• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Leon County in...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Leon County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025709/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Leon County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 151 p., 58 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sanders, Therman E
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
United States -- Forest Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Leon County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Leon County   ( lcsh )
Soil-surveys -- Florida -- Leon County   ( nal )
Sols -- Cartes -- Floride -- Leon   ( rvm )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 83.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "In cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services."
General Note: Issued February 1981"--P. iii.
General Note: Item 102-B-9
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025709
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001235864
notis - AFY6287
oclc - 07427184
lccn - 81601804

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Leon County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    How this survey was made
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    General soil map units
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 39
        Crops and pasture
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 43
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 44
        Recreation
            Page 45
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Engineering
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
    Soil properties
        Page 51
        Engineering properties
            Page 51
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 52
        Soil and water features
            Page 53
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Engineering test data
            Page 56
    Classification of the soils
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Formation of the soils
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Reference
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Glossary
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Tables
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
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        Page 131
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        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    General soil map
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Index to map sheets
        Page 155
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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Full Text









_. I I .I I.
:1



1^^--Bi
,iii. i
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)iL SURVEy of
.EON COUNTy, FloRidA

ited States Department of Agriculture
I Conservation Service and Forest Service
operationn with
diversity of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and
ricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department,
d Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services






HOW TO U!


Locate your area of interest on
the "Index to Map Sheets" (the
last page of this publication).



.-- --- I7 i.C

S ~ -

.34.. )l
-' Note the number of the map
-_ -- 2. sheet and turn to that sheet.






S Locate your area of interest
on the map sheet.
15C

/A AT v
151 27C

134A5 1a4B









List the map unit symbols
4 that are in your area
Symbols

151\ 27C


o 134A 5634A
1 A27C 1 3 1 B

562 13 4 A
S148B
,34A: -: .. 151C
1,J







HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described.





------------














See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6. Contents) for location of additional data-- --- .
on a specific soil use.


















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homcbuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was performed in the period 1975-78. Soil
names and descriptions were approved in 1979. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1979.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the
Forest Service; the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department; the
Leon County Board of County Commissioners; and Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Ochlockonee River Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
Cover: The Florida State Capitol in Tallahassee is on Orangeburg-Urban land
complex, 2 to 12 percent slopes.





















ii

















contents


Index to map units............................................... iv Soil properties ............................ ................. ......... 51
Summary of tables.................................................. v Engineering properties ................................................ 51
Foreword ...................................................v.. 52
General nature of the county.................. .... 1 Physical and chemical properties ......................... 52
How this survey was made........................................ 4 Soil and water features............................................. 53
General soil map units............................................ 7 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses...... 54
Detailed soil map units ................................................ 15 Engineering test data.................................................. 56
Use and management of the soils.......................... 39 Classification of the soils................................... 57
Crops and pasture...... .. ......................... 39 Soil series and their morphology................................... 57
Woodla and management and productivity................ 438
Windbreaks and environmental plantings................. 44 Formation of the soils................................... 81
Recreation .............................................................. 45 References ..................................................................... 83
Wildlife habitat ...................................................... 45 Glossary .......................................................................... 85
E engineering ................................... ........................ .. 47 T ables .............................................................................. 9 1



soil series
Albany series ................................................................. 57 Lutterloh series................................................................ 68
Alpin series...... ................................. ........................... 58 Lynchburg series ............................................................ 69
A rents ............................................................................... 59 M eggett series ................................................................. 69
Blanton series ......................... ......................................... 60 Norfolk series................................................................... 71
Bonifay series ...................... ........................................ 60 Ocilla series................................ .................................. 72
Chaires series ..................... ............................................ 61 Orangeburg series........................................................... 72
Chipley series................................................................... 62 Ortega series ................................................................... 73
Dorovan series.......................................................... 62 Pamlico series........................................................... 73
Dothan series............................................................ 63 Pelham series .................................................................. 74
Faceville series ...................... ......................................... 64 Plummer series................................................................ 74
Foxworth series .............................................................. 64 Rutlege series.................................................................. 75
Fuquay series................................................................. 65 Sapelo series ................................................................... 76
Kershaw series ...................... ......................................... 66 Surrency series ................................................................ 76
Lakeland series .............................................................. 66 Talquin series................................................................... 77
Leefield series............................ .................................. 66 Troup series ..................................................................... 77
Leon series..................................... .................................. 67 Wagram series................................................................. 78
Lucy series ....................................................................... 68 Y onges series.................................................................. 79
Issued February 1981









