below the surface layer are dark reddish brown dray sand toawn sand coated with organic matter and
to dark brown. The organic material extends to a depth of dark reddish-brown sand coated with organic matter and
52 inches or more. The underlying layer is sand to coarse sand. is weakly cemented. It is about 12 inches thick. Below
The water table is at the surface. The soil is covered with this is mottled very pale brown sand to a depth of 80







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 13

inches. Reaction is very strongly acid throughout the pro- ing available water and plant nutrients is slight in the
file. The water table is at a depth of about 24 inches. sandy surface layer. The soil is not well suited to citrus
Permeability is moderately rapid at depths between and tame grasses. Deep-rooted plants obtain some water
25 and 37 inches. At depths above 25 inches and below 37 from the water table during dry seasons. Drainage is
inches, the sandy layers are very rapidly permeable. Avail- needed to remove excess water after heavy rain.
able water capacity in the sandy layers is low, organic- Much of the acreage is used for range. Vegetation is
matter content is very low, and natural fertility is low. scrub oaks, palmettos, rosemary, scattered pine trees, and
Between depths of 25 and 37 inches, available water ca- a sparse understory of grasses and shrubs, none of which
pacity is moderate and the organic-matter content is high. provides adequate forage for range. Capability unit VIs-
Representative profile of Cassia sand: 3; Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 4s3.
A1---0 to 4 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain; loose;
many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy Emeralda Series
boundary. Emerald Series
A2-4 to 25 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few, medium,
faint, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) mottles along root chan- The Emeralda series consists of nearly level, poorly
nels; single grain; loose; few fine to medium roots; drained sandy soils that have a clayey subsoil. These soils
very strongly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary, are in broad, low areas, generally near lakes and streams.
B21h-25 to 28 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) sand;
few coarse pockets that are light brownish gray; They formed in clayey marine sediment.
massive; weak'y cemented; sand grains coated with In a representative profile, the surface layer is very
organic matter; many fine roots; very strongly acid; dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
clear, wavy boundary.
B22h-28 to 37 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) sand; layer is grayish-brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
massive; weakly cemented; sand grains coated with subsoil, at a depth of 11 to 26 inches, is a mottled gray
organic matter; very strongly acid; clear, wavy sandy clay. Below this is mottled light-gray sandy clay
boundary.
C-37 to 80 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; com- that extends to a depth of about 66 inches. Except where
mon, medium, brown (10YR 5/3, 4/3) mottles; few, drained, these soils have a water table at the surface most
fine, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; of the year. They are usually flooded during periods of av-
Cassia soils are medium acid to very strongly acid through- erage rainfall.
out the profile. The Al horizon is 3 to 5 inches thick and is Emeralda soils are strongly acid in the surface layer,
light gray or gray. The A2 horizon is 18 to 24 inches thick, medium acid in the subsurface layer, neutral in the sub-
is light gray to white, and has few, fine to medium, faint, soil to a depth of about 26 inches, and moderately alkaline
dark-gray and brown mottles along root channels. A transi-moderately alkaline
tional horizon occurs between the A2 and B21h horizons in between depths of 26 and 66 inches. They are slowly per-
many places. It is less than 2 inches thick and is dark gray meable, have high available water capacity, and have high
to black. In some areas this horizon is discontinuous. The
B21h horizon is black to very dark gray or dark reddish natural fertility. The organic-matter content in the sur-
brown. The B22h horizon is very dark brown to black and face layer is moderately high.
dark reddish brown. The Bh horizon is normally 10 to 18 Representative profile of Emeralda fine sand:
inches thick. It is 1 to 4 percent organic matter. In places
there is a B3 horizon. It is yellowish brown to very dark Ap-0 to 6 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed fine sand;
grayish brown and is 3 to 10 inches thick. The C horizon is weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; many fine
,yellowish brown to white and has few, fine, faint to common, roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
medium, distinct mottles of gray, brown, and yellow. The A2g--6 to 11 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches except during few, fine, faint mottles of dark grayish brown; single
extended dry periods when it falls to a depth of 40 to 60 grain; loose; few fine roots; medium acid; abrupt,
inches. wavy boundary.
Cassia soils are associated with Astatu'a, Immokalee, B21tg-11 to 26 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay; many,
Myakka, Paola, St. Lucie, and Pomello soils. They are more medium, distinct, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) mot-
poorly drained than Astatula, Paola, St. Lucie, and Pomello tles, common, medium, faint, grayish-brown (2.5Y
soils. They are better drained than Immokalee and Myakka 5/2) mottles and few, medium, prominent, red (2.5YR
soils. 4/6) mottles; moderate, medium, angular blocky
Structure; firm, plastic; few fine roots and partially
Cassia sand (Ca).-This is a nearly level, somewhat decomposed root fragments; many shiny ped surfaces
poorly drained soil. The water table is at a depth of 0 to appear to be clay film; few fine lenses of fine sand;
40 inches except during extended dry periods when it falls neutral; clear, wavy boundary.
to a depth of40 to 60 inches. B22tg-26 to 44 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay;
to a depth of 40 to 60 inches. common, medium, distinct, brownish-yellow (10YR
Permeability is very rapid to a depth of about 25 inches; 6/8) mottles; few, fine, prominent mottles of red and
it is moderately rapid in the weakly cemented layer and few, fine, faint, light brownish-gray and gray mottles;
between depths of 37 and 80 inches. The organic- weak, medium, angular blocky structure; very firm,
rapid between depths of 37 and 80 inches. The organic- plastic; shiny ped surfaces, most of which appear to
matter content and available water capacity are very low be clay films; some are pressure faces; few slicken-
except in the layer that is at a depth of 25 to 37 inches. In sides; few fine lenses of fine sand; moderately
alkaline; clear, wavy boundary.
this layer the organic-matter content is moderately high B31g-44 to 56 inches, light-gray (5Y 7/2) sandy clay; many,
and available water capacity is moderate. medium, distinct, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) and
Included in mapping are small areas of soils that have yellwish-b ngraown (10YR 5/8) mottled grayish-br common,
a thin subsoil only lightly stained with organic matter and (10YR 5/2) mottles; massive; firm, plastic; few pres-
areas of soils that have a fine sand texture, sure faces; few medium pockets of white chalky marl
This soil is poorly suited to truck crops, flowers, and and few, small, hard, fine concretions in lower part;
other shallow-rooted crops that have high moisture and dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; moderately alkaline;
fertilizer requirements. The capacity of the soil for hold- clear, wavy boundary.








14 SOIL SURVEY

B32gea-56 to 66 inches, light-gray (5Y 7/2) sandy clay; many, In a representative profile, the surface layer is very
medium to coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR dark grayish-brown loamy fine sand about 5 inches thick.
5/8) and brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles and The subsurface layer is mottled dark grayish-brown loamy
brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; massive; firm, plastic fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsoil is about 82
contains about 15 percent white chalky marl with inches thick. The upper 6 inches is dark-gray clay mottled
few hard lime concretions less than 10 millimeters in with yellowish brown and red. The next 37 inches is gray
size occurring in pockets; few small pressure faces; sandy clay that has red and dark red mottles. The next
many thin lenses of gray Y dark-gray 11 inches s gray sady clay mottled with red, dark red,
(10YR and grayish brown, and the lower 28 inches is gray sandy clay mottled with red, dark red,
Emeralda soils are strongly acid to slightly acid in the A hori- and grayish brown, and the lower 28 inches is gray clay
zon and slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the B horizon, mottled with red and strong brown. The profile is very
The Al or Ap horizon is dark brown to black and 4 to 9 strongly acid throughout. The water table is at a depth
inches thick. The A2 horizon is 4 to 10 inches thick and is of about 6 inches.
light gray to brown. The A horizon is fine sand or loamy fine
sand and is no more than 20 inches thick. The Btg horizon Eureka soils are very slowly permeable. They are high
is gray through light gray and grayish brown through light in available water capacity and medium in natural fertil-
olive gray mottled with gray, yellow, brown, or red. It is sandy ity. The surface layer is moderately high in oranic-
clay or clay. The B3g horizon is sandy clay or clay and con- ty he surface layer is moderately g in organic
tains numerous fragments of hard and soft lime. It is mildly matter content.
alkaline to moderately alkaline. In places it contains sand Representative profile of Eureka loamy fine sand:
lenses. The water table is at or near the surface in wet sea-
sons and is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches in dry seasons. Some A1-0 to 5 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) loamy
areas are covered with shallow water most of the time. fine sand; weak, fine, granular structure; very friable;
Emeralda soils are closely associated with Eureka, Fellow- many fine to coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear,
ship, Iberia, Montverde, and Oklawaha soils. They have a wavy boundary.
sandy A2 horizon that is not present in "Iberia and Fellowship A2-5 to 8 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) loamy fine
soils. They are less acid and have a thicker Al horizon than sand; common, medium, faint mottles of light yellow-
Eureka sol's. They do not have the thick organic horizons ish brown (10YR 6/4), very dark grayish brown (10YR
that are typical of Montverde and Oklawaha soils. 3/2), and dark gray (10YR 4/1), and few, fine, dis-
tinct mottles of yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) ; weak,
Emeralda fine sand (Em).-This is a nearly level, poorly fine, granular structure; very friable; many coarse
drained soil that has a clayey subsoil. It is generally roots; very strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
flooded durino- periods of average rainfall. Except in B21tg-8 to 14 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) clay; many, fine,
drained areas, the water table is at the surface most of the distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) mottles and few,
ear. fine, prominent, red (2.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate,
year. fine and medium, subangular and angular blocky
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface structure; plastic; many fine and medium roots; thin
,layers and is slow in the subsoil. Available water capacity clay films on surfaces of peds, few, fine, vertical,
and natural fertility are high. The surface layer is mod- gray sand lenses along root channels and between
and natural fertility are high. The surface layer is mod-peds; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
erately high in organic-matter content. B22tg-14 to 51 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay; com-
Included in mapping are small areas of Iberia sandy mon, fine and medium, prominent, red (2.5YR 4/6)
clay, areas of soils that have a sandy surface layer 20 to and dark-red (10YR 3/6) mottles; moderate, fine and
40 inches thick, and areas of soils that have a sand medium, angular and subangular blocky structure;
40 inches thick, and areas o soils that have a sand plastic; thin clay films on surfaces of peds; few, fine,
surface layer. vertical, gray sand lenses along root channels and
This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops. It is wet between peds; very strongly acid; diffuse, wavy
and subject to frequent flooding. Adequate flood control boundary.
B23tg-51 to 62 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay; many,
measures and drainage are generally not feasible. In a medium, prominent, red (2.hYR 4/6) and dark-red
few small areas where drainage and protection from (10YR 3/6) mottles and few, fine, faint, grayish-
flooding are feasible the soil is well suited to truck crops brown mottles; strong, fine and medium, angular and
and flowers. Tame grasses and clovers are suited, but they subangular blocky structure; plastic; few fine roots;
re surface drainage. Improved pastures reir thin clay films on ped surfaces; few, fine to medium,
require surface drainage. Improved pastures reqre e vertical, gray sand lenses along root channels and be-
fertilization and controlled grazing. At times they are tween peds; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy
severely damaged by extended flooding, boundary.
Only a small acreage is cultivated. The vegetation is B24tg-62 to 90 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) clay; common, me-
dium, prominent mottles of dusky red (10R 3/4),
mainly grasses, sedges, and rushes. Some areas are used weak red (10R 4/2), red (10R 5/8), strong brown
for range and provide good forage for cattle and wildlife. (7.5YR 5/8), and reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) and
Decreaser and increase forage plants are maidencane, few, medium, faint mottles of light brownish gray
cutgrass, beaked panicum, and sand cordgrass. If the (10YR 6/2) ; few, fine, prominent, vertical, red streaks
range is overgrazed, the better forage plants are relacd along root channels; strong, fine and medium, angular
range is overgrazed, the better forage plants are replaced and subangular blocky structure; plastic; few fine
by pickerelweed, redroot, smartweed, iris, broadleaf carpet- roots and a few extremely fine hairlike roots of fila-
grass, annual grasses and weeds, and other less desirable ments along surfaces of peds; thin clay fibers on ped
plants. Capability unit Vw-1; Fresh Marsh (mineral) surfaces; few vertical streaks and pockets of gray
range site; woodland group 2w3c. (10YR 5/1) sand '% inch to 1 inch in width; very
strongly acid.
Eureka Series Eureka soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid in all
horizons. The Al horizon is 2 to 6 inches thick. It ranges from
grayish-brown to black fine sand or loamy fine sand. The
The Eureka series consists of nearly level, poorly A2 horizon is light-gray to dark-gray or light grayish-brown
drained sandy soils that have a clayey subsoil. These soils to dark grayish-brown fine sand or loamy fine sand. It ranges
are in low areasor in depressions. They formed in acid, in thickness from 2 to 16 inches. The A horizon is no more than
clayey marine sediment. 20 inches thick. The Btg horizon is light-gray to dark-gray
sandy clay or clay that is distinctly mottled with red, brown,







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 15
15
and yellow. Structure ranges from moderate to strong, from line, and the marly clay layer is moderately alkaline. The
fine to medium, and from subangular to angular blocky. In water table is at a depth of about 10 inches.
places, a massive Cg horizon occurs beneath the Btg horizon.
It is light-gray to dark-gray sandy clay or clay and has few Felda soils are rapidly permeable in the sandy layers,
to common mottles of yellow, brown, or red. In places, sand moderately permeable in the loamy layers, and slowly
pockets are in sufficient quantity to make an aggregate texture permeable in the marly clay layer. Available water ca-
of sandy clay loam in the Cg horizon. permeable in the marly cly layer. Available water ca-
Eureka soils are associated with Brighton, Emeralda, Iberia pacity is low in the sandy surface layer and moderate in
Montverde, and Oklawaha soils. They are mineral soils, but the loamy layers. Natural fertility is moderate, and the
Brighton, Montverde, and Oklawaha soils are organic. They organic-matter content is low.
have a thinner Al horizon and are more acid than Emeralda Representative profile of Felda fine sand:
and Iberia soils.
Eureka loamy fine sand (Eu).-This is a nearly level, Al-0 to 3 inches, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed fine sand; weak,
Poorly drained soil that hais a nclaae subsoil y lt, fine, granular structure; very friable; many fine to
poorly drained soil that has a clayey subsoil. It occupies coarse roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
low areas. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches A2-3 to 25 inches. gray (10YR 5/1) rubbed fine sand; single
during periods of average rainfall. During dry periods, grain; loose; many fine to coarse roots; strongly acid;
it is at a depth of 10 to 20 inches, abrupt, wavy boundary.
Permeability is very slow, available water capacity is B21tg-25 to 30 inches, ark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy loam;
Permeability is very slow, available water capacity is few, fine and medium, faint mottles of brown (7.bYR
high, and natural fertility is medium. The surface layer 5/2), dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2), and very dark
is moderately high in organic-matter content. gray (N 3/0); weak, fine and medium, subangular
Included in ~ma ing are small areas of Iberia sandy blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky; common
Included in mapping are small areas of Ibria sandy fine to coarse roots; few fine and medium sand lenses;
clay and Emeralda fine sand and small areas of soils that few fine and medium pockets of sandy clay loam;
have a sandy surface layer that is 20 to 40 inches thick mildly alkaline; clear, wavy boundary.
over a clayey subsoil. B22tg-30 to 38 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) heavy fine sandy
loam; common, medium, faint mottles of gray (10YR
This soil is not suited to general farm crops and citrus. 5/1) and very dark gray (10YR 3/1) ; weak, fine and
Providing adequate drainage for these crops is imprac- medium, subangular blocky structure; friable, sticky;
tical because there are no good drainage outlets and per- few fine stains of dark brown and dark yellowish
meability is very low. The soil is suited to truck crops and brown along root channels; common fine and medium
meability roots; common fine sand lenses; mildly alkaline; clear,
flowers if surface drainage is provided, but there is a haz- wavy boundary.
ard of occasional crop failure because of flooding. Only a B23tg-38 to 56 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay loam;
small acreage is cultivated. Much of the acreage is used for many, medium, faint mottles of very dark gray (10YR
improved pasture. In these areas a reliable means for the 3/1) and gray (10YR 5/1) and few, fine and medium,
improved pasture. In these areas a reliable means faint mottles of dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2);
rapid removal of surface water after rain is needed. In weak, fine and medium, subangular blocky structure;
addition, grazing should be controlled, and complete fer- firm, sticky; few fine stains of dark reddish brown
tilizers must be applied regularly. and dark yellowish brown along root channels; com-
Most undeveloped areas are open forest of longleaf pine, mabon upine and medium sand lenses; mildly alkaline;
slash pine, and in places, cabbage palm. Understory IICca-56 to 60 inches, olive-gray (5Y 5/2) marly clay; few,
grasses and shrubs provide forage for cattle and wildlife medium, faint mottles of light olive gray; massive;
if the wooded areas are used for range. The amount of very firm, very sticky; 10 percent dark-gray pockets
forage depends on the amount of tree cover and the extent of fine sandy clay loam and fine sandy loam; 50 per-
forage depends on cent marl; moderately alkaline.
of grazing. The major forage plants are creeping bluestem, Felda soils are strongly acid to slightly acid in the A2 horizon
indiangrass, little blue maidencane, Florida paspalum, and neutral to mildly acid in the tg horizon. The A horizon
pineland three-awn, tall panicums, deerstongue, swamp is 3 to 4 inches thick and very dark grayish brown to black.
sunflower, grassleaf goldaster, milkpeas, and peavines. The A2 horizon is light gray to dark gray or light brownish
In areas that are overgrazed, saw-palmetto, gallberry, gray to dark grayish brown. These horizons are mottled with
fetterbush, broadleaf carpetgrass, and annual grasses and gray and brown in some places. The A horizon is a fine sand 17
weedbeom, e rdo a t and r e fs p ion. to 27 inches thick. The Btg horizon is fine sandy loam to
weeds become dominant and reduce forage production. sandy clay loam 30 to 36 inches thick. It is dark gray to very
Capability unit IIIw-1; Acid Flatwoods range site; wood- dark gray or dark grayish brown to very dark grayish brown.
land group 2w3c. In places the sand lenses are absent and in places the B22tg
and B23tg horizons are absent. The IICca horizon is light gray
to gray, light brownish gray to grayish brown, or light olive
Felda Series gray to olive gray. It ranges from fine sand to clay and is more
than 45 percent marl, lime nodules, or shell fragments. The
The Felda series consists of nearly level, poorly drained IICea horizon is below a depth of 50 inches. The water table
soils that have a sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil. is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches for 6 months or more each year
eso ils arae in sl ly e ateand is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months. These
These soils are in slightly elevated areas bordering sloughs soils are frequently covered by shallow water.
and ponds. They formed in stratified sandy and loamy ma- Felda soils are closely associated with Immokalee, Myakka,
rine sediment Wauchula, and Wabasso soils. They are less acid and do not
have the Bh horizon stained with organic matter that is typical
In a representative profile, the surface layer is black of the associated soils.
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray Felda fine sand (Fd).-This is a nearly level, poorly
fine sand about 22 inches thick. The subsoil is about 31 drained soil in narrow sloughs and depressions and slightly
inches thick. The uppermost 13 inches is mottled dark-gray elevated areas bordering sloughs and depressions. It is
fine sandy loam and the next 18 inches is mottled dark- occasionally covered with shallow water. The water table
gray sandy clay loam. Below the subsoil is a layer of olive- is commonly at a depth of 10 to 30 inches, but is within a
gray marly clay. The sandy surface layer and subsurface depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months during the rainy
layer are strongly acid. The loamy subsoil is mildly alka- season.







16 SOIL SURVEY

This soil is rapidly permeable in the sandy layers, mod- 4/4) along root channels; weak, medium and fine,
erately permeable in the loamy subsoil, and slowly permea- granular structure; friable; few fine roots and com-
erael permeal mon, fine, partially decomposed roots; few earthworms
ble in the underlying marly clay. It has low available water and worm channels; very strongly acid; abrupt, wavy
capacity in the sand layers and medium available water boundary.
capacity in the subsoil. It is moderate in natural fertility B1tg-6 to 30 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam;
and low in organic-matter content. common, fine and medium, prominent mottles of yel-
Included in mapping are small areas of soils that have a lowish red (5YR 4/6), reddish yellow (5YR 6/8), and
incluzeo in mapping are 0 small areas o sois ta ave a dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) ; moderate, medium, sub-
Btg horizon at a depth of 12 to 20 inches, small areas of angular and angular blocky structure; firm, plastic;
Wabasso sand, some areas of Felda soil that has a sand very fine roots; surface of peds is somewhat shiny;
texture, and a few areas that have fine sand at a depth of 40 very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
to 80 inches. B21tg-30 to 58 inches, mottled dark-gray (10YR 4/1) and
gray (10YR 5/1) clay; common, medium, prominent
This soil is suitable for truck crops, flowers, and other mottles of yellowish red (5YR 4/6) along old root
shallow-rooted crops that tolerate wetness. These crops channels; moderate, medium, angular blocky struc-
require reliable surface drainage that will remove excess ture; firm, plastic; few fine and medium pockets of
dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sandy loam; medium
water soon after a rain. They should be rotated with soil- acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
improving cover crops. Fertilization is needed. In areas B22tg-58 to 62 inches, mottled dark-gray (N 4/0), gray
where deep drainage is practical, this soil is suited to citrus, (N 5/0), and very dark gray (N 3/0) clay; common,
but the trees are subject to occasional severe damage by fine and medium, prominent mottles of yellowish red
freezing in winter. Good grove management includes ferti- (YR 4/6) along old root channels; weak, medium,
angular blocky structure; firm, plastic; moderately
lization, cover crops between the trees, and deep drainage alkaline.
to assure good internal drainage at all times. Good pasture Fellowship soils are very strongly acid to strongly acid in
of tame grasses and clovers can be maintained by surface the Al, Ap, and Bitg horizons, very strongly acid to medium
drainage, fertilization, and controlled grazing. acid in the B21tg horizon, and mildly alkaline to moderately
Most of the acreage is in grassy vegetation, and much alkaline in the B22tg horizon. The Al and Ap horizons are
4 to 8 inches thick and range from very dark gray to black or
of it is used as range. If well managed, it produces good very dark grayish brown to very dark gray. The Bltg horizon
forage. On range in good condition, the important de- is very dark gray to black and is 18 to 24 inches thick. The
creaser and increase grasses are maidencane, cutgrass, B21tg horizon is gray to dark gray or mottled dark gray and
beaked panicum, cordgrass, perennial sedges, and rushes, gray sandy clay to clay. It is 15 to 30 inches thick. The B22tg
horizon is gray to very dark gray sandy clay or clay mottled
Under continuous heavy grazing, pickerelweed, redroot, with red, brown, and yellow. In places there are gray mottles
smartweed, iris, broadleaf carpetgrass, and numerous an- with a greenish cast. The water table is within a depth of 10
nual grasses and weeds invade and become dominant. Ca- inches for more than 6 months in most years. The soil is
ability unit IIIw-1; Fresh Marsh (mineral) range site; frequently covered with shallow water.
woodland group 3w2.v Fellowship soils are associated with Eureka, Emeralda, and
woodland group 3w2. Iberia soils. They have a thicker, darker colored surface layer
than Eureka soils. They are more acid in the uppermost 50
Fellowship Series inches of the profile than Emeralda and Iberia soils. They do
not have the A2 horizon that is typical of Emeralda and
The Fellowship series consists of nearly level, poorly Eureka soils.
drained soils that have a dominantly clayey subsoil. These Fellowship fine sandy loam, ponded (Fe).-This is a
soils are mostly in small depressions. They formed in thick nearly level, poorly drained loamy soil. The water table is
beds of clayey marine sediment, within a depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months in
In a representative profile, the surface layer is very dark most years. The soil is frequently covered with shallow
grayish-brown fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The water.
subsoil is 56 inches thick. The uppermost 24 inches is This soil is moderately permeable in the surface layer
mottled black sandy clay loam. The next 28 inches is and very slowly permeable in the subsoil. Natural fertility
mottled dark-gray and gray clay, and the lower 4 inches is and organic-matter content are high, and available water
mottled dark-gray, gray, and very dark gray clay. Reac- capacity is medium.
tion is very strongly acid to a depth of about 30 inches, Included in mapping are small areas that have a surface
medium acid from about 30 to 58 inches, and moderately layer of organic material 2 to 12 inches thick and small
alkaline below a depth of 58 inches. The water table is areas that have a fine sand surface layer.
within a depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months in This soil is not suitable for cultivation. Providing ade-
most years, and the soils are frequently covered with q u ate drainage is impractical because of the very slow
shallow water. quate draiage is impractical because of the very slow
Fellowship soils are moderately permeable in the sur- permeability and ponding. The soil is well suited to tame
face layer and very slowly permeable in the subsoil. Avail- grasses and clovers if surface drainage is provided. Pas-
able water capacity is moderate. The organic-matter tures should not be overgrazed. They should be fertilized
content and natural fertility are moderately high. occasionally.
Representative profile of Fellowship fine sandy loam, This soil is not extensive, and few areas are large enough
pounded: for independent development. Most areas are in native
Sto 6 Inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) fine grass and are used for range. On range in good condition,
sandy loam, matrix is of fine sandy clay, containing the important decreaser and increase grasses are maiden-
manypockets of dark-grne sand, which makes aggreay YR 5/1) cane, cutgrass, beaked panicum, and cordgrass. Perennial
ture of fine sandy loam when crushed and mixod: sedges and rushes provide additional forage. Under con-
many, medium, faint mottles of very dark gray (loYR tinuous heavy grazing, these plants are replaced by
3/1), few, fine, mottles of dark yellowish brown (10YR pickerelweed, redroot, smartweed, iris, broadleaf carpet-







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 17

grass, numerous annual grasses and weeds,. and other plastic; few, fine, partially decomposed root frag-
invader plants. Capability unit Vw-1; Fresh Marsh ments; few pressure faces and slickensides; mod-
mineral) range site; woodland group 2w3c. erately alkaline; clear, wavy boundary.
(mineral) range site; woodland group w3c. Cca-54 to 60 inches, mixture of 60 percent white chalky marl
and 40 percent sandy clay that is mottled with yellow,
Fill Land, Loamy. Materials brown, and gray; massive; marl is friable when moist,
slightly hard when dry; sandy clay is firm when moist
Fill land, loamy materials (Fm) consists of loamy soil and hard when dry; few, fine, partially decomposed
material that has been mixed, reworked, and leveled or root fragments; moderately alkaline.
shaped by earth-moving equipment. It is mostly 12 to 60 Iberia soils are medium acid to neutral in the A horizon,
inches thick. There is no orderly sequence of layers. The slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the Bg horizon, and
inches thick, Tmildly alkaline in the Cca horizon. The A horizon is sandy clay
material is highly variable within short distances. Some 10 to 20 inches thick. The Bg horizon is gray to very dark gray
areas are filled with material from adjacent areas, and sandy clay or clay and contains lime concretions in some places.
others are filled with various materials from distant areas. The ca horizon commonly consists of white chalky marl and
The dominant texture is sandy loam to sandy clay loam. mottled clay or sandy clay in varying proportions. In some
The dominant texture is sandy loam to sandy clay loa. places the marl is shelly rather than chalky. In other places
The water table is at a depth of about 30 to 60 inches ex- sandy pockets are present in this horizon. Also in places there
cept in the low-lying areas, where it is at a depth of 10 to is a noncalcareous Cg horizon, instead of the Cca horizon, that
30 inches, and in a few dry areas, where it is at a depth of is commonly mottled gray sandy clay to fine sandy clay loam
more than 60 inches and contains pockets of sandy materials. Iberia soils crack
more than 60 inches. during dry seasons. The cracks are at least I centimeter wide
Fill land, loamy materials, is used mainly for building and extend to a depth of as much as 20 inches. The water table
sites, recreational areas, parking lots, and roadbeds. Soil is at the surface or just beneath it most of the year. During pe-
properties are so variable that onsite determination is riods of drought it falls to a depth of about 26 inches.
The Iberia soils mapped in the Lake County Area have
needed in each area. No capability unit, range site, or slightly higher temperatures than are defined for the Iberia
woodland classification. series, but this difference does not alter their usefulness and
behavior.
Iberia soils occur in association with Anclote, Emeralda,
Iberia Series Fellowship, Manatee, Montverde, and Oklawaha soils. They do
not have the thick sand surface layer that is typical of Anclote
The Iberia series consists of nearly level, poorly drained and Manatee soils. They do not have the Btg horizon that is
clayey soils. These soils are in broad areas near lakes and typical of Emeralda and Fellowship soils. They are mineral
on the flood plains of the St. Johns and Wekiva Rivers. soils in contrast with Montverde and Oklawaha soils, which are
They formed in beds of clayey marine and fluvial organic.
materials. Iberia sandy clay (Ib).-This is a nearly level, poorly
In a representative profile, the surface layer is black drained soil in broad areas near lakes. The water table is
sandy clay about 15 inches thick. The subsoil is 39 inches at the surface, except during dry periods when it is at a
thick. The uppermost 25 inches is dark-gray sandy clay, depth of about 26 inches. During wet seasons this soil is
and the lower 14 inches is heavy sandy clay mottled with covered by shallow water.
gray, yellowish brown, and yellowish red. At a depth of 54 Iberia sandy clay is very slowly permeable. It has
medium to high available water capacity, high natural
inches is a mixed layer of white chalky marl and mottled fertility, and high organic-matter content.
sandy clay that is more than 6 inches thick. The soils are Included in mapping are small areas of Oklawaha muck
medium acid in the surface layer, slightly acid below the and Montverde muck and small areas of soils that have a
surface to a depth of about 40 inches, and moderately sand to fine sandy loam surface layer.
alkaline in the rest of the profile. The water table is at the This soil is poorly suited to row crops and it is too wei
surface, and the soils are frequently covered with shallow and cold for citrus. Providing adequate drainage and flood
water. control for row crops and citrus is not feasible. The soil
Iberia soils are very slowly permeable. Available water is suited to tame grasses and clovers, and much of the acre-
capacity is medium, and natural fertility and the organic- age is used for improved pasture. Pastures should be pro-
matter content are high. tected from flooding and from overgrazing, and they
Representative profile of Iberia sandy clay: should be fertilized occasionally.
Al-0 to 15 inches, black (N 2/0) sandy clay; weak, medium, Areas that have not been developed are in native grass
subangular blocky structure breaking to weak, medium' vegetation and are used as range. The vegetation is mainly
and fine, granular in the upper part; firm, very hard, cordgrass, primrose willow, pickerelweed, iris, redroot, and
plastic; many coarse roots; medium acid; clear, wavy annual grasses and weeds. Capability unit Vw-1; Fresh
boundary. Marsh (mineral) range site: woodland group 2w3c.
B21g-15 to 40 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay; few,
fine, faint, gray mottles; common fine stains of yel- Iberia and Manatee soils (Im).-This mapping unit
lowish red (5YR 5/8), very dark gray (10YR 3/1), consists of nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly
and black (10YR 2/1) along root channels; moderate, drained soils on flood plains of the St. Johns and Wekiva
medium, angular blocky structure; firm, plastic; com- Rivers. The flood plain is dissected by meanders of old
mon partially decomposed root fragments; few fine c n s s o ;t
lenses of fine and medium sand; few pressure faces; channels, sloughs, swamps, and marshes. The composition
slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary. of this unit is more variable than that of most other units
B22g-40 to 54 inches, reticulately mottled dark-gray (N 4/0), in the county, but the component soils are enough alike to
gray (N 5/0), olive-gray (5Y 5/2 and 5Y 4/2), yellow-
ish-brown (10YR 5/6), yellowish-red (5YR 4/8), very permit interpretations for most expected uses. These soils
dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2), and greenish-gray are flooded for more than 2 months during most years.
(5G 5/1) sandy clay; few, fine, black and very dark They are the first to flood during periods of high water
gray stains along root channels; weak, medium,
angular and subangular blocky structure; very firm, and the last to dry out as the water recedes.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 17

grass, numerous annual grasses and weeds,. and other plastic; few, fine, partially decomposed root frag-
invader plants. Capability unit Vw-1; Fresh Marsh ments; few pressure faces and slickensides; mod-
mineral) range site; woodland group 2w3c. erately alkaline; clear, wavy boundary.
(mineral) range site; woodland group w3c. Cca-54 to 60 inches, mixture of 60 percent white chalky marl
and 40 percent sandy clay that is mottled with yellow,
Fill Land, Loamy. Materials brown, and gray; massive; marl is friable when moist,
slightly hard when dry; sandy clay is firm when moist
Fill land, loamy materials (Fm) consists of loamy soil and hard when dry; few, fine, partially decomposed
material that has been mixed, reworked, and leveled or root fragments; moderately alkaline.
shaped by earth-moving equipment. It is mostly 12 to 60 Iberia soils are medium acid to neutral in the A horizon,
inches thick. There is no orderly sequence of layers. The slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the Bg horizon, and
inches thick, Tmildly alkaline in the Cca horizon. The A horizon is sandy clay
material is highly variable within short distances. Some 10 to 20 inches thick. The Bg horizon is gray to very dark gray
areas are filled with material from adjacent areas, and sandy clay or clay and contains lime concretions in some places.
others are filled with various materials from distant areas. The ca horizon commonly consists of white chalky marl and
The dominant texture is sandy loam to sandy clay loam. mottled clay or sandy clay in varying proportions. In some
The dominant texture is sandy loam to sandy clay loa. places the marl is shelly rather than chalky. In other places
The water table is at a depth of about 30 to 60 inches ex- sandy pockets are present in this horizon. Also in places there
cept in the low-lying areas, where it is at a depth of 10 to is a noncalcareous Cg horizon, instead of the Cca horizon, that
30 inches, and in a few dry areas, where it is at a depth of is commonly mottled gray sandy clay to fine sandy clay loam
more than 60 inches and contains pockets of sandy materials. Iberia soils crack
more than 60 inches. during dry seasons. The cracks are at least I centimeter wide
Fill land, loamy materials, is used mainly for building and extend to a depth of as much as 20 inches. The water table
sites, recreational areas, parking lots, and roadbeds. Soil is at the surface or just beneath it most of the year. During pe-
properties are so variable that onsite determination is riods of drought it falls to a depth of about 26 inches.
The Iberia soils mapped in the Lake County Area have
needed in each area. No capability unit, range site, or slightly higher temperatures than are defined for the Iberia
woodland classification. series, but this difference does not alter their usefulness and
behavior.
Iberia soils occur in association with Anclote, Emeralda,
Iberia Series Fellowship, Manatee, Montverde, and Oklawaha soils. They do
not have the thick sand surface layer that is typical of Anclote
The Iberia series consists of nearly level, poorly drained and Manatee soils. They do not have the Btg horizon that is
clayey soils. These soils are in broad areas near lakes and typical of Emeralda and Fellowship soils. They are mineral
on the flood plains of the St. Johns and Wekiva Rivers. soils in contrast with Montverde and Oklawaha soils, which are
They formed in beds of clayey marine and fluvial organic.
materials. Iberia sandy clay (Ib).-This is a nearly level, poorly
In a representative profile, the surface layer is black drained soil in broad areas near lakes. The water table is
sandy clay about 15 inches thick. The subsoil is 39 inches at the surface, except during dry periods when it is at a
thick. The uppermost 25 inches is dark-gray sandy clay, depth of about 26 inches. During wet seasons this soil is
and the lower 14 inches is heavy sandy clay mottled with covered by shallow water.
gray, yellowish brown, and yellowish red. At a depth of 54 Iberia sandy clay is very slowly permeable. It has
medium to high available water capacity, high natural
inches is a mixed layer of white chalky marl and mottled fertility, and high organic-matter content.
sandy clay that is more than 6 inches thick. The soils are Included in mapping are small areas of Oklawaha muck
medium acid in the surface layer, slightly acid below the and Montverde muck and small areas of soils that have a
surface to a depth of about 40 inches, and moderately sand to fine sandy loam surface layer.
alkaline in the rest of the profile. The water table is at the This soil is poorly suited to row crops and it is too wei
surface, and the soils are frequently covered with shallow and cold for citrus. Providing adequate drainage and flood
water. control for row crops and citrus is not feasible. The soil
Iberia soils are very slowly permeable. Available water is suited to tame grasses and clovers, and much of the acre-
capacity is medium, and natural fertility and the organic- age is used for improved pasture. Pastures should be pro-
matter content are high. tected from flooding and from overgrazing, and they
Representative profile of Iberia sandy clay: should be fertilized occasionally.
Al-0 to 15 inches, black (N 2/0) sandy clay; weak, medium, Areas that have not been developed are in native grass
subangular blocky structure breaking to weak, medium' vegetation and are used as range. The vegetation is mainly
and fine, granular in the upper part; firm, very hard, cordgrass, primrose willow, pickerelweed, iris, redroot, and
plastic; many coarse roots; medium acid; clear, wavy annual grasses and weeds. Capability unit Vw-1; Fresh
boundary. Marsh (mineral) range site: woodland group 2w3c.
B21g-15 to 40 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay; few,
fine, faint, gray mottles; common fine stains of yel- Iberia and Manatee soils (Im).-This mapping unit
lowish red (5YR 5/8), very dark gray (10YR 3/1), consists of nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly
and black (10YR 2/1) along root channels; moderate, drained soils on flood plains of the St. Johns and Wekiva
medium, angular blocky structure; firm, plastic; com- Rivers. The flood plain is dissected by meanders of old
mon partially decomposed root fragments; few fine c n s s o ;t
lenses of fine and medium sand; few pressure faces; channels, sloughs, swamps, and marshes. The composition
slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary. of this unit is more variable than that of most other units
B22g-40 to 54 inches, reticulately mottled dark-gray (N 4/0), in the county, but the component soils are enough alike to
gray (N 5/0), olive-gray (5Y 5/2 and 5Y 4/2), yellow-
ish-brown (10YR 5/6), yellowish-red (5YR 4/8), very permit interpretations for most expected uses. These soils
dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2), and greenish-gray are flooded for more than 2 months during most years.
(5G 5/1) sandy clay; few, fine, black and very dark They are the first to flood during periods of high water
gray stains along root channels; weak, medium,
angular and subangular blocky structure; very firm, and the last to dry out as the water recedes.







