• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Lee County in...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 Index to map sheets
 General soil map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Lee County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025710/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Lee County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 185 p., 76 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Henderson, Warren G
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Lee County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 101).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued December 1984"--P. iii.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025710
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001305994
notis - AGF6799
oclc - 11730984

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ia
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Lee County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
    How this survey was made
        Page 2
        Map unit composition
            Page 3
            Page 4
    General soil map units
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
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        Page 43
        Page 44
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        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 49
        Crops and pasture
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Rangeland
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 54
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 55
        Recreation
            Page 55
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Engineering
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
    Soil properties
        Page 63
        Engineering index properties
            Page 63
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 64
        Soil and water features
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 67
            Page 68
        Engineering index test data
            Page 69
            Page 70
    Classification of the soils
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
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    Formation of the soils
        Page 99
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 99
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 100
    Reference
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Glossary
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Tables
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
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        Page 185
    Index to map sheets
        Page 186
        Page 187
    General soil map
        Page 188
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
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Full Text

^. United States In cooperation with S rv f
Department of University of Florida S il urvey o
Agriculture Institute of Food and
01 Agricultural Sciences, | C o unty
Soil Agricultural Experiment L ee C o unty,
Conservation Stations and
Service Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of F orid a
Agriculture and
Consumer Services





HOW TO USI

Locate your area of interest on
the "Index to Map Sheets" -- --




6R-- --7B
SNote the number of the map
"*i -----"- -- -- sheet and turn to that sheet.




S Locate your area of interest
* on the map sheet.











4 that are in your area





56B 131B
1348 148B
1 344 151 C

I I ,/ ---^--^






HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. -





















See "Summary of Tables" (following the
. Contents) for location of additional data -- ---.
on a specific soil use.
-'- .-"









.-- T ---- -I N -ll r















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.






















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of theUnited States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1981. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1981. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1981. This survey was
made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations
and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Lee
Soil and Water Conservation District. The Lee County Board of Commissioners
contributed financially to accelerate the completion of the fieldwork for this
survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.

Cover: A satellite photo of an area of Lee County. The white areas are developed or
altered areas. The lighter gray land areas are undeveloped areas, and the darker gray land
areas are wetlands. (Satellite photo courtesy of the Lee County Department of Research and
Information.)



















ii


















Contents


Index to m ap units..................................................... iv Engineering ............................................................ 58
Sum m ary of tables..................... ............................. v Soil properties ......................................................... 63
Forew ord................................................. .................. vii Engineering index properties...................................... 63
G general nature of the county...................................... 1 Physical and chem ical properties........................... 64
How this survey was m ade ............... ....................... 2 Soil and w ater features........................................... 65
Map unit composition ............................................ 3 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
ap unit ................................................. selected soils...................................................... 67
G general soil m ap units................................................. 5 Engineering index test data.................................. 69
Detailed soil m ap units ............................................. 13 Classification of the soils......................................... 71
Use and management of the soils............................ 49 Soil series and their morphology................................ 71
Crops and pasture.................................................... 49 Form ation of the soils............................................... 99
Rangeland ................................................................. 52 Factors of soil form ation ....................................... 99
Woodland management and productivity ................. 54 Processes of soil formation..................................... 100
W indbreaks and environm ental plantings ................ 55 References .................................................................. 101
Recreation ............................... ............................... 55 G glossary .......................................................................... 103
W wildlife habitat ....................................................... 56 Tables ........................................................................ 109


Soil Series

Anclote series ............................................................ 72 Isles series ...................................................................... 84
Boca series ................................................................ 72 Kesson series ............................................................ 85
Bradenton series ................................... .................... 73 M alabar series ........................................................... 85
Caloosa series ...................................... ..................... 74 M atlacha series ......................................................... 86
Canaveral series ........................................................... 74 M yakka series ............................................................ 87
Captiva series ................................................ .............. 75 O ldsm ar series.................................... ......................... 88
Chobee series ............................................................ 75 O rsino series .............................................................. 88
Cocoa series .............................................................. 76 Peckish series ............................................................ 89
Copeland series.................................... .................... 77 Pineda series ............................................................. 90
Daytona series...................................... ..................... 77 Pom pano series......................................................... 91
EauG allie series...................................... ................... 78 Punta series ............................................................... 91
Electra series ......................................... .................... 79 Satellite series ........................................................... 92
Estero series .............................................................. 79 Sm yrna series ............................................................ 92
Felda series................................................................... 80 St. Augustine series .................................................. 93
Floridana series ............................................................ 81 Terra Ceia series....................................................... 93
G ator series ........................................... .................... 81 Valkaria series ........................................................... 94
Hallandale series .......................................................... 82 W abasso series ......................................................... 95
Heights series........................................ .................... 83 W inder series.......................... ............................... 96
Im m okalee series ......................................................... 84 W ulfert series ............................................................. 96

Issued December 1984


















Index to Map Units


2-Canaveral fine sand............................................... 13 38-Isles fine sand, slough......................................... 31
4-Canaveral-Urban land complex............................ 14 39-Isles fine sand, depressional.............................. 32
5-Captiva fine sand....................................................... 14 40-Anclote sand, depressional.................................... 32
6-Hallandale fine sand ........................................... 14 41-Valkaria fine sand, depressional ........................ 32
7-Matlacha-Urban land complex.............................. 15 42-Wabasso sand, limestone substratum............... 33
8-Hallandale fine sand, tidal..................................... 16 43-Smyrna fine sand................................................. 33
9-EauGallie sand..................................................... 16 44-Malabar fine sand, depressional ........................ 34
10-Pompano fine sand.............................................. 17 45-Copeland sandy loam, depressional.................. 34
11 -Myakka fine sand................................................. 17 48-St. Augustine sand............................................... 35
12-Felda fine sand ................................ ...................... 18 49-Felda fine sand, depressional................................ 35
13-Boca fine sand ..................................................... 18 50-Oldsmar fine sand, limestone substratum ......... 35
14-Valkaria fine sand .................................................... 19 51-Floridana sand, depressional................................. 36
15-Estero muck ............................................................. 20 51-F rana sand, depressional ...............36
te-p hmrum .ky .ie sand::::::::::::53-Myakka fine sand, depressional............................ 36
16-Peckish mucky fine sand ........................................ 20 55-Cocoa fine sand .......................... 37
17-Daytona sand ......................................................... 20 55-Cocoa fine sand ............................................... 37
18--Matlacha gravelly fine sand, limestone 56 sles muck................................................................ 37
substratum ............................................................... 21 57- Boca fine sand, tidal ............................................. 38
19-Gator muck ............................... ........................... 21 59-Urban land......................................................... 38
20-Terra Ceia muck................................................... 22 61-Orsino fine sand .................................................... 38
22-Beaches ................................................................ 22 62-Winder sand, depressional.................................. 39
23-Wulfert muck...................... ............................... 22 63-Malabar fine sand, high....................................... 39
24-Kesson fine sand ................................................. 23 64-Hallandale-Urban land complex ......................... 40
25-St. Augustine sand, organic substratum-Urban 66-Caloosa fine sand ................................................ 40
land complex..................................................... 23 67-Smyrna-Urban land complex ................................. 41
26-Pineda fine sand............................................... 23 69-Matlacha gravelly fine sand................................... 41
27-Pompano fine sand, depressional................... 24 70-Heights fine sand................................................. 42
28-Immokalee sand...................................................... 24 72-Bradenton fine sand ........................................ 42
29-Punta fine sand .................................................... 27 73-Pineda fVe sand, depressional .......................... 43
33-Oldsmar sand ....................................................... 27 74-Boca fine sand, slough........................................ 43
34-Malabar fine sand ................................................ 29 75-Hallandale fine sand, slough............................... 45
35-Wabasso sand..... ........................................... 29 76-Electra fine sand .................................................. 45
36-Immokalee-Urban land complex......................... 30 77-Pineda fine sand, limestone substratum ........... 46
37-Satellite fine sand................................................. 30 78-Chobee muck........................................................ 46

















iv

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)..................................................... 110
Suitability and limitations of map units on the general soil map (table 2) ... 111
Extent of area. Community development. Citrus crops.
Improved pasture. Vegetables. Woodland.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3)............................. 112
Acres. Percent.
Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4) .......... 113
Land capability. Tomatoes. Cabbage. Peppers.
Cucumbers. Watermelons. Oranges. Bahiagrass.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 5)................................................. 116
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Rangeland productivity (table 6) .................................... ................................ 117
Range site. Potential production.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7)...................................... 120
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)............................................................... 123
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 9) .................................................................................. 128
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife,
Rangeland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10) ............................................................. 132
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)............................................................................. 136
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction m materials (table 12)................................................................... 141
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
W ater manager ent (table 13)........................................................................ 145
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Grassed waterways.


v






















Engineering index properties (table 14) ........................................................ 150
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) ............................ 157
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil Reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 16).................................................................. 162
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Depth to water in selected soils (table 17)................................................... 166
Soil name. Year. Month.
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 18).............................................. 167
Depth. Horizon. Patricle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 19)............................................ 173
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 20)................................................. 179
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 21) .......................................................... 182
Classification. Particle-size distribution. Liquid limit.
Plasticity index. Moisture density.
Classification of the soils (table 22)................................................................. 185
Family or higher taxonomic class.















vi

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Lee County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the
soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






) fJames W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service







vii














































































Location of Lee County In Florida.














Soil Survey of

Lee County, Florida


By Warren G. Henderson, Jr., Soil Conservation Service

Participating in the fieldwork were Lewis J. Carter, Allen L. Moore,
Rebecca A. Stein, Carol A. Wettstein, and Howard Yamataki,
Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




LEE COUNTY is in the southwestern part of peninsular 90 degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which
Florida. It is bordered on the north by Charlotte County, occurred at Page Field in July 1942, is 101 degrees.
on the east by Hendry and Collier Counties, on the south The total annual precipitation is 54 inches. Of this, 32
by Collier County, and on the west by the Gulf of inches, or 60 percent, usually falls in June through
Mexico. The survey area covers 503,040 acres, or about September. In 2 years out of 10, the rainfall in June
787 square miles. Fort Myers, the county seat, is in the through September is less than 12 inches. The heaviest
north-central part of the county. 1-day rainfall during the period of record was 10 inches
Tourism and construction are the largest at Page Field in October 1951. Thunderstorms occur on
nonagricultural industries in the county. The mild winter about 80 days each year. Most occur in late afternoon.
temperatures and beaches attract many people to the The average relative humidity in midafternoon is about
county annually. 50 to 60 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the
average at dawn is about 80 percent.

General Nature of the County History and Development
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that .
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that Ernest W. Hall, Edison Community College, prepared this section.
affect the use and management of soils in Lee County
are described. These factors are climate, history and When Florida was discovered by Ponce de Leon in
development, water resources, and farming. 1513, the Caloosa Indians inhabited what is now
southwest Florida. The Caloosa Indians once controlled
Climate an area that extended from north of Charlotte Harbor
south to Cape Sable and from the Gulf of Mexico to
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation Lake Okeechobee.
for the survey area as recorded at Fort Myers (8). Several early explorers visited the islands of Charlotte
In winter the average temperature is 65 degrees F, Harbor and other parts of what is now Charlotte County,
and the average daily minimum temperature is 55 including Ponce de Leon in 1513 and again in 1521,
degrees. The lowest temperature on record, which Panfilo de Naraez in 1528, Hernando de Soto in 1539,
occurred at Page Field in December 1962, is 26 and Pedro Menendez de Aviles, founder of St.
degrees. In summer the average temperature is 81 Augustine, in 1566. Pirates often frequented the islands
degrees, and the average daily maximum temperature is and the coastline north and south of Caloosahatchee
1








2 Soil Survey



during the eighteenth century and the early part of the resource. Fresh potable water is a resource that must be
nineteenth century. Jose Gaspar, Black Caesar, Black managed and conserved if the county is to continue to
Augustus, and Juan Gomez are mentioned in the folklore develop.
of Lee County. There are ten major municipal, county, or county
Florida became an American Territory in 1821. By that franchised utility companies that treat and distribute
time, the native tribes that inhabited Florida when the potable water in Lee County. Three utilities use brackish
Spanish first arrived had become extinct. In their stead, aquifer water and a desalination treatment. One
migrating Creek Indians (known as Seminoles) from company obtains freshwater from Charlotte County. By
Georgia and Alabama had settled in Spanish Florida. far the largest volume is controlled by the six remaining
The policy of the United States Government under utilities, which use one or both of the county's main
Andrew Jackson was to remove all Indians east of the sources of freshwater: the Caloosahatchee River and the
Mississippi River to western reservations. The Seminoles underground aquifers.
were scheduled for removal from Florida, but they Saltwater intrusion and pollution are the major threats
resisted under the leadership of Osceola. This brought facing the two main freshwater sources. As more and
on the Second Seminole War (1835-42) and later the more ground water is withdrawn, the possibility of
Third Seminole War (1855-58). saltwater contamination of the shallow aquifers
Prior to the Third Seminole War, Fort Myers was increases.
established on the ruins of abandoned Fort Harvie in The existing distribution system is reaching its
February 1850. During the Civil War, Fort Myers was maximum capacity. The deficiencies of the system and
occupied by Union troops. It was at Fort Myers that the the low supply of water during the dry season create
most southern land battle of the war was fought in very low water pressure in many areas.
February 1865.
The first permanent settlers in Fort Myers arrived in Farming
1866. In 1885, Fort Myers was incorporated as a town.
In 1887, Lee County was formed from the northern The soils and climate of Lee County are favorable for
part of Monroe County. It was named in honor of Robert farming and agricultural industries. The most common
E. Lee. In 1923, Lee County was divided into three vegetable crop in the survey area is tomatoes. Because
counties: Lee, Hendry, and Collier. When Lee County tomatoes are susceptible to disease, native range or
was formed in 1887, its population was about 1,000. In woodland is cleared each year for the crop. Other
1980, the population of Lee County was 205,266. vegetables grown in the county are peppers, squash,
Cattle were the most important industry in the county and cucumbers.
for many years after 1887. Cattle were driven to Punta The major fruits grown in the survey area are oranges,
Rassa, where they were sold and shipped to Cuba and limes, avocado, mango, and watermelon. Other fruits
Key West. grown in smaller quantity are grapefruit, strawberries,
The first bridge across the Caloosahatchee was built and cantaloup.
at Alva in 1903. Railroad service (the Atlantic Coast Livestock production consists mainly of beef cattle. A
Line) to Fort Myers began in 1904. The first highway out combination of native rangeland and improved pasture is
of Lee County was completed in 1922. Today that used as a feed source with some supplemental feeding,
highway is State Highway 31. The Tamiami Trail, linking especially during the dry winter months.
Tampa and Miami, was completed in 1928. Many areas throughout the county that were once in
Fort Myers, Cape Coral, and Sanibel are incorporated native rangeland and some farm areas have been
cities in the county. converted to urban land.
The main industries in the county are tourism,
construction, flower farming (gladioli and
chrysanthemums), truck farming, cattle and citrus How This Survey Was Made
production, and service industries.
This survey was made to provide information about the
Water Resources soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
The Caloosahatchee River and its tributaries-the discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
Orange River, Telegraph, Hickey, Bedman, Trout, of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
Popash, and Daugherty Creeks-are potential sources of the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and
water for agricultural and industrial uses. native plants growing on the soils; and the kinds of
According to the Lee County Comprehensive bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil profile,
Development Plan (4), freshwater is one of the most vital which is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a
natural resources. Rapid growth and development in Lee soil. The profile extends from the surface down into the
County has placed increasing pressure on this limited unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The








Lee County, Florida 3



unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other data on crop yields under defined levels of management
living organisms and has not been changed by other were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
biologic activity, experiments on the same kinds of soil.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief, soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil a high water table within certain depths in most years,
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils but they cannot assure that a high water table will
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy date.
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape. After soil scientists located and identified the
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
into one another as their characteristics gradually drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
scientists must determine the boundaries between the Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented accurately.
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship, Lee County was mapped concurrently with adjacent
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in Charlotte County. All of the map units described in the
an area and to determine the boundaries. section "Detailed Soil Map Units" occur in both counties.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil Some of the soil series described in the section "Soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, Series and Their Morphology" have typical pedons that
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of are located in Charlotte County. These pedons are
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and considered to be typical of the soils in Lee County,
other features that enable them to identify soils. After however.
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to Map Unit Composition
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification identified and named according to the taxonomic
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
confirm data and assemble additional data based on may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
experience and research. class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of
the soils in the area generally are collected for laboratory other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes.
well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil These latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
were field tested through observation of the soils in the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
different uses under different levels of management. management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
sources, such as research information, production or require different management. These are contrasting
records, and field experience of specialists. For example, (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas








4



and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the landscape into segments that have similar use and
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so management requirements. The delineation of such
complex that it was impractical to make enough landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the information for the development of resource plans, but
landscape. onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.








5









General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication 1. Immokalee-Pompano
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general Nearly level, poorly drained, deep soils that are sandy
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map throughout; some have an organic-stained subsoil
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor This map unit occurs as five mapped areas. The
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up largest is about 11 miles long and about 8 miles wide at
one unit can occur in other units but in a different the widest place. One of the other areas is about 5 1/2
pattern. miles long and about 2 miles wide at the widest place.
The general soil map can be used to compare the These two areas are in the southeastern part of the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of county. Another mapped area is north of the San Carlos
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, area. It is about 5 miles long and about 3 miles wide at
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. the widest place. The other two mapped areas are in the
western part of the county, south of the Caloosahatchee
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for River. The areas are interspersed with depressions and
planning the management of a farm or field or for marshes
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. marshis map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place flatwoods and in sloughs. The native vegetation is South
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that Florida slash pine. The wetter areas have cypress.
affect management. Sawpalmetto and pineland threeawn are common on the
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their flatwoods (fig. 1). Maidencane is common in the sloughs.
suitability or potential for major land uses. Table 2 shows This map unit makes up about 64,760 acres, or 13.0
the extent of the map units shown on the general soil percent of the land area of the county. It is about 30
map. It lists the suitability or potential of each, in relation percent Immokalee soils, 30 percent Pompano soils, and
to that of the other map units, for major land uses and 40 percent soils of minor extent.
shows soil properties that limit use. Soil suitability ratings Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
are based on the practices commonly used in the survey surface layer is black sand about 4 inches thick. The
area to overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect subsurface layer is dark gray sand in the upper 5 inches
the ease of overcoming the limitations. They also reflect and light gray sand in the lower 27 inches. The subsoil is
the problems that will persist even if such practices are sand about 33 inches thick. The upper 14 inches is black
used. and firm, the next 5 inches is dark reddish brown, and
Each map unit is rated for community development, the lower 14 inches is dark yellowish brown. The
citrus, improved pasture, vegetables, and woodland. substratum is very pale brown sand to a depth of 80
Community development includes residential and inches or more.
industrial uses. Citrus includes fruits that generally Pompano soils are poorly drained and in the slough
require intensive management. Improved pasture position. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine
includes grasses grown for livestock grazing. The sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying sand layers
vegetable crops are those grown extensively in the extend to a depth of 80 inches or more and are light
survey area. Woodland refers to areas of native or gray, very pale brown, and white.
introduced trees. Of minor extent in this map unit are Anclote, Valkaria,
Oldsmar, Malabar, Pineda, Felda, Floridana, and Myakka
soils.
Soils of the Flatwoods and Sloughs The soils of this map unit are used mostly as cropland
The five general soil map units in this group consist of and rangeland. Some areas have been cleared and used
nearly level, poorly drained soils on flatwoods. Some for urban development.
soils in this unit are sandy to a depth of 80 inches, some 2. Hallandale-Boca
are loamy at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and some are
loamy below a depth of 40 inches. Nearly level, poorly drained, shallow to moderately deep,









6 Soil Survey





































Figure 1.-An area of flatwoods on Immokalee sand. Pine, sawpalmetto, and several species of threeawn are the dominant vegetation.



sandy soils; some are sandy throughout and some have This map unit makes up about 43,550 acres, or 8.7
a loamy subsoil percent of the land area of the county. It is about 40
percent Hallandale soils, 30 percent Boca soils, and 30
This map unit occurs as six mapped areas. The percent soils of minor extent.
largest, about 12 miles long and about 3 miles wide at Hallandale soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
the widest place, is in the west-central part of the county surface layer is gray fine sand about 2 inches thick. The
occupying areas along and northeast of U.S. Highway subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 5 inches
41. Another mapped area is northeast of Estero and is thick. The substratum is very pale brown fine sand about
about 3 miles long and 1 1/2 miles wide. A mapped area 5 inches thick. Hard, fractured limestone is at a depth of
east of Estero is about 5 miles long and about 1 1/2 12 inches.
miles wide. Two mapped areas are south of Estero. The Boca soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
larger is about 6 miles long and 3 miles wide at the layer is gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
widest place, and the smaller is about 2 miles long and 3 subsurface layer is fine sand about 22 inches thick. The
miles wide. The areas are interspersed with depressions, upper 11 inches is light gray and the lower 11 inches is
sloughs, and drainageways. very pale brown. The subsoil is gray fine sandy loam with
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on brownish yellow mottles and calcareous nodules. A layer
flatwoods. The native vegetation is South Florida slash of fractured limestone is at a depth of 30 inches.
pine. The wetter areas have cypress. Sawpalmetto and Of minor extent in this map unit are Wabasso,
pineland threeawn are common on the flatwoods. Oldsmar, Felda, and Pineda soils.
p








Lee County, Florida 7



The soils of this map unit are used mostly for urban loamy subsoil, some have just a loamy subsoil, and
development. The areas in sawpalmetto and South some have just a sandy organic-stained subsoil
Florida slash pine are used as wildlife habitat. This map unit occurs as five mapped areas. The

3. Immokalee-Myakka largest, about 13 miles long and about 12 miles wide at
the widest place, is in the east-central part of the county.
Nearly level, poorly drained, deep, sandy soils that have Another large area is north of the Caloosahatchee River
a sandy, organic-stained subsoil in the northeastern part of the county. It is about 3 miles
This map unit occurs as five mapped areas. The long and 16 miles wide. The three smaller mapped areas
largest, about 14 miles long and 2 miles wide at the are scattered throughout the county. The mapped areas
widest place, is in the north-central part of the county are interspersed with depressions and drainageways.
along the Caloosahatchee River. Other large areas are This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on
on Pine Island, which is in the western part of the flatwoods and in sloughs on the flatwoods. The native
county, and in the Spring Creek area, which is in the vegetation is South Florida slash pine. The wetter areas
southern part of the county. The mapped area on Pine have cypress. Sawpalmetto and pineland threeawn are
Island is about 12 miles long and 2 miles wide at the common on the flatwoods. Maidencane is common in
widest place. The mapped area in the Spring Creek area the sloughs.
is about 10 miles long and 3 miles wide at the widest This map unit makes up about 109,582 acres, or 22.0
place. The areas are interspersed with a few percent of the land area of the county. It is about 25
depressions, drainageways, and slightly higher ridges. percent Oldsmar soils, 20 percent Malabar soils, 10
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on percent Immokalee soils, and 45 percent soils of minor
flatwoods. The native vegetation is South Florida slash extent.
pine. The wetter areas have willow and cypress. Oldsmar soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn are layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
Thcommon on the fatwoods. about 53110 acres or 107 subsurface layer is gray and light gray fine sand about
This map unit makes up about 53,110 acres, or 10.7 39 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is very
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 40 3inhstikThupepatothsuoiisvr
percent Immokalee soils, 35 percent Myakka soils, and dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The lower part
25 percent soils of minor extent. of the subsoil is yellowish brown and mixed light
Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the brownish gray and brown sandy loam and fine sandy
surface layer is black sand about 4 inches thick. The loam about 16 inches thick. Pale brown fine sand is
subsurface layer is dark gray sand in the upper 5 inches below the subsoil and extends to a depth of 80 inches or
and light gray sand in the lower 27 inches. The subsoil is more.
sand about 33 inches thick. The upper 14 inches is black Malabar soils are poorly drained and in the slough
and firm, the next 5 inches is dark reddish brown, and position on the flatwoods. Typically, the surface layer is
the lower 14 inches is dark yellowish brown. The dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The next 12
substratum is very pale brown sand to a depth of 80 inches is light gray and very pale brown fine sand. Below
inches or more. this is a 16-inch layer of light yellowish brown fine sand
Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface with yellowish mottles and a 9-inch layer of brownish
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. yellow fine sand. The subsoil is gray loamy fine sand
The subsurface layer is fine sand about 23 inches thick. about 9 inches thick with large yellowish brown mottles.
The upper 3 inches is gray, and the lower 20 inches is The next 8 inches is gray fine sandy loam with large
light gray. The subsoil is fine sand to a depth of 80 brownish yellow mottles. Below is light gray loamy fine
inches or more. The upper 4 inches is black and firm; sand with yellowish brown mottles to a depth of 80
the next 5 inches is dark reddish brown and friable; the inches or more.
next 17 inches is black and firm; the next 11 inches is Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
dark reddish brown and friable; and the lower 17 inches surface layer is black sand about 4 inches thick. The
is mixed black and dark reddish brown and friable, subsurface layer is dark gray sand in the upper 5 inches
Of minor extent in this map unit are Orsino, Satellite, and light gray sand in the lower 27 inches. The subsoil is
Smyrna, Punta, and Oldsmar soils. sand to a depth of 69 inches. The upper 14 inches is
The soils of this map unit are used mostly for urban black and firm, the next 5 inches is dark reddish brown,
development. Some areas remain in sawpalmetto and and the lower 14 inches is dark yellowish brown. The
South Florida slash pine. substratum is very pale brown sand about 11 inches

4. Oldsmar-Malabar-lmmokalee thick.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Pineda, EauGallie,.
Nearly level, poorly drained, deep, sandy soils; some Wabasso, Boca, Pompano, and Hallandale soils.
have a sandy, organic-stained subsoil underlain by a









8 Soil Survey



The soils of this map unit are used mostly as pale olive mottles and stains along root channels. Light
rangeland and wildlife habitat. Some areas have been gray fine sandy loam with olive mottles extends to a
cleared and are used for urban development, depth of 80 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Malabar, Oldsmar,
5. Pineda-Boca-Wabasso Hallandale, Felda, Copeland, and Chobee soils.
Nearly level, poorly drained, deep and moderately deep, The soils of this map unit are used mostly for urban
sandy soils; some have a sandy subsoil, some have a development. The uncleared areas are used as
loamy subsoil, and some have a sandy, organic-stained rangeland and wildlife habitat.
subsoil underlain by a loamy subsoil
This map unit occurs as three mapped areas. The
largest is about 5 miles long and about 17 miles wide at Soils of the Swamps and Sloughs
the widest place. This area is in the northern part of the
county on both sides of U.S. Highway 41. Another large The one map unit in this group consists of nearly level,
area is in the northeastern part of the county. It is about poorly drained soils. Some are moderately deep, loamy
11 miles long and 7 miles wide at the widest place. One soils over limestone and others are loose sandy soil to a
small area occurs southeast of Matlacha. It is about 2 depth of 80 inches or more.
miles long and 2 miles wide at the widest place. The
mapped areas are interspersed with depressions.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on 6. Isles-Boca-Pompano
flatwoods and in sloughs. The native vegetation is South
Florida slash pine. The wetter areas have cypress. Nearly level, poorly drained, deep and moderately deep,
Sawpalmetto and pineland threeawn are common on the sandy soils; some have a loamy subsoil and some are
flatwoods. Maidencane is common in the sloughs. sandy throughout
This map unit makes up about 79,300 acres, or 15.9 This map unit occurs as three mapped areas. The
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 20 largest is about 8 miles long and about 5 miles wide.
percent Pineda soils, 16 percent Boca soils, 15 percent This area is in the southeastern part of the county.
Wabasso soils, and 49 percent soils of minor extent. Another area occurs along the 6-mile cypress swamp,
Pineda soils are poorly drained and in the slough and the smallest is southeast of the 6-mile cypress area.
position. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand The mapped areas are interspersed with slightly higher
about 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer is very pale flatwoods.
brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils in
the subsoil is.brownish yellow fine sand about 8 inches sloughs and depressions. The native vegetation consists
thick and strong brown fine sand about 10 inches thick. of cypress in the depressions and South Florida slash
Between the upper and lower parts of the subsoil is 7 pine, maidencane, and sparse sawpalmetto in the
inches of light gray fine sand with.brownish yellow sloughs. Pineland threeawn is common on the higher
mottles. The lower part of the subsoil to a depth of 54 positions in the sloughs.
inches is light brownish gray fine sandy loam with light This map unit makes up about 42,500 acres, or 8.5
gray sandy intrusions. The substratum is light gray fine percent of the land area of the county. It is about 20
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. percent Isles soils, 20 percent Boca soils, 15 percent
Boca soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface Pompano soils, and 45 percent soils of minor extent.
layer is grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. Isles soils are poorly drained and are in the
The subsurface layer is light gray and very pale brown depressions. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray
fine sand about 30 inches thick. The subsoil is gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
sandy clay loam with yellowish brown and brownish about 5 inches of light gray fine sand. Next is 11 inches
yellow mottles. Hard, fractured limestone bedrock is at a of very pale brown fine sand with yellowish brown
depth of 38 inches. mottles. The subsoil is 26 inches of gray fine sandy loam
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the with brownish yellow mottles and pockets of light
surface layer is dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The brownish gray loamy sand. Limestone bedrock is at a
subsurface layer is sand to a depth of 24 inches. The depth of 47 inches.
upper 11 inches is light brownish gray with dark grayish Boca soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
brown stains along root channels, and the lower 7 layer is grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick.
inches is white with dark grayish brown stains. The The subsurface layer is light gray and very pale brown
subsoil is about 38 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is fine sand about 30 inches thick. The subsoil is gray
dark brown sand with few iron concretions. The next 8 sandy clay loam with yellowish brown and brownish
inches is brownish yellow sandy clay loam with light yellow mottles. Hard, fractured limestone bedrock is at a
brownish gray, light gray, and reddish brown mottles. depth of 38 inches.
The lower 26 inches is light gray sandy clay loam with Pompano soils are poorly drained and are in








Lee County, Florida 9














































Figure 2.-A red mangrove swamp in an area of Wulfert muck. Such swamps are common in tidal areas.


depressions. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand Soils of the Tidal Areas and Barrier
about 3 inches thick. The underlying fine sand layers Islands
extend to a depth of 80 inches or more and are light
brownish gray in the upper 32 inches and light gray in The three general soil map units in this group consist
the lower 45 inches. of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained to very poorly
Of minor extent in this map unit are Pineda, Malabar, drained soils on tidal areas and the Barrier Islands.
Floridana, Anclote, Valkaria, Felda, Winder, and Some of the soils are sandy throughout with a mixture of
Immokalee soils. shell fragments, some have a thin mucky surface layer
The soils of this map unit are used mostly as wildlife that is less than 16 inches thick, and some are organic
habitat and rangeland. to a depth of more than 16 inches.








10 Soil Survey



7. Wulfert-Kesson-Captiva have a sandy, organic-stained subsoils and some have a
loamy subsoil
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained
soils; some are organic and some are sandy throughout This map unit is along the mainland portions of the
with varying proportions of shell fragments county and on Little Pine Island. Individual areas range
This map unit occurs dominantly in areas along the from several acres to several thousand acres. The two
Gulf coastal zones of the county. The largest area is largest areas are on Little Pine Island and in an area
about 7 miles long and about 1 mile wide at the widest north of Fort Myers Beach. These areas range from 1 to
place. This area is along the northern part of Sanibel 3 miles in width and 5 to 12 miles in length. The areas
Island. Other mapped areas occur in isolated areas in are interspersed with occasional, slightly higher ridges.
Pine Island Sound, Charlotte Harbor, and Matlacha Pass. This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils in
These areas range from several acres to several tidal swamps and marshes along the gulf coast. Natural
hundred acres in size. The mapped areas are vegetation is mangrove in the tidal swamps and
interspersed with an occasional sand or shell mound or seashore saltgrass, batis, and sea-oxeye in the marshes.
ridge. This map unit makes up about 34,020 acres, or 6.8
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level, very percent of the land area of the county. It is about 35
poorly drained soils in tidal swamps and broad slough percent Peckish soils, 17 percent Estero soils, 8 percent
areas along the gulf coast. Natural vegetation on the Isles soils, and 40 percent soils of minor extent.
tidal swamps is mangrove (fig. 2). Natural vegetation on Peckish soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
the broad slough areas is sand cordgrass, leatherleaf surface layer is mucky fine sand about 9 inches thick.
fern, waxmyrtle, and numerous grasses. The upper 4 inches is dark reddish brown, the next 2
This map unit makes up about 6,360 acres, or 1.3 inches is dark grayish brown, and the lower 3 inches is
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 40 dark reddish brown. The subsurface layer is gray and
percent Wulfert soils, 35 percent Kesson soils, 10 light gray fine sand with light gray streaks in the upper
percent Captiva soils, and 15 pentent soils of minor part and light brownish gray and grayish brown mottles in
extent. the lower part. It is about 27 inches thick. The subsoil is
Wulfert soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the fine sand about 12 inches thick. The upper 7 inches is
surface layer is muck that is dark reddish brown to a dark grayish brown and very dark grayish brown and the
depth of 12 inches and dark brown to a depth of 36 dark grayis brown and very dark grayish brown and the
inches. Beneath the muck is gray fine sand with light lower 5 inches is brown and dark brown with dark
gray streaks and about 10 percent shell fragments. grayish brown mottles. The substratum is brown fine
Kesson soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the sand with very dark grayish brown streaks.
surface layer is about 6 inches of sand that contains Estero soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
shell fragments. The underlying layers are fine sand that surface layer is about 13 inches thick. The upper 5
contains shell fragments; they extend to a depth of 80 inches is black muck, the next 3 inches is black fine
inches or more. In sequence, the upper 4 inches is pale sand, and the lower 5 inches is very dark gray fine sand.
brown, the next 3 inches is light brownish gray, the next The subsurface layer is fine sand about 20 inches thick.
25 inches is light gray with dark gray streaks, and the The upper 6 inches is light brownish gray with few fine
lower 42 inches is white. distinct yellowish red mottles; the lower 14 inches is
Captiva soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface grayish brown with few medium distinct yellowish red
layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The mottles. The subsoil is massive fine sand to a depth of
underlying layers are fine sand mixed with shell about 50 inches. The upper 6 inches is black and dark
fragments to a depth of 80 inches or more. In sequence, grayish brown, the next 4 inches is black and dark
the upper 9 inches is pale brown with light gray streaks, reddish brown, and the lower 16 inches is dark brown
the next 11 inches is light gray with many pale brown and black fine sand. Grayish brown fine sand with few
mottles, the next 4 inches is light gray fine sand with fine distinct black mottles extends to a depth of 80
about 30 percent multicolored shell fragments, and the inches or more.
lower 50 inches is light gray fine sand. Isles muck soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
Of minor extent in this map unit are Canaveral, surface layer is dark reddish brown muck about 5 inches
Peckish, and Estero soils and Isles muck. thick. Next is 6 inches of very dark grayish brown mucky
Most areas of this map unit remain in natural fine sand. The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine
vegetation. Some areas, particularly along the coast, sand with brownish gray mottles and is 28 inches thick.
have been altered for homesites or other urban The subsoil is 8 inches of grayish brown fine sandy loam
purposes. with light olive brown mottles. Fractured limestone
8. Peckish-Estero-Isles bedrock is at a depth of 47 inches.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Captiva, Kesson,
Nearly level, very poorly drained, mucky soils; some and Wulfert soils.