iii

















index to map units


1-Albany loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes........... 15 28-Meggett soils, frequently flooded........................ 27
2-Albany-Urban land complex, 0 to 2 percent 29-Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.. 27
slopes................................................................... 16 30-Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.. 28
3-Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes....................... 16 31--Norfolk loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 8
4-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes.............................. 16 percent slopes ................................... ............ 29
5-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 17 32-Ocilla fine sand................................................... 29
6-Bonifay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 17 33-Orangeburg fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
7- Chaires fine sand.............................................. 18 slopes........................................................................ 30
8-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes............. 18 34-Orangeburg fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
9- Dorovan m ucky peat ............................................. 19 slopes........................................................................ 30
10-Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.. 19 35-Orangeburg fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent
11-Dothan loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.. 20 slopes............................ .................................. 30
12-Faceville sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes....... 20 36-Orangeburg-Urban land complex, 2 to 12
13-Faceville sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes....... 20 percent slopes .................................................... 31
14-Faceville sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes..... 21 37-Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...................... 31
15-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 21 38-Pamlico-Dorovan complex ..................................... 31
16-Fuquay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............. 22 39-Pelham fine sand .................................................... 32
17-Fuquay fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............ 22 40-Pits............................. ............................... 33
18-Kershaw sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................. 23 41--Plummer fine sand................................. ......... 33
19-Kershaw sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes................... 23 42-Plummer mucky fine sand, depressional.............. 33
20-Kershaw-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 43-Rutlege loamy fine sand......................................... 33
slopes.................................................................... 23 44-Rutlege soils, occasionally flooded....................... 34
21-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 24 45-Sapelo fine sand ..................................................... 34
22-Leefield loamy sand......................................... 24 46-Surrency loamy sand.............................................. 35
23- Leon sand........................................................... 24 47- Talquin fine sand..................................................... 35
24-Lucy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 25 48-Troup fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............... 36
25-Lucy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ......... .. 25 49-Urban land......................................................... 36
50-Wagram loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes 36
26-Lutteroh fine sand, 0 o percent slopes..... 26 51-Wagram loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes 37
27-Lynchburg fine sandy loam.................................. 26 52-Yonges fine sandy loam.................................. 37

















iv


















summary of tables


Freeze data (table 1) ................................................................................... 92
Temperature and precipitation (table 2)...................................... ......... 92
Soil ratings and limitations of general soil map units (table 3)................... 93
Percent of map unit. Cropland. Pasture. Woodland. Urban
uses.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) ........................... 98
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5) ............................................. 99
Corn. Peanuts. Soybeans. Tobacco. Watermelons.
Bahiagrass. Improved bermudagrass.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 6).................................................. 101
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7)........................................ 102
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)................................................................ 105
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
W wildlife habitat potentials (table 9).................................................................. 108
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10) .............................................................. 111
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)................................................................................ 114
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 12).................................................................... 117
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 13).................................. ................................ 120
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Features affecting-Drainage, Irrigation,
Terraces and diversions, Grassed waterways.
Engineering index properties (table 14) ..................................................... 124
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.


v





















Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15)............................. 129
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Reaction. Shrink-swell potential. Erosion
factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.
Soil and water features (table 16)..................................................................... 132
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Physical properties of selected soils (table 17)............................................. 135
Particle size distribution. Hydraulic conductivity. Bulk
density. Water content.
Chemical properties of selected soils (table 18)........................................... 141
Extractable bases. Extractable acidity. Sum of cations.
Base saturation. Organic carbon. Electrical conductivity.
pH. Extractable citrate dithionite.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 19).................................................. 146
Percentage of clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 20) ........................................................... 149
Classification Grain-size distribution. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density.
Classification of the soils (table 21)........................................................... 151
Family or higher taxonomic class.





















vi















foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Leon County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters,
and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.