18 SOIL 'SURVEY

About 29 percent of this unit is Iberia sandy clay, about B21h--38 to 45 inches, black (5YR 2/1) sand; few fine tongues
21 percent is Manatee fine sand, about 28 percent is soils of of dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2); moderate, fine to
medium, granular structure; firm, weakly cemented;
the Anclote, Felda, and Emeralda series, and about 22 per-' few small pockets and fine streaks of light brownish
cent is an unnamed soil. The Iberia, Manatee, Anclote, gray (10YR 6/2) ; sand grains are well coated with
Felda, and Emeralda soils have a profile similar to that de- organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy
scribed as representative for their respective series. The boundB22h-45 ary.ches, dark reddish-brown (YR 3/) sand;
unnamed soil has a black loamy fine sand surface layer few, medium, distinct, vertical tongues of very dark
about 8 inches thick and a black, very dark gray, and light- brown (10YR 2/2) and dark brown (10YR 3/3);
gray sandy clay loam subsoil. The subsoil is mottled. The weak, fine, granular structure; firm, weakly cemented;
solum is more than 62 inches thick. The water table is at sand grains are well coated with organic matter; very
the surface most of the year. strongly apid; gradual, smooth boundary.
the surface most of the year. B33-56 to 68 inches, dark yellowish-brown (10YR 4/4) sand;
The soils of this mapping unit are covered with dense common, coarse, faint, vertical streaks of brown
swamp vegetation. Because of this heavy vegetation and (10YR 5/3) and dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) ;
the very slow permeability of the Iberia soils, development single grain; loose; 15 percent medium to coarse frag-
ments of dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) that are
of the soils for cultivated crops or pasture is not practical. weakly cemented; very strongly acid.
These areas of dense vegetation provide shelter and some Immokalee soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid
browse for cattle and wildlife. The vegetation is wetland throughout the profile. The Al horizon is a mixture of dark-
hardwoods, cypress, black pine, cabbage palms, and numer- gray organic matter and light-gray clean sand about 3 to 6
ous kinds of shrubs, vines, and grasses. Capability unit inches thick. It has a salt-and-pepper appearance. The A2 hori-
VIIw-1; Swamp range site; woodland group 2w3c. zon is white to dark-gray sand to fine sand 27 to 44 inches
thick. Along root channels it is mottled or streaked with gray
and brown. Transitional horizons % inch to 1% inches thick
Immokalee Series are commonly between the A and B horizons. These are gray-
ish brown t6 black and have many uncoated sand grains. The
The Immokalee series consists of nearly level, poorly B21h horizon is black to dark reddish-brown or very dark
drained sandy soils. These soils are in broad areas in the brown sand or fine sand 5 to 14 inches thick. The B22h horizon
flatwoods and in low areas between sand ridges and lakes, is dark-brown to dark reddish-brown sand or fine sand 6 to 11
flatwoods and in low areas between sand ridges and lakes, inches thick. The B3 horizon is dark yellowish-brown to dark-
ponds, and sloughs. They formed in beds of marine sands, brown sand or fine sand. The B3-Bh horizon has colors like
In a representative profile, the surface layer is black those of the B3 horizon but also has weakly cemented, dark-
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 34 brown or dark reddish-brown scattered fragments that are
S i t i. similar to the Bh material. The water table normally is at a
inches thick. It is light brownish-gray sand in the upper- depth of 10 to 40 inches, but is within a depth of 10 inches for
most 8 inches and is white sand in the lower 26 inches. The 1 to 2 months during wet seasons and is below a depth of
subsoil is 30 inches thick. It is black in the uppermost 7 40 inches after extended dry seasons.
inches and is dark reddish-brown sand in the middle 11 Immokalee soils occur in association with Astatula, Myakka,
inches. These layers ar weakly cemented, and the snd Ona, Paola, Pelham, Pomello, Pompano, Placid, St. Lucie, and
inches. These layers are weakly cemented, and the sand Wabasso soils. Immokalee soils are not so well drained as
grains are well coated or stained with organic matter. The Astatula, Paola, Pelham, Pompano, and St. Lucie soils. They
lower 12 inches is dark yellowish-brown sand that is about are better drained and have a thinner black surface layer
15 percent medium to coarse fragments that are weakly than Placid soils. They are wetter than Pomello soils and have
cemented. These soils are very strongly acid throughout. a darker colored Al horizon. They have a thicker A2 horizon
cemented. ese soils are very strongly acid throughout. than Myakka and Ona soils, and they do not have a Bt horizon
The water table is normally at a depth of about 30 inches, underlying the Bh horizon as do Wabasso soils.
Immokalee soils are moderately permeable in the weakly Immokalee sand (Is).-This is a nearly level, poorly
cemented layers and rapidly permeable in all other layers. drained soil that has a layer at a depth of 30 inches or
They have medium available water capacity, moderately more that is stained by organic matter. The water table is
high organic-matter content, and low natural fertility in normally at a depth of 10 to 40 inches. It is within a depth
the weakly cemented layers. They have very low available of 10 inches for 1 to 2 months during rainy seasons and
water capacity and very low natural fertility in the sur- falls below 40 inches during prolonged drought.
face and subsurface layers and in the layer that is at a Immokalee sand is moderately permeable in the weakly
depth of 56 to 68 inches. These layers, except the surface cemented layer, at depths between 38 and 56 inches, and is
layer, are very low in organic-matter content. The surface rapidly permeable in the other layers. The weakly ce-
layer is moderate. mented layers have medium available water capacity,
Representative profile of Immokalee sand: moderately high organic-matter content, and low natural
Al-0 to 4 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; many clean sand fertility. The sandy surface and subsurface layers and the
grains; weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; layer between depths of 56 to 68 inches have very low
many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear, smooth available water capacity and very low natural fertility.
boundary. The thin surface layer is moderate in organic-matter con-
A21-4 to 12 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand; tent. The other layers are very low.
coarse faint mottles of grayish brown (10YR 5/2),
gray (1OYR 6/1), and light gray (10YR 7/2); single Included in mapping are small areas of soils that have
grain; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid; clear, little or no organic stain in the lower part of the profile,
wavy boundary. small areas of soils that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent, and
A22-12 to 38 Inches, white (N 8/0) sand; few, fine and me- small areas of sols that have p of 2 to 5 percent, and
dium, faint, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) and dark small areas of soils that have sandy clay loam beneath the
grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) vertical streaks along weakly cemented organic-stained layers.
root channels; single grain; loose; few fine roots; If intensively managed, this soil is suited to truck crops,
very strongly acid; %-inch to 1-inch transitional layer
of dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2); abrupt, wavy flowers, and other shallow-rooted crops. Water-control
boundary. measures are needed to remove excess surface water after







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 19

heavy rain and to supply subsurface irrigation during dry 50 inches. The content of silt and clay ranges from 5 to l0 per-
seasons. Also needed are regular fertilization, adequate cent between the depths of 10 and 40 inches.
liming, and a cropping system that includes cover crops. Lake soils are associated with Apopka, Astatula, Lucy, Ocilla,
living, and a cropping system that includes cover crops. Orlando, and Pelhaim, soils. They do not have the sandy clay
This soil is poorly suited to citrus because, in addition to loam Bt horizon that s present n Apopka, Lucy, Ocilla, and
cover crops between the trees, special fertilization, liming, Pelham soils, and they are better drained than Ocilla and Pel-
irrigation, and drainage must be provided. Citrus is ham soils. They are more than 5 percent silt and clay within the
subject to severe damage by occasional high water and by uppermost 40 inches, in contrast with Astatula soils which are
subject to severe damage by occasional high water and by less than 5 percent. They do not have the 10-inch, dark-
cold in winter. The soil is suited to tame grasses, but if it colored surface layer that is present in the Orlando soils.
is to be used for improved pasture, it should be drained, Lake sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (LaB).-This is a
fertilized, and limed, and grazing should be controlled. nearly level to gently sloping, well-drained to excessively
Areas that have not been farmed are open pine forest drained soil. It has the profile described as representative
or, where trees have been removed, open grassland. Some for the series. The water table is at a depth of more than
areas are used for range. The understory plants provide 120 inches.
good forage for cattle and wildlife. The major decreaser Lake sand is very rapidly permeable and has very low
and increase plants are creeping bluestem, indiangrass, available water capacity, low organic-matter content, and
little blue maidencane, Florida paspalum, pineland three- low natural fertility.
awn, species of panicum, deerstongue, swamp sunflower, Included in mapping are small areas of Astatula sand
grassleaf goldaster, milkpeas, tarflower, huckleberry, and and Apopka sand and areas of soils that have a fine sand
runner oak. Frequent fires and overgrazing have left saw- texture. sand and areas of sols at have a fine sand
palmetto, gallberry, and fetterbush. Minor plants of the tt -ue.
original understory are now dominant over extensive This soil is drought. It is not well suited to truck crops,
areas of this soil. Capability unit IVw-1; Acid Flatwoods flowers, and other shallow-rooted annual crops that have
range site; woodland group 3w2. high moisture and fertility requirements. Providing ade-
quate irrigation for these crops is not practical. Water-
nLake Series melons are well suited. They should be grown on the con-
Lake Series tour with alternate strips of tall grain to retard soil
The Lake series consists of well-drained to excessively blowing and limed, fertilized, and irrigated. This soil is
drained sandy soils that are nearly level to steep. These well suited to citrus, and most of the acreage is in citrus
soils formed in thick beds of marine and eolian sands. groves. The trees should be irrigated and adequately fer-
In a representative profile, the surface layer is dark- tilized. Close-growing, soil improving plants should be
brown sand about 7 inches thick. It is underlain by a layer grown between the trees, and tillage should be kept to a
of brown loose sand about 11 inches thick. The next layer minimum. Deep-rooted tame grasses are suited, but ade-
is strong-brown loose sand about 15 inches thick. Below quate fertilization and liming are needed. Drought re-
this, and extending to a depth of 98 inches, is yellowish-red stricts growth of the grasses in dry seasons, and fertilizer
loose sand. The soils are strongly acid throughout. In is rapidly leached out during heavy ram. Grazing of these
grasses should be controlled to permit continued healthy
limed areas, however, the surface layer is less acid. The growth.
water table is at a depth of more than 120 inches. In areas that have not been cultivated, the vegetation
Lake soils have very rapid permeability, very low avail- is scattered longleaf pines and scrub oaks and an under-
able water capacity, low organic-matter content, and low story of native grasses and shrubs. A few acres are used
natural fertility. for range. Decreaser and increase forage plants are creep-
Representative profile of Lake sand, 0 to 5 percent ing bluestem, pineland three-awn, indian grass, splitbeard
slopes: bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, and runner oak. If the
Ap-0 to 7 inches, dark-brown (10YR 3/3) sand; weak, fine, range is overgrazed, the increases and decreasers are re-
granular structure; very friable; many very fine to placed by pricklypear cactus, natalgrass, post oak, dog-
medium roots; few clean light-gray sand grains; fennel, annual grasses and weeds, and other less desirable
medium acidl; gradual, wavy boundary. forage plants. Capability unit IVs-1; Sandhills range site;
01-7 to 18 inches, brown (7.5YR 5/4) sand; many, coarse, woodland group 3s92.
faint, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) splotches; single grain; oup
loose; many very fine and fine roots; many thinly Lake sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (LaD).-This is a slop-
coated and some well-coated sand grains; strongly ing and strongly sloping, well-drained to excessively
acid; gradual, wavy boundary. drained soil. It has a profile similar to that described as
C2-18 to 33 inches, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) sand; single drained soil. It has a profile similar to that described as
2 grain; loose; few fine roots; many coated sand grains representative for the series, but it is steeper and in some
few carbon particles; strongly acid; gradual, wavy unprotected areas, it is eroded and the surface layer is only
boundary. about 4 to 5 inches thick. The water table is at a depth of
C3-33 to 98 inches, yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) sand; single more than 120 inches.
grain; loose; many coated sand grains; strongly acid. This soil is very rapidly permeable. It has very low
Lake soils are very strongly acid to strongly acid throughout available water capacity, low organic-matter content, and
the profile. Where limed, the surface layer is less acid. The
Ap horizon is brown to dark brown or dark grayish brown to low natural fertility.
reddish brown and is 4 to 9 inches thick. The C horizon is light Included in mapping are small areas of Lake sand, 0 to
yellowish brown to dark yellowish-brown, light brown to red- 5 percent slopes; Apopka sand; and areas of soil that have
dish-yellow, or light reddish-brown to yellowish-red sand or fine
sand. Redder colors are dominant in the C2 and C3 horizons, a fine sand texture.
In places the C2 and C3 horizons are absent, and there is a uni- This soil is poorly suited to truck crops, flowers, and
form strong-brown to yellowish-red C horizon that is more than other shallow-rooted annual crops that have high moisture
70 inches thick. In many places the C horizon has few to many,
fine to coarse, soft iron concretions at a depth of more than and fertility requirements. Slopes are steep enough to be








20 SOIL SURVEY

easily eroded if left unprotected. If well managed, this soil Lucy soils are rapidly permeable in the surface and sub-
is well suited to watermelons. Slopes, however, complicate surface layers and moderately permeable in the subsoil.
irrigation, cultivation, and harvest. Melons should be Available water capacity is low in the sandy layer and
planted on the contour with alternate strips of tall grain medium in the subsoil. The organic-matter content and
to retard soil blowing. Irrigation during dry seasons, and natural fertility are low.
fertilization and lime are needed. Close-growing plants Representative profile of Lucy sand, 0 to 5 percent
should be planted after the melons are harvested. This soil slopes:
is well suited to citrus. Irrigation, fertilization, and lime Ap-0 to 5 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) sand;
are needed, close-growing, soil-improving plants should weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; many fine
be grown between the trees, and cultivation should be kept and medium roots; medium acid; clear, smooth
to a minimum. Deep-rooted tame grasses are suited. boundary.
Growth of the grass is retarded by drought in dry seasons, A2-5 to i nches, yellowish-brown (Y 5/4) sand;10 few,
and fertilizer is rapidly leached out during heavy rain. 4/4) and dark brown (10YR 3/3) ; single grain; loose;
Good management of pasture includes careful control of few fine carbon particles; medium acid; abrupt,
grazing and regular applications of fertilizer, smooth boundary.
Only a few small areas have not been cultivated. In these B21t-32 to 45 inches, red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; few,
medium, distinct, mottles of reddish yellow (7.5YR
areas the vegetation is scattered longleaf pines and scrub 7/8) and dusky red (10R 3/4) ; moderate, medium,
oaks and an understory of grasses and shrubs. This soil is subangular blocky structure; friable; sand grains
not used for range. Capability unit VIs-2; Sandhills coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid; gradual,
ran site; woodland group 3s2. wavy boundary.
range B22t-45 to 75 inches, red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; many,
Lake sand, 12 to 22 percent slopes (LaE).-This is a fine and medium, distinct mottles of reddish yellow
moderately steep to steep, excessively drained soil. It oc- (7.5YR 6/8) ; moderate, fine, subangular blocky struc-
curs as relatively small areas surrounded by larger, less ture; friable; strongly acid.
steep areas of Lake sand. It has a profile similar to that Lucy soils range from very strongly acid to medium acid in
described as representative for the series, but the surface all layers. Both the Al and Ap horizon are grayish-brown to
layer is 2 or 3 inches thinner. In some unprotected areas black sand 3 to 7 inches thick. The A2 horizon is dark grayish
layer is 2 or 3 inches thinner. In some unprotected areas brown to brownish yellow and is generally mottled with gray,
this soil is eroded well into the subsurface layers. The brown, and yellow. In places it is free of mottles. An A22 hori-
water table is at a depth of more than 120 inches. zon occurs in places. It is grayish brown to yellow mottled with
This soil is very rapidly permeable. It has very low gray, brown, and yellow. In some areas it is free of mottles. The
available water capacity, low organic-matter content, and A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick. In places a thin, discontinu-
low natural fertility, ous B1 horizon 3 inches or less thick occurs between the A and
low nural iltyB2t horizon. It is strong-brown or reddish-yellow to yellowish-
Included in mapping are small areas of Lake sand, 5 to red loamy fine sand to sandy loam. Generally it is faintly mot-
12 percent slopes, and areas of Astatula sand, dark sur- tled with yellow, brown, and red. The B21t and B22t horizons
face, 5 to 12 percent slopes,. are reddish yellow to yellowish red and are mottled with
yellow, brown, and red. In places there is a B23t horizon. It is
This soil is not suited to truck crops, flowers, and other generally strongly mottled with red, brown, yellow, and gray.
shallow-rooted annual crops that have high moisture and The Bt horizon is sandy loam to sandy clay loam. In some areas
fertility requirements. The steep slopes erode rapidly if it contains quartzite gravel.
left exposed; cultivation and irrigation are difficult. This The Lucy soils mapped in the Lake County Area have a
soil is suited o watermelons, but cultivation and irrigation slightly higher temperature than is defined for the Lucy series,
soil is suited to watermelons, but cultivation and irrigation 'but this difference does not alter their usefulness and
are impractical because of slope. There 'are many areas of behavior.
this soil interspersed with similar but less sloping soils in Lucy soils are associated with Astatula, Apopka, Ocilla, and
citrus groves. Steep slopes complicate cultivation, harvest- Vaucluse soils. They have a sandy surface layer that is not so
thick as the sandy surface layer of Astatula and Apopka soils,
inooted, and irrigation. This soil is fairly well suited to deep- but is thicker than the sandy surface layer of Vaucluse soils.
rooted tame grasses, but growth of grass is retarded by Lucy soils are better drained than Ocilla soils.
drought and irrigation is not practicable. Lucy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (TuB).--This is a
In a few areas that have not been cultivated, the vegeta- nearly level to gently slopes LuB).-This is a
tion consists of a few pine trees and scruboakand a nearly level to gently sloping soil that has a well-drained,
tion consists of a few pine trees and scrub oak and a sparse loamy subsoil. It has the profile described as representa-
understory of grasses and shrubs. These areas are small tive or the series. The water table is at a depth of more
and are not used for range. Capability unit VIIs-2; Sand- than 120 inches.
hills rnge site; woodland group 3s. This soil is rapidly permeable in the surface and sub-
Lucy Series surface layers and moderately permeable in the subsoil.
The available water capacity is low in the sandy layers and
The Lucy series consists of well-drained sandy soils that medium in the loamy subsoil. The organic-matter content
have a loamy subsoil. They are nearly level to sloping and and natural fertility are low.
are on the upland ridge. They formed in thick beds of Included in mapping are small areas of Apopka sand,
sandy and loamy marine sediment, areas of a soil that has a yellower and browner subsoil
In a representative profile, the surface layer is very dark than is typical for Lucy soils, and a few small areas of
grayish-brown sand about 5 inches thick. 'The subsurface fine sand.
layer is ellowish-brown sand about 27 inches thick. The This soil is drought and is only moderately well suited
75 inches. The soils are medium acid in the surface and aff ected by lack of water andflowers These crs are
subsurface layers and strongly acid in the s affected by lack of water during long dry seasons. They
subsuwater table layers and strongly acid in 0 inhe subsoil. The respond well to irrigation. All plantings should be on the
water table is at a depth of more than 120 inches. contour and rotated with close-growing, soil-improving







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 21

crops. Liming and regular fertilization are needed. Citrus organic-matter content is high to a depth of about 18
trees grow well if they are fertilized and limed and occa- inches.
sionally irrigated. Areas between the trees should be under Representative, profile of Manatee fine sand:
vegetation. If fertilized and limed, this soil is suitable for A1-0 to 10 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine,
tame grasses. Controlled grazing is important. granular structure; very friable; many fine to coarse
Most of the acreage is planted to citrus or improved roots; slightly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
pasture. In the few small areas that have not been culti- B21tg-10 to 18 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam
forest and an under- weak, medium and fine, subangular blocky structure;
vated, the vegetation is an open pine forest and an under- friable, slightly sticky; many fine to coarse roots;
story of native plants. Only a small acreage is available for many sand grains are coated and bridged with clay;
range. Capability unit IIIs-1; Sandhills range site; wood- mildly alkaline; clear, wavy boundary.
land group 3s2. B22tg-18 to 40 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy
ucis a sop- loam; many, medium and fine, faint mottles of black
Lucy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (LC).-This is a slop- (10YR 2/1), dark gray (10YR 4/1), gray (10YR 5/1),
ing, well-drained soil that has a loamy subsoil. Its profile and dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) ; weak, medium
is similar to the one described as representative for the and fine, subangular blocky structure; very friable;
series, but the surface layer is about 5 inches thinner. In common fine to coarse roots; many sand grains are
series, suope arae shr s hopt nohr hycoated and bridged with clay; mildly alkaline; clear,
some areas slopes are short and choppy; in others they wavy boundary.
are longer and more uniform. The water table is at a depth B3g-40 to 48 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine sand;
of more than 120 inches. many, coarse and medium, faint mottles of very dark
This soil is rapidly permeable in the surface and sub- gray (10YR 3/1), few, fine, and medium, distinct mot-
ties of gray (N 6/0), light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2),
surface layers and moderately permeable in the subsoil. and dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) ; weak, medium
The available water capacity is low in the sandy layers and and fine, subangular blocky structure; very friable;
medium in the loamy subsoil. The organic-matter content few fine root fragments; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy
and natural fertility are low. bouC-8 to ndary.
4in mapping are small areas of soils that have a to 60 inches, light-gray (1OYR 6/1) loamy fine sand;
Included in mapping re small areas of soils that have a common, medium and coarse, faint mottles of light
yellower and browner subsoil than is typical for Lucy soils, brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and pale brown (10YR
and small areas of fine sand. 6/3) ; few, medium, faint mottles of grayish brown
This soil is moderately well suited to cultivated crops. (10YR 5/2) and gray (N 5/0); few, medium, promi-
nent mottles of dark yellowish brown and black; mas-
It is steep enough to be seriously eroded unless protected sive; very friable; few fine root fragments; mildly
by a vegetative cover. The sandy surface layer is drought, alkaline.
and shallow-rooted crops are seriously affected by lack of Manatee soils are slightly acid to neutral in the A horizon
water during dry seasons. Slopes adversely affect tillage and slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the B and C horizons.
and irrigation. Crops should be planted on the contour The Ap and Al horizons are 10 to 20 inches thick. The B21tg
and adequately fertilized, limed, and irrigated. Cropping and B22tg horizons are black to very dark gray. They are gen-
l c rally mottled with black to dark gray or dark brown and are
systems should include close-growing, soil-improving crops 30 to 34 inches thick. These horizons are fine sandy loam that
in rotation with harvested crops. This soil is well suited to contains pockets and lenses of loamy fine sand. The clay content
citrus, but fertilization, lime, and irrigation are needed is 10 to 18 percent. The B3g horizon is gray or dark gray mot-
and a vegetative cover should be maintained between the tled with gray and brown. It is fine sandy loam that contains
trees at all times. This soil is suitable for tame grasses if pocket is and lent. The C horizomy fis sand. ptn many 48 plances his
it is properly fertilized and limed and if grazing is more and is very dark gray to light gray. It is mottled with
controlled. black, gray, pale brown, and olive. The water table is at or near
The few acres of this soil that are not cultivated have a the surface, except during dry periods, when it is at a depth of
20 inches in places.
cover of scattered pine trees, scrub oak, native grasses, and Manatee soils are associated with Anclote, Emeralda, and
shrubs. These areas are small. Little acreage is available Iberia soils. They have a loamy subsoil, and Emeralda and
for range. Capability unit IVs-4; Sndrhills range site; Iberia soils have a clayey subsoil. Manatee soils have a Bt
or range. Capability unit IVs-4; Sndhills range site; horizon and siliceous mineralogy, but Anclote soils do not have
woodland group 3s2. a Bt horizon and have mixed mineralogy.
Manatee fine sand (Ma).-This is a nearly level, very
Manatee Series poorly drained soil that is covered with shallow water
The Manatee series consists of nearly level, very poorly during much of the rainy season. The water table is at or
drained soils. These soils are in low areas and are covered near the surface much of the year. During dry periods it
with shallow water during much of the rainy season. They Permeabilits ep as moderately rapid in the surface lyer
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediment. and moderate in all other layers. The available water ca-
In a representative profile, the surface layer is black pacity, natural fertility, and organic-matter content are
fine sand about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is 38 inches high to a depth of about 18 inches.
thick. The upper 8 inches is black fine sandy loam. The Included in mapping are small areas of soils that have
next 22 inches is mottled very dark gray fine sandy loam. a loamy fine sand surface layer 20 to 80 inches thick, small
The lower 8 inches is mottled dark-gray loamy fine sand. areas of soils that have organic materials 4 to 10 inches
Below this is mottled light-gray loamy fine sand that ex- thick, and small areas of Iberia sandy clay.
tends to a depth of 60 inches. These soils are slightly acid This soil is well suited to truck crops, flowers, and
in the surface layer and mildly alkaline in all other other shallow-rooted crops that are tolerant of wetness.
layers. The water table is at a depth of about 2 inches. Water control is needed to remove excess surface water
Manatee soils are moderately permeable and have high rapidly after heavy rain and to provide subsurface irriga-
available water capacity and high natural fertility. The tion during dry periods. This soil is very poorly suited to







22 SOIL SURVEY

citrus. If drained and fertilized, it is suited to tame grasses Montverde soils are associated with Emeralda, Iberia, Mana-
and clovers. tee, and Oklawaha soils. They are organic soils, whereas Eme-
The native vegetation in most areas is grass. In some ralda, Iberia, and Manatee soils are minerals. Organic layers
ithiwetan h i an n ml ar is g.orass f Montverde soils are more than 52 inches thick, but the
it is wetland hardwoods and cabbage palm. Grassy areas organic layers in Oklawaha soils are less than 52 Inches thick.
are used extensively for range and if properly man- Montverde muck Md).-This is a nearly level, very
aged, provide good forage. Important decreaser and in- Montver demck (Md)l-Th s h b nearty levent very
creaser forage plants are maidencane, cutgrass, beaked poor raed soi at is about 95 percent organic ma-
panicum, and cordgrass. Some areas are covered with saw- trial and about 5 percent mineral material. The organic
grass. In overgrazed areas pickerelweed, redroot, smart- material is more than 52 inches thick. This soil is in low
weed, iris, carpetgrass, weeds, and other invader plants areas, marshes, and swamps. The water table is at the
are dominant. Capability unit IIIw-1; Fresh Marsh surface, and the soil is covered with shallow water except
(mineral) range site; woodland group 2w3. during extended dry periods when the water table is at a
depth of no more than 10 inches.
Mon rde Series Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer
Montverde Series ^and rapid in the other layers. The soil has high natural
The Montverde series consists of nearly level, very fertility, a very high available water capacity, and a very
poorly drained organic soils that are covered with shallow high organic-matter content.
water except during extended dry periods. These soils are Included in mapping are a few small areas of organic
in low areas, marshes, and swamps. They formed in the soils that are underlain by neutral to moderately alkaline
remains of fibrous, nonwoody plants, sands and clays at a depth of less than 52 inches.
In a representative profile, the surface layer is black This soil is well suited to truck crops (fig. 3), flowers,
muck about 11 inches thick. Below this are layers of peat and other shallow-rooted crops that are tolerant of wet-
that extend to a depth of more than 80 inches. The upper ness. Water control is needed to remove excess surface
9 inches is dark reddish brown. The next 17 inches is mixed water rapidly after heavy rain. The water table should be
black and dark reddish brown, and the lower 43 inches is lowered only far enough to permit healthy root develop-
dark reddish-brown peat. These soils are medium acid in ment during cropping seasons. It should be raised to the
the surface layer, slightly acid below this to a depth of surface after crops have been harvested to reduce sub-
about 20 inches, and mildly alkaline in the other layers. sidence by oxidation. This soil is high in nitrogen but needs
The water table is at the surface except during extended fertilizers that contain other important elements. It is
dry periods. not suited to citrus. Tame grasses and clovers grow well
Montverde soils are rapidly permeable. They have a very and make excellent pasture. The water table should be
high available water capacity, a very high organic-matter maintained as close to the surface as is consistent with
highcontent, and high nater capactiity high organic-matter healthy plant growth. Fertilization and controlled grazing
content, and high natural fertility.
Representative profile of Montverde muck: are needed.
Most areas that have not been developed are covered
Oap-0 to 11 inches, black (5YR 2/1) unrubbed and rubbed, with marshland vegetation of sawgrass, waterlilies,
well-decomposed organic material (muck) ; less than pickerelweed, and sedges. They are of little value as range.
5 percent fiber rubbed; moderate, medium, granular
structure; friable; pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sodium Capability unit IIIw-2; Fresh Marsh (organic) range
pyrophosphate extract; estimated 5 percent mineral site; no woodland classification.
material; medium acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Oil-11 to 20 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) undecom-
posed organic materials (peat), black (5YR 2/1) Myakka Series
rubbed; 80 percent fiber, 70 percent fiber rubbed; mas-
sive; sodium pyrophosphate extract is white (10YR The Myakka series consists of nearly level, poorly
8/2) ; estimated 5 percent mineral material; about drained, sandy soils that have a layer stained by organic
90 percent herbaceous; slightly acid; gradual, wavy matter at a depth of less than 30 inches. These soils occur
boundary.
0i2-20 to 37 inches, mixed black (5YR 2/1) and dark reddish- mainly as broad areas in the flatwoods. They are also in
brown (5YR 2/2) undecomposed organic material low areas between lakes, ponds, swamps, and marshes
(peat), black (5YR 2/1) rubbed; 85 percent fiber, 76 and on the upland ridge. They formed in thick beds of
percent fiber rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate marine sands.
extract is white (10YR 8/1) ; estimated 5 percent
mineral material; about 90 percent herbaceous; mildly In a representative profile, the surface layer is black
alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary. sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white
Oi-37 to 80 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) unde- sand about 14 inches thick. The subsoil is 36 inches thick.
composed organic materials (peat), unrubbed and The uppermost 4 inches is black, organic-stained, weakly
rubbed; 70 percent fiber, 55 percent fiber rubbed; mas- t d r is ,
sive; sodium pyrophosphate extract is white (10YR cemented sand. The next 8 inches is dark reddish-brown,
8/1); estimated 5 percent mineral material; about organic-stained, weakly cemented sand. The lower 24
90 percent herbaceous; mildly alkaline. inches is dark reddish-brown and dark-brown organic-
Montverde soils are medium acid to moderately alkaline stained sand. This is underlain by a layer of dark grayish-
throughout the profile. Organic materials are 52 to more than brown sand that extends to a depth of 85 inches. The soils
100 inches in thickness and range in fiber content from 67 to 90 are strongly acid to a depth of about 20 inches, very
percent unrubbed and from 45 to 80 percent rubbed. The Oap strongly acid to a depth of about 2 inches,
horizon is very dark brown to black or dark reddish-brown strongly acid below this to a depth of about 32 inches, and
peat or muck. The Oil. 0i2, and Oi3 horizons are dark yellowish strongly acid in the other layers to a depth of 85 inches.
brown to black and reddish brown to dark reddish brown. The water table is normally at a depth of about 24 inches.
Some profiles are as much as 25 percent woody material. The The organic-stained layers have moderate permeability,
water table is at the surface much of the time, and the soil
is covered with shallow water. During extended dry periods medium available water capacity, moderately high
the water table drops to a depth of as much as 10 inches. organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. The







22 SOIL SURVEY

citrus. If drained and fertilized, it is suited to tame grasses Montverde soils are associated with Emeralda, Iberia, Mana-
and clovers. tee, and Oklawaha soils. They are organic soils, whereas Eme-
The native vegetation in most areas is grass. In some ralda, Iberia, and Manatee soils are minerals. Organic layers
ithiwetan h i an n ml ar is g.orass f Montverde soils are more than 52 inches thick, but the
it is wetland hardwoods and cabbage palm. Grassy areas organic layers in Oklawaha soils are less than 52 Inches thick.
are used extensively for range and if properly man- Montverde muck Md).-This is a nearly level, very
aged, provide good forage. Important decreaser and in- Montver demck (Md)l-Th s h b nearty levent very
creaser forage plants are maidencane, cutgrass, beaked poor raed soi at is about 95 percent organic ma-
panicum, and cordgrass. Some areas are covered with saw- trial and about 5 percent mineral material. The organic
grass. In overgrazed areas pickerelweed, redroot, smart- material is more than 52 inches thick. This soil is in low
weed, iris, carpetgrass, weeds, and other invader plants areas, marshes, and swamps. The water table is at the
are dominant. Capability unit IIIw-1; Fresh Marsh surface, and the soil is covered with shallow water except
(mineral) range site; woodland group 2w3. during extended dry periods when the water table is at a
depth of no more than 10 inches.
Mon rde Series Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer
Montverde Series ^and rapid in the other layers. The soil has high natural
The Montverde series consists of nearly level, very fertility, a very high available water capacity, and a very
poorly drained organic soils that are covered with shallow high organic-matter content.
water except during extended dry periods. These soils are Included in mapping are a few small areas of organic
in low areas, marshes, and swamps. They formed in the soils that are underlain by neutral to moderately alkaline
remains of fibrous, nonwoody plants, sands and clays at a depth of less than 52 inches.
In a representative profile, the surface layer is black This soil is well suited to truck crops (fig. 3), flowers,
muck about 11 inches thick. Below this are layers of peat and other shallow-rooted crops that are tolerant of wet-
that extend to a depth of more than 80 inches. The upper ness. Water control is needed to remove excess surface
9 inches is dark reddish brown. The next 17 inches is mixed water rapidly after heavy rain. The water table should be
black and dark reddish brown, and the lower 43 inches is lowered only far enough to permit healthy root develop-
dark reddish-brown peat. These soils are medium acid in ment during cropping seasons. It should be raised to the
the surface layer, slightly acid below this to a depth of surface after crops have been harvested to reduce sub-
about 20 inches, and mildly alkaline in the other layers. sidence by oxidation. This soil is high in nitrogen but needs
The water table is at the surface except during extended fertilizers that contain other important elements. It is
dry periods. not suited to citrus. Tame grasses and clovers grow well
Montverde soils are rapidly permeable. They have a very and make excellent pasture. The water table should be
high available water capacity, a very high organic-matter maintained as close to the surface as is consistent with
highcontent, and high nater capactiity high organic-matter healthy plant growth. Fertilization and controlled grazing
content, and high natural fertility.
Representative profile of Montverde muck: are needed.
Most areas that have not been developed are covered
Oap-0 to 11 inches, black (5YR 2/1) unrubbed and rubbed, with marshland vegetation of sawgrass, waterlilies,
well-decomposed organic material (muck) ; less than pickerelweed, and sedges. They are of little value as range.
5 percent fiber rubbed; moderate, medium, granular
structure; friable; pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sodium Capability unit IIIw-2; Fresh Marsh (organic) range
pyrophosphate extract; estimated 5 percent mineral site; no woodland classification.
material; medium acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Oil-11 to 20 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) undecom-
posed organic materials (peat), black (5YR 2/1) Myakka Series
rubbed; 80 percent fiber, 70 percent fiber rubbed; mas-
sive; sodium pyrophosphate extract is white (10YR The Myakka series consists of nearly level, poorly
8/2) ; estimated 5 percent mineral material; about drained, sandy soils that have a layer stained by organic
90 percent herbaceous; slightly acid; gradual, wavy matter at a depth of less than 30 inches. These soils occur
boundary.
0i2-20 to 37 inches, mixed black (5YR 2/1) and dark reddish- mainly as broad areas in the flatwoods. They are also in
brown (5YR 2/2) undecomposed organic material low areas between lakes, ponds, swamps, and marshes
(peat), black (5YR 2/1) rubbed; 85 percent fiber, 76 and on the upland ridge. They formed in thick beds of
percent fiber rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate marine sands.
extract is white (10YR 8/1) ; estimated 5 percent
mineral material; about 90 percent herbaceous; mildly In a representative profile, the surface layer is black
alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary. sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white
Oi-37 to 80 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) unde- sand about 14 inches thick. The subsoil is 36 inches thick.
composed organic materials (peat), unrubbed and The uppermost 4 inches is black, organic-stained, weakly
rubbed; 70 percent fiber, 55 percent fiber rubbed; mas- t d r is ,
sive; sodium pyrophosphate extract is white (10YR cemented sand. The next 8 inches is dark reddish-brown,
8/1); estimated 5 percent mineral material; about organic-stained, weakly cemented sand. The lower 24
90 percent herbaceous; mildly alkaline. inches is dark reddish-brown and dark-brown organic-
Montverde soils are medium acid to moderately alkaline stained sand. This is underlain by a layer of dark grayish-
throughout the profile. Organic materials are 52 to more than brown sand that extends to a depth of 85 inches. The soils
100 inches in thickness and range in fiber content from 67 to 90 are strongly acid to a depth of about 20 inches, very
percent unrubbed and from 45 to 80 percent rubbed. The Oap strongly acid to a depth of about 2 inches,
horizon is very dark brown to black or dark reddish-brown strongly acid below this to a depth of about 32 inches, and
peat or muck. The Oil. 0i2, and Oi3 horizons are dark yellowish strongly acid in the other layers to a depth of 85 inches.
brown to black and reddish brown to dark reddish brown. The water table is normally at a depth of about 24 inches.
Some profiles are as much as 25 percent woody material. The The organic-stained layers have moderate permeability,
water table is at the surface much of the time, and the soil
is covered with shallow water. During extended dry periods medium available water capacity, moderately high
the water table drops to a depth of as much as 10 inches. organic-matter content, and low natural fertility. The







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 23







































Figure 3.-Carrots growing on Montverde muck.

surface and subsurface layers and the layers at depths 2/2) that are slightly cemented; weak, fine, granular
between 56 and 85 inches have rapid permeability, very structure; very friable; few dead roots; strongly acid;
clear, wavy boundary
low available water capacity, and very low natural c-56 to 85 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
fertility. The surface layer is moderate in organic-matter single grain; loose: few fine roots: strongly acid.
content. The rest are very low. Myakka soils are very strongly acid to slightly acid through-
Representative profile of Myakka sand: out the profie. The Al horizon is 5 to 8 inches thick and ranges
from dark gray to black. The A2 horizon is white to gray sand
Al-0 to 6 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand: weak, fine, granular or fine sand, 6 to 20 inches thick, and is mottled with gray and
structure; very friable; matted with many fine and brown. A transitional horizon I.% to 1 inch thick commonly is
medium roots; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. between the A and B horizons. It is very dark gray to black.
A2-6 to 20 inches, white (10YR 8/2) sand; common, fine, faint. The Bh horizon is dark-brown to black or dark reddish-brown
vertical streaks of dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), sand or fine sand 12 to 21 inches thick. The B3 horizon is dark
dark gray (10YR 4/1), and gray (10YR 5/1) along brown to dark yellowish brown but also has weakly cemented
root channels; single grain; loose; common fine and dark-brown or dark reddish-brown fragments that are similar
medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary, to materials in the Bh horizon. The C horizon is dark grayish-

subangular blocky structure; weakly cemented; many brown and pale-brown to dark-brown sand or fine sand. The
sand grains coated with organic matter; common fine water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 to 8 months
pockets of clean sand grains; many fine and medium each year. It is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 4 months
roots; very strongly acid; clear, irregular boundary, and falls to a depth below 40 inches during extended dry
B22h-24 to 32 inches. dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) sand: seasons.
common, coarse, faint, vertical tongues of very dark Myakka soi's are associated with Astatula, Immokalee. Ona,
brown (10YR 2/2) ; weak, coarse, subangular blocky Paola, Pelham, Placid. Pomello. Pompano. and Wabasso soils.
structure; weakly cemented; sand grains coated with They have an organic-stained (Bh) layer that is not present in
organic matter; many fine and medium roots; very the Astatula, Paola, Pelham. Placid, and Pompano soils. Depth
B23h-32 to 36 inches. dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) sand : to the Bh horizon in Myakka soils is less than 30 inches, but
weak, fine. granular structure; very friable: sand in Pomello soils it is deeper. Myakka soi's also are more poorly
grains coated with organic matter; few fine roots; drained than Pomello soils, and they have a leached A2 horizon
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary. that is not present in the Ona soils. Myakka soils do not have
B3-36 to 56 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) sand: common, the sandy loam material below the Bh horizon that is charac-
medium, distinct mottles of dark reddish brown (5YR teristic in Wabasso soils.







24 SOIL SURVEY

Myakka sand (Mk).-This is a nearly level, poorly The cropping system should include soil-improving cover
drained soil that has a layer stained by organic material crops in rotation with harvested crops. Regular applica-
at a depth of less than 30 inches. The water table is nor- tions of fertilizer and lime are needed. If this soil is used
mally at a depth of 10 to 40 inches, but the depth is less for citrus, deep drainage, special fertilization, lime, and ir-
than 10 inches in wet seasons and more than 40 inches rigation must be provided. Close-growing cover crops
during extended dry seasons. should be maintained between the trees. On much of the
The surface and subsurface layers and the layer at a acreage, citrus is subject to severe damage by cold in
depth of 56 to 85 inches have rapid permeability, very low winter. Good pastures of tame grasses can be maintained
available water capacity, and very low natural fertility, under adequate fertilization and lime and controlled
The thin surface layer is moderate in organic-matter con- grazing.
tent. The rest are very low. The organic-stained layers at Much of the acreage is open pine forest and an under-
depths between 20 and 56 inches have moderate perme- story of native grasses and shrubs. In some places the pine
ability, medium available water capacity, moderately high trees have been removed. Much of this area is used for
organic-matter content, and low natural fertility, range. The understory plants provide good forage for cat-
Included in mapping are small areas, on the upland tle and wildlife. The major decreaser and increase forage
ridges, of similar soils in which the organic-stained layer plants are creeping bluestem, indiangrass, little blue maid-
is only weakly developed, small areas of Immokalee sand encane, Florida paspalum. pineland three-awn, species of
and Wauchula sand, and small areas of soils that have a panicum, deerstongue, swamp sunflower, grassleaf gold-
black surface layer more than 10 inches thick, aster, milkpeas, tarflower, huckleberry, and runner oak.
If intensively managed, this soil is suitable for truck Because fires have been frequent and the understory plants
crops, flowers, and other shallow-rooted crops. Water con- have been overgrazed, saw-palmetto, gallberry, and fetter-
trol is needed to remove excess surface water after a rain bush, which were minor plants in the original vegetation,
and to supply subsurface irrigation during dry periods, are now dominant over extensive areas (fig. 4). Capability



































Figure .--Second growth of pine trees, saw-palmetto, and other plants on Acid Flatwoods range site. The soil is Myakka sand.








LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 25

unit IVw-1; Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland group A21-7 to 18 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; few, fine,
3w2. faint mottles of very pale brown; weak, fine, granular
structure; very friable; few fine roots; strongly acid;
Myakka and Placid sands, 2 to 8 percent slopes clear, wavy boundary.
(MpC).-These are gently sloping to sloping, poorly A22-18 to 33 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand;
drained and very poorly drained soils in seep areas that common, fine, faint mottles of brownish yellow
slope toward natural drains. Each of these named soils has (10YR 6/6) ; few, fine, faint mottles of gray; weak,
slpe fine, granular structure; very friable; few fine roots;
the profile described as representative for its respective many thinly coated sand grains; strongly acid; abrupt,
series. The water table in these soils is nearer the surface wavy boundary.
for longer periods than in Myakka sand. B21t-33 to 43 inches, mottled very pale brown (10YR 8/3),
gray (l0YR 5/1), yellow (10YR 7/8), reddish-yellow
The soils occur together without regular pattern, and (7.YR 6/8, 7/6), and light yellowish-brown (OhYR
the composition of this unit is more variable than that of 6/4) sandy clay loam; moderate, medium, granular
most other units in the county. The soils are similar structure; friable; few fine roots; cracks filled with
enough, however, to permit interpretations for most ex- gray and very pale brown material slightly finer
pected uses. They a so wet during most years, and the textured than the matrix; sand grains are coated and
pected uses. They are so wet during most years, and the bridged with clay; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
vegetation is so dense that it is impracticable to cover boundary.
these areas sufficiently to accurately identify the compo- B22tg-43 to 82 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
nent soils. loam; many, medium, distinct mottles of yellow (10YR
8/6, 7/8), brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), very pale
About 60 percent of this unit is Myakka sand, 20 per- brown (10YR 7/4), reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8), light
cent is Placid soils, and about 20 percent is less extensive red (2.5YR 6/8), and red (2.5YR 5/6) ; moderate,
soils. Some of the less extensive soils have a thick black medium, granular structure; friable; cracks filled with
surface layer and a Bh horizon within a depth of 30 gray material slightly finer textured than the matrix;
sand grains are coated and bridged with clay;
inches; some are sandy soils that have a C horizon and a strongly acid.
Bh horizon within a depth of 40 inches; and some are Ocilla soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid. The Al,
Immokalee soils. or Ap, horizon ranges from dark gray to very dark gray and is
These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops and are 4 to 9 inches thick. The A2 horizon is light-gray to brown sand
not suited to citrus. Most of the acreage is in native vege- or fine sand. In places, there is a BI horizon of very pale brown
to light yellowish-brown loamy sand to sandy loam less than 4
station of black pine, sweetbay, saw-palmetto, myrtle, inches thick. The Bt horizon is heavy sandy loam to heavy sand
gallberry, and native grasses. Part of the area is used for clay loam. The B21t horizon is 4 to 10 inches thick and has
range. The more open areas provide forage if grazing is many mottles of yellow, brown, red, and gray. It is not so dis-
controlled. Areas covered with dense woodland growth tinctly gleyed as the B22tg horizon. The B22tg horizon is light
have only limited browse for cattle and willifegray to light brownish gray mottled with yellow, brown, and
have only limited browse for cattle and wildlife. Capa- red. The yellow, brown, and red mottles vary greatly in abun-
bility unit Vw-2; Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland dance, size, and contrast. This horizon is absent in some places.
group 3w2. In places there is a highly gleyed B23tg horizon. Some profiles
have a highly gleyed, mottle-free loamy sand or sandy loam
B3 horizon below a depth of 60 inches. The water table is at a
Ocilla Series depth of 40 to 60 inches for about 6 months of the year and
below 60 inches the rest of the year.
The Ocilla series consists of nearly level to gently slop- The Ocilla soils mapped in the Lake County Area have a
ing, somewhat poorly drained sandy soils that have a slightly higher temperature than is defined in the range for the
loamy subsoil. These soils are mainly on the upland ridge series, but this difference does not alter their usefulness and
behavior.
and to a lesser extent in the flatwoods on knolls and ridges. The Ocilla soils are associated with Astatula, Apopka, Or-
They formed in deposits of sandy and loamy marine lando, Lucy, Vaucluse, and Pelham soils. They are better
sediment. drained than Pelham soils but more poorly drained than the
In a representative profile, the surface layer is very dark rest. They have a loamy Bt horizon, which Astatula and Or-
gray sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 26 Apopka soils. Their Bt horizon is more strongly mottled than
inches thick. It is grayish-brown sand in the upper 11 that of Lucy soils, and the horizon is not so near the surface as
inches and light yellowish-brown sand in the lower 15 in Vaucluse soils.
inches. The subsoil is 49 inches thick. The upper 10 inches Ocilla sand (lc).-This is a nearly level to gently
is mottled very pale brown, gray, yellow, reddish-yellow, sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil that has a loamy
and light yellowish-brown sandy clay loam. The lower 39 subsoil. The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for
inches is light-gray sandy clay loam mottled with yellow, about 6 months and is below 60 inches during the rest of
brownish yellow, very pale brown, reddish yellow, and red. the year.
These soils are slightly acid in the surface layer and Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 33 inches and
strongly acid throughout the rest of the profile. The water moderate below. Available water capacity is very low to a
table is at a depth of about 50 inches. depth of 33 inches and medium at depths between 33 and
These soils are rapidly permeable in the sandy surface 82 inches. The organic-matter content and natural fertility
and subsurface layers and moderately permeable in the are low.
loamy subsoil. Available water capacity is very low in the Included in mapping are areas where the sandy clay
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the loamy loam subsoil is at a depth of more than 40 inches and areas
subsoil. The organic-matter content and natural fertility where it is within a depth of 20 inches.
are low.
Representative profile of Ocilla sand: This soil is suitable for most crops, but it is subject to oc-
Representative profile of Ocilla sand: casional periods of damaging wetness. Drainage is needed.
Ap-0 to 7 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak, Truck crops, flowers, and other shallow-rooted crops re-
slightly gracid; clear, wavy boundary. quire irrigation during dry seasons. They should be limed








26 SOIL SURVEY

and fertilized and rotated with a soil-improving crop. IIcg-38 to 75 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single
Much of the acreage is made up of small, wet, cold areas in grain; loose; medium acid.
low places that are surrounded by better drained soils Ocoee soils are extremely acid to strongly acid in the organic
planted to citrus. The trees on these cold spots in groves are material and extremely acid to medium acid in the mineral
nten tvrey damaged tees cess watr or ingre i material. The Oil horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick, dark reddish
often severely damaged by excess water or by freezing in brown to reddish brown, and 45 to 60 percent fiber rubbed. In
winter. Tame grasses grow well, and some areas are used cultivated areas there is an Oap layer, 6 to 10 inches thick,
for improved pasture. Soils in these areas need fertilizer that is black or very dark gray to dark reddish brown. The
and lime. Grazing should be controlled. Oi2 horizon is 4 to 8 inches of reddish-brown to dark reddish-
few small areas have not been cultivated. The vegeta brown peat that is 45 to 65 percent fiber rubbed. The Oel layer
SA few small areas have not been cultivated The vegeta- is 0 to 8 inches of reddish-brown to dark reddish-brown peat
tion is scattered pine trees and an understory growth of that is 10 to 50 percent fiber rubbed. The Oi3 and Oi4 layers if
native grasses and shrubs. Some of these areas occur within present are 6 to 29 inches thick, generally dark reddish brown,
larger areas that are used for range. Important decreaser and 45 to 70 percent fiber rubbed. Typically, sand or fine sand
larger areas that are aused aor rangeen Importantdere e is at a depth of 16 to 52 inches, but in places it is loamy sand
and increase forage plants are creeping bluestem, pine- or loamy fine sand. This layer is light gray and grayish brown
land three-awn, indiangrass, splitbeard bluestem, broom- to black. The water table is at the surface, and the soils are
sedge bluestem, and tall panicum. If the range is over- covered with shallow water except during extended dry pe-
grazed, many of these plants are replaced by natalgrass, riods. Where efficient water control systems are installed, the
water table Is commonly maintained at a depth of 12 to 48
carpetgrass, saw-palmetto, annual grasses and weeds, and inches.
other less desirable invader plants. Capability unit IIIw- The Ocoee soils are associated with the Brighton, Placid,
3; Sandhills range site; woodland group 3s2. Myakka, and Immokalee soils. In the Ocoee soils, the organic
material is less than 52 inches thick, and in the Brighton soils
it is more than 52 inches thick. Ocoee soils are organic soils,
Ocoee SerieS whereas Myakka and Immokalee soils are sandy mineral soils.
The Ocoee series consists of nearly level, very poorly Ocoee peat (Oe).-This is a nearly level, very poorly
drained organic soils that overlie sandy materials. These drained organic soil that overlies sandy materials. The
soils occur in depressions and fresh water marshes. They water table is at the surface, and the soils are covered with
formed in the remains of fibrous nonwoody plants. shallow water except during extended dry periods.
In a representative profile, the surface layer is dark Ocoee peat is rapidly permeable in all organic layers
reddish-brown peat about 7 inches thick. The next layer and is very rapidly permeable in the sandy layer to a depth
is reddish-brown peat 7 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 75 inches. The organic-matter content is very high in
of about 38 inches, are layers of dark reddish-brown peat. the organic layers and very low in the sandy layer. The
Grayish-brown sand extends to a depth of 75 inches. These available water capacity is very high. Natural fertility is
soils are very strongly acid in the organic layers and me- moderate, and potential subsidence is high in the organic
dium acid in the sandy layer. The water table is at the layers in drained areas.
surface. Included in mapping are a few small areas of organic
Ocoee soils are rapidly permeable in the peat layers and soils that are well decomposed, small areas of Brighton
very rapidly permeable in the sandy layer. They have very soils, and small areas of mineral soils.
high available water capacity. Organic-matter content is This soil is well suited to truck crops, flowers, and other
very high in the organic layers and very low in the sandy shallow-rooted crops that are tolerant of wetness. Water
layer. Natural fertility is moderate. If drained, these soils control is needed to remove excess surface water rapidly
have high potential subsidence in the organic layers. after heavy rain. The water table should be lowered only
Representative profile of Ocoee peat: enough to permit healthy root development during crop-
to 7 inches, dark reddish-brown (R 3/2) rubbed ping seasons. It should be raised to the surface after crops
and rubbed, well-decomposed organic material (peat); have been harvested, thus reducing subsidence by oxida-
about 70 percent fiber unrubbed, 50 percent fiber tion. The soil is high in nitrogen, but is low in other im-
rubbed; massive; friable; sodium pyrophosphate ex- portant nutrients. It is not suited to citrus. Tame grasses
tract is pale brown (10YR 6/3) ; herbaceous fiber; and clovers grow well, and excellent pastures can be main-
012-7 to 14 iches, reddish-brown 5Y 5/4), undcomposed tainted. The water table should be kept as near the surface
organic material (peat) ; about 80 percent fiber un- as is consistent with healthy plant growth. Fertilization
rubbed, 50 percent fiber rubbed; massive; sodium and controlled grazing are needed.
pyrophosphate extract Is light gray (10YR 7/1); herb- In most undeveloped areas the native vegetation is
boundary ; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth sedges, sawgrass, and waterlilies. These areas are poorly
Oel-14 to 20 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3), partially suited to range. Capability unit IIIw-2; Fresh Marsh
decomposed organic material (peat) ; 70 percent fiber (organic) range site; no woodland classification.
unrubbed, 45 percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyro-
phosphate extract is brown (7.5YR 4/4) ; very
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary. Oklawaha Series
0i3-20 to 32 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2), unde-
composed organic material; about 70 percent fiber The Oklawaha series consists of nearly level, very
unrubbed, 50 percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyro- poorly drained organic soils that overlie loamy and clayey
phosphate extract is light gray (10YR 7/1) ; herbace- materials. These soils are in depressions and fresh water
ous; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary, marshes. They are the undecomposed remains of hydro-
Oi4-32 to 38 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3), undecom- marshes. They are the undecomposed remains of hydro-
posed organic material (peat); about 80 percent fiber phytic, fibrous nonwoody plants.
unrubbed, 70 percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyro- In a representative profile, the upper 9 inches is very
phosphate extract is light gray (10YR 7/2) ; herbace- dark brown muck, the next 6 inches is dark reddish-brown
ous; estimated mineral content about 10 percent; very dark brown muck, the next 6 inches is dark reddish-brown
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. peat, and the next layer, to a depth of 25 inches, is mixed








26 SOIL SURVEY

and fertilized and rotated with a soil-improving crop. IIcg-38 to 75 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single
Much of the acreage is made up of small, wet, cold areas in grain; loose; medium acid.
low places that are surrounded by better drained soils Ocoee soils are extremely acid to strongly acid in the organic
planted to citrus. The trees on these cold spots in groves are material and extremely acid to medium acid in the mineral
nten tvrey damaged tees cess watr or ingre i material. The Oil horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick, dark reddish
often severely damaged by excess water or by freezing in brown to reddish brown, and 45 to 60 percent fiber rubbed. In
winter. Tame grasses grow well, and some areas are used cultivated areas there is an Oap layer, 6 to 10 inches thick,
for improved pasture. Soils in these areas need fertilizer that is black or very dark gray to dark reddish brown. The
and lime. Grazing should be controlled. Oi2 horizon is 4 to 8 inches of reddish-brown to dark reddish-
few small areas have not been cultivated. The vegeta brown peat that is 45 to 65 percent fiber rubbed. The Oel layer
SA few small areas have not been cultivated The vegeta- is 0 to 8 inches of reddish-brown to dark reddish-brown peat
tion is scattered pine trees and an understory growth of that is 10 to 50 percent fiber rubbed. The Oi3 and Oi4 layers if
native grasses and shrubs. Some of these areas occur within present are 6 to 29 inches thick, generally dark reddish brown,
larger areas that are used for range. Important decreaser and 45 to 70 percent fiber rubbed. Typically, sand or fine sand
larger areas that are aused aor rangeen Importantdere e is at a depth of 16 to 52 inches, but in places it is loamy sand
and increase forage plants are creeping bluestem, pine- or loamy fine sand. This layer is light gray and grayish brown
land three-awn, indiangrass, splitbeard bluestem, broom- to black. The water table is at the surface, and the soils are
sedge bluestem, and tall panicum. If the range is over- covered with shallow water except during extended dry pe-
grazed, many of these plants are replaced by natalgrass, riods. Where efficient water control systems are installed, the
water table Is commonly maintained at a depth of 12 to 48
carpetgrass, saw-palmetto, annual grasses and weeds, and inches.
other less desirable invader plants. Capability unit IIIw- The Ocoee soils are associated with the Brighton, Placid,
3; Sandhills range site; woodland group 3s2. Myakka, and Immokalee soils. In the Ocoee soils, the organic
material is less than 52 inches thick, and in the Brighton soils
it is more than 52 inches thick. Ocoee soils are organic soils,
Ocoee SerieS whereas Myakka and Immokalee soils are sandy mineral soils.
The Ocoee series consists of nearly level, very poorly Ocoee peat (Oe).-This is a nearly level, very poorly
drained organic soils that overlie sandy materials. These drained organic soil that overlies sandy materials. The
soils occur in depressions and fresh water marshes. They water table is at the surface, and the soils are covered with
formed in the remains of fibrous nonwoody plants. shallow water except during extended dry periods.
In a representative profile, the surface layer is dark Ocoee peat is rapidly permeable in all organic layers
reddish-brown peat about 7 inches thick. The next layer and is very rapidly permeable in the sandy layer to a depth
is reddish-brown peat 7 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 75 inches. The organic-matter content is very high in
of about 38 inches, are layers of dark reddish-brown peat. the organic layers and very low in the sandy layer. The
Grayish-brown sand extends to a depth of 75 inches. These available water capacity is very high. Natural fertility is
soils are very strongly acid in the organic layers and me- moderate, and potential subsidence is high in the organic
dium acid in the sandy layer. The water table is at the layers in drained areas.
surface. Included in mapping are a few small areas of organic
Ocoee soils are rapidly permeable in the peat layers and soils that are well decomposed, small areas of Brighton
very rapidly permeable in the sandy layer. They have very soils, and small areas of mineral soils.
high available water capacity. Organic-matter content is This soil is well suited to truck crops, flowers, and other
very high in the organic layers and very low in the sandy shallow-rooted crops that are tolerant of wetness. Water
layer. Natural fertility is moderate. If drained, these soils control is needed to remove excess surface water rapidly
have high potential subsidence in the organic layers. after heavy rain. The water table should be lowered only
Representative profile of Ocoee peat: enough to permit healthy root development during crop-
to 7 inches, dark reddish-brown (R 3/2) rubbed ping seasons. It should be raised to the surface after crops
and rubbed, well-decomposed organic material (peat); have been harvested, thus reducing subsidence by oxida-
about 70 percent fiber unrubbed, 50 percent fiber tion. The soil is high in nitrogen, but is low in other im-
rubbed; massive; friable; sodium pyrophosphate ex- portant nutrients. It is not suited to citrus. Tame grasses
tract is pale brown (10YR 6/3) ; herbaceous fiber; and clovers grow well, and excellent pastures can be main-
012-7 to 14 iches, reddish-brown 5Y 5/4), undcomposed tainted. The water table should be kept as near the surface
organic material (peat) ; about 80 percent fiber un- as is consistent with healthy plant growth. Fertilization
rubbed, 50 percent fiber rubbed; massive; sodium and controlled grazing are needed.
pyrophosphate extract Is light gray (10YR 7/1); herb- In most undeveloped areas the native vegetation is
boundary ; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth sedges, sawgrass, and waterlilies. These areas are poorly
Oel-14 to 20 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3), partially suited to range. Capability unit IIIw-2; Fresh Marsh
decomposed organic material (peat) ; 70 percent fiber (organic) range site; no woodland classification.
unrubbed, 45 percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyro-
phosphate extract is brown (7.5YR 4/4) ; very
strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary. Oklawaha Series
0i3-20 to 32 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2), unde-
composed organic material; about 70 percent fiber The Oklawaha series consists of nearly level, very
unrubbed, 50 percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyro- poorly drained organic soils that overlie loamy and clayey
phosphate extract is light gray (10YR 7/1) ; herbace- materials. These soils are in depressions and fresh water
ous; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth boundary, marshes. They are the undecomposed remains of hydro-
Oi4-32 to 38 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3), undecom- marshes. They are the undecomposed remains of hydro-
posed organic material (peat); about 80 percent fiber phytic, fibrous nonwoody plants.
unrubbed, 70 percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyro- In a representative profile, the upper 9 inches is very
phosphate extract is light gray (10YR 7/2) ; herbace- dark brown muck, the next 6 inches is dark reddish-brown
ous; estimated mineral content about 10 percent; very dark brown muck, the next 6 inches is dark reddish-brown
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. peat, and the next layer, to a depth of 25 inches, is mixed








LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 27

dark yellowish-brown and very dark brown peat. Below Oklawaha muck (Oh).-This is a level, very poorly
this, between depths of 25 to 31 inches, is black light drained organic soil. It overlies loamy and clayey mate-
sandy loam. The next layer, to a depth of 37 inches, is rials. The water table is at the surface, and the soil is
very dark gray sandy clay. Between depths of 37 and 54 covered with shallow water except during extended dry
inches there is a layer of white clay. These soils are slightly periods.
acid in the organic layers to a depth of 25 inches, neu- Oklawaha muck is moderately rapidly permeable in the
tral between depths of 25 and 31 inches, and moderately surface layer, rapidly permeable between depths of 9 and
alkaline below this to a depth of 54 inches. The water table 31 inches, and very slowly permeable in the clayey layers
to a depth of 54 inches. Available water capacity is very
is at the surface. high, the organic-matter content is very high in the or-
Oklawaha soils are moderately rapidly permeable in the ganic layers and low in the mineral layers, and natural
surface layer, rapidly permeable at depths between 9 and fertility is moderate. Where the soil is drained, potential
31 inches, and very slowly permeable below this to a depth subsidence is high in the organic layers.
of 54 inches. They have very high available water capac- Included in mapping are small areas of soils that have
ity. The organic-matter content is very high in the organic well-decomposed organic material and areas of organic
layers and low in the mineral layers. Natural fertility is. soils that are underlain by sandy material at depths be-
moderately high. Potential subsidence is high in the tween 20 and 62 inches.
organic layers in drained areas. This soil is well suited to truck crops, flowers, and other
Representative profile of Oklawaha muck: shallow-rooted crops that are tolerant of wetness. Water
Oap-0 to 9 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) muck; less control is needed to remove excess surface water rapidly
than 5 percent fiber rubbed; weak, fine, granular struc- after heavy rain. The water table should be lowered only
ture; friable; sodium pyrophosphate pale brown enough to permit healthy root development during crop-
(10YR 6/3); estimated 5 percent mineral; slightly ping seasons. To reduce subsidence by oxidation, the water
acid; clear, smooth boundary. table should be raised to the surface after crops have been
andi-9 to rubbed, undecomposed organic materials (peat) ; harvested. Most of the acreage is used for cultivated crops.
about 70 percent fiber unrubbed, 55 percent fiber The soil is high in nitrogen, but low in other important
rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate is white elements. It is not suited to citrus. Tame grasses and
(10YR 8/2) ; fibers are layered; estimated 5 percent clovers grow well and excellent pastures can be maintained.
winery al materials, about 95 percent herbaceous; The water table should be maintained as close to the sur-
0i2-15 to 25 inches, mixed dark yellowish-brown (10YR 3/4) face as is consistent with healthy plant growth. Fertiliza-
and very dark brown (10YR 2/2) rubbed and unde- tion and controlled grazing are needed.
composed organic material (peat); 90 percent fiber Most areas have been developed for cultivation or im-
unrubbed, 50 percent fiber rubbed; massive; sodiumture. The few undeveloped areas have marsh-
pyrophosphate white (10YR 8/1); estimated 5 per-pasture. The few undeveloped areas have marsh-
cent mineral materials, about 95 percent herbaceous; land vegetation of sawgrass, waterlily, pickerelweed, and
slightly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary. sedges. These areas have little value for range. Capability
IIClg-25 to 31 inches, black (10YR 2/1) light sandy loam; unit IIIw-2; Fresh Marsh (organic) range site; no wood-
weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; neutral; land classification.
abrupt, smooth boundary.
IIIC2g-31 to 37 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy
clay; massive; very sticky; few, fine, small shell frag- Ona Series
ments of light gray and white; moderately alkaline;
gradual, wavy boundary. The Ona series consists of nearly level, poorly drained
IIIC3g-37 to 54 inches, white (10YR 8/2) clay; few, fine, sandy soils that have a layer stained by organic materials
faint, vertical streaks of dark gray and very dark just below the surface layer. These soils are mainly in the
gray; massive; very sticky; many very fine snail shells
and shell fragments; few lime concretions 15 mil- flatwoods. There are a few areas in small depressions on
limeters or less in size; moderately alkaline, the upland ridge. These soils formed in sandy marine sedi-
Oklawaha soils are slightly acid to moderately alkaline ment.
throughout the profile. The organic material is 18 to 40 inches In a representative profile, the surface layer is very dark
thick. The Oap horizon is black or very dark brown to dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is about
reddish brown and is 6 to 13 inches thick. The Oiluppermost 4 inches is very dark brown
horizons are 10 to 22 inches thick and are black or brown to 14 inches thick. The uppermost 4 inches is very dark brown
reddish brown or dark yellowish brown. In some places the fine sand, weakly cemented with organic material. The
0i2 horizon is absent. Fiber content of the Oil and Oi2 horizons next 8 inches is mainly black fine sand weakly cemented
is more than 45 to 60 percent, rubbed. The IIClg horizon is with organic material. This is underlain by 38 inches of
black to brown light sandy loam to sandy clay 3 to 28 Inches grayish-brown fine sand mottled with very dark gray, dark
thick. In places this horizon is absent. The IIIC2g horizon is gray -rown fine san o d wit very dark gray, dark
grayish-brown to black heavy sandy clay to clay 4 to 8 inches gray, dark grayish brown, and light brownish gray. Below
thick. The IIIC3g horizon is white to dark-gray sandy clay to this is 10 inches of white fine sand and 14 inches of gray-
clay. In places, it is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and ish-brown fine sand. These soils are very strongly acid in
brown. Calcic material in the IIIC3g horizon ranges from few the surface layer and strongly acid throughout the rest
fine concretions to many small pockets of soft white marl. In
some places the calcic materials in these horizons are absent. of the profile. The water table is at a depth of about 20
The water table is at the surface, and the soils are covered inches.
with water except during long dry seasons. Ona soils are moderately rapidly permeable in the layers
The Oklawaha soils are associated with the Emeralda, stained with organic matter at depths between 6 and 18
Iberia, Manatee, and Montverde soils. They have organic hori- inches and are rapidly permeable in all other layers.
zons, whereas the Emeralda, Iberia, and Manatee soils have
mineral horizons throughout. Their organic horizons are not so Available water capacity is medium. The organic-matter
thick as those of the Montverde soils, content is moderate to a depth of 18 inches. Below this,








28 SOIL SURVEY

available water capacity and organic-matter content are This soil is well suited to most crops that are tolerant
very low. Natural fertility is moderate. of slight wetness. It is well suited to truck crops and flow-
Representative profile of Ona fine sand: ers, but water control is needed that removes excess sur-
A1-0 to 6 inches, very dark gray (N 3/0) fine sand; weak, face water rapidly after rain and provides subsurface ir-
fine, crumb structure; friable; many fine and medium rigation during dry seasons. This soil should be fertilized
roots; mixture of black organic matter and light-gray and limed. Soil-improving Cover crops should be rotated
sand grains when dry; very strongly acid; clear, with row crops. The soil is poorly suited to citrus. Citrus
B2h-6smooth bound, ery dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine sand; trees are subject to severe damage by occasional high
weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; firm, water and by freezing in winter. The soil is well suited to
weakly cemented; common fine and medium roots; pasture of tame grasses and clover. High-quality pasture
many sand grains are coated with organic matter; can be maintained if the soil is drained, fertilized, and
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. limed and rain is controlled
B22h-10 to 18 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; common, limed, and grazing is controlled.
medium, faint, very dark brown (10YR 2/2), very Much of the acreage is in natural vegetation of scattered
dark gray (10YR 3/1), dark grayish-brown (10YR pine trees and an understory of palmettos, grasses, and
4/2), and grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; weak, shrubs. Much of it is used for range. Important decreaser
fine, granular structure; friable, weakly cemented; increaser forage plants are creeping bluestem indian-
common fine roots; many sand grains coated with and increase forage plants are creeping bluestem, indian
organic material; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary, grass, little blue maidencane, Florida paspalum, pineland
B3-18 to 20 Inches, very dark gray (10YR 3-1) fine sand; three-awn, species of panicum, deerstongue, grassleaf gold-
common, fine, faint, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) aster, huckleberry, and runner oak. Saw-palmetto, gall-
and light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; weak, berry, f and ohr ant that wr minor in h
fine, granular structure; friable; common fine roots; berry, fetterbush, and other plants that were minor in the
many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear, original understory now dominate some areas. If these
wavy boundary. areas are used for range, grazing should be controlled and
C01-20 to 58 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; protection against fires should be provided to permit
common, fine, faint, very dark gray (10YR 3/1), healthy growth of decrease plants. Capability unit
dark-gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish-brown (10YR
4/2), and light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; IIw-1; Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland group 2w2.
weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; few fine
roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; Orlando Series
clear, wavy boundary.
C2-8 to 68 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single grain; The Orlando series consists of nearly level to gently
loose; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
C&-68 to 82 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; few, sloping, well-drained sandy soils on the upland ridge.
medium, faint, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) mottles; These soils formed in sandy marine sediment.
single grain; loose; strongly acid. In a representative profile, the plow layer is fine sand
Ona soils are strongly acid to extremely acid throughout about 8 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 30 inches,
the profile. The Al horizon is 4 to 9 inches thick and ranges is very dark brown fine sand. Brown fine sand extends to a
from dark gray to black. The Bh horizon is black or very dark depth of 80 inches. These soils are slightly acid to a depth
brown to dark reddish-brown sand or fine sand. The upper ept incsoils
part normally has darker colors than the lower part. This Of 8 inches, medium acid between depths of 8 to 30 inches,
horizon is 12 to 19 inches thick, firm to friable, and weakly and strongly acid between depths of 30 and 80 inches. The
cemented. The B3 horizon is 2 to 4 inches thick and is very water table is at a depth of more than 80 inches.
dark gray to brown sand or fine sand. The different layers Orlando soils are rapidly permeable throughout. They
of the C horizon are white to brown sand or fine sand andThey
are mottled with gray and brown. The water table is at a are medium in available water capacity and moderate in
depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6 months in most years, organic-matter content in the upper 30 inches. Below a
within a depth of 10 inches for about 1 or 2 months, and below depth of 30 inches, they are very low in available water
40 inches the rest of -the year.
Ona soils are associated with Astatula, Immokalee, Pelham, capacity and organic-matter content. They are moderately
Myakka, Pomello, and Pompano soils. They differ from low in natural fertility.
Astatula, Pelham, and Pompano soils in having a weakly ce- Representative profile of Orlando fine sand:
mented layer stained with organic matter. They do not have
the leached subsurface layer that is typical of Immokalee, Ap-0 to 8 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine,
Myakka, and Pomello soils, crumb structure; friable; common fine roots and few
medium roots; few fine carbon particles; slightly
Ona fine sand (On).-This is a nearly level, poorly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
drained soil that has a layer stained with organic matter A1-8 to 30 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine sand;
just beloWthe surface. The water table is at a depth of 10 weak, fine, crumb structure; friable; few fine roots;
few fine carbon particles; medium acid; clear, wavy
to 40 inches for about 6 months, within a depth of 10 boundary.
inches for 1 to 2 months, and below a depth of 40 inches C-30 to 80 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single grain;
the rest of the year. loose; few fine roots; many uncoated sand grains; few
Ona fine sand is moderately rapidly permeable in the fine carbon particles; strongly acid.
weakly cemented organic layers, between depths of 6 and Orlando soils range from strongly acid to very strongly acid
18 inches, and is rapidly permeable in all other layers. The except in the A horizon where lime is applied. The A horizon
is very dark brown to black fine sand 10 to 36 inches thick.
organic-matter content is moderate and available water The AC horizon, if present, is 6 to 10 inches of dark grayish-
capacity is medium to a depth of 18 inches. Both are very brown to very dark grayish-brown sand or fine sand. The C
low below a depth of 18 inches. Natural fertility is horizon is light-gray to brown sand or fine sand. In some areas
the AC and C horizons have mottles of strong brown to brown-
moderate. ish yellow and mottles or splotches of uncoated, gray to white
Included in mapping are small areas of Myakka soils fine sand.
and a few small areas of soils that have layers of sandy Orlando soils occur in association with Astatula, Lake,
Pelham, and Pompano soils. They have a thicker A horizon
loam to sandy clay loam at a depth of 45 to 50 inches. than Astatula and Lake soils. They are better drained than







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 29

Pelham soils and do not have the sandy clay loam subsoil that cretions occur throughout this horizon; thin band % to
is typical of these soils. They are better drained than Pompano 1 inch thick of discontinuous dark yellowish brown
soils. (10YR 4/4) at the contact of A2 and B horizons;
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Orlando fine sand (Or).-This is a nearly level to C-56 to 90 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand;
gently sloping, well-drained soil. The water table is at a few, coarse, faint, very pale brown mottles; single
depth of more than 80 inches. grain; loose; few, fine, yellowish-brown spheroidal
Orlando fine sand is rapidly permeable throughout. concretions; strongly acid.
It has medium available water capacity and moderate Paola soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid throughout.
organic-matter content to a depth of 30 inches. Below this The Al horizon is 2 to 4 inches of light-gray to dark grayish-
brown sand. The A2 horizon is light brownish-gray to white
depth available water capacity and organic-matter content sand 8 to 34 inches thick. The B horizon is yellow to yellowish
are very low. This soil is moderately low in natural brown and has few to many weakly cemented spheroidal con-
fertility. cretions scattered in lenses 1/ to 2 inches thick throughout.
Included in mapping are small areas that have a sandy, There is a higher concentration of these concretions in the upper
Included in mapping are small areas that ave a sandy, part of the B horizon than in the lower part. The sand grains
dark reddish-brown surface layer and a strong-brown to are thinly coated with iron oxides. The thin layers stained by
yellowish-red subsurface layer; small areas of soils that organic matter at the contact of the A2 and B horizons are
have a sandy clay loam subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches; absent in many areas. The C horizon is pale brown to yellow.
and areas where this Orlando soil has slopes of 5 to 8 In many areas it is free of mottles and concretions.
an areas where this Orlano soil has slopes of 5 to 8 Paola soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello,
percent. and St. Lucie soils. They are better drained than Immokalee,
This soil is not well suited to truck crops, flowers, and Myakka, and Pomello soils. They differ from St. Lucie soils
other shallow-rooted crops that have high moisture re- in having a brownish-yellow B horizon.
quirements. It is well suited to citrus. In some low-lying Paola sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (PaB).-This is a
areas citrus is susceptible to severe damage from freezing nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil. It
temperatures in winter. Citrus should be fertilized, limed, is on ridgetops and knolls on the upland ridge. It has the
and irrigated. A cover of close-growing, soil-improving profile described as representative for the series.
plants should be maintained between the trees. Good pas- Paola sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is very rapidly perme-
tures of deep-rooted tame grasses can be maintained by able throughout. It has very low available water capacity,
regular applications of fertilizer and lime and by con- organic-matter content, and natural fertility.
trolled .grazing. Included in mapping are a few small areas where a sandy
Most of the acreage is in citrus or tame grass pasture. A clay loam or sandy loam subsoil is at a depth of 40 to 80
few small areas have pine trees and an understory of native inches.
Grasses and shrubs. These areas are not used for range. This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops. It is
Capability unit IIIs-1; Sandhills range site; woodland too drought and too rapidly leached of fertilizer. It is
group 3s2. very poorly suited to citrus because of droughtiness and
very low fertility.
Paola Series Most areas are in native vegetation of sand pine, scrub
oak, palmettos, and rosemary and a sparse understory
The Paola series consists of nearly level to sloping, ex- growth of grasses and shrubs. These areas have little value
cessively drained sandy soils. These soils are on the upland for range. Capability unit VIs-1; Sand Scrub range site;
ridge. They formed in beds of marine and eolian sand. woodland group 5s3.
In a representative profile, the surface layer is gray sand Paola sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (PaD).-The profile
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white sand of this soil is similar to that described as representative
about 20 inches thick. The subsoil is brownish-yellow sand, for the series, but this soil has stronger slopes. The water
32 inches thick, that contains small, dark-brown, weakly table is at a depth of more than 80 inches.
cemented concretions and streaks of white sand along old Paola sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, is very rapidly per-
root channels. The subsoil is underlain by 34 inches of light meable throughout. It has very low available water capa-
yellowish-brown sand. These soils are strongly acid city, organic-matter content, and natural fertility.
throughout. The water table is below a depth of 80 inches. Included with this soil in mapping ar afertility.eas where
Paola soils are very rapidly permeable in all layers.ed with this soil i mappig are some areas where
They have very low available water capacity, organic- slopes are less than 5 percent.
matter content, and natural fertility. This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The steep
Representative profile of a Paola sand: slopes and very poor soil properties make it poorly suited
to citrus. It is poorly suited to deep-rooted tame grasses
Al-0 to 4 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grain; loose;. s. It is poorly suited to deep-rooted tame grasses
many fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand because it is drought during dry seasons.
grains, few thinly coated with organic matter; strongly Most areas are in sparse native vegetation of sand pines,
acid; clear, smooth boundary. scrub oak, palmettos, rosemary, and grasses. These areas
A2-4 to 24 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sand; few, fine, faint, scrub oak palmettos, rosemary, and grasses. These areas
gray, dark-gray, and grayish-brown mottles along root have little value for range. Capability unit VIIs-1; Sand
channels; single grain; loose; few fine roots; clean Scrub range site; woodland group 5s3.
sand grains; strongly acid; abrupt, irregular boundary.
B-24 to 56 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sand, reddish
yellow (7.5YR 7/8) burned; single grain, loose; few Pelham Series
coarse root channels filled with white sand from the A
horizon; outer edges of the root channels stained dark The Pelham series consists of nearly level, poorly
yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) and yellowish brown drained sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. These soils
ce(0YR 5/4) by organic matellrial that is weakly are in depressions or in low areas on the upland ridge. They
mented, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) spheroidal con- formed in unconsolidated marine sediment.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 29

Pelham soils and do not have the sandy clay loam subsoil that cretions occur throughout this horizon; thin band % to
is typical of these soils. They are better drained than Pompano 1 inch thick of discontinuous dark yellowish brown
soils. (10YR 4/4) at the contact of A2 and B horizons;
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Orlando fine sand (Or).-This is a nearly level to C-56 to 90 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand;
gently sloping, well-drained soil. The water table is at a few, coarse, faint, very pale brown mottles; single
depth of more than 80 inches. grain; loose; few, fine, yellowish-brown spheroidal
Orlando fine sand is rapidly permeable throughout. concretions; strongly acid.
It has medium available water capacity and moderate Paola soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid throughout.
organic-matter content to a depth of 30 inches. Below this The Al horizon is 2 to 4 inches of light-gray to dark grayish-
brown sand. The A2 horizon is light brownish-gray to white
depth available water capacity and organic-matter content sand 8 to 34 inches thick. The B horizon is yellow to yellowish
are very low. This soil is moderately low in natural brown and has few to many weakly cemented spheroidal con-
fertility. cretions scattered in lenses 1/ to 2 inches thick throughout.
Included in mapping are small areas that have a sandy, There is a higher concentration of these concretions in the upper
Included in mapping are small areas that ave a sandy, part of the B horizon than in the lower part. The sand grains
dark reddish-brown surface layer and a strong-brown to are thinly coated with iron oxides. The thin layers stained by
yellowish-red subsurface layer; small areas of soils that organic matter at the contact of the A2 and B horizons are
have a sandy clay loam subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches; absent in many areas. The C horizon is pale brown to yellow.
and areas where this Orlando soil has slopes of 5 to 8 In many areas it is free of mottles and concretions.
an areas where this Orlano soil has slopes of 5 to 8 Paola soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello,
percent. and St. Lucie soils. They are better drained than Immokalee,
This soil is not well suited to truck crops, flowers, and Myakka, and Pomello soils. They differ from St. Lucie soils
other shallow-rooted crops that have high moisture re- in having a brownish-yellow B horizon.
quirements. It is well suited to citrus. In some low-lying Paola sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (PaB).-This is a
areas citrus is susceptible to severe damage from freezing nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil. It
temperatures in winter. Citrus should be fertilized, limed, is on ridgetops and knolls on the upland ridge. It has the
and irrigated. A cover of close-growing, soil-improving profile described as representative for the series.
plants should be maintained between the trees. Good pas- Paola sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is very rapidly perme-
tures of deep-rooted tame grasses can be maintained by able throughout. It has very low available water capacity,
regular applications of fertilizer and lime and by con- organic-matter content, and natural fertility.
trolled .grazing. Included in mapping are a few small areas where a sandy
Most of the acreage is in citrus or tame grass pasture. A clay loam or sandy loam subsoil is at a depth of 40 to 80
few small areas have pine trees and an understory of native inches.
Grasses and shrubs. These areas are not used for range. This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops. It is
Capability unit IIIs-1; Sandhills range site; woodland too drought and too rapidly leached of fertilizer. It is
group 3s2. very poorly suited to citrus because of droughtiness and
very low fertility.
Paola Series Most areas are in native vegetation of sand pine, scrub
oak, palmettos, and rosemary and a sparse understory
The Paola series consists of nearly level to sloping, ex- growth of grasses and shrubs. These areas have little value
cessively drained sandy soils. These soils are on the upland for range. Capability unit VIs-1; Sand Scrub range site;
ridge. They formed in beds of marine and eolian sand. woodland group 5s3.
In a representative profile, the surface layer is gray sand Paola sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (PaD).-The profile
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white sand of this soil is similar to that described as representative
about 20 inches thick. The subsoil is brownish-yellow sand, for the series, but this soil has stronger slopes. The water
32 inches thick, that contains small, dark-brown, weakly table is at a depth of more than 80 inches.
cemented concretions and streaks of white sand along old Paola sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, is very rapidly per-
root channels. The subsoil is underlain by 34 inches of light meable throughout. It has very low available water capa-
yellowish-brown sand. These soils are strongly acid city, organic-matter content, and natural fertility.
throughout. The water table is below a depth of 80 inches. Included with this soil in mapping ar afertility.eas where
Paola soils are very rapidly permeable in all layers.ed with this soil i mappig are some areas where
They have very low available water capacity, organic- slopes are less than 5 percent.
matter content, and natural fertility. This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The steep
Representative profile of a Paola sand: slopes and very poor soil properties make it poorly suited
to citrus. It is poorly suited to deep-rooted tame grasses
Al-0 to 4 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grain; loose;. s. It is poorly suited to deep-rooted tame grasses
many fine and medium roots; many uncoated sand because it is drought during dry seasons.
grains, few thinly coated with organic matter; strongly Most areas are in sparse native vegetation of sand pines,
acid; clear, smooth boundary. scrub oak, palmettos, rosemary, and grasses. These areas
A2-4 to 24 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sand; few, fine, faint, scrub oak palmettos, rosemary, and grasses. These areas
gray, dark-gray, and grayish-brown mottles along root have little value for range. Capability unit VIIs-1; Sand
channels; single grain; loose; few fine roots; clean Scrub range site; woodland group 5s3.
sand grains; strongly acid; abrupt, irregular boundary.
B-24 to 56 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sand, reddish
yellow (7.5YR 7/8) burned; single grain, loose; few Pelham Series
coarse root channels filled with white sand from the A
horizon; outer edges of the root channels stained dark The Pelham series consists of nearly level, poorly
yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) and yellowish brown drained sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. These soils
ce(0YR 5/4) by organic matellrial that is weakly are in depressions or in low areas on the upland ridge. They
mented, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) spheroidal con- formed in unconsolidated marine sediment.







30 SOIL SURVEY

In a representative profile, the surface layer is very dark horizon. They do not have the weakly cemented layer stained
gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 27 with organic matter that is typical in Myakka and Wauchula
inches thick. The upper 20 inches is dark grayish-brown soils.
sand, and the lower 7 inches is white sand. The subsoil is Pelham sand (Pd).-This is a nearly level, poorly
about 48 inches thick. The upper 25 inches is white sandy drained soil that has a loamy subsoil. The water table is
clay loam mottled with very pale brown, yellow, and within a depth of 10 inches for about 2 months of the year,
brownish yellow. The lower 23 inches is very pale brown at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6 months, and below
sandy clay loam mottled with white, yellow, brownish 40 inches for about 4 months.
yellow, and reddish yellow. This soil is slightly acid in the Pelham sand has very low available water capacity in
surface layer, medium acid in the subsurface layer to a the surface and subsurface layers and medium available
depth of 25 inches, and strongly acid below this to a depth water capacity in the subsoil. It has rapid permeability in
of 80 inches. The water table is at a depth of about 20 the sandy layers, to a depth of 32 inches, and moderate
inches. permeability in the loamy subsoil. It is low in natural fer-
Pelham soils are rapidly permeable in the sandy layers, utility and organic-matter content.
to a depth of 32 inches, and are moderately permeable in Included in mapping are a few small areas of soils that
the loamy subsoil. Available water capacity in the surface have a layer stained with organic matter and a few small
and subsurface layers is very low. It is medium in the sub- areas of soils that have a sandy clay loam subsoil below a
soil. The organic-matter content and natural fertility are depth of 40 inches.
low. If intensively managed, this soil is suited to most shal-
Representative profile of Pelham sand: low-rooted, cultivated crops. Water control is needed to
remove excess surface water after heavy rain and to pro-
Ap-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak, vide subsurface irrigation during dry seasons. Crops
fine, granular structure; very friable; few fine roots; should be fertilized and limed and rotated with a close-
slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. should be fertilzed and limed and rotated with a close-
A21-5 to 25 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand; growing, soil-improving crop. Citrus trees grow well in
few, fine, faint mottles of dark gray (10YR 4/1) and some places if there is deep drainage and if they are prop-
few, medium, distinct mottles of pale brown (10YR early fertilized and limed. They are, however, subject to
6/3) ; weak, fine, granular structure; friable; few fine erly f etlzed and lmed tey are, ever, subject to
roots; medium acid; clear, smooth boundary. damage by excess ground water and severe freezing in
A22-25 to 32 inches, white (10YR 8/2) sand; few vertical winter. Deep-rooted tame grasses grow well and make good
streaks of gray, dark gray, and brown; single grain; pasture if they are fertilized and limed, and if grazing is
loose; strongly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary. controlled.
B21tg-32 to 57 inches, white (10YR 8/2) sandy clay loam;
common, fine, faint mottles of very pale brown (10YR Most areas of this soil are small and are included with
8/4), yellow (10YR 8/8), and brownish yellow (10YR better drained soils in citrus groves or improved pastures.
6/8) ; moderate, medium, granular structure; friable; The few small areas in native vegetation are not used for
many sand grains coated and bridged with clay; range. The native vegetation is scattered pine trees and
B22tg-57to 80 inches, very pale brown (dOYR 8/3) sandy an understorv of saw-palmettos, grasses, and shrubs. Ca-
clay loam; common, medium, faint mottles of white ability unit IVw-1; Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland
(10YR 8/2), yellow (10YR 8/8), 'and brownish yel- group 2w3.
low (10YR 6/8) and few, fine, distinct mottles of
reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) ; moderate, medium, gran-
ular structure; friable; many sand grains coated and Placid Series
bridged with clay; strongly acid.
bridged with clay; strongly acid. The Placid series consists of nearly level, very poorly
The Al or Ap horizon is 5 to 7 inches thick, dark gray to drained sandy soils. These soils are in low wet areas on the
very dark gray, and slightly acid to very strongly acid.
The A21 horizon is dark grayish-brown or dark yellowish- upland ridge and in the flatwoods. They formed in sandy
brown to light brownish-gray or pale-brown sand or fine sand marine sediment.
2 to 20 inches thick. In places, the horizon is free of mottles; In a representative profile, the surface layer is sand about
in other places it has common, fine, faint and distinct mottles 18 inches thick. The upper 12 inches is black, and the lower
of brown, yellow, and gray. The A22 horizon is white to gray-
ish-brown sand or fine sand 2 to 10 inches thick. Mottles are not 6 inches is very dark gray mottled with very dark
present in some areas, and in others there are a few mottles grayish brown and dark grayish brown. Below this is a
of yellow, brown, and gray. In some areas there is a thin A23 layer of grayish-brown-sand about 20 inches thick that is
horizon of light-gray to very pale brown sand or fine sand. The mottled with dark grayish brown and very dark grayish
A2 horizon is medium acid to very strongly acid. The total
thickness of the A horizon is 29 to 36 inches. In some places brown. The next 42 inches is light brownish-gray sand.
there is a gray loamy sand Bl horizon, 1 to 3 inches thick, at These soils are extremely acid in the surface layer, to a
the contact of the A2 and Btg horizons. The Btg horizon is depth of about 12 inches, and very strongly acid below this
white to light-gray sandy clay loam. Mottles are few, fine, to a depth of 80 inches. The water table is at the surface
faint to common, medium, faint in shades of gray, brown, and
yellow. This horizon extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. most of the year. In the slightly higher areas, however,
It is strongly acid to very strongly acid. The water table is the water table is at a depth of 20 inches most of the year.
within a depth of 10 inches for about 2 months of the year, at Placid soils are rapidly permeable in all layers. They
10 to 40 inches for about 6 months, and below 40 inches for have medium available water capacity, moderate natural
about 4 months.
The Pelham soils mapped in the Lake County Area have a fertility, and moderately high organic-matter content to
slightly higher temperature than is defined in the range for the a depth of 18 inches. They are low in these characteristics
Pelham series, but this difference does not alter their useful- below a depth of about 18 inches.
ness or behavior. Representative profile of Placid sand:
Pelham soils are associated with Astatula, Apopka, Myakka, profile
Ocilla, Wauchula, Pompano, and Vaucluse soils. They are not All-0 to 12 inches, black (N 2/0) sand; weak, fine, granular
so well drained as Astatula, Apooka, Ocilla, and Vaucluse soils, structure; very friable; many fine roots; extremely
They differ from Astatula and Pompano soils in having a Btg acid; clear, wavy boundary.






LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 31

A12-12 to 18 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand: many. increase forage plants are maidencane, longleaf three-
medium and coarse, faint mottles of very dark gravish awn. d r)l'OOllsede thlree-awn. If the site is overgrazed
brown (10YR 3/2) and dark grayish brown (10YR "' t -a If te site is overrazd
4/2) and few. medium, faint mottles of black and dark these plants aire replaced byl pickerelweed. redroot. smart-
brown: weak, fine. granular structure: very friable: weed. iris. carpetgrass. and a variety of annual grasses and
many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear, smooth weeds. Capability unit IIIw-1: Sand Pond range site:
boundary. woodland -roup 2w3.
C1-18 to 3S inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand : few. me-up I W.
dium. faint mottles of dark grayish brown (10YR Placid sand, slightly wet (Pg).-This is a nearly level,
4/2) and very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) : single poorly drained soil. It is at elevations slightly higher than
grain: loose: few fine roots: very strongly acid; Placid sand. It occurs as low. broad areas and as narrow
gradual, wavy boundary. nihgra (10YR 6/2 sands around ponds and lakes. It covers a transitional zone
C2-38 to SO inches, light brownish-gray (1OYR 6/2) sand;
single grain; loose: very strongly acid. between the well-drained sand uplands and the very
Placid soils are extremely acid to strongly acid throughout. poorly drained wetlands. The surface layer is about 19
They range from very poorly drained to poorly drained. The inches thick. The upper 7 inches is black sand, and the
All horizon is 8 to 14 inches thick and very dark brown to black. lower part is very dark brown sand. Below this, to a depth
The A12 horizon is 3 to 9 inches of very dark gray to black or of 23 inches. is dark gravish-brown sand mottled with very
dark-brown to very (lark brown sand or fine sand. In some dark gra and dark gravish brown. The next laver is light
places it has mottles of very d(lark grayish brown and dark gray- a -g ani cla g is b n er li gt
ish brown or very dark gray: in other places it is free of mot- grayish-brown sand that extends to a depth of 31 inches.
ties. The A horizon is 1 to about 18 percent organic matter. It is underlain by light-grav sand. which extends to a
The C1 and C2 horizons are light-gray to gray or light depth of S() inches. The water table is within a depth of
brownish-gray to grayish-brown sand or fine sand. The C1 hori- 10 incles for about 2 months of the Year and at a depth of
zon is mottled with very dark grayish brown and dlark grayish
brown. In some areas there is a C3 horizon. It is light gray to 10 to 30 inches the rest of the year.
gray or light brownish gray to pale brown. In places it has no Placid sand, slightly wet. is rapidly permeable through-
mottles: in other places it is mottled with gray and brown. The out. To a depth of about 19 inches, it has medium available
C horizon extends to a depth of ,10 inches or more. The water
table is at the surface most of the year. During extended dry water capacity, moderately high organic-matter content.
periods, it is within a depth of 15 inches. In some places the and moderate natural fertility. Below this. the available
soil is covered with shallow water 4 to 6 months each year. In water capacity and organic-matter content are low.
slightly higher areas the water table is within a depth of Included in mapping are a few small areas of soils that
10 inches for about 2 months of the year and fluctuates between have a sandy loam or sandy clay loam subsoil at a depth of
10 and 30 inches during the rest of the year.
Placid soils are associated with Brighton. Immokalee. Mont- about 50 inches.
verde. Myakka. and Ona soils. They are mineral soils and Brigh- This soil is well suited to most crops that are tolerant of
ton and Montverde soils are organic soils. They do not have slight wetness. Truck crops and flowers grow well but re-
the weakly cemented layers stained with organic matter that
are typical of Immokalee, Myakka, and Ona soils. quire water control that removes excess surface water
.-This is a nearly level ver poo rapidly and supplies subsurface irrigation in dry seasons.
Placid sand (Pe).--This is a nearly level. very poorly This soil requires fertilizer and lime. Soil-improving cover
drained soil. It has the profile described as representative crops should be planted in rotation with row rops. This
for the Dries. The water table is at the surface most of the soil is very poorly suited to citrus. It is well suited to pas-
year. During extended dry periods it is within a depth of tures of tame grasses and clovers. High-quality pasture
15 inches. Shallow water covers many areas for 4 to 6 br o tm g a cloer.1 "-it.1 pasture
months in wet seasons. many areas for 4 to can be maintained in areas where the soil is drained. fer-
months in wet seasons, tilized. and limed and grazing is controlled.
Placid sand is rapidly permeable throughout. It has me- Areas that are not cultivated support a native growth of
dium available water capacity moeratel high organic- pine trees and an understor vegetation of native grasses
matter content. and moderate natural fertility to a depthi i te an T ti eetio f ni grse
f at t e r content, and moderate natural fertility to a depth and shrubs. In many areas the trees have been cut, and the
of epths abouelow 1IS inches. is low in the characteristics at soil is covered with a good growth of understory plants.
depths below 18, inches. Many of these areas are used for range. The main decreaser
Included in mapping are a few small areas of soils that and increase plants are creeping bluestem, indiangrass.
have very weakly cement( layers stained with organic little blue maidencane. Florida paspalum, pineland three-
matter at a depth of less than 40 inches and a few small awn, species of panicum, deerstongue, grassleaf goldaster.
areas where there is an muck surface later 6 to 10 inches milkpeas. huckleberry, and runner oak. Saw-palmetto.
i c. gallberry, and fetterbush are minor plants of the original
This soil is well suited to truck crops, flowers, and other vegetation that now dominate in some areas as a result of
shallow-rooted cultivated crops that are tolerant of wet- fires and overgrazing. Capability unit IIw-1: Acid Flat-
ness. Water control is needed to remove excess surface woods range site: woodland group 2w2.
water rapidly after rain. Fertilizer and lime are needed. Placid and Myakka sands, 0 to 2 percent slopes
Soil-improving cover crops should be rotated with row d s d
crops. This soil is very poorly suited to citrus. Tame grasses PmA.-Tlese are nearly level, very poorly drain an
and clovers grow well for pasture in areas where the soil poorly drained soils in low. marshy depressions. Each of
is drained, fertilized, and limed, and where grazing is the named soils has the profile described as representative
controlled, for its series. The water table in these soils is nearer the
The native vegetation is mainly grass and low-growing surface for longer periods than in Myakka sand, and the
aquatic plants (fig. 5). Some areas have swamp vegetation soil is covered with water for 4 to 6 months in most years.
of wetland hardwoods and cypress. Open areas produce The soils occur together without regular pattern. Sepa-
excellent forage for cattle and wildlife if they are well rating the soils into more than one mapping unit was not
managed as range. Swamp areas produce some browse and practicable because of extreme wetness. The composition of
shelter for cattle and wildlife. Important decreaser and this unit is more variable than that of most other units in







32 SOIL SURVEY






























Figure 5.-Native vegetation on a Sand Pond range site. The soil is Placid sand.
the county, but the soils are similar enough to permit Pomello soils are moderately rapidly permeable in the
interpretations for most expected uses. layer stained with organic matter and very rapidly perme-
About 33 percent of the unit is Placid soils, 27 percent is able in all other layers. They have very low available water
Myakka soils, and 40 percent is inclusions of other soils, capacity and very low organic-matter content in the sur-
The inclusions are mostly soils that have a Bt horizon and face and subsurface layers. Available water capacity is
soils that have a Bh horizon within a depth of 30 inches. medium, and the organic-matter content is moderate in the
The suitability of these soils for cultivated crops, citrus, low in natural
and improved pasture is very similar to that described for organic-stained layer. The soils are very low in natural
Placid sand. The soils occur in positions similar to Placid fertility.
sand and have similar native vegetation and range poten- Representative profile of Pomello sand:
tial. Capability unit IIIw-1; Sand Pond range site; A1-0 to 3 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain; loose;
woodland group 2w3. many fine roots; very strongly acid; clear, smooth
boundary.
A2-3 to 39 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sand; common, fine to
Pomello Series medium, dark organic-matter stains along root chan-
nels; single grain; loose; few medium roots; very
The Pomello series consists of nearly level to gently strongly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary.
sloping, moderately well drained sandy soils that occur B21h--39 to 44 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) sand;
throughout the flatwoods. These soils formed in beds of massive; weakly cemented; sand grains coated with
marine sand. organic matter; many small to medium roots; very
In a representative profile, the surface layer is gray sand B22h--44 to 51 incglyiaces, black (5YR 2/1) sand; many, coarse,
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white sand faint, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) mottles; mas-
about 36 inches thick. The subsoil is 18 inches thick. It is sive; weakly cemented; sand grains coated with or-
sand that is weakly cemented and coated with organic mat- ganic matter; few fine roots; very strongly acid;
ter. The upper 5 inches is dark reddish brown, the next 7 gradual, wavy boundary.
ter. The upper 5 inches is dark reddish brown, the next 7 B23h-51 to 55 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/4) sand;
inches is black, and the next 4 inches is dark reddish brown. many, coarse, faint, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2)
Below this is mixed very dark gray, black and dark-gray mottles; massive; weakly cemented; sand grains
sand about 2 inches thick. This layer is underlain by light- coated with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear,
gray sand mottled with gray and dark gray. These soils are wavy boundary.
er ro throughout the profile The water table B355 to 57 inches, mixed very dark gray (10YR 3/1), black
(very strongly YR 2/1), and dark-gray (uncoateYR 4/1) sand; single
is at a depth of about 45 inches. grain; loose; many uncoated sand grains; few







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 33

coated sand grains; very strongly acid; clear, smooth Pompano soils are rapidly permeable. They have very
boundary. low available water capacity, organic-matter content, and
C-57 to 80 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sand; many, coarse,
faint, gray (10YR 5/1) and dark-gray (10YR 4/1) natural fertility.
mottles; single grain; loose; very strongly acid. Representative profile of Pompano sand, acid:
Pomello soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid through- Al-0 to 5 inches, black (N 2/0) sand; weak, medium, granu-
out. The Al horizon is 3 to 6 inches thick and light gray to lar structure; very friable; many fine roots; com-
gray. The A2 horizon is 30 to 43 inches of light brownish-gray mon uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear, wavy
to white sand or fine sand. It has a few mottles of gray and boundary.
brown as a result of organic staining along old root channels. AC-5 to 9 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand; sin-
The B21h horizon is very dark gray to black, dark brown to gle grain; loose; few fine roots; many uncoated sand
very dark brown, or dark reddish brown. It is 3 to 5 inches grains; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
thick. The B22h is very dark gray to black, dark yellowish- C1-9 to 30 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain; loose;
brown to very dark brown, or reddish-brown to dark reddish- few fine roots; few small particles of charcoal; many
brown sand or fine sand. The B23h is very dark gray, dark- clean sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
brown to very dark brown, or dark reddish-brown sand or fine boundary.
sand. The Bh horizon is commonly 12 to 16 inches thick. In C2-30 to 61 inches, white (10YR 8/2) sand; few, fine, faint,
some areas it is as much as 36 inches thick. It is massive in light-gray and very pale brown mottles; single grain;
places but crushes to weak or moderate, fine to medium, granu- loose; few fine roots; many clean sand grains; strongly
lar structure and is weakly cemented to friable. The Bh hori- acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
zon becomes no redder when burned. The B3 horizon is very 03-61 to 80 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; common,
dark gray, grayish brown to brown, or dark brown mottled medium, faint, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2),
with black, gray, brown, and red. The C horizon is white to grayish-brown (10YR 5/2), and light brownish-gray
dark gray or very pale brown to yellowish brown. The water (10YR 6/2) mottles; single grain; loose; strongly
table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for about 8 months of acid.
the year and at 30 to 40 inches for about 4 months,
Pomello soils are associated with Myakka, Immokalee, St. Pompano soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid
Lucie, Paola, and Astatula soils. They are better drained throughout. The A horizon is 3 to 8 inches thick and is gray to
than Immokalee and Myakka soils. They are not so well black. The AC horizon is 4 to 11 inches thick and is gray to
drained as Astatula, Paola, and St. Lucie soils. dark grayish brown mottled with shades of gray and brown.
In places, this horizon is absent. The C1 and 02 horizons range
Pomello sand (Pn).-This is a nearly level to gently from white to grayish brown and are without mottles or are
sloping, moderately well drained sandy soil. The water only faintly mottled with very pale brown and light gray. In
table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for about 8 months some places a few iron concretions occur at a depth of 45 to
60 inches. The 03 horizon ranges from white to brown and is
of the year and at a depth of 30 to 40 inches for about mottled gray and brown. The water table is within a depth of
4 months. 10 inches for 2 to 6 months of the year and at a depth of 10
Pomello sand has very rapid permeability and very low to 40 inches the rest of the year. Low areas are covered with
available water capacity and organic-matter content in shallow water after heavy rain.
Pompano soils are associated with Astatula, Apopka, Im-
the surface and subsurface horizons. The organic-stained mokalee, Myakka, Ocilla, and Wauchula soils. They are more
layer has moderately rapid permeability and moderate poorly drained than Astatula, Apopka, and Ocilla soils. They
organic-matter content. This soil is very low in natural do not have the loamy subsoil that is typical of Apopka and
fertility. ocilla soils.
Included in mapping are a few small areas of Immok- Pompano sand, acid (Po).-This is a nearly level, poorly
alee, Tavares, and St. Lucie soils and some small areas drained soil. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches
where the Bh horizon is as much as 36 inches thick. for 2 to 6 months of the year and at a depth of 10 to 40
This soil is not suitable for truck crops, flower crops, inches during the rest of the year. The lowest areas are
or other shallow-rooted crops that have high moisture and covered with shallow water after heavy rain.
fertilizer requirements. It has little capacity to hold water Pompano sand, acid, has very low available water
and plant nutrients in the surface layer. It is poorly suited capacity and low organic-matter content. It is low in
to citrus and tame grasses. natural fertility.
Much of the acreage is in native vegetation of scrub Included in mapping are small areas of soils that have a
oaks, scattered pine trees, and a sparse growth of native sandy clay loam subsoil that begins at a depth of more than
grasses and shrubs. Part of the acreage is used for range, 40 inches and areas that have a black surface layer about
but forage production is inadequate. Capability unit VIs- 12 inches thick.
4; Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 4s3. This soil is suitable for truck crops, flowers, and other
shallow-rooted cultivated crops that are tolerant of wet-
Pompano Series ness. Water control is needed to remove excess surface
water rapidly after rain. Crops require fertilizer and lime,
The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly and they should be rotated with soil-improving cover
drained sandy soils. These soils are in the flatwoods and crops. The soil is very poorly suited to citrus. Tame grasses
in depressions on the upland ridge. They formed in thick and clovers grow well for pasture, but surface drainage,
beds of marine sand. fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing are needed.
In a representative profile the surface layer is black Much of the acreage is in native vegetation of pine trees,
sand about 5 inches thick. Below this is a laver of dark grasses, shrubs, and saw-palmetto. Some of this is used for
grayish-brown sand about 4 inches thick. The next 52 range. Important decreaser and increase forage plants
inches is gray and white sand that overlies 19 inches of are creeping bluestem, indiangrass, little blue maidencane,
pale-brown sand mottled with dark grayish brown, grayish Florida paspalum, pineland three-awn, species of panicum,
brown, and light brownish gray. These soils are strongly deerstongue, grassleaf goldaster, huckleberry, and runner
acid throughout. The water table is at a depth of about oaks. Saw-palmetto, gallberry, and fetterbush are now
20 inches. dominant in some areas. If these areas are used for range,






34 SOIL SURVEY

grazing and fire should be controlled to permit healthy no outlets, and as large bay heads. The soils are flooded
growth of decreaser plants. Capability unit IVw-2; Acid with water all the year except during prolonged periods
Flatwoods range site; woodland group 3w2. when rainfall is light. Some places in the Green Swamp
area are always covered with water.
St. Lucie Series Included in mapping are a few small islands of higher
lying soils. These inclusions make up no more than 2 per-
The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level to gently cent of any mapped area.
sloping, excessively drained sandy soils. These soils are on Swamp is covered with a dense wetland forest. Estab-
ridgetops, knolls, and dunes. They formed in thick beds lishing adequate water control and removing the dense
of marine sand. vegetation to prepare this soil for cultivated crops or pas-
In a representative profile, the surface layer is sand ture are not feasible. Swamp provides shelter and some
about 4 inches thick. Below this is white, loose sand to a browse for cattle and wildlife. The vegetation is wetland
depth of 80 inches. These soils are very strongly acid hardwoods, cypress, black pines, cabbage palms, shrubs,
throughout. The water table is at a depth of more than 80 vines, and grasses. Capability unit VIIw-2; Swamp range
inches. site; no woodland classification.
St. Lucie soils are very rapidly permeable. Available
water capacity, organic-matter content, and natural Tavares Series
fertility are very low.
Representative profile of St. Lucie sand: The Tavares series consists of nearly level to gently
Al-0 to 4 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain; loose; sloping, moderately well drained sandy soils. These soils
common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; formed in beds of marine sand.
clear, wavy boundary. In a representative profile, the surface layer is about 7
C1-4 to 40 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grain; loose; inches thick. It is underlain by 92 inches of sand. The up-
common fine and medium roots; few, fine, vertical,
very pale brown stains along root channels; clean sand per 18 inches is very pale brown, faintly mottled with yel-
grains; very strongly acid; diffuse, wavy boundary. lowish brown. The next 9 inches is light yellowish brown,
C2-40 to 80 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grain; and the next 27 inches is very pale brown faintly mottled
loose; clean sand grains; very strongly acid. with yellow. Below this is 38 inches of white sand that is
The A. horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick and is gray to white. In mottled with very pale brown. The water table is at a
some areas the A horizon is a mixture of small black bits of depth of about 50 inches.
organic matter and white sand grains. The C horizon is light
gray to white. White is the dominant color. Tavares soils are very rapidly permeable. Available
St. Lucie soils are associated with Paola, Astatula, Pomello, water capacity and the organic-matter content are very
Myakka. and Immokalee soils. They are better drained than low. Natural fertility is low.
Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello soils, and do not have the Representative profile of Tavares sand:
weakly cemented layers stained with organic matter that are
typical of those soils. They differ from Astatula and Paola soils Ap-0 to 7 inches, very dark grayiah-brown (10YR 3/2) sand;
in not having yellow and yellowish-brown colors in the C weak, fine, granular structure; friable; many fine and
horizon. medium roots; common, uncoated, light-gray sand
grains; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
St. Lucie sand (Sc).-This is a nearly level to gently C1-7 to 25 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; few,
sloping excessively drained soil. It has a gray, loose sand fine, faint, yellowish-brown mottles; single grain;
surface layer about 4 inches thick. Below this to a depth loose; common fine roots; common very fine carbon
of 80 inches is white, loose sand. The water table is at a particles; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid;
depth of more than 80 inchess gradual, wavy boundary.
epth of more than 80 inches. C2-25 to 34 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand;
St. Lucie sand is very rapidly permeable. Available single grain; loose; few fine roots; many uncoated
water capacity, organic-matter content, and natural fer- sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
utility are very low. 03-34 to 61 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; few,
medium, faint, yellow mottles; single grain; loose;
Included in mapping are a few small areas of Pomello many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear,
soils, areas where slopes are 5 to 17 percent, and areas of wavy boundary.
soils that have a fine sand texture. C4-61 to 99 inches, white (10YR 8/2) sand; common, medium,
This soil is not suitable for most cultivated crops. It is faint, very pale brown mottles; single grain; loose;
l f many uncoated sand grains; abundance of mottles
too drought and too rapidly leached of fertilizers. It is decreases at lower depths; strongly acid.
very poorly suited to citrus and tame grasses because of Tavares soils are very strongly acid to strongly acid through-
droughtiness and very low fertility, out the profile. The Al or Ap horizon is very dark gray to dark
Only a small acreage is farmed. Most of the acreage is in grayish brown and 4 to 9 inches thick. The C horizon is light
native vegetation of scrub oaks, sand pines, and a sparse brownish-gray to brown or very pale brown sand or fine sand.
unatiderg tah of n b oak, sand pinea d a sarse Few faint mottles in shades of brown or yellow occur below a
undergrowth of native grasses and shrubs that do not pro- depth of 30 inches. Large splotches of white or light gray occur
vide adequate forage for range. Capability unit VIIs-1; within depths of 40 inches in some profiles. The water table
Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 5s3. commonly is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6
months of the year. During periods of drought, it is below
Swamp 60 inches.
Tavares soils are associated with Apopka, Astatula, Orlando,
S. Ocilla, and Pompano and Tavares, white subsurface variant,
Swamp (Sw) consists of level, very poorly drained mm- soils. They are not so well drained as Apopka, Astatula, and
eral and organic soils that have not been classified because Orlando soils. They also have a thinner A horizon than Orlando
excess water and dense vegetation make detailed investiga- soils. They do not have the Bt horizon that is typical of the
tion impractical. Swamp occurs as broad drain wa as Ocilla soils. They are better drained than Pompano soils. They
tion impractical. Swamp occurs as broad draageways, as differ from the Tavares, white subsurface variant, soils in not
broad, poorly defined streams, as large depressions having having the white subsurface layer.






34 SOIL SURVEY

grazing and fire should be controlled to permit healthy no outlets, and as large bay heads. The soils are flooded
growth of decreaser plants. Capability unit IVw-2; Acid with water all the year except during prolonged periods
Flatwoods range site; woodland group 3w2. when rainfall is light. Some places in the Green Swamp
area are always covered with water.
St. Lucie Series Included in mapping are a few small islands of higher
lying soils. These inclusions make up no more than 2 per-
The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level to gently cent of any mapped area.
sloping, excessively drained sandy soils. These soils are on Swamp is covered with a dense wetland forest. Estab-
ridgetops, knolls, and dunes. They formed in thick beds lishing adequate water control and removing the dense
of marine sand. vegetation to prepare this soil for cultivated crops or pas-
In a representative profile, the surface layer is sand ture are not feasible. Swamp provides shelter and some
about 4 inches thick. Below this is white, loose sand to a browse for cattle and wildlife. The vegetation is wetland
depth of 80 inches. These soils are very strongly acid hardwoods, cypress, black pines, cabbage palms, shrubs,
throughout. The water table is at a depth of more than 80 vines, and grasses. Capability unit VIIw-2; Swamp range
inches. site; no woodland classification.
St. Lucie soils are very rapidly permeable. Available
water capacity, organic-matter content, and natural Tavares Series
fertility are very low.
Representative profile of St. Lucie sand: The Tavares series consists of nearly level to gently
Al-0 to 4 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain; loose; sloping, moderately well drained sandy soils. These soils
common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; formed in beds of marine sand.
clear, wavy boundary. In a representative profile, the surface layer is about 7
C1-4 to 40 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grain; loose; inches thick. It is underlain by 92 inches of sand. The up-
common fine and medium roots; few, fine, vertical,
very pale brown stains along root channels; clean sand per 18 inches is very pale brown, faintly mottled with yel-
grains; very strongly acid; diffuse, wavy boundary. lowish brown. The next 9 inches is light yellowish brown,
C2-40 to 80 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grain; and the next 27 inches is very pale brown faintly mottled
loose; clean sand grains; very strongly acid. with yellow. Below this is 38 inches of white sand that is
The A. horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick and is gray to white. In mottled with very pale brown. The water table is at a
some areas the A horizon is a mixture of small black bits of depth of about 50 inches.
organic matter and white sand grains. The C horizon is light
gray to white. White is the dominant color. Tavares soils are very rapidly permeable. Available
St. Lucie soils are associated with Paola, Astatula, Pomello, water capacity and the organic-matter content are very
Myakka. and Immokalee soils. They are better drained than low. Natural fertility is low.
Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello soils, and do not have the Representative profile of Tavares sand:
weakly cemented layers stained with organic matter that are
typical of those soils. They differ from Astatula and Paola soils Ap-0 to 7 inches, very dark grayiah-brown (10YR 3/2) sand;
in not having yellow and yellowish-brown colors in the C weak, fine, granular structure; friable; many fine and
horizon. medium roots; common, uncoated, light-gray sand
grains; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
St. Lucie sand (Sc).-This is a nearly level to gently C1-7 to 25 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; few,
sloping excessively drained soil. It has a gray, loose sand fine, faint, yellowish-brown mottles; single grain;
surface layer about 4 inches thick. Below this to a depth loose; common fine roots; common very fine carbon
of 80 inches is white, loose sand. The water table is at a particles; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid;
depth of more than 80 inchess gradual, wavy boundary.
epth of more than 80 inches. C2-25 to 34 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand;
St. Lucie sand is very rapidly permeable. Available single grain; loose; few fine roots; many uncoated
water capacity, organic-matter content, and natural fer- sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
utility are very low. 03-34 to 61 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; few,
medium, faint, yellow mottles; single grain; loose;
Included in mapping are a few small areas of Pomello many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear,
soils, areas where slopes are 5 to 17 percent, and areas of wavy boundary.
soils that have a fine sand texture. C4-61 to 99 inches, white (10YR 8/2) sand; common, medium,
This soil is not suitable for most cultivated crops. It is faint, very pale brown mottles; single grain; loose;
l f many uncoated sand grains; abundance of mottles
too drought and too rapidly leached of fertilizers. It is decreases at lower depths; strongly acid.
very poorly suited to citrus and tame grasses because of Tavares soils are very strongly acid to strongly acid through-
droughtiness and very low fertility, out the profile. The Al or Ap horizon is very dark gray to dark
Only a small acreage is farmed. Most of the acreage is in grayish brown and 4 to 9 inches thick. The C horizon is light
native vegetation of scrub oaks, sand pines, and a sparse brownish-gray to brown or very pale brown sand or fine sand.
unatiderg tah of n b oak, sand pinea d a sarse Few faint mottles in shades of brown or yellow occur below a
undergrowth of native grasses and shrubs that do not pro- depth of 30 inches. Large splotches of white or light gray occur
vide adequate forage for range. Capability unit VIIs-1; within depths of 40 inches in some profiles. The water table
Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 5s3. commonly is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6
months of the year. During periods of drought, it is below
Swamp 60 inches.
Tavares soils are associated with Apopka, Astatula, Orlando,
S. Ocilla, and Pompano and Tavares, white subsurface variant,
Swamp (Sw) consists of level, very poorly drained mm- soils. They are not so well drained as Apopka, Astatula, and
eral and organic soils that have not been classified because Orlando soils. They also have a thinner A horizon than Orlando
excess water and dense vegetation make detailed investiga- soils. They do not have the Bt horizon that is typical of the
tion impractical. Swamp occurs as broad drain wa as Ocilla soils. They are better drained than Pompano soils. They
tion impractical. Swamp occurs as broad draageways, as differ from the Tavares, white subsurface variant, soils in not
broad, poorly defined streams, as large depressions having having the white subsurface layer.






34 SOIL SURVEY

grazing and fire should be controlled to permit healthy no outlets, and as large bay heads. The soils are flooded
growth of decreaser plants. Capability unit IVw-2; Acid with water all the year except during prolonged periods
Flatwoods range site; woodland group 3w2. when rainfall is light. Some places in the Green Swamp
area are always covered with water.
St. Lucie Series Included in mapping are a few small islands of higher
lying soils. These inclusions make up no more than 2 per-
The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level to gently cent of any mapped area.
sloping, excessively drained sandy soils. These soils are on Swamp is covered with a dense wetland forest. Estab-
ridgetops, knolls, and dunes. They formed in thick beds lishing adequate water control and removing the dense
of marine sand. vegetation to prepare this soil for cultivated crops or pas-
In a representative profile, the surface layer is sand ture are not feasible. Swamp provides shelter and some
about 4 inches thick. Below this is white, loose sand to a browse for cattle and wildlife. The vegetation is wetland
depth of 80 inches. These soils are very strongly acid hardwoods, cypress, black pines, cabbage palms, shrubs,
throughout. The water table is at a depth of more than 80 vines, and grasses. Capability unit VIIw-2; Swamp range
inches. site; no woodland classification.
St. Lucie soils are very rapidly permeable. Available
water capacity, organic-matter content, and natural Tavares Series
fertility are very low.
Representative profile of St. Lucie sand: The Tavares series consists of nearly level to gently
Al-0 to 4 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain; loose; sloping, moderately well drained sandy soils. These soils
common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; formed in beds of marine sand.
clear, wavy boundary. In a representative profile, the surface layer is about 7
C1-4 to 40 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grain; loose; inches thick. It is underlain by 92 inches of sand. The up-
common fine and medium roots; few, fine, vertical,
very pale brown stains along root channels; clean sand per 18 inches is very pale brown, faintly mottled with yel-
grains; very strongly acid; diffuse, wavy boundary. lowish brown. The next 9 inches is light yellowish brown,
C2-40 to 80 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grain; and the next 27 inches is very pale brown faintly mottled
loose; clean sand grains; very strongly acid. with yellow. Below this is 38 inches of white sand that is
The A. horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick and is gray to white. In mottled with very pale brown. The water table is at a
some areas the A horizon is a mixture of small black bits of depth of about 50 inches.
organic matter and white sand grains. The C horizon is light
gray to white. White is the dominant color. Tavares soils are very rapidly permeable. Available
St. Lucie soils are associated with Paola, Astatula, Pomello, water capacity and the organic-matter content are very
Myakka. and Immokalee soils. They are better drained than low. Natural fertility is low.
Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello soils, and do not have the Representative profile of Tavares sand:
weakly cemented layers stained with organic matter that are
typical of those soils. They differ from Astatula and Paola soils Ap-0 to 7 inches, very dark grayiah-brown (10YR 3/2) sand;
in not having yellow and yellowish-brown colors in the C weak, fine, granular structure; friable; many fine and
horizon. medium roots; common, uncoated, light-gray sand
grains; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
St. Lucie sand (Sc).-This is a nearly level to gently C1-7 to 25 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; few,
sloping excessively drained soil. It has a gray, loose sand fine, faint, yellowish-brown mottles; single grain;
surface layer about 4 inches thick. Below this to a depth loose; common fine roots; common very fine carbon
of 80 inches is white, loose sand. The water table is at a particles; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid;
depth of more than 80 inchess gradual, wavy boundary.
epth of more than 80 inches. C2-25 to 34 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand;
St. Lucie sand is very rapidly permeable. Available single grain; loose; few fine roots; many uncoated
water capacity, organic-matter content, and natural fer- sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
utility are very low. 03-34 to 61 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; few,
medium, faint, yellow mottles; single grain; loose;
Included in mapping are a few small areas of Pomello many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear,
soils, areas where slopes are 5 to 17 percent, and areas of wavy boundary.
soils that have a fine sand texture. C4-61 to 99 inches, white (10YR 8/2) sand; common, medium,
This soil is not suitable for most cultivated crops. It is faint, very pale brown mottles; single grain; loose;
l f many uncoated sand grains; abundance of mottles
too drought and too rapidly leached of fertilizers. It is decreases at lower depths; strongly acid.
very poorly suited to citrus and tame grasses because of Tavares soils are very strongly acid to strongly acid through-
droughtiness and very low fertility, out the profile. The Al or Ap horizon is very dark gray to dark
Only a small acreage is farmed. Most of the acreage is in grayish brown and 4 to 9 inches thick. The C horizon is light
native vegetation of scrub oaks, sand pines, and a sparse brownish-gray to brown or very pale brown sand or fine sand.
unatiderg tah of n b oak, sand pinea d a sarse Few faint mottles in shades of brown or yellow occur below a
undergrowth of native grasses and shrubs that do not pro- depth of 30 inches. Large splotches of white or light gray occur
vide adequate forage for range. Capability unit VIIs-1; within depths of 40 inches in some profiles. The water table
Sand Scrub range site; woodland group 5s3. commonly is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6
months of the year. During periods of drought, it is below
Swamp 60 inches.
Tavares soils are associated with Apopka, Astatula, Orlando,
S. Ocilla, and Pompano and Tavares, white subsurface variant,
Swamp (Sw) consists of level, very poorly drained mm- soils. They are not so well drained as Apopka, Astatula, and
eral and organic soils that have not been classified because Orlando soils. They also have a thinner A horizon than Orlando
excess water and dense vegetation make detailed investiga- soils. They do not have the Bt horizon that is typical of the
tion impractical. Swamp occurs as broad drain wa as Ocilla soils. They are better drained than Pompano soils. They
tion impractical. Swamp occurs as broad draageways, as differ from the Tavares, white subsurface variant, soils in not
broad, poorly defined streams, as large depressions having having the white subsurface layer.






LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 35

Tavares sand (Ta).-This is a nearly level to gently sand grains; many undecomposed organic particles;
sloping, moderately well drained soil. It has a very dark strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
g e A2-3 to 22 inches, white (N 8/0) sand; few old root channels
grayish-brown sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. Be- filled with gray color; few medium pockets of very
low this is a layer of very pale brown sand that has faint dark gray and dark gray; single grain; loose; clean
yellowish-brown mottles to a depth of 25 inches. The next sand grains; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
layer, to a depth of 34 inches, is light yellowish-brown C1-22 to 42 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) fine
a. r sand; few, medium, faint mottles of yellowish brown;
sand. Very pale brown sand that has faint yellow mottles is single grain; loose; most sand grains in the matrix
at depths between 34 and 61 inches. Below this is white are uncoated; a discontinuous dark-brown (7.5YR
sand mottled with very pale brown. The water table is at 3/2) band less than 1/4 inch thick is between the A2
a depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6 months of the and B horizons; a few vertical tongues of material
dept from the A2 horizon, 1 to 4 inches in diameter, extend
year. During periods of drought, it is below 60 inches,. throughout the horizon; they are lined with dark
Tavares sand is very rapidly permeable. Available water reddish-brown (5YR 2/2), dark-brown (7/5YR 3/2),
capacity and organic-matter content are very low. Natural and brown (7.5YR 4/4) coatings that are 1/s inch to
fertility is low. 1 inch thick; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
y i low. C2-42 to 58 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; few, fine,
Included in mapping are a few small areas of soils that faint mottles of light brownish gray; single grain;
have a sandy clay loam subsoil at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. loose; few concretions 2 millimeters to 5 millimeters
This soil is poorly suited to shallow-rooted truck crops, in size that are red (2.5YR 4/6) to yellowish brown
r (10YR 5/6) ; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
flowers, and other annual crops that have high moisture c3-58 to 80 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few, fine
and fertility requirements. Irrigation of these crops gen- and medium, distinct mottles of pale brown (10YR
rally is not feasible. The soil is well suited to watermelons, 6/3) ; single grain; loose; few dark yellowish-brown
but melons should be cultivated on the contour with alter- to brown streaks in old root channels; few, fine and
nate strips of tall grain, adequately fertilized and limed, medium, yellowish-red concretions in upper part;
and occasionally irrigated. Tavares sand is suitable for acid.
ctu treesif they areroa erl fert ed airrita ed The Al horizon is 2 to 4 inches thick and is dark gray to
citrus trees if they are properly fertilized and irrigated. gray and dark grayish brown to light brownish gray. The A2
Soil-improving cover crops should be grown between the horizon is white to light gray and 8 to 34 inches thick. The
trees. If adequately fertilized and limed, and if grazing is Cl horizon is yellowish brown to very pale brown and 18 to
controlled, deep-rooting tame grasses grow well for 22 inches thick. Few to many weakly cemented spheroidal
concretions are scattered throughout the Cl horizon, but are
pasture. typically concentrated in the upper part. Sand grains are coated
Areas that have not been farmed are open pine forest or, with iron oxides, but they turn only slightly redder when
if the trees have been removed, open grassland. Where burned. The thin-stained layer at the contact of the A2 and
wooded areas are used for range, the understory plants B horizons is absent in many areas. The C2 and C3 horizons
wooe areas are used or range, teare light gray to very pale brown and light olive brown to
provide good forage for cattle. Major decreaser and in- pale yellow. In many areas the C horizon is free of mottles
creaser forage plants are creeping bluestem, pineland and concretions. The water table is at a depth of 25 to 40
three-awn, indiangrass, splitbeard bluestem, broomsedge inches for 1 to 2 months during periods of high rainfall and
luesmand runner oak. Under continuous heavy graz- at a depth of 40 to 60 inches the rest of the year. During ex-
bluestem, and runner oak. Under continuous heavy graz- tended periods of low rainfall, however, it falls below 60 inches.
ing less desirable plants invade. Major invaders are These soils are outside the defined range for the Tavares
pricklypear, post oak, blackjack oak, natalgrass, dogfen- series in that they have a white to light-gray A2 horizon and
nel, and annual grasses and weeds. Capability unit IIIs-1; are slightly wetter.
Sandhills range site;+ woodland grop 3s2. Tavares, white subsurface variant, soils are associated with
Sandhills range site; woodland group 3s2. Apopka, Astatula, Ocilla, Pompano, and Tavares soils. They
are not so well drained as Apopka and Astatula soils. They
Tavares Series, White Subsurface Variant do not have the Bt horizon that is typical of Ocilla soils. They
are better drained than Pompano soils. They differ from
The Tavares series, white subsurface variant, consists Tavares soils in having a white subsurface layer.
of nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained Tavares sand, white subsurface variant (Te).-This is a
sandy soils. These soils formed in thick beds of marine nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
sands. soil. The water table is at a depth of 25 to 40 inches for
In a representative profile, the surface layer is dark- 1 to 2 months during periods of high rainfall and at a
gray sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is depth of 40 to 60 the rest of the year. During extended
white sand about 19 inches thick. It is underlain by 58 periods of low rainfall, however, it is below 60 inches.
inches of sand. The upper 20 inches is light yellowish Tavares sand, white subsurface variant, soil is very
brown and has a few mottles of yellowish brown and rapidly permeable. Available water capacity and the
tongues of white material from the subsurface layer. The organic-matter content are very low. Natural fertility is
tongues are lined with coatings of dark reddish brown, low.
dark brown, and brown. The next 16 inches is pale brown. Included in mapping are a few small areas that have a
Below this is 22 inches of light-gray sand. These soils are loamy subsoil that begins between depths of 55 to 70 inches.
strongly acid throughout. The water table is commonly loamy subsoil that begins between depths of 55 to 70 inches.
at a depth of about 45 inches water table is commonly This soil is poorly suited to shallow-rooted truck crops,

These soils are very rapidly permeable. They have very powers, and other annual crops that have high moisture
low available water capacity and very low organic-matter and fertility requirements. Irrigation of these crops gen-
content. Natural fertility is low. rally is not practicable. If the soil is properly fertilized,
Representative profile of Tavares sand, white subsurface limed, and irrigated, it is suitable for citrus trees.
variant: A vegetative cover should be maintained between the
Al-0 to 3 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) crushed sand; trees. This soil is suitable for tame grasses if it is limed
single grain; loose; many fine roots; many uncoated and fertilized and if grazing is controlled.