Lee County, Florida 11






























Figure 3.-An area of Matlacha soils being prepared for homesites. The large boulders are usually transported away from the site.



Most areas of this map unit remain in natural This map unit makes up about 13,780 acres, or 2.8
vegetation. Some areas, particularly along the coast, percent of the land area of the county. It is about 39
have been altered for homesites or other urban percent Canaveral soils, 18 percent Captiva soils, 18
purposes. percent Kesson soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
extent.
9. Canaveral-Captiva-Kesson Canaveral soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is black and dark gray fine
Nearly level, somewhat poorly drained to very poorly sand mixed with shell fragments. It is about 15 inches
drained soils that are sandy throughout with a varying thick. The underlying layers are fine sand mixed with
mixture of shell fragments shell fragments to a depth of 80 inches or more. They
This map unit occurs as five mapped areas. The are light brownish gray and light gray.
largest is about 11 miles long and 1 mile wide. This area Captiva soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
is on Sanibel Island. The other larger areas are on North layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
Captiva Island and Cayo Costa Island. The mapped area underlying layers are fine sand mixed with shell
is about 3 miles long and about fragments to a depth of 80 inches or more. In sequence,
on North Captiva Island is about 3 miles long and about the upper 9 inches is pale brown with light gray streaks,
1/4 mile wide at the widest place. The mapped area on the next 11 inches is light gray with many pale brown
Cayo Costa Island is about 4 miles long and about 1/2 mottles, the next 4 inches is light gray fine sand with
mile wide at the widest place. A mapped area on Boca about 30 percent multicolored shell fragments, and the
Grande is about 5 miles long and about 1/2 mile wide at lower 50 inches is light gray fine sand.
the widest place. The areas are interspersed with a few Kesson soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
depressions and tidal areas. surface layer is about 6 inches of sand containing shell
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils on fragments. The underlying layers are fine sand that
the Barrier Islands. Natural vegetation consists of contain shell fragments; they extend to a depth of 80
cabbage palm, seagrapes, sand cordgrass, and inches or more. In sequence, the upper 4 inches is pale
leatherleaf fern. brown, the next 3 inches is light brownish gray, the next








12



25 inches is light gray with dark gray streaks, and the been allowed to remain vacant for an extended period
lower 42 inches is white. contain South Florida slash pine and invading grasses
Of minor extent in this map unit are Kesson and and weeds.
Wulfert soils and areas of Beaches. This map unit makes up about 51,080 acres, or 10.3
Most areas of this map unit remain in natural percent of the land area of the county. Soils of minor
vegetation. Some areas, particularly along the coast, are extent make up about 25 percent of this unit.
used for homesites or other urban purposes. Matlacha soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
the surface layer is about 35 inches of black, olive
Soils of the Manmade Areas brown, grayish brown, dark brown, light brownish gray,
very dark gray, and very pale brown mixed gravelly fine
The one general soil map unit in this group consists of sand and sandy mineral material. The surface layer
nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils that were contains lenses of loamy sand and coated sandy
formed by earthmoving operations in areas designated fragments of former subsoil horizons with about 25
for urban development (fig. 3). The soils consist of mixed percent limestone and shell fragments. Below this to a
gravelly fine sand, lenses of loamy sand, and coated depth of 80 inches or more is undisturbed fine sand. The
sandy fragments of former subsoil horizons with about upper 5 inches is dark gray and the lower 40 inches is
25 percent limestone and shell fragments. light gray with common medium distinct dark grayish
brown stains along root channels.
10. Matlacha Of minor extent in this map unit are soils that contain
finer textured material throughout the fill. Also included
Nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils that are are small areas that contain boulders or more than 35
mostly mixed sands, shell fragments, and limestone percent rock fragments larger than 3 inches throughout
fragments throughout the fill. In addition, there are areas of similar soils with
This map unit occurs as one mapped area in the loamy material and limestone bedrock below the mixed
county. The area is about 9 miles long and about 8 miles fill material. Other inclusions are areas of fill that are less
wide and is located in the Cape Coral area of the county. than 20 inches thick over undisturbed soils.
This map unit consists mainly of nearly level soils that Most areas of this unit have been prepared for future
were formed as a result of earthmoving operations. urbanization. Many areas, particularly around the city of
Natural vegetation is rare; however, areas that have Cape Coral, are presently urbanized.








13









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil a special symbol on the soil maps.
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be have little or no soil material and support little or no
used to plan the management needed for those uses. vegetation. Miscellaneous areas are shown on the soil
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given maps. Some that are too small to be shown are
under "Use and Management of the Soils." identified by a special symbol on the soil maps.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
for which the unit is named. give properties of the soils and the limitations,
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
name in the soil descriptions. The map units are defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
presented in numerical order. The numbers are not
always in sequence, however; some of the numbers are 2-Canaveral fine sand. This is a nearly level,
not utilized as map unit symbols. Each description moderately well drained and somewhat poorly drained
includes general facts about the soil and gives the soil on low ridges. Slopes are smooth to slightly convex
principal hazards and limitations to be considered in and range from 0 to 2 percent.
planning for specific uses. Typically, the surface layer is black and dark gray fine
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up sand mixed with shell fragments and is about 15 inches
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the thick. The underlying layers are light brownish gray and
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of light gray fine sand mixed with shell fragments to a
a series have major horizons that are similar in depth of 80 inches or more.
composition, thickness, and arrangement. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface Captiva and Kesson soils. Included soils generally make
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in up less than 10 percent of any mapped area.
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the water table at a depth of 18 to 40 inches for 2 to 6
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil months. The water table recedes to a depth of more
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil than 40 inches during February through July.
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil The available water capacity is very low. Natural
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or fertility is low. Permeability is very rapid.
management. For example, Boca fine sand, slough, is Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, Brazilian
one of several phases in the Boca series, pepper, seagrape, wild coffee, and an understory of
Some map units are made up of two or more major vines and weeds.
soils. These map units are called soil complexes. A soil This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, and it has
complex consists of two or more soils in such an only fair suitability for pasture grasses. This soil is not
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot generally used for rangeland.
be shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas. Seedling mortality is the main management concern.
Smyrna-Urban land complex is an example. This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils absorption fields, dwellings without basements, small
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some commercial buildings, sanitary landfills, sewage lagoon
of these included soils have properties that differ areas, shallow excavations, and recreational uses.
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such Excessive permeability can cause pollution of ground
differences could significantly affect use and water in areas of septic tank absorption fields.
management of the soils in the map unit. The included This Canaveral soil is in capability subclass VIs.









14 Soil Survey



4-Canaveral-Urban land complex. This complex for 10 months during most years. In some years, the soil
consists of Canaveral fine sand and areas of Urban land. is covered by standing water for several days.
The Canaveral soil and Urban land are so intermingled The available water capacity is low. Permeability is
that they cannot be separated at the scale used for very rapid.
mapping. Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, Brazilian
About 50 to 70 percent of each area of the complex pepper, sand cordgrass, leatherleaf fern, and waxmyrtle.
consists of nearly level Canaveral soils or areas of This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
Canaveral soils that have been reworked or reshaped, wetness and sandy texture. The number of adapted
but which still are recognizable as Canaveral soils. crops is limited unless very intensive management
Typically, Canaveral soils have a surface layer of black practices are followed. With good water control
and dark gray fine sand that is mixed with shell measures and soil improving measures, this soil can be
fragments. Beneath the surface layer, to a depth of 80 made suitable for some vegetable crops. A water control
inches or more, are layers of light brownish gray and system is needed to remove excess water in wet
light gray fine sand mixed with shell fragments. seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation
About 20 to 30 percent of each area is Urban land. in dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close-
This land is used for houses, streets, driveways, growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should
buildings, parking lots, and other related uses. include the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths
Unoccupied areas are mostly in lawns, vacant lots, or of the time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding
playgrounds consisting of Canaveral soils. of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
Included in this complex, and making up about 10 to according to the need of the crops.
20 percent of the map unit, are areas of Captiva soils. The soil is poorly suited to citrus. It is suitable for
Areas of the soils that have been modified by grading citrus only after a carefully designed water control
and shaping are not so extensive in the older system has been installed that will maintain the water
communities as in the newer ones. Sandy material from table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
drainage ditches is commonly used to fill low areas. In planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained
places, material is hauled in to fill low areas. In between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and
undrained areas, the water table is at a depth of 18 to lime are needed.
40 inches for a period of 2 to 6 months in most years. The soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
Drainage systems have been established in most areas, improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when
however, and the depth to the water table is dependent they are well managed. Water control measures are
on the drainage system. needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
Present land use precludes the use of this complex for rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture. needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
This complex has not been assigned to a capability overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
subclass. This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine
trees, but only after a water control system is installed
5-Captiva fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly that will lower the water table. Equipment limitations,
drained soil in sloughs. Slopes are smooth to concave seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
and range from 0 to 1 percent. management concerns. South Florida slash pine is the
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 best tree to plant.
inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand mixed This soil has severe limitations for urban development
with shell fragments to a depth of 80 inches or more. because of the high water table.
The upper 9 inches is pale brown with light gray streaks, This Captiva soil is in capability subclass IVw.
the next 11 inches is light gray with many pale brown
mottles, the next 4 inches is light gray with about 30 6-Hallandale fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
percent multicolored shell fragments, and the lower 50 drained soil on low, broad flatwoods areas. Slopes are
inches is light gray. smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 2
Canaveral and Kesson soils. Also included are scattered inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
areas of Captiva fine sand that is ponded and soils that about 5 inches thick. The substratum is very pale brown
are similar to Captiva soils but have more than 35 fine sand about 5 inches thick. At a depth of 12 inches is
percent shell fragments larger than 2 millimeters fractured limestone bedrock that has solution holes
between depths of 10 and 40 inches. Included soils extending to a depth of 25 inches. These solution holes
make up about 5 to 10 percent of any mapped area. contain mildly alkaline, loamy material.
In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
water table within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 2 Boca soils and soils that have yellowish horizons or a
months. The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches brownish stain between the subsurface layer and








Lee County, Florida 15



limestone. Also included are scattered areas of rock 7-Matlacha-Urban land complex. This complex
outcrop, which are less than 1 acre, and soils that have consists of nearly level Matlacha gravelly fine sand and
hard calcareous material at a depth of less than 20 areas of Urban land. The areas of the Matlacha soil and
inches. Included soils generally make up about 5 to 10 of Urban land are so intermingled that it was not
percent of any mapped area. practical to map them separately at the scale used for
In most years, under natural conditions, the water mapping. The mapped areas range from about 20 to 640
table is less than 10 inches below the surface for 1 to 3 acres.
months. It recedes below the limestone for about 7 About 35 to 50 percent of each mapped area is
months. Matlacha soil. About 20 to 30 percent is Urban land
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is presently covered by houses and other buildings and by
low. Permeability is moderate or moderately rapid. streets and other forms of pavement. There are canals
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, pineland in some of the areas.
threeawn, bluestem, panicums, and South Florida slash Typically, the surface layer of the Matlacha soil is
pine. about 40 inches of light gray, gray, very pale brown,
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of grayish brown, very dark grayish brown, and dark gray
wetness, shallow depth, and sandy texture. The number mixed gravelly fine sand and sandy material. The surface
of adapted crops is limited unless good water control layer contains lenses of loamy sand and coated sandy
measures and soil improving measures are used. This fragments of a former subsoil and is about 25 percent
soil can be made suitable for some vegetable crops by coarse fragments of limestone and shell. Below the
using a water control system that will remove excess surface layer, to a depth of 80 inches or more, there is
water in wet seasons and provide water through undisturbed fine sand. The upper 6 inches is dark gray
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. The presence of and the rest is light gray with dark grayish brown stains
rock near the surface, however, makes construction of and streaks along old root channels.
such a system difficult. Row crops should be rotated with Included in mapping, and scattered throughout the
close-growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should survey area, are soils that are similar to the Matlacha
include the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths soil, but they have heavy loamy material and soils that
of the time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding have boulders or are more than 35 percent shell or rock
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added fragments larger than 3 inches. In addition, there are
according to the need of the crops. areas of similar soils that have a limestone ledge below
This soil is poorly suited to citrus. In those areas that the mixed fill material. Also included are areas of fill
are relatively free from freezing temperatures, it is material that are less than 20 inches thick over
suitable for citrus but only after a carefully designed undisturbed soils. The included soils make up about 10
water control system has been installed. The water to 15 percent of any mapped area.
control system should maintain the water table below a The depth to the water table varies with the amount of
depth of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds fill material and the extent of artificial drainage. However,
and a vegetative cover maintained between the trees. in most years, the water table is 24 to 36 inches below
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. the surface of the fill material for 2 to 4 months. It is
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, below a depth of 60 inches during extended dry periods.
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they The available water capacity is variable, but it is
are well managed. Water control measures are needed estimated to be low. Permeability is variable within short
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains, distances, but it is estimated to be moderately rapid or
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, rapid in the fill material and rapid in the underlying
and grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing material. Natural fertility is estimated to be low.
and weakening of the plants. Most of the natural vegetation has been removed. The
This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash existing vegetation consists of scattered South Florida
pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, windthrow slash pine and various weeds.
hazard, and plant competition are the main management Present land use precludes using this soil for
concerns. agriculture. The soil is poorly suited to most plants
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range unless topsoil is spread over the surface to form a
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping suitable root zone.
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and The areas not presently covered by urban structures
chalky bluestem. Good management practices include have moderate limitations for most kinds of building site
deferred grazing and brush control. This Hallandale soil development and severe limitations for sanitary facilities
is in the South Florida Flatwoods range site. and recreational uses. The high water table and sandy
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses because surface are the major limitations. Unstable surface
of shallowness to bedrock and wetness. materials can severely limit shallow excavations, and the
This Hallandale soil is in capability subclass IVw. high water table severely limits dwellings with








16 Soil Survey



basements. In scattered areas, the fill material contains loamy sand. The next 13 inches is light gray sand. The
boulders or compacted sandy material that can interfere lower 22 inches is light gray sandy loam.
with the installation of underground utilities or the proper Included with this soil in mapping, and making up 10 to
functioning of septic tank absorption fields. 15 percent of the map unit, are small areas of Malabar,
This complex has not been assigned to a capability Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils.
subclass. In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
8-Hallandale fine sand, tidal. This is a nearly level, months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for more
poorly drained soil on the outer edges of tidal flats. than 6 months.
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 The available water capacity is very low in the surface
percent. and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the
about 2 inches thick. The underlying layers are gray fine surface and subsurface layers and moderately slow or
sand to a depth of 19 inches. Below is hard, fractured moderate in the subsoil.
limestone bedrock with solution holes up to 26 inches A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation:
deep that contain moderately alkaline loamy material. sawpalmetto, South Florida slash pine, chalky bluestem,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of pineland threeawn, and runner oak.
Rock outcrop. This inclusion makes up about 10 to 15 This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
percent of any mapped area. wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted
The water table fluctuates with the tide. This soil is crops is limited unless very intensive management
subject to tidal flooding. practices are followed. With good water control
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is measures and soil improving measures, this soil is well
low. Permeability is moderately rapid. suited for some vegetable crops. A water control system
Natural vegetation consists of seashore saltgrass, is needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and
black mangrove, batis, and sea daisy. provide water through subsurface irrigation in dry
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, pasture seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close-
grasses, or woodland because of high salt content and growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should
tidal flooding. include the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths
This soil has moderate potential for range plant of the time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding
production. Saltwater marshes are on level sites where of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added
tidal flow of saltwater and brackish water have a according to the need of the crops.
significant effect on plant composition. When in good or This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
excellent condition, the saltwater marsh is dominated by management is used. It is suitable for citrus only after a
smooth cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass, seashore carefully designed water control system has been
saltgrass, and other grasses and forbs. These grasses installed that will maintain the water table below a depth
and forbs provide a high level of palatable forage for of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds and a
livestock grazing. Good grazing and burning vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular
management is required to maintain these sites in their applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
most desirable condition. This Hallandale soil is in the This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
Salt Water Marsh range site. improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, they are well managed. Water control measures are
community development, and recreation even if areas needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
are protected from tidal flooding. Mounding is needed for rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
septic tank absorption fields. needed. Controlling grazing will help to prevent
This Hallandale soil is in capability subclass VIllIw. overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
The soil has moderately high potential productivity for
9-EauGallie sand. This is a nearly level, poorly South Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in
drained soil on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex establishing seedlings.and in removing excess surface
and less than 1 percent. water.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4 This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand that is gray in plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
the upper 5 inches and light gray in the lower 13 inches. bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
The subsoil and underlying material are sand, loamy chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
sand, and sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. deferred grazing and brush control. This EauGallie soil is
The upper 5 inches is dark brown sand that is well in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
coated with organic matter. The next 14 inches is dark The soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
brown loamy sand. The next 4 inches is pale brown because of the high water table.








Lee County, Florida 17



This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw. This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
production. The dominant forage consists of blue
10-Pompano fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
drained soil on sloughs. Slopes are smooth to concave Management practices should include deferred grazing.
and range from 0 to 1 percent. This Pompano soil is in the Slough range site.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand The soil has severe limitations for urban and
about 4 inches thick. The underlying layers are light gray, recreational uses because of the high water table.
very pale brown, or white fine sand and extend to a This Pompano soil is in capability subclass IVw.
depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 11-Myakka fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
Malabar, Anclote, and Valkaria soils. Also included are drained soil on broad flatwoods areas. Slopes are
small areas of a soil that has limestone at a depth of 40 smooth to slightly concave and range from 0 to 2
to 80 inches. The included soils make up about 10 to 15 percent.
percent of any mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
In most years, under natural conditions, the water about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 about 23 inches thick. In the upper 3 inches it is gray,
months and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6 and in the lower 20 inches it is light gray. The subsoil is
months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches for fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 4
about 3 months. During periods of high rainfall, the soil is inches is black and firm, the next 5 inches is dark
covered by slowly moving water for periods of about 7 to reddish brown and friable, the next 17 inches is black
30 days or more. and firm, the next 11 inches is dark reddish brown and
The available water capacity is very low. Natural friable, and the lower 17 inches is mixed black and dark
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid. reddish brown and friable.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
Natural vegetation consists of pineland threeawn, EauGallie, Immokalee, Oldsmar, Smyran, and Wabasso
scattered South Florida slash pine, bluestem, soils. Also included are small areas of similar soils with
maidencane, and scattered sawpalmetto, subsoils low in organic matter content and less than 12
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of inches thick. Included soils make 10 to 15 percent of any
wetness and sandy texture. The kinds of crops that will mapped area.
grow on this soil are limited unless very intensive In most years, under natural conditions, the water
management practices are followed. With good water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months
control measures and soil-improving measures, this soil and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 6 months.
can be made suitable for some vegetable crops. A water It is more than 40 inches below the surface during
control system is needed to remove excess water in wet extended dry periods.
seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation The available water capacity is medium in the subsoil
in dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close- and very low in the surface and subsurface layers.
growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should keep Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface
the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths of the and subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid
time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the in the subsoil.
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added according to Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, fetterbush,
the needs of the crops. pineland threeawn, and South Florida slash pine.
The soil is poorly suited to citrus. It is suitable for This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
citrus only after a carefully designed water control wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted
system has been installed that will maintain the water crops is limited unless very intensive management
table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be practices are followed. With good water control and soil
planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained improving measures, the soil can be made suitable for
between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and some vegetable crops. A water control system is needed
lime are needed. to remove excess water in wet seasons and provide
The soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, water through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row'
improved bahiagrasses, and white clover grow well when crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
they are well managed. Water control measures are improving crops. The rotation should keep the soil-
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy improving crops on the land three-fourths of the time.
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
needed. Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
and weakening of the plants. need of the crops.
The soil has moderately high potential productivity for This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Areas subject to
South Florida slash pine. frequent freezing in winter are not suitable. This soil is









18 Soil Survey



suitable for citrus only after a carefully designed water soil is well suited to many fruit and vegetable crops. A
control system has been installed that will maintain the complete water control system is one that removes
water table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be excess water rapidly and provides a means of applying
planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained subsurface irrigation. Soil-improving crops are
between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and recommended. Seedbed preparation should include
lime are needed. bedding. Fertilizer should be applied according to the
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, needs of the crop.
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when With proper water control, the soil is well suited to
they are well managed. Water control measures are citrus trees. A water control system that maintains good
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy drainage to a depth of about 4 feet is needed. Bedding
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are and planting the trees on the beds help provide good
needed. Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing surface drainage. A good cover of close-growing
and weakening of the plants. vegetation is needed between the trees to protect the
The soil has moderate potential productivity for South soil from blowing when the trees are young. The trees
Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in establishing require regular applications of fertilizer and occasional
seedlings and in removing excess surface water. liming.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. It is well
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Excellent
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and pastures of grass or of a grass-clover mixture can be
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include grown with good management. Regular applications of
deferred grazing and brush control. This Myakka soil is in fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for highest
the South Florida Flatwoods range site. yields.
The soil has severe limitations for urban development The potential productivity for pine trees on this soil is
because of the high water table. moderately high. However, adequate water control is
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw. needed before the potential can be attained. Equipment
2-Felda fine sand. This is a nearly level, poory limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
12-Felda fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly th m management concerns South Florida slash
drained soil on broad, nearly level sloughs. Slopes aree is th e tree o pant
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. pine is the best tree to plant.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand This soil has high potential for range plant production.
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray The dominant forage consists of blue maidencane,
and light brownish gray fine sand about 14 inches thick. chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum. Management
The subsoil is light gray loamy fine sand about 16 inches practices should include deferred grazing. This Felda soil
thick and is underlain by gray and light gray fine sand is in the Slough range site.
that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. This soil has severe limitations for urban uses because
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of of the high water table.
Boca, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. This Felda soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
These inclusions rarely exceed 15 percent of any
mapped area. 13-Boca fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a drained soil on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth and range
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 from 0 to 2 percent.
months. The water table is 10 to 40 inches below the Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
surface for about 6 months. It is more than 40 inches inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 22
below the surface for about 2 months. During periods of inches thick. The upper 11 inches is light gray and the
high rainfall, the soil is covered by a shallow layer of lower 11 inches is very pale brown. The subsoil, about 5
slowly moving water for periods of about 7 to 30 days or inches thick, is gray fine sandy loam with brownish
more. yellow mottles and calcareous nodules. At a depth of 30
The available water capacity is low in the surface and inches is a layer of fractured limestone.
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and Hallandale, Wabasso, and Felda soils that have a
subsurface layers, moderate or moderately rapid in the yellowish horizon between the subsurface layer and
subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. subsoil. Also included are soils with limestone at a depth
Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, pineland of 40 to 72 inches and small areas where the soil is
threeawn, South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, and better drained than is typical. Included soils make up
maidencane. about 15 percent of any mapped area.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of In most years, under natural conditions, the water
wetness. If a complete water control system is used, the table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4








Lee County, Florida 19



months. It recedes below the limestone for about 6 inches is yellow, the next 4 inches is brownish yellow,
months. the next 6 inches is yellowish brown, and the lowermost
The available water capacity is low in the surface and 54 inches is pale yellow, yellow, brown, and very pale
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural brown.
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. about 10 to 15 percent of the map unit, are small areas
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, pineland of Malabar, Pineda, and Pompano soils.
threeawn, South Florida slash pine, and waxmyrtle. In most years, under natural conditions, the water
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 3
wetness. If a complete water control system is installed months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for about 6
and maintained, the soils are suitable for many fruit and months and recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
vegetable crops. A complete water control system for about 3 months. During periods of high rainfall, the
removes excess surface and internal water rapidly. It soil is covered by slowly moving water for periods of
also provides a means of, applying subsurface irrigation, about 7 to 30 days or more.
Soil-improving crops are recommended. Other important The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
management practices are good seedbed preparation, low. Permeability is rapid.
including bedding, and fertilizer applied according to the Natural vegetation consists of sparse sawpalmetto,
needs of the crop. South Florida slash pine, melaleuca, and maidencane.
If this soil receives proper water control, it is well This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
suited to citrus. Water control systems that maintain wetness and sandy texture. The kinds of crops that can
good drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are needed. be grown on this soil are limited unless very extensive
Bedding and planting the trees on the beds help to management practices are followed. With good water-
provide good surface drainage. A good cover of close- control measures and soil-improving measures, the soil
growing vegetation between the trees helps to protect can be made suitable for some vegetable crops. A water
the soil from blowing in dry weather and from washing control system is needed to remove excess water in wet
during rains. The trees require regular applications of seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation
fertilizer, but applications of lime are not needed. in dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close-
The soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should keep
Bahiagrass and pangolagrass grow well if well managed, the soil-improving crops on the land three-fourths of the
Water control measures are needed to remove excess time. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the
surface water after heavy rains. Regular applications of rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added according to
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlling grazing helps the need of the crops.
to prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants. The soil is poorly suited to citrus. It is suitable for
The potential productivity for pine trees on this soil is citrus only after a carefully designed water control
high. However, water control is needed before the system has been installed that will maintain the water
potential can be attained. Seedling mortality, equipment table below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be
limitations, and plant competition are the main planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained
management concerns. South Florida slash pine is the between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and
best tree to plant. lime are needed.
This soil has moderate potential for range plant The soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem, improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when
lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky they are well managed. Water control measures are
bluestem. Management practices should include deferred needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
grazing and brush control. This Boca soil is in the South rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
Florida Flatwoods range site. needed. Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, and weakening of the plants.
building site development, and recreational uses primarily The soil has moderate potential productivity for South
because of the high water table. Florida slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling
This Boca soil is in capability subclass IIIw. mortality, and plant competition are major management
concerns.
14-Valkaria fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
drained soil on sloughs. Slopes are smooth to concave production. The dominant forage consists of blue
and range from 0 to 1 percent. maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
Typically, the surface layer is about 2 inches of dark Management practices should include deferred grazing.
grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer is 5 This Valkaria soil is in the Slough range site.
inches of very pale brown fine sand. The subsoil is loose The soil has severe limitations for urban development
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 9 because of the high water table.








20 Soil Survey



This Valkaria soil is in capability subclass IVw. upper part and light brownish gray and grayish brown
mottles in the lower part. It is about 27 inches thick. The
15-Estero muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly subsoil is fine sand about 12 inches thick. The upper 7
drained soil on broad tidal marsh areas. Slopes are inches is dark grayish brown and very dark grayish
smooth and range from 0 to 1 percent. brown, and the lower 5 inches is brown and dark brown
Typically, the surface layer is about 13 inches thick. with very dark grayish brown mottles. The substratum is
The upper 5 inches is black muck, the next 3 inches is pale brown fine sand with very dark grayish brown
black fine sand, and the lower 5 inches is very dark gray streaks to a depth of 61 inches or more.
fine sand. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 20 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
inches thick. The upper 6 inches is light brownish gray Hallandale, Boca, and Estero soils. Also included are
with few fine distinct yellowish red mottles. The lower 14 soils with loamy material and limestone below a depth of
inches is grayish brown with few, medium, distinct 40 inches. Included soils make up about 10 to 15
yellowish red mottles. The subsoil is massive fine sand percent of any mapped area.
about 22 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is black and The water table fluctuates with the tide. The soil is
dark grayish brown, the next 4 inches is black and dark subject to tidal flooding.
reddish brown, and the lowermost 12 inches is dark The available water capacity is high in the surface
brown and black. Grayish brown fine sand with few fine layer and medium or low in the other layers. Natural
distinct black mottles extends to a depth of 80 inches or fertility is low. Permeability is rapid.
more. Natural vegetation consists of black mangrove,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of American mangrove, and batis.
Hallandale fine sand, tidal. Also included are soils that .
do not have a mucky surface layer. This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, pasture
The water table fluctuates with the tide. The soil is grasses, citrus, or woodland. It has severe limitations for
subject to tidal flooding, urban and recreational uses because of the flooding,
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is high water table, and sandy textures.
low. Permeability is moderately rapid. This Peckish soil is in capability subclass VIIIw.
Natural vegetation consists of seashore saltgrass, -Daytona sand. This is a nearly level to gently
batis, oxeye daisy, black mangrove, and scattered red 17-Daytona sand. This is a nearly level to gently
batis, oxeye daisy, black mangrove, and scattered red sloping, moderately well drained soil on low ridges on

This soi has moderate potential for range plant the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex and are 0 to
production. Saltwater marshes are on level sites where 5 percent.
tidal flow of saltwater and brackish water have a Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4
significant effect on plant composition. When in good or inches thick The subsurface layers are light gray and
excellent condition, the saltwater marsh is dominated by white sand about 39 inches thick. The subsoil is sand to
smooth cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass, seashore a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 7 inches is
saltgrass, and numerous other grasses and forbs. These mixed black and dark reddish brown, and the lower 30
grasses and forbs provide high levels of palatable forage inches is dark brown.
for livestock grazing. Good grazing and burning Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
management are required to maintain these sites in their Immokalee, Myakka, Orsino, and Pompano soils. Also
most desirable condition. This Estero soil is in the Salt included are similar soils with a combined surface and
Water Marsh range site. subsurface layer that is more than 51 inches thick. All
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, pasture included soils except the Orsino soils are in lower
grasses, citrus, or woodland because of the flood hazard positions on the landscape. Included soils make up less
and high salt content. than 15 percent of any mapped area.
This soil has severe limitations for urban and In most years, under natural conditions, the water
recreational uses because of the flood hazard, high table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for about 1 to 4
water table, and high salt content. months. It is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 8 months.
This Estero soil is in capability subclass Vlllw. The available water capacity is very low, except in the
subsoil where it is medium. Natural fertility is low.
16-Peckish mucky fine sand. This is a nearly level, Permeability is very rapid in the surface layer and
very poorly drained soil on broad tidal swamp areas. moderately rapid in the subsoil.
Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 1 percent. The natural vegetation consists of oaks, sawpalmetto,
Typically, the surface layer is mucky fine sand about 9 South Florida slash pine, and gallberry.
inches thick. The upper 4 inches is dark reddish brown, This soil is not suitable for cultivated field crops.
the next 2 inches is dark grayish brown, and the lower 3 This soil has fair suitability for pasture. Grasses, such
inches is dark reddish brown. The subsurface layer is as pangolagrass and bahiagrass, make fair yields under
gray and light gray fine sand with light gray streaks in the good management.