William E. Austin
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service







vii





















TALLAHASSEE

ACKSONVILLE
PENSACOLA



S"J GAINESVIL E





APPROXIMATE SCALES '
ORLAN O
S 501 100 TAMPA
MILES

O 100 200 1
KILOMETERS








MIAMI


State Agricultural Experiment Station
0




Location of Leon County in Florida.











soil survey of


Leon County, Florida



By Therman E. Sanders, Soil Conservation Service


Others participating in the field work were
William T. Crews and Paul Nichols, Soil Conservation Service
and John R. Vann and Michael J. Jones, Forest Service


United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service, in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences
and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services





LEON COUNTY, part of the Florida Panhandle, is general nature of the county
bordered on the east by Jefferson County, on the south
by Wakulla County, and on the west by Gadsden and Soil is intimately associated with its environment. The
interaction of all soil-forming factors determines the
Liberty Counties. On the north it is bordered by the state character of the soil and its overall land use. In this
of Georgia. The Ochlockonee River and Lake Talquin section, other environmental and cultural factors that
form the boundary between Leon County and Gadsden affect the use and management of soils in Leon County
and Liberty Counties. are discussed. The factors are climate, history,
The county covers 445,400 acres, or 685 square physiography, water resources, farming, transportation,
and recreation.
miles. The land area within the county covers 428,928
acres. About 104,013 acres, or 163 square miles, are climate
federally owned; most of this land is in the Apalachicola
National Forest. The county is about 38 miles wide at Leon County has a moderate climate. Summers are
the widest part and about 28 miles long at the longest long, warm, and humid. Winters are mild to cool. The
Gulf of Mexico moderates maximum and minimum
part. temperatures.
Tallahassee is the county seat and the capital of Annual rainfall in the county averages about 57 inches.
Florida. Rainfall is heaviest from June through September: about
Urban and suburban development is prevalent in the 47 percent of the annual rainfall occurs during this
county. Tallahassee is about 27 square miles of period. October and November are the driest months;
the remainder of the rainfall is evenly distributed
residential, industrial, and commercial developments, throughout the rest of the year.
Also large suburban areas are north and east of Most summer rainfall comes from afternoon or early
Tallahassee. Industries include dairy and poultry evening local thundershowers. During June, July, August,
products, forest products, and chemical processing, and September, measurable rainfall can be expected
1