36 SOIL SURVEY

About half the acreage is open pine forest or, if the mottled with yellow, brown and red. In some areas the mottles
trees have been removed, open grassland. Where wooded are absent. The B21t is typically firm, but in some areas it is
areas are used for range, the understory plants provide friable.The B22t and 23t horizons are sandy loam to sandy
areas are clay loam mottled with red, brown, yellow, and gray. They
good forage for cattle. Major decreaser and increase for- are hard when dry and firm when wet. The clay content is
age plants are creeping bluestem, pineland three-awn, commonly 18 to 25 percent, but in places it is as much as
indiangrass, splitbeard bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, 35 percent. Quartzite gravel occurs in some areas.
S- The Vaucluse soils mapped in Lake County Area have a
and runner oak. Under continuous heavy grazing, less slightly higher temperature than is defined in the range for
desirable plants invade. Major invaders are pricklypear, the Vaucluse series. The soils also lack the brittleness and
post oak, blackjack oak, natalgrass, dogfennel, annual cementation in the B22t and B23t horizons that is typical of
grasses and weeds. Capability unit IIIs-1; Sand Scrub the Vaucluse series. These differences, however, do not alter
the usefulness and behavior of these soils.
range site; woodland group 3s2. Vaucluse soils are associated with Astatula, Apopka, Ocilla,
and Lucy soils. They differ from the Astatula soils in having
Vaucluse Series a Bt horizon. In these soils this horizon occurs within a depth
of 20 inches, but in the Apopka, Ocilla, and Lucy soils it is at
The Vaucluse series consists of gently sloping, well- a greater depth. Vaucluse soils are better drained than Ocilla
drained sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. These soils soils.
occur as fairly small areas at or near the crest of larger Vaucluse sand (Va).-This is a gently sloping, well-
more sloping areas on the upland ridge. They formed in drained soil that has a loamy subsoil. It has a very dark
stratified loamy marine sediment. gray sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. Below this is
In a representative profile, the surface layer is gray a light yellowish-brown sand subsurface layer about 10
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light inches thick. It overlies a sandy clay loam subsoil that ex-
yellowish-brown sand about 10 inches thick. The subsoil tends to a depth of 70 inches. Between depths of 15 and 20
extends to a depth of 70 inches. The upper 5 inches is mot- inches, the subsoil is mottled with reddish yellow; below
tled reddish-yellow sandy clay loam. The next 50 inches is this it has many mottles of various colors. The water table
mottled sandy clay loam. These soils are slightly acid in is at a depth of more than 60 inches.
the surface layer, strongly acid below this to a depth of Vaucluse sand is moderately slowly permeable. It has
15 inches, and very strongly acid at depths between 15 medium available water capacity and is low in organic-
and 70 inches. The water table is at a depth of more than matter content and natural fertility.
60 inches. Included in mapping are a few small areas of Lucy soils
Vaucluse soils are moderately slowly permeable. They and a few areas of soils that are similar to Vaucluse sand
are medium in available water capacity and low in organic- but have slopes of less than 2 percent or of 5 to 12 percent.
matter content. Natural fertility is low. This soil is suited to most crops. Row crops should be
Representative profile of Vaucluse sand: planted in horizontal rows on the contour and should be
Ap-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak, irrigated, fertilized, and limed and rotated with soil-
very fine, granular structure; very friable; common improving cover crops. Much of the acreage is planted to
fine carbon particles; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy citrus, to which the soil is well suited. The trees should be
boundary. fertilized adequately and irrigated during dry seasons. A
A2-5 to 15 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand; tilled adequately and irrigated during dry seasons. A
few, fine and medium, faint, yellow mottles; weak, good cover of vegetation should be maintained between
very fine, granular structure; very friable; common the trees. Excellent pastures of tame grasses can be main-
fine carbon particles; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy tained if they are properly fertilized and limed and graz-
boundary. ing is controlled
B21t-15 to 20 inches, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/8) sandy clay ing is controlled.
loam; common, fine to coarse, distinct mottles of red Most of the acreage is used for citrus or improved pas-
(2.5YR 5/8), yellow (10YR 8/6), strong brown (7.5YR ture. Only a small acreage is open pine forest. None is used
5/8), and brown (10YR 5/3); moderate, medium, for range. Capability unit IIIe-1; Sandhills range site;
subangular blocky structure; firm; common discon- woodland group 3s2.
tinuous clay films; few sand lenses; many fine to woodland group s2.
medium quartzite pebbles; very strongly acid; clear,
smooth boundary. Wabasso Series
B22t-20 to 37 inches, mottled red (2.5YR 4/8), reddish-yellow
(SYR 6/8), strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8), yellow (10 YR The Wabasso series consists of nearly level, poorly
8/6), light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4), and very drained sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil below a layer
pale brown (O10YR 8/4) sandy clay loam; strong, aine sany sos at ave aloamy suso eow a laye
coarse, subangular blocky structure; firm, hard; stained with organic matter. These soils are on broad low
many clay films and sand lenses; very strongly acid; ridges in the flatwoods. They formed in beds of sandy
gradual, wavy boundary. loamy and loamy marine sediment.
B23t-37 to 70 inches, mottled pink (7.5YR 8/4), reddish-yellow
(5YR 6/8), red (2.5YR 5/8), light-gray (10YR 7/2), In a representative profile, the surface layer is very dark
and very pale brown (10YR 8/3) sandy clay loam; gray sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray,
moderate, fine to medium, subangular blocky struc- sand about 13 inches thick. The subsoil is about 50 inches
ture; firm, hard; common clay films; very strongly thick. The upper 10 inches is black sand weakly cemented
acid. with organic matter. The lower 40 inches is mottled sandy
The Al, or Ap, horizon is dark gray to very dark gray and clay loam. These soils are strongly acid in the surface
brown to very dark grayish brown and 4 to 8 inches thick.
The A2 horizon is 4 to 10 inches of light yellowish-brown to layer, medium acid in the subsurface layer, neutral be-
yellowish-brown or brownish-yellow sand or fine sand. Most of tween depths of 18 and 28 inches, and moderately alkaline
it is mottled with yellow and brown. In some areas the A2 in the subsoil to a depth of 68 inches. The water table is
horizon is free of mottles. The B21t horizon is 3 to 6 inches thick to a depth of 68 inches. The water table is
and is reddish yellow or light yellowish brown to strong brown typically at a depth of 25 inches.






36 SOIL SURVEY

About half the acreage is open pine forest or, if the mottled with yellow, brown and red. In some areas the mottles
trees have been removed, open grassland. Where wooded are absent. The B21t is typically firm, but in some areas it is
areas are used for range, the understory plants provide friable.The B22t and 23t horizons are sandy loam to sandy
areas are clay loam mottled with red, brown, yellow, and gray. They
good forage for cattle. Major decreaser and increase for- are hard when dry and firm when wet. The clay content is
age plants are creeping bluestem, pineland three-awn, commonly 18 to 25 percent, but in places it is as much as
indiangrass, splitbeard bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, 35 percent. Quartzite gravel occurs in some areas.
S- The Vaucluse soils mapped in Lake County Area have a
and runner oak. Under continuous heavy grazing, less slightly higher temperature than is defined in the range for
desirable plants invade. Major invaders are pricklypear, the Vaucluse series. The soils also lack the brittleness and
post oak, blackjack oak, natalgrass, dogfennel, annual cementation in the B22t and B23t horizons that is typical of
grasses and weeds. Capability unit IIIs-1; Sand Scrub the Vaucluse series. These differences, however, do not alter
the usefulness and behavior of these soils.
range site; woodland group 3s2. Vaucluse soils are associated with Astatula, Apopka, Ocilla,
and Lucy soils. They differ from the Astatula soils in having
Vaucluse Series a Bt horizon. In these soils this horizon occurs within a depth
of 20 inches, but in the Apopka, Ocilla, and Lucy soils it is at
The Vaucluse series consists of gently sloping, well- a greater depth. Vaucluse soils are better drained than Ocilla
drained sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. These soils soils.
occur as fairly small areas at or near the crest of larger Vaucluse sand (Va).-This is a gently sloping, well-
more sloping areas on the upland ridge. They formed in drained soil that has a loamy subsoil. It has a very dark
stratified loamy marine sediment. gray sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. Below this is
In a representative profile, the surface layer is gray a light yellowish-brown sand subsurface layer about 10
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light inches thick. It overlies a sandy clay loam subsoil that ex-
yellowish-brown sand about 10 inches thick. The subsoil tends to a depth of 70 inches. Between depths of 15 and 20
extends to a depth of 70 inches. The upper 5 inches is mot- inches, the subsoil is mottled with reddish yellow; below
tled reddish-yellow sandy clay loam. The next 50 inches is this it has many mottles of various colors. The water table
mottled sandy clay loam. These soils are slightly acid in is at a depth of more than 60 inches.
the surface layer, strongly acid below this to a depth of Vaucluse sand is moderately slowly permeable. It has
15 inches, and very strongly acid at depths between 15 medium available water capacity and is low in organic-
and 70 inches. The water table is at a depth of more than matter content and natural fertility.
60 inches. Included in mapping are a few small areas of Lucy soils
Vaucluse soils are moderately slowly permeable. They and a few areas of soils that are similar to Vaucluse sand
are medium in available water capacity and low in organic- but have slopes of less than 2 percent or of 5 to 12 percent.
matter content. Natural fertility is low. This soil is suited to most crops. Row crops should be
Representative profile of Vaucluse sand: planted in horizontal rows on the contour and should be
Ap-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak, irrigated, fertilized, and limed and rotated with soil-
very fine, granular structure; very friable; common improving cover crops. Much of the acreage is planted to
fine carbon particles; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy citrus, to which the soil is well suited. The trees should be
boundary. fertilized adequately and irrigated during dry seasons. A
A2-5 to 15 inches, light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4) sand; tilled adequately and irrigated during dry seasons. A
few, fine and medium, faint, yellow mottles; weak, good cover of vegetation should be maintained between
very fine, granular structure; very friable; common the trees. Excellent pastures of tame grasses can be main-
fine carbon particles; strongly acid; abrupt, wavy tained if they are properly fertilized and limed and graz-
boundary. ing is controlled
B21t-15 to 20 inches, reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/8) sandy clay ing is controlled.
loam; common, fine to coarse, distinct mottles of red Most of the acreage is used for citrus or improved pas-
(2.5YR 5/8), yellow (10YR 8/6), strong brown (7.5YR ture. Only a small acreage is open pine forest. None is used
5/8), and brown (10YR 5/3); moderate, medium, for range. Capability unit IIIe-1; Sandhills range site;
subangular blocky structure; firm; common discon- woodland group 3s2.
tinuous clay films; few sand lenses; many fine to woodland group s2.
medium quartzite pebbles; very strongly acid; clear,
smooth boundary. Wabasso Series
B22t-20 to 37 inches, mottled red (2.5YR 4/8), reddish-yellow
(SYR 6/8), strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8), yellow (10 YR The Wabasso series consists of nearly level, poorly
8/6), light yellowish-brown (10YR 6/4), and very drained sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil below a layer
pale brown (O10YR 8/4) sandy clay loam; strong, aine sany sos at ave aloamy suso eow a laye
coarse, subangular blocky structure; firm, hard; stained with organic matter. These soils are on broad low
many clay films and sand lenses; very strongly acid; ridges in the flatwoods. They formed in beds of sandy
gradual, wavy boundary. loamy and loamy marine sediment.
B23t-37 to 70 inches, mottled pink (7.5YR 8/4), reddish-yellow
(5YR 6/8), red (2.5YR 5/8), light-gray (10YR 7/2), In a representative profile, the surface layer is very dark
and very pale brown (10YR 8/3) sandy clay loam; gray sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray,
moderate, fine to medium, subangular blocky struc- sand about 13 inches thick. The subsoil is about 50 inches
ture; firm, hard; common clay films; very strongly thick. The upper 10 inches is black sand weakly cemented
acid. with organic matter. The lower 40 inches is mottled sandy
The Al, or Ap, horizon is dark gray to very dark gray and clay loam. These soils are strongly acid in the surface
brown to very dark grayish brown and 4 to 8 inches thick.
The A2 horizon is 4 to 10 inches of light yellowish-brown to layer, medium acid in the subsurface layer, neutral be-
yellowish-brown or brownish-yellow sand or fine sand. Most of tween depths of 18 and 28 inches, and moderately alkaline
it is mottled with yellow and brown. In some areas the A2 in the subsoil to a depth of 68 inches. The water table is
horizon is free of mottles. The B21t horizon is 3 to 6 inches thick to a depth of 68 inches. The water table is
and is reddish yellow or light yellowish brown to strong brown typically at a depth of 25 inches.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 37

Wabasso soils are moderately permeable. Available wa- Wabasso sand is moderately permeable. Available water
ter capacity is medium and organic-matter content is low. capacity is medium and the organic-matter content is low.
Natural fertility is moderate. Natural fertility is moderate.
Representative profile of Wabasso sand: Included in mapping are small areas of Felda soils and
A1-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (N 3/0) sand; weak, fine small areas that have thin, weakly expressed layers stained
crumb structure; many fine roots; strongly acid; with organic matter.
clear, smooth boundary. If intensively managed, this soil is suitable for truck
A2-5 to 18 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few, fine, faint, crops, flowers, and other shallow-rooted crops. Water con-
very dark gray streaks along root channels; single rol is needed to remove excess surface water after a rain
grain; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt, trois needed to remove excess surface water after a rain
smooth boundary, and to supply subsurface irrigation during dry seasons.
B2h-18 to 28 inches, black (5YR 2/1) sand; common, medium, Soil-improving cover crops should be rotated with har-
faint streaks of dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) ; moderate, vested crops.
metral;abrupt, ul weakly cemented; neu- Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
B'21tg-28 to 38 inches, light brownish-gray (2.5YR 6/2) sandy This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. If used for citrus,
clay loam; common, medium, distinct mottles of very deep drainage is necessary. Citrus crops also have to be
dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2), light gray (N 6/0), fertilized, limed, and irrigated. Close-growing cover crops
yellowish brown (YR 5/8), and brownish yellow should be maintained between the trees. In many areas of
weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; firm when this soil, citrus trees are subject to severe damage by cold
moist, very plastic when wet; many fine to medium in winter. Good pastures of tame grasses can be maintained
roots; moderately alkaline; diffuse, irregular bound- if the soil is adequately fertilized and limed and grazing
ary.
B'22tg-38 to 50 inches, mottled white (N 8/0), light-gray (N is controlled.
6/0), light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2), yellow (10YR Much of the acreage is in native vegetation, typically
7/8), and brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) sandy clay open pine forest and scattered cabbage palms and an under-
loam; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; story of native grasses and shrubs. In some places the pine
firm when moist, very plastic when wet; many hard trees have been removed and the soil is covered with grassy
lime nodules 2 millimeters to 15 millimeters in size; trees ave ee emoed and te soil is covered wit grassy
few fine roots; moderately alkaline; diffuse, wavy vegetation that improves drainage. The understory plants
boundary. provide good forage for cattle and wildlife. The major
B'23tg-50 to 68 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay decreaser and increase forage plants are creeping blue-
loam; common, medium, faint mottles of gray (N 6/0) stem indiangrass, little blue maidencane, Florida pas-
and common, fine, faint mottles of yellow (10YR 7/8), stem, indiangrass, little blue maidencane, Florida pas
brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), and yellowish brown palum, pineland three-awn, species of panicum, deers-
(10YR 5/6) ; weak, medium, subangular blocky tongue, swamp sunflower, grassleaf goldaster, milkpeas,
structure; friable, plastic; few lime nodules 2 milli- tarflower, huckleberry, and runner oak. Frequent fires and
meters to 15 millimeters in size; lenses of sandy loam; overgrazing have allowed saw-palmetto, gallberry, and fet-
few medium roots; moderately alkaline. terbush to dominate in extensive areas. These were minor
The Al horizon is very dark gray to black and is 5 to 7 inches plants in the original understory. Capability unit IVw-1;
thick. The A2 horizon is 10 to 20 inches thick, light gray to plants the understory capability unit V-1
gray, and generally mottled with gray or very dark gray. Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland group 3w2.
The Bh horizon is dark-brown to black or dark reddish-brown
sand or fine sand 8 to 15 inches thick. It is 1 to 4 percent or- Wauchula Series
ganic matter. In some areas there is an A'2 horizon between
the Bh and B'tg horizons. It is 2 to 6 inches thick and is mottled The auchula series consists of nearly level, poorly
gray, yellow, and brown. The B'tg horizon is white, light gray, The Wauchula series consists of nearly level, poorly
and light brownish gray to yellowish brown and has few to drained sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil below a layer
many faint to distinct mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and stained with organic matter. These soils are on low ridges
brown. This horizon occurs at a depth of 26 to 40 inches. In in the flatwoods. They formed in sandy and loamy marine
some areas sand lenses occur in the B'tg horizon and in some se
places this horizon is free of lime nodules. The water table sediment.
is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 2 months in wet seasons. In a representative profile, the surface layer is black
The rest of the time it fluctuates between depths of 10 and sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
40 inches, except during extended dry periods when it falls brownish-gray sand about 16 inches thick. Below this is a
below 40 inches. brownish-gray sand about 16 iches thick. Below this is a
The Wabasso soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, layer of sand that is weakly cemented with organic matter.
and Felda soils. They differ from Immokalee and Myakka soils It is black in the upper 6 inches and reddish brown in the
in having a B't horizon. They differ from Felda soils in having i
a weakly cemented layer stained with organic matter. lower 4 inches. Between depths of 32 and 35 inches is dark-
Wabasso sand (Wa).-This is a nearly level, poorly brown sand that has weakly cemented fragments of dark
drained soil that has a loamy subsoil below an organic- reddish-brown sand. Below this is a layer of very pale
stained layer. It has a very dark gray sand surface layer brown sand about 3 inches thick mottled with brown and
about 5 inches thick and a gray sand subsurface layer strong brown. The next layer, to a depth of 44 inches, is
about 13 inches thick. A layer of black sand weakly ce- very pale brown sandy loam. Below this, to a depth of 80
mented with organic matter is between depths of 18 and 28 inches, is mottled sandy clay loam. These soils are strongly
inches. Below this, and extending to a depth of 68 inches, acid throughout. The water table is at a depth of about 25
is a mottled sandy clay loam subsoil. The water table is inches.
within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 2 months in wet sea- Wauchula soils are rapidly permeable in the surface and
sons; the rest of the time it fluctuates between depths of 10 subsurface layers and moderately permeable below this.
and 40 inches, except during extended dry periods, when Available water capacity is very low in the surface and
it is below 40 inches. subsurface layers and is medium in the layers stained with







38 SOIL SURVEY

organic matter and the loamy subsoil. The organic-matter Astatula soils in being more poorly drained and in having a B't
content is low, and natural fertility is low. horizon. They differ from Immokalee, Myakka, and Ona soils
in having a B't horizon, and differ from Pelham soils in having
Representative profile of Wauchula sand: a Bh horizon.
A1-0 to 6 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak, fine, crumb Wauchula sand (Wc).-This is a nearly level, poorly
strongly aid; clear w boundary medium roots; drained soil that has a loamy subsoil below a layer
A2-6 to 22 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand; stained with organic matter. It has a black sand surface
single grain; loose; many fine and medium roots; layer about 6 inches thick and a light brownish-gray sand
strongly acid; abrupt, wavy boundary. subsurface layer about 16 inches thick. Below this is a layer
B21h-22 to 28 inches, black (5YR 2/1) sand; moderate, of black sand, about 6 inches thick, that is weakly cemented
medium, granular structure; weakly cemented; com- .
mon fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy with organic matter. The next layer is about 4 inches of
boundary. weakly cemented dark reddish-brown sand. A layer of
B22h-28 to 32 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) sand; dark-brown sand that has weakly cemented fragments of
common, medium, faint mottles of black (5YR 2/1) ; dark reddish-brown sand is present between depths of 32
moderate, mfedium, grooanular structure; eakly and 35 inches. Below this is a layer of very pale brown
boundary, sand, about 3 inches thick, mottled with brown and strong
B3&B3h-32 to 35 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) sand; brown. The next layer, to a depth of 44 inches, is very pale
common, medium, weakly cemented fragments of dark brown sandy loam. Below this, and extending to a depth of
reddish brown (5YR 3/2) ; common, fine, distinct 80 inches, is mottled sandy clay loam. The water table is
mottles of light gray (1OYR 7/2) ; weak, fine, granular
structure; friable; strongly acid; clear, wavy within a depth of 10 inches for about 2 months each year.
boundary. It fluctuates between depths of 10 to 40 inches the rest of
A'2-35 to 38 inches, very pale brown (10OYR 7/3) sand; com- the year, except during extended dry periods, when it is
mon, medium, faint mottles of brown (10YR 5/3) ; below 40 inches.
few, fine, distinct mottles of strong brown (7.YR Wauchula sand is rapidly permeable to a depth of about
5/6) ; single grain; loose; strongly acid; clear, smooth Wauchula sand is rapidly permeable to a depth of about
boundary. 22 inches and moderately permeable below this to a depth
B'21tg--38 to 44 inches, very pale brown (10OYR 7/3) sandy of 80 inches. Available water capacity is very low to a
loam; few, fine, faint mottles of yellow; weak, fine, depth of 22 inches and medium below this to a depth of
granular structure; friable; slightly sticky; few 80 inches. The organic matter content and natural fertility
lenses of sandy clay loam; few fine roots; sand grains80inches. The organic matter content and natural fertility
coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid; gradual, are low.
wavy boundary. Included in mapping are small areas of soils that have
B'22tg--44 to 59 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sandy loam; weakly cemented layers stained with organic matter at a
common, medium, distinct mottles of yellowish brown .
(10YR 5/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and yellowish depth of more than 32 inches.
red (5YR 4/8) along old root channels; weak, fine, If intensively managed, this soil is suited to truck crops,
subangular blocky structure; firm, plastic; few fine flowers, and other shallow-rooted crops. Water control is
roots; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
strongly acid; clear, smooth, boundary. needed to remove excess surface water after a rain and to
B'23tg-59 to 80 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay supply subsurface irrigation during dry seasons. Soil
loam; common, medium, distinct mottles along old improving cover crops should be rotated with harvested
root channels of yellowish brown (10YR '5/8) ; few
fine, faint mottles of brownish yellow and dark yel- crops. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
lowish brown; moderate, medium, granular structure; needed. This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. If used
hard when dry, friable when moist, slightly plastic for citrus, deep drainage is needed. Citrus crops should be
when wet; few fine roots; sand grains coated and rilz Id ir g ae. in cov op
bridged with clay; strongly acid. fertilized, limed, and irrigated. Close-growing cover crops
The Al horizon is gray to black and 4 to 8 inches thick. The should be maintained between the trees. In many areas of
A2 horizon is white to brown and 10 to 24 inches thick. In some this soil, citrus trees are subject to severe damage by cold
places it is mottled with vertical streaks of darker grays and in winter. Good pasture of tame grasses can be maintained
browns. A transitional layer 1/4 to 1 inch thick is present in
most areas between the A2 and B21h horizons. It is dark if the soil is adequately fertilized and limed, and if grazing
grayish-brown to black sand or fine sand and is single is controlled.
grain or weak, fine, granular and loose to friable. The Bh Much of the acreage is in native vegetation, typically,
horizon is reddish brown or dark brown to black sand.
Where the Bh horizon is reddish brown to black, it is open pine forest and an understory of native grasses and
6 to 13 inches thick. Where it is dark brown to black, shrubs. In some places the pine trees have been removed
it is 12 to 24 inches thick. The B3&Bh horizon, if and the soil is covered with grassy vegetation. Many of
present, is reddish yellow or yellowish brown to dark
brown and 3 to 4 inches thick. It is mottled with light these areas are used for range. The understory plants pro-
gray, brown, or yellow, and has few to many dark reddish- vide good forage for cattle and wildlife. The major de-
brown weakly cemented fragments. The A'2 horizon is white to creaser and increase forage plants are creeping bluestem,
pale-brown sand or fine sand mottled with darker browns and
grays. In some areas this horizon is absent. The B'tg horizon indiangrass, little blue maidencane, Florida plaspalum,
is light gray or very pale brown to brown and has few to many pineland three-awn, species of panicum, deerstongue,
faint to distinct mottles of gray, yellow, brown, and red. This
horizon is sandy loam to sandy clay loam. It is at a depth of swamp sunflower, grasseaf goldaster, milkpeas, tarflower,
30 to 40 inches. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches huckleberry, and runner oak. Frequent fires and overgraz-
for about 2 months each year and fluctuates between 10 and 40 ing have left saw-palmetto, gallberry, and fetterbush dom-
inches the rest of the year, except during extended dry periods, inant over extensive areas. These were minor plants in the
when it drops below 40 inches.
Wauchula soils are associated with Astatula, Immokalee, original understory. Capability unit IVw-1; Acid Flat-
Pelham, Myakka, Ona, and Pompano soils. They differ from woods range site; woodland group 3w2.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 39

Use and Management of the Soils All the soils are highly leached of important nutrient
elements. The response to fertilization varies. Irrigated
Oranges, grapefruit, cabbage, celery, cucumbers, sweet truck crops, citrus crops, and other high-value crops gen-
corn, lettuce, carrots, watermelons, peppers, and pasture erally respond well to large applications of fertilizer.
mixtures are the principal crops grown in the Lake Many plants on the dry, very sandy soils show only lim-
County Area. General practices of good soil management ited response to fertilizer. The amount and mineral com-
for cultivated crops and pasture are suggested in the pages position of the fertilizer to be applied are best determined
that follow. The capability grouping used by the Soil through soil tests.
Conservation Service, in which the soils are grouped ac- Soil preparation, planting, and good management, often
cording to their suitability for crops, is explained, and the including water control measures, are needed for improved
capability units in the survey area are defined, pasture. A good pasture can serve several purposes. Be-
Suggested use and management of each soil in the Area sides supplying food for livestock, it protects the soil
and its classification by capability unit can be found in the against blowing or water erosion; it improves the quality
mapping unit description of the specified soil in the sec- of the soil by adding organic matter, thereby increasing
tion "Descriptions of the Soils." Estimated yields of the healthy microorganism activity; and it improves tilth.
principal crops grown under two levels of management Current information on the kinds of crops, improved
are shown in table 3. varieties of plants, and specific soil management practices
This part of the survey also contains information on can be obtained from local representatives of the Soil Con-
range management and the suitability of the soils for servation Service, the Florida Agricultural Experiment
woodland and general suggestions for improving wildlife Stations, or the Extension Service.
habitat. It reports data from engineering tests and inter-
pretations of soil properties that affect highway con- Capability grouping
struction and other engineering structures. It also con- Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suit-
tains information on use of the soils for community ability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The groups
development. are made according to the limitations of the soils when
used for field crops, the risk of damage when they are
Cultivated Crops and Pasture used, and the way they respond to treatment. The group-
ing does not take into account major and generally expen-
Most of the soils in the Lake County Area have impor- sive landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
tant limitations that must be overcome before they are well characteristics of the soils; does not take into considera-
suited to cultivated crops. Under proper management tion possible but unlikely major reclamation projects; and
these limitations are recognized, and measures are taken to does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticultural crops, or
deal with them. Water control can be established on wet other crops requiring special management.
soils to provide the optimum moisture content in the soil Those familiar with the capability classification can
at all times. Sloping soils can be protected from erosion infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used
by adequate erosion control practices. Soils that have in- for other purposes, but this classification is not a substi-
herently poor qualities can be improved, infertile soils can tute for interpretations designed to show suitability and
be fertilized and limed, and the drier soils can be irrigated. limitations of groups of soils for range, for forest trees, or
About 42 percent of the acreage in the survey area is engineering.
affected by a high water table. Crops are damaged by ex- In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped
cess water during wet periods and, in some areas, by lack at three levels, the capability class, subclass, and unit.
of water during dry periods. Management practices that These levels are described in the following paragraphs.
remove excess water and supply water to the soil are CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are designated
needed to overcome these hazards. Good water control on by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals indi-
wet soils can be provided by subsurface irrigation systems. cate progressively greater limitations and narrower choices
Overhead sprinkler systems are also used.forpra alusedefinedasfollows:
Erosion is not a severe hazard in the Lake County Area. for practical use, defined as follows:
The soils are predominantly rapidly permeable and very Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
gently sloping. There are, however, several thousand acres use. (None in survey area.)
of sloping to moderately steep sandy soils where soil loss is Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
severe unless erosion control is practiced. In these areas the choice of plants or that require moderate
intensive use of close-growing vegetation, minimum till- conservation practices.
age, and other erosion control measures are needed. Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
Though most of these areas are deep sandy soils that show choice of plants, require special conservation prac-
little permanent damage from erosion, loss of surface soil ties, or both.
seriously affects crops. Erosion in citrus groves often ex- Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
poses the tree roots and sometimes undermines the trees, the choice of plants, require very careful man-
Almost half the soils in the Lake County Area are well r r v c
drained to excessively drained sandy soils that have a low agement, or both.
available water capacity and a low cation-exchange capac- Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
ity. Intensive use of soil-improving crops is beneficial. A limitations, impractical to remove, that limit
good cropping system provides a sod of perennial grass their use largely to pasture or range, woodland,
or an annual cover crop between periods of cultivation, or wildlife.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 39

Use and Management of the Soils All the soils are highly leached of important nutrient
elements. The response to fertilization varies. Irrigated
Oranges, grapefruit, cabbage, celery, cucumbers, sweet truck crops, citrus crops, and other high-value crops gen-
corn, lettuce, carrots, watermelons, peppers, and pasture erally respond well to large applications of fertilizer.
mixtures are the principal crops grown in the Lake Many plants on the dry, very sandy soils show only lim-
County Area. General practices of good soil management ited response to fertilizer. The amount and mineral com-
for cultivated crops and pasture are suggested in the pages position of the fertilizer to be applied are best determined
that follow. The capability grouping used by the Soil through soil tests.
Conservation Service, in which the soils are grouped ac- Soil preparation, planting, and good management, often
cording to their suitability for crops, is explained, and the including water control measures, are needed for improved
capability units in the survey area are defined, pasture. A good pasture can serve several purposes. Be-
Suggested use and management of each soil in the Area sides supplying food for livestock, it protects the soil
and its classification by capability unit can be found in the against blowing or water erosion; it improves the quality
mapping unit description of the specified soil in the sec- of the soil by adding organic matter, thereby increasing
tion "Descriptions of the Soils." Estimated yields of the healthy microorganism activity; and it improves tilth.
principal crops grown under two levels of management Current information on the kinds of crops, improved
are shown in table 3. varieties of plants, and specific soil management practices
This part of the survey also contains information on can be obtained from local representatives of the Soil Con-
range management and the suitability of the soils for servation Service, the Florida Agricultural Experiment
woodland and general suggestions for improving wildlife Stations, or the Extension Service.
habitat. It reports data from engineering tests and inter-
pretations of soil properties that affect highway con- Capability grouping
struction and other engineering structures. It also con- Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suit-
tains information on use of the soils for community ability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The groups
development. are made according to the limitations of the soils when
used for field crops, the risk of damage when they are
Cultivated Crops and Pasture used, and the way they respond to treatment. The group-
ing does not take into account major and generally expen-
Most of the soils in the Lake County Area have impor- sive landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
tant limitations that must be overcome before they are well characteristics of the soils; does not take into considera-
suited to cultivated crops. Under proper management tion possible but unlikely major reclamation projects; and
these limitations are recognized, and measures are taken to does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticultural crops, or
deal with them. Water control can be established on wet other crops requiring special management.
soils to provide the optimum moisture content in the soil Those familiar with the capability classification can
at all times. Sloping soils can be protected from erosion infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used
by adequate erosion control practices. Soils that have in- for other purposes, but this classification is not a substi-
herently poor qualities can be improved, infertile soils can tute for interpretations designed to show suitability and
be fertilized and limed, and the drier soils can be irrigated. limitations of groups of soils for range, for forest trees, or
About 42 percent of the acreage in the survey area is engineering.
affected by a high water table. Crops are damaged by ex- In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped
cess water during wet periods and, in some areas, by lack at three levels, the capability class, subclass, and unit.
of water during dry periods. Management practices that These levels are described in the following paragraphs.
remove excess water and supply water to the soil are CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are designated
needed to overcome these hazards. Good water control on by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals indi-
wet soils can be provided by subsurface irrigation systems. cate progressively greater limitations and narrower choices
Overhead sprinkler systems are also used.forpra alusedefinedasfollows:
Erosion is not a severe hazard in the Lake County Area. for practical use, defined as follows:
The soils are predominantly rapidly permeable and very Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
gently sloping. There are, however, several thousand acres use. (None in survey area.)
of sloping to moderately steep sandy soils where soil loss is Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
severe unless erosion control is practiced. In these areas the choice of plants or that require moderate
intensive use of close-growing vegetation, minimum till- conservation practices.
age, and other erosion control measures are needed. Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
Though most of these areas are deep sandy soils that show choice of plants, require special conservation prac-
little permanent damage from erosion, loss of surface soil ties, or both.
seriously affects crops. Erosion in citrus groves often ex- Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
poses the tree roots and sometimes undermines the trees, the choice of plants, require very careful man-
Almost half the soils in the Lake County Area are well r r v c
drained to excessively drained sandy soils that have a low agement, or both.
available water capacity and a low cation-exchange capac- Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
ity. Intensive use of soil-improving crops is beneficial. A limitations, impractical to remove, that limit
good cropping system provides a sod of perennial grass their use largely to pasture or range, woodland,
or an annual cover crop between periods of cultivation, or wildlife.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 39

Use and Management of the Soils All the soils are highly leached of important nutrient
elements. The response to fertilization varies. Irrigated
Oranges, grapefruit, cabbage, celery, cucumbers, sweet truck crops, citrus crops, and other high-value crops gen-
corn, lettuce, carrots, watermelons, peppers, and pasture erally respond well to large applications of fertilizer.
mixtures are the principal crops grown in the Lake Many plants on the dry, very sandy soils show only lim-
County Area. General practices of good soil management ited response to fertilizer. The amount and mineral com-
for cultivated crops and pasture are suggested in the pages position of the fertilizer to be applied are best determined
that follow. The capability grouping used by the Soil through soil tests.
Conservation Service, in which the soils are grouped ac- Soil preparation, planting, and good management, often
cording to their suitability for crops, is explained, and the including water control measures, are needed for improved
capability units in the survey area are defined, pasture. A good pasture can serve several purposes. Be-
Suggested use and management of each soil in the Area sides supplying food for livestock, it protects the soil
and its classification by capability unit can be found in the against blowing or water erosion; it improves the quality
mapping unit description of the specified soil in the sec- of the soil by adding organic matter, thereby increasing
tion "Descriptions of the Soils." Estimated yields of the healthy microorganism activity; and it improves tilth.
principal crops grown under two levels of management Current information on the kinds of crops, improved
are shown in table 3. varieties of plants, and specific soil management practices
This part of the survey also contains information on can be obtained from local representatives of the Soil Con-
range management and the suitability of the soils for servation Service, the Florida Agricultural Experiment
woodland and general suggestions for improving wildlife Stations, or the Extension Service.
habitat. It reports data from engineering tests and inter-
pretations of soil properties that affect highway con- Capability grouping
struction and other engineering structures. It also con- Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suit-
tains information on use of the soils for community ability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The groups
development. are made according to the limitations of the soils when
used for field crops, the risk of damage when they are
Cultivated Crops and Pasture used, and the way they respond to treatment. The group-
ing does not take into account major and generally expen-
Most of the soils in the Lake County Area have impor- sive landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
tant limitations that must be overcome before they are well characteristics of the soils; does not take into considera-
suited to cultivated crops. Under proper management tion possible but unlikely major reclamation projects; and
these limitations are recognized, and measures are taken to does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticultural crops, or
deal with them. Water control can be established on wet other crops requiring special management.
soils to provide the optimum moisture content in the soil Those familiar with the capability classification can
at all times. Sloping soils can be protected from erosion infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used
by adequate erosion control practices. Soils that have in- for other purposes, but this classification is not a substi-
herently poor qualities can be improved, infertile soils can tute for interpretations designed to show suitability and
be fertilized and limed, and the drier soils can be irrigated. limitations of groups of soils for range, for forest trees, or
About 42 percent of the acreage in the survey area is engineering.
affected by a high water table. Crops are damaged by ex- In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped
cess water during wet periods and, in some areas, by lack at three levels, the capability class, subclass, and unit.
of water during dry periods. Management practices that These levels are described in the following paragraphs.
remove excess water and supply water to the soil are CAPABILITY CLASSES, the broadest groups, are designated
needed to overcome these hazards. Good water control on by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals indi-
wet soils can be provided by subsurface irrigation systems. cate progressively greater limitations and narrower choices
Overhead sprinkler systems are also used.forpra alusedefinedasfollows:
Erosion is not a severe hazard in the Lake County Area. for practical use, defined as follows:
The soils are predominantly rapidly permeable and very Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
gently sloping. There are, however, several thousand acres use. (None in survey area.)
of sloping to moderately steep sandy soils where soil loss is Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
severe unless erosion control is practiced. In these areas the choice of plants or that require moderate
intensive use of close-growing vegetation, minimum till- conservation practices.
age, and other erosion control measures are needed. Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
Though most of these areas are deep sandy soils that show choice of plants, require special conservation prac-
little permanent damage from erosion, loss of surface soil ties, or both.
seriously affects crops. Erosion in citrus groves often ex- Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
poses the tree roots and sometimes undermines the trees, the choice of plants, require very careful man-
Almost half the soils in the Lake County Area are well r r v c
drained to excessively drained sandy soils that have a low agement, or both.
available water capacity and a low cation-exchange capac- Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
ity. Intensive use of soil-improving crops is beneficial. A limitations, impractical to remove, that limit
good cropping system provides a sod of perennial grass their use largely to pasture or range, woodland,
or an annual cover crop between periods of cultivation, or wildlife.







40 SOIL SURVEY
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them Unit IVs-1. Nearly level to gently sloping, well-
generally unsuited to cultivation and limit their drained to excessively drained soils that are sandy
use largely to pasture or range, woodland, or to a depth of 86 inches or more.
wildlife. Unit IVs-2. Sloping to strongly sloping, somewhat
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that poorly drained sandy soils that have a loamy
make them unsuited to cultivation and that re- subsoil.
strict their use largely to pasture or range, wood- Unit IVs-3. Sloping to strongly sloping, well-
land, or wildlife, drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 84 inches
Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that or more.
preclude their use for commercial plants and re- Unit IVs-4. Sloping, well drained sandy soils that
strict their use to recreation, wildlife, or water have a loamy subsoil.
supply, or to esthetic purposes. (None in survey Unit IVw-1. Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils
area.) that have weakly cemented layers, a loamy sub-
CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within one class; soil, or both.
they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c, to Unit IVw-2. Nearly level, poorly drained soils that
the class numeral, for example, Ile. The letter e shows that are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
the main limitation is risk of erosion unless close-growing Unit Vw-1. Nearly level, poorly drained soils that
plant cover is maintained; w shows that water in or on have a clayey subsoil, are, slowly or very slowly
the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in permeable, and are covered with water in wet
some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial seasons.
drainage) ; s shows that the soil is limited mainly because Unit Vw-2. Gently sloping to sloping, poorly
it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in only some drained and very poorly drained andy soils,on
parts of the United States, shows that the chief limitation seepy slopes.
is climate that is too cold or too dry. Unit VIs-1. Nearly level to gently sloping, exces-
In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of siely drined soils that are sandy to a depth of
this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, at theg to strongly sloping well-
most, only the subclasses indicated by w, s, and c, because drained to excessively drained soils that are sandy
the soils in class V are subject to little or no erosion, though to a depth of 86 inches or more.
they have other limitations that restrict their use largely Unit VIs-3. Nearly level, somewhat poorly drained
to pasture, range, woodland, wildlife, or recreation. sandy soils that have weakly cemented layers.
CAPABILITY UNITS are soil groups within the subclasses. Unit VIs-4. Nearly level to gently sloping, moder-
The soils in one capability unit are enough alike to be ately well drained soils that are sandy to a depth
suited to the same crops and pasture plants, to require of 80 inches or more.
similar management, and to have similar productivity and Unit VIIs-1. Nearly level to sloping, excessively
other responses to management. Thus, the capability unit drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 80
is a convenient grouping for making many statements inches or more.
about management of soils. Capability units are generally Unit VIIs-2. Moderately steep to very steep, exces-
designated by adding an Arabic numeral to the subclass sively drained soils that are sandy to a depth of
symbol, for example, IIIe-1 or IVs-1. Thus, in one symbol, 86 inches or more.
the Roman numeral designates the capability class, or Unit VIIw-1. Nearly level, poorly drained and very
degree of limitation; the small letter indicates the subclass, poorly drained soils that are covered with water
or kind of limitation, as defined in the foregoing para- or have a water table at the surface most of the
graph; and the Arabic numeral specifically identifies the year.
capability unit within each subclass. Unit VITw-2. Nearly level, very poorly drained
The capability units in Lake County Area are as soils in swamps.
follows:
To find the capability classification of any given soil,
Unit IIw-1. Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils refer to the "Guide to Mapping Units" or to the soil de-
that have a water table at a depth of less than 10 scriptions. Use and management of each soil are described
inches for 1 to 2 months during the year. in the mapping unit description.
Unit IIIe-1. Gently sloping, well-drained sandy
soils that have a loamy subsoil. Estimated yields
Unit IIIs-1. Nearly level to gently sloping, well The estimated average acre yields that can be expected
drained to moderately well drained soils that are from the principal crops grown on the arable soils in the
sandy to a depth of more than 20 inches. Lake County Area, under two levels of management, are
Unit IIw-1. Nearly level, poorly drained to very shown in table 3. Yields in columns A are those obtained
poorly drained sandy soils that have a water table under prevailing or ordinary management, for example,
at or within a depth of 10 inches for more than insufficient lime and fertilizer, no definite cropping sys-
2 months during the year. tem, and inadequate erosion control, drainage, and irriga-
Unit IIIw-2. Nearly level, very poorly drained or- tion. Improved varieties of crops are not planted, and
ganic soils. certified seed are not always used.
Unit IIIw-3. Nearly level to gently sloping, some- Yields in columns B are those to be expected under an
what poorly drained sandy soils, adequate level of management. Such management com-






LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 41
only includes proper amounts of fertilizer, lime, or ma- community on a given group of soil. The condition class
nure; a well-planned cropping system and proper use of provides an approximate measure of any change that has
crop residue; water control measures that drain the soils taken place in the native plant cover. Thus, condition class
of excess surface water and maintain adequate soil mois- becomes a basis for measuring production or needs for con-
ture by irrigation; improved plant varieties and certified servation treatment. Four condition classes have been set
seed; control of insects and plant diseases; control of run- up for this purpose: excellent, good, fair, and poor.
off and erosion; and protection for crops against cold Excellent condition means that 76 to 100 percent by
weather damage. weight of the climax plant community is the same as
Improved pasture management includes seedbed prep- described for the original on the site.
aration, application of lime and fertilizer, good plant Good condition means that overuse has changed the
varieties and plant mixtures, regulated grazing, and con- potential plant community. At present only 51 to 75 per-
trol of undesirable plants. cent, by weight, of the decreaser and increase species re-
The yields in columns A and B are based largely on main on the site in the same proportion as in the climax
observations made by members of the soil survey party, plant community.
records and experience of the district conservationist as- Fair condition means that only 26 to 50 percent, by
signed to the Lake Soil and Water Conservation Dis- weight, of the present plant community is made up of the
trict, information obtained by interviews with farmers decreaser and increase species that occurred in the climax
and other workers who have experience with the soils and plant community.
crops of the area, bulletins and other information obtained Poor condition means that potential plant community
from the Experiment Stations, comparisons with yield has deteriorated to the extent that less than 25 percent of
tables for other counties in central Florida that have simi- the plant community is made up of increase and decrease
lar soils and climatic conditions, and on records of crop species that once made up the climax plant community.
yields from the Florida Crop Reporting Service. To determine condition class more easily, the types of
vegetation are grouped in accordance with their response
Range and Woodland Grazing to grazing by livestock. These vegetation types are de-
creaser, increase, and invader plants.
Approximately 125,000 acres in the southwestern and Decreaser plants are the climax range plants most
northeastern parts of the survey area are used for grazing heavily grazed. Because they are the most palatable, they
by domestic livestock and as wildlife habitat. These areas are the first to be destroyed by overgrazing. Creeping blue-
are predominantly woodland that is used as range. Since stem on the Flatwoods site and maidencane on Fresh
the earliest days of the cattle industry, native grasses have Marsh sites are examples of decreasers.
played an important role. Present day cow-calf opera- Increaser plants are species in the climax vegetation
tions still depend heavily on these forage resources. Range that increase in relative amount as the more desirable
and woodland grazing is one of the largest single land uses plants are reduced by close grazing; increases commonly
directly coordinated with wildlife habitat management. are shorter than decreasers, and some are less palatable
Native grasses, legumes, and shrubs are an important sup- to livestock. Broomsedge bluestem is a common increase.
ply of forage and feed for livestock and wildlife. New Invader plants invade the site and grow after the cli-
concepts of grassland management recognize the im- max vegetation has been reduced by grazing. Generally,
portance of native grasses in a coordinated program of im- invader plants are those that follow disturbance of the
proved pasture and animal husbandry practices. surface. They may be annuals or perennials. Most weeds
The soils of the Lake County Area are grouped into are invaders. Bottlebrush three-awn, carpetgrass, and an-
seven range sites-Acid Flatwoods, Fresh Marsh (min- nual watergrasses, for example, are invaders on the Flat-
eral), Fresh Marsh (organic), Sand Pond, Sand Scrub, woods site. Gallberry and waxmyrtle are common woody
Sandhills, and Swamp. invaders.
The information in the following paragraphs will help Grazing of the native forage that occurs as an under-
those who manage soils for range and woodland grazing. story in woodland is important. The productive capacity
of the understory herbage depends not only on the com-
Range sites and condition classes bined effect of soils, climate, and changes in stand develop-
Conservation management and use of native forages de- ment, but also on the density of the crown canopy. Canopy
pend on an evaluation of the forage resource. This is an classes are determined by the percent of ground shaded by
evaluation of the potential productive capacity in relation overstory and are designated as 0 to 25 percent shade,
to present production of desirable vegetation. The pro- open; 26 to 50 percent, sparse; 51 to 75 percent, medium;
ductive capacity of different areas of rangeland (table 4). 76 to 100 percent, dense. Table 4 indicates the productive
is largely determined by the soils and the climate and by capacity of grazeable woodland as affected by the degree
the effect of shading in wooded sites. of canopy for the seven sites in the survey area.
The site expresses these differences in productive ca- Range management
pacity. Simply defined, a site is a distinctive kind of range- Range management
land that has specific kinds of soil that have capacity for Conservation treatment of rangeland and grazed wood-
producing a combination of native plants. Different sites land under livestock, wildlife, and recreational uses in-
are recognized if the combined effects of soil and climate volves the planning and application of appropriate con-
result in significantly different kinds and quantity of servation practices. Following are conservation practices
that apply to the range areas in the Lake County Area.
Condition classes are expressions of the present amount Proper grazing use is controlled grazing, or grazing at
of desirable vegetation in relation to the potential plant an intensity that will maintain adequate vegetative cover






LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 41
only includes proper amounts of fertilizer, lime, or ma- community on a given group of soil. The condition class
nure; a well-planned cropping system and proper use of provides an approximate measure of any change that has
crop residue; water control measures that drain the soils taken place in the native plant cover. Thus, condition class
of excess surface water and maintain adequate soil mois- becomes a basis for measuring production or needs for con-
ture by irrigation; improved plant varieties and certified servation treatment. Four condition classes have been set
seed; control of insects and plant diseases; control of run- up for this purpose: excellent, good, fair, and poor.
off and erosion; and protection for crops against cold Excellent condition means that 76 to 100 percent by
weather damage. weight of the climax plant community is the same as
Improved pasture management includes seedbed prep- described for the original on the site.
aration, application of lime and fertilizer, good plant Good condition means that overuse has changed the
varieties and plant mixtures, regulated grazing, and con- potential plant community. At present only 51 to 75 per-
trol of undesirable plants. cent, by weight, of the decreaser and increase species re-
The yields in columns A and B are based largely on main on the site in the same proportion as in the climax
observations made by members of the soil survey party, plant community.
records and experience of the district conservationist as- Fair condition means that only 26 to 50 percent, by
signed to the Lake Soil and Water Conservation Dis- weight, of the present plant community is made up of the
trict, information obtained by interviews with farmers decreaser and increase species that occurred in the climax
and other workers who have experience with the soils and plant community.
crops of the area, bulletins and other information obtained Poor condition means that potential plant community
from the Experiment Stations, comparisons with yield has deteriorated to the extent that less than 25 percent of
tables for other counties in central Florida that have simi- the plant community is made up of increase and decrease
lar soils and climatic conditions, and on records of crop species that once made up the climax plant community.
yields from the Florida Crop Reporting Service. To determine condition class more easily, the types of
vegetation are grouped in accordance with their response
Range and Woodland Grazing to grazing by livestock. These vegetation types are de-
creaser, increase, and invader plants.
Approximately 125,000 acres in the southwestern and Decreaser plants are the climax range plants most
northeastern parts of the survey area are used for grazing heavily grazed. Because they are the most palatable, they
by domestic livestock and as wildlife habitat. These areas are the first to be destroyed by overgrazing. Creeping blue-
are predominantly woodland that is used as range. Since stem on the Flatwoods site and maidencane on Fresh
the earliest days of the cattle industry, native grasses have Marsh sites are examples of decreasers.
played an important role. Present day cow-calf opera- Increaser plants are species in the climax vegetation
tions still depend heavily on these forage resources. Range that increase in relative amount as the more desirable
and woodland grazing is one of the largest single land uses plants are reduced by close grazing; increases commonly
directly coordinated with wildlife habitat management. are shorter than decreasers, and some are less palatable
Native grasses, legumes, and shrubs are an important sup- to livestock. Broomsedge bluestem is a common increase.
ply of forage and feed for livestock and wildlife. New Invader plants invade the site and grow after the cli-
concepts of grassland management recognize the im- max vegetation has been reduced by grazing. Generally,
portance of native grasses in a coordinated program of im- invader plants are those that follow disturbance of the
proved pasture and animal husbandry practices. surface. They may be annuals or perennials. Most weeds
The soils of the Lake County Area are grouped into are invaders. Bottlebrush three-awn, carpetgrass, and an-
seven range sites-Acid Flatwoods, Fresh Marsh (min- nual watergrasses, for example, are invaders on the Flat-
eral), Fresh Marsh (organic), Sand Pond, Sand Scrub, woods site. Gallberry and waxmyrtle are common woody
Sandhills, and Swamp. invaders.
The information in the following paragraphs will help Grazing of the native forage that occurs as an under-
those who manage soils for range and woodland grazing. story in woodland is important. The productive capacity
of the understory herbage depends not only on the com-
Range sites and condition classes bined effect of soils, climate, and changes in stand develop-
Conservation management and use of native forages de- ment, but also on the density of the crown canopy. Canopy
pend on an evaluation of the forage resource. This is an classes are determined by the percent of ground shaded by
evaluation of the potential productive capacity in relation overstory and are designated as 0 to 25 percent shade,
to present production of desirable vegetation. The pro- open; 26 to 50 percent, sparse; 51 to 75 percent, medium;
ductive capacity of different areas of rangeland (table 4). 76 to 100 percent, dense. Table 4 indicates the productive
is largely determined by the soils and the climate and by capacity of grazeable woodland as affected by the degree
the effect of shading in wooded sites. of canopy for the seven sites in the survey area.
The site expresses these differences in productive ca- Range management
pacity. Simply defined, a site is a distinctive kind of range- Range management
land that has specific kinds of soil that have capacity for Conservation treatment of rangeland and grazed wood-
producing a combination of native plants. Different sites land under livestock, wildlife, and recreational uses in-
are recognized if the combined effects of soil and climate volves the planning and application of appropriate con-
result in significantly different kinds and quantity of servation practices. Following are conservation practices
that apply to the range areas in the Lake County Area.
Condition classes are expressions of the present amount Proper grazing use is controlled grazing, or grazing at
of desirable vegetation in relation to the potential plant an intensity that will maintain adequate vegetative cover






LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 41
only includes proper amounts of fertilizer, lime, or ma- community on a given group of soil. The condition class
nure; a well-planned cropping system and proper use of provides an approximate measure of any change that has
crop residue; water control measures that drain the soils taken place in the native plant cover. Thus, condition class
of excess surface water and maintain adequate soil mois- becomes a basis for measuring production or needs for con-
ture by irrigation; improved plant varieties and certified servation treatment. Four condition classes have been set
seed; control of insects and plant diseases; control of run- up for this purpose: excellent, good, fair, and poor.
off and erosion; and protection for crops against cold Excellent condition means that 76 to 100 percent by
weather damage. weight of the climax plant community is the same as
Improved pasture management includes seedbed prep- described for the original on the site.
aration, application of lime and fertilizer, good plant Good condition means that overuse has changed the
varieties and plant mixtures, regulated grazing, and con- potential plant community. At present only 51 to 75 per-
trol of undesirable plants. cent, by weight, of the decreaser and increase species re-
The yields in columns A and B are based largely on main on the site in the same proportion as in the climax
observations made by members of the soil survey party, plant community.
records and experience of the district conservationist as- Fair condition means that only 26 to 50 percent, by
signed to the Lake Soil and Water Conservation Dis- weight, of the present plant community is made up of the
trict, information obtained by interviews with farmers decreaser and increase species that occurred in the climax
and other workers who have experience with the soils and plant community.
crops of the area, bulletins and other information obtained Poor condition means that potential plant community
from the Experiment Stations, comparisons with yield has deteriorated to the extent that less than 25 percent of
tables for other counties in central Florida that have simi- the plant community is made up of increase and decrease
lar soils and climatic conditions, and on records of crop species that once made up the climax plant community.
yields from the Florida Crop Reporting Service. To determine condition class more easily, the types of
vegetation are grouped in accordance with their response
Range and Woodland Grazing to grazing by livestock. These vegetation types are de-
creaser, increase, and invader plants.
Approximately 125,000 acres in the southwestern and Decreaser plants are the climax range plants most
northeastern parts of the survey area are used for grazing heavily grazed. Because they are the most palatable, they
by domestic livestock and as wildlife habitat. These areas are the first to be destroyed by overgrazing. Creeping blue-
are predominantly woodland that is used as range. Since stem on the Flatwoods site and maidencane on Fresh
the earliest days of the cattle industry, native grasses have Marsh sites are examples of decreasers.
played an important role. Present day cow-calf opera- Increaser plants are species in the climax vegetation
tions still depend heavily on these forage resources. Range that increase in relative amount as the more desirable
and woodland grazing is one of the largest single land uses plants are reduced by close grazing; increases commonly
directly coordinated with wildlife habitat management. are shorter than decreasers, and some are less palatable
Native grasses, legumes, and shrubs are an important sup- to livestock. Broomsedge bluestem is a common increase.
ply of forage and feed for livestock and wildlife. New Invader plants invade the site and grow after the cli-
concepts of grassland management recognize the im- max vegetation has been reduced by grazing. Generally,
portance of native grasses in a coordinated program of im- invader plants are those that follow disturbance of the
proved pasture and animal husbandry practices. surface. They may be annuals or perennials. Most weeds
The soils of the Lake County Area are grouped into are invaders. Bottlebrush three-awn, carpetgrass, and an-
seven range sites-Acid Flatwoods, Fresh Marsh (min- nual watergrasses, for example, are invaders on the Flat-
eral), Fresh Marsh (organic), Sand Pond, Sand Scrub, woods site. Gallberry and waxmyrtle are common woody
Sandhills, and Swamp. invaders.
The information in the following paragraphs will help Grazing of the native forage that occurs as an under-
those who manage soils for range and woodland grazing. story in woodland is important. The productive capacity
of the understory herbage depends not only on the com-
Range sites and condition classes bined effect of soils, climate, and changes in stand develop-
Conservation management and use of native forages de- ment, but also on the density of the crown canopy. Canopy
pend on an evaluation of the forage resource. This is an classes are determined by the percent of ground shaded by
evaluation of the potential productive capacity in relation overstory and are designated as 0 to 25 percent shade,
to present production of desirable vegetation. The pro- open; 26 to 50 percent, sparse; 51 to 75 percent, medium;
ductive capacity of different areas of rangeland (table 4). 76 to 100 percent, dense. Table 4 indicates the productive
is largely determined by the soils and the climate and by capacity of grazeable woodland as affected by the degree
the effect of shading in wooded sites. of canopy for the seven sites in the survey area.
The site expresses these differences in productive ca- Range management
pacity. Simply defined, a site is a distinctive kind of range- Range management
land that has specific kinds of soil that have capacity for Conservation treatment of rangeland and grazed wood-
producing a combination of native plants. Different sites land under livestock, wildlife, and recreational uses in-
are recognized if the combined effects of soil and climate volves the planning and application of appropriate con-
result in significantly different kinds and quantity of servation practices. Following are conservation practices
that apply to the range areas in the Lake County Area.
Condition classes are expressions of the present amount Proper grazing use is controlled grazing, or grazing at
of desirable vegetation in relation to the potential plant an intensity that will maintain adequate vegetative cover







42 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 3.-Estimated yields of important crops
[Absence of a yield figure indicates that the soil


Soil name Oranges Grapefruit Cabbage 1 Celery


A B A B A B A B


50-lb. 50-lb. 60-lb. 60-lb.
Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes Crates Crates Crates Crates
Albany sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------- 350 400 450 550 -------- -------- -------- --------
Albany sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes --------------------- 350 400 450 550 -------------------------------
Anclote fine sand----------------------------------------------------------------- 250 400 700 800
Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ---------------------- 400 500 600 700
Apopka sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes --------------------- 400 500 600 700
Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes --------------------- 250 350 300 400
Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 5 percent slopes --------- 350 450 550 650
Astatula sand, dark surface, 5 to 12 percent slopes ------- 350 450 550 650
Astatula sand, dark surface, 12 to 40 percent slopes ------- 300 400 500 600
Brighton soils --------------------------------------------- -------------------_- 300 500 700 900
Cassia sand ----------------------------------------- 150 250 250 350
Emeralda fine sand --------------------------- --- -- -----
Eureka loamy fine sand_
Felda fine sand ------------------------------- 325 425 525 625 225 375 650 750
Fellowship fine sandy loam, ponded ------------ ---- ----
Iberia sandy clay----------------------------------------- ---
Immokalee sand ------------------------------------- 175 300 325 425 200 300
Lake sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------ 400 500 600 700
Lake sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ----------------------- 400 500 600 700
Lake sand, 12 to 22 percent slopes ---------------------- 300 400 500 700
Lucy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ------------------------ 400 500 600 700
Lucy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ------------------------ 400 500 600 700
Manatee fine sand ----------------------------------------------------------------- 300 500 -------- --------
Montverde muck------------------------------------ ------------------------------- 300 500 700 900
Myakkasand --------------------------------------- 200 350 350 450 200 300
Ocillasand ----------------------------------------- 350 450 500 600-------- ----------------
Ocoee peat ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 300 500 700 900
Oklawaha muck ------------------------------------- ------------------------------ 300 500 700 900
Ona fine sand ---- ...-----------.------------------------ 250 350 350 450 225 325 --------
Orlando fine sand ------------------------------------ 350 450 500 650 ---------------- -------- --------
Paola sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ----------------------- 200 300 300 400 --------------------------------
Paola sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ----------------------- 150 200 250 300
Pelham sand --------------------------------------- 225 375 375 472 200 300 --------------
Placid sand ----.----------------------------------- -------------------------------_ 200 300 ---
Placid sand, slightly wet ------------------------------- 250 350 350 450 225 325
Pomello sand -------- ------ -- --- ---
Pompano sand, acid..------------------....----------------.. 225 375 375 475 200 300
St. Lucie sand ----------...... -...------ ------
Tavares sand ---------------------------------------- 350 400 450 550 .................... ~~...~
Tavares sand, white subsurface variant ------------------- 300 400 400 500 ...
Vaucluse sand ---------------------------------------...... 400 500 600 700 ..............................-----------------
Wabasso sand- -------------------------------------- 200 350 350 450
Wauchula sand ------------------------------------- 200 325 350 450 200 300 ------- .-.......

1 Yields for all truck crops were obtained from fields under established water control systems, or sprinkler irrigation, or both.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 43

and pasture under two levels of management
is not suited to the crop or data are not available]

Permanent
Cucumbers Sweet corn Lettuce Carrots Watermelons Peppers improved
pasture

A B A B A B A B A B A B A B

Cow- Cow-
5-doz. 6-doz. 85-lb. 35-lb. acre- acre-
Bushels Bushels Crates Crates Crates Crates Tons Tons Number Number Bushels Bushels days 2 days
..- .. ---. ....... ... 800 1,600 --.------ 200 275
--------- --------- -------- -------- -------- --- ---- ------ ---- 800 1,600 -- ------.. 200 275
800 1,600 ----------------- 200 275
140 250 80 125 200 300 ------ ----- ------- -. 250 350 200 275
--------- --------- ------- --------- ------- ---- --- 800 1,600 -------- -------- 150 250
--------- -------------------------------- ---------- 800 1,600 ---------------- 150 250
...--------- --.--------.-.----.. ------------- -------- --- -------- -- -..----. 100 200
------------------ ---- ---------------- --- -- ------ 800 1,600 --------.-------- 125 220
--------- -------- -------- -- ---- ------ ---- ------ 800 1,600 ---------------- 125 220

-------------- 95 140 250 350 5 8 -------- ---------------- -------- 300 400
125 200
290 375
290 375
130 225 75 120------------240 325 275 350
275 350
290 375
130 225 60 85 70 120 ---- 250 350 200 275
---------------------------------- ---------------- ------------ 800 1,600 ---------------- 200 275
-------------------------- ------------------------..-------- -------- 800 1,600 ------- -------- 200 275
800 1,600oo- 250 325
--------- --------- ---------------- --------.----------------------- 800 1,600 -------- -------- 250 325
80 125 200 300 -------- ---------------- ------- 250 350 290 375
95 140 250 350 5 8 -------------------------------- 300 400
150 250 65 90 75 130 -------------------------------- 250 350 200 275
------ ---------- -------- 800 1,600 -------- -------- 200 275
----------------- 95 140 250 350 5 8 -------- -------- -------- -------- 300 400
95 140 250 350 5 8 ------------------------------- 300 400
150 250 70 100 75 130 ----------------- ---------- 250 350 200 275
800 1,600 -------- -------- 200 275
....------- -------- -------- ------- -------- 75 175
------- 75 125
150 250 65 90 75 130 -250 350 200 275
150 250 70 100 75 130 ------------------------------- 250 350 200 275
150 250 70 100 75 130 -------------------------------- 250 350 200 275
-------- -- ------ ------- -------- -------- 125 250
150 250 65 95 75 130 -------- -------- -------- ------- 250 350 200 275
S------- --- ------- 70 150
... --- -- -------- ------------- 800 1,600 ----.---- ..-------- ..200 275
.... -... -- -- -- -------- -.--.---.-- ----- 125 200
.- --..-- ----. -- ------ --------.... 800 1,600 ---------------- 275 350
200 275
------- -- -- - ---- ------9 ---- -- ----- 200 275
150 250 65 90 75 130 .......-------- .. .-------- ..-----.---------- 250 350 200 275

2 Cow-acre-days is a term used to express the number of days 1 acre will support one animal unit (1 cow, steer, or horse; 5 hogs;
or 7 sheep or goats) without injury to the pasture.







44 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 4.-Annual acre yields in air-dry weight of herbage and forage on grazeable woodland and rangeland in excellent
condition
[Fill land, loamy materials (Fm) is not rated for range]

Total herbage- Estimated forage-
Site and map symbols -------
Dry years Average years Dry years Average years

Acid Flatwoods: Eu, Is, Mk, MpC, On, Pd, Pg, Po, Wa, Wc.1 Lb. Lb. Lb. Lb.
Open canopy (0-25 percent shade) --------------------------- 3, 600 4, 800 3, 000 4, 000
Sparse canopy (25-50 percent shade)------------------------- 1, 200 3, 000 1, 000 3, 000
Medium canopy (50-75 percent shade) ----------------------- 550 1, 100 500 1, 000
Dense canopy (75-100 percent shade) ------------------------ 0 550 0 500
Sandhills: AbB, AbD, ApB, ApD, AtB, AtD, AtF, LaB, LaD, LaE,
LuB, LuC, Oc, Or, Ta, Va.1
Open canopy (0-25 percent shade) --------------------------- 2, 000 3, 000 1, 500 2, 500
Sparse canopy (25-50 percent shade) ----------------------- 1, 000 1, 800 800 1,300
Medium canopy (50-75 percent shade) ----------------------- 300 1, 000 200 700
Dense canopy (75-100 percent shade) -----------------------0 300 0 200
Fresh Marsh (mineral): Ac, Em, Fd, Fe, Ib, Ma -----------------. 6, 600 8, 800 6, 000 8, 000
Fresh Marsh (organic): Br, Md, Oe, Oh ------------------------....6, 600 8, 800 6, 000 8, 000
Swamp: Am, Im, Sw.
Yields were not determined for this site.
Sand Scrub: AsB, Ca, PaB, PaD, Pn, Sc, Te.
Yields were not determined for this site.
Sand Pond: Pe, PmA ----------------------------------------- 2, 000 3, 000 1,800 2, 700

Needle fall not included in weight.

for soil protection and maintain or improve the quantity building in Tavares was the sawmill commissary, which
and quality of desirable vegetation. To achieve proper use, stood on the site of the present packing house. The Okla-
approximately 50 percent, by weight, of the key forage waha River was used to move timber products to northern
species should be removed by grazing during any particu- markets, and the Doral Canal was first dredged to assist
lar season of use. This practice applies to all sites. the movement ,of lumber barges from Tavares. Fruitland
Deferred grazing periodically postpones or defers the Park was developed initially by a lumber company. As
grazing on rangeland or in grazeable woodland for a pre- late as 1928, the largest commercial operation in the county
scribed period during the year. Deferring the grazing was a lumber company located at Groveland.
promotes natural vegetation by increasing vigor of the After the "big freeze" of 1894-95 an increasing number
forage stand and permitting desirable grasses to produce of citrus growers moved into the Lake County Area. Many
seed. It also provides a feed reserve for fall and winter acres of forest were cleared for use as citrus groves. The
grazing or emergency use. This practice applies to all sites large timber and turpentine operations had come to an end
and is especially needed following brush control measures, by 1935. The better soils were converted to pasture and
Controlled burning refers to the practice of using fire row crops and the warmer areas to citrus groves.
to assist in managing vegetation. The area to be burned is About 37 percent, or 220,000 acres, of the privately
predetermined, and the intensity and time of the fire are owned land in the Lake County Area is classified as wood-
controlled. Controlled burning helps to control undesirable land. About 5,000 acres of this land is in planted pines.
vegetation, improve wildlife habitat, and enhance forage Part of the Ocala National Forest is in Lake County,
plant management. but it is outside this survey area.
Current, detailed information on the planning and ap- The forests have an important part in the present and
plication of conservation practices can be obtained from future of the Lake County Area. The demand for timber,
the local soil conservationist of the Soil Conservation recreation areas, and wildlife habitat is increasing as the
Service. population of Central Florida grows.

Woodland The soils of the Lake County Area differ greatly in their
capacity to grow trees. The combinations of species, or
The early growth of Lake County was closely related forest types, that grow on a particular soil are determined
to the development of the wood products industry. Before principally by the physical qualities of the soil and the
the Civil War, turpentine was distilled from the sap of climate.
pine trees. In the early 1880's, this business became a sizable Among the most important factors that affect the pro-
commercial enterprise. After the "big freeze" of 1894-95, ductive capacity of the soil for growing trees is the ability
this industry flourished and enabled some of the people of the soil to supply moisture and permit the development
to carry on until their citrus groves could be established of an adequate root system. Other significant character-
again. istics of the soil that affect the site are the thickness of the
Many of the population centers in the Area can trace surface layer, the organic-matter content, the natural sup-
their beginning to lumber and turpentine camps. The first ply of plant nutrients, the texture and consistency of the







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 45

soil material, the aeration, the depth of mottling, and the Ratings are given for each group, according to produc-
depth to the water table. tivity, limitations, and degree of hazard for woodland use.
On the Coastal Plains, drainage is an important factor The ratings are based largely upon the experience and
that affects the suitability of a site for trees. Drainage is judgment of local soil scientists, foresters, and landowners.
classified as excessive, good, poor, and very poor, depending They represent the best information available at the pres-
on the depth to the water table, the amount of organic ent time about how soils influence the growth and manage-
matter in the soil, and the amount and depth of mottling ment of trees.
that indicate the presence of soil moisture. Each woodland group designation has three symbols.
Potential soil productivity for trees is rated by deter- The first element indicates potential productivity. It is an
mining the average site index of different soils. The site Arabic numeral ranging from 1 to 5; class 1, for example,
index is determined by measuring the height of repre- is the highest in potential productivity.
sentative trees, determining the age of these trees, and The second element is a lowercase letter. It expresses
estimating from these measurements the height the trees selected soil properties that cause moderate to severe haz-
will likely attain at the age of 50 years. Some sites are bet- ards or limitations in woodland use or management. The
ter suited to hardwoods; others are better suited to pines, letters used for the Lake County Area are w. c. and s. The
These sites that are most suitable for pines produce better letter w denotes excessive wetness, c denotes a clayey soil,
yields if competition from inferior hardwoods is and s denotes a sandy soil.
controlled. Soils in subclass w are those in which excessive water,
either seasonally or year round, causes significant limita-
Woodland grouping tions for woodland use or management. These soils have
A woodland group is made up of kinds of soil that are restricted drainage, a high water table, or an overflow
capable of producing similar kinds of wood crops, that hazard that adversely affects either stand development or
need similar management to produce these crops, and that management.
have about the same potential productivity. Soils in subclass c have restrictions or limitations for
The woodland groups to which the soils of the Lake woodland use or management because of the kind or
County Area have been assigned are shown in table 5. amount of clay in the upper part of the soil profile.

TABLE 5.-Woodland groups


Potential productivity- Degree of hazard or limitation
Pine
Woodland group I and map symbols Average spe fries
Pine Site annual suitable for Seedling Erosion Equipment
species index growth to planting mortality hazard limitation
age 30

Cords/acre
2w2: Poorly drained sandy soils that have Slash------ 90 1. 4-1. 8 Slash------ Moderate---. Slight------ Moderate.
high potential productivity. On, Pg. Longleaf --- 80 1. 0-1. 4
2w3: Very poorly drained and poorly Slash ------..... 90 1. 4-1. 8 Slash ------ Severe.----- Slight------ Severe.
drained sandy soils that have high potential Longleaf ----.... 80 1. 0-1. 4
productivity. Ac, Am, Ma, Pd, Pe, PmA.
2w3c: Poorly drained clayey subsoil soils that Slash------..... 90 1. 4-1. 8 Slash ------ Moderate... Slight------ Severe.
have high potential productivity. Em, Eu, Longleaf .... 80 1. 0-1. 4
Fe, Ib, Im.
3w2: Poorly drained and somewhat poorly Slash------..... 80 1. 2-1.6 Slash ------ Moderate--- Slight ------ Moderate.
drained sandy soils that have moderately Longleaf --...-- 70 0. 6-1. 0
high potential productivity. AbB, AbD, Fd,
Is, Mk, MpC, Po, Wa, Wc.
3s2: Moderately well drained to excessively Slash ------. 80 1. 2-1. 6 Slash ------ Moderate... Slight------ Moderate.
drained sandy soils that have moderately Longleaf ---..- 70 0. 8-1. 2
high potential productivity. ApB, ApD,
LaB, LaD, LaE, LuB, LuC, Oc, Or, Ta,
Te, Va.
4s3: Somewhat poorly drained to excessively Slash..----. 70 1. 0-1. 4 Sand, slash. Severe.----- Slight------ Moderate.
drained sandy soils that have moderate Longleaf ----.... 60 0. 7-1. 1
potential productivity. AtB, AtD, AtF, Ca, Sand ------ 60 1. 0-1. 4
Pn.
5s3: Excessively drained sandy soils that have Sand------.. 55 0. 8-1. 2 Sand.------... Severe-... Slight------ Severe.
low potential productivity. As B, Pa B, PaD,
Sc.

'See also "Guide to Mapping Units."







46 SOIL SURVEY
Soils in subclass s, sandy soils, have little or no textural squirrel, turkey, whitetail deer, bear, wild hogs, and
B horizon and have moderate to severe restrictions or limi- waterfowl. There are also gray fox and raccoons.
stations for woodland use or management. They generally Wildlife is abundant in the northeastern and south-
have a low available water capacity and normally are low western parts of the county where wooded areas, swamps,
in available plant nutrients, and large open areas furnish adequate habitat. Birds,
The third element of the symbol indicates the degree of squirrels, foxes, and raccoons inhabit the smaller, less
the hazard or limitation. The three management'concerns densely wooded areas throughout the Area. Wildlife in
considered are equipment limitation, plant competition, limited numbers is also found throughout areas that are
and seedling mortality, planted to citrus.
The numeral 1 indicates little or no hazard or limitation. The optimum environment for wildlife is afforded by
No soils in Lake County Area are in this category. The plants that provide food and cover. An adequate
numeral 2 indicates soils that have one or more than one supply of water well dispersed within the range of the
moderate hazard or limitation. The numeral 3 indicates species is also essential. The food and cover suitable for one
soils that have one or more than one severe hazards or species, however, may not be satisfactory for another.
limitation. Some species consume foods only from animal sources;
Equipment limitation.-Ratings reflect limitations in others eat plants; and others eat combinations of vegeta-
the use of equipment for managing or harvesting the tree tive and animal foods. Destruction by fire or overuse of
crop. A rating of slight indicates equipment use is seldom the plants that provide food and cover can seriously reduce
limited in kind or time of year. Moderate indicates a need the population of native wildlife species. Replanting with
for modified equipment or seasonal restrictions because of woody plants and shrubs and using other practices that
wetness or coarse texture. Severe indicates the need for help to restore native plant cover improve wildlife habitat.
specialized equipment. Most of the soils in the survey area can support one or
Plant competition.-When woodland is disturbed by more species of wildlife.
fire, cutting, grazing, or some other means, undesirable Listed in the following paragraphs are some of the foods
brush, trees, and plants may invade. The invading growth needed by a number of the important animals in the
competes with the desirable trees and hinders their estab- area.
lishment and growth. Bear.-Bears require a large acreage on which to roam
Competition is slight if unwanted plants present no spe- and feed. Acorns are the most important fall-winter food
cial problem. It is moderate if the invaders delay-butAdo of the Florida bear. Other choice foods include the fruits
not prevent the establishment of a normal fully stocked of gallberry, cabbage palm, blackgum, and saw-palmetto.
stand. It is severe if trees cannot regenerate naturally. Bears also eat armadillo, carpenter ants, acorn weevils,
Seedling mortality.-Even when healthy seedlings are and water bugs. Interspersed flatwoods, swamps, sand
planted or occur naturally in adequate numbers, some will scrub, and hammock areas are suitable range areas for
not survive if soil characteristics are unfavorable. A rating bears.
of slight indicates that mortality will be less than 25 per- Quail.-Choice foods for quail are acorns, blackberries,
cent of the seedlings during the first 2 years after establish- partridge peas, wild black cherries, dewberries, beggar-
ment. Moderate indicates mortality of 25 to 50 percent. weed, flowering dogwood, lespedeza, pine seeds, sweetgum,
Severe indicates that mortality of more than 50 percent can corn, browntop millet, and tick clover. These birds also
generally be expected. eat many insects. The correct interspersion of food and
The following soils are not assigned to woodland groups: escape cover is necessary to maintain good quail
Brighton soils, Montverde muck, Ocoee peat, Oklawaha populations.
muck, Swamp, and Fill land, loamy materials. The Brigh- Deer.-Choice foods for deer include acorns, smilax,
ton soils, Montverde muck, Ocoee peat, and Oklawaha saw-palmetto berries, red maple, mushrooms, sumac
muck are very poorly drained soils that have a water table trumpetvine, and tender oak leaves. Other foods suitable
at or near the surface most of the time and are flooded for for deer when choice foods are not available are black-
lengthy periods. These soils are not suited to pine trees, berry, dewberry, carpetgrass, and waxmyrtle.
mainly because of excessive wetness. Swamp is very poorly Dove (mourning).-Pine seeds, partridge peas, common
drained and is commonly covered with water all year. It is ragweed, corn, browntop millet, and sweetgum seed are
not suited to pine trees because of flooding. Fill land, choice foods for doves. Other suitable food is bahiagrass
loamy materials, does not have an orderly sequence of seed and carpetgrass seed. Generally doves do not eat in-
layers and is highly variable within short distances. Con- sects, green leaves, or fruits. They drink water daily and
sequently. it is not rated for pine tree production. Some need water in the free state within a reasonable distance.
areas of Fill land, loamy materials, however, have been Waterfowl.-Choice food for ducks are acorns, brown-
planted to slash pine. top millet, corn, and smartweed seeds. Their food generally
needs to be flooded.
Wildlife Squirrel.--Food that squirrels seem to prefer includes
acorns, blackgum seeds, gallberry fruit, pine seeds, sweet-
The wildlife population of the Lake County Area has bay seed, black cherry, corn, flowering dogwood, magnolia,
decreased because a steadily increasing proportion of the and cypress seeds. Other foods that squirrels will eat are
land has been planted to citrus trees. Available habitat sweetgum seed, blackberry fruit, dewberries, and briers.
for wildlife has been correspondingly reduced. Turkey.-Turkeys find their best habitat in large
The principal game species in the survey area are bob- wooded areas interspersed with small openings in blocks
white quail, mourning doves, rabbits, gray squirrel, fox of 2,000 acres or more. They need surface water for daily







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 47

drinking. Choice foods are insects, acorns, 'bahiagrass and other paspalums provides feeding areas for deer,
seeds, blackberries, dewberries, flowering dogwood, gall- turkey, and quail.
berry, wild grapes, browntop millet, carpetgrass seed, corn, Swamp.-Swamp sites are important because they pro-
oats, peanuts, saw-palmetto berries, sweetbay seed, wax- vide food and cover for wildlife, especially deer and
myrtle, chufas, and pine seeds. Other foods that turkeys turkeys. Some of the desirable food plants in the swamps
will eat are sumac seed, sweetgum seed, tick clover, black- and transitional areas are gallberry, greenbrier, black-
gum fruit, black cherry fruit, cypress seed, greenbrier berry, sumac, and waxmyrtle. Leaves and fruit of cypress,
fruit, and magnolia fruit, bay, gum, and maple trees in swamps are good wildlife
Wildlife production is associated with range and wood- foods.
land grazing sites. Each site has its own kind of plant
community. The site designation for each soil in the Town and Country Planning 2
survey area is given in the "Guide to Mapping Units."
Acid Flatwoods.-These areas are greatly affected by The purpose of this section of the survey is to supply
grazing and forestry practices. Overgrazing and heavy additional information about the interpretation of soils in
cutting of pine for timber and pulpwood have caused a the Lake County Area. This information assists planning
decrease in wildlife food and a heavy invasion by saw- commissions, boards, contractors, realtors, engineers, land-
palmetto in many areas. Controlling grazing, planting pine owners, home builders, and others in understanding and
trees, and leaving strips between the pine blocks reduce interpreting soils for town and country planning.
rough vegetation and enhance wildlife habitat. This part of the survey contains information on the
Habitat management has long been used to increase limitations of soils in the area for building construction,
wildlife populations. Controlled burning and chopping of landscaping, sanitation, transportation, recreation, and
the flatwoods late in fall or early in winter suppress the other selected uses, and on interpretations of soils for
perennial vegetation and favor growth of many annuals engineering.
that are important as wildlife foods. Deer, quail, and Table 6 shows the degree and kind of soil limitation,
turkey, as well as cattle, thrive on the succulent new restriction, or hazard for selected uses of the soils.
growth. Small areas that are burned every 2 or 3 years A rating of none to slight means that soil properties
offer the most ideal conditions for quail because of the in- are favorable for a particular use, limitations are so minor
creased "edge effect." Periodic burning also reduces the that they can be overcome easily and good performance
fire hazard and low maintenance can be expected. Moderate means
fire hazar that soil properties are moderately favorable for a parti-
Fresh Marsh (mineral).-These sites furnish much food cular use, and limitations can be overcome or modified by
for deer and turkey and both food and cover for waterfowl. planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe means
Plants are maidencane, cutgrass, beaked panicums, sand that the soil has one or more properties unfavorable for a
cordgrass, and numerous perennial sedges and rushes. particular use, limitations are difficult and costly to modify
Fresh Marsh (organic).-These sites furnish much the or overcome, and major soil reclamation, special design, or
same food for deer and turkey as the Fresh Marsh (mine- intense maintenance is needed. Very severe means that the
ral) sites. They also furnish both food and cover for ducks soil has one or more properties so unfavorable for a par-
and other aquatic birds. Plants are maidencane, cutgrasses, ticular use that overcoming the limitation is very difficult
pickerelweed, duck potato, sedges, rushes, sawgrass, and and costly. Necessary reclamation measures require that
willow primrose. the soil material be removed, replaced, or completely
Sand Pond.-Tbese depressions intermittently hold modified.
water several inches deep but produce some food for cer- The ratings shown in table 6 do not indicate suitability,
tain birds and animals. Turkey and quail feed on yellow- because suitability involves more than soil properties. Most
eye grass, watergrass, smartweed, and other seed pro- soils can be made suitable for many uses if their limita-
ducers. Deer feed on rushes, bonnets, watershield, St. Johns tions or hazards are overcome. The ratings do show the
wart, and willow. These ponds also provide water for wild- degree or intensity of the problems requiring solution be-
life. Management of these areas for wildlife requires that fore the soils can be used for the purpose indicated. Soils
a strip of native vegetation 50 to 100 feet wide surrounding that have severe limitations for a specified use can be made
these sites be left for cover. suitable for that use if it is feasible to apply the intensive
Sand Scrub.-These areas provide some wildlife food treatment needed to overcome the limitations.
and fairly good cover. The sites that are thickly covered Some soil properties are significant to only one or two
with sand pine provide very good cover but few food uses; others are significant to a number of uses. Flooding,
plants. In areas where stands of sand pine are scattered, for example, is significant to most uses, but natural fer-
scrub oaks grow in abundance and provide most food for utility affects only those uses that involve growing plants.
deer, quail, turkeys, and squirrels. Palmetto berries and In rating the soils for each use shown in table 6, all of the
pine seeds also are game food. soil characteristics considered pertinent to that use were
Sandhills.-These sites provide food and cover for most rated. Only the most limiting soil characteristics, however,
species of wildlife. Beggarweeds, blackberries, acorns, and are shown. Other limiting characteristics are significant
pine seeds are considered choice food for quail, dove, and must be considered, but their effect is not so great. This
squirrels, and turkeys. Browse production for deer can be information does not eliminate the need for onsite inspec-
maintained at high levels. Palmetto berries and some tion of the soil and site for a specific use. Additional soil
grasses also are food for deer. Controlled grazing and tests are needed in some areas.
strip planting of pines reduce rough vegetation and im- 2BISHOP C. BEVILLE, agricultural engineer, Soil Conservation
prove wildlife habitat. Creating open areas of bahiagrass Service, helped prepare this section.








48 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Degree and kind

[An asterisk in the first column indicates that at least one mapping unit in this series is made up of two or more kinds of soil. The soils in
for referring to other series that


Soil series and Foundations for Lawns and Roads, airports, and
map symbols low buildings ornamental plants Septic tank filter fields paved parking areas


Albany: AbB, AbD-..... Moderate: high water Moderate: very low Moderate: high water Moderate: high water
table, available water capa- table. table.
city in surface and
subsurface layers; low
natural fertility.


*Anclote: Ac, Am-..... Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
For Myakka part table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
of Am, see
Myakka series.
Apopka:
Ap ...-------------- Slight ------------------ Moderate: very low Slight ----------------- Slight----------------.-
available water capa-
city; low natural
fertility.

ApD---_ ----------- Moderate: slope -------- Moderate: very low Moderate: slope-------- Moderate: slope........
available water capa-
city; low natural
fertility.

Astatula:
As B, AtB ---------- Slight ------------------ Moderate: very low Slight: possible con- Slight------------------
available water capa- tamination of ground
city; low natural water supplies.
fertility.

AtD --------------.. Moderate: slope -------- Moderate: very low Moderate: slope; pos- Moderate: slope-........
available water capa- sible contamination
city; low natural of ground water
fertility, supplies.

AtF --------------- Severe: slope ---------- Severe: slope; very low Severe: slope; possible Severe: slope .......----------
available water capa- contamination of
city; low natural ground water
fertility, supplies.

Brighton: Br ---------. Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high
water table; high water table; flooding, water table; flooding, water table; very
potential subsidence; low traffic-supporting
flooding, capacity; high
potential subsidence.

Cassia: Ca -----------.... Severe: high water Moderate: high water Severe: high water Moderate: high water
table. table: low natural table. table; flooding.
fertility.
Emeralda: Em -------- Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
table; flooding; high table; flooding, table; flooding; slow table; flooding; high
shrink-swell permeability. shrink-swell
potential. potential; low
traffic-supporting
capacity.

Eureka: Eu...----------- Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: water table;
table; flooding; high table; flooding, table; flooding; very flooding; high
shrink-swell potential. slow permeability, shrink-swell potential;
low traffic-supporting
capacity.








LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 49

of limitation for selected uses

such mapping units may have different properties and limitations, and for this reason it is necessary to follow carefully the instructions
appear in the first column of this table]


Campsites and Basements and
picnic areas Playgrounds Golf courses Paths and trails below-ground Cemeteries
fallout shelters

Moderate: Severe: sandy Moderate: very Moderate: sandy Moderate: high Moderate: high
sandy texture. texture, low available texture, water table. water table.
water capacity in
surface and sub-
surface layers;
low natural
fertility.
Severe: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
water table; table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
flooding.


Moderate: Severe: sandy Moderate: very Moderate: sandy Slight ------------ Moderate: very
sandy texture. texture, low available texture, low available
water capacity; water capacity;
low natural low natural
fertility. fertility.

Moderate: Severe: sandy Moderate: very Moderate: sandy Slight -------------- Moderate: very
sandy texture. texture. low available texture, low available
water capacity; water capacity;
low natural low natural
fertility, fertility.

Severe: loose Severe: loose sand-- Moderate: very Severe: loose sand-- Slight -------------- Moderate: very
sand. low available low available
water capacity; water capacity;
low natural low natural
fertility, fertility.

Severe: loose Severe: loose sand-- Moderate: very Severe: loose sand-- Slight ------------Moderate: very
sand. low available low available
water capacity; water capacity;
low natural low natural
fertility, fertility.
Severe: loose Severe: loose sand-- Severe: slope; Severe: loose sand.- Moderate: slopes--- Severe: slope;
sand. very low available very low available
water capacity; water capacity;
low natural low natural
fertility, fertility.

Very severe: Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high
high water water table; water table; water table; water table. water table.
table; organic organic soil. organic soil. organic soil.
soil.

Severe: high Severe: sandy Moderate: high Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high
water table; texture. water table; low water table; water table, water table.
loose sand. natural fertility, loose sand.
Severe: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high
water table; table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding; water table;
flooding, high shrink- flooding.
swell potential.



Severe: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high
water table; table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding. table; flooding; water table;
flooding. high shrink- flooding.
swell potential.









50 SOiL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Degree and kind

Soil series and Foundations for Lawns and Roads, airports, and
map symbols low buildings ornamental plants Septic tank filter fields paved parking areas


Felda: Fd ------------ Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
table; flooding. table; flooding. table; flooding. table; flooding.


Fellowship: Fe --------. Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
table; flooding; high table; flooding, table; flooding; very table; flooding; high
shrink-swell potential. slow permeability, shrink-swell potential;
low traffic-supporting
capacity.
Fill land, loamy,
materials: Fm.
No valid estimates
can be made.
*Iberia: Ib, Im.--------Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
For Manatee part table; flooding; high table; flooding, table; flooding; very table; flooding; high
of Im, see shrink-swell potential. slow permeability. shrink-swell potential;
Manatee series, low traffic-supporting
capacity.
Immokalee: s --------.. Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
table. table, table. table.