Lee County, Florida 21



The soil has moderate potential productivity for South Most of the natural vegetation has been removed. The
Florida slash pine. Sand pine is better suited than other existing vegetation consists of South Florida slash pine
trees. Seedling mortality, mobility of equipment, and and various scattered weeds.
plant competition are the major management problems. This soil is poorly suited to most plants unless topsoil
This soil has low potential for desirable range plant is spread over the surface to form a suitable root zone.
production. The vegetative community consists of a This soil has moderate limitations for most building site
dense, woody understory that includes sawpalmetto, development and severe limitations for sanitary facilities
Florida rosemary, and scrub oak. Although this site is and recreational uses. The high water table and sandy
seldom grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter surface textures are the major limitations. The depth to
protection. This Daytona soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub the limestone is the major problem for some uses, such
range site. as underground utilities or septic tank installation.
The soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities Unstable surface materials can severely limit shallow
because of the high water table and rapid permeability, excavations, and the high water table severely limits
The high water table and sandy texture cause some Tsloisin ty subclass Vis.
o fr This soil is in capability subclass Vis.
limitations for building sites.
This Daytona soil is in capability subclass VIs. 19-Gator muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
drained organic soil in freshwater marshes. Slopes range
18-Matlacha gravelly fine sand, limestone from 0 to 1 percent.
substratum. This is a nearly level, somewhat poorly Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 8
drained soil that formed as a result of earthmoving inches thick. The underlying organic material extends to
operations in areas that are underlain by limestone a depth of 29 inches. The upper 13 inches is very dark
bedrock. Slopes are smooth to slightly convex and range grayish brown, well decomposed organic material. The
from 0 to 2 percent. next 8 inches is dark brown, well decomposed organic
Typically, the surface layer is about 23 inches of pale material. Mineral material extends to a depth of 80
brown, brownish yellow, light yellowish brown, and light inches. The upper 3 inches is very dark gray fine sand.
gray mixed gravelly fine sand and sand material. The The next 2 inches is light brownish gray fine sand. The
surface layer contains lenses of loamy sand and coated next 5 inches is dark gray fine sandy loam with light gray
sandy fragments of a former subsoil and is about 25 sand intrusions. The next 24 inches is gray fine sandy
percent coarse fragments of limestone and shell. loam with calcium carbonate streaks. The next 5 inches
Extending to a depth of 48 inches is undisturbed soil is light gray loam with shell fragments. The lowermost 12
material. The upper 5 inches is dark gray fine sand, the inches is gray fine sand.
next 16 inches is light gray fine sand, and the lowermost Included with this soil in mapping are Terra Ceia soils
4 inches is light brownish gray fine sandy loam. and similar soils in which the muck is less than 16
Fractured limestone bedrock is at a depth of 48 inches. inches thick. Also included are small areas where the
Thickness of the fill material over the natural soil ranges organic matter is less decomposed. Included soils make
from about 20 to 43 inches. up about 15 percent of any mapped area.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
Hallandale and Boca soils and soils that do not have a covered with water for 3 to 6 months. The water table is
limestone substratum. Also included are areas where 10 to 24 inches below the surface during extended dry
rock fragments make up more than 35 percent of the fill periods.
material areas where the fill material is finr textured, The available water capacity is high. Natural fertility is
material, areas where fill material is ler te moderate. Permeability is rapid in the organic material
and areas where the fill material is less than 20 inches
thick. Also included are areas of Wabasso, limestone layers.
substratum, soils. The included soils make up about 15 ral vegetation consists of sawgrass, sand
Natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, sand
to 20 percent of any mapped area. cordgrass, and waxmyrtle.
The depth to the water table varies with the amount of This soil is not suitable for cultivation unless drained.
fill material and the extent of artificial drainage. However, With adequate water control, it is well suited to most
in most years, the water table is at a depth of 18 to 30 vegetable crops and sugar cane. A well designed and
inches for 2 to 4 months. It is below the limestone during maintained water control system should remove excess
extended dry periods. water during times when crops are on the land and keep
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is the soils saturated at all other times. Fertilizers that
variable, but it is estimated to be moderately rapid to contain phosphorus, potassium, and minor elements are
rapid in the fill material and rapid in the upper part of the needed. The soil needs regular applications of lime.
underlying material. It is moderately slow in lower Water-tolerant cover crops should be on the soil when
horizons. Natural fertility is estimated to be low. row crops are not being grown.








22 Soil Survey



Most improved grasses and clovers adapted to the contain phosphates, potash, and minor elements are
area grow well on this soil if water is properly controlled. needed. This soil needs high applications of lime. Water-
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover grow well. tolerant cover crops should be kept on the soil when it is
Water control that maintains the water table near the not in use for row crops.
surface prevents excessive oxidation of the organic Most improved grasses and clovers adapted to the
horizons. Fertilizers high in potassium, phosphorus, and area grow well on this soil if water is properly controlled.
minor elements are needed. Grazing should be High yields of pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white
controlled to permit maximum yields. clover can be grown. Water control that maintains the
This soil is not suitable for citrus. water table near the surface prevents excessive
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range oxidation of the organic horizons. Fertilizers high in
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane potash, phosphorus, and minor elements are needed.
and cutgrass. Because the depth to the water table Grazing should be controlled to permit maximum yields.
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from This soil is not suitable for citrus.
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
forage production, the periods of high water may reduce plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
the grazing value of the site. This Gator soil is in the and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site. fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
This soil is not suitable for pine trees. It has severe cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
limitations for urban and recreational development forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
because of ponding. the grazing value of the site. This Terra Ceia soil is in the
This Gator soil is in capability subclass VIIw. Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
This soil is not suitable for pine trees. It has severe
20-Ter ra Ceda muck. This is a nearly level, very limitations for urban development and recreational uses
poorly drained organic soil on freshwater marsh areas because of the ponding and high organic matter content.
Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black, well decomposed This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
organic material about 8 inches thick. The underlying 22-Beaches. Beaches consist of narrow strips of
organic material extends to a depth of 53 inches. The nearly level, mixed sand and shell fragments along the
upper 27 inches is black, well decomposed organic Gunearly levelxico, mixThese areas ae covell fragments along ter
material. The next 18 inches is very dark grayish brown, atGulf ofdaily Mehigh tidsco. These areas are cover with saltwater
well decomposed organic material. Mineral material at i tide an areas are subject to movement
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 3 by the wind and tide and are bare of vegetation in most
inches is black mucky fine sand. The next 3 inches is places. The only vegetation is salt-tolerant plants.
light brownish gray fine sand. The lower 21 inches is Beaches are geographically associated with Canaveral
dark gray and gray fine sandy loam. soils.
Included with this soil in mapping are Gator soils and Beaches are used intensively for recreation during the
areas of similar soils in which the organic material is less entire year. Homes, condominiums, beach cottages, and
than 16 inches thick. Also included are small areas motels have been built on the fringes of beaches in
where the organic material is more than 80 inches thick. many places.
Included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped
area. 23-Wulfert muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is drained soil on broad tidal swamps. Slopes are smooth
covered with water for 3 to 6 months. The water table is and range from 0 to 1 percent.
10 to 24 inches below the surface during extended dry Typically, the surface layer is muck that is dark reddish
periods, brown to a depth of 12 inches and dark brown to a
The available water capacity is medium. Natural fertility depth of 36 inches. Beneath the muck is gray fine sand
is moderate. Permeability is rapid. with light gray streaks and about 10 percent shell
Natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, sand fragments.
cordgrass, and waxmyrtle. Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of about 15 percent of the map unit, are small areas of
wetness. In its natural condition it is not suitable for Kesson soils and soils similar to Wulfert soils but with
cultivation, but with adequate water control it is well limestone at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
suited to most vegetable crops and sugar cane. A well The water table fluctuates with the tide. Areas are
designed and maintained water control system is subject to tidal flooding.
needed. The water control system should remove The available water capacity is high in the organic
excess water when crops are on the land and keep the horizons and low in the horizons below. Natural fertility is
soil saturated with water at all other times. Fertilizers that medium. Permeability is rapid.








Lee County, Florida 23



Natural vegetation consists of American mangrove, percent is Urban land that is covered by houses and
black mangrove, and needlegrass. other buildings and streets and other forms of pavement.
This soil has moderate potential for range plant The remainder of the mapped area consists of canals.
production. Saltwater marshes are on level sites where The St. Augustine soil is in marshes and mangrove
tidal flow of saltwater and brackish water have a swamps. It consists of gray to pale brown sand, with
significant effect on plant composition. When in good or about 25 percent multicolored shell fragments, overlying
excellent condition, the saltwater marsh is dominated by organic layers. Slopes are smooth to slightly convex and
smooth cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass, seashore range from 0 to 2 percent.
saltgrass, and numerous other grasses and forbs. These St. Augustine sand, organic substratum, does not have
grasses and forbs provide high levels of palatable forage an orderly sequence of soil layers in the fill material
for livestock grazing. Good grazing and burning above the organic substratum. The layers are a variable
management is required to maintain these sites in their mixture of sands and multicolored shell fragments.
most desirable condition. This Wulfert soil is in the Salt Thickness of the fill material ranges from about 26 to 68
Water Marsh range site. inches. Typically, the material is about 51 inches of
This soil has severe limitations for urban development mixed dark gray, dark grayish brown, grayish brown, and
and recreational uses. It is not suitable for cultivated gray sand and about 25 percent multicolored shell
crops, pasture grasses, citrus, or woodland. The flood fragments. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
hazard and high salt and sulfur content are limitations to there is dark reddish brown compressed muck.
these uses. Included in this complex are small areas of Kesson
This soil is in capability subclass Vlllw. soils and areas where the fill material is less than 20
inches thick over the organic substratum. Also included
24-Kesson fine sand. This is a nearly level, very are areas where the fill material is high in salt content or
poorly drained soil in broad tidal swamps. Areas are contains fragments of a former subsoil. In several
subject to tidal flooding. Slopes are smooth and range included areas there are no buildings or other urban
from 0 to 1 percent. structures. Inclusions make up less than 15 percent of
Typically, the surface layer is about 6 inches of sand most mapped areas.
that contains shell fragments. The underlying layers are The depth to the water table varies with the amount of
fine sand that contains shell fragments, and they extend fill material and the extent of artificial drainage within any
to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 4 inches is mapped area. However, in most years, the water table is
pale brown, the next 3 inches is light brownish gray, the 24 to 48 inches below the surface of the fill material for
next 25 inches is light gray with dark gray streaks, and 2 to 4 months. It is below a depth of 48 inches during
the lower 42 inches is white. extended dry periods.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Captiva The available water capacity is low in the fill material
and Wulfert soils and soils that have organic surface and high in the underlying organic material. Permeability
layers. Also included are soils that have loamy material is estimated to be rapid. Natural fertility is low.
throughout. Included soils make up about 10 to 15 Most of the natural vegetation has been removed.
percent of any mapped area. There are scattered weeds in vacant lots. The soil is
The water table fluctuates with the tide. poorly suited to most plants unless topsoil is spread over,
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is the surface to make a suitable root zone.
low. Permeability is moderately rapid or rapid. The soil has severe limitations for most kinds of
Natural vegetation consists of black mangrove, batis, community development and related uses. The
oxeye daisy, and American mangrove, underlying organic material can cause subsidence
This soil has severe limitations for urban development, problems. The rapid permeability and high water table
and it is poorly suited for cultivated crops, pasture could cause pollution of canals or ground water in areas
grasses, citrus, and woodland because of the flood with septic tank absorption fields.
hazard and high salt and sulfur content. This complex was not assigned to a capability
This Kesson soil is in capability subclass VIIIw. subclass.

25-St. Augustine sand, organic substratum-Urban 26-Pineda fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
land complex. This map unit consists of nearly level St. drained soil on sloughs. Slopes are smooth to slightly
Augustine sand, organic substratum, and areas of Urban concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
land. The areas of the St. Augustine soil and of Urban Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 1
land are so intermingled that it was not practical to map inch thick. The subsurface layer is very pale brown fine
them separately at the scale used for mapping. The sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil
mapped areas range from about 10 to 100 acres. is brownish yellow fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
About 50 to 65 percent of each mapped area is St. next 10 inches is strong brown fine sand. The next 6
Augustine sand, organic substratum, and about 20 to 35 inches is yellowish brown fine sand. The next 7 inches is









24 Soil Survey



light gray fine sand with brownish yellow mottles. The grass-clover mixtures can be grown with good
lower part of the subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy management. Regular applications of fertilizer and
loam with light gray sandy intrusions about 18 inches controlled grazing help to produce highest yields.
thick. The substratum is light gray fine sand to a depth of The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
80 inches or more. high. Seedling mortality, equipment limitations, and plant
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of competition are the main management concerns. A
Wabasso, Valkaria, Felda, Hallandale, Boca, and water control system is needed to obtain the potential.
Malabar soils. Also included are small areas of Pineda South Florida slash pine is the best tree to plant.
soils that are in higher positions on the landscape. Small This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
areas of Pineda, depressional, soils are also included, production. The dominant forage consists of blue
Some areas of this soil are underlain by limestone or maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
shell fragments at a depth of 60 inches or more. In a few Management practices should include deferred grazing.
places, a thin layer of very friable calcareous material is This Pineda soil is in the Slough range site.
at a depth of 10 to 30 inches, and in other places a thin This soil has severe limitations for urban development
dark brown or black layer occurs at the base of the primarily because of the high water table.
subsurface layer. Included soils make up about 10 to 15 This Pineda soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
percent of any mapped area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water 27-Pompano fine sand, depressional. This is a
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 nearly level, poorly drained soil in depressions (fig. 5).
months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for more Slopes are concave and less than 1 percent.
than 6 months, and it recedes to more than 40 inches Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
below the surface during extended dry periods. During inches thick. The substratum is fine sand to a depth of
periods of high rainfall, the soil is covered by a shallow 80 inches or more. The upper 32 inches is light brownish
layer of slowly moving water for periods of about 7 to 30 gray with few, fine, faint yellowish brown mottles. The
days or more (fig. 4). lower 45 inches is light gray.
The available water capacity is very low in the surface Included with this soil in mapping, and making up 5 to
and subsurface layers and in the upper, sandy part of 10 percent of the map unit, are small areas of Myakka,
the subsoil and medium in the lower, loamy part of the Anclote, Malabar, and Valkaria soils.
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the In most years, under natural conditions, the water
surface and subsurface layers and the upper, sandy part table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months
of the subsoil and slow or very slow in the lower, loamy and stands above the surface for about 3 months. It is
part of the subsoil. 10 to 40 inches below the surface for more than 5
Natural vegetation consists of pineland threeawn, months.
panicums, sedges, maidencane, waxmyrtle, South The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
Florida slash pine, and scattered clumps of sawpalmetto. low. Permeability is rapid.
This soil has poor suitability for cultivated crops A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation:
because of wetness. With a complete water control St.-Johnswort and waxmyrtle.
system, it is fairly suited to many fruit and vegetable This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
crops. A complete water control system removes excess pasture, woodland, or citrus because of prolonged
water rapidly and provides a means of applying ponding.
subsurface irrigation. Good soil management includes This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
crop rotations that keep the soil in close-growing cover plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
crops at least two-thirds of the time. Seedbed and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
preparation should include bedding. Fertilizers should be fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
applied according to the needs of the crop. cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
With proper water control, the soil has fair suitability forage production, the periods of high water can reduce
for citrus trees. Water control systems that maintain the grazing value of the site. This Pompano soil is in the
good drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are needed. Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
Bedding and planting the trees on the beds helps to In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
provide good surface drainage. A good cover of close- septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
growing vegetation between the trees protects the soils basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
from blowing when the trees are young. The trees and streets.
require regular applications of fertilizers and occasional This Pompano soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
liming.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops with 28-immokalee sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
proper water control. It is well suited to pangolagrass, drained soil in flatwoods areas. Slopes are smooth to
bahiagrasses, and clovers. Excellent pastures of grass or convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.









Lee County, Florida 25










I







--4f




































Figure 4.-An area of Pineda fine sand in a slough. During the rainy season, slowly moving water covers the surface in most undisturbed
areas for about 7 to 30 days.




Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 4 yellowish brown. The substratum is very pale brown sand
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray sand in to a depth of 80 inches or more.
the upper 5 inches and light gray sand in the lower 27 Included with this soil in mapping are EauGallie,
inches. The subsoil is sand to a depth of 69 inches. The Myakka, Oldsmar, Smyrna, and Wabasso soils. Also
upper 14 inches is black and firm, the next 5 inches is included are small areas of soils with a subsoil that is
dark reddish brown, and the lower 14 inches is dark low in organic matter content and less than 12 inches








26 Soil Survey




































Figure 5.-Cypress swamp in an area of Pompano fine sand, depressional, during the dry spring months.



thick. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of any some vegetable crops. A water control system is needed
mapped area. to remove excess water in wet seasons and provide
In most years, under natural conditions, the water water through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 6 months. improving crops. The rotation should include the soil-
It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during improving crops on the land three-fourths of the time.
extended dry periods. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
The available water capacity is medium in the subsoil Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
and very low in the surface and subsurface layers. need of the crops.
Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
and subsurface layers and moderate or moderately rapid management is used. Areas subject to frequent freezing
in the subsoil. in winter are not suitable. This soil is suitable for citrus
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, fetterbush, only after a carefully designed water control system has
pineland threeawn, and South Florida slash pine. been installed that will maintain the water table below a
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of depth of 4 feet.
wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted This soil is well suited to pastures. Pangolagrass,
crops is limited unless very intensive management improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when
practices are followed. With good water control and soil- they are well managed. Water control measures are
improving measures, this soil can be made suitable for needed to remove excess surface water after heavy








Lee County, Florida 27



rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are With proper water control, the soil is good for citrus
needed. Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing trees. Water control systems that maintain good
and weakening of the plants. drainage to a depth of about 4 feet deep are needed.
The potential productivity is moderate for South Bedding and planting the trees on the beds helps to
Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in establishing provide good surface drainage. A good cover of close-
seedlings and in removing excess surface water. The growing vegetation between the trees protects the soils
trees should be planted on beds and a vegetative cover from blowing when the trees are young. The trees
maintained between the trees. Regular applications of require regular applications of fertilizers and occasional
fertilizer and lime are needed. liming.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range The production potential for South Florida slash pine
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping on this soil is moderate. However, adequate water
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and control is needed before the potential can be attained.
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
deferred grazing and brush control. This Immokalee soil competition are the main management concerns.
is in the South Florida Flatwoods range site. This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
This soil has severe limitations for urban development plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
because of the high water table, bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw. chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
deferred grazing and brush control. This Punta soil is in
29-Punta fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
drained soil that occurs on slightly elevated landscapes This soil has severe limitations for urban development
on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth and range from 1 to 2 because of the high water table and sandy texture.
percent. This Punta soil is in capability subclass IVw.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 53 inches 33-Oldsmar sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
thick. The upper part is light brownish gray fine sand drained soil on low, broad flatwoods areas. Slopes are
about 7 inches thick, and the lower part is white fine smooth to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
sand about 46 inches thick. The subsoil is black fine Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 3
sand with streaks of light gray and white fine sand inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and light gray
extending into the upper part. sand about 39 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil
In most years, under natural conditions, the water is very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The lower
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 part of the subsoil is yellowish brown and mixed light
months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 6 brownish gray and brown fine sandy loam about 11
months. During extended dry periods the water table inches thick. Pale brown sand extends to a depth of 80
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches. inches or more.
Natural fertility is low. The available water capacity is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface Wabasso, Immokalee, and EauGallie soils. Some areas
layers and moderate in the subsoil. also have limestone at a depth of 70 to 80 inches below
Included with this soil in mapping are Immokalee, the surface. Included soils make up about 10 to 15
Myakka, and Smyrna soils. Also included are small areas percent of any mapped area.
of soils with a subsoil layer that is firm to hard. This soil In most years, under natural conditions, the water
makes up less than 10 percent of any mapped area. table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 3
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation of months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than
sawpalmetto, South Florida slash pine, pineland 6 months, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40
threeawn, waxmyrtle, and some scrub oak. Some areas inches during extended dry periods.
of this soil have been cleared for pasture. The available water capacity is low in the surface layer
The suitability for cultivated crops is poor because of and medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
wetness and high acidity. Very intense management Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
practices must be followed to obtain good results for a layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and
limited number of adapted crops. With adequate water- slow or very slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
control measures and soil-improving measures, these Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto (fig. 6),
soils can be made suitable for some vegetable crops. South Florida slash pine, pineland threeawn, and
The suitability for pasture is good if proper meadowbeauty.
management practices are applied. Pangolagrass, This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops primarily
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well under because of wetness. The number of adapted crops is
well managed conditions. Water control is needed to limited unless very intensive management practices are
remove excess surface water. followed. With good water-control measures and soil-








28 Soil Survey













































Figure 6.-Dense sawpalmetto in an area of Oldsmar sand.



improving measures, the soil can be made well suited for Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
some vegetable crops. A water control system is needed need of the crops.
to remove excess water in wet seasons and provide The soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
water through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row management is used. It is suitable for citrus only after a
crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil- carefully designed water control system has been
improving crops. The rotation should include the soil- installed that will maintain the water table below a depth
improving crops on the land three-fourths of the time. of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds and a
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular
rows. applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.








Lee County, Florida 29



The soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, Natural vegetation consists of pineland threeawn,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when waxmyrtle, scattered sawpalmetto, maidencane,
they are well managed. Water control measures are panicums, and South Florida slash pine.
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent crops is limited unless very intensive management
overgrazing and weakening of the plants. practices are followed. With good water-control
This soil has a moderately high potential productivity measures and soil-improving measures, the soil can be
for South Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in made well suited for some vegetable crops.
establishing seedlings and in removing excess surface A water control system is needed to remove excess
water, water in wet seasons and provide water through
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops should
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping be rotated with close-growing, soil-improving crops. The
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and rotation should include the soil-improving crops on the
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include land three-fourths of the time. Seedbed preparation
deferred grazing and brush control. This Oldsmar soil is should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime
in the South Florida Flatwoods range site. should be added according to the need of the crops.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
because of the high water table. management is used. It is suitable for citrus only after a
This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw. carefully designed water control system has been
installed that will maintain the water table below a depth
34-Malabar fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds and a
drained soil on sloughs. Slopes are smooth to concave vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular
and range from 0 to 1 percent. applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
about 5 inches thick. The next 12 inches is light gray and improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they
very pale brown fine sand. Below this is a 16-inch layer are well managed. Water control measures are needed
of light yellowish brown fine sand with yellow mottles to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
and a 9-inch layer of brownish yellow fine sand. The Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
subsoil layer is gray loamy fine sand about 9 inches thick Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and
with large yellowish brown mottles. The next 8 inches is weakening of the plants.
gray fine sandy loam with large brownish yellow mottles. Under a high level management, this soil has
Below is light gray loamy fine sand with yellowish brown moderately high potential productivity for South Florida
mottles to a depth of 80 inches or more. Some areas in slash pine. Bedding of the rows is needed to elevate the
the central-southeastern part of the county have seedlings above the surface water. Drainage is also
limestone at a depth of 70 to 80 inches. needed to remove excess surface water.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
Oldsmar, Pineda, Pompano, and Valkaria soils and plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
scattered areas of Malabar soils with limestone at a bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
depth of 60 to 80 inches. In addition, there are scattered chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
areas on slightly higher positions that contain a thin marl deferred grazing and brush control. This Malabar soil is
layer at a depth of less than 40 inches. Included soils in the Slough range site.
make up about 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area. This soil has severe limitations for urban development
In most years, under natural conditions, the water because of the high water table.
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw.
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than
6 months, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 35-Wabasso sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
inches during extended dry periods. During periods of drained soil on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to slightly
high rainfall, the soil is covered by a shallow layer of convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
slowly moving water for periods of about 7 to 30 days or Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 6
more. inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a depth of
The available water capacity is low in the surface and 24 inches. The upper 11 inches is light brownish gray
subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil and with dark grayish brown stains along root channels, and
medium in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is the lower 7 inches is light gray with dark grayish brown
low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface stains. The subsoil is about 38 inches thick. The upper 4
layers and the upper part of the subsoil and slow or very inches is dark brown sand with few iron concretions. The
slow in the lower part of the subsoil. next 8 inches is brownish yellow sandy clay loam with








30 Soil Survey



light brownish gray, light gray, and reddish brown The potential productivity for South Florida slash pine
mottles. The lower 26 inches is light gray sandy clay is moderately high. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
loam with pale olive and olive mottles and stains along seedlings and in removing excess surface water.
root channels. Below is light gray fine sandy loam with This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
olive mottles extending to a depth of 80 inches or more. plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
Boca, EauGallie, Hallandale, Felda, Myakka, and chalky bluestem. Management practices should include
Oldsmar soils. Als6 included are soils, similar to this deferred grazing and brush control. This Wabasso soil is
Wabasso soil, with a surface layer that is more than 8 in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
inches thick. Included soils make up about 10 to 15 This soil has severe limitations for urban development
percent of any rntaped area. because of the high water table.
. In most years, under natural conditions, the water This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
table is lets than 10 inches below the surface for 2 to 4
months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for more 36-Immokalee-Urban land complex. This map unit
than 6 months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 consists of nearly level Immokalee fine sand and areas
inches during extended dry periods, of Urban land. The areas of the Immokalee soil and of
The available water capacity is low in the surface and Urban land are so intermingled that it was not practical
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural to map them separately at the scale used for mapping.
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and About 55 to 75 percent of each mapped area consists
subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the of nearly level Immokalee soil or Immokalee soil that has
subsoil, and slow or very slow in the lower part of the been reworked or reshaped. Typically, the surface layer
subsoil. is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, South subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 31 inches
thick. The subsoil is fine sand about 33 inches thick. The
Florida slash pine, pineland threeawn, cabbage palm, upper 4 inches is black and friable, the next 6 inches is
and bluestem. dark reddish brown, and the lower 23 inches is dark
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of brown. The substratum is brown fine sand that extends
wetness. The number of adapted crops is very limited to a depth of more than 80 inches.
unless intensive water control measures are used. With About 15 to 50 percent of each mapped area is Urban
a water control system that is designed to remove land. Houses, streets, driveways, buildings, and parking
excess water in wet seasons and provide subsurface lots cover the surface.
irrigation in dry seasons, the soil is well suited to many Areas that have been modified by grading and shaping
kinds of flower and vegetable crops. Good management, are not as extensive in the older communities as in the
in addition to water control, includes crop rotation that newer ones. Most areas have drainage ditches that alter
keeps close-growing, soil-improving crops on the land at the depth to the seasonal high water table. In undrained
least two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer and lime should be areas, the water table is within 10 inches of the surface
added according to the need of the crop. for 1 to 4 months in most years. It recedes to more than
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees because of 40 inches below the surface during the dry seasons.
wetness. With good drainage it is moderately suited to Myakka, Pompano, and Smyrna soils make up as
oranges and grapefruit. Drainage should be adequate to much as 15 percent of the land not covered by urban
remove excess water from the soil rapidly to a depth of facilities. In a few areas, Urban land makes up as much
about 4 feet after heavy rains. The trees should be as 70 percent of the areas or as little as 10 percent.
planted on beds. A cover of close-growing vegetation Present land use precludes the use of this complex for
between the trees protects the soil from blowing when it cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture.
is dry and from washing during heavy rains. The trees This complex was not assigned to a capability
require regular applications of fertilizer and occasional subclass.
applications of lime. Highest yields require irrigation
through the water control system or by sprinklers in 37-Satellite fine sand. This is a nearly level,
seasons of low rainfall. somewhat poorly drained soil on low knolls and ridges.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted percent.
and grow well if they are well managed. They require Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
simple drainage to remove excess surface water in times inches thick. The substratum extends to a depth of 80
of high rainfall. They also require regular use of fertilizers inches or more and is white and light gray fine sand.
and lime. Carefully controlling grazing helps to maintain Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
healthy plants for highest yields. Immokalee, Myakka, Daytona, and Pompano soils.








Lee County, Florida 31



Included soils generally make up less than 15 percent of Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
any mapped area. about 15 to 20 percent of the map unit, are areas of
In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a Boca, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils.
water table at a depth of 18 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 In most years, under natural conditions, the water
months and at a depth of 40 to 72 inches for 6 months table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months
or more. and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for about 9
The available water capacity is very low. Natural months. During periods of high rainfall, the soil is
fertility is low. Permeability is very rapid. covered by a shallow layer of slowly moving water for
Natural vegetation consists of Florida rosemary, sand about 1 to 7 or more days. Many mapped areas of this
liveoak, sawpalmetto, South Florida slash pine, and soil in the Port Charlotte area have artificial drainage,
pineland threeawn. which has altered the normal depth of the seasonal high
This soil is not suitable for most cultivated crops, but water table and the movement of water on the surface.
with intensive management a few specialty crops can be The available water capacity is low in the surface and
grown. The adapted crops are limited unless intensive subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
management practices are followed, fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
The suitability for citrus is poor. Planting the trees on subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
beds helps to lower the effective depth of the water Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, water
table. Irrigation during periods of low rainfall helps to oak, and maidencane.
insure good yields. This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
The suitability for growing improved pasture grasses is wetness. With a complete water control system, it is well
fair. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass will grow if well suited to many fruit and vegetable crops. A complete
managed. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are water control system should remove excess water
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent rapidly and provide a means of applying subsurface
overgrazing and weakening of the plants. irrigation. Soil-improving crops are recommended.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine Seedbed preparation should include bedding. Fertilizers
trees. South Florida slash pine is the best tree to plant. should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
Seedling mortality is the main management concern. With proper water control, the soil is well suited to
This soil has low potential for desirable range plant citrus. Water control systems that maintain good
production. The vegetative community consists of a drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are needed. Bedding
dense woody understory including sawpalmetto, Florida and planting the trees on the beds helps to provide good
rosemary, and scrub oak. Although this site is seldom surface drainage. A good cover of close-growing
grazed by livestock, it does furnish winter protection. vegetation between the trees helps to protect the soil
This Satellite soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site. from blowing when the trees are young. The trees
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, require regular applications of fertilizers and occasional
dwellings with and without basements, small commercial liming.
buildings, and recreational uses. Proper water control l
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. It is
measures and surface stabilization are needed if the soil well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
is used as recreational areas. Mounding is needed for Excellent pastures of grass or grass-clover mixtures can
septic tank absorption fields. The very rapid permeability Excellent pastures of grass or grass-clover mixtures can
can cause pollution of ground water in areas of septic be grown with good management. Regular applications
tank absorption fields. of fertilizers and controlled grazing are needed for

This Satellite soil is in capability subclass VIs. highest yields.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
38-Isles fine sand, slough. This is a nearly level, However, adequate water control is needed before the
poorly drained soil on sloughs. Slopes are smooth to potential can be attained. Equipment limitations, seedling
slightly concave and range from 0 to 1 percent. mortality, and plant competition are the main
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand management concerns. South Florida slash pine is the
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand best tree to plant.
to a depth of 33 inches. The upper 8 inches is light This soil has high potential for desirable range plant
brownish gray, the next 8 inches is pale brown, and the production. The dominant forage consists of blue
lower 11 inches is very pale brown. The subsoil extends maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
to a depth of 51 inches. The upper 4 inches is brown Management practices should include deferred grazing.
sandy clay loam with yellowish brown mottles. The lower This Isles soil is in the Slough range site.
14 inches is fine sandy loam with yellowish brown This soil has severe limitations for urban development
mottles and pockets of sandy clay loam. Fractured because of the high water table.
limestone bedrock is at a depth of 51 inches. This Isles soil is in capability subclass IVw.








32 Soil Survey



39-Isles fine sand, depressional. This is a nearly In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
level, very poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are ponded for more than 6 months.
smooth to concave and less than 1 percent. The available water capacity is medium in the surface
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand layer and low in the substratum. Natural fertility is
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 5 medium. Permeability is rapid.
inches of light gray fine sand. Next is 11 inches of very A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation
pale brown fine sand with yellowish brown mottles. The consisting of cypress, leatherleaf fern, waxmyrtle,
subsoil is 26 inches of gray fine sandy loam with pickerelweed, and greenbrier.
brownish yellow mottles and pockets of light brownish In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for crops,
gray loamy sand. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of 47 trees, or improved pasture. The very low suitability for
inches. crops, pasture, and the severe limitations for urban and
Included with this soil in mapping, and making up recreational development are due to the lack of suitable
about 20 percent of the map unit, are small areas of drainage outlets in most places, which makes an
Felda, Pineda, Pompano, and Malabar soils; soils similar adequate drainage system difficult to establish. Areas of
to the Isles soil but with a loamy sand subsoil underlain this soil provide excellent habitat for wading birds and
by limestone at a depth of 40 to 72 inches; and soils other wetland wildlife.
similar to the Isles soil but with limestone at a depth of This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
less than 40 inches. plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
In most years, under natural conditions, the water and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
table is above the surface for 3 to 6 months. It is within fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months. The water cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
table recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
extended dry periods. the grazing value of the site. This Anclote soil is in the
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate This Anclote soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. 41-Valkaria fine sand, depressional. This is a
Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, cypress, nearly level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes
fern, water oak, melaleuca, and popash. are concave and less than 1 percent.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane about 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer is about 4
and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table inches of light gray fine sand. The subsoil is fine sand
fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from about 33 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is brownish
cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases yellow, the next 16 inches is yellow, and the lower 13
forage production, the periods of high water can reduce inches is light yellowish brown. The substratum is pale
the grazing value of the site. This Isles soil is in the brown fine sand with few fine faint brown mottles to a
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site. depth of 80 inches or more.
Because of ponding, this soil has severe limitations for Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
urban and recreational uses, and it is not suitable for Anclote, Malabar, and Pompano soils. Inclusions make
crops, trees, or improved pasture. The suitability for up about 5 to 8 percent of each mapped area.
crops or pasture is poor because of the lack of suitable In most years, under natural conditions, the water
drainage outlets. Areas of this soil provide excellent table is within 10 inches of the surface for about 6
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife, months, and the soil is ponded for about 3 months. The
This Isles soil is in capability subclass VIIw. water table is 10 to 40 inches below the surface most of
the rest of the year, except in extended dry periods.
40-Anclote sand, depressional. This is a nearly The available water capacity is very low. Permeability
level, very poorly drained soil in isolated depressions. is rapid. Natural fertility is very low.
Slopes are smooth to concave and less than 1 percent. Native vegetation consists of scrub willow, scattered
Typically, the surface layer is about 22 inches thick. cypress, and water-tolerant grasses.
The upper 8 inches is black sand, and the lower 14 This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
inches is black sand with common light gray pockets and plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
streaks throughout. The substratum is sand to a depth of and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
80 inches or more. The upper 18 inches is light brownish fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
gray, and the lower 40 inches is light gray. cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
Pompano and Floridana soils. Included soils make up the grazing value of the site. This Valkaria soil is in the
about 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area. Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.