2 Soil survey



every other day. Summer showers are sometimes heavy; physiography
2 or 3 inches of rainfall may occur in an hour or two.
Daylong rains in summer are rare and are almost always Leon County lies within the Coastal Plain province (5).
associated with a tropical storm. Winter and spring rains Based on physiographic expression, the county can be
are usually associated with large scale continental sub-divided into three major physiographic divisions: the
are usually associated with large scale continental Northern Highlands, the Gulf Coastal Lowlands, and the
weather developments and are of longer duration. Some Riveralley Lowlands.
last for 24 hours or longer. They are usually not so The Northern Highlands includes the Tallahassee Hills
intense as the thundershowers, but occasionally they do in the northern part of the county. These are immediately
release large amounts of rainfall over large areas. A 24- underlain by the Hawthorne Formation and the
hour rainfall of 7 inches or more falls about 1 year in 10. Miccosukee Formation. In Leon County, the Tallahassee
Hail is observed at irregular intervals in Hills extend about 18 miles from the Georgia State line
thundershowers. The individual pieces of hail are usually to the Gulf Coastal Lowlands on the south and extend
small and seldom cause much damage. Snow is very about 22 miles between the Ochlockonee River on the
rare in the area and usually melts as it hits the ground. west and the county line on the east. The area is a delta
Tropical storms can affect the area at any time during plain surface that has been dissected by streams and
the period from early June through mid-November. modified by subsurface solution.
These storms diminish in intensity quite rapidly as they The topography is characterized by erosional remnant
move inland. The likelihood of a hurricane in Leon hills that are on the average 120 feet high. The highest
County is about once every 13 years with fringe effects hills have elevations of about 260 feet and are relatively
felt about once every 5 years. Extended periods of dry flat-topped. The loamy soils that developed on the hills
weather or droughts can occur in any season, but they support a lush natural vegetation of mixed pine and
hardwood forest. Three large lake basins are within the
are most common in spring and fall. Droughts or dry Tallahassee Hills. The southern terminus of this
periods in April and May, although generally of shorter physiographic division is abruptly separated from the
duration than those in the fall, are intensified by higher adjoining Lowlands by a distinct escarpment. The
temperatures. western edge is bounded by the Ochlockonee River
As cold continental air flows eastward across the Valley Lowlands. Eastward these Highlands pass into
Florida panhandle toward Leon County the cold is Jefferson County.
appreciably modified. The coldest weather is generally The Gulf Coastal Lowlands covers the southern part of
the second night after the arrival of the cold front after the county and can be subdivided into two units based
heat is lost through radiation. The average date of the on topography- the Apalachicola Coastal Lowlands and
first freezing temperature is about December 3. The the Woodville Karst Plain. The Apalachicola Coastal
average date of the last freezing temperature is about Lowlands is a terrace plain that rises from 90 to 100 feet
February 26. Frost has occurred, however, as early as at the southern edge, the Leon-Wakulla County line, to
November 1 and as late as April 15. Freeze data about 150 feet at the northern edge. These lowlands are
representative of the county are shown in table 1 (10). characterized by sandy flatwoods interspersed with
Summer temperatures are moderated by the Gulf shallow densely wooded swamps that have a few
breeze and by cumulus clouds which frequently shade shallow, poorly defined creeks. The area is underlain by
the land without completely obscuring the sun. Mean sand and clay deposits that are as much as 80 feet
average temperature in June, July, August, and deep. The water table is close to the surface and during
September is about 80 degrees F. Temperatures of 86 the rainy season much of the area is swampy. Almost
degrees or higher have occurred in May, June, July, the entire Lowlands area lies within the Apalachicola
August, and September, but 100 degrees is reached only National Forest.
The Woodville Karst Plain is bounded on the west by
rarely. In June, July, and August, the warmest months, the higher Apalachicola Coastal Lowlands and extends
the average maximum temperature is 90 degrees. eastward into Jefferson County. It is characterized by
Temperatures above 95 degrees occur on fewer than 22 loose quartz sands thinly veneering a limestone
days. Temperature and precipitation data are shown in substratum that has resulted in a sinkhole sand dune
table 2 (9). topography. In Leon County, this Plain area rises from 20
Fog occurs on an average of 6 mornings a month in to 60 feet in elevation, and it has crests of dunes rising
winter and spring and almost never in summer and fall. 20 feet above the the surrounding land.
Prevailing winds are generally from the south in spring A strip at the western edge of the Plain area has a
and summer. In October, November, December, and general land surface about 30 to 50 feet higher than that
January winds blow from the north. The mean to the east. This strip is referred to as the Lake Munson
windspeed for the year is 7.3 miles per hour. The lowest Hills. The porous sands have permitted rainwater to
monthly mean windspeed, 5.8 miles per hour, occurs in rapidly move into the soluble underlying limestone.
August. The highest, 9 miles per hour, occurs in March. Consequently, the limestone has undergone