LakeaB ...--------...------ Slight -----------------. Moderate: very low Slight -----------------. Slight-.........----.----------
available water capac-
ity; low natural
fertility.

LaD ..------------ Moderate: slope --.-----. Moderate: very low Moderate: slope -------.. Moderate: slope........
available water capac-
ity; low natural
fertility.

La E...------ -------.. Severe: slope --------- Moderate: very low Severe: slope ..----------... Severe: slope.--------........
available water capac-
ity; low natural
fertility; slope.

Lucy:
LuB ....-------------. Slight ----------------- Moderate: low avail- Slight.----.------------ Slight .....-...-.......
able water capacity in
surface and subsurface
layers; low natural
fertility.


LuC --------------.. Moderate: slope..------- Moderate: low avail- Moderate: slope------ ..... Moderate: slope.......
able water capacity in
surface and subsurface
layers; low natural
fertility.


Manatee: Ma---..--...----. Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.

Montverde: Md.....------- Very severe: high water Very severe: high water Very severe: high water Very severe: high water
table; flooding; high table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding; high
potential subsidence. potential subsidence;
very low traffic-
supporting capacity.









LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 51

of limitation for selected uses-Coatinued

Campsites and Basements and
picnic areas Playgrounds Golf courses Paths and trails below-ground Cemeteries
fallout shelters

Severe: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
water table; table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
flooding.
Severe: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high
water table; table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding; water table;
flooding. high shrink- flooding.
swell potential.






Severe: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
water table; table; flooding; table; flooding, table; flooding; table; flooding; table; flooding.
flooding; sandy sandy clay sandy clay high shrink-swell
clay texture. texture. texture. potential.

Severe: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
water table. table, table. table. table; flooding, table; flooding.

Moderate: sandy Severe: sandy Moderate: very Moderate: sandy Slight ..--.----------.. Moderate: very
texture. texture. low available texture. low available
water capacity; water capacity;
low natural low natural
fertility. fertility.

Moderate: sandy Severe: sandy Moderate: very Moderate: sandy Moderate: slope--... Moderate: very
texture. texture. low available texture. low available
water capacity; water capacity;
low natural low natural
fertility. fertility.

Severe: slope; Severe: slope; Severe: slope---- Severe: slope; Severe: slope ----.. --Moderate: very
sandy texture, sandy texture. sandy texture, low available
water capacity;
low natural
fertility; slope.

Moderate: sandy Severe: sandy Moderate: low Moderate: sandy Slight ......------------.... Moderate: low
texture. texture. available water texture. available water
capacity in sur- capacity in sur-
face and sub- face and sub-
surface layers; surface layers;
low natural low natural
fertility. fertility.
Moderate: sandy Severe: sandy Moderate: low Moderate: sandy Slight.-----.------- Moderate: low
texture. texture. available water texture. available water
capacity in sur- capacity in sur-
face and sub- face and sub-
surface layers; surface layers;
low natural low natural
fertility, fertility.

Severe: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
water table; table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
flooding.
Very severe: Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high
high water water table; flood- water table; flood- water table; flood- water table; flood- water table; flood-
table; flood- ing; organic soil. ing; organic soil. ing; organic soil. ing. ing.
ing; organic
soil.









52 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Degree and kind

Soil series and Foundations for Lawns and Roads, airports, and
map symbols low buildings ornamental plants Septic tank filter fields paved parking areas


*Myakka: M k, M pC... Severe: high water Moderate: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
For Placid part of table, table, table. table.
M pC, see Placid
series.
Ocilla: Oc------------....... Moderate: high water Moderate: low avail- Moderate: high water Moderate: high water
table. able water capacity in table. table.
surface and subsurface
layers; low natural
fertility.


Ocoee: Oe--------.......... Very severe: high water Very severe: high water Very severe: high water Very severe: high water
table; flooding; high table; flooding, table; flooding, table; high potential
potential subsidence. subsidence; very low
traffic-supporting
capacity.
Oklawaha: Oh.---.----....... Very severe: high water Very severe: high water Very severe: high water Very severe: high water
table; flooding; high table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding; high
potential subsidence. potential subsidence;
very low traffic-
supporting capacity.
Ona: On.--------.----........... Severe: high water Moderate: high water Severe: high water Severe:. high water
table, table. table. table

Orlando: Or........---------.. Slight-----------------Slig Slight--.---...............-----------.. Slight.............---------..... Slight..................

Paola:
Pa B---------------................. Slight----------------- Moderate: very low Slight.............---------..... Slight ..................
available water capac-
ity; very low natural
fertility.

PaD-.................--- Moderate: slope-.......----. Moderate: very low Moderate: slope--......----. Moderate: slope........
available water capac-
ity; very low natural
fertility.

Pelham: Pd----------Severe: high water Moderate: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
table, table; very low avail- table. table.
able water capacity
in surface and sub-
surface layers.

*Placid: Pe, Pg, Pm A-. Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
For Myakka part table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding, table; flooding.
of Pm A, see
Myakka series.
Pomello: Pn-----......... Moderate: high water Moderate: very low Moderate: high water Slight............
table. available water capac- table.
ity in surface and
subsurface layers;
very low natural
fertility.

Pompano: Po--------...... Severe: high water Moderate: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
table. table. table. table.








LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 53

of limitation for selected uses-Continued

Campsites and Basements and
picnic areas Playgrounds Golf courses Paths and trails below-ground Cemeteries
fallout shelters

Severe: high Severe: high water Moderate: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
water table, table. water table. table, table, table.


Moderate: sandy Severe: sandy Moderate: low Moderate: sandy Moderate: high Moderate: high
texture, texture. available water texture, water table. water table.
capacity in sur-
face and subsur-
face layers; low
natural fertil-
ity.

Very severe: Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high
high water water table; flood- water table; flood- water table; flood- water table; flood- water table; flood-
table; flooding; ing; organic soil. ing; organic soil. ing; organic soil. ing. ing.
organic soil.

Very severe: Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high Very severe: high
high water water table; flood- water table; flood- water table; flood- water table; flood- water table; flood-
table; flooding; ing; organic soil. ing; organic soil. ing; organic soil. ing. ing.
organic soil.

Severe: high Severe: high water Moderate: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
water table; table; sandy tex- water table. water table; sandy table, table.
sandy texture. ture. texture.
Moderate: sandy Severe: sandy Slight ------------ Moderate: sandy Slight -------------- Slight.
texture. texture. texture.

Severe: loose Severe: loose sand-- Moderate: very Severe: loose sand.. Slight-------------..... Slight.
sand. low available
water capacity;
very low natural
fertility.

Severe: loose Severe: loose sand.. Moderate: very Severe: loose sand-. Slight -------------...... Moderate: very
sand. low available low available
water capacity; water capacity;
very low natural very low natural
fertility, fertility.

Severe: high Severe: high Moderate: high Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high
water table; water table; water table; very water table; water table. water table.
sand texture. sandy texture. low available sandy texture.
water capacity in
surface and sub-
surface layers.

Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high
water table; water table; water table; water table; water table; water table;
flooding. flooding. flooding. flooding. flooding, flooding.

Severe: loose Severe: loose sand-. Moderate: very Severe: loose sand. Moderate: high Moderate; high
sand. low available water table. water table.
water capacity in
surface and sub-
surface layers;
very low natural
fertility.

Severe: high Severe: high water Moderate: high Severe: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
water table. table; sandy water table. table, table. table.
texture.








54 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Degree and kind

Soil series and Foundations for Lawns and Roads, airports, and
map symbols low buildings ornamental plants Septic tank filter fields paved parking areas


St. Lucie: Sc ---------... Slight. ----------------- Moderate: very low Slight: possible con- Slight -----..-...-----.
available water capac- tamination of ground
ity; very low natural water supplies.
fertility.

Swamp: Sw ----------... Very severe: flooding; Very severe: flooding; Very severe: flooding; Very severe: flooding;
high water table, high water table. high water table. high water table.

Tavares:
Ta -----------------...... Slight ---- ..------------Moderate: very low Slight: possible con- Slight. --------
available water ca- tamination of ground
pacity; low natural water supplies.
fertility.

Te ----------------- Moderate: high water Moderate: very low Slight: possible con- Moderate: high water
table. available water ca- tamination of ground table.
pacity; low natural water supplies.
fertility.

Vaucluse: Va ---------- Slight .-----..-----------.. Slight ---------------- Severe: moderately Moderate: moderate
slow permeability, traffic-supporting
capacity.
Wabasso: Wa --------.. Severe: high water Moderate: high water Severe: high water Severe: high water
table. table. table, table.
Wauchula: We....-------- Severe: high water Moderate: high water Severe: high water Moderate: high water
table. table. table. table.








LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 55

of limitation for selected uses-Continued

Campsites and Basements and
picnic areas Playgrounds Golf courses Paths and trails below-ground Cemeteries
fallout shelters

Severe: loose Severe: loose sand.- Moderate: very Severe: loose sand-- Slight -------------- ..Moderate: very
sand. low available low available
water capacity; water capacity;
very low natural very low natural
fertility, fertility.

Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe: Very severe:
flooding; high flooding; high flooding; high flooding; high flooding; high flooding; high
water table. water table, water table. water table. water table. water table.

Moderate: Severe: sandy Moderate: very Moderate: sandy Moderate: high Moderate: high
sandy texture. texture. low available texture. water table. water table.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.

Severe: loose Severe: loose sand-. Moderate: very Moderate: sandy Moderate: high Moderate: high
sand. low available texture. water table. water table.
water capacity;
low natural
fertility.

Moderate: sandy Severe: sandy Slight -------------... Moderate: sandy Slight -------------- Slight.
texture. texture. texture.

Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high
water table. water table. water table. water table. water table. water table.
Severe: high Severe: high water Moderate: high Severe: high Severe: high Severe: high
water table, table; sandy water table. water table. water table. water table.
texture.







56 SOIL SURVEY

Among the important soil properties and features con- a soil to support a dead weight without settling is most
sidered in rating the soils in table 6 are depth to water important in designing and construction foundations for
table, flood hazard, permeability, available water ca- buildings. The suitability of soils for foundations differs
pacity, shrink-swell potential, reaction, and slope. With with differences in texture, consistence, shrink-swell poten-
the exception of slope, these properties and features are de- tial, depth to water table, degree of compaction, or an
scribed under the heading "Estimated Properties Signifi- interaction of two or more of these properties. The depth
cant in Engineering." to the water table is also important because, it affects
Slope is an important consideration in most land uses. excavation and construction cost.
It is directly related to the kind and level of management Lawns and ornamentals.-Landscaping is important to
required to control erosion and maintain production on many nonfarm uses. Soils differ widely in their ability to
cultivated lands. On native range it influences the rate of grow the various kinds of plants used in landscaping.
grazing that can be permitted without damage. Lawns and ornamental plants are vital to most land-
For residential use, slope has both practical and aesthetic shaping efforts. The capacity of the soils to grow grass and
implications. Steeper areas require more excavation before .ornamental trees and shrubs is especially important for
laying the foundation and there are other problems, such homesites and for many suburban business establishments
as erosion control and access roads. Level areas are likely (fig. 6). It is also significant in highway beautification and
to have poor drainage. Gently sloping to moderately slop- most recreational uses. There is a wide range in the kinds
ing sites are generally more desirable than a level or steep of adapted plants available for landscaping. but local
site. Septic tanks function best in nearly level areas, but variations in the soils may limit the kinds that can be
they operate successfully on gentle slopes if other factors grown in a specific area. Properties of soils that most affect
are favorable. Slopes of more than 10 percent are consid- landscaping are available water capacity, depth to the
ered unsuitable as a septic tank drain field, water table (fig. 7), low fertility, effective rooting depth,
Grading is necessary to prepare an adequate roadbed and susceptibility to flooding.
on sloping soils. The amount of grading needed is propor- Septic tank filter fields.-One of the most urgent needs
tional to the steepness of the slope. Airport runways, for is for information about the limitations of soils in relation
example, must be almost level; extensive grading would be to public sanitation. Low, wet soils provide a less health-
required on sloping land. ful environment for man than well-drained soils on the
Uses of soils for recreational purposes are many and ridges. Two of the most significant uses of soils related to
varied. In this survey, campsites, picnic areas, play- sanitation are for septic tank filter fields and sanitary
grounds, and golf courses are the uses considered. land fills.
The limitations of soils for recreational uses are based Septic tank filter fields are a common means for dis-
on soil characteristics. Other factors, such as the number posing of sewage. They are used for homes in rural sec-
of trees, lakes, and streams, that affect the desirability of tions and in some subdivisions where rapidly expanding
the site were not considered. residential areas have outgrown existing sewer lines. To
The appraisal of a general soil area for campsites and function properly, these systems must be installed on soils
picnic areas is only indirectly governed by slope. A gen- that have adequate absorptive capacity and are not af-
eral area that is predominantly steep or very steep may be fected by a shallow water table. Many soils that are poorly
an excellent place for a camp or picnic if there are small, drained are highly permeable and absorb water rapidly
nearly level areas big enough for tents and picnic tables. when drained, but are severely limited for use as a septic
Without such small areas, the general site would be poorly tank filter field because they have a high water table. A
suited to such use. More 'appropriately for this planning septic tank filter field may function well on these soils
region, the lack of adequate slope could result in severe during dry seasons, but fail when the water table rises
limitations for such use. Final appraisal of a general soil during wet seasons. Septic tank filter fields function well if
area should be based on study of the area's individual com- soil permeability is very rapid, but in some areas, pollu-
ponent soils. tion of the water supply is a hazard.
Sports areas are best adapted to the more gentle slopes. Soil properties that most affect the use of soils for septic
For football fields and baseball diamonds, gently sloping tank filter fields are depth to water table, permeability,
areas require less grading and filling. Golf courses are and flood hazard.
normally more interesting on gently sloping to moder- Roads, airports, and paved parking areas.-Problems in
ately sloping areas. The suitability for fairways is reduced highway construction, especially in land shaping and road-
on slopes over about 12 percent. bed preparation, are directly related to soils (fig. 8). Even
Some of the selected uses of soils shown in table 6 are air transportation requires runways constructed on a soil
defined in the following paragraphs. base. In table 6 the soils are rated according to their suit-
Foundations for low buildings.-The first column in ability as foundation material for pavement on roads, air-
table 6 indicates the degree of limitation for soils on which ports, and paved parking areas.
building foundations are to be constructed. The buildings Highways and airports must be built on strong founda-
referred to include houses, churches, individual stores, fill- tions and nearly level grades. The preparation of a strong
ing stations, and motels. They also include light industrial foundation is greatly affected by the physical properties
plants, no more than two stories high, where no heavy of the soils on which they are built. Soils differ greatly
machinery is to be installed. All of these structures re- in their ability to support heavy mobile loads and in the
quire stable foundations. They must also be built on a site properties that affect grading operations. Some soils re-
reasonably free from flooding, quire very little alteration prior to use as a foundation;
Building foundations must be placed on soils strong others are totally unsuited and must be replaced by more
enough to hold the weight of the building. The capacity of suitable material. Preliminary estimates for design and







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 57
































Figure 6.-Landscaped trailer park on Tavares sand.

construction are based mainly on the kinds of soil and on texture, and flood hazard are the soil properties that have
slope. Properties of soils that affect their use for high- the greatest effect on the use of soil for playgrounds.
ways, paved streets, and airports are traffic-supporting Golf courses.-Golf courses can be established on sites
capacity, depth to water table, flood hazard, potential sub- where the soils vary widely if the site has a potentially good
sidence, and shrink-swell potential, balance between fairways and rough areas or hazards. The
Campsites.-Campsites are small areas suitable for ratings in table 6 are based on the limitations of the soils
camping equipment and the accompanying activities of for fairways. A fairway requires moderately well drained
outdoor living. Limitations to soil use for sewage disposal soils, gentle slopes, and a good cover of grass. People
facilities and service buildings to be used in camp areas are should be able to move freely over the fairway on foot or
described under previously listed columns. Picnic areas in a golf cart or other light motor vehicle. The main quall-
have similar requirements and should be suitable for ties that limit the use of soils for golf course fairways are
leisure time outings during which a meal is eaten. The susceptibility to flooding, depth to the water table, avail-
selection of picnic areas and campsites is generally limited able water capacity, natural fertility, soil texture, and
or influenced by factors other than soil properties because slope.
campers and picnickers prefer sites that will also provide Ias.cments and belo7r-grond fallout shelter.s.-Base-
beautiful scenery, hunting, fishing, or swimming. Such ments and below-ground fallout shelters should be located
sites should be accessible and provide, at least, minimum on well-drained sites. There should be no ground water
conveniences. Accessibility and desirability of campsites within a depth of 6 feet throughout the year and no flood
and picnic areas are greatly influenced by such soil prop- hazard. The principal soil properties affecting limitations
erties as depth to water table. flood hazard. and soil texture. of soils for below-ground fallout shelters and basements
Playgrounds.-The playgrounds considered include city in the Lake County Area are depth to water table and flood
parks, football and baseball fields, tracks, and other small hazard.
areas where competitive sports are played outdoors. These Cemeteries.-Cemeteries should be located on well-
areas should be nearly level and have a firm surface. They drained soils that can support lawn grasses and ornamen-
should also be free from flood hazard and excessive wet- tal plants for landscaping. There should be no ground
ness. The suitability of the soil for supporting vegetation water within a depth of (; feet throughout the year. On
should also be considered. Depth to the water table, soil wetter soils, sites should be selected carefully to assure







58 SOIL SURVEY
































Figure 7.-Trailer court on soil that has a high water table.

that adequate artificial drainage can be provided. The soil 1. Make studies that will aid in selecting and devel-
properties most limiting to the use of soils for cemeteries hoping industrial, commercial, residential, and rec-
are depth to water table, flood hazard, available water rational sites.
capacity, and natural fertility. 2. Make preliminary estimates of the engineering
Soil surveys can be interpreted for many other nonfarm properties of soils in planning drainage systems,
uses, but most are of limited significance at this particular farm ponds. irrigation systems, terraces, water-
time. Additional interpretations can be made as the need ways, and diversion terraces.
arises by determining from the soil descriptions the sig- 3. Make preliminary evaluations of soil conditions
nificant soil properties and correlating them with the th at will aid ln electing sites for highways, air-
intended use. ports, pipelines, and cables and in planning de-
miene use. tailed investigations at selected locations.
4. Locate probable sources of gravel, sand, and other
Use of the Soils in Engineering construction material.
5. Correlate performance of soil mapping units to
Some soil properties are of special interest to engineers develop information that will be useful in plan-
because they affect the construction and maintenance of nin engineering practices and in designing and
roads, airports, pipelines, building foundations, facilities maintaining engineering structures.
for water storage. erosion control structures, drainage sys- 6. Determine the suitability of soils for cross-country
teams, and sewage disposal systems. Among the properties movement of vehicles and construction equipment.
most important to engineers are permeability, strength, 7. Supplement other publications, such as maps. re-
consolidation characteristics, texture, plasticity, and soil ports, and aerial photographs that are used in
reaction. preparation of engineering reports for a specific
Information concerning these and related soil proper- area.
ties is given in tables 7, 8, and 9. The estimates and inter- 8. Develop other preliminary estimates for construe-
pretations in these tables can be used to- tion purposes pertinent to the particular area.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 59

































Figure 8.-Deteriorating road built on Eureka loamy fine sand. This soil has a high shrink-swell potential.

The engineering interpretations reported here do not indicated by a group index number. The numbers range
eliminate the need for sampling and testing at the site of from 0. for: the best material, to 20, for the poorest. The
specific engineering works involving heavy loads or ex- group index number is shown in parentheses following the
cavations deeper than the depths reported (ordinarily soil group system (see table 7).
about 7 feet). Even in these situations, however, the soil In the Unified system (8) soils are classified according
map is useful in planning more detailed field investiga- to their texture and plasticity and their performance as
tions and in indicating the kinds of problems that may engineering construction material. Soils are grouped in 15
be expected. classes. There are eight classes of coarse-grained soils, iden-
Some of the terms used by soil scientists have special tified as GW, GP. GM. GC. SW. SP, SM. and SC, six
meanings in soil science that may not be familiar to en- classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL,
gineers. These terms are defined in the Glossary. MH. CH. and 011: and one class of highly organic soils.
Engineering classification systems identified as Pt. GP and GW are clean gravels, and GM
The two systems most commonly used in classifying soils and GC are gravels that include, respectively, an appreci-
for engineering are the systems approved by the kmerican able amount of nonplastic and plastic fines. SP and SIV
Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) and the are clean sands. SM and SC are sands that include fines of
Unified system. silt and clay. ML and CL are silts and clays that have a
The AASHO system (1) is used to classify soils accord- low liquid limit, and MH and CH are silts and clays that
ing to those properties that affect use in highway construe- have a high liquid limit. Soils on the borderline between
tion. In this system all soil material is classified in seven two classes are designated by symbols for both classes;
principal groups. The groups range from A-1. which con- for example. SP-SM.
sists of soils that have the highest bearing strength and are Soil scientists use the USDA textural classification (6).
the best soils for subgrade. to A-7. which consists of soils In this, the texture of the soil is determined according to
that have the lowest strength when wet. Within each the proportion of soil particles smaller than 2 millimeters
group, the relative engineering value of the soil material is in diameter, that is, the proportion of sand, silt, and clay.







60 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 7.-Engineering
[Tests performed by the Florida Department of Transportation, Bureau of Materials and Research,


Moisture density '
Sample
Soil name and location Parent material No. S67 Depth
FLA-35- Maximum
dry Optimum
density moisture


In. Lb./cu. ft. Pct.
Apopka sand: Loamy marine 3-2 6-50 104 14
Approximately 2'1 miles south of Astatula and 1 mile sediment. 3-4 64-144 118 12
west of intersection of Florida State Highway Nos.
455 and 561. (Modal profile.)
Eureka loamy tine sand: Acid clayey 1-1 0-5 105 14
About 2 miles north of midtown Eustis and approximate- marine sedi- 1-3 8-14 86 24
Iv '` mile east of Florida State Highway No. 19 on ment. 1-4 14-51 96 23
Pine Meadows Country Club Road. (Modal profile.) 1-6 62-90 93 24

Lake sand: Marine sands----- 4-4 33-98 106 14
Approximately 212' miles south of Astatula and 2' mile
west of intersection of Florida State Highway Nos.
455 and 561. (Modal profile.)
Lucy sand:
Approximately 1 mile north of Fruitland Park and about Unconsolidated 8-4 35-80 121 11
600 feet east of U.S. Highway No. 441. (Profile of the marine
B2t horizon is reddish yellow.) sediment.
Vaucluse sand:
Approximately Y1 mile north of intersection of U.S. Stratified loamy 2-2 5-13 110 12
Highway No. 27 and Citrus Experiment Station Road. sediment. 2-5 20-37 116 13
(Modal profile.) 2-6 37-70 106 17


I Based on AASHO Designation: T 99-57, Method A (1).
2 Mechanical analysis according to AASHO Designation: T 88-57 (1). Results by this procedure may differ somewhat from
results obtained by the soil survey procedure of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). In the AAStHO procedure, the fine material is
analyzed by the hydrometer method and the various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material, including








LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 61

test data
in accordance with standard procedures of the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO)]

Mechanical analysis 2
__________Classification
Percentage less than 3 inches in diameter Percentage smaller than- Liquid Plasticity
passing sieve- limit index
AASHO Unified
No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 0.05 0.02 0.005 0.002
(2.0 mm.) (0.42 mm.) (0.074 mm.) mm. mm. mm. mm.


100 87 4 4 3 2 1 NP2 NP A-3(0) SP
100 64 21 21 20 18 18 30 13 A-2-6(0) SC


100 91 24 18 14 8 4 NP NP A-2-4(0) SM
100 95 66 63 58 55 52 68 37 A-7-5(17) CH
100 92 57 55 54 49 48 84 56 A-7-6(15) CH
100 95 68 66 61 56 53 75 50 A-7-6(18) CH
100 86 6 6 6 5 5 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM




100 69 25 24 23 21 20 25 14 A-2-6(0) SC



100 75 8 7 6 2 2 NP NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 86 26 26 25 23 23 26 11 A-2-6(0) SC
100 91 40 40 39 37 36 49 27 A-7-6(5) SC


that coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. In the SCS soil survey procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the pipette method and
the material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter is excluded from calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical analysis data
used in this table are not suitable for naming textural classes for soils.
3 Nonplastic.








62 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 8.-Estimated soil properties
[An asterisk in the first column indicates that at least one mapping unit in this series is made up of two or more kinds of soil. The soils
for referring to other series that appear in the first column of

Depth to Classification
seasonally Depth
Soil series and map symbols high water Flood hazard 2 from
table 1 surface USDA Unified AASHO


In. In.
Albany: AbB, AbD-----..---------..... 15-40 None ------------ 0-52 Sand...------------ SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4 ------
52-85 Sandy clay loam SC A-2-6 ......------
*Anclote: Ac, Am ------..-- ------ 0-10 Every year for 0-46 Fine sand ---.---- SP-SM A-3, A-2-4.--.
For Myakka part of Am, more than 6
see Myakka series, months.
46-82 Loamy fine sand-_ SM, SM-SC A-2-4, A-4 ------
Apopka: ApB, ApD ------------- >84 None ------------ 0-55 Sand ------..------. SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4---...
55-84 Sandy clay loam-- SC, SM A-2-6, A-2-4,
A-4
Astatula: AsB, AtB, AtD, AtF-- >120 None ------------ 0-86 Sand------------ SP, SP-SM A-3 -------
Brighton: Br --..-----------------. 0 Flooded most of 0-63 Peat --------.--- Pt Organic------
year. 63-75 Coarse sand.----- SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4-------
Cassia: Ca --------------------- 10-40 None ------------ 0-25 Sand----------- SP, SP-SM A-3------------
25-37 Sand ----------- SM, SP-SM A-2-4, A-3---
37-80 Sand------------ SP, SP-SM A-3 ----------
Emeralda: Em------------------ 0 Every year for 0-11 Fine sand -------- SP-SM, SM A-2, A-3.--------
more than 6 11-66 Sandy clay --.---- CH, SC A-6, A-7-
months.
Eureka: Eu----------- --------- 0-10 Every year for 1 0-8 Loamy fine sand... SM A-2-4----------...
to 2 months. 8-90 Heavy sandy CH A-7 ----------
clay and clay.
Felda: Fd----------------------.. 0-10 Every year for 0-25 Fine sand-------- SP A-3.-----------....
more than 6 25-38 Fine sandy loam-. SM-SC, SC A-2-4, A-2-6_.___
months. 38-56 Sandy clay loam. SC A-4, A-6---------
56-60 Clay -------..----- CH A-7------------
Fellowship: Fe-----------------....... 0 Every year for 0-6 Fine sandy loam.. SM-SC, SM A-4, A-2-4-----
more than 6 6-62 Sandy clay loam CH A-7-6....-------
months. to clay.
Fill land, loamy materials: Fm.
No valid estimates can be
made.
*Iberia: b, Im-------..-....--------- 0 Every year for 0-54 Sandy clay ------- CH A-7-6..
For Manatee part of Im, see more than 6 54-60 Marl and sandy CH, SC A-7-6, A-6
Manatee series, months, clay.
Immokalee: Is--------.... ---------... 0-10 Every year for a 0-38 Sand--............ SP, SP-SM A-3....
few days. 38-56 Sand.--------...----. SP-SM, SM A-2-4, A-3
56-68 Sand--.-----....----... SP, SP-SM A-3-....----..
Lake: LaB, LaD, LaE --------.. --... >120 None-----------... 0-98 Sand------.....--.....---- SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4---
Lucy: LuB, LuC---------------. >120 None------------ 0-32 Sand--.---. ------SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4
32-75 Sandy clay loam... SC A-2-6, A-7 --....
Manatee: Ma......------------.---- 0 Every year for 0-10 Fine sand -------- SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4
more than 6 10-60 Loamy fine sand SM, SM-SC A-2-4, A-4 -
months, to fine sandy
loam.
Montverde: Md---------------- 0 Fvery year for 0-11 Muck----------- Pt Organic
more than 6 11-80 Peat.------------ Pt Organic
months.








LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 63

significant in engineering
in such mapping units may have different properties and limitations, and for this reason it is necessary to follow carefully the instructions
this table. Symbol > means greater than, < means less than]

Percentage less than 3 inches passing sieve 3-
--_______ Available Shrink-swell
Permeability water Reaction potential
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 capacity
(4.7 mm.) (2.0 mm.) (0.42 mm.) (0.074 mm.)

In./hr. In./in. of aoil pH
100 95-100 90-100 3-12 6.0-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 95-100 85-99 15-35 0.63-2.0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low to moderate.
100 100 70-100 5-12 6. 3-20.0 0. 10-0. 15 6.1-8.4 Low.

100 100 70-100 25-40 6. 3-20. 0 0. 10-0. 15 6. 1-8. 4 Low.
100 100 80-95 3-12 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-6. 0 Low.
95-100 90-100 60-90 20-40 0.63-6.3 0. 13-0. 17 4.5-6. 0 Low to moderate.

100 100 90-99 2-7 >20. 0 0. 02-0. 05 4.5-6.0 Low.
.... .. 6.3-20.0 0.45-0.50 <4. 5-5. 0 High.
100 90-95 25-50 2-12 6.3-20.0 <0. 05 <4. 5-5. 0 Low.
100 100 95-100 1-7 >20. 0 0.02-0. 05 4.5-6.0 Low.
100 100 70-100 5-20 2.0-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 4.5-6.0 Low.
100 100 95-100 2-10 6.3-20. 0 0. 02-0.05 4. 5-6. 0 Low.
100 100 90-99 10-25 6. 3-20.0 0. 10-0. 15 5. 1-6.5 Low.
100 100 90-99 45-80 0. 06-0. 20 0. 15-0.20 6. 1-8.4 High.

100 100 90-99 13-25 6.3-20.0 0.05-0. 10 4.5-5. 5 Low.
100 100 90-99 51-80 <0. 06 0. 15-0.20 4.5-5.5 High.

100 100 90-99 2-5 6.3-20.0 0.02-0.05 5.1-6.5 Low.
100 100 90-99 23-35 0.63-2.0 0. 10-0. 15 6.6-7.8 Moderate.
100 95-100 85-99 36-50 2.0-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 6.6-7.8 Moderate.
90-100 85-90 70-90 51-80 0.06-0.20 0.10-0. 15 7.4-8.4 High.
100 100 90-100 25-40 0. 63-2.0 0. 15-0.20 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 95-100 90-100 51-80 <0. 06 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-8.4 High.





100 100 90-100 51-80 <0. 06 0.10-0.15 5.6-8.4 High.
100 100 80-100 36-70 <0. 06 0.10-0.15 7.4-8.4 High.

100 100 80-100 2-10 6. 3-20. 0 0. 02-0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 100 80-100 5-20 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 100 80-100 2-10 6. 3-20. 0 0. 02-0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 100 85-99 3-12 >20. 0 0. 03-0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 100 85-99 3-12 6. 3-20.0 0.05-0. 10 4.5-6. 0 Low.
100 100 65-100 20-45 0.63-2.0 0.10-0. 15 4.5-6. 0 Low.
100 100 90-100 3-12 2.0-6.3 0.10-0.15 6. 1-7.3 Low.
100 100 90-100 25-40 0.63-2.0 0. 15-0.20 6. 1-7.8 Moderate.


2.0-6.3 0.20-0.25 5.6-8.4 High.
------------- ------------- -- -6. 3-20. 0 0.45-0.50 5.6-8.4 High.








64 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 8.-Estimated soil properties

Depth to Classification
seasonally Depth
Soil series and map symbols high water Flood hazard 2 from
table I surface USDA Unified AASHO


In. In.
*Myakka: Mk, M pC ------------ 0-10 Every year for a 0-20 Sand ------------ SP, SP-SM A-3 ------
For Placid part of MpC, few days.
see Placid series. 20-56 Sand .----------- SP-SM, SM A-2-4, A-3 ----.-
56-85 Sand ------------ SP, SP-SM A-3 -----------..
Ocilla: Oc ---------------------- 40-60 None ------------ 0-33 Sand..---------- SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4 ---
33-82 Sandy clay loam SC A-2-6,.A-6----
to sandy loam.
Ocoee: Oe ---------------------- 0 Every year for 0-38 Peat ------------Pt Organic ..------
more than 6
months.
38-75 Sand ----------- SP, SP-SM A-2-4, A-3 .------
Oklawaha: Oh ----------------- 0 Every year for 0-9 Muck ------------ Pt Organic------
about 12
months.
9-25 Peat ------------Pt Organic -------.
25-31 Sandy loam------ SM-SC A-2-4, A-4
31-54 Sandy clay to clay- CH A-7-6-----------
Ona: On ----------------------- 0-10 Every year for a 0-6 Fine sand -------- SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4.------
few days.
6-18 Fine sand -------- SP-SM A-2-4, A-3.------
18-82 Fine sand ------- SP-SM A-3, A-2-4.------
Orlando: Or --------------------- >80 None ------------ 0-30 Fine sand -------- SP-SM A-2-4, A-3.------
30-80 Fine sand -------- SP-SM A-2, A-3-------..
Paola: PaB, PaD--------------- >80 None -----------.. 0-90 Sand-..-----------SP A-3 ...........----------
Pelham: Pd -------------------- 0-10 Every year for a 0-32 Sand -----------SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4-....
few days.
32-80 Sandy clay loam-- SC A-2-4 ---------
*Placid:
PmA, Pe -------------------- 0 Every year for 0-80 Sand ---------- SP, SP-SM A-2-4, A-3 .-.-.-
For Myakka part of Pm A, about 12 months.
see Myakka series.
Pg ------------------------ 0-10 Every year for a 0-19 Sand ------------ SP-SM, SP A-2-4, A-3 ----
few days.
19-80 Sand ------------ SP, SP-SM A-2-4, A-3---
Pomello: Pn ------------------- 30-40 None------------ 0-39 Sand ----------- SP, SP-SM A-3----------
39-55 Sand-----------.. SM, SP-SM A-2-4, A-3------
55-80 Sand-...----------- SP. SP-SM A-3---- --
Pompano: Po ------------------ 0-10 Everyyearfor a 0-80 Sand-..----.-------. SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4 .---.-
few days.
St. Lucie: Sc------------------.... >80 None------------ 0-80 Sand --------.----. SP A-3--------
Swamp: Sw .-------------.
No valid estimates can be
made.
Tavares: Ta, Te----------------.... 40-60 None----------..--. 0-99 Sand----..------.. SP, SP-SM A-3--..-....-
Vaucluse: Va------------------- >60 None-----------.. 0-15 Sand-----------. SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4 ..
15-70 Sandy clay loam.._ SC A-2-6, A-6, A-7
See footnotes at end of table.








LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 65

significant in engineering-Continued

Percentage less than 3 inches passing sieve 3-
Available Shrink-swell
Permeability water Reaction potential
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 capacity
(4.7 mm.) (2.0 mm.) (0.42 mm.) (0.074 mm.)

In./hr. In./in. of soil pH
100 100 80-100 2-10 6.3-20.0 0.02-0. 05 4. 5-6. 5 Low.
100 100 80-100 5-20 0. 63-2. 0 0.10-0. 15 4. 5-6. 5 Low.
100 100 80-100 2-10 0. 63-20. 0 0. 02-0. 05 4. 5-6.5 ow.
100 95-100 95-100 3-12 6.3-20. 0 0. 02-0. 05 4. 5-6. 5 Low.
100 95-100 95-100 25-40 0. 63-2.0 0. 10-0. 15 4.5-5. 5 Moderate.

..........---------------------- ... ...... ----- ----- 6.3-20.0 0.20-0.30 4.0-5.5 High.

100 90-100 90-100 3-12 >20. 0 0.02-0.05 4.0-5.5 Low.

........-------------...-------- ......------------------------- 2.0-6.3 0.20-0.30 5.6-8.4 High.

6.3-20.0 0.25-0.40 5.6-8.4 High.
....... ... 25-40 6.3-20.0 0.10-0.15 5.6-8.4 Low to moderate.
--- ----- ---- ----------- 51-80 <0.06 0.15-0.18 5.6-8.4 High.
100 100 90-100 3-12 6.3-20.0 0.10-0. 15 4.0-5.5 Low.
100 100 90-100 5-12 2.0-6. 3 0.10-0. 15 4. 0-5. 5 Low.
100 100 90-100 5-12 6.3-20.0 0.02-0.05 4.0-5.5 Low.
100 100 90-100 5-12 6. 3-20.0 0. 10-0. 15 4.5-6. 5 Low.
100 95-100 90-100 5-12 6.3-20.0 0.02-0.05 4.5-5.5 Low.
100 100 90-100 1-4 >20. 0 0.02-0.05 4. 5-5.5 Low.
100 100 90-100 2-12 6. 3-20.0 0. 02-0. 05 4. 5-6. 5 Low.
100 100 90-100 15-35 0.63-20.0 0. 10-0. 15 4.5-5.5 Moderate.
100 100 90-100 3-12 6.3-20.0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 0-5.5 Low.


100 100 90-100 3-12 6. 3-20.0 0. 10-0. 15 4.0-5.5 Low.
100 100 90-100 3-12 6.3-20. 0 0. 05-0. 10 4. 0-5. 5 Low.
100 100 75-100 1-8 >20. 0 0. 02-0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 100 85-100 5-20 2. 0-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 4.5-5. 5 Low.
100 100 75-100 4-10 >20. 0 0.02-0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 100 80-95 4-12 6.3-20. 0 0. 02-0. 05 4.5-5.5 Low.

100 100 95-99 1-4 >20. 0 0.02-0.05 4.5-5.5 Low.




100 100 95-100 2-7 >20. 0 0.02-0.05 4.5-5.5 Low.
100 100 70-100 3-12 6.3-20.0 0.05-0.10 4.5-6.5 Low.
100 100 85-100 20-40 0.20-0.63 0.10-0.15 4.5-6.5 Low to moderate.
See footnotes at end of table.








66 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 8.-Estimated soil properties

Depth to Classification
seasonally Depth
Soil series and map symbols high water Flood hazard 2 from
table 1 surface USDA Unified AASHO


In. In.
Wabasso: Wa------------------ 0-10 Every year for a 0-18 Sand.-----.--.. ----..-. SP, SP-SM A-3 ------------.......
few days.
18-28 Sand -----------. SP-SM, SM A-2-4, A-3..... .
28-68 Sandy clay loam-.. SC A-4, A-6, A-2-4,
A-2-6

Wauchula: Wc...........-----------------.... 0-10 Every year for a 0-22 Sand.-------...-----..... SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4 .......
few days.
22-38 Sand.---.--......-------. SP-SM A-2-4, A-3-....
38-80 Sandy loam to SC A-2-6, A-6 --.---
sandy clay
loam.

1 Level expected at some period during the normal wet season.
2 Water-standing or flowing above the surface of the soil under natural conditions without artificial drainage.



TABLE 9.-Engineering
[An asterisk in the first column indicates that at least one mapping unit in this series is made up of two or more kinds of soil. The soils in
for referring to other series that

S Suitability as source for- Soil features adversely affecting-
Soil seriesand map symbols __________________________________ ____________

Topsoil Road fill Sanitary land fill 1

Albany: AbB, AbD------.--.... --.. Poor: sand texture ---------- Good: high water table .------.. High water table..........-...



*Anclote: Ac, Am----------...--... Poor: sand texture----------- Poor: high water table .....------- High water table.............
For Myakka part of Am,
refer to Myakka series.
Apopka: ApB, ApD .---------.. .. Poor: sand texture---- ------ Good.--------------..--------...... None........


Astatula:
AsB, AtB.-----......-----...-----. Poor: sand texture-.------- Good -----..-----------------......_ None

AtD..------------------- Poor: sand texture ---------- Good--.....-------------------.. None.........


AtF ....-----.----------------.......... Poor: sand texture----------- Good -------.......---------------........... None...


Brighton: Br---------------... Poor: high water table.--------... Very poor: traffic-supporting High water table; flooding
capacity; high water table.
See footnotes at end of table.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 67

significant in engineering-Continued

Percentage less than 3 inches passing sieve 3-
____ ___._.- ___.__ Available Shrink-swell
Permeability water Reaction potential 4
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 capacity
(4.7 mm.) (2.0 mm.) (0.42 mm.) (0.074 mm.)

In./hr. In./in. of soil pH
100 100 95-100 2-*10 6. 3-20. 0 0. 02-0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 100 95-100 5-20 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0 15 5. 1-7. 3 Moderate.
100 100 95-100 20-40 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 5. 6-8. 4 Moderate.

100 100 90-100 2-12 6. 3-20. 0 0. 02-0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 100 90-100 5-12 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
100 95-100 85-100 20-40 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Moderate.



3 The estimated percentage coarse fraction greater than 3 inches is 0 in all soils but Felda fine sand. This soil has an estimated 5 percent
coarse fraction greater than 3 inches at depths of 38 to 56 inches.
4 The mucks and peats have a high potential subsidence rate.


interpretations
such mapping units may have different properties and limitations, and for this reason it is necessary to follow carefully the instructions
appear in the first column of this table]

Soil features adversely affecting-Continued

Excavated ponds Drainage Sprinkler irrigation Subsurface irrigation Ditches and canals

Rapid permeability; Loose erodible sands----- Very low available Rapid permeability; Loose erodible sands;
seasonal low water water capacity in depth to water table. unstable side slopes.
table; loose sands; surface and sub-
unstable side slopes, surface layers.
Loose sands; unstable Loose sand; some areas Flooding- ------------- Flooding -------------- Loose erodible sands;
side slopes, have no outlets. unstable side slopes.

Depth to water table-.... Well drained ------------ Very low available Rapid permeability in Loose erodible sands;
water capacity, upper layers; depth unstable side slopes.
to water table.

Very rapid permeability; Excessively drained------ Very low available Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sands;
depth to water table. water capacity, depth to water table. unstable side slopes.
Very rapid permeability; Excessively drained --___ Very low available Very rapid permeability; Slope; loose erodible
depth to water table. water capacity; slope, depth to water table; sands; unstable side
slope, slopes.
Very rapid permeability; Excessively drained------ Very low available Very rapid permeability; Slope; loose erodible
depth to water table. water capacity, depth to water table. sands; unstable side
slopes.

Flooding ---------------- Inadequate outlets; High water table; Flooding --------------- High organic-matter
rapid oxidation. flooding, content.








68 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 9.-Engineering

Suitability as source for- Soil features adversely affecting-
Soil series and map symbols
Topsoil Road fill Sanitary land fill

Cassia: Ca -----------------Poor: sand texture ----------- Good: high water table ------- High water table....-


Emeralda: Em --.------.....------... Poor: high water table --------.. Poor: high shrink-swell Clayey subsoil; high water
potential; high water table. table; flooding.
Eureka: Eu------------------ Poor: high water table; Poor: high shrink-swell Clayey subsoil; high water
clayey texture. potential; high water table. table; flooding.
Felda: Fd------------------- Poor: sand texture; high Fair to good: high water High water table; flooding.-----
water table. table a hazard in places.