Lee County, Florida 33



Because of ponding, this soil has severe limitations for on the land at least two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer and
urban development and recreational uses, and it is not lime should be added according to the need of the crop.
suitable for crops, trees, or improved pasture. It is not This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees because of
suitable for crops or pasture because of the lack of wetness. With good drainage it is moderately suited to
suitable drainage outlets in most places. This makes an oranges and grapefruit. Drainage should be adequate to
adequate drainage system difficult to establish. Areas of remove excess water from the soil rapidly to a depth of
this soil provide excellent habitat for wading birds and about 4 feet after heavy rains. The trees should be
other wetland wildlife. planted on beds. A cover of close-growing vegetation
This Valkaria soil is in capability subclass VIIw. between the trees is needed to protect the soil from
blowing when it is dry and from washing during heavy
42-Wabasso sand, limestone substratum. This is a rains. The trees require regular applications of fertilizer
nearly level, poorly drained soil on broad flatwoods. and occasional applications of lime. Highest yields
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. require irrigation through the water control system or by
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 3 sprinklers in seasons of low rainfall.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand about 16 This soil is well suited to pasture and hay.
inches thick. The upper 10 inches is gray, and the lower Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted
6 inches is light gray. The subsoil is about 32 inches and grow well if they are well managed. They require
thick. The upper 2 inches is dark brown sand that is well simple drainage to remove excess surface water in times
coated with organic matter. The next 2 inches is dark of high rainfall. They also require regular use of fertilizers
reddish brown friable sand. The next 14 inches is brown and lime. Grazing should be carefully controlled to
loose sand with dark brown streaks along root channels. maintain healthy plants for highest yields.
The lower 14 inches is light brownish gray, firm fine The potential productivity is moderately high for South
sandy loam with light olive brown mottles. A hard, Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in establishing
fractured limestone ledge and boulders are at a depth of seedlings and in removing excess surface water.
51 inches. This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of plant production. The dominant forage is creeping
Boca, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wahbasso soils on similar bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
Boca, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils on similarpcak bluestem. Manag practics s llud
landscape positions. Also included are similar soils with deferred grazing and brush control. This Wabasso soil is
limestone at a depth of less than 40 inches or at a depth dined S oid latwood s re s o s
of more than 60 inches. In addition there are similar soils in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
that have iron-cemented sandstone in the subsoil. This soil has severe limitations for urban development
that have iron-cemented sandstone in the subsoil, becabut 9 the high wter absle.
Included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass eIw.
area.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water 43-Smyrna fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 drained soil on flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to slightly
months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 4 concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
months. It is below the limestone during extended dry Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4
periods. inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
The available water capacity is low in the surface and about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand about 9
subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil and inches thick. The upper 2 inches is very dark grayish
medium in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is brown, the next 3 inches is dark brown, and the lower 4
low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface inches is mixed dark brown and brown. Below the
layers and the upper part of the subsoil. It is slow in the subsoil, mottled light gray, pale brown, and white fine
lower part of the subsoil. sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, South Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
Florida slash pine, dwarf huckleberry, cabbage palm, about 15 percent of any mapped area, are EauGallie,
gallberry, and pineland threeawn. Immokalee, Myakka, and Oldsmar soils. Also included
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of are soils that differ from the Smyrna soil by having a thin
wetness. The number of adapted crops is very limited loamy sand horizon in the substratum.
unless intensive water control measures are used. With In most years, under natural conditions, the water
a water control system that is designed to remove table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3
excess water in wet seasons and provide subsurface months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 6
irrigation in dry seasons, these soils are well suited to months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
many kinds of flower and vegetable crops. Good during extended dry periods.
management, in addition to water control, includes crop The available water capacity is very low in the surface
rotation that keeps close-growing, soil-improving crops and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.

I









34 Soil Survey



Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface yellow, iron-coated sand grains. The next 10 inches is
and subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid very pale brown with common coatings of iron on the
in the subsoil. sand grains. The lower 16 inches is light gray. The
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, South subsoil is 23 inches of olive gray sandy loam with dark
Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, inkberry, dwarf bluish gray mottles. Sandy loam with marl and shell
huckleberry, and pineland threeawn. fragments underlies the subsoil.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted Felda, Pineda, Pompano, and Valkaria soils. Also
crops is limited unless very intensive management included are small areas of similar soils with limestone at
practices are followed. With good water-control and soil- a depth of more than 60 inches. Included soils make up
improving measures, the soil can be made suitable for about 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area.
some vegetable crops. A water control system is needed In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
to remove excess water in wet seasons and provide ponded for about 4 to 6 months or more. The water
water through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row table is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 4 to 6
crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil- months.
improving crops. The rotation should keep the soil- The available water capacity is low in the surface and
improving crops on the land three-fourths of the time. subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the subsurface layers and slow or very slow in the subsoil.
need of the crops. Natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, waxmyrtle,
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive St.-Johnswort, and water-tolerant grasses.
management is used. Areas subject to frequent freezing This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
in winter are not suitable. These soils are suitable for plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
citrus only after a carefully designed water control and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
system has been installed that will maintain the water fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
table below 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
and a vegetative cover maintained between the trees. forage production, the periods of high water may reduce
Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are needed. the grazing value of the site. This Malabar soil is in the
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
are well managed. Water-control measures are needed pasture, or citrus, and it has severe limitations for urban
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains, and recreational uses because of prolonged ponding.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, This Malabar soil is in capability subclass VIIw.
and grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing
and weakening of the plants. 45-Copeland sandy loam, depressional. This is a
The soil has moderately high potential productivity for low, nearly level, very poorly drained soil in depressions.
South Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in Slopes are concave and less than 1 percent.
establishing seedlings and in removing excess surface Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches of very
water. dark gray sandy loam. The subsoil is very dark gray
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range sandy loam about 12 inches thick. It is underlain by 8
plant production. The dominant forage is creeping inches of light brownish gray sandy clay loam with soft
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and calcium carbonate throughout. Fractured limestone
chalky bluestem. Management practices should include bedrock is at a depth of 28 inches.
deferred grazing and brush control. This Smyrna soil is in Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the South Florida Flatwoods range site. Chobee, Anclote, Boca, Felda, Floridana, and Pompano
The soil has severe limitations for urban development soils. In addition, soils similar to Copeland soils but with
because of the high water table. a mixture of fine sand and shell fragments to a depth of
This Smyrna soil is in capability subclass IVw. 60 inches or more are included. Areas with limestone at
a depth of more than 40 inches are also included.
44-Malabar fine sand, depressional. This is a Included soils generally make up less than 15 percent of
nearly level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes any mapped area.
are concave and are less than 1 percent. Under natural conditions, the water table is above the
Typically, the surface layer is 4 inches thick. The upper surface for 3 to 6 months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the
1 inch is black fine sand that is high in organic matter surface for about 3 to 6 months.
content. The lower 3 inches is dark gray fine sand. The The available water capacity is medium. Natural fertility
subsurface layer is sand to a depth of 44 inches. The is medium. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
upper 3 inches is very pale brown. The next 11 inches is moderate in the subsoil.








Lee County, Florida 35



Natural vegetation is cypress, waxmyrtle, cabbage This soil is poorly suited to most plants unless topsoil
palm, fern, redroot, and other water-tolerant plants. is spread over the surface to make a suitable root zone.
This soil has moderate potential for desirable range This soil has severe limitations for most urban and
plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane recreational uses. The sandy nature of the fill material,
and cutgrass. The depth to the water table fluctuates the high water table, and rapid permeability can cause
throughout the year. A high water table naturally defers pollution of ground water in areas with septic tank
grazing. Although this rest period increases forage absorption fields.
production, the periods of high water levels may reduce This St. Augustine soil is in capability subclass VIIls.
the grazing value of the site. This Copeland soil is in the
Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site. 49-Felda fine sand, depressional. This is a nearly
In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for crops, level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are
trees, or improved pasture. The suitability for crops or concave and less than 1 percent.
pasture is poor because of the lack of suitable drainage Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
outlets in most places, which makes an adequate inches thick. The subsurface layers extend to a depth of
drainage system difficult to establish. Areas of this soil 35 inches. The upper 13 inches is grayish brown fine
provide excellent habitat for wading birds and other sand and the lower 18 inches is light gray fine sand with
wetland wildlife, yellowish brown mottles. The subsoil is about 17 inches
This soil has severe limitations for urban development thick. The upper 6 inches is gray sandy loam and the
because of the high water table. lower 11 inches is sandy clay loam with many yellowish
This Copeland soil is in capability subclass VIIw. brown and strong brown mottles. Below this is light gray
This Copeland soil is in capability subclass Vllw. fne toadeh of 80 ih or more
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
48-St. Augustine sand. This is a nearly level, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
somewhat poorly drained soil that was formed by Anclote, Boca, Malabar, Pineda, Pompano, Winder, and
earthmoving operations. Most areas are former sloughs Floridana soils. Included soils make up about 10 to 15
and depressions or other low areas that have been filled percent of any mapped area.
with sandy material. Slopes are smooth to slightlyIn most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
convex and range from 0 to 2 percent. pounded for about 3 to 6 months or more. The water
convex and range from 0 to 2 percent., table is within a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 4 to 6
This soil has no definite horizonation because of months.
mixing during reworking of the fill material. Typically, the The available water capacity is low in the surface and
upper 30 inches consists of mixed very dark grayish subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
brown, very dark gray, dark gray, and gray sand with a fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
few lenses of silt loam; it is about 20 percent subsurface layers and moderate or moderately rapid in
multicolored shell fragments less than 3 inches in the subsoil.
diameter. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more Natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, waxmyrtle,
there is undisturbed fine sand. The upper 10 inches is and water-tolerant grasses and weeds.
dark grayish brown with about 15 percent multicolored This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
shell fragments. The lower 40 inches is light gray with plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
about 30 percent multicolored shell fragments. and cutgrass. The fluctuating water table naturally defers
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where the grazing when it is high or ponded. Although this rest
fill material is underlain by organic soils and other areas period increases forage production, the periods of high
where the fill material is less than 20 inches thick. Also water may reduce the grazing value of the site. This
included are areas that contain lenses or pockets of Felda soil is in the Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds
organic material throughout the fill. In addition, there are range site.
small scattered areas where the fill material is more than This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
35 percent shells or shell fragments. Several areas with pasture, or citrus because of prolonged ponding.
some urban development have been included. This soil has severe limitations for urban and
The depth to the water table varies with the amount of recreational uses because of prolonged ponding.
fill material and the extent of artificial drainage. However, This Felda soil is in capability subclass VIIw.
in most years, the water table is 24 to 36 inches below
the surface of the fill material for 2 to 4 months. It is 50-Oldsmar fine sand, limestone substratum. This
below a depth of 60 inches during extended dry periods, is a nearly level, poorly drained soil in the flatwoods.
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is Slopes are smooth to slightly convex and range from 0
estimated to be rapid. Natural fertility is low. to 2 percent.
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed. The Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
present vegetation consists of cabbage palm and various about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
scattered weeds. to a depth of 34 inches. The upper 14 inches is light









36 Soil Survey



brownish gray, and the lower 12 inches is white with In most years, under natural conditions, the water
grayish brown stains along root channels. The subsoil is table is above the surface for 3 to 6 months. It is 10 to
about 26 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is dark 40 inches below the surface during extended dry
reddish brown fine sand. The next 7 inches is dark periods.
brown fine sand with dark reddish brown fragments. The The available capacity is medium in the surface layer
lower 11 inches is olive sandy clay loam with olive and subsoil and low in the subsurface layer. Natural
mottles and olive, black, and grayish stains along root fertility is medium. Permeability is rapid in the surface
channels. Hard, fractured limestone is at a depth of 60 and subsurface layers and slow or very slow in the
inches. subsoil.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Natural vegetation is St.-Johnswort, pickerelweed,
Wabasso, Oldsmar, and Immokalee soils. Also included cypress, sedges, weeds, and other water tolerant plants.
are soils similar to this Oldsmar soil but with limestone at This soil has moderate potential for desirable range
a depth of 40 to 60 inches. Included soils make up about plant production. The dominant forage is maidencane
10 to 15 percent of any mapped area. and cutgrass. Since the depth of the water table
In most years, under natural conditions, the water fluctuates throughout the year, a natural deferment from
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest period increases
and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for more than 6 forage production, the periods of high water levels may
months. It recedes to more than 40 inches below the reduce the grazing value of the site. This Floridana soil is
surface during extended dry periods. in the Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds range site.
The available capacity is low in the surface and This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural pasture, or citrus because of prolonged ponding.
fertility is low. Permeability'is rapid in the surface and The soil has severe limitations for urban and
subsurface layers, moderately slow in the upper part of recreational uses because of prolonged ponding.
the subsoil, and slow or very slow in the lower part of This Floridana soil is in capability subclass VIIw.
the subsoil.
In uncleared areas, the natural vegetation consists of 53-Myakka fine sand, depressional. This is a nearly
sawpalmetto, South Florida slash pine, inkberry, and level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are
pineland threeawn. smooth to concave and are less than 1 percent.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3
SouThis soil has moderately high potential productivity for inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 26
South Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in inches thick. The upper 4 inches is light gray, and the
establishing seedlings and removing excess water. lower 22 inches is light brownish gray. The subsoil is fine
This soil has high potential for desirable range plant sand about 17 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is dark
production. The dominant forage is creeping bluestem, brown with grayish brown streaks, and the sand grains
chalky bluestem, and blue maidencane. Management are well coated with organic matter. The lower 11 inches
practices should include deferred grazing and brush is very dark brown with many well coated sand grains.
control. This Oldsmar soil is in the Cabbage Palm Below this, extending to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
Flatwoods range site. brown fine sand.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
because of the high water table. Anclote, Floridana, Immokalee, Oldsmar, Pompano,
This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw. Valkaria, and Wabasso soils. Also included are areas of
soils that are similar to Myakka soils but that have
51-Floridana sand, depressional. This is a nearly weakly expressed sandy subsoil horizons within 51
level, very poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are inches of the surface or that have a black surface layer
concave and less than 1 percent. more than 10 inches thick. Included soils make up about
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 22 10 percent of any mapped area.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
sand about 17 inches thick. The subsoil is olive gray fine ponded for about 3 to 6 months. The water table is 10 to
sandy loam to a depth of 54 inches. Below the subsoil 40 inches below the surface for about 3 to 6 months.
there is light brownish gray sand with pockets of olive The available water capacity is very low in the surface
gray loamy sand. and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface
Anclote, Felda, and Winder soils. Also included are soils and subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid
similar to the Floridana soil but with a black surface layer in the subsoil.
thicker than 24 inches or with the upper boundary of the Natural vegetation consists of scattered cypress,
subsoil below a depth of 40 inches. Included soils make melaleuca, St.-Johnswort, sedges, maidencane, sand
up about 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area. cordgrass, and waxmyrtle.








Lee County, Florida 37



This soil has moderate potential for range. The vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular
dominant forage plants are maidencane and cutgrass. applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Since the depth of the water table fluctuates, areas of This soil is moderately suited to pastures.
this soil cannot be grazed during part of the year. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass grow well if they are well
Although this rest period increases forage production, managed. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
the periods of high water can reduce the grazing value needed. Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing
of the site. This Myakka soil is in the Fresh Water and weakening of the plants.
Marshes and Ponds range site. The potential productivity is moderately high for South
Because of ponding, this soil is not suitable for crops, Florida slash pine. Seedling mortality and equipment
trees, or improved pasture, and it has severe limitations limitations are the main restrictions.
for urban and recreational uses. The soil lacks suitable This soil has moderately low potential for range. The
drainage outlets in most places, which makes an dominant forage plants are creeping bluestem,
adequate drainage system difficult to establish. Areas of indiangrass, and hairy panicum. The quantity and quality
this soil provide excellent habitat for wading birds and of native forage are low because of low natural fertility.
wetland wildlife. As a result, cattle do not readily utilize this site if other
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass VIIw. sites are available. Management practices have little
effect on native forage production. This Cocoa soil is in
55-Cocoa fine sand. This is a nearly level to gently the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site.
sloping, moderately well drained soil on ridges. Slopes This soil has severe limitations for most sanitary
are smooth to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 facilities and moderate limitations for most kinds of
percent. building site development and recreational uses because
Typically, the surface layer is brown fine sand about 3 of high water table and moderate depth to bedrock.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is reddish yellow fine This Cocoa soil is in capability subclass IVs.
sand about 10 inches thick. The next layer is yellowish
red fine sand about 4 inches thick. The next 10 inches ish 56-Isles muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
reddish yellow fine sand, and below this is 4 inches of drained soil in tidal swamps. Slopes are smooth and

strong brown fine sand. Fractured limestone bedrock is range from 0 to 1 percent.
at a depth of 31 inches. Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is dark
Inl a depth of nhes reddish brown muck about 5 inches thick. Next is 6
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of inches of very dark grayish brown mucky fine sand. The
Boca and Hallandale soils and soils that are similar to subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand with
Cocoa soils but that have a loamy subsoil below a depth brownish gray mottles to a depth of 39 inches. The
of 40 inches. Also included are small areas of soils that subsoil is 8 inches of grayish brown fine sandy loam with
are similar but that have a loamy subsoil and limestone light olive brown mottles. Fractured limestone bedrock is
within 40 inches of the surface and sandy soils that do at a depth of 47 inches.
not have a clay increase and have limestone at a depth Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
of 10 to 40 inches. Included soils make up about 15 Boca, Kesson, and Wulfert soils. Also included are areas
percent of any mapped area. of sulfidic soils that are loamy throughout and have
In most years, under natural conditions, the water limestone at a depth of less than 40 inches. In addition
table is within 24 inches of the surface for 1 to 2 months are areas of soils that are similar to Isles soils but that
and 24 to 40 inches below the surface for 1 to 2 months. are sandy throughout or that have limestone at a depth
It recedes to more than 40 inches below the surface of less than 40 inches. Included soils make up about 15
during extended dry periods. percent of any mapped area.
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is The water table fluctuates with the tide. This soil is
low. Permeability is rapid. subject to tidal flooding.
Natural vegetation consists of bluejack oak, South The available water capacity is low in the surface and
Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto, bluestem, and pineland subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
threeawn. fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
poor soil quality and depth to limestone. The number of Natural vegetation consists of red and black
adapted crops is limited unless management is very mangrove, batis, and sea purslane.
intensive. This soil has moderate potential for range. Saltwater
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless management marshes are on level sites where tidal flow of salt and
is very intensive. It is suitable for citrus only after a brackish water have a significant effect on plant
carefully designed water control system has been composition. When in good or excellent condition, the
installed that will maintain the water table below a depth saltwater marsh is dominated by smooth cordgrass,
of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds and a marshhay cordgrass, seashore saltgrass, and numerous








38 Soil Survey



other grasses and forbs. These grasses and forbs grazing. Good grazing management and burning are
provide a high level of palatable forage for livestock required to maintain these sites in their most desirable
grazing. Good grazing management and burning are condition. This Boca soil is in the Salt Water Marsh
required to maintain these sites in their most desirable range site.
condition. This Isles soil is in the Salt Water Marsh range This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
site. absorption fields, dwellings of all types, and local roads
This soil has severe limitations for urban and and streets. However, these limitations can be somewhat
recreational uses, and it is not suitable for cultivated reduced by adequate water control, such as ditching and
crops, pasture grasses, citrus, or woodland because of diking, and additions of fill material.
the tidal flooding and high content of sodium and sulfur. This Boca soil is in capability subclass Vlllw.
This Isles soil is in capability subclass VIllIw.
59-Urban land. Urban land consists of areas that are
57-Boca fine sand, tidal. This is a nearly level, more than 85 percent covered with parking lots, airports,
poorly drained, saline soil that is subject to tidal flooding, shopping centers, large buildings, streets, and sidewalks
It is in coastal tidal areas. Some areas are now artificially where the natural soil cannot be observed. Unoccupied
drained and are subjected to tidal flooding only on rare areas are mostly lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds.
occasions. Slopes are concave and less than 1 percent. Individual areas are usually polyhedral in shape and
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine range from about 10 to 320 acres.
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 12 Included in mapping are small areas where less than
inches of light gray fine sand with very dark gray and 12 inches of fill material has been spread over the
dark gray mottles. The subsoil is about 15 inches thick. surface. Also included are small areas of Smyrna,
The upper 9 inches is very dark grayish brown fine sand Myakka, Immokalee, Hallandale, and Boca soils.
with dark gray and brown mottles, and the lower 6 Included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped
inches is gray fine sandy loam with dark yellowish brown area.
and yellowish brown mottles and iron concretions in the This map unit has not been assigned to a capability
lower 4 inches. A hard, fractured limestone ledge and subclass.
boulders are at a depth of 32 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 61-Orsino fine sand. This is a nearly level to gently
Boca, Hallandale, and Wabasso soils in similar positions sloping, moderately well drained soil on low narrow
and Isles soils in slightly lower positions. Included soils ridges. Slopes are smooth to convex and are less than 5
make up about 15 percent of any mapped area. percent.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
table is within 10 inches of the surface for more than 6 about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and
months. white fine sand about 14 inches thick. The subsoil is fine
The available water capacity is low in the surface and sand to a depth of 37 inches. The upper 10 inches is
subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil and yellow with discontinuous lenses of dark reddish brown
medium or high in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural material and common intrusions of white material. The
fertility is very low because of the excess sodium lower 11 inches is yellow with discontinuous lenses of
throughout the profile. Permeability is rapid in the surface dark reddish brown material and few intrusions of white
and subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil material. The substratum is fine sand to a depth of 80
and moderate in the lower part of the subsoil. inches or more. The upper 9 inches is pale brown with
Most of the acreage of this map unit remains in natural splotches of white. The next 19 inches is very pale
vegetation of buttonbush, sea daisy, seashore saltgrass, brown. Below that it is white with yellowish red and
saltwort, scattered black and white mangrove, Brazilian reddish yellow stains along root channels.
pepper, and scattered cabbage palm. Some areas have Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
been cleared and are being converted to residential and Daytona and Electra soils in similar positions and
recreational uses. Satellite soils in slightly lower positions. Also included
This soil is not suitable for cultivation because of are areas of soils that are similar to Orsino soils but that
excess salts. have loamy material below a depth of 60 inches.
This soil has moderate potential for range. Saltwater Included soils make up about 10 to 15 percent of any
marshes are on level sites where tidal flow of saltwater mapped area.
and brackish water have a significant effect on plant In most years, under natural conditions, the water
composition. When in good or excellent condition, the table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for about 3
saltwater marsh is dominated by smooth cordgrass, months. It is at a depth of 60 to 80 inches for about 9
marshhay cordgrass, seashore saltgrass, and numerous months.
other grasses and forbs. These grasses and forbs This soil has low available water capacity. Natural
provide high levels of palatable forage for livestock fertility is low. Permeability is very rapid.








Lee County, Florida 39



Natural vegetation consists of sand liveoak, sand pine, with yellowish brown mottles. The substratum extends to
South Florida slash pine, pineland threeawn, and a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 6 inches is gray
sawpalmetto. sand with brownish yellow mottles. The next 6 inches is
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of light brownish gray sand with olive mottles. The next 12
poor soil quality. Intensive management is required if the inches is greenish gray loamy sand with olive mottles.
soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of The next 12 inches is light gray sand with olive yellow
plant nutrients reduce the variety and potential yields of mottles. The lower 15 inches is light greenish gray sand.
crops. Row crops should be planted on the contour in Included with this soil in mapping, and making up
strips alternating with strips of close-growing crops. Crop about 15 percent of the map unit, are small areas of
rotations should keep the soil under close-growing crops Hallandale, Felda, Pineda, and Copeland soils. A few
at least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops areas of Rock outcrop also occur.
are recommended. Only a few varieties produce good In most years, under natural conditions, the water
yields without irrigation. Irrigation is generally feasible table is above the surface for 3 to 6 months. It is 10 to
where water is readily available. 40 inches below the surface during extended dry
This soil is suitable for citrus trees in places that are periods.
relatively free from freezing temperatures. A good ground The available water capacity is low in the surface and
cover of close-growing plants between the trees helps to subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
protect the soil from blowing or washing. Good yields of fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
oranges and grapefruit can be obtained some years subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil.
without irrigation. A well designed irrigation system to Natural vegetation consists of parrot-feather, cypress,
maintain optimum moisture conditions is needed to St.-Johnswort, pickleweed, and other water-tolerant
ensure best yields. plants.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay This soil has moderate potential for range. The
crops. Deep-rooting plants, such as Coastal dominant forage plants are maidencane and cutgrass.
bermudagrass and bahiagrasses, are well adapted, but Since the depth of the water table fluctuates, areas of
yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular this soil cannot be grazed during part of the year.
fertilizing and liming are needed. Controlling grazing Although this rest period increases forage production,
permits plants to recover and maintain vigor, the periods of high water may reduce the grazing value
This soil has moderate potential productivity for South of the site. This Winder soil is in the Fresh Water
Florida slash pine. Sand pine is better suited than other Marshes and Ponds range site.
trees. Seedling mortality, mobility of equipment, and This soil has severe limitations for urban development
plant competition are the major management problems. and recreational uses, and it is not suited to cultivated
This soil has low potential for range. The plant crops, improved pasture, woodland, or citrus because of
community consists of a dense woody understory prolonged ponding.
including sawpalmetto, Florida rosemary, and scrub oak. This Winder soil is in capability subclass VIIw.
Although this site is seldom grazed by livestock, it does
furnish protection in winter. This Orsino soil is in the 63-Malabar fine sand, high. This is a nearly level,
Sand Pine Scrub range site. poorly drained soil in the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth
This soil has moderate to severe limitations for to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
sanitary facilities, primarily because of the rapid Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
permeability. It has slight to moderate limitations for sites about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
for most kinds of buildings, but the sandy texture makes fine sand about 13 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand
excavations unstable. The soil has severe limitations for and sandy clay loam about 51 inches thick. The upper 7
recreational uses because of the sandy surface layer. inches is very pale brown fine sand with brownish yellow
This Orsino soil is in capability subclass IVs. mottles. The next 6 inches is brownish yellow fine sand
with yellowish brown mottles. Next is yellow fine sand
62-Winder sand, depressional. This is a nearly with yellowish brown mottles, light gray fine sand with
level, poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are yellowish brown mottles, and gray sandy clay loam with
concave and range from 0 to 1 percent. yellowish brown stains along root channels. The lower 8
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 3 inches is greenish gray sandy clay loam. Below that and
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray extending to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray fine
sand about 10 inches thick. The next layer, about 3 sand with about 60 percent shell fragments.
inches thick, is light gray sand with yellowish brown Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
mottles and intrusions of light brownish gray sandy loam. Pineda, Oldsmar, Wabasso, and Felda soils. Also
The subsoil extends to a depth of 29 inches. The upper included are scattered areas of Malabar soils in slightly
7 inches is gray sandy loam with yellowish brown and lower positions. Included soils make up about 15 percent
strong brown mottles. The lower 6 inches is gray sand of any mapped area.









40 Soil Survey


In most years, under natural conditions, the water intermingled that they cannot be separated at the scale
table is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 4 to 6 used for mapping.
months. It recedes to more than 40 inches below the About 50 to 70 percent of each mapped area consists
surface during extended dry periods, of nearly level Hallandale soils or Hallandale soils that
The available water capacity is low in the surface and have been reworked or reshaped but which are still
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural recognizable as Hallandale soils. Areas of these soils
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and that have been modified by grading and shaping are not
subsurface layers and the sandy part of the subsoil and as extensive in the older communities as in the newer
moderately slow in the lower, loamy part of the subsoil. ones. Typically, Hallandale soils have a surface layer of
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, cabbage dark gray fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface
palm, South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, and pineland layer is light gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. Hard,
threeawn. fractured limestone is at a depth of 11 inches.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of About 15 to 50 percent of each mapped area is Urban
wetness and poor soil quality. The number of adapted land that is used for houses, streets, driveways,
crops is limited unless management is very intensive, buildings, parking lots, and other related uses.
With good water-control measures and soil-improving Most areas have drainage ditches that alter the depth
measures, this soil can be made well suited for some to the seasonal high water table. In undrained areas, the
vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
remove excess water in wet seasons and provide water months in most years. It recedes below the limestone
through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops during the dry season.
should be rotated with close-growing, soil-improving Unoccupied areas are mostly areas of Hallandale soils
crops. The rotation should grow soil-improving crops in lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds. Boca, Felda,
three-fourths of the time. Seedbed preparation should Malabar, and Pineda soils make up as much as 15
include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be percent of the land not covered by urban facilities.
added according to the need of the crops. Present land use precludes using this soil for
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless management cultivated crops, citrus, woodland, or improved pasture.
is very intensive. It is suitable for citrus only after a This complex has not been assigned to a capability
carefully designed water-control system has been subclass.
installed that will maintain the water table below a depth 66-Caloosa fine sand. This is a nearly level,
of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds and a somewhat poorly drained soil formed by dredging and
vegetative cover maintained between the trees. Regular filling and by earthmoving operations. Slopes are smooth
application of fertilizer and lime are needed. lling and by e moving operations. Slopes are smooth
application of fertilizer and to pasture. Pangolagrass to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Thimproved bahiagrass, unsuited whito pasture. Pangolagrass, they Typically, the surface layer is about 10 inches of light
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they brownish gray, mixed mineral material of fine sand and
are well managed. Water-control measures are needed lenses of silt loam with about 10 percent shell
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains. fragments. The next 17 inches is pale brown and gray,
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. mixed mineral material of fine sand and lenses of silty
Controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and clay loam. The next 11 inches is light gray silty clay with
weakening of the plants. brownish yellow mottles. Below this to a depth of 80
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for inches or more is gray silty clay with dark gray streaks
South Florida slash pine. Equipment limitations, seedling and brownish yellow mottles.
mortality, and plant competition are major management Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
concerns. Matlacha and St. Augustine soils and soils that are
This soil has moderate potential for range. The similar to Caloosa soils but that contain 10 to 35 percent
dominant forage is creeping bluestem, lopsided limestone and shell fragments less than 3 inches in
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem. diameter or 10 percent limestone and shell fragments
Management should include deferred grazing and brush larger than 3 inches. In addition, there are scattered
control. This Malabar soil is in the South Florida areas of soils that are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or
Flatwoods range site. more. Also included are areas of fill that is less than 20
This soil has severe limitations for urban development inches thick over undisturbed soils. Included soils make
because of the high water table. up about 10 to 20 percent of any mapped area.
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw. The depth to the water table varies with the amount of
fill material and the extent of artificial drainage within any
64-Hallandale-Urban land complex. This map unit mapped area. However, in most years, the water table is
consists of nearly level Hallandale fine sand and Urban 30 to 42 inches below the surface of the fill material for
land. The areas of Hallandale soil and Urban land are so 2 to 4 months.