Leon County, Florida 3



considerable solution by the action of these percolating sands and the upper region of the Hawthorne Formation,
ground waters, and the area has been continuously and are secondary sources.
rapidly lowered from its original level. The area is The water supply for the towns, communities, and
interspersed with sinks that appear as shallow sand-filled individual homes within the county is from wells. The
depressions. The higher areas support a vegetation wells are dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer
composed chiefly of pines and blackjack and turkey and then cased to the limestone. Depths of the wells
oaks. A few surface streams have developed or exist in range from 110 to 150 feet in the southern part of the
this unit. Some streams wind their way for short county to 250 to 300 feet in the northern part.
distances and then disappear into sink holes.
The River Valley Lowlands include the streams and history
stream valleys of the Ochlockonee and St. Marks Rivers.
The area along each river is narrow, and because of the Frank Sicius, researcher, Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board
nature of the sediments through which each flows, the prepared this section.
valleys are different. Artifacts, such as flint tools, place people in the county
The Ochlockonee River Valley Lowlands include the almost ten thousand years ago; anthropologists surmise
flood plain terraces of the Ochlockonee River. These that it has been populated continuously since that time.
lowlands are usually well defined by the nature of the When Hernando DeSoto and the first Europeans
sediments and by the escarpment that separates them from arrived in 1539, they discovered a native population
the Tallahassee Hills. Near the Florida-Georgia State hunting and cultivating the area. The Spanish explorers
line, the Ochlockonee Lowlands are about 2 miles wide. discovered fertile lands drained by numerous streams
Just north of Lake Talquin, the fluvial sediments are in and lakes and a climate characterized by subtropical
excess of 3 miles wide. The native vegetation consists summers and temperate winters.
mostly of sweetgum, cypress, and pines. In this area are The British took over the area in 1763 and divided
dominantly nearly level, poorly drained, clayey soils. Florida into two provinces. They governed the east from
The St. Marks River Valley Lowlands include the flood St. Augustine and the west from Pensacola. When the
plain valley of the St. Marks River. The Lowlands contain United States acquired the area in 1821, a centrally
no fluvial terrace surfaces and are above the modern located capital in Florida became necessary. In 1823 two
flood plain. The stream flows upon or slightly incised into commissioners, Dr. William Simmons of St. Augustine
bedrock. Because the water table is usually high, the and John Lee Williams from Pensacola, selected the
river flows through the swampy terrain. This area Tallahassee area as the new territorial capital.
consists of numerous cypress swamps along with Leon County was established on December 24, 1824.
sweetgum and sawpalmetto. Soils are sandy and wet. An era of migration began then for Leon County as
planters from the older Southern states abandoned their
water resources soils for the better land in this and nearby counties. The
more desirable sea-island cotton prospered in Leon
Leon County is characterized by many solution County, and the area developed as an important addition
depressional areas that usually contain water in small to the cotton lands of the South. Tallahassee and Leon
ponds or lakes (3). Small streams of relatively short County became the economic, political, and cultural
length empty into these ponds and lakes. The two large center of ante-bellum Florida. Depression followed the
streams in the county are the Ochlockonee River and Civil War and a new economic system emerged based
the St. Marks River. on interdependence. In the sharecropping system,
The Ochlockonee River is the largest river in the farmers without property cultivated land which they
county. It has been dammed just upstream of State rented from moneyless landowners for a share of the
Highway 20 creating Lake Talquin. The other major crop.
stream within the county is the St. Marks River in the Depressed agricultural prices in the late 19th century
southeastern part. made farming unprofitable for sharecropper and owner
Numerous lakes in Leon County range in size from a alike. Many tenants left the land for the cities and many
few acres to thousands of acres. Some occupy shallow landowners sold out to northern industries who
depressional areas and exist only during the rainy accumulated large holdings. Their use of the land as
season; others have basins deep enough to contain game preserves brought about an important change in
water the year round. There are still others that normally the agricultural history of Leon County as thousands of
have water, yet at times drain completely in a relatively cultivated acres returned to woodland.
short time. Some of the major lakes in the county are Until World War II, Leon County grew moderately in
Jackson, lamonia, Talquin, Carr, Bradford, Hall, and population and remained rural in character. Following the
Munson. war, however, population grew at an accelerated rate,
The Floridian Aquifer is the primary source of all and the county became increasingly urban. The rapid
underground water in Leon County. The shallow aquifers expansion of state government and the development of
that overlie the Floridian Aquifer, including the surficial two universities are the major factors in this growth.