Fellowship: Fe --------------. Poor: high water table -------- Poor: high shrink-swell High water table; flooding------
potential; high water table.
Fill land: Fm.
No valid estimates can
be made.
*Iberia: Ib, Im -------------- Poor: high water table -------- Poor: high shrink-swell High water table; flooding------
For Manatee part of Im, potential; high water table.
see Manatee series.
Immokalee: Is.. --------------Poor: sand texture; high Good: high water table a High water table --.-----------
water table. hazard in places.
Lake:
LaB, LaD ---------------- Poor: sand texture ----------- Good----------------------- None----------..-----..---

LaE --------------------- Poor: sand texture ----------- Good-----------------------.. .... None.----------.....---....


,Lucy: Lu B, LuC ------------- .... Good at depths below 32' Good ---------------------- None----------------
inches; poor above 32 inches;
sand texture.
Manatee: Ma --------------- Poor: high water table -------- Good: high water table a High water table; flooding..-..
hazard in places.
Montverde: Md. ------------- Poor: high water table -------- Very poor: high water table; High water table; flooding..
traffic-supporting capacity.
*Myakka: Mk, M pC --------- Poor: sand texture ----------- Good: high water table a High water table--------------
For the Placid part of hazard in places.
M pC, see the Placid
series.
Ocilla: Oc ------------------... Poor: sand texture ----------- Good-------------.----..........-.....----.. High water table--------------



Ocoee: Oe------------------- Poor: high water table -------- Very poor: traffic-supporting High water table; flooding------
capacity.
Oklawaha: Oh ----------... .----..... Poor: high water table -------- Very poor: traffic-supporting High water table; flooding ----..
capacity; high wafer table.
Ona: On ----------------- Poor: sand texture ---------- Good: high water table a High water table --------------..
hazard in places.

See footnote at end of table.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 69

interpretations-Continued

Soil features adversely affecting-Continued

Excavated ponds Drainage Sprinkler irrigation Subsurface irrigation Ditches and canals

Loose sands; unstable Loose erodible sands----- Very low available water None ------------------ Loose erodible sands;
side slopes, capacity in surface and unstable side slopes.
subsurface layers.

Flooding.. -------------- Slow permeability; High water table; Slow permeability; None.
flooding. flooding, flooding.

Flooding ---------------- ... Very slow permeability; High water table; Very slow permeability; None.
flooding. flooding, flooding.

None ------------------- Flooding --------------- Low available water Flooding ------------- None.
capacity in surface
and subsurface layers.

Flooding --------------- Very slow permeability--- High water table; Very slow permeability; None.
flooding, flooding.



Flooding --------------Very slow permeability; High water table; Very slow permeability; None.
flooding. flooding, flooding.

Loose sands; unstable Loose erodible sands----- Very low available water None ------------------ Loose erodible sands;
side slopes, capacity in surface unstable side slopes.
and subsurface layers.

Rapid permeability; deep Well drained to exces- Very low available water Rapid permeability; deep Loose erodible sands;
to water table. sively drained. capacity. to water table, unstable side slopes.
Rapid permeability; deep Well drained to exces- Very low available water Rapid permeability; deep Slope; loose erodible
to water table. sively drained, capacity; slope, to water table; slope, sands; unstable side
slopes.

Deep to water table------ Well drained ------------ Low available water Deep to water table----- Well drained.
capacity in surface
and subsurface layers.

Moderate permeability--- Moderately permeable High water table; None ------------------ None.
subsoil, flooding.

Flooding. -------------- Ihadequate outlets; High water table; Flooding --------------- High organic-matter
rapid oxidation. flooding, content.

Seasonal low water table; Loose erodible sands .- -. Very low available water None ----------------- Loose erodible sands;
loose sands; unstable capacity in surface and unstable side slopes.
side slopes, subsurface layers.

Moderate permeability in Moderately permeable Very low available water Rapid permeability in Loose erodible sands;
subsoil, subsoil, capacity in surface and surface and subsurface unstable side slopes.
subsurface layers. layers; deep to water
table; flooding.

Flooding --------------- Inadequate outlets; rapid High water table; Flooding --------------- High organic-matter
oxidation, flooding, content.

Flooding --------------Inadequate outlets; High water table; Flooding --------------- High organic-matter
rapid oxidation. flooding, content.

Loose sands; unstable Loose erodible sands ---.. High water table -------.... Rapid permeability at Loose erodible sands;
side slopes, depths below Bh unstable side slopes.
horizon.







70 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 9.-Engineering

Suitability as source for- Soil features adversely affecting-
Soil series and map symbols
Topsoil Road fill Sanitary land fill I

Orlando: Or-.....--------------- Poor: sand texture----------- Good----------------------..... .............None--------------..............


Paola: PaB, PaD ------------ Poor: sand texture ----------- Good ------------------------ None -----------------........


Pelham: Pd ----------------- Poor: sand texture; high Good: high water table a High water table--------------
water table, hazard in places.

*Placid:
Pe, PmA ----. ------------ Poor: sand texture; high Good: high water table a High water table; flooding------
For the Myakka part of water table. hazard in places.
Pm A, see the Myakka
series.
Pg ---------------------- Poor: sand texture; high Good: high water table a High water table-
water table, hazard in places.
Pomello: Pn ----------------- Poor: sand texture ----------- Good: high water table a High water table.----------
hazard.




Pompano: Po -------------- Poor: sand texture; high Good: high water table a High water table--------------
water table, hazard in places.

St. Lucie: Sc ---------------- Poor: sand texture----------- Good ------------------------ None------------------------


Swamp: Sw.
No valid estimates can be
made.
Tavares:
Ta ---------------------- Poor: sand texture ----------- Good ---------------------- High water table -------------


Te --------------------- Poor: sand texture ----------- Good ------------------------ High water table -------------.


Vaucluse: Va ---------------- Poor: sand texture to a depth Good ------------------------ None ..-------------........-----------
of 15 inches and firm, hard
consistence below a depth of
15 inches.
Wabasso: Wa ---------------... Poor: sand texture----------- Good: high water table a High water table .---- ...---------
hazard in places.
Wauchula: Wc ............--------------- Poor: sand texture; high Good: high water table a High water table --------------
water table. hazard in places.



1 Onsite study is needed of the deep underlying strata and water tables to determine the hazards of aquifer pollution and drainage into
ground water.







LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 71

interpretations-Continued

Soil features adversely affecting-Continued

Excavated ponds Drainage Sprinkler irrigation Subsurface irrigation Ditches and canals

Rapid permeability; Well drained-_---------- Rapid permeability-..... Rapid permeability; Loose erodible sands;
seasonal low water depth to water table, unstable side slopes.
table.

Rapid permeability; Excessively drained-..--- Very low available water Rapid permeability; Loose erodible sands;
depth to water table capacity, depth to water table, unstable side slopes.
more than 80 inches.
Loose sands; unstable Loose erodible sands --__ Very low available water None ----------------- Loose erodible sands;
side slopes. capacity in the surface unstable side slopes.
and subsurface layers.

Loose sands; unstable Loose sand: no suitable Flooding -------------- Flooding ------------ Loose erodible sands;
side slopes, outlets in places. unstable side slopes.


Loose sands; unstable Loose erodible sands----- None ------------------ None ------------------ Loose erodible sands;
side effects. unstable side slopes.
Very rapid permeability Moderately well drained__ Very low available Very rapid permeability Loose erodible sands;
in surface and sub- water capacity in in surface and sub- unstable side slopes.
surface layers, and surface and subsurface surface layers and
below Bh horizon; layers. below Bh horizon;
seasonal low water depth to water table.
table.
Loose sands; unstable Loose erodible sands----- Very low available None ----------------- Loose erodible sands;
side slopes. water capacity. unstable side slopes.

Very rapid permeability; Excessively drained------ Very low available Rapid permeability; Loose erodible sands;
depth to water table; water capacity, depth to water table, unstable side slopes.
loose sands.





Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sands----- Very low available Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sands;
seasonal low water water capacity. depth to water table. unstable side slopes.
table.
Very rapid permeability; Moderately well drained-- Very low available Very rapid permeability; Loose erodible sands;
seasonal low water water capacity. depth to water tabkh. unstable side slopes.
table.
Water table is at a depth Well drained -----------None ----------------- Water table at a depth None.
of more than 60 inches. of more than 60
inches.

Loose sands in Loose erodible sands in None ------------------ None ---------------- Loose erodible sands
subsurface layers. subsurface layers. in subsurface layers.

Loose sands in Loose erodible sands in Very low available High water table -------- Loose erodible sands
subsurface layers. subsurface layers. water capacity in in subsurface layers.
surface and subsurface
layers.

478-433 0-7'3- 6







72 SOIL SURVEY
Textural modifiers, such as gravelly, stony, shaly, and cob- meability, available water capacity, shrink-swell potential,
bly, are used as needed. and reaction are shown in table 8 and discussed as follows.
Table 7 shows the AASHO and Unified classifications of Depth to bedrock has been omitted from the table. This
specified soils in the Area, as determined by laboratory property is not important for any of the soils in this survey
tests. Table 8 shows the estimated classification of all the area.
soils according to all three systems of classification. High water table relates directly to the kind and degree
Engineering test data of management needed if the soils are to be used for im-
Engineering test data proved pasture or cultivation. To a great extent, it con-
The engineering interpretations made in this section are trols the kinds of trees and plants and the rate of growth
based on data obtained by testing samples from Lake of native vegetation.
County Area soil profiles in the Soils Laboratory, Florida Unless adequately drained, soils that have a high water
Department of Transportation, Bureau of Materials and table are poorly suited to dwellings or structures for light
Research (see table 7) and from other data obtained on industry. A high water table affects strength of the foun-
similar soils outside the county. dation, growth of vegetation used for landscaping, hazard
All samples were obtained at depths of less than about of flooding, and general comfort of living. Where septic
8 feet with the exception of Apopka sand that was tanks are required for sewage disposal, a high water table
sampled to a depth of 12 feet. Consequently, the test data is a serious problem. The restrictions imposed by a high
may not be adequate for estimating the characteristics of water table can be overcome only by effective drainage.
soil material at lower depths. These samples were tested for A high water table directly affects design and construe-
moisture density, grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and tion of roads, railroads, and airport runways. Good drain-
plasticity index. According to results of the tests, the soils age is required for maximum bearing capacity of soil
were assigned ratings in the AASHO Classification Sys- material in subgrades. The design and intensity of drain-
tem and the Unified System. In the procedure of the age facilities needed to assure a sound roadbed are directly
AASHO System, the fine material is analyzed by the hy- related to wetness.
drometer method and the various grain-size fractions are A high water table affects wildlife because game is
calculated on the basis of all the material in the soil sample, usually more abundant in wet areas than in very dry areas.
including that coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The Wet areas provide better refuge. In this classification, a
Soil Conservation Service uses the pipette method and ex- high water table is considered an important limitation on
eludes material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter from wild game hunting only where soils are wet enough to seri-
the calculation. Percentages of clay obtained by the hy- ously affect accessibility.
drometer method are not used in naming -soil textural Good drainage is necessary for campsites or picnic areas.
classes. Wet areas often provide attractions for campers, but they
The liquid limit and plastic limit tests measure water also present serious problems in locating or developing
content at these consistency limits in percent dry weight of good campsites. Where playgrounds are developed on wet-
the soil. They provide a means of determining the effect of land, adequate drainage is required.
water on the consistence of the soil material. As the mois- Underground basements and cellars are best placed in
ture content of a clayey soil increases from a very dry state, well-drained areas where the water table is below the bot-
the material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state. tom of the excavation. Keeping basements and cellars dry
As the moisture content is further increased, the material is difficult if they are constructed below the level of a
changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The plastic limit seasonal high water table.
is the moisture content at which the soil material passes Flood hazard is a significant factor in almost all soil
from a semisolid to a plastic state. The liquid limit is the uses. Frequency of flooding, duration of flooded condition,
moisture content at which the material passes from a plas- and depth and velocity of floodwaters all contribute to the
tic to a liquid state. The plasticity index is the numerical degree of the hazard. Flood hazard is related to two prin-
difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit, cipal conditions: (1) flooding by rise of ground water
It indicates the range of moisture content within which a above the land surface in low places during seasons of high
soil material is in a plastic condition. rainfall and (2) flooding from surface runoff that collects
Estimated properties significant in engineering in stream channels to produce floods in river bottoms.
Table 8 lists, for each soil in the Lake County Area, some Permeability is that quality of a soil that enables the soil
Table 8 lists, for each soil in the Lake County Area, some to transmit water or air. Permeability is measured in terms
estimated properties that might affect the suitability of of rate of flow of water through a cross section of saturated
the soil for various engineering purposes in town and undisturbed soil in a specified time. The rate is expressed
country planning. These estimates are based on the infor- in inches per hour. The estimates given in the table are
mation in table 7, on various test data, and on field per- based on texture and structure of the soil as it occurs in
formance. The estimates in table 8 are general and repre- place. Permeability is significant for all uses that require
sent the central concept of each mapping unit. They are drainage, and it is especially significant in determining
not intended to take the place of examination and evalua- the limitations or restrictions on use of soils for septic tank
tion of the soil at the exact site of a planned engineering drainage fields.
project. Available water capacity refers to the capacity of soils
The estimated USDA, Unified, and AASHO classifica- under free drainage to store water that is usable for plant
tions and the percentages less than 3 inches passing sieve growth. It is the difference between the amount of water
numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 are given in table 8. In addition, in a soil at field capacity (the amount of water held by the
depth to a seasonally high water table, flood hazard, per- soil under free drainage after thorough wetting and ade-




C







72 SOIL SURVEY
Textural modifiers, such as gravelly, stony, shaly, and cob- meability, available water capacity, shrink-swell potential,
bly, are used as needed. and reaction are shown in table 8 and discussed as follows.
Table 7 shows the AASHO and Unified classifications of Depth to bedrock has been omitted from the table. This
specified soils in the Area, as determined by laboratory property is not important for any of the soils in this survey
tests. Table 8 shows the estimated classification of all the area.
soils according to all three systems of classification. High water table relates directly to the kind and degree
Engineering test data of management needed if the soils are to be used for im-
Engineering test data proved pasture or cultivation. To a great extent, it con-
The engineering interpretations made in this section are trols the kinds of trees and plants and the rate of growth
based on data obtained by testing samples from Lake of native vegetation.
County Area soil profiles in the Soils Laboratory, Florida Unless adequately drained, soils that have a high water
Department of Transportation, Bureau of Materials and table are poorly suited to dwellings or structures for light
Research (see table 7) and from other data obtained on industry. A high water table affects strength of the foun-
similar soils outside the county. dation, growth of vegetation used for landscaping, hazard
All samples were obtained at depths of less than about of flooding, and general comfort of living. Where septic
8 feet with the exception of Apopka sand that was tanks are required for sewage disposal, a high water table
sampled to a depth of 12 feet. Consequently, the test data is a serious problem. The restrictions imposed by a high
may not be adequate for estimating the characteristics of water table can be overcome only by effective drainage.
soil material at lower depths. These samples were tested for A high water table directly affects design and construe-
moisture density, grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and tion of roads, railroads, and airport runways. Good drain-
plasticity index. According to results of the tests, the soils age is required for maximum bearing capacity of soil
were assigned ratings in the AASHO Classification Sys- material in subgrades. The design and intensity of drain-
tem and the Unified System. In the procedure of the age facilities needed to assure a sound roadbed are directly
AASHO System, the fine material is analyzed by the hy- related to wetness.
drometer method and the various grain-size fractions are A high water table affects wildlife because game is
calculated on the basis of all the material in the soil sample, usually more abundant in wet areas than in very dry areas.
including that coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The Wet areas provide better refuge. In this classification, a
Soil Conservation Service uses the pipette method and ex- high water table is considered an important limitation on
eludes material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter from wild game hunting only where soils are wet enough to seri-
the calculation. Percentages of clay obtained by the hy- ously affect accessibility.
drometer method are not used in naming -soil textural Good drainage is necessary for campsites or picnic areas.
classes. Wet areas often provide attractions for campers, but they
The liquid limit and plastic limit tests measure water also present serious problems in locating or developing
content at these consistency limits in percent dry weight of good campsites. Where playgrounds are developed on wet-
the soil. They provide a means of determining the effect of land, adequate drainage is required.
water on the consistence of the soil material. As the mois- Underground basements and cellars are best placed in
ture content of a clayey soil increases from a very dry state, well-drained areas where the water table is below the bot-
the material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state. tom of the excavation. Keeping basements and cellars dry
As the moisture content is further increased, the material is difficult if they are constructed below the level of a
changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The plastic limit seasonal high water table.
is the moisture content at which the soil material passes Flood hazard is a significant factor in almost all soil
from a semisolid to a plastic state. The liquid limit is the uses. Frequency of flooding, duration of flooded condition,
moisture content at which the material passes from a plas- and depth and velocity of floodwaters all contribute to the
tic to a liquid state. The plasticity index is the numerical degree of the hazard. Flood hazard is related to two prin-
difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit, cipal conditions: (1) flooding by rise of ground water
It indicates the range of moisture content within which a above the land surface in low places during seasons of high
soil material is in a plastic condition. rainfall and (2) flooding from surface runoff that collects
Estimated properties significant in engineering in stream channels to produce floods in river bottoms.
Table 8 lists, for each soil in the Lake County Area, some Permeability is that quality of a soil that enables the soil
Table 8 lists, for each soil in the Lake County Area, some to transmit water or air. Permeability is measured in terms
estimated properties that might affect the suitability of of rate of flow of water through a cross section of saturated
the soil for various engineering purposes in town and undisturbed soil in a specified time. The rate is expressed
country planning. These estimates are based on the infor- in inches per hour. The estimates given in the table are
mation in table 7, on various test data, and on field per- based on texture and structure of the soil as it occurs in
formance. The estimates in table 8 are general and repre- place. Permeability is significant for all uses that require
sent the central concept of each mapping unit. They are drainage, and it is especially significant in determining
not intended to take the place of examination and evalua- the limitations or restrictions on use of soils for septic tank
tion of the soil at the exact site of a planned engineering drainage fields.
project. Available water capacity refers to the capacity of soils
The estimated USDA, Unified, and AASHO classifica- under free drainage to store water that is usable for plant
tions and the percentages less than 3 inches passing sieve growth. It is the difference between the amount of water
numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 are given in table 8. In addition, in a soil at field capacity (the amount of water held by the
depth to a seasonally high water table, flood hazard, per- soil under free drainage after thorough wetting and ade-




C






LAKE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 73

quate time for water tension adjustments) and the amount dressing for lawns, gardens, roadbanks, and the like. The
at wilting point (the amount of water held by the soil ratings indicate the suitability of the soil as a source of
under tension too great for plant use). It is expressed in topsoil.
inches of available water per inch of soil. Total available Road fill is material used to build embankments. The rat-
water capacity of any soil is the product of available water ings indicate performance of soil material moved from
capacity times the effective root depth, borrow areas for these purposes.
Available water capacity is important to all uses that Sanitary land fill is an area where the soil has been
involve growth of plants. However, it is a seriously limit- excavated and where trash, garbage, and other unwanted
ing factor only when it is very low. Soils that have a very material is put in and covered over with soil material.
low available water capacity are drought in dry seasons Sanitary land fill should be on well-drained soils that have
and require frequent irrigation to maintain healthy vege- a water table at a depth of at least 6 feet throughout the
station of the types used for landscaping. year. Soil features that adversely affect sanitary land fill
Shrink-swell potential is related to the change in volume are high water table, flooding, and slope.
of a soil with change in moisture content. Coarse-textured Excavated ponds are affected mainly by loss of water
soils that have very little fine material change in volume from seepage and the soil features are those that influence
only slightly as moisture content changes. However, some this seepage.
fine-textured soils that have little sand or silt undergo Drainage refers to the need of the soils for drainage
considerable change in volume as moisture content varies, when used for farming. The physical features and position
The amount of change in volume depends on the amount that unfavorably affect drainage are listed.
and kind of clay in the soil.
Change in volume of a soil with change in moisture Sprinkler irrigation is most useful on productive soils
content is important in designing foundations for build- that can be made more productive by irrigation. Only the
ings. Where buildings are on soils that have a high shrink- sols in Capability Classes II, III, and IV are included in
swell potential, floating slabs or other special foundations the sprinkler irrigation groups.
can be used. If these are not used, it is essential that the Soils must be well drained if they are to be suited to
foundations extend below the soil layers that expand and sprinkler irrigation. The slightly wet to moderately wet
contract or that special measures can be used to guarantee soils that are included in the irrigation groups must be
uniform moisture conditions. Otherwise, uneven lifting artificially drained before they are used for cultivated
and settling will cause serious cracking and warping in the crops. The wet and very wet soils are not included.
building. Water for sprinkler irrigation systems may be ob-
Soils having high shrink-swell potential present special trained from wells, streams, natural lakes, or irrigation pits
problems in roadbuilding. Unless provisions are made just as for subsurface systems. Most of the water used
to maintain uniform moisture in such soils, roads built for sprinkler irrigation in Lake County Area comes from
over them are subject to serious heaving and cracking. lakes. Streams or lakes that have a constant source of water
Reaction refers to the pH of the soil or its acidity, during extended droughts are the only suitable sources
neutrality, or alkalinity. Reaction of the soils is given in of water for sprinkler irrigation systems. The storage
the soil series description. In table 8 the pH range only capacity of an excavated irrigation pit must be large
is shown under the reaction heading. enough to meet crop needs in the irrigation season.
Though most sources of surface water are suitable for
Engineering interpretations irrigation, deep wells are more reliable. The quality and
Rainfall in Lake County Area is normally adequate for quantity of the water must be determined before it is used
farm crops, but it is often poorly distributed. Optimum for sprinkler irrigation.
moisture conditions for most crops must often be main- Subsurface irrigation is feasible only on nearly level
trained by irrigation. The two principal methods used are soils that have a natural ground water table near the sur-
sprinkler irrigation and subsurface irrigation. In the face. Subirrigation has been used for many years on cel-
sprinkler method the water is pumped through pipes and ery, carrots, radishes, sweet corn, cabbage, and other truck
applied to the soil through sprinklers in a simulated rain. crops and other high value crops. Subsurface irrigation of
The soil is brought to field capacity by water moving down- improved pastures and clovers is expanding somewhat in
ward through the soil from the surface. Subsurface irriga- the survey area.
tion is suitable for use only on nearly level soils that Much of the highly developed farmland in the Lake
normally have a high water table. In this method the water County Area is at low elevations in the Bay Lake and
table is maintained at a constant level that permits ade- Umatilla areas and adjacent to Lake Apopka. The Lake
quate capillary movement of water from the water table Apopka area uses flowing wells for irrigation. In this
into the root zone. This is done by adding water through area water control systems of open ditches or tile remove
a system of underground tile or shallow open ditches. These excess surface water in wet seasons and distribute water
systems serve also as drainage systems to remove excess from wells for irrigation in dry weather. Such systems
water in time of heavy rains. make it possible to maintain a fairly uniform depth of
Table 9 lists, for each soil, suitability and factors that water table throughout crop growing seasons. This pro-
may affect certain engineering practices or uses. These vides good moisture conditions in the soil for a wide variety
practices or uses are topsoil, road fill, sanitary land fill, ex- of truck crops, pasture grasses, legumes, and ornamental
cavated farm ponds, agricultural drainage, sprinkler irri- plants.
gation, subsurface irrigation, and ditches and canals. Subsurface irrigation may be applied through open
Topsoil is a term used to designate a fertile soil or soil ditches, mole drains, or tile. Open ditches are most widely
material, ordinarily rich in organic matter, used as a top- used because they are relatively inexpensive and operate






74 SOIL SURVEY

satisfactorily. Mole drains can be used only on organic Parent material
soils. Tile drains can be used in both organic and sandy The Lake County Area is in the middle of the Florida
soils. Tile systems are expensive and are used primarily sand ridge section that runs in a north-south direction. The
where celery and other high-value crops are grown. soils have formed in thick beds of sandy and clayey mate-
Water for irrigation may be obtained from artesian or rials that were transported by the waters of the sea and
deep wells, ground water wells, streams, natural lakes, deposited in stratified layers. The sea covered Lake County
and constructed irrigation pits. Irrigation of crops on the Area five different times during the Pleistocene period
muck farms west of Zellwood is accomplished by allowing (3). Each time, the sea left sandy materials over the earlier
water to run back into the farming area by gravity from deposits; in places, the earlier deposits were reworked and
Lake Apopka. Approximately 2,500 acres of this muck redeposited in new locations. In many low depressions,
area are flooded to reduce oxidation when crops are not recent accumulations of organic material have covered the
growing. When ground water wells are used, they are lo- mineral deposits.
cated at the highest point in the area to be irrigated. When The sandy layers, which are principally quartz, are as
streams or lakes are used, the water must be pumped to much as 20 feet thick. This sandy sediment has resisted
the highest points. The water is then distributed by gravity the forces of soil formation and has developed into Quartz-
to all points in the irrigated area through a system of ipsamments. These soils lack textural B horizons. Thick
ditches, field laterals, or tile lines, sandy sediment that has high fluctuating water tables and
Ditches and canals are used for controlling the level of no B horizon has developed into Psammaquents. Some of
the water table, for subsurface irrigation, and for drain- this wet sandy sediment has formed a Bh horizon and has
age. Soil features affecting this use are mainly texture, developed into Haplaquods. Soils formed in deposits that
slope, and erodibility. contained various proportions of sands and clays have
formed a thick textural B horizon and, therefore, have
Formation and Classification developed into Paleudults.
Formation and Classification The parent materials in the survey area differ widely
of the Soils in mineral and chemical composition and in their physical
constitution. The main physical differences, such as those
This section describes the major factors of soil forma- between sand, silt and clay, can be observed in the field.
tion, tells how these factors have affected the soils of the Other differences, such as mineralogical and chemical com-
Lake County Area, and explains some of the principal position, are important to soil formation and to present
processes in horizon development. It also defines the cur- physical and chemical characteristics. Many differences
rent system for classifying soils and classifies the soils of among soils in the survey area appear to reflect original
the Lake County Area according to that system. .differences in the geological materials as they were laid
down.
Factors of Soil Formation Climate
Soil is the living surface layer of the earth in which The climate of the Lake County Area is subtropical and
plants grow. It is a veneer of mineral and organic mate- humid. Relatively high year-round temperature and rain-
rials teeming with living organisms; it covers the lifeless fall have strongly influenced soil formation in a number
mineral foundation of the earth. Soil is formed by the of ways. Where there is no restricting layer and water is
interaction of five primary factors: (1) the physical and free to move downward by gravity, leaching of soluble
parent material that has existed since it was originally ex- minerals from the upper horizons has been extensive. Most
posed at the earth's surface; (2) the climate in which these ha s ee n ete, ie o
parent material has existed since it was originally exposed of the very porous sandy soils are well aerated, highly oxi-
at the earth's surface; (3) the plant and animal life on and dized, and have accumulated very little organic matter.
in the soil; (4) the relief or slope of the land; and (5) the Fine-textured soil particles, the silts and clays, have been
length of time the process of soil formation has been in transported from the surface layer into lower horizons,
progress. and the result is very sandy texture in the surface layer.
The five major soil-forming factors are closely inter- More than 45 percent of the soils in Lake County Area
related, and each modifies the effects of the others. Climate are soils that are underlain by impervious strata and have
and living organisms are the active forces of soil genesis, a high and fluctuating water table. These soils do not have
but their effects are influenced by relief. Relief affects free drainage, and they formed under wet, poorly
climate by modifying the degree of surface drainage, the aerated conditions. These conditions have produced an in-
amount of water that percolates through the soil, and the eternal soil climate entirely different from the soil climate
rate of erosion. The length of time that the forces of soil of the well-drained soils. Both chemical and biological
formation have worked is reflected in the degree of soil of the well-drained soils. Both chemical and biological
profile development. Time, also, is relative, for some soils activity are different from that of the well-draied soils.
develop much faster than others, depending on the inter- Many of these soils have accumulated significant amounts
relationship of the other four factors. The working to- of organic matter in the surface layer. Strong organic acids
gether of these five primary soil forming factors, plus a released by decaying organic matter have hastened the
number of secondary factors, is so close that few general- leaching processes in the mineral layers. For additional
izations can be made about one without specifying the information on the climate, refer to the section "General
conditions for the other four. Nature of the Area."






74 SOIL SURVEY

satisfactorily. Mole drains can be used only on organic Parent material
soils. Tile drains can be used in both organic and sandy The Lake County Area is in the middle of the Florida
soils. Tile systems are expensive and are used primarily sand ridge section that runs in a north-south direction. The
where celery and other high-value crops are grown. soils have formed in thick beds of sandy and clayey mate-
Water for irrigation may be obtained from artesian or rials that were transported by the waters of the sea and
deep wells, ground water wells, streams, natural lakes, deposited in stratified layers. The sea covered Lake County
and constructed irrigation pits. Irrigation of crops on the Area five different times during the Pleistocene period
muck farms west of Zellwood is accomplished by allowing (3). Each time, the sea left sandy materials over the earlier
water to run back into the farming area by gravity from deposits; in places, the earlier deposits were reworked and
Lake Apopka. Approximately 2,500 acres of this muck redeposited in new locations. In many low depressions,
area are flooded to reduce oxidation when crops are not recent accumulations of organic material have covered the
growing. When ground water wells are used, they are lo- mineral deposits.
cated at the highest point in the area to be irrigated. When The sandy layers, which are principally quartz, are as
streams or lakes are used, the water must be pumped to much as 20 feet thick. This sandy sediment has resisted
the highest points. The water is then distributed by gravity the forces of soil formation and has developed into Quartz-
to all points in the irrigated area through a system of ipsamments. These soils lack textural B horizons. Thick
ditches, field laterals, or tile lines, sandy sediment that has high fluctuating water tables and
Ditches and canals are used for controlling the level of no B horizon has developed into Psammaquents. Some of
the water table, for subsurface irrigation, and for drain- this wet sandy sediment has formed a Bh horizon and has
age. Soil features affecting this use are mainly texture, developed into Haplaquods. Soils formed in deposits that
slope, and erodibility. contained various proportions of sands and clays have
formed a thick textural B horizon and, therefore, have
Formation and Classification developed into Paleudults.
Formation and Classification The parent materials in the survey area differ widely
of the Soils in mineral and chemical composition and in their physical
constitution. The main physical differences, such as those
This section describes the major factors of soil forma- between sand, silt and clay, can be observed in the field.
tion, tells how these factors have affected the soils of the Other differences, such as mineralogical and chemical com-
Lake County Area, and explains some of the principal position, are important to soil formation and to present
processes in horizon development. It also defines the cur- physical and chemical characteristics. Many differences
rent system for classifying soils and classifies the soils of among soils in the survey area appear to reflect original
the Lake County Area according to that system. .differences in the geological materials as they were laid
down.
Factors of Soil Formation Climate
Soil is the living surface layer of the earth in which The climate of the Lake County Area is subtropical and
plants grow. It is a veneer of mineral and organic mate- humid. Relatively high year-round temperature and rain-
rials teeming with living organisms; it covers the lifeless fall have strongly influenced soil formation in a number
mineral foundation of the earth. Soil is formed by the of ways. Where there is no restricting layer and water is
interaction of five primary factors: (1) the physical and free to move downward by gravity, leaching of soluble
parent material that has existed since it was originally ex- minerals from the upper horizons has been extensive. Most
posed at the earth's surface; (2) the climate in which these ha s ee n ete, ie o
parent material has existed since it was originally exposed of the very porous sandy soils are well aerated, highly oxi-
at the earth's surface; (3) the plant and animal life on and dized, and have accumulated very little organic matter.
in the soil; (4) the relief or slope of the land; and (5) the Fine-textured soil particles, the silts and clays, have been
length of time the process of soil formation has been in transported from the surface layer into lower horizons,
progress. and the result is very sandy texture in the surface layer.
The five major soil-forming factors are closely inter- More than 45 percent of the soils in Lake County Area
related, and each modifies the effects of the others. Climate are soils that are underlain by impervious strata and have
and living organisms are the active forces of soil genesis, a high and fluctuating water table. These soils do not have
but their effects are influenced by relief. Relief affects free drainage, and they formed under wet, poorly
climate by modifying the degree of surface drainage, the aerated conditions. These conditions have produced an in-
amount of water that percolates through the soil, and the eternal soil climate entirely different from the soil climate
rate of erosion. The length of time that the forces of soil of the well-drained soils. Both chemical and biological
formation have worked is reflected in the degree of soil of the well-drained soils. Both chemical and biological
profile development. Time, also, is relative, for some soils activity are different from that of the well-draied soils.
develop much faster than others, depending on the inter- Many of these soils have accumulated significant amounts
relationship of the other four factors. The working to- of organic matter in the surface layer. Strong organic acids
gether of these five primary soil forming factors, plus a released by decaying organic matter have hastened the
number of secondary factors, is so close that few general- leaching processes in the mineral layers. For additional
izations can be made about one without specifying the information on the climate, refer to the section "General
conditions for the other four. Nature of the Area."






74 SOIL SURVEY

satisfactorily. Mole drains can be used only on organic Parent material
soils. Tile drains can be used in both organic and sandy The Lake County Area is in the middle of the Florida
soils. Tile systems are expensive and are used primarily sand ridge section that runs in a north-south direction. The
where celery and other high-value crops are grown. soils have formed in thick beds of sandy and clayey mate-
Water for irrigation may be obtained from artesian or rials that were transported by the waters of the sea and
deep wells, ground water wells, streams, natural lakes, deposited in stratified layers. The sea covered Lake County
and constructed irrigation pits. Irrigation of crops on the Area five different times during the Pleistocene period
muck farms west of Zellwood is accomplished by allowing (3). Each time, the sea left sandy materials over the earlier
water to run back into the farming area by gravity from deposits; in places, the earlier deposits were reworked and
Lake Apopka. Approximately 2,500 acres of this muck redeposited in new locations. In many low depressions,
area are flooded to reduce oxidation when crops are not recent accumulations of organic material have covered the
growing. When ground water wells are used, they are lo- mineral deposits.
cated at the highest point in the area to be irrigated. When The sandy layers, which are principally quartz, are as
streams or lakes are used, the water must be pumped to much as 20 feet thick. This sandy sediment has resisted
the highest points. The water is then distributed by gravity the forces of soil formation and has developed into Quartz-
to all points in the irrigated area through a system of ipsamments. These soils lack textural B horizons. Thick
ditches, field laterals, or tile lines, sandy sediment that has high fluctuating water tables and
Ditches and canals are used for controlling the level of no B horizon has developed into Psammaquents. Some of
the water table, for subsurface irrigation, and for drain- this wet sandy sediment has formed a Bh horizon and has
age. Soil features affecting this use are mainly texture, developed into Haplaquods. Soils formed in deposits that
slope, and erodibility. contained various proportions of sands and clays have
formed a thick textural B horizon and, therefore, have
Formation and Classification developed into Paleudults.
Formation and Classification The parent materials in the survey area differ widely
of the Soils in mineral and chemical composition and in their physical
constitution. The main physical differences, such as those
This section describes the major factors of soil forma- between sand, silt and clay, can be observed in the field.
tion, tells how these factors have affected the soils of the Other differences, such as mineralogical and chemical com-
Lake County Area, and explains some of the principal position, are important to soil formation and to present
processes in horizon development. It also defines the cur- physical and chemical characteristics. Many differences
rent system for classifying soils and classifies the soils of among soils in the survey area appear to reflect original
the Lake County Area according to that system. .differences in the geological materials as they were laid
down.
Factors of Soil Formation Climate
Soil is the living surface layer of the earth in which The climate of the Lake County Area is subtropical and
plants grow. It is a veneer of mineral and organic mate- humid. Relatively high year-round temperature and rain-
rials teeming with living organisms; it covers the lifeless fall have strongly influenced soil formation in a number
mineral foundation of the earth. Soil is formed by the of ways. Where there is no restricting layer and water is
interaction of five primary factors: (1) the physical and free to move downward by gravity, leaching of soluble
parent material that has existed since it was originally ex- minerals from the upper horizons has been extensive. Most
posed at the earth's surface; (2) the climate in which these ha s ee n ete, ie o
parent material has existed since it was originally exposed of the very porous sandy soils are well aerated, highly oxi-
at the earth's surface; (3) the plant and animal life on and dized, and have accumulated very little organic matter.
in the soil; (4) the relief or slope of the land; and (5) the Fine-textured soil particles, the silts and clays, have been
length of time the process of soil formation has been in transported from the surface layer into lower horizons,
progress. and the result is very sandy texture in the surface layer.
The five major soil-forming factors are closely inter- More than 45 percent of the soils in Lake County Area
related, and each modifies the effects of the others. Climate are soils that are underlain by impervious strata and have
and living organisms are the active forces of soil genesis, a high and fluctuating water table. These soils do not have
but their effects are influenced by relief. Relief affects free drainage, and they formed under wet, poorly
climate by modifying the degree of surface drainage, the aerated conditions. These conditions have produced an in-
amount of water that percolates through the soil, and the eternal soil climate entirely different from the soil climate
rate of erosion. The length of time that the forces of soil of the well-drained soils. Both chemical and biological
formation have worked is reflected in the degree of soil of the well-drained soils. Both chemical and biological
profile development. Time, also, is relative, for some soils activity are different from that of the well-draied soils.
develop much faster than others, depending on the inter- Many of these soils have accumulated significant amounts
relationship of the other four factors. The working to- of organic matter in the surface layer. Strong organic acids
gether of these five primary soil forming factors, plus a released by decaying organic matter have hastened the
number of secondary factors, is so close that few general- leaching processes in the mineral layers. For additional
izations can be made about one without specifying the information on the climate, refer to the section "General
conditions for the other four. Nature of the Area."






74 SOIL SURVEY

satisfactorily. Mole drains can be used only on organic Parent material
soils. Tile drains can be used in both organic and sandy The Lake County Area is in the middle of the Florida
soils. Tile systems are expensive and are used primarily sand ridge section that runs in a north-south direction. The
where celery and other high-value crops are grown. soils have formed in thick beds of sandy and clayey mate-
Water for irrigation may be obtained from artesian or rials that were transported by the waters of the sea and
deep wells, ground water wells, streams, natural lakes, deposited in stratified layers. The sea covered Lake County
and constructed irrigation pits. Irrigation of crops on the Area five different times during the Pleistocene period
muck farms west of Zellwood is accomplished by allowing (3). Each time, the sea left sandy materials over the earlier
water to run back into the farming area by gravity from deposits; in places, the earlier deposits were reworked and
Lake Apopka. Approximately 2,500 acres of this muck redeposited in new locations. In many low depressions,
area are flooded to reduce oxidation when crops are not recent accumulations of organic material have covered the
growing. When ground water wells are used, they are lo- mineral deposits.
cated at the highest point in the area to be irrigated. When The sandy layers, which are principally quartz, are as
streams or lakes are used, the water must be pumped to much as 20 feet thick. This sandy sediment has resisted
the highest points. The water is then distributed by gravity the forces of soil formation and has developed into Quartz-
to all points in the irrigated area through a system of ipsamments. These soils lack textural B horizons. Thick
ditches, field laterals, or tile lines, sandy sediment that has high fluctuating water tables and
Ditches and canals are used for controlling the level of no B horizon has developed into Psammaquents. Some of
the water table, for subsurface irrigation, and for drain- this wet sandy sediment has formed a Bh horizon and has
age. Soil features affecting this use are mainly texture, developed into Haplaquods. Soils formed in deposits that
slope, and erodibility. contained various proportions of sands and clays have
formed a thick textural B horizon and, therefore, have
Formation and Classification developed into Paleudults.
Formation and Classification The parent materials in the survey area differ widely
of the Soils in mineral and chemical composition and in their physical
constitution. The main physical differences, such as those
This section describes the major factors of soil forma- between sand, silt and clay, can be observed in the field.
tion, tells how these factors have affected the soils of the Other differences, such as mineralogical and chemical com-
Lake County Area, and explains some of the principal position, are important to soil formation and to present
processes in horizon development. It also defines the cur- physical and chemical characteristics. Many differences
rent system for classifying soils and classifies the soils of among soils in the survey area appear to reflect original
the Lake County Area according to that system. .differences in the geological materials as they were laid
down.
Factors of Soil Formation Climate
Soil is the living surface layer of the earth in which The climate of the Lake County Area is subtropical and
plants grow. It is a veneer of mineral and organic mate- humid. Relatively high year-round temperature and rain-
rials teeming with living organisms; it covers the lifeless fall have strongly influenced soil formation in a number
mineral foundation of the earth. Soil is formed by the of ways. Where there is no restricting layer and water is
interaction of five primary factors: (1) the physical and free to move downward by gravity, leaching of soluble
parent material that has existed since it was originally ex- minerals from the upper horizons has been extensive. Most
posed at the earth's surface; (2) the climate in which these ha s ee n ete, ie o
parent material has existed since it was originally exposed of the very porous sandy soils are well aerated, highly oxi-
at the earth's surface; (3) the plant and animal life on and dized, and have accumulated very little organic matter.
in the soil; (4) the relief or slope of the land; and (5) the Fine-textured soil particles, the silts and clays, have been
length of time the process of soil formation has been in transported from the surface layer into lower horizons,
progress. and the result is very sandy texture in the surface layer.
The five major soil-forming factors are closely inter- More than 45 percent of the soils in Lake County Area
related, and each modifies the effects of the others. Climate are soils that are underlain by impervious strata and have
and living organisms are the active forces of soil genesis, a high and fluctuating water table. These soils do not have
but their effects are influenced by relief. Relief affects free drainage, and they formed under wet, poorly
climate by modifying the degree of surface drainage, the aerated conditions. These conditions have produced an in-
amount of water that percolates through the soil, and the eternal soil climate entirely different from the soil climate
rate of erosion. The length of time that the forces of soil of the well-drained soils. Both chemical and biological
formation have worked is reflected in the degree of soil of the well-drained soils. Both chemical and biological
profile development. Time, also, is relative, for some soils activity are different from that of the well-draied soils.
develop much faster than others, depending on the inter- Many of these soils have accumulated significant amounts
relationship of the other four factors. The working to- of organic matter in the surface layer. Strong organic acids
gether of these five primary soil forming factors, plus a released by decaying organic matter have hastened the
number of secondary factors, is so close that few general- leaching processes in the mineral layers. For additional
izations can be made about one without specifying the information on the climate, refer to the section "General
conditions for the other four. Nature of the Area."




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