Lee County, Florida 41



The available water capacity is variable, but it is Present land use precludes the use of this soil for
estimated to be low to medium in the upper part of the cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture.
fill material and medium to high in the lower part. This complex has not been assigned to a capability
Permeability is variable within short distances, but it is subclass.
estimated to range from rapid to very slow depending on
the soil material. Natural fertility is estimated to be 69-Matlacha gravelly fine sand. This is a nearly
medium. level, somewhat poorly drained soil formed by filling and
Most of the natural vegetation has been removed. earthmoving operations. Slopes are smooth to slightly
However, the existing vegetation consists of scattered convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, cabbage palm, Typically, the surface layer is about 35 inches of black,
improved pasture, and various scattered weeds. olive brown, grayish brown, dark brown, light brownish
This soil is poorly suited to most plants unless topsoil gray, very dark gray, and very pale brown mixed gravelly
is spread over the surface to make a suitable root zone. fine sand and sandy mineral material. The surface layer
The fill material has made most of the area fairly contains lenses of loamy sand and coated sandy
suitable for community development and related uses. fragments of former subsoil material with about 25 to 30
However, because of the nature of the fill material that percent limestone and shell fragments. Below this, to a
exists, mounding or removal and backfilling with suitable depth of 80 inches or more, is undisturbed fine sand.
material is necessary in order for septic tanks and septic The upper 5 inches is dark gray and the lower 40 inches
tank absorption fields to function properly. is light gray with common, medium, distinct dark grayish
This Caloosa soil is in capability subclass Vlls. brown stains along old root channels.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar
67-Smyrna-Urban land complex. This map unit soils that contain finer textured material throughout the
67-Smyrna-Urban land complex. This map unit
consists of nearly level Smyrna fine sand and Urban fill. Also included are small areas that contain boulders


used for mapping. bedrock below the fill. Other inclusions are areas of fill
About 50 to 70 percent of each mapped area consists less than 20 inches thick over undisturbed soils. These
of nearly level Smyrna soils or Smyrna soils that have inclusions make up about 10 to 15 percent of any
been reworked or reshaped. Typically, Smyrna soils have mapped area.
a black fine sand surface layer about 4 inches thick. The The depth to the water table varies with the amount of
subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 8 fill material and the extent of artificial drainage. However,
inches thick. The subsoil is about 14 inches thick. The in most years, the water table is 24 to 36 inches below
upper 9 inches is very friable, dark reddish brown fine the surface of the fill material for 2 to 4 months. It is
sand, and the lower 5 inches is very friable, dark brown more than 60 inches below the surface during extended
fine sand. The substratum is fine sand to a depth of 80 dry periods.
inches or more. The upper 16 inches is very pale brown The available water capacity is variable, but it is
with dark brown stains along root channels. The next 15 estimated to be low. Permeability is variable within short
inches is brown. The lower 23 inches is light brownish distances, but it is estimated to be moderately rapid to
gray fine sand. rapid in the fill material and rapid in the underlying
About 15 to 50 percent of each mapped area is Urban material. Natural fertility is estimated to be low.
land that is used for houses, streets, driveways, Most of the natural vegetation has been removed. The
buildings, parking lots, and other related uses. existing vegetation consists of South Florida slash pine
Areas of this soil that have been modified by grading and various scattered weeds.
and shaping are not as extensive in the older This soil is poorly suited to most plants unless topsoil
communities as in the newer ones. Most areas have is spread over the surface to form a suitable root zone.
drainage ditches that alter the depth to the seasonal This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities
high water table. In undrained areas, the water table is and recreational uses and moderate limitations for most
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months in most building site development. The high water table and
years. It recedes to more than 40 inches below the sandy surface texture are the major limitations. Unstable
surface during the dry season, surface material can severely limit shallow excavations,
Unoccupied areas are mostly in lawns, vacant lots, o aand the high water table severely limits use for dwellings
playgrounds. with basements. In scattered areas where the fill material
EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, and Pompano soils contains boulders or compacted material, the installation
make up as much as 15 percent of the land not covered of underground utilities or functioning of septic tank
by urban facilities. A few mapped areas are as much as absorption fields may be a problem.
60 percent or as little as 10 percent Urban land. This Matlacha soil is in capability subclass VIs.
by ubanfaclitis. fe maped rea ar as uchas bsoptio fildsmay e aprolem








42 Soil Survey



70-Heights fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly been installed. The water-control system should maintain
drained soil in broad flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to the water table below 4 feet. The trees should be
concave and range from 0 to 1 percent. planted on beds and a vegetative cover maintained
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray lime are needed.
fine sand about 14 inches thick. The subsoil is about 32 This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
inches thick. The upper 3 inches is grayish brown fine improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they
sand. The next 8 inches is yellowish brown fine sand are well managed. Water control measures are needed
with white calcium carbonate streaks along root to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
channels. The next 7 inches is light yellowish brown Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed,
loamy sand with yellowish brown and brownish yellow and controlling grazing helps to maintain vigor of the
mottles and white calcium carbonate streaks along root plants for best yields.
channels. The next 6 inches is yellowish brown cobbly This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
loamy sand with lightThis soil has moderately high potential productivity for
25 percent iron-cemented sandstone. The lower 8 inches pine trees. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
is light gray fine sandy loam with yellowish brown and plant competition are the the main management concerns.
olive mottles. Below the subsoil is gray loamy sand with This soil has moderate potential for range. The
light olive brown and light yellowish brown mottles to a dominant forage plants are creeping bluestem, lopsided
depth of 80 inches or more. indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Management should include deferred grazing and brush
Felda and Wabasso soils. Also included are areas of control. This Heights soil is in the South Florida
soils that differ from Heights fine sand by having Flatwoods range site.
yellowish horizons instead of brownish horizons above This soil has severe limitations for urban development
the loamy part of the subsoil. In addition are areas of because of wetness.
soils that differ from Heights fine sand by having a thin This Heights soil is in capability subclass III1w.
black layer immediately above the loamy sand part of
the subsoil. Included soils make up about 10 to 15 72-Bradenton fine sand. This is a nearly level,
percent of any mapped area. poorly drained soil in hammock areas along rivers,
In most years, under natural conditions, the water creeks, and swamps. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 2 Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
months and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 4 to 6 about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches brownish gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
during extended dry periods. subsoil is about 18 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is
The available water capacity is medium in the subsoil dark gray sandy clay loam. The lower 10 inches is gray
and low in the other layers. Natural fertility is low. loamy fine sand. The substratum extends to a depth of
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and upper part 80 inches. The upper 5 inches is white, soft calcium
of the subsoil and slow in the lower part of the subsoil. carbonate. The next 12 inches is gray loamy fine sand.
Natural vegetation consists of sawpalmetto, pineland The next 12 inches is yellowish brown fine sand. The
threeawn, South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, sedges, next 4 inches is light gray fine sand, and the next 10
and panicums. inches is yellow sand. Common to many mottles in
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of shades of yellow, brown, and red occur throughout these
wetness. The number of adapted crops is limited unless shades of yellow brown and red occur throughout these
intensive water-control measures and soil-improving horizons. The lower part of the substratum is 9 inches of
measures are used. This soil can be made suitable for light gray sand.
some vegetable crops by installing a water-control Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
system to remove excess water in wet seasons and Copeland, Felda, and Wabasso soils and small areas of
provide water through subsurface irrigation in dry soils with limestone or calcium carbonate accumulations
seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close- within 20 inches of the surface. Included soils make up
growing, soil-improving crops. The rotation should about 15 percent of any mapped area.
include the soil-improving crops two-thirds of the time. In most years, under natural conditions, the water
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. table is less than 10 inches below the surface for 2 to 4
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the months. The water table is 10 to 40 inches below the
need of the crops. surface for more than 6 months, and it recedes to more
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive than 40 inches below during extended dry periods. Many
management is used. Those areas that are relatively free areas have been altered by artificial drainage.
from freezing temperatures are suitable for citrus, but The soil is low in natural fertility. Permeability is
only after a carefully designed water-control system has moderate, and the available water capacity is medium.








Lee County, Florida 43



Natural vegetation consists of sparse sawpalmetto, fine sandy loam to a depth of 55 inches. The upper 8
oaks, cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, bluestem, and low inches is gray with very pale brown sandy intrusions and
panicums. yellowish brown mottles. The lower 16 inches is gray.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of Below that and extending to a depth of 80 inches is light
wetness. If a complete water-control system is installed gray loamy sand.
and maintained, the soil is suitable for many fruit and Included with this soil in mapping, and making up 10 to
vegetable crops. A complete water-control system 15 percent of any mapped area, are small areas of
should be designed to remove excess surface and Boca, Felda, Floridana, Malabar, Winder, and Valkaria
internal water rapidly. It should also provide a means of soils and a soil that is similar to Pineda soils but that has
applying subsurface irrigation. Good soil management limestone below a depth of 40 inches. Also included are
also includes crop rotations that keep the soil in a close- areas of soils that are similar to Pineda soils but that
growing crop at least two-thirds of the time. Soil- have a black sandy layer immediately above the loamy
improving crops are recommended. Other important subsoil.
management practices are good seedbed preparation, In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
including bedding, and fertilizer applied according to the ponded for about 3 to 6 months or more. The water
needs of the crop. table is within a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 4 to 6
If this soil receives proper water control, it is well months.
suited to citrus trees. Water control systems that The available water capacity is low in the surface and
maintain good drainage to a depth of about 4 feet deep subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural
are needed. Bedding of the land and planting the trees fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
on the beds helps to provide good surface drainage. A subsurface layers and slow or very slow in the loamy
good cover of close-growing vegetation should be subsoil.
maintained between the trees to protect the soil from Natural vegetation consists of St.-Johnswort, cypress,
blowing in dry weather and washing during rains. The maidencane, and other water-tolerant grasses.
trees require regular applications (of fertilizer, but the soil This soil has moderate potential for range. The
contains adequate lime. dominant forage plants are maidencane and cutgrass.
This soil is excellent for pasture. It is well suited to Since the depth of the water table fluctuates, these
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Good pasture of areas cannot be grazed during part of the year. Although
grass or grass-clover mixtures can be grown with good this rest period increases forage production, the periods
management. Regular applications of fertilizer and of high water may reduce the grazing value of the site.
controlled grazing produce highest yields. This Pineda soil is in the Fresh Water Marshes and
The potential productivity is moderately high for South Ponds range site.
Florida slash pine. Bedding of rows helps in establishing This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved
seedlings and in removing excess surface water. pasture, woodland, or citrus because of prolonged
This soil has low potential for range. The plant ponding. It has severe limitations for urban and
community consists of cabbage palm, live oak, scattered recreational uses because of prolonged ponding and
sawpalmetto, grapevine, and wild coffee. Because of the sandy texture.
dense canopy of palm trees, this site is a preferred This Pineda soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
shading and resting area for cattle. As a result, this site
is usually severely grazed. Management practices should 74-Boca fine sand, slough. This is a nearly level,
include deferred grazing, brush control, and careful poorly drained soil in sloughs. Slopes are smooth to
consideration of stocking rates. This Bradenton soil is in slightly concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
the Cabbage Palm Hammocks range site. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
building site development, and recreational use because and very pale brown fine sand about 30 inches thick.
of the high water table. The subsoil, about 5 inches thick, is gray sandy clay
This Bradenton soil is in capability subclass IIlw. loam with yellowish brown and brownish yellow mottles.
At a depth of about 38 inches is hard, fractured
73-Pineda fine sand, depressional. This is a nearly limestone bedrock with solution holes extending to 46
level, very poorly drained soil in depressions. Slopes are inches.
concave and are less than 1 percent. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand Hallandale, Felda, Pineda, Pompano, Wabasso, and
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand Valkaria soils. Also included are small areas of Boca
to a depth of 31 inches. The upper 9 inches is light gray, soils in higher positions. Included soils make up about 15
the next 7 inches is very pale brown with yellowish percent of any mapped area.
brown mottles, and the lower 12 inches is brownish In most years, under natural conditions, the water
yellow with many iron-coated sand grains. The subsoil is table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4








44 Soil Survey






































Figure 7.-An area of Boca fine sand, slough. Maidencane is the dominant grass under an open canopy of South Florida slash pines.
Sparse clumps of sawpalmetto are scattered throughout the area.


months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for more should be rotated with close-growing, soil-improving
than 4 months and recedes to a depth of more than than crops. The rotation should include soil-improving crops
high rainfall, the soil is covered by a shallow layer of on the land two-thirds of the time. Seedbed preparation
slowly moving water for periods of about 7 days to 1 should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime
month or more. should be added on the basis of soil tests and on the need
The available water capacity is low in the surface and of the crop.
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and intensively managed. Those areas that are relatively free
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. of freezing temperatures are suitable for citrus, but
only after a carefully designed water-control system has
Natural vegetation (fig. 7) consists of maidencane, been installed that maintains the water table below a
scattered clumps of sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, pineland depth of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds
threeawn, and South Florida slash pine. and a vegetative cover maintained between the trees.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops in its native Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
state because of wetness. It can be made suitable for The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
some vegetable crops by using a water-control system to Equipment limitations, seeding mortality, and competition
remove excess water in wet seasons and provide water from unwanted plants are the main concerns in
through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops management.








Lee County, Florida 45



This soil has high potential for range. The dominant This soil is well suited to pasture if a water-control
forage plants are of blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, system is used. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
and bluejoint panicum. Management practices should white clover grow well if they are well managed. Water-
include deferred grazing. This Boca soil is in the Slough control measures are needed to remove excess surface
range site. water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities and lime are needed. Controlling grazing will help to
and building site development, primarily because of the prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
high water table. This soil has moderate potential productivity for slash
This Boca soil is in capability subclass Vw. pine. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, windthrow
hazard, and plant competition are the major
75-Hallandale fine sand, slough. This is a nearly management concerns.
level, poorly drained soil in sloughs. Slopes are smooth This soil has high potential for range. The dominant
to slightly concave and range from 0 to 1 percent. forage plants are of blue maidencane, chalky bluestem,
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine and bluejoint panicum. Management should include
sand about 2 inches thick. The next layer is very pale deferred grazing. This Hallandale soil is in the Slough
brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. Fractured range site.
limestone is at a depth of 11 inches. This soil has severe limitations for urban uses because
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of of the shallow depth to bedrock and wetness.
Boca, Pineda, and Pompano soils in similar positions and This Hallandale soil is in capability subclass Vw.
Hallandale soils in higher positions. Also included are
small areas of exposed limestone bedrock. These 76-Electra fine sand. This is a nearly level,
inclusions make up about 10 to 15 percent of any somewhat poorly drained soil on low knolls and ridges.
mapped area. Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2
In most years, under natural conditions, the water percent.
montable is within 10 inches of th e surface for to Typically, the surface layer is light brownish gray fine
months. It is 10 to 20 inches below the surface for 1 to 2 sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand
months and recedes below the limestone for 6 months and fine sand to a depth of 43 inches. It is light gray in
or more. During periods of high rainfall, the soil is the upper 9 inches and white in the lower 30 inches. The
covered by slowly moving shallow water for a period of subsoil and underlying material are fine sand, sand, and
about 7 days to 1 month or more. fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is fine san loam to a de of 80 inches or more The
low. Permeability is rapid, upper 4 inches is dark reddish brown fine sand. The next
16 inches is very pale brown fine sand, and the next 3
Natural vegetation consists of pineland threeawn, inches is pale olive sand. The lower 14 inches is pale
maidencane, waxmyrtle, South Florida slash pine, and inches is pale olive sandy The lower 14 inches is paleam.
scattered clumps of sawpalmetto. olive fine sandy loam.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops because of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
wetness and shallow depth to limestone. It can be made Boca, Bradenton, Immokalee, and Daytona soils. Some
suitable for some vegetable crops by using a water- areas have limestone at a depth of 70 to 80 inches
control system that removes excess water in wet below the surface. Included soils make up about 15 to
seasons and provides water through subsurface irrigation 20 percent of any mapped area.
in dry seasons. The presence of rock near the surface, In most years, under natural conditions, the water
however, makes construction of such a system difficult. table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months
Row crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil- and at a depth of 40 to 72 inches for 6 months or more.
improving crops. The rotation should include soil- The available water capacity is low in the surface and
improving crops three-fourths of the time. Seedbed subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
and lime should be added according to the need of the subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
crops. subsoil, and slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless management Natural vegetation consists of sand liveoak,
is very intensive. Those areas that are relatively free sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn.
from freezing temperatures are suitable for citrus, but This soil is not suitable for most cultivated crops, but
only after installation of a carefully designed water- with intensive management a few specialty crops can be
control system that maintains the water table below a grown. The adapted crops are limited unless
depth of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds, management is intensive.
and a vegetative cover should be maintained between This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Planting the trees on
the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are beds raises them away from the water table. Irrigation
needed. during periods of low rainfall helps to insure good yields.








46 Soil Survey



The suitability for growing improved pasture grasses is subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil and
fair. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass grow if well managed. slow in the lower part of the subsoil.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, Natural vegetation consists of pineland threeawn,
and controlling grazing helps to prevent overgrazing and panicums, sedges, maidencane, waxmyrtle, South
weakening of the plants. Florida slash pine, and scattered clumps of sawpalmetto.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for pine This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
trees. South Florida slash pine is the best tree to plant. wetness. With a complete water-control system,
Seedling mortality is the main management concern, however, it is well suited to many fruit and vegetable
This soil has moderate potential for range. The crops. A complete water-control system removes excess
dominant forage plants are creeping bluestem, lopsided water rapidly and provides a means of applying
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem. subsurface irrigation. Good soil management includes
Management practices should include deferred grazing crop rotation that keeps the soil in close-growing cover
and brush control. This Electra soil is in the South crops at least two-thirds of the time. Seedbed
Florida Flatwoods range site. preparation should include bedding. Fertilizer should be
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses, applied according to the need of the crop.
sanitary facilities, shallow excavations, dwellings with With proper water control, the soil is good for citrus
basements, and landscaping and moderate limitations for trees. A water-control system that maintains good
dwellings without basements, small commercial drainage to a depth of about 4 feet is needed. Bedding
buildings, and local roads and streets because of the and planting the trees on the beds helps provide good
high water table and sandy texture. surface drainage. A good cover of close-growing
This Electra soil is in capability subclass VIs. vegetation between the trees protects the soil from
blowing when the trees are young. The trees require
77-Pineda fine sand, limestone substratum. This is regular applications of fertilizer and occasional liming.
a nearly level, poorly drained soil in sloughs. Slopes are This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops with
smooth to slightly concave and range from 0 to 1 proper water control. It is well suited to pangolagrass,
percent. bahiagrass, and clover. Excellent pasture of grass or
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand grass-clover mixture can be grown with good
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand management. Regular applications of fertilizer and
that is light gray in the upper 5 inches and very pale controlled grazing help to produce highest yields.
brown with brownish yellow mottles in the lower 6 This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 41 inches. The pine trees. Seedling mortality, equipment limitations, and
upper 5 inches is yellow fine sand with brownish yellow plant competition are the main management concerns.
mottles. The next 4 inches is brownish yellow fine sand Good management includes a water-control system.
with yellow mottles. The next 3 inches is light gray fine South Florida slash pine is the best tree to plant.
sand with yellow mottles. The next 8 inches is gray This soil has high potential for range. The dominant
sandy clay loam with light gray sandy intrusions. The forage plants are blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and
lower 6 inches is gray fine sandy loam. The substratum bluejoint panicum. Management practices should include
is 11 inches of gray fine sandy loam with limestone and deferred grazing. This Pineda soil is in the Slough range
shell fragments. At a depth of 52 inches is fractured site.
limestone. This soil has severe limitations for urban development
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Boca, because of the high water table.
Hallandale, and Wabasso soils. Also included are areas This Pineda soil is in capability subclass Vw.
of soils that are similar to Pineda soils but that have
limestone at a depth of 60 to 72 inches. Included soils 78-Chobee muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
make up 10 to 15 percent of any mapped area. drained soil in depressions. Slopes are concave and are
In most years, under natural conditions, the water less than 1 percent.
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck
months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for more about 4 inches thick. The next layer is black loamy fine
than 6 months, and it recedes to a depth of more than sand to a depth of about 16 inches. The upper part of
40 inches during extended dry periods. During periods of the subsoil is 12 inches of black fine sandy loam. The
high rainfall, the soil is covered by slowly moving shallow lower part of the subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam
water for periods of about 7 days to 1 month or more. and grayish brown sandy loam about 25 inches thick.
The available water capacity is very low in the surface The substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches or
and subsurface layers and the upper part of the subsoil more. The upper 8 inches is light brownish gray loamy
and medium in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural sand, and the lower 19 inches is light brownish gray fine
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sand.








Lee County, Florida 47



Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Since the depth of the water table fluctuates, these
Floridana, Winder, Gator, and Copeland soils and soils areas cannot be grazed during part of the year. Although
that are similar to Chobee soils but that have a light this rest period increases forage production, the periods
colored surface horizon. Included soils make up about of high water levels may reduce the grazing value of the
10 percent of any mapped area. site. This Chobee soil is in the Fresh Water Marshes and
Under natural conditions, the water table is above the Ponds range site.
surface for 3 to 6 months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the This soil is not suitable for crops, trees, or improved
surface for 3 to 6 months. pasture because of the lack of suitable drainage outlets.
The available water capacity is high in the surface An adequate drainage system is difficult to establish.
layer and subsoil. It is medium in all other horizons. Most areas of this soil provide good habitat for wading
Natural fertility is medium. Permeability is slow or very birds and other wetland wildlife.
slow. This soil has severe limitations for urban uses because
Natural vegetation is cypress, cabbage palm, willow, of the high water table.
and pickerelweed.
This soil has moderate potential for range. The This Chobee soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
dominant forage plants are maidencane and cutgrass.











49








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Approximately 73,000 acres in Lee County is used for
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses crops and pasture, according to the 1981 Basic
and management. Field experience and collected data Resource Data Report. Of this total, 45,000 acres is
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis used for pasture; 12,000 acres for citrus; and 16,000
in predicting soil behavior. acres for specialty crops. The main specialty crops are
Information in this section can be used to plan the use tomatoes, squash, peppers, cucumbers, watermelon,
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as strawberries, field peas, and nursery plants.
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary About 285,000 acres of land is classified as rangeland
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and and 30,000 acres as woodland, according to the Basic
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife Resource Data Report. The potential of the soils in Lee
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and County for increased food production is good. Current
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help rangeland offers an opportunity to expand crop
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil production. This soil survey can facilitate the application
properties. of crop and conservation technology to increase food
Planners and others using soil survey information can production. Limitations in soil quality are somewhat offset
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity by climate, locality, and water availability. However,
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. range management principles applied to natural forage
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a sites are increasing in use due to energy conservation
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. advantages.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of The acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to gradually been decreasing as more land is used for
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil urban development. Urban development is spreading
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, throughout the county and continues to be a major land
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and use change in the survey area.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can Soil erosion caused by runoff is a soil problem on
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate some of the cropland and pastureland. Loss of the soil
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, surface layer through erosion is damaging for two
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the surface is
lost, and organic matter content is reduced as part of the
Crops and Pasture subsurface layer is incorporated into the plow layer.
Second, soil erosion on farmland results in sediment
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation entering streams. Control of erosion minimizes the
Service, helped to prepare this section. pollution of streams by sediment and improves the
General management needed for crops and pasture is quality of water for municipal use, for recreation, and for
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants fish and wildlife.
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly Erosion control practices provide a protective surface
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A cropping
land capability classification used by the Soil system that keeps vegetative cover on the soil for
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated extended periods can hold soil erosion losses to








49








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Approximately 73,000 acres in Lee County is used for
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses crops and pasture, according to the 1981 Basic
and management. Field experience and collected data Resource Data Report. Of this total, 45,000 acres is
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis used for pasture; 12,000 acres for citrus; and 16,000
in predicting soil behavior. acres for specialty crops. The main specialty crops are
Information in this section can be used to plan the use tomatoes, squash, peppers, cucumbers, watermelon,
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as strawberries, field peas, and nursery plants.
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary About 285,000 acres of land is classified as rangeland
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and and 30,000 acres as woodland, according to the Basic
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife Resource Data Report. The potential of the soils in Lee
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and County for increased food production is good. Current
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help rangeland offers an opportunity to expand crop
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil production. This soil survey can facilitate the application
properties. of crop and conservation technology to increase food
Planners and others using soil survey information can production. Limitations in soil quality are somewhat offset
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity by climate, locality, and water availability. However,
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. range management principles applied to natural forage
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a sites are increasing in use due to energy conservation
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. advantages.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of The acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to gradually been decreasing as more land is used for
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil urban development. Urban development is spreading
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, throughout the county and continues to be a major land
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and use change in the survey area.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can Soil erosion caused by runoff is a soil problem on
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate some of the cropland and pastureland. Loss of the soil
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, surface layer through erosion is damaging for two
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the surface is
lost, and organic matter content is reduced as part of the
Crops and Pasture subsurface layer is incorporated into the plow layer.
Second, soil erosion on farmland results in sediment
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation entering streams. Control of erosion minimizes the
Service, helped to prepare this section. pollution of streams by sediment and improves the
General management needed for crops and pasture is quality of water for municipal use, for recreation, and for
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants fish and wildlife.
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly Erosion control practices provide a protective surface
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A cropping
land capability classification used by the Soil system that keeps vegetative cover on the soil for
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated extended periods can hold soil erosion losses to









50 Soil Survey



amounts that will not reduce the productive capacity of in the Technical Guide available in the local offices of
the soils. On livestock farms, which require pasture and the Soil Conservation Service.
hay, the legume and grass forage crops in the cropping Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the county.
system reduce erosion on erodible sloping land and also Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer and are
provide nitrogen and improve tilth for the next crop. light in color. Many of the soils have a loamy subsoil. In
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the this category are the Bradenton, Chobee, EauGallie,
surface help to increase infiltration and reduce the Felda, Floridana, and Wabasso soils. The Satellite,
hazards of runoff and erosion. These practices can be Canaveral, Pompano, Valkaria, Captiva, and Orsino soils
adapted to most soils in the survey area. have sandy material to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Wind erosion is a major hazard on unprotected soils in The EauGallie, Myakka, Daytona, Wabasso, Oldsmar,
the county. Wind erosion can damage soils and tender Electra, Immokalee, and Smyrna soils have an organic-
crops in a few hours in open, unprotected areas if the stained layer within the sandy subsurface layer. Most of
winds are strong and the soil is dry and bare of the soils have a surface layer that is strongly acid or very
vegetation and surface mulch. Maintaining vegetative strongly acid. If the soils have never been limed, they
cover and surface mulch minimizes wind erosion. require applications of ground limestone to raise the pH
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It level sufficiently for good growth of crops. The levels of
reduces soil fertility by removing the finer soil particles nitrogen, potassium, and available phosphorus are
and organic matter; it damages or destroys crops by naturally low in most of these soils. Additions of lime and
sandblasting; it spreads diseases, insects, and weed fertilizer should be based on the results of current soil
seeds; and it creates health hazards and cleaning tests, the needs of the crops, and the expected level of
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes duststorms yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in
and improves the quality of air for more healthful living determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime
conditions, to apply.
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
Carolina cherry laurel, slash pine, southern redcedar and seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils with
Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grains are good tilth are granular and porous. Most of the soils in
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage. the county have a sandy or loamy sand surface layer
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings that is light in color and low to moderate in organic
made at right angles to the prevailing wind at specific matter content. Exceptions are the Chobee, Copeland,
intervals across the field. The intervals depend on the Floridana, Gator, Terra Ceia, and Anclote soils. Gator
erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the crop to and Terra Ceia soils have an organic surface layer.
damage from sandblasting. Generally, the structure of the surface layer of most
Information on the design of erosion control practices soils in the survey area is weak. In dry soils, low in
for each kind of soil is contained in the "Water and Wind organic matter content, intense rainfall causes the
Erosion Control Handbook-Florida," which is available in colloidal matter to cement, forming a slight crust. The
local offices of the Soil Conservation Service. crust is slightly hard when it is dry, and it is slightly
Soil drainage is a major management need on almost impervious to water. Once the crust forms, it reduces
all of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the infiltration and increases runoff. Regular additions of
county. Some soils are naturally so wet that the crop residue, manure, and other organic material can
production of crops common to the area is generally not help to improve soil structure and reduce crust
practical without extensive water control. Immokalee, formation.
EauGallie, Oldsmar, Myakka, Pompano, and Pineda soils Field crops grown in the survey area include corn. The
are examples of poorly drained soils. acreage in grain sorghum, sunflowers, and potatoes can
Unless artificially drained, some of the poorly drained be increased if economic conditions are favorable.
soils-mainly the EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Rye is the common close-growing crop grown.
Oldsmar, Wabasso, and Pineda soils-are wet enough to Tomatoes are the primary specialty crop. Other
cause damage to pasture plants during wet seasons. specialty crops grown commercially in the county are
These soils also have low available water capacity and watermelons, cucumbers, peppers, and a small acreage
are drought during dry periods. It is necessary to of squash, nursery plants, and sod. If economic
subsurface irrigate these soils for maximum pasture conditions are favorable, there is a potential to increase
production. the production of nursery plants, sod, cabbage, turnips,
The design of surface drainage and subsurface collards, and mustard greens. If drained, the Bradenton,
irrigation systems varies with the kind of soil and the EauGallie, Felda, Floridana, Gator, Myakka, Terra Ceia,
pasture plants grown. A combination of surface drains Immokalee, Smyrna, Oldsmar, Wabasso, and Pineda
and subsurface irrigation systems is needed on these soils are suited to vegetables and small fruit.
soils for intensive pasture production. Information on Latest information and suggestions for growing
drainage and irrigation for each kind of soil is contained specialty crops can be obtained from local offices of the








Lee County, Florida 51



Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Service. Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
Pastures in the survey area are used to produce about the management and productivity of the soils for
forage for beef and dairy cattle. Beef cattle cow-calf those crops.
operations are the major cattle systems. Bahiagrass,
pangolagrass, limpograss (Hermathria latissina), and Land Capability Classification
bermudagrass are the major pasture plants grown. Grass Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
seeds could be harvested from these grasses for theLand capability ofcl assification shows in a general way,
improved pasture plantings as well as for commercial the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops
purposes. Some cattlemen overseed ryegrass on pasture that require special management are excluded. The soils
in the fall for winter and spring grazing. Excess are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,
pangolagrass is harvested during the summer months to the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
use as feed during winter, way they respond to management. The criteria used in
The improved pasture in many parts of the county has grouping does not include major and generally expensive
been greatly depleted by continued excessive use. Much landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
of the area that was planted to improved pasture is now characteristics of the soils, nor do they include possible
covered with weeds and brush. Where climate and but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability
topography are about the same, differences in the kind classification is not a substitute for interpretations
and amount of forage produced are related closely to designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of
the kind of soil. Effective management considers the soils for rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering
relationship of soils to each other, pasture plant species, purposes.
water control, liming, and fertilization. In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
Yields Per Acre class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
The average yields per acre that can be expected of are defined in the following paragraphs.
the principal crops under a high level of management Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
The yields are based mainly on the experience and defined as follows:
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension Class I soils have slight limitations that restrict their
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and use.
results of field trials and demonstrations are also Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
considered. choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
The management needed to obtain the indicated practices.
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion choice of plants or that require special conservation
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting practices, or both.
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant the choice of plants or that require very careful
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction management, or both.
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
residue, barnyard manure, and greenmanure crops; and Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. generally unsuitable for cultivation.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops them unsuitable for cultivation.
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum, limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of crop production.
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
to increase as new production technology is developed. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e
other soils, however, is not likely to change. shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly








52 Soil Survey



corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is of trees and shrubs. It is expressed in pounds per acre
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony; of air-dry vegetation for favorable, normal, and
and c, used in only some parts of the United States, unfavorable years. In a favorable year, the amount and
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold distribution of precipitation and the temperatures make
or very dry. growing conditions substantially better than average. In
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of an average year, growing conditions are about average.
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the In an unfavorable year, growing conditions are well
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in below average, generally because of low available soil
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have moisture.
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, Dry weight is the total annual yield per acre of air-dry
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. vegetation. Yields are adjusted to a common percent of
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The air-dry moisture content. The relationship of green weight
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to to air-dry weight varies according to such factors as
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar exposure, amount of shade, recent rains, and
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability unseasonable dry periods.
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic Characteristic vegetation-the grasses, forbs, and
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, Ile-4 or shrubs that make up most of the potential natural plant
Ille-6. community on each soil-is listed by common name.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and Under composition, the expected percentage of the total
subclass is shown in table 5. The capability classification annual production is given for each species making up
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed Soil the characteristic vegetation. The amount that can be
Map Units" and is shown in table 4. used as forage depends on the kinds of grazing animals
and on the grazing season.
Rangeland Range management requires a knowledge of the kinds
-. of soil and of the potential natural plant community. It
Clifford W. Carter, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, of soil and of the potential natural plant community. It
assisted in preparing this section. also requires an evaluation of the present range
condition. Range condition is determined by comparing
In areas that have similar climate and topography, the present plant community with the potential natural
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation plant community on a particular range site. The more
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of closely the existing community resembles the potential
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship community, the better the range condition. Range
between the soils and vegetation and water. condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a
Table 6 shows, for each soil that supports rangeland specific meaning that pertains to the present plant
vegetation suitable for grazing, the range site and the community in a given use.
potential annual production of vegetation in favorable, The objective in range management is to control
average, and unfavorable years. Only those soils that are grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about
used as rangeland or are suited to use as rangeland are the same in kind and amount as the potential natural
listed. Explanation of the column headings in table 6 plant community for that site. Such management
follows. generally results in the optimum production of
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that vegetation, reduction of undesirable brush species,
produces a characteristic natural plant community that conservation of water, and control of erosion.
differs from natural plant communities on other range Sometimes, however, a range condition somewhat below
sites in kind, amount, and proportion of range plants. the potential meets grazing needs, provides wildlife
The relationship between soils and vegetation was habitat, and protects soil and water resources.
established during this survey; thus, range sites generally Native grasses, forbs, and browse plants from
can be determined directly from the soil map. Soil rangeland are an important resource to livestock
properties that affect moisture supply and plant nutrients producers in Lee County. This forage is readily available.
have the greatest influence on the productivity of range It is economical and provides important roughage
plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a seasonal high needed by cattle. There are approximately 285,000 acres
water table are also important. of rangeland in Lee County. Most of this range acreage
Potential production is the amount of vegetation that is in the southern and eastern portion of the county.
can be expected to grow annually on well managed
rangeland that is supporting the potential natural plant Range Sites
community. It includes all vegetation, whether or not it is
palatable to grazing animals. It includes the current A range site has the potential to support a native plant
year's growth of leaves, twigs, and fruits of woody community typified by an association of species different
plants. It does not include the increase in stem diameter from that of other range sites. The differentation is








Lee County, Florida 53



based upon significant differences in kind of species or within the site. Manipulation of a range site often
total productivity. Each range site has significant involves mechanical brush control, controlled burning,
differences in the kinds and amounts of climax and controlled livestock grazing. Predicting the effects of
vegetation it produces, and each requires different these practices on range sites is important. Proper
management. management results in maximum sustained production,
The vegetation that grew originally on a range site is conservation of the soil and water resources, and
called the climax vegetation. It generally is the most improvement of the habitat for many wildlife species.
productive and most suitable vegetation for livestock on There are eight range sites in the county that are
that particular site, and it maintains itself as long as the important to the livestock industry. The most important in
environment does not change. The climax vegetation terms of acreage are the South Florida Flatwoods and
consists mainly of three kinds of plants-decreasers, the Slough range sites. A brief description of the range
increases, and invaders. Decreasers generally are the sites follows.
most palatable climax plants, and they are eliminated if South Florida Flatwoods-This range site consists of
the range is under continuous heavy grazing. Increasers nearly level areas. Scattered to numerous pine trees are
are plants less palatable to livestock; they increase for a common, and sawpalmetto, gallberry, and other woody
while under continuous heavy grazing, but are finally plants are scattered throughout. This range site
eliminated. Invaders are plants native to the site in small produces an abundant quantity of grasses. Creeping
amounts, but they have little value for forage. These bluestem is the dominant grass with significant amounts
invaders increase as the range site deteriorates from of indiangrass, chalky bluestem, panicum, and wiregrass.
excessive grazing over a period of years. As these grasses deteriorate because of uncontrolled
Range condition is a measure of the current livestock grazing and annual burning, sawpalmetto and
productivity of the range in relation to its potential. Four pineland threeawn increase significantly. Bluestem,
condition classes are used to measure range condition. indiangrass, and panicum decrease. If the range site is in
These are- excellent condition, annual production is approximately
Excellent condition-Producing 76 to 100 percent 6,000 pounds of air-dry herbage per acre.
of the potential Slough-This range site consists of open grassland
Good condition-Producing 51 to 75 percent of where nearly level areas act as broad natural drainage
the potential courses in the flatwoods. The potential plant community
Fair condition-Producing 26 to 50 percent of the is dominated by blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and
potential bluejoint panicum. These grasses are all readily grazed
Poor condition-Producing 0 to 25 percent of the by livestock. If overgrazing continues for a prolonged
potential period, carpetgrass replaces the better grasses. Average
Only about 15 percent of the natural vegetative annual production of air-dry plant material from all
communities are in excellent condition for use as range. sources varies from about 8,000 pounds per acre in
The amount that is in fair and poor condition is estimated areas in excellent condition in favorable years to
at about 60 percent, approximately 2,000 pounds per acre in unfavorable
The productivity of the sites is closely related to the years. If range conditions are excellent, the annual
natural drainage of the soil. The wettest soils, such as vegetation production is approximately 85 percent
those in marshes, produce the greatest amount of grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent forbs, and a
vegetation. The deep, drought, sandy soils normally few woody plants and trees.
produce the least amount of herbage annually. Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills-This range site
All sites tend to be slightly wetter in this county than consists of nearly level to rolling areas identified by
they are in more northern counties. The wetness has stands of oak, sawpalmetto, and South Florida slash
some adverse effects on livestock health and mobility, pine. Because of the small quantity and poor quality of
However, these conditions are offset by the increased native forage, cattle do not readily utilize this site if other
grass production resulting from additional moisture. sites are available. If range conditions are excellent, the
Management of the range sites should be planned average annual production of air-dry plant material from
with the potential productivity in mind. Sites with the all sources varies from approximately 4,000 pounds per
highest production potential should be given highest acre in favorable years to 2,000 pounds per acre in
priority if economic considerations are important. Major unfavorable years. The relative percentage of total
management considerations revolve around livestock annual vegetation production is approximately 60 percent
grazing-the length of time that the sites are grazed, the grasses and grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs, and 20
time of the year that they are grazed, and the length of percent woody plants and trees.
time and the season that the sites are rested. Other Fresh Water Marshes and Ponds-This range site is
management considerations are the grazing pattern of an open grassland marsh or pond. It has potential for
livestock within a pasture that contains more than one producing significant amounts of maidencane and
range site and the palatability of the dominant plants cutgrass. The water level fluctuates throughout the year.