4 Soil survey



farming interstate trade serve the county. Also, rail and bus
Agriculture in the county includes growing corn, services are available. Scheduled national airline service
peanuts, soybeans, watermelons, and a few vegetables. is available at the Tallahassee Municipal Airport.
About 38,000 acres, or 9 percent, of the county land
area is cropland. About 35,000 acres, or 8 percent, of recreation
the county area is in pastureland. About 318,000 acres,
or 73 percent, of the land area is forest. The remaining A variety of recreational activities are available in Leon
56,000 acres, or 10 percent, of the land area is urban or County (11), including fishing, hunting, swimming,
built-up, small water areas, and other land uses. There is boating, golfing (fig. 1), water skiing, hiking, canoeing,
approximately 103,000 acres of federally owned land in and horseback riding. A number of parks and
the county. A large acreage of forest in the county is due playgrounds have up-to-date facilities for public use.
to the plantations maintaining large acreages of forest Several areas in Apalachicola National Forest have been
for use as wildlife habitat. The plantations have an set aside for camping. The Ochlockonee and St. Marks
excellent wildlife development program. River have facilities for fishing, hiking, boating, and
Cotton was the big crop for the early settlers of the canoeing. Lake Jackson, Lake Talquin, and Lake
county. The farms were generally small and labor was lamonia are popular for fishing and hunting waterfowl. At
available for harvesting. But cotton gave way to larger Lake Hall are recreation areas for water sports, and on
scale farming. In the northern part of the county, most of the shore, in MacClay Garden State Park are areas for
the plantations are operated as woodland-wildlife land. hiking.
There was a little general farming.
transportation how this survey was made
Several county, state, and federal highways provide Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils are
ready access between farms and population centers. in the survey area, where they are, and how they can be
Several trucking firms that have facilities for handling used. They observed the steepness, length, and shape





























Figure 1.-Gently sloping and sloping areas of Orangeburg fine sandy loam provide an attractive golf course.






Leon County, Florida 5



of slopes; the size of streams and the general pattern of survey area are described under "General soil map
drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; and the units" and "Detailed soil map units."
kinds of rock. They dug many holes to study soil profiles. While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for
a soil. It extends from the surface down into the parent engineering tests. All soils are field tested to determine
material, which has been changed very little by leaching their characteristics. Interpretations of those
or by plant roots, characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the are assembled from other sources, such as test results,
profiles they studied and compared those profiles with records, field experience, and state and local specialists.
others in nearby counties and in more distant places. For example, data on crop yields under defined
They classified and named the soils according to management are assembled from farm records and from
nationwide uniform procedures. They drew the field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
boundaries of the soils on aerial photographs. These But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
The soil maps at the back of this publication were other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
prepared from aerial photographs. information then needs to be organized so that it can be
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units. used by farmers, woodland managers, engineers,
Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some planners, developers and builders, home buyers, and
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in this others.









7









general soil map units


The general soil map at the back of this publication 1. Kershaw-Ortega-Alpin
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general moderately well drained soils; all are sandy to a depth of
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map 80 inches or more; some have thin loamy lamellae below
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor 45 inches
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up
one unit can occur in other units but in a different The soils in this map unit are in two areas in the
pattern, southern part of the county. A large area extends almost
The general soil map can be used to compare the across the county. It is about 5 to 35 miles wide and 1/2
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of mile to 12 miles long. Another much smaller area is
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, adjacent to Jefferson County in the eastern part of the
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. county. The unit is interspersed with ponds, wet swampy
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for areas, and a few sinks. It includes Eight Mile Pond, Lake
planning the management of a farm or field or for Munson, and Lake Bradford.
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. The unit is on uplands. It consists of nearly level to
gently sloping soils on broad ridges and sloping soils on
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place hillsides, around sinkholes, and in drainageways. There
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that is not a well developed stream pattern in some places.
affect management. The best developed stream pattern is along Lake Talquin
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their soil and the Ochlockonee River. Drainage is mostly
limitations, restrictions, or hazards and potentials for subterraneous where no well developed surface
major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the map drainage system exists. The native trees include bluejack
units shown on the general soil map. It lists the oak, post oak, turkey oak, and longleaf pine that has an
limitations and potentials of each, and shows soil understory of pineland threeawn. On Kershaw soils are
properties that limit use. scattered sand pines, and on Ortega soils are scattered
Each map unit is rated for cultivated crops, pastures, laurel oak and post oak.
woodland, sanitary facilities, building sites, and recreation This unit makes up about 85,568 acres, or 20 percent,
areas. Cultivated crops are those grown extensively in of the land area of the county. It is about 30 percent
the county. Pastures are those improved pasture grasses Kershaw soils, 23 percent Ortega soils, 20 percent Alpin
grown extensively in the county. Woodland refers to soils, and 27 percent soils of minor extent.
areas of native pine trees. Building sites include Kershaw soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
residential, commercial, and industrial developments, surface layer is grayish brown sand about 7 inches thick.
Sanitary facilities include septic tank absorption fields Below this is very pale brown and yellow sand that
and trench sanitary landfills. Recreation areas are extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
campsites, picnic areas, ballfields, and other areas that Ortega soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the
are subject to heavy foot traffic. surface layer is gray sand about 4 inches thick. The
Descriptions of map units on the general soil map underlying layers to about 80 inches are light brownish
follow. gray sand, very pale brown sand, yellow sand, yellow
fine sand that has brown mottles and white fine sand
soils of the sand ridges that has yellow mottles.
Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
The two general map units in this group consist of surface layer is dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. The
excessively drained to poorly drained, nearly level to subsurface layer is very pale brown sand about 55
sloping soils on uplands. Some soils are sandy inches thick. Below this is white sand that has thin
throughout, some have thin lamellae below a depth of 45 brownish yellow loamy sand or sandy loam lenses or
inches, some are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches bands. This layer extends to a depth of 90 inches or
and loamy below, and some have a sandy and loamy more.
subsoil. These soils are in the south-central part of the Minor soils in this unit are Lakeland, Albany, Plummer,
county. Blanton, Rutlege, Troup, and Chipley soils.