54 Soil Survey



During periods of high water, there is a natural all sources is approximately 8,000 pounds per acre
deferment from livestock grazing. This site is a preferred during favorable years and approximately 4,000 pounds
grazing area, but prolonged overgrazing causes per acre in unfavorable years. If the range site is in
deterioration of the site. Overgrazing causes excellent condition, the total annual production is
pickerelweed, buttonbush, willows, baccharis, and, in approximately 90 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 5
some places, sawgrass to increase. If in excellent percent forbs, and 5 percent woody plants and trees.
condition, the site is capable of producing in excess of Cabbage Palm Flatwoods-This range site consists
10,000 pounds of air-dry material per acre in favorable of nearly level areas characterized by cabbage palm
years. Production in unfavorable years is approximately trees scattered throughout the landscape. The site is a
5,000 pounds per acre. If the site is in excellent preferred livestock grazing area. It produces a high
condition, the annual production is approximately 80 quality and quantity of forage plants if it is in excellent
percent grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent forbs, condition. Creeping, chalky, and South Florida bluestems
and 5 percent woody plants and trees. are the dominant forage grasses along with several
Cabbage Palm Hammock-This range site is on desirable panicum species. Pineland threeawn and
nearly level, slightly higher "islands" in broad, nearly sawpalmetto increase as the area deteriorates. If the
level areas. The areas are generally 1 or 2 acres in size, range is in excellent condition, the average annual
and they are scattered throughout the landscape. The production of air-dry plant material from all sources is
site has low potential for producing forage plants approximately 9,000 pounds per acre in favorable years
because of a dense canopy of palm trees. These are and approximately 4,500 pounds per acre in unfavorable
preferred shading and resting areas for cattle and, as years. The total annual production is approximately 70
such, are usually severely denuded. Creeping bluestem percent grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent forbs,
is the dominant grass when the site is in excellent and 15 percent woody plants and trees.
condition. In a deteriorated state, however, carpetgrass
and several threeawn species dominate the understory. Woodland Management and Productivity
Desirable forage plants growing in shaded areas lose
much of their palatibility. For this reason, this site is used Carl D. DeFazio, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and Eric Hoyer,
as a resting area but rarely is used as a grazing area. If forester, Florida Division of Forestry, assisted in preparing this section.
the range site is in excellent condition, the total annual Commercial forests in Lee County cover approximately
production is approximately 55 percent grasses and Commercial forests in Lee county cover approximately
grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs, and 25 percent woody 30,000 acres, or 6 percent of the total land area. They
plants and trees. are primarily small, nonindustrial, and privately owned.
Sand Pine Scrub-This range site is on nearly level to South Florida slash pine is the major species in the
gently sloping uplands. It has limited potential for county. It is on Oldsmar, Wabasso, Myakka, and
producing native forage plants. The site supports a Immokalee soils in the eastern part of the county.
dense stand of sand pine trees and a dense woody Southern baldcypress is common in the southern part of
understory. Livestock do not use this site if other range the county.
sites are available. Principal forage plants are bluestem, Urban development is steadily reducing the acreage of
indiangrass, and panicum. Numerous legumes and forbs forests throughout the county. Much of the western half
grow in these areas. Average annual production of air- of the county has been lost to such development.
dry plant material from all sources varies from Timber makes up a substantial amount of the total
approximately 3,500 pounds per acre on communities in acreage of the larger ranches. Sound management
excellent condition in favorable years to approximately generally consists of natural revegetation following
1,500 pounds per acre in unfavorable years. If the range harvest cutting. Site selection for planting is important in
site is in excellent condition, the total annual production order to maximize growth to offset the cost of planting.
is approximately 40 percent grasses and grasslike Many soils that have loamy texture within a depth of 40
plants, 20 percent forbs, and 40 percent woody plants inches of the surface are very productive of timber if the
and trees. water table is controlled.
Salt Water Marsh-This range site consists of tidal Prescribed burning is important in reducing "rough,"
marsh areas along the Gulf of Mexico. The areas, if in which is a dangerous fire hazard. Burning is a common
excellent condition, produce significant amounts of practice associated with quail management.
smooth cordgrass, seashore saltgrass, and seashore Markets for wood are limited in the area; however,
paspalum. Tidal movement causes water levels in the trends indicate that increased utilization of wood and
marsh to vary from surface level to 18 inches above the wood fiber will continue. Several small sawmills now
surface. Continuous grazing and annual burning will alter exist, and markets for post poles, pilings, and pulpwood
the plant community to one dominated by black are present.
needlerush. If the site is in excellent condition, the More detailed information on soils and forest
average annual production of air-dry plant material from management can be obtained from the local offices of








Lee County, Florida 55



the Soil Conservation Service, Florida Division of there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading
Forestry, and Florida Cooperative Extension Service. plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A
Table 7 can be used by woodland owners or forest rating of slight indicates little or no competition from
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops. other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol competition is expected to prevent the establishment of
require the same general management and have about a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared,
the same potential productivity, weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, plants.
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for The potential productivity of merchantable or common
important trees. The number 1 indicates very high trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; the average height, in feet, that dominant and
and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter, codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter w number of years. Site index was determined at age 25
indicates excessive water in or on the soil and the letter years for South Florida slash pine and at 50 years for all
s indicates sandy texture. The letter o indicates that other species. The site index applies to fully stocked,
limitations or restrictions are insignificant, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees
In table 7, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the are those that woodland managers generally favor in
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected
management. on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss marketability.
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
expected soil loss is small, moderate if measures are and to commercial wood production.
needed to control erosion during logging and road
construction, and severe if intensive management or Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
special equipment and methods are needed to prevent
excessive loss of soil. Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
of the equipment generally needed in woodland rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
management or in equipment; and severe indicates a of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or from wind, hold snow on the fields, and provide food and
management, or a hazard in the use of equipment. cover for wildlife.
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of of suitable species should be planted properly on a well
slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than prepared site and maintained in good condition.
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe, Additional information on planning windbreaks and
more than 50 percent. screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
characteristics that affect the development of tree roots Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of Service or from a nursery.
slight indicates that few trees may be blown down by
strong winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown Recreation
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
strong winds; and severe, that many trees are blown The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and according to limitations that affect their suitability for
moderate or strong winds. recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not








Lee County, Florida 55



the Soil Conservation Service, Florida Division of there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading
Forestry, and Florida Cooperative Extension Service. plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A
Table 7 can be used by woodland owners or forest rating of slight indicates little or no competition from
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops. other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol competition is expected to prevent the establishment of
require the same general management and have about a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared,
the same potential productivity, weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, plants.
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for The potential productivity of merchantable or common
important trees. The number 1 indicates very high trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; the average height, in feet, that dominant and
and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter, codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter w number of years. Site index was determined at age 25
indicates excessive water in or on the soil and the letter years for South Florida slash pine and at 50 years for all
s indicates sandy texture. The letter o indicates that other species. The site index applies to fully stocked,
limitations or restrictions are insignificant, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees
In table 7, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the are those that woodland managers generally favor in
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected
management. on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss marketability.
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
expected soil loss is small, moderate if measures are and to commercial wood production.
needed to control erosion during logging and road
construction, and severe if intensive management or Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
special equipment and methods are needed to prevent
excessive loss of soil. Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
of the equipment generally needed in woodland rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
management or in equipment; and severe indicates a of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or from wind, hold snow on the fields, and provide food and
management, or a hazard in the use of equipment. cover for wildlife.
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of of suitable species should be planted properly on a well
slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than prepared site and maintained in good condition.
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe, Additional information on planning windbreaks and
more than 50 percent. screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
characteristics that affect the development of tree roots Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of Service or from a nursery.
slight indicates that few trees may be blown down by
strong winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown Recreation
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
strong winds; and severe, that many trees are blown The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and according to limitations that affect their suitability for
moderate or strong winds. recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not








56 Soil Survey



considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the or no stones or boulders on the surface.
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
vegetation, access to water, potential water some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning \ not considered in rating the soils.
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. Wildlife Habitat
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, assisted in
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are preparing this section.
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that This county has extensive areas of good wildlife
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, habitat, even though much of the highly desirable habitat
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil in the coastal areas has been lost to urban development.
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be The beaches, mangroves, and hardwood hammock
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design, areas are under heavy pressure for development. The
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination federally owned National Wildlife Refuges (Ding Darling,
of these measures. Island Bay, Matlacha Pass, and Pine Island refuges)
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by provide pockets of habitat. The National Wildlife Refuges
other information in this survey, for example, are along the Gulf and provide habitat primarily for
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table pelicans, shore birds, and wintering waterfowl.
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements The primary game animals are bobwhite quail and
and for local roads and streets in table 10. white-tailed deer. There are also wild turkey, squirrels,
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping feral hogs, snipe, and waterfowl (primarily, Florida duck
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads in the inland areas and teal, gadwall, pintail, ringneck,
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary and scaup in the coastal areas). Nongame animals
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to include raccoon, opossum, skunk, armadillo, bobcat, gray
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best fox, otter, songbirds, wading birds, shore birds,
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to woodpeckers, reptiles, and amphibians. Numerous fish
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or provide excellent fishing in the brackish and saltwater
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but areas. Largemouth bass and various sunfish are the
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes primary species caught in fresh water.
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of Some of the inland areas are used for vegetable
constructing campsites. production, but most are in large cattle ranches. These
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most areas, especially those in native range, provide wildlife
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking habitat, but they could be improved by the modification
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, of poor grazing and burning practices.
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding A number of endangered or threatened species are
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or found in the county. These range from the red-cockaded
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping woodpecker and sandhill crane to more familiar species,
sites or of building access roads and parking areas. such as the alligator and pelican. A complete list of
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive endangered or threatened species, with detailed
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not information on their range and habitat, can be obtained
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The from the local office of the Soil Conservation Service.
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains, Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
considered. abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are be created or improved by planting appropriate
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
are not subject to flooding more than once a year during promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.








Lee County, Florida 57



In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
according to their potential for providing habitat for or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in properties and features that affect the growth of
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining these plants are oak, palmetto, dahoon holly, red maple,
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining wild grape, sugarberry, water hickory, blackberry, and
the intensity of management needed for each element of huckleberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are
the habitat. suitable for planting on soils rated good are firethorn,
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or waxmyrtle, and blackberry.
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or properties and features that affect the growth of
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, and
established, improved, or maintained in most places. cedar.
Moderately intensive management is required for Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or properties and features affecting wetland plants are
maintained in most places, but management is difficult texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
and must be intensive. A rating of verypoor indicates slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are plants are smartweed, wild millet, saltgrass, cordgrass,
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be rushes, sedges, and reeds.
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is Shaow water areas have an average depth of less
impractical or impossible.Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
impractical or impossible. .than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the created by dams, levees, or other water-control
following paragraphs. structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, s a
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface ponds.
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and the following paragraphs.
seed crops are soybeans, browntop millet, and grain Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
sorghum. pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard, cottontail, and sandhill cranes.
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
bahiagrass, pangolagrass, deervetch, clover, and associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
sesbania. plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil raccoon, deer, and bobcat.
properties and features that affect the growth of these Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil birds, otter, mink, and ibis.
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild Habitat for rangeland wildlife consists of areas of
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, shrubs and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to
beggarweed, partridge pea, bristlegrass, and rangeland include white-tailed deer, meadowlark,
sloughgrass. bobwhite quail, and opossum.








58 Soil Survey



Engineering The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
This section provides information for planning land survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
uses related to urban development and to water Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are Glossary.
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water Building Site Development
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
test data in the "Soil Properties" section. that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
Information in this section is intended for land use without basements, small commercial buildings, local
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
planning site investigations prior to design and limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
construction. The information, however, has limitations. features are generally favorable for the indicated use
For example, estimates and other data generally apply and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils indicated use and special planning, design, or
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
soil. limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
The information is not site specific and does not are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or special design, significant increases in construction
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
design and construction of engineering works. Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict limitations are severe.
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
not considered in preparing the information in this maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
Soil properties, site features, and observed observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
performance were considered in determining the ratings filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer;
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to year that excavations can be made is affected by the
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the depth to a seasonal high water table and the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table.
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink- soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
swell potential, available water capacity, and other dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses. for small commercial buildings without basements, for
This information can be used to evaluate the potential dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
recreation uses; make preliminary estimates of features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil; and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
terraces, and other structures for soil and water and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
conservation; and predict performance of proposed small have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
structures and pavements by comparing the performance gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils. flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally








Lee County, Florida 59



limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
properties, site features, and observed performance of fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil), than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
shrink-swell potential, frost-action potential, and depth to slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
a high water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity. surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site thickness.
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
vegetation is established, recommended to minimize seepage and contamination
of ground water.
Sanitary Facilities Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
are considered slight if soil properties and site features observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
are generally favorable for the indicated use and ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the and content of organic matter.
indicated use and special planning, design, or Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
special design, significant increases in construction or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required. organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope,
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of
and good performance and low maintenance can be the lagoon floor.
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
features are moderately favorable for the use and one or disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
more soil properties or site features make the soil less landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
that one or more soil properties or site features are daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
costly alteration. and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which away from the site.
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site needs to be considered.
features, and observed performance of the soils. The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties,
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a site features, and observed performance of the soils.
cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of
interfere with installation. landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic








60 Soil Survey



layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium after it has been compacted and drained is determined
affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the by its strength (as inferred from the engineering
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
is needed. material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
to the landfill, and spread over the waste. plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing. the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
After soil material has been removed, the soil material of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over thick.
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
generally has the best workability, more organic matter, ela used c use t 12 only
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final he ability of g material q yi
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
Construction Materials excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
Table 12 gives information about the soils as a source sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated by the engineering classification of the soil), the
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil. thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
properties and site features that affect the removal of given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal sizes is given in the table on engineering index
compaction, minor processing, and other standard properties.
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
and used in road embankments in another place. In this feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale
exacting in design than higher embankments. and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading. of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
their profile. The table showing engineering index Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties provides detailed information about each soil properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
layer. This information can help determine the suitability fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
in the ratings. of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,








Lee County, Florida 61



are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
not so wet that excavation is difficult. determine these properties.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
not so wet that excavation is difficult. A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less It also affects trafficability.
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
near the surface. only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the
moisture and nutrients for plant growth, water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to
bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease
Water Management of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
site features that affect water management. The degree effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
properties and site features are generally favorable for subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding;
the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily subsidence of organic layers; and potential frost action.
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks
not favorable for the indicated use and special planning, are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving.
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the
overcome that special design, significant increase in root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
are required. Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and and management of an irrigation system are affected by
diversions, and grassed waterways. depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity sodium, and soil reaction.
of the reservoir area. Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures combination of channels and ridges constructed across
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
constructed to impound water or to protect land against intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed an excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
and compacted during construction. adversely affect maintenance.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
depth even greater than the height of the embankment surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
can affect performance and safety of the embankment. stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a









62



cemented pan affect the construction of grassed as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such construction.








63









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 21. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engineering Index Properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 21.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.








63









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 21. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engineering Index Properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 21.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.








64 Soil Survey



Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies,
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The depending on soil properties that affect the retention of
estimates are based on test data from the survey area or water and the depth of the root zone. The most
from nearby areas and on field examination, important properties are the content of organic matter,
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent. water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits plants or crops to be grown and in the design and
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points) management of irrigation systems. Available water
across classification boundaries, the classification in the capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
marginal zone is omitted in the table. actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
Physical and Chemical Properties expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
The estimates are based on field observations and on fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
test data for these and similar soils, corrosion.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential, soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations. construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root measurements of similar soils.
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward often needed.
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the,
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems, change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
rate of water movement under saturated conditions less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
affects behavior. more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water is sometimes used.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six








Lee County, Florida 65



factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and The content of organic matter of a soil can be
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69. soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
The higher the value, the more susceptible the soil is to infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
sheet and rill erosion by water. other nutrients for crops.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that Soil and Water Features
can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year. Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have features. The estimates are used in land use planning
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind that involves engineering considerations.
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
distinctions: according to the intake of water when the soils are
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. duration storms.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to The four hydrologic soil groups are:
establish.
es2. Loam sands, loam fine sands, and loamy very Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
fine sands. Thsesoils re very highly erodible. Crops potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
erosion are used. gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
erosion are used. t i .
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy transmission.
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
control wind erosion are used. or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can transmission.
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
are used. thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
control wind erosion are used. Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
control wind erosion are used. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and Some of the soils in table 16 are shown as having
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, dual hydrologic groups, such as B/D. A B/D listing
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly means that under natural conditions the soil belongs to
erodible. Crops can easily be grown, hydrologic group D, but by artificial methods the water
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay table can be lowered sufficiently so that the soil fits in
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. hydrologic group B. Since there are different degrees of
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily drainage or water table control, onsite investigation is
be grown. needed to determine the hydrologic group of the soil at a
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject particular location.
to wind erosion. Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
soil at various stages of decomposition. slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after








66 Soil Survey



rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, nor is unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
water in swamps and marshes. table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
and the time of year when flooding is most likely, are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence indicates that the water table is above the surface of the
are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare, soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high
common, occasional, and frequent. None means that the water rises above the surface. The second numeral
flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but indicates the depth below the surface.
possible under unusual weather conditions; common that Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
occurs, on the average, no more than once in 2 years; on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
and frequent that it occurs, on the average, more than specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
once in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
less than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
than 7 days. Probable dates are expressed in months; or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
November-May, for example, means that flooding can needed for excavation.
occur during the period November through May. Cemented pans are cemented or indurated subsurface
The information is based on evidence in the soil layers within a depth of 5 feet. Such pans cause difficulty
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay in excavation. Pans are classified as thin or thick. A thin
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic pan is less than 3 inches thick if continuously indurated
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of or less than 18 inches thick if discontinuous or fractured.
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject Excavations can be made by trenching machines,
to flooding. backhoes, or small rippers. A thick pan is more than 3
Also considered are local information about the extent inches thick if continuously indurated or more than 18
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on inches thick if discontinuous or fractured. Such a pan is
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the so thick or massive that blasting or special equipment is
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than needed in excavation.
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
levels, results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a of organic material, or both, following drainage.
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The of several years. Table 16 shows the expected initial
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the annual subsidence, which usually is a result of oxidation.
soil. The water table in 23 pedons, representing 11 soil Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
series, was measured twice a month for three imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
consecutive years during the course of the soil survey. water throughout an extensive area as a result of
The pedons were selected as typical of the series as lowering the water table.
mapped in the county, and they were as far removed as Potential frost action is the likelihood of upward or
possible from any source of artificial drainage. The lateral expansion of the soil caused by the formation of
measurements of the water tables for nine of the major segregated ice lenses (frost heave) and the subsequent
series, for the period 1977 through 1979, are shown in collapse of the soil and loss of strength on thawing.
table 17. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the Frost action occurs when moisture moves into the
seasonal high water table; the kind of water table-that freezing zone of the soil. Temperature, texture, density,
is, perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the permeability, content of organic matter, and depth to the
year that the water table commonly is high. A water table water table are the most important factors considered in
that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not evaluating the potential for frost action. It is assumed
indicated in table 16. that the soil is not insulated by vegetation or snow and is
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water not artificially drained. Silty and highly structured clayey
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water soils that have a high water table in winter are most
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is susceptible to frost action. Well drained, very gravelly, or
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An very sandy soils are the least susceptible. Frost heave
artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally and low soil strength during thawing cause damage
beneath an impermeable layer. When this layer is mainly to pavements and other rigid structures.
penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased borehole. Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
A perched water table is water standing above an electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or








Lee County, Florida 67


weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of emission, and calcium and magnesium by atomic
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as absorption spectrophotometry. Extractable acidity was
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and determined by the barium chloridetriethanolamine
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of method at pH 8.2. Cation exchange capacity was
concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium calculated by summation of extractable bases and
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil. extractable acidity. Base saturation is the ratio of
Special site examination and design may be needed if extractable bases to cation exchange capacity
the combination of factors creates a severe corrosion expressed in percent. The pH measurements were made
environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil with a glass electrode using a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a
boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion 0.01 molar calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solution
than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind ratio; and normal potassium chloride solution in a 1:1
of soil or within one soil layer. soil-solution ratio.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class, a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
electrical conductivity of the saturation extract. were determined by atomic absorption
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture, extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar
acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract. sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
iron was by atomic absorption and extracted carbon by
Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Analyses of Selected Soils Mineralogy of the clay fraction greater than 2
micrometers was ascertained by X-ray diffraction. Peak
By Dr. V. W. Carlisle, professor of soil science, Soil Science heights at 18 angstrom, 14 angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, 4.83
Department, University of Florida. angstrom, and 4.31 angstrom positions represent
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical montmorillonite, interstratified expandable vermiculite or
properties of representative pedons are presented in 14-angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz,
tables 18, 19, and 20. The analyses were conducted and respectively. Peaks were measured, summed, and
coordinated by the Soil Characterization Laboratory at normalized to give percent soil minerals identified in the
the University of Florida. Detailed profile descriptions of X-ray diffractograms. These percentage values do not
soils analyzed are given in the section "Soil Series and indicate absolute determined quantities of soil minerals
Their Morphology." Laboratory data and profile but do imply a relative distribution of minerals in a
information for additional soils in the county as well as particular mineral suite. Absolute percentages would
for other counties in Florida are on file at the Soil require additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity,
Science Department, University of Florida. unit structure substitution, and matrix problems.
Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully Most soils in the county are inherently sandy (table
selected locations. Samples were air-dried, crushed, and 18). All pedons sampled, with the exception of Wulfert,
sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most analytical contained at least one horizon with more than 95
methods used are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations percent total sands. Canaveral, Captiva, Daytona, Estero,
Report No. 1 (6). Myakka, Orsino, Pompano, Punta, Satellite, Smyrna, and
Particle-size distribution was determined using a Valkaria soils contained more than 90 percent sands to
modified pipette method with sodium a depth of 2 meters or more. Only one horizon in the
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity Anclote, Boca, Floridana, and Immokalee soils contained
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil less than 90 percent total sands. Deep horizons of Boca,
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from Bradenton, EauGallie, Felda, Floridana, Heights, Isles,
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe Malabar, Oldsmar, Terra Ceia, Wabasso, and Winder
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at soils contained the most fine-textured materials;
100 centimeters water (1/10 bar) and 345 centimeters however, only one horizon in the Bradenton and two
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water horizons in the Wabasso soil contained more than 20
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were percent clay. Silt content in most horizons of the soils
ovendried, ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and the sampled was less than 4 percent. EauGallie, Felda,
15-bar water retention was determined. Organic carbon Heights, Malabar, and Terra Ceia soils contained 10
was determined by a modification of the Walkley-Black percent or more silt in one or two subsurface horizons.
wet combustion method. Fine sands dominated the sand fractions of most soils
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with with amounts exceeding 90 percent in the Myakka soil.
normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium Horizons with more than 60 percent fine sands occurred
and potassium in the extract were determined by flame in the Boca, Bradenton, Canaveral, Captiva, Cocoa,








68 Soil Survey



Estero, Felda, Hallandale, Isles, Kesson, Malabar, contained 1 milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable
Myakka, Orsino, Peckish, Pompano, Punta, Satellite, bases or less. Many of the other soils that were sampled
Smyrna, Terra Ceia, Valkaria, Wabasso, and Wulfert contained horizons with extremely low amounts of
soils. Medium sands dominated the sand fractions of extractable bases. Calcium was the dominant base in
Anclote, Daytona, EauGallie, Immokalee, Oldsmar, and most soils; however, sodium and magnesium were by far
Winder soils. Horizons with more than 50 percent the dominant bases in the Estero, Isles, Peckish, and
medium sand occurred in all of these soils with Wulfert soils. Sodium content was extremely low or
exception of the Daytona pedon. Coarse sand commonly nondetectable in most horizons of the Anclote, Boca,
occurred in minor amounts, exceeding 10 percent only in Bradenton, Cocoa, Daytona, EauGallie, Felda, Floridana,
one horizon of the Canaveral soil and a number of Hallandale, Heights, Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, Orsino,
horizons in the EauGallie soils. Very coarse sand Pompano, Punta, Satellite, Smyrna, Valkaria, and Winder
occurred in extremely low amounts, nondetectable in soils. Likewise, potassium content was very low or
one or more horizons of the Anclote, Boca, Bradenton, nondetectable in these soils and in the Canaveral,
Cocoa, Daytona, EauGallie, Estero, Felda, Floridana, Captiva, Kesson, Myakka, Terra Ceia, and Wabasso
Hallandale, Heights, Immokalee, Malabar, Myakka, soils. Cation exchange capacity values exceeded 7
Oldsmar, Orsino, Peckish, Pompano, Punta, Satellite, milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface horizons of
Terra Ceia, Valkaria, Wabasso, Winder, and Wulfert soils. the Anclote, Bradenton, Canaveral, Captiva, Estero,
Droughtiness is a common characteristic of sandy soils, Floridana, Immokalee, Isles, Kesson, Oldsmar, Peckish,
particularly those.that are moderately well drained, well Terra Ceia, and Wulfert soils. Within the pedon depth,
drained, or excessively drained, the cation exchange capacity exceeded 7
Bradenton, Canaveral, Orsino, Satellite, and Terra Ceia milliequivalents per 100 grams in all soils sampled with
soils contained horizons with hydraulic conductivity the exception of the Cocoa, Hallandale, Malabar, Orsino,
values in excess of 60 centimeters per hour. Hydraulic Pompano, Satellite, and Valkaria soils.
conductivity values of less than 15 centimeters per hour Soil cation exchange capacity is almost entirely a
were recorded throughout the entire Felda and Heights result of the amount and kind of clay and organic matter
pedons. Malabar, Wabasso, and Winder soils contained present. Soils with very low cation exchange capacities,
only one horizon with hydraulic conductivity values in such as Satellite, require only small amounts of lime to
excess of 15 centimeters per hour. Many of the soils significantly alter both the base status and soil reaction
sampled contained one or more horizons with less than in the upper horizons. Generally, soils of low inherent
15 centimeters per hour hydraulic conductivity. Spodic soil fertility are associated with low values for extractable
horizons or horizons with enhanced amounts of clay bases and low cation exchange capacities and fertile
occurring in the subsoil of the Bradenton, EauGallie, soils are associated with high values for extractable
Floridana, Heights, Immokalee, Malabar, Oldsmar, Terra bases, high cation exchange capacities, and high base
Ceia, and Winder soils resulted in hydraulic conductivity saturation values.
values that were less than 1 centimeter per hour. Content of organic carbon was less than 2 percent
Bulk density values, generally between 1.40 and 1.70 throughout all horizons of all pedons of the Boca,
grams per centimeter, may be used along with water Bradenton, Canaveral, Cocoa, Felda, Hallandale,
content data to indicate available water content. Heights, Kesson, Malabar, Orsino, Pompano, Satellite,
Generally, soils in the county contain excessive amounts Smyrna, Valkaria, Wabasso, and Winder soils. Significant
of sand and small amounts of organic matter, resulting in increases in organic carbon content occurred in the Bh
the retention of low amounts of available water. Orsino, horizons of the Daytona, EauGallie, Estero, Immokalee,
Pompano, Satellite, and Valkaria soils retain very low Myakka, Oldsmar, Punta, Smyrna, and Wabasso soils.
amounts of available water throughout. Relatively large Soil management practices that conserve and maintain
amounts of available water are retained by the Floridana organic carbon in soils are highly desirable since organic
and Terra Ceia surface soils. carbon content is directly related to soil nutrient and
Soil chemical properties (table 19) show that many water retention characteristics.
soils in the county contained one or more horizons with Electrical conductivity values were 0.1 millimho per
a relatively high amount of extractable bases. The sum centimeter or less in all horizons of the Cocoa, Daytona,
of extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium, and EauGallie, Hallandale, Immokalee, Myakka, Orsino,
potassium exceeded 16 milliequivalents per 100 grams Pompano, Punta, Satellite, Smyrna, and Valkaria soils.
throughout the pedon depths of Canaveral, Captiva, Values exceeding 3.0 millimho per centimeter in the
Isles, Kesson, Peckish, and Wulfert soils. In addition, at surface horizon of the Captiva, Estero, Isles, Kesson,
least one horizon in the Bradenton, Felda, Floridana, Peckish, and Wulfert soils indicated that the soluble salt
Heights, and Terra Ceia soils contained more than 16 content of these soils approached amounts that are
milliequivalents per 100 grams extractable bases. In detrimental to the growth of salt sensitive plants.
contrast, all horizons of the Daytona, Immokalee, Soil reaction in water commonly ranged between pH
Myakka, Pompano, Punta, Satellite, and Valkaria pedons 4.5 and 6.0; however, the entire pedon of Canaveral,








Lee County, Florida 69



Captiva, and Kesson soils and parts of the subsoils of proportion of the soils sampled, were not detected in the
the Boca, Bradenton, Felda, Heights, Malabar, Pompano, Bradenton, Canaveral, Captiva, Felda, Kesson, Myakka,
and Terra Ceia soils exceeded pH 7.0. Reactions lower Satellite, Terra Ceia, and Wulfert soils. Gibbsite, usually
than pH 4.5 were recorded in one or more horizons of occurring in small amounts, was detected in some
the Daytona, Immokalee, Myakka, Peckish, Punta, Terra horizons of the Boca, EauGallie, Hallandale, Pompano,
Ceia, and Wulfert soils. Soil reaction was generally 0.5 to Smyrna, and Valkaria soils. Quartz occurred in all
1.5 units lower in calcium chloride and potassium pedons sampled.
chloride solutions than in water, with the exception of Large amounts of quartz, particularly in the surface
soils that had high electrical conductivity values, horizon, indicated a severe weathering environment in
Maximum plant nutrient availability is generally attained the county. Clay-sized quartz has resulted from
when soil reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.5; however, decrements of the silt fraction. Montmorillonite appears
for most crops in Florida it is usually not economically to have been inherited as it is probably the least stable
feasible to maintain the reaction of strongly acid soils of the mineral components under present environmental
above a value of pH 6.5. conditions. Inconsistent occurrence of the 14-angstrom
Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron was 0.06 intergrade and gibbsite together with the lack of a
percent or less in the Bh horizons. The ratio of tendency for kaolinite to increase or decrease with
pyrophosphate extractable aluminum to clay in Daytona, pedon depth is suggestive of youthful soils. Clay
EauGallie, Estero, Immokalee, Myakka, Oldsmar, Punta, mineralogy of soils occurring in the county influences
Smyrna, and Wabasso soils was sufficient to meet the their use and management less frequently than the total
chemical criteria for spodic horizons. Citrate-dithionite clay content.
extractable iron in argillic horizons of Ultisols ranged
from 0.01 percent in the Boca soil to 0.61 percent in the Engineering Index Test Data
Wabasso soil. Similarly, these values in the Bh horizons Table 21 shows laboratory test data for several
of Spodosols ranged from 0.02 percent in the EauGallie pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
soil to 0.10 percent in the Daytona and Myakka soils; area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
and, in the Bir horizons, from 0.04 percent in the described in the section "Soil Series and Their
Malabar to 0.11 percent in the Valkaria soil. Aluminum Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the Soils
extracted by citrate-dithionite ranged from nondetectable Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
amounts in the Terra Ceia to 0.34 percent in the Bureau of Materials and Research. These tests were
EauGallie soil. Soils in the county contain insufficient made to help evaluate the soils for engineering
amounts of aluminum and iron to detrimentally affect purposes. The classifications given are based on data
phosphorus availability. obtained by mechanical analysis and by tests to
The sand fraction (2 to 0.05 millimeters) was siliceous determine liquid limits and plasticity indices. The
with quartz overwhelmingly dominant in all pedons. Small mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve and
amounts of heavy minerals occurred in most soils, with hydrometer methods (3). The various grain-size fractions
the greatest concentration in the very fine sand fraction. were calculated on the basis of all the material in the soil
No weatherable minerals were observed. Crystalline sample, including that coarser than 2 millimeters.
mineral components of the clay fraction (less than 0.002 Mechanical analyses used in this method should not be
millimeters) are reported in table 20 for selected used in naming the textural classes of soils.
horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay mineralogical The testing methods generally are those of the
suite was composed of montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom American Association of State Highway and
intergrade, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz. Montmorillonite Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American
occurred in approxmiately two-thirds of the soils sampled Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
but was not detected in the Boca, Cocoa, Daytona, The tests and methods are: Liquid limit-T 89
EauGallie, Hallandale, Immokalee, Orsino, Pompano, (AASHTO), D 423 (ASTM); Plasticity index-T 90
Punta, Valkaria, and Wabasso soils. The 14-angstrom (AASHTO), D 424 (ASTM); Moisture density, Method A-
intergrade minerals, occurring in a somewhat similar T 99 (AASHTO), D 698 (ASTM).










71









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (7). Beginning mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
with the broadest, these categories are the order, zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
field or inferred from those observations or from properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
laboratory measurements. Table 22 shows the Psammaquents.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An differ within a series.
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the In this section, each soil series recognized in Lee
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder County is described. Lee County and adjacent Charlotte
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning County were mapped concurrently using a single soil
water, plus ent, from Entisol). legend for both counties. All of the soil map units
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" occur
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, in both counties. Because these counties were mapped
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic together, some of the typical pedons for the soil series in
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and this survey are located in Charlotte County. These
base status. Each great group is identified by the name pedons are considered to be representative of the soils
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of as mapped in Lee County, however. The description of
the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, the location of the typical pedon of each series names
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the the county in which the pedon is located. The
Entisols that have an aquic moisture regime). descriptions of the soil series are arranged in alphabetic
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. order.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The The location of the typical pedon of many of the series
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not is referenced to nearby roads. Some roads that were
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are state highways when the survey was being made have
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. since become county highways. The highway
Extragrades have some properties that are not designations have not been changed, however, since the
representative of the great group but do not indicate accompanying soil maps carry the older designation.
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives formed are identified for each series. The soil is
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (5). Many of
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where in Soil Taxonomy (7). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
there is much biological activity. Among the properties the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon








72 Soil Survey



description is the range of important characteristics of are on sloughs, on flatwoods, and in depressions. Slopes
the soils in the series. range from 0 to 2 percent.
The map units of each soil series are described in the In most years, in the flatwoods under natural
section "Detailed Soil Map Units." conditions, the water table is within 10 inches of the
surface for 2 to 4 months. It recedes to below the
Anclote Series limestone for about 6 months. In sloughs, during periods
of high rainfall, the soil is covered by a shallow layer of
The soils of the Anclote series are sandy, siliceous, slowly moving water for periods of about 7 to 30 days or
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls. They are deep, very more. Depressions are ponded for 3 to 6 months or
poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in more in most years.
thick beds of sandy marine sediment. These soils are in Boca soils are geographically associated with
depressions. Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent. Hallandale, Pompano, Felda, Pineda, and Wabasso soils.
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is Hallandale soils do not have an argillic horizon, and they
ponded for more than 6 months. The water table is 10 to have limestone within 20 inches of the surface.
40 inches below the surface for 3 to 6 months. Pompano soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or
Anclote soils are geographically associated with Boca, more. Felda and Pineda soils do not have limestone
Immokalee, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Valkaria within 80 inches of the surface. In addition, Pineda soils
soils. Valkaria, Malabar, and Pineda soils have a Bir have a Bir horizon. Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon.
horizon. Malabar and Pineda soils have an argillic Typical pedon of Boca fine sand; on flatwoods about
horizon. Immokalee and Oldsmar soils have a spodic 0.3 mile south of Daniels Road and 300 feet east of U.S.
horizon. Boca soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of Highway 41, NW1 /4SW1 /4SW1 /4 sec. 24, T. 45 S., R.
24 to 40 inches, and they are underlain by limestone. 24 E., in Lee County:
Typical pedon of Anclote sand, depressional; in a
depression approximately 1.0 mile south of State A1-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
Highway 82, NW1 /4NE1 /4 sec. 25, T. 45 S., R. 26 E., in grained; loose; many fine and few medium roots;
Lee County: neutral; clear smooth boundary.
All-0 to 8 inches; black (1OYR 2/1) sand; weak fine A21-3 to 9 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
granular structure; very friable; many fine and single grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse
medium and common coarse roots; strongly acid; roots; neutral; clear wav boundary.
gradual wavy boundary. A22-9 to 14 inches; light gray (10OYR 7/2) fine sand;
A12-8 to 22 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; common single grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse
light gray (10YR 7/1) sand pockets and streaks roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
throughout; single grained; loose; many fine and B1-14 to 25 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
medium and common coarse roots; strongly acid; sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
gradual wavy boundary. roots; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
C1-22 to 40 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) B2tg-25 to 30 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam;
sand; common medium distinct very dark gray common medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR
(10YR 3/1) streaks along old root channels; single 6/8) mottles and few very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
grained; loose; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. streaks along root channels; moderate medium
C2-40 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single subangular blocky structure; friable; slightly sticky
grained; loose; neutral. and slightly plastic; few fine and medium roots;
common calcareous nodules; mildly alkaline; abrupt
Anclote soils are strongly acid to slightly acid in the A irregular boundary.
horizon and medium to neutral in the C horizon. IIR-30 inches; fractured limestone containing solution
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and holes; sandy clay loam material is in solution holes
chroma of 1. Thickness is 12 to 24 inches. and fractures.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Very dark gray or very dark The thickness of the solum and depth to limestone
grayish brown streaks are along old root channels. range from 25 to 40 inches except in solution holes
where thickness and depth are more than 40 inches.
Boca Series The solution holes are less than half the area of the
individual pedon. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
The soils of the Boca series are loamy, siliceous, neutral in the A horizon and from neutral to moderately
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are moderately alkaline in the B1 and B2t horizons.
deep, poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2
formed in moderately thick beds of sandy and loamy through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness is 3 to 8
marine sediment over limestone. These nearly level soils inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,








Lee County, Florida 73



and chroma of 1 through 4. Thickness is 10 to 22 along ro6t channels; moderate medium subangular
inches. blocky structure; friable; few medium and fine roots;
The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
chroma of 3 or 4; or it has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and B22tg-18 to 28 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine
chroma of 2. Mottles of yellowish brown or strong brown sand; many fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR
are in some pedons. Thickness is 0 to 15 inches. 5/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
The B2t horizon has hue of 5Y or 10YR, value of 5 or very friable; few medium and fine roots; medium
6, and chroma of 1 or 2 with mottles of yellowish brown, acid; gradual wavy boundary.
brownish yellow, or strong brown. The B2t horizon is IIClca-28 to 33 inches; white (10YR 8/1) soft calcium
sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam. carbonate with intrusions of gray loamy fine sand in
Thickness is 4 to 8 inches. about 25 percent of the horizon; weak fine
Some pedons have a thin transitional layer of small subangular blocky structure; very friable; few
rock fragments and firm calcium carbonate less than 4 medium and fine roots; calcareous; gradual wavy
inches thick between the B2t horizon and the fractured boundary.
limestone. IIC2ca-33 to 45 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) loamy fine sand;
common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
Bradenton Series 5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; weak
The soils of the Bradenton series are coarse-loamy, fine subangular boc structure; very friable;
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Ochraqualfs. They are common segregated calcium carbonate concretions
poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that formed less than 3 inches in diameter; mildly alkaline; clear
in loamy marine sediment. These nearly level soils are in wavy boundary.
hammocks along rivers, creeks, and swamps. Slopes are J111C3-45 to 57 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the common discontinuous strata or pockets of light
Bradenton series, because they have a strongly acid A gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; common segregated iron
horizon and a medium acid B horizon. They are similar in and calcium carbonate concretions 0.5 inch to 2
use, management, and behavior to the soils of the inches in diameter; moderately alkaline; clear wavy
Bradenton series, however. boundary.
Under natural conditions, the water table is less than IVC4-57 to 61 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
10 inches below the surface for 2 to 4 months and 10 to many coarse distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
40 inches below the surface for more than 6 months. It mottles; single grained; loose; strongly alkaline; clear
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches below the wavy boundary.
surface during extended dry periods. IVC5-61 to 71 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) sand;
Bradenton soils are geographically associated with common fine dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) streaks
Copeland, Felda, Immokalee, Oldsmar, and Wabasso throughout; clear wavy boundary.
soils. Copeland soils have a mollic epipedon. Felda soils IVC6-71 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
have a sandy A horizon that is 20 to 40 inches thick. single grained; loose; moderately alkaline.
Immokalee, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils have a spodic
horizon and are primarily on the flatwoods. Oldsmar and The thickness of the solum ranges from 20 to 30
Wabasso soils also have a loamy argillic horizon below inches. Reaction is strongly acid or medium acid in the A
the spodic horizon, horizon, medium acid or slightly acid in the B2t horizon,
Typical pedon of Bradenton fine sand; in an orange and mildly alkaline to strongly alkaline in all other
grove approximately 800 feet north of State Highway 80 horizons.
and about 2.8 miles west of the Hendry County line, The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or
SW1 /4NW1 /4 sec. 27, T. 43 S., R. 27 E., in Lee County: 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness is 3 to 5 inches. The
Al or Ap horizon is fine sand or loamy fine sand. The A2
Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of
weak medium granular structure; very friable; few 2 or less with mottles of very dark gray, very dark
medium and fine roots; many uncoated sand grains; grayish brown, or grayish brown. Thickness is 5 to 7
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. inches.
A2-5 to 10 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
sand; few medium faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 3 or 4,
and few medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and chroma of 1 or less; hue of 5Y, value of 4 through 6,
mottles; single grained; loose; few medium and fine and chroma of 1; or it is neutral. Mottles are in shades of
roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. yellow, brown, and red, or there are no mottles. The
B21tg-10 to 18 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) sandy clay B2tg horizon is sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or fine
loam; many fine distinct olive yellow (5Y 6/8) stains sandy loam in the upper part. Thickness ranges from 18








74 Soil Survey


to 20 inches. Some pedons do not have accumulations mottles; massive; few fine roots; moderately
of soft calcium carbonate. Few to common calcium alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
carbonate and iron concretions are within a depth of 20 C3-38 to 80 inches; stratified gray (10YR 5/1) and dark
to 40 inches of the surface. Where present, the gray (10YR 4/1) silty clay; common medium distinct
concretions are less than 3 inches across. brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; massive;
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 8, and moderately alkaline.
chroma of 1 or 2; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The IIC horizon is fine sand or loamy Caloosa soils range from slightly acid to moderately
fine sand. The IIIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 alkaline in all horizons. The thickness of the fill material
or 6, and chroma of 8. ranges from 40 to more than 80 inches. Fragments of
shell are calcareous and range mostly from sand size to
Caloosa Series 6 centimeters. Shell content ranges from less than 5
percent to 30 percent. The weighted average shell
The soils of the Caloosa series are sandy over clayey, content (2 millimeters or larger) in the control section is
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Udifluvents. They are deep, less than 10 percent. The underlying material is generally
somewhat poorly drained, slowly permeable soils that sandy, but some pedons have silty clay loam, clay, or
formed in dredge and fill material. These level to nearly sandy clay Ab and Cb horizons at a depth of more than
level soils are in areas that have been prepared for 40 inches.
urban development, and they make up a levee along the The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through
Caloosahatchee River. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or fine sand.
The depth to the water table varies with the amount of The C1 horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4
fill material and the extent of the artificial drainage, through 8, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is sand or fine sand.
However, in most years, the water table is 30 to 42 The C2 and C3 horizons have hue of 10YR to 5GY,
inches below the surface of the fill material for 2 to 4 value of 4 through 8, and chroma of 1 through 3. They
months. It is at a depth of 60 inches or more during are sandy clay, clay, or silty clay. There are mottles in
extended dry periods, shades of yellow or brown in the C horizon in some
Caloosa soils are geographically associated with pedons.
Captiva, Matlacha, Kesson, St. Augustine, and Wulfert
soils. The Captiva, Matlacha, and St. Augustine soils are Canaveral Series
in similar positions on the landscape. The Matlacha and
St. Augustine soils are also composed of dredge and fill The soils of the Canaveral series are hyperthermic,
materials, but they are sandy throughout and contain uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. They are moderately
fragments of diagnostic horizons within their profile. well drained and somewhat poorly drained, very rapidly
Captiva soils are in poorly defined drainageways. They permeable soils that formed in thick marine deposits of
are poorly drained and sandy and have a dark surface sand and shell fragments. These nearly level soils are on
layer. Kesson and Wulfert soils are in tidal swamps and low ridges and in depressions along the Gulf Coast.
marshes. Kesson soils are sandy, and Wulfert soils are Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
organic. In most years, under natural conditions, the water
Typical pedon of Caloosa fine sand; in an improved table is at a depth of 18 to 40 inches for a period of 2 to
pasture approximately 1,000 feet south of County 6 months and at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 6 months
Highway 78 and 200 feet east of Otter Creek, or more.
SW1/4NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 16, T. 43 S., R. 26 E., in Lee Canaveral soils are geographically associated with
County. Captiva and Kesson soils and Beaches. Captiva soils are
in sloughs and have a water table within 10 inches of the
Ap-0 to 10 inches; light brownish gay (10YR 6/2) fine surface. Beaches are flooded by daily tides and are
sand; single grained; loose; common fine and few unstable. Kesson soils are in lower positions on the
medium and coarse roots; moderately alkaline; few landscape, are very poorly drained, and are also
fine roots; lenses of silt loam; 10 percent, by influenced by tidal action.
volume, sand-sized shell fragments; abrupt smooth Typical pedon of Canaveral fine sand; in a brush area
boundary. about 1 mile west of causeway and 50 feet north of
C1-10 to 27 inches; stratified pale brown (10YR 6/3) Periwinkle Way, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 19, T. 46 S., R. 23
and gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; E., in Lee County:
loose; common fine and medium roots; moderately
alkaline; few fine lenses of silty clay loam; abrupt All11-0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
smooth boundary. grained; loose; many very fine, fine, medium, and
C2-27 to 38 inches; stratified light gray (10YR 7/2) silty coarse roots; about 5 percent shell fragments; mildly
clay; few fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) alkaline; calcareous; clear smooth boundary.








Lee County, Florida 75



A12-7 to 15 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; Typical pedon of Captiva fine sand; in a slough about
single grained; loose; many fine, medium, and 30 feet south of an unpaved road, NE1 /4SW1 /4 sec. 25,
coarse roots; about 5 percent shell fragments; mildly T. 46 S., R. 22 E., in Lee County:
alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary.
C1-15 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) rubbed fine sand;
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium single grained; loose; many fine and few medium
roots; about 5 percent shell fragments; moderately roots; about 15 percent shell fragments; mildly
alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary. alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
C2-22 to 36 inches; light gray (10 OYR 7/2) fine sand; C1-6 to 15 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; about 5 percent shell common light gray (10YR 7/1) streaks; single
fragments in stratified layers; moderately alkaline; grained; loose; few fine roots; about 10 percent
calcareous; gradual wavy boundary. multicolored shell fragments; moderately alkaline;
C3-36 to 51 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand gradual wavy boundary.
mixed with about 25 percent multicolored shell C2-15 to 26 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
fragments; common medium distinct white (10YR many medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3)
8/1) streaks; single grained; loose; moderately mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; about
alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary. 15 percent multicolored shell fragments; moderately
alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
C4-51 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
3-26mixed with about 30 percent mul to 30 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
mixed with about 30 percent multicolored shell single grained; loose; about 30 percent multicolored
fragments; single grained; loose; mildly alkaline;
calcareous. shell fragments; moderately alkaline; clear wavy
boundary.
Canaveral soils are mildly alkaline or moderately C4g-30 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand;
alkaline in all horizons. single grained; loose; about 2 percent multicolored
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, shell fragments; moderately alkaline.
and chroma or 1 or 2. It is 5 to 10 percent shell Captiva soils are mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline
fragments. Thickness ranges from 9 to 15 inches. and are calcareous. They are fine sand, sand, or coarse
Thickness is less than 10 inches where value is less sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
than 3.5. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Content of shell fragments is about 10
chroma of 1 through 3. The C horizon is a mixture of fine to 15 percent. Thickness is 6 to 9 inches.
sand and multicolored shell fragments. In some pedons, The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 to 7,
the C horizon is stratified sand and shell fragments. and chroma of 1 to 3 with streaks and mottles of light
Content of shell fragments ranges from about 10 to 60 gray or pale brown. Content of shell fragments is less
percent. The weighted average of shell fragments is less than 35 percent in the control section.
than 35 percent in the control section.

Captiva Series Chobee Series
The soils of the Chobee series are fine-loamy,
The soils of the Captiva series are siliceous, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. They are
hyperthermic Mollic Psammaquents. They are poorly nearly level, very poorly drained, very slowly permeable
drained, very rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick soils in depressions. These soils formed in thick beds of
deposits of marine sand and shell fragments. Slopes marine sediment. Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
range from 0 to 1 percent. In most years, under natural conditions, this soil is
In most years, under natural conditions, the water covered with water for 3 to 6 months. The water table is
Stable is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 2 10 to 40 inches below the surface for about 3 to 6
months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 10 months.
months. In some years, the soil has standing water for Chobee soils are geographically associated with Felda,
about 1 month. Pineda, Malabar, Oldsmar, Wabasso, Gator, and
Captiva soils are geographically associated with Floridana soils. Felda, Pineda, Malabar, Oldsmar, and
Canaveral and Kesson soils. Unlike Captiva soils, which Wabasso soils do not have a mollic epipedon. In
are poorly drained and in sloughs, Canaveral soils are addition, these soils do not have an argillic horizon within
moderately well drained or somewhat poorly drained and 20 inches of the surface. Oldsmar and Wabasso soils
are on low, narrow ridges bordering the sloughs. Unlike have a spodic horizon. Gator soils are organic.
Captiva soils, Kesson soils have a high content of sulfur. Typical pedon of Chobee muck; about 530 feet south
In addition, Kesson soils are flooded by tides. of the DeSoto County line and 330 feet west of an








76 Soil Survey



unpaved road, NE1/4NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 2, T. 40 S., R. natural drainageways. Slopes are smooth to convex and
26 E., in Charlotte County: range from 0 to 2 percent.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
Oa-0 to 4 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) muck; Cocoa series. Colors indicate that they are moderately
about 75 percent fiber unrubbed, about 3 percent well drained instead of well drained, and they are
rubbed; weak fine granular structure; very friable; strongly acid rather than medium acid. Nevertheless,
many fine roots; strongly acid; clear smooth they are similar in use, management, and behavior to the
boundary. soils of the Cocoa series.
A11-4 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; In most years, under natural conditions, the water
common grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand streaks; table is within 24 inches of the surface for 1 to 2
weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable; months. It is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to 2
common fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy months. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
boundary, during extended dry periods.
A12-10 to 16 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine Cocoa soils are geographically associated with
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very Myakka, Boca, Hallandale, and Malabar soils, all of
friable; common fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt wavy which are poorly drained. In addition, Myakka and
boundary. Malabar soils do not have limestone within a depth of 80
B21t-16 to 28 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy inches.
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky Typical pedon of Cocoa fine sand; on a ridge about
structure; friable; common fine roots; neutral; clear 1.6 miles south of Alico road and 350 feet east of U.S.
wavy boundary. Highway 41, NE1/4SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 17, T. 46 S., R.
B22t-28 to 42 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay 25 E., in Lee County:
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; common fine roots; neutral; clear A1-0 to 3 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
wavy boundary. grained; loose; many fine and few medium roots;
B23tg-42 to 53 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
loam; weak medium granular structure; friable; mildly A2-3 to 13 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) fine
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. sand; single grained; loose; few medium roots;
Clg-53 to 61 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
loamy sand; single grained; loose; moderately B11-13 to 17 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) fine
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. sand; single grained; loose; few medium roots;
C2g-61 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
fine sand; common pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1) B12-17 to 27 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) fine
uncoated sand; single grained; loose; moderately sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
alkaline. strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
The Oa horizon ranges from strongly acid to slightly B2t-27 to 31 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine
acid. The A horizon ranges from medium acid to neutral. sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very
All other horizons range from medium acid to moderately friable; slightly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
alkaline. IIR-31 inches; fractured limestone (bedrock).
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 3, The A horizon is strongly acid or medium acid. The B
and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness is 2 to 5 inches. The A horizon is strongly acid or medium acid. The B
The A horizon is loamy fine sand or fine sandy loam. horizon ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid.
Thickness ranges from 10 to 16 inches. The A1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 chroma of 1; or it has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
through 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy loam, fine chroma of 1 through 3. Thickness ranges from 3 to 5
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8,
The C horizon has hue of 2.5Y, 5Y, or 10YR; value of and chroma of 1 or 3; or it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 6
5 through 7; and chroma of 1 or 2. It is loamy sand, or 7, and chroma of 4 through 6. Thickness ranges from
loamy fine sand, fine sand, or sandy loam. 0 to 19 inches.
The B11 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 7,
Cocoa Series and chroma of 3; hue of 10YR, value of 8, and chroma
of 6; hue of 7.5YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 6 or
The soils of the Cocoa series are sandy, siliceous, 8; or hue of 5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6. Thickness
hyperthermic Psammentic Hapludalfs. They are ranges from 2 to 24 inches. The B12 horizon has hue of
moderately deep, moderately well drained, rapidly 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 2, 4, or 6; or it has
permeable soils that formed in moderately thick beds of hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 6 or
marine sediment. These soils are on ridges adjacent to 8. Thickness ranges from 0 to 21 inches.








Lee County, Florida 77



The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and IIIR-28 inches; fractured limestone bedrock.
chroma of 6; or it has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 8. Thickness ranges from 3 to 8 inches. Thickness of the solum is less than 40 inches. Depth
The B22t horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, to hard, fractured limestone ranges from 20 to 40 inches.
value of 6, and chroma of 6 or 8; or it has hue of 2.5Y, The A horizon is medium acid or slightly acid, and all
value of 6, and chroma of 4. Mottles of yellow, red, and other horizons range from neutral to moderately alkaline.
brown are common. Thickness ranges from 0 to 10 The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
inches. chroma of 1. Thickness is 7 to 9 inches. Where present,
Depth to limestone dominantly ranges from 24 to 40 the A12 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
inches. The depth to limestone is more than 40 inches in chroma of 1 or 2. It is loamy sand or sandy loam 6 to 9
solution holes. inches thick.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
Copeland Series chroma of 1; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1. There are grayish brown, yellowish brown,
The soils of the Copeland series are fine-loamy, brownish yellow, or red mottles. The Bt horizon is sandy
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. They are loam or sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 6 to 12
moderately deep, very poorly drained, moderately inches. Where present, the B23t horizon has hue of
permeable soils that formed in moderately thick beds of 10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 1; or hue of 10YR,
marine sediment over limestone. These soils are in value of 3, and chroma of 2. There are brownish yellow
depressions. Slopes are smooth to concave and range mottles or yellowish brown streaks. Thickness ranges
from 0 to 1 percent. from 3 to 7 inches.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the The C horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, value
Copeland series because they do not have sufficient of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy loam,
increase in clay content in the B horizon to qualify it as fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. Thickness is 0 to
an argillic horizon, and they have a sandy loam surface 10 inches.
layer. They are, however, similar in use, management,
and behavior to the soils of the Copeland series.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water Daytona Series
table is above the surface for 3 to 6 months. The water
table is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for about 3 to The soils of the Daytona series are sandy, siliceous,
6 months. hyperthermic Entic Haplohumods. They are deep,
Copeland soils are geographically associated with moderately well drained, moderately rapidly permeable
Anclote, Boca, Felda, Floridana, and Pompano soils. soils that formed in thick deposits of marine sands.
Boca, Felda, and Pompano soils do not have a mollic These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on low
epipedon. Floridana soils have an argillic horizon at a ridges in the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex
depth of 20 to 40 inches and do not have limestone. and range from 0 to 5 percent.
Anclote and Pompano soils are sandy to a depth of 80 In most years, under natural conditions, the water
inches or more. table is 24 to 40 inches below the surface for a period of
Typical pedon of Copeland sandy loam, depressional; about 1 to 4 months. It is 40 to 60 inches below the
about 0.75 mile south of State Highway 80, NE1 /4SE1 /4 surface for 8 months.
sec. 27, T. 43 S., R. 26 E., in Lee County: Daytona soils are geographically associated with
Immokalee, Myakka, Orsino, and Pompano soils. The
A1-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy Immokalee, Myakka, and Pompano soils are poorly
loam; common light gray (10YR 7/2) sand streaks; drained. Myakka, Orsino, and Pompano soils have an A
weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine horizon that is less than 30 inches thick. Pompano and
and medium roots; medium acid; clear smooth Orsino soils do not have a spodic horizon or a Bh
boundary. horizon. Orsino soils have yellowish colors in the subsoil.
B2t-8 to 20 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy Typical pedon of Daytona sand; on a low ridge about
loam; common light gray (10YR 7/2) sand streaks; 0.86 mile south of State Highway 80 and 1.05 miles west
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; of Hickey Creek ditch, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 26, T. 43 S., R.
friable; few fine and medium roots; neutral; abrupt 26 E., in Lee County:
irregular boundary.
IICca-20 to 28 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) Al-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; many
sandy clay loam; soft calcium carbonate throughout; uncoated sand grains; weak fine granular structure;
many coarse prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) very friable; many fine and medium roots; strongly
and yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles; common iron acid; clear wavy boundary.
concretions; massive; friable; moderately alkaline; A21-4 to 16 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
abrupt irregular boundary. common grayish brown (10YR 5/2) streaks along








78 Soil Survey



root channels; single grained; loose; common fine depth of 40 inches. In addition, Pineda soils have a Bir
and medium roots in the upper part of the horizon; horizon and do not have a spodic horizon. Immokalee
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. soils are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches and
A22-16 to 43 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few do not have a spodic horizon. Oldsmar soils have a
grayish brown (10YR 5/2) streaks along root spodic horizon below a depth of 30 inches.
channels; single grained; loose; few fine and Typical pedon of EauGallie sand; approximately 0.5
medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. mile north of State Highway 74 and about 0.3 mile east
B2h-43 to 50 inches; mixed black (10YR 2/1) and dark of Orange Grove, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 35, T. 40 S., R. 26
reddish brown (5YR 3/2) sand; weak fine E., in Charlotte County:
subangular blocky structure; friable; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary. A1-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine
B3-50 to 80 inches; dark brown (1 OYR 4/3) sand; granular structure; very friable; many uncoated sand
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy grains; common fine and medium roots; medium
boundary. acid; clear smooth boundary.
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid A21-4 to 9 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
throughout. grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
6, and chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6 A22-9 to 22 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, many medium distinct brown (10YR 5/3) mottles;
and chroma of 1. Combined thickness of the Al and A2 single grained; loose; medium acid; abrupt wavy
horizons ranges from 41 to 50 inches. The combined boundary.
thickness must be more than 30 inches but less than 50 B2h-22 to 27 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand;
inches. moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and friable; sand grains are well coated with organic
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2. B3-27 to 41 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) loamy
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
chroma of 3; or it has hue of 5YR, value of 3 or 4, and very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
chroma of 2 or 4. Some pedons have a B3&Bh horizon. A'21-41 to 45 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loamy
Where present, this horizon has matrix colors with hue of sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3; there are wavy boundary.
common to many spodic fragments. Thickness of the B3 A'22-45 to 58 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand;
horizon ranges from 5 to 18 inches. single grained; loose strongly acid; gradual irregular
The C horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, value boundary.
of 7, and chroma of 1 or 4. Light gray sand streaks are B'2tg-58 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy loam;
in the lower part of this horizon, moderate medium subangular blocky structure;

EauGallie Series friable; strongly acid.
The soils of the EauGallie series are sandy, siliceous, Thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to 80 inches.
hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods. They are deep, poorly EauGallie soils are strongly acid through medium acid in
drained, moderately permeable soils in nearly level the A horizon and very strongly acid through medium
flatwoods. These soils formed in thick beds of loamy acid in all other horizons.
marine sediment. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the 4, and chroma of 1. Thickness is 3 to 4 inches. The A2
EauGallie series because they have a loamy sand B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 through 8, and
horizon. Nevertheless, they are similar in use, chroma of 1 with or without mottles of brown. Thickness
management, and behavior to the soils of the EauGallie ranges from 18 to 22 inches.
series. The B2h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
In most years, under natural conditions, the water chroma of 2 or 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
table is less than 10 inches below the surface for 2 to 4 of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2
months. It is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for more with or without black, firm spodic fragments. Thickness
than 6 months. It is more than 40 inches below the ranges from 4 to 21 inches.
surface during extended dry periods. The B3 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR,
EauGallie soils are geographically associated with value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3; or it has hue of 7.5YR,
Immoaklee, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. Pineda value of 4, and chroma of 4. Thickness ranges from 0 to
and Wabasso soils have an argillic horizon within a 24 inches.








Lee County, Florida 79



The A'2 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, subangular blocky structure; friable; medium acid;
value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2 or 3. Thickness ranges gradual irregular boundary.
from 0 to 17 inches. B'21tg-66 to 80 inches; pale olive (5Y 6/3) fine sandy
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 loam; many fine distinct brownish yellow mottles;
or 6, and chroma of 2; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 7, weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
and chroma of 1. It is fine sandy loam or sandy loam. medium acid.
The C horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, value
of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2 or 3. It is loamy fine sand or Reaction is strongly acid or medium acid in all
loamy sand. horizons, except where the soil has been limed.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
Electra Series 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6
inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5
The soils of the Electra series are sandy, siliceous, through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from
hyperthermic Arenic Ultic Haplohumods. They are deep, 35 to 48 inches.
somewhat poorly drained, slowly permeable to very The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, value 2 or 3, and
slowly permeable soils that formed in thick beds of chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 4 to 8 inches.
sandy and loamy marine sediment. These nearly level The A'2 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or
soils are on low knolls and ridges. Slopes range from 0 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 through 3. It is
to 2 percent. sand or fine sand.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the The Bt horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 6, and chroma
Electra series because they have base saturation greater of 2 or 3 with yellow mottles. It is fine sandy loam or
than 35 percent in the argillic horizon. They are, sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 6 to 15 inches.
however, similar in use, management, and behavior to
the soils of the Electra series. Estero Series
In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is 24 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 6 The soils of the Estero series are sandy, siliceous,
months and 40 to 72 inches below the surface for 6 hyperthermic Typic Haplaquods. They are deep, very
months or more. poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable soils on
Electra soils are geographically associated with nearly level, broad, tidal marsh areas. Areas of these
Oldsmar and Bradenton soils. Oldsmar soils are in lower soils are subject to tidal flooding. Slopes range from 0 to
positions on the landscape and are poorly drained. 1 percent.
Bradenton soils have an argillic horizon within 20 inches Estero soils are geographically associated with
of the surface. Pompano and Myakka soils. Myakka soils do not have a
Typical pedon of Electra fine sand; on a low ridge high sulfur content and are in flatwoods. Pompano soils
approximately 600 feet south of State Highway 80 and do not have a spodic horizon.
0.75 mile west of the Hendry County line, Typical pedon of Estero muck; in a tidal marsh, about
SW1/4NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 25, T. 43 S., R. 27 E., in Lee 1.25 miles south of the intersection of a powerline and
County: Hendry Creek and about 1 mile west, SW1/4SE1/4 sec.
15, T. 46 S., R. 24 E., in Lee County:
Ap-0 to 4 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; Oa-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 90
common fine and medium roots; many uncoated percent fiber, less than 10 percent rubbed; massive;
sand grains; neutral; clear smooth boundary. friable; 322 millimhos per centimeter conductivity;
A21-4 to 13 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; gradual A11-5 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine
wavy boundary. granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; 40
A22-13 to 43 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; millimhos per centimeter conductivity; strongly acid;
single grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt wavy clear smooth boundary.
boundary. A12-8 to 13 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
B2h-43 to 47 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; many fine roots; 20 millimhos per centimeter
very friable; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. conductivity; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
A'21-47 to 63 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine A21-13 to 19 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy fine sand; few fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8)
boundary. mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; 20
A'22-63 to 66 inches; pale olive (5YR 6/3) sand; millimhos per centimeter conductivity; neutral; clear
common fine light gray streaks; weak fine wavy boundary.








80 Soil Survey



A22-19 to 33 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils are in
sand; few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/6) sloughs or depressions.
mottles; single grained; loose; few very fine roots; 21 These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
millimhos per centimeter conductivity; mildly alkaline; Felda series because they have a loamy fine sand Bt
abrupt wavy boundary. horizon. They are, however, similar in use, management,
B21h-33 to 39 inches; black (5YR 2/1) and dark and behavior to the soils of the Felda series.
grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand; massive; very In sloughs, during periods of high rainfall, the soil is
friable; sand grains thinly coated with organic matter; covered by a shallow layer of slowly moving water for
36 millimhos per centimeter conductivity; very periods of about 7 days to 1 month or more. In
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. depressions, the soil is ponded for 3 to 6 months or
B22h-39 to 43 inches; black (10YR 2/1) and dark more in most years.
reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine sand; massive; very Felda soils are geographically associated with Boca,
friable; sand grains thinly coated with organic matter; Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. Boca
34 millimhos per centimeter conductivity; very soils have limestone at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Oldsmar and Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon.
B3-43 to 55 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) and black Malabar and Pineda soils have a Bir horizon within 30
(10YR 2/1) fine sand; massive; very friable; 18 inches. Malabar and Oldsmar soils have an argillic
millimhos per centimeter conductivity; very strongly horizon below a depth of 40 inches.
acid; clear wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Felda fine sand; about 1.1 miles east
C-55 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; of the Charlotte County Airport, and 1.7 miles north of
few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles; single the North Prong of Alligator Creek that crosses State
grained; loose; very strongly acid. Highway 768, SW1/4NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 12, T. 41 S., R.
23 E., in Charlotte County:
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to mildly alkaline
throughout. Conductivity of the saturation extract Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
dominantly ranges from about 245 to 325 millimhos per single grained; loose; many fine roots; mildly
centimeter in the Oa horizon and from about 17 to 40 alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
millimhos per centimeter in the mineral horizons. A21-8 to 11 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and single grained; loose; many fine roots; medium acid;
chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 5 inches. clear wavy boundary.
The All11 and A12 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of A22-11 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
2 to 6, and chroma of 1; or they are neutral and have fine sand; many medium prominent yellowish brown
value of 2. Thickness ranges from 4 to 10 inches. The (10YR 5/6 and 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose;
A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and few fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2. There are mottles and streaks of Btg-22 to 38 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) loamy fine
yellowish brown, dark brown, or yellowish red. Thickness sand; many medium prominent yellowish brown
ranges from 14 to 26 inches. (10YR 5/6 and 5/8) mottles; few krotovinas of light
The B21 h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2, and brownish gray fine sand, 1 to 2 inches across;
chroma of 1; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
or hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 or 3. mildly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
The B21h horizon has many uncoated sand grains and Clg-38 to 60 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sand; common
does not meet the requirements of a spodic horizon. The medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles with
B22h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of black (10YR 2/1) carbon nodules; massive; neutral;
2; or it has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1. abrupt wavy boundary.
The sand grains are thickly coated with organic matter. C2g-60 to 66 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sand; common
The B22h horizon meets the requirements of a spodic medium distinct greenish gray (5GY 6/1) mottles;
horizon. Combined thickness of the B21 h and B22h massive; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
horizons ranges from 4 to 15 inches. C3-66 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand; many
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and medium gray (5Y 6/1) mottles; massive; mildly
chroma of 2 or 3. There are black or very dark grayish alkaline.
brown mottles.
Thickness of the solum ranges from 41 to 70 inches.
Felda Series The A horizon ranges from medium acid to slightly acid,
except in areas that have been limed. The Btg and Cg
The soils of the Felda series are loamy, siliceous, horizons are neutral or mildly alkaline.
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are deep, poorly The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3
drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in through 5, and chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 3 to








Lee County, Florida 81



8 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 B2tg-39 to 54 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) fine sandy
through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2 with few to common loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
yellow and brown mottles. Total thickness of the A structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; sand
horizon ranges from 20 to 40 inches. grains are coated and bridged with clay; neutral;
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through clear smooth boundary.
7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it has hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 C-54 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
through 6, and chroma of 2; or it is neutral and has value sand; few pockets of olive gray (5Y 5/2) loamy
of 4 to 6. There are common to many red, yellow, and sand; massive; friable; neutral.
brown mottles. The B2tg horizon ranges from loamy fine
sand to sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 4 to 16 Thickness of the solum ranges from 56 to 80 inches.
inches. The soil is strongly acid or medium acid in the surface
A B3g horizon is present in some pedons. It has hue, layer and ranges from medium acid to mildly alkaline in
value, and chroma of 10YR 6/2, 5Y 7/1, or 2.5Y 7/2. It all other horizons.
is loamy fine sand or sandy loam. Thickness ranges from The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
0 to 29 inches. chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 2 or 3.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7, and The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7,
chroma of 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 2; and chroma of 1 or 2.
or hue of 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1. It The B2tg or B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5
ranges from fine sand to loamy fine sand. Shell through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2 with yellow, gray, or
fragments and shells range from few to many in many brown mottles; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
pedons. chroma of 1 or 2. It is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.
Floridana Series The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 6 or 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine sand, or loamy
The soils of the Floridana series are loamy, siliceous, sand.
hyperthermic Arenic Argiaquolls. They are nearly level,
very poorly drained, slowly permeable or very slowly
permeable soils in depressions. These soils formed in Gator Series
thick beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. Slopes
range from 0 to 1 percent. The soils of the Gator series are loamy, siliceous, euic,
In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists. They are moderately
covered by water for 3 to 6 months. The water table is deep to deep, very poorly drained organic soils that
10 to 40 inches below the surface during extended dry formed in deposits of nonwoody, fibrous, hydrophytic
periods. plant remains and loamy marine sediment. These nearly
Floridana soils are geographically associated with level soils are on broad, freshwater marsh areas. Slopes
Boca, Felda, Gator, Hallandale, Malabar, Terra Ceia, range from 0 to 1 percent.
Wabasso, and Winder soils. Boca, Felda, Winder, These soils, are considered to be taxadjuncts to the
Hallandale, and Malabar soils do not have a mollic Gator series because they have a strongly acid, fine
epipedon. In addition, Malabar soils do not have an sand layer underlying the organic material. They are,
argillic horizon within 40 inches of the surface. Terra however, similar in use, management, and behavior to
Ceia and Gator soils are organic. Boca soils have the soils of the Gator series.
limestone within a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Wabasso In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
soils have a spodic horizon within 30 inches of the covered by water for 3 to 6 months. The water table is
surface. 10 to 24 inches below the surface during extended dry
Typical pedon of Floridana sand, depressional; in a periods.
depression about 2 miles south of State Highway 82, Gator soils are geographically associated with Terra
SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 17, T. 45 S., R. 26 E., in Lee County: Ceia, Floridana, Felda, and Winder soils. Floridana,
Felda, and Winder soils are mineral soils and are in
A11-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine slightly higher positions on the landscape. Terra Ceia
granular structure; very friable; common fine and few soils have more than 51 inches of muck over mineral
medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. material.
A12-6 to 22 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; common Typical pedon of Gator muck; in a freshwater marsh,
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand streaks NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 1, T. 40 S., R. 27 E., in Charlotte
throughout; single grained; loose; common fine County:
roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A2-22 to 39 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) Oal-0 to 8 inches; sodium pyrophosphate black (10YR
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; medium 2/1) muck; about 70 percent fiber unrubbed, about
acid; clear smooth boundary. 10 percent rubbed; weak fine granular structure;









82 Soil Survey



friable; many fine roots; extremely acid (pH is 4.2 in Some pedons do not have shell fragments or calcium
0.01 molar calcium chloride); clear wavy boundary. carbonate. The texture is fine sand, loamy fine sand,
Oa2-8 to 21 inches; sodium pyrophosphate very dark loam, or fine sandy loam.
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) muck; about 80 percent
fiber unrubbed, about 12 percent rubbed; weak Hallandale Series
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many
fine roots; extremely acid (pH is 4.3 in 0.01 molar The soils of the Hallandale series are siliceous,
calcium chloride); gradual wavy boundary. hyperthermic Lithic Psammaquents. They are shallow,
Oa3-21 to 29 inches; sodium pyrophosphate dark poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable soils that
brown (10YR 3/3) muck; about 60 percent fiber formed in thin beds of sandy marine sediment over
unrubbed, about 5 percent rubbed; weak medium limestone. These nearly level soils are in flatwoods and
subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly in broad sloughs. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
acid (pH is 4.7 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride); In most years, in the flatwoods under natural
gradual wavy boundary. conditions, the water table is less than 10 inches below
IIC1-29 to 32 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine the surface for 1 to 3 months. It recedes below the
sand; strong fine granular structure; friable; strongly limestone for about 7 months. In sloughs during periods
acid; clear smooth boundary. g of high rainfall, the soil is covered by slowly moving
IIC2-32 to 34 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) shallow water for periods of about 7 days to 1 month or
fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; abrupt more.
wavy boundary. Hallandale soils are geographically associated with
IIIC3-34 to 39 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy Boca, Pineda, Immokalee, and Wabasso soils. Boca soils
loam; common light gray sand intrusions; massive; have an argillic horizon and limestone at a depth of 20
friable; medium acid; clear smooth boundary., to 40 inches. Pineda soils have a Bir horizon and an
11104-39 to 53 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam; argillic horizon. Immokalee and Wabasso soils have a
massive; friable; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. spodic horizon. In addition, Wabasso soils have a
IVC5-53 to 63 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam; spodic horizon. In addition, Wabasso soils have an
common dark gray sand intrusions; common streaks argillic horizon below the spodic horizon.
of light gray calcium carbonate; massive; friable; Typical pedon of Hallandale fine sand; in the
neutral; clear wavy boundary. flatwoods, about 0.5 mile south of Daniels Road, 0.7 mile
IVC6-63 to 68 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) loam; few east of U.S. Highway 41, NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 25, T. 45 S.,
dark gray streaks; many very fine shell fragments; R. 25 E., in Lee County:
massive; friable; mildly alkaline; clear wavy A1-0 to 2 inches; gray (YR 5/1) fine sand; s
boundary. A1-0 to 2 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
IVC7-68 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sand; few grained; loose; common fine and medium and few
coarse roots; medium acid; clear smooth boundary.
medium distinct greenish gray mottles; single A
grained; friable; mildly alkaline. A2-2 to 7 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse
Soil reaction ranges from 4.3 to 5.0 in 0.01 molar roots; medium acid; clear smooth boundary.
calcium chloride in the Oa horizon. In the IIC horizon, B1-7 to 12 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
reaction ranges from 5.1 to 5.5, and in the IIIC and IVC sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
horizons it ranges from 5.1 to 8.4. roots; neutral; abrupt irregular boundary.
Thickness of the organic material ranges from 16 to IIR-12 inches; fractured limestone bedrock.
38 inches.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and The A horizon is slightly acid or neutral. The B horizon
chroma of 1; hue of 10YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2 is neutral or mildly alkaline.
or 3; or hue of 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 6,
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through and chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6 inches.
6, and chroma of 1 or 2. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7,
The IIIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and and chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 4 to 12 inches.
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of The B horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR with
2 with mottles or streaks of light brownish gray or olive value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 3; value of 4 through 6
brown; or hue of 5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 1. The and chroma of 4; or value of 5 and chroma of 6.
texture is fine sand, loamy fine sand, loam, or fine sandy In many pedons, a C horizon is between the A horizon
loam. and the limestone. It has hue of 10YR, value of 4
The IVC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and through 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is dominantly
chroma of 1; hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of fine sand or sand. However, some pedons have a thin
2; or hue of 5Y, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1. layer of loamy fine sand or loamy sand in less than half








Lee County, Florida 83



of the pedon immediately above the fractured limestone slightly sticky and slightly plastic; moderately
bedrock. alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
The underlying hard limestone ledge has fractures B23tgca-42 to 50 inches; light gray (N 7/0) fine sandy
from less than an inch to 4 or more inches in width. loam; common coarse prominent yellowish brown
Solution holes from about 4 inches to 3 feet in diameter (10YR 5/8) and olive (5Y 4/3 and 5/4) mottles;
occur at intervals of about 1 to 6 feet. common soft masses of secondary carbonates; few
*Beneath the limestone ledge are variable, iron-cemented sandstone cobbles; weak medium
discontinuous layers of sand to sandy loam mixed with subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky and
shells or shell fragments. slightly plastic; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
Heights Series Cg-50 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) loamy sand;
The soils of the Heights series are sandy, siliceous, common medium distinct light olive brown (2.5Y
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are deep, poorly 5/4) and light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) mottles;
drained, slowly permeable soils in nearly level areas of few pockets of gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam and
flatwoods. These soils formed in a thick bed of loamy sandy clay loam; massive; friable; neutral.
marine sediment. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. i.
Heights soils are geographically associated with Felda, Thickness of the solum ranges from 54 to 71 inches.
Boca, Hallandale, Oldsmar, and Wabasso soils. Felda Reaction is slightly acid or neutral in the surface and
soils do not have iron-cemented sandstone. Oldsmar subsurface layers and ranges from neutral to strongly
and Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon. Boca soils alkaline in all other horizons.
have limestone at a depth of 24 to 40 inches. Hallandale The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through
soils have limestone within 20 inches of the surface. 5, and chroma of 1. Thickness is 3 to 6 inches. The A2
Typical pedon of Heights fine sand; in the flatwoods, horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and
NW1/4NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 5, T. 42 S., R. 24 E., in chroma of 1 through 3. Thickness is 5 to 24 inches.
Charlotte County: The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through
6, and chroma of 2 through 4 with yellowish and
A1-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; brownish mottles.
single grained; loose; common fine roots, few The B21tca horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 6 or 7,
medium and coarse roots; slightly acid; clear smooth and chroma of 1 or 2 with mottles of yellowish brown,
boundary. brownish yellow, pale olive, light olive brown, or olive
A2-4 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; yellow; hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 1 or 2
single grained; loose; common fine roots, few with mottles of brown, brownish yellow, or yellowish
medium and coarse roots; neutral; clear smooth brown; hue of 5GY, value of 5, and chroma of 1 with
boundary. mottles of light olive brown; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6,
B11-18 to 21 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine and chroma of 4 with mottles of light gray, yellowish
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium brown, or brownish yellow. It is loamy sand or loamy fine
roots; mildly alkaline; clear smooth boundary. sand. Thickness is 4 to 10 inches.
B12ca-21 to 29 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) The B22tca horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5
The B22tca horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5
fine sand; common fine distinct white (10YR 8/1) and chroma of 8 or value 7 and chroma of 2 with mottles
calcium carbonate streaks along root channels; and chroma of 8 or value 7 and chroma o 2 with bottles
single grained; loose; strongly alkaline; abrupt wavy of strong brown light yellowish brown or light olive
boundary. brown; hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 with
B21tca-29 to 36 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y mottles of pale olive, olive yellow, or brownish yellow; or
6/4) loamy sand; common medium distinct light gray hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 1 -it is cobbly
(N 7/0) and many large prominent yellowish brown loamy sand or cobbly sandy loam. Thickness is 6 to 12
(10YR 5/8) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) inches.
mottles; common white (10YR 8/1) calcium The B23tgca horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 6 or 7,
carbonate streaks along root channels; weak and chroma of 1 with mottles of olive yellow, light
medium subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky yellowish brown, or brownish yellow; or it is neutral and
and slightly plastic; moderately alkaline; gradual has value of 7 with mottles of yellowish brown or olive. It
wavy boundary. is fine sandy loam or loamy sand. Thickness is 8 to 12
B22tca-36 to 42 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) inches.
cobbly loamy sand; common medium distinct light The B3 horizon, where present, has hue of 5GY, value
yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) mottles; common soft of 6, and chroma of 1; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 7,
masses of secondary carbonates; about 25 percent and chroma of 1. Thickness is 0 to 20 inches.
iron-cemented sandstone, 3 to 8 inches across; The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; chroma of 2; hue of 5GY, value of 6, and chroma of 1;








84 Soil Survey



or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 4. It is fine B3&Bh-55 to 69 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR
sand or loamy fine sand. 4/4) sand; common medium distinct very dark
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) spodic fragments; weak
Immokalee Series fine subangular blocky structure; friable; extremely
acid; clear smooth boundary.
The soils of the Immokalee series are sandy, siliceous, C-69 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand;
hyperthermic Arenic Haplaquods. They are deep, poorly single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in thick
beds of marine sands. These nearly level soils are in Thickness of the solum is 69 inches or more. Reaction
flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to slightly convex and ranges from extremely acid to medium acid in all
range from 0 to 2 percent. horizons.
In most years, under natural conditions, the water The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months 4, and chroma of 1. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR,
and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 6 months. value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Many
It recedes to more than 40 inches below the surface pedons have very dark grayish brown and grayish brown
during extended dry periods, streaks along root channels in the A2 horizon. Total
Immokalee soils are geographically associated with thickness of the A horizon is 30 to 48 inches.
Boca, Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, Daytona, and The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR with value of 2 and
Wabasso soils. All of these associated soils have a chroma of 1 or 2 or value of 3 and chroma of 2; hue of
spodic horizon except for the Boca and Malabar soils. 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of
Boca soils are underlain by limestone. Malabar soils 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2.
have an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches. The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through
Oldsmar and Wabasso soils have an argillic horizon 5, and chroma of 3 or 4.
below the spodic horizon. The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7,
Typical pedon of Immokalee sand; on a low ridge in and chroma of 1 through 3. The C horizon is absent in
the flatwoods, about 2 miles south of the intersection of some pedons.
Buckingham road and State Highway 80 and about 2
miles east, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 35, T. 43 S., R. 26 E., in Isles Series
Lee County:
The soils of the Isles series are loamy, siliceous,
A11-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; many hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are deep, poorly
uncoated sand grains; weak fine granular structure; drained and very poorly drained, moderately permeable
very friable; many fine and few medium roots; soils that formed in marine sediment 40 to 60 inches
extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. thick over limestone. These nearly level soils are in tidal
A12-4 to 9 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak swamps depressions, and sloughs. Slopes range from 0
fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and to 1 percent.
few medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy Isles soils are geographically associated with Boca,
boundary. Kesson, Wabasso, and Wulfert soils. Boca soils have
A21-9 to 16 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few grayish less than 0.75 percent sulfur within 20 inches of the
brown (10YR 5/2) streaks along root channels; surface, do not have an organic surface layer, and have
single grained; loose; common medium and few fine rock at a depth of less than 40 inches. Wulfert soils have
roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. more than 16 inches of organic material over mineral
A22-16 to 36 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few material. Kesson soils are sandy throughout, and
very dark grayish brown and grayish brown streaks Wabasso soils have a Bh horizon.
along root channels; single grained; loose; few Typical pedon of Isles muck; in a mangrove swamp,
medium roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary. approximately 0.5 mile south of Alligator Creek and 1.5
B21 h-36 to 50 inches; black (10 OYR 2/1) sand; few miles west of State Highway 765, SE1/4SE1/4SW1/4
large dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) spodic sec. 30, T. 41 S., R. 23 E., in Charlotte County:
fragments; many sand grains coated with organic
matter; moderate medium subangular blocky 01-0 to 5 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muck;
structure; firm; extremely acid; gradual wavy about 80 percent fibers unrubbed, about 5 percent
boundary. rubbed; massive; friable; about 0.8 percent sulfur; 19
B22h-50 to 55 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) millimhos per centimeter conductivity; slightly acid;
sand; few dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) spodic clear wavy boundary.
fragments; moderate medium subangular blocky Al-5 to 11 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
structure; firm; extremely acid; gradual smooth mucky fine sand; about 10 percent well
boundary. decomposed organic material in krotovinas and








Lee County, Florida 85



along root channels; massive; friable; about 2.0 appreciable amounts of sulfur within 20 inches of the
percent sulfur; many fine and medium and common surface and are on higher elevations.
coarse roots; 13.65 millimhos per centimeter Typical pedon of Kesson fine sand; in a tidal swamp,
conductivity; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. about 1 mile west of the intersection of Bailey Road and
A2-11 to 39 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine Bay Drive and 15 feet north, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 19, T. 46
sand; common medium distinct light brownish gray S., R., R. 23 E., in Lee County:
(1 OYR 6/2) mottles; about 5 percent organic
material in krotovinas and along root channels; A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
massive; friable; about 1.0 percent sulfur; 6.15 grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
millimhos per centimeter conductivity; medium acid; about 15 percent shell fragments; 3.04 percent
gradual wavy boundary. sulfur; 5.06 percent calcium carbonate; moderately
B2tg-39 to 47 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine alkaline; calcareous; clear smooth boundary.
sandy loam; common fine distinct dark greenish gray C1-6 to 10 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
(5BG 4/1) and common medium prominent light single grained; loose; common fine and medium
olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) mottles; weak medium roots; about 10 percent shell fragments; 3.17
subangular blocky structure; friable; about 1.0 percent sulfur; 22.48 percent calcium carbonate;
percent sulfur; 3.85 millimhos per centimeter moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear smooth
conductivity; neutral; abrupt irregular boundary, boundary.
IIR-47 inches; fractured limestone bedrock. C2-10 to 13 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; single grained; loose; about 10 percent shell
Thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to 60 inches. fragments; 2.45 percent sulfur; 12.98 percent
Sulfur content ranges from about 0.8 percent to 3.0 calcium carbonate; moderately alkaline; calcareous;
percent in the 01 and A horizons. Reaction ranges from clear smooth boundary.
strongly acid to neutral in the surface and subsurface C3-13 to 23 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) and gray (5Y
horizons and from medium acid to moderately alkaline in 6/1) fine sand; common medium distinct dark gray
all other horizons. (10YR 4/1) streaks; single grained; loose; about 5
The 01 horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR, percent shell fragments; 2.55 percent sulfur; 11.85
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2. Thickness ranges from percent calcium carbonate; moderately alkaline;
3 to 5 inches. calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through C4-23 to 38 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand; single
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine sand, or mucky grained; loose; about 30 percent shell fragments;
fine sand. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
through 7, and chroma of 1 through 4 with mottles of boundary.
light gray, brownish yellow, or reddish yellow. It is sand C5-38 to 80 inches; white (5Y 8/1) fine sand; single
or fine sand. Total thickness of the A horizon ranges grained; loose; about 5 percent shell fragments;
from 30 to 40 inches. moderately alkaline; calcareous.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y; value
of 4 through 6; and chroma of 1 through 3 with mottles Sulfur content is more than 0.75 percent within a
of brownish yellow, yellowish brown, dark greenish gray, depth of 20 inches. Reaction is mildly alkaline or
or light olive brown. It ranges from fine sandy loam to moderately alkaline throughout. The calcium carbonate
sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 5 to 18 inches. equivalent is more than 3 times the sulfur content for
Some pedons have a layer of shell fragments or firm some portion. The texture is sand or fine sand
calcareous material ranging from about 4 to 8 inches in throughout.
thickness between the B2tg horizon and the fractured The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 6,
limestone bedrock. and chroma of 1 through 3. Content of shell fragments
ranges from about 5 percent to 15 percent. Thickness is
Kesson Series 4 to 7 inches. Some pedons have an organic horizon
less than 8 inches thick above the A horizon.
The soils of the Kesson series are siliceous, The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5
hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents. They are very poorly through 8, and chroma of 1 or 3. Content of shell
drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in a thick fragments ranges from about 5 to 30 percent.
bed of marine sand and shells. These nearly level soils
are in tidal swamps. Areas are subject to tidal flooding. Malabar Series
Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
Kesson soils are geographically associated with The soils of the Malabar series are loamy, siliceous,
Captiva, Estero, and Wulfert soils. Wulfert soils are hyperthermic Grossarenic Ochraqualfs. They are deep,
organic. Captiva and Estero soils do not have poorly drained, moderately slowly permeable to very








86 Soil Survey



slowly permeable soils that formed in thick beds of and 5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular
sandy and loamy marine sediments. These nearly level blocky structure; friable; sand grains coated and
soils are in flatwoods, in sloughs, and in depressions. bridged with clay; slightly acid; gradual wavy
Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent. boundary.
These soils are considered to be taxadjuncts to the B3g-59 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) loamy fine
Malabar series. Their texture in the control section sand; few medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
averages out in the sandy family instead of the loamy 5/6) mottles; massive; very friable; neutral.
family. They are similar in use, management, and
behavior to the soils of the Matlacha series, however. Thickness of the solum ranges from 59 to 80 inches.
In most years, in the flatwoods under natural Malabar soils are strongly acid to slightly acid in the Al
conditions, the water table is within 10 inches of the and A21 horizons and slightly acid or neutral in all other
surface for 2 to 4 months and 10 to 40 inches below the horizons.
surface for more than 6 months. It recedes to 40 inches The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
or more below the surface during extended dry periods. 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 6
In sloughs during periods of high rainfall, the soil is inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6
covered by slowly moving shallow water for periods of through 8, and chroma of 1 through 3. Thickness ranges
about 7 days to 1 month or more. In depressions, the from 4 to 13 inches.
soil is ponded for about 3 ,to 6 months or more in most The Bir horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7,
years. and chroma of 4, 6, or 8. Thickness ranges from 10 to
Malabar soils are geographically associated with 26 inches. Where present, the A'2 horizon has hue of
Myakka, Boca, Felda, Hallandale, Oldsmar, Pineda, and 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Pompano soils. Pineda and Felda soils have an argillic Thickness ranges from 0 to 13 inches.
horizon within 20 to 40 inches of the surface. Myakka The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
and Pompano soils are sandy to a depth of more than and chroma of 1; or hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
80 inches. Oldsmar soils have a spodic horizon. Boca chroma of 1 or 2 with mottles in shades of brown or
soils have hard, fractured limestone within 20 to 40 yellow. The B21tg horizon is loamy fine sand or loamy
inches of the surface, and Hallandale soils have sand, and the B22tg horizon is fine sandy loam or sandy
fractured limestone within 20 inches of the surface. clay loam. Thickness of the B21tg horizon ranges from 0
Typical pedon of Malabar fine sand; NE1 /4NW1 /4 to 9 inches. Thickness of the B22tg horizon ranges from
sec. 7, T. 41 S., R. 24 E., in Charlotte County: 8 to 20 inches.
The B3g horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 5 through 7,
A1-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; and chroma of 1. It is loamy fine sand or loamy sand.
single grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly Thickness ranges from 10 to 21 inches.
acid; clear smooth boundary. The Cg horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR,
A21-5 to 10 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; value of 6, and chroma of 1; or hue of 5Y, value of 6,
single grained; loose; common fine roots; medium and chroma of 1. It is fine sand or loamy fine sand.
acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
A22-10 to 17 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine Matlacha Series
sand; few light gray (10YR 7/1) splotches; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; diffuse The soils of the Matlacha series are sandy, siliceous,
wavy boundary. hyperthermic Udalfic Arents. They are deep, somewhat
B1ir-17 to 33 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable to
fine sand; few medium distinct yellow (10YR 7/6) moderately slowly permeable soils that formed in fill
mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable; material. These nearly level soils are on areas that have
few iron coatings on sand grains; few fine roots; been prepared for urban development. Slopes range
neutral; clear wavy boundary. from 0 to 2 percent.
B2ir-33 to 42 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine The depth to the water table varies with the amount of
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; fill material and the extent of artificial drainage within any
common iron coatings on sand grains; neutral; mapped area. However, in most years the water table is
gradual wavy boundary. 24 to 36 inches below the surface of the fill for 2 to 4
B21tg-42 to 51 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) loamy fine sand; months. It is more than 60 inches below the surface
many large distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6 and during extended dry periods.
5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky Matlacha soils are geographically associated with
structure; friable; sand grains coated and bridged Oldsmar, Wabasso, Smyrna, Boca, Hallandale, Estero,
with clay; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. Immokalee, Myakka, and Pineda soils. All of the
B22tg-51 to 59 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam; associated soils are poorly drained and have a sandy A
common large distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6 horizon and a sandy or loamy subsoil. In addition, Boca








Lee County, Florida 87



and Hallandale soils are underlain by fractured limestone In most years, under natural conditions, the water
bedrock. table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months
Typical pedon of Matlacha gravelly fine sand; in a and 10 to 40 inches below the surface for 2 to 6 months.
vacant lot, approximately 0.5 mile east of the Coralwood It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
Mall, SE1/4NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 29, T. 44 S., R. 24 E., in extended dry periods. In depressions, the soil is ponded
Lee County: for 3 to 6 months in most years.
Myakka soils are geographically associated with
C-0 to 35 inches; mixed black (10YR 2/1), dark brown EauGallie, Immokalee, Oldsmar, Daytona, Pompano,
(10YR 3/3), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), very Smyrna, and Wabasso soils. All of the associated soils
dark gray (10YR 3/1) and very pale brown (10YR have a spodic horizon except the Pompano soils. In
7/3) gravelly fine sand; discontinuous olive brown addition, Wabasso, EauGallie, and Oldsmar soils have an
(2.5Y 4/4) and grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) loamy argillic horizon below the spodic horizon. Daytona soils
lenses; massive; friable; about 25 to 30 percent are moderately well drained. Immokalee soils have an A
shell and limestone fragments less than 3 inches horizon that is more than 30 inches thick, and Smyrna
across; moderately alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary. soils have an A horizon that is less than 20 inches thick
Alb-35 to 40 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; and a solum that is less than 40 inches thick.
weak fine granular structure; very friable; slightly Typical pedon of Myakka fine sand; in low, broad
acid; clear smooth boundary, flatwoods, approximately 200 feet west of the
A2b40 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; intersection of Stringfellow Road and Durrance Court on
common medium distinct dark grayish brown (10YR Pine Island, SE1/4SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 8, T. 44 S., R. 22
4/2) stains along old root channels; single grained; E., in Lee County:
loose; slightly acid.
Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately A1-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
alkaline in the fill material and from medium acid to weak fine granular structure; very friable; common
neutral in the Alb and A2b horizons. Thickness of the fine and medium and few coarse roots; many
mixed fill material ranges from about 20 to 48 inches. uncoated sand grains; extremely acid; clear smooth
Content of shell and rock fragments less than 3 inches boundary.
across in the mixed fill material ranges from about 15 to A21-3 to 6 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
30 percent. Content of rock fragments more than 3 grained; loose; few fine and common medium roots;
inches across ranges from about 0 to 15 percent. common sand grains coated with organic matter;
The original soil material below the mixed fill material very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
is variable and ranges from several feet of sand over A22-6 to 26 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
loamy material to sandy throughout. The mixed soil few dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) streaks along
material is black (10YR 2/1), dark brown (10YR 3/3), root channels; single grained; loose; few medium
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), very dark gray (10YR roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
3/1), very pale brown (10YR 7/3 and 7/4), light gray B21h-26 to 30 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand;
(10YR 7/1 and 7/2), gray (10YR 5/1), yellowish brown moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
(10YR 5/6), olive brown (2.5Y 4/4), brown (2.5Y 5/2), few fine, medium, and coarse roots; sand grains well
light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2), or greenish gray (5GY coated with organic matter; extremely acid; clear
5/1). The matrix is a mixture of gravelly fine sand and wavy boundary.
sand with a few lenses of loamy sand or fine sandy loam B22h-30 to 35 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
throughout. fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
The Alb horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, friable; few fine and medium roots; sand grains well
and chroma of 1 or 2. The A2b horizon has hue of coated with organic matter; extremely acid; gradual
10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of 1 through 4. wavy boundary.
Some pedons contain fine sandy loam or sandy clay B23h-35 to 52 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand;
loam below a depth of 40 inches. moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
few medium roots; sand grains well coated with
Myakka Series organic matter; extremely acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
The soils of the Myakka series are sandy, siliceous, B24h-52 to 63 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4)
hyperthermic Aeric Haplaquods. They are deep, poorly fine sand; common fine distinct black (5YR 2/1)
drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in thick splotches; weak medium subangular blocky
beds of marine sands. These nearly level soils are in structure; friable; sand grains well coated with
flatwoods and in depressions. Slopes range from 0 to 2 organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy
percent. boundary.




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