8 Soil survey



Most of this unit is in natural woodland or has been Minor soils in this unit are Albany, Talquin, Sapelo,
planted to pine trees. Some areas have been cleared Alpin, Troup, and Ortega soils.
and planted to improved pasture grasses. Some areas Most of this unit is in natural stands of longleaf pine
are under urban development. and mixed hardwoods, or has been cut, chopped,
bedded, and planted to slash pines. The swampy areas
2. Blanton-Lutterloh-Chaires are in natural stands of water-tolerant trees.
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained to s o t r
poorly drained soils; some are sandy to a depth of 40 to sols of the ands
80 inches and loamy below; some have a sandy and The five general soil units in this group consist of well
loamy subsoil drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to
This map unit occurs as one area about 8 miles wide strongly sloping soils on uplands. Some soils are loamy
and 5 miles long in the southeastern corner of the to clayey below a depth of 20 inches, some are loamy
county. The area is interspersed with wet swampy areas from 20 to 40 inches, and some are sandy from 40 to 80
and a few sinkholes. The community of Woodville is inches and loamy below. These soils are in the northern
located in this map unit. part of the county.
This map unit is on uplands interspersed with 3. Blanton-Wagram-Troup
flatwoods. It consists mainly of nearly level to gently
sloping soils on broad ridges and small areas of nearly Nearly level to sloping, well drained and moderately well
level soils on flatwoods and in swamps. There is not a drained soils; most are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80
well established drainage system, and drainage is mostly inches and loamy below; some are sandy from 20 to 40
subterraneous. The native trees are mostly longleaf pine, inches and loamy below
slash pine, laurel oak, bluejack oak, scattered turkey oak This map unit occurs as three areas. The largest area
on the Blanton and Lutterloh soils, and longleaf pine and is about 9 miles long and 3 miles wide at the widest
slash pine on the Chaires soils. Sawpalmetto, pineland place. This area is in the west-central part of the county.
threeawn, waxmyrtle, running oak, and gallberry are The other two areas are in the east-central part of the
common understory plants. The swampy areas are county and are about 1 1/2 miles wide and 3 miles long.
mostly cypress, bayberry, sweetgum, and titi. The areas are interspersed with a few wet swampy
This unit makes up about 20,500 acres, or 5 percent, areas, small ponds, and sinks. Northwestern
of the county land area. It is about 50 percent Blanton Tallahassee and the community of Wadesboro are in this
soils, 25 percent Lutterloh soils, 10 percent Chaires unit.
soils, and 15 percent soils of minor extent. This map unit consists mainly of nearly level to gently
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically, sloping soils on uplands. There is an established stream
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 7 pattern of creeks and branches and narrow, wet bottom
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about land. The native trees are mostly hickory, laurel oak,
52 inches, is brown, light yellowish brown, and very pale magnolia, white oak, maple, sycamore, and longleaf,
brown fine sand. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to 80 shortleaf, and loblolly pines. The wetter areas have
inches or more. The upper 10 inches of the subsoil is sweetgum, willow, cypress, and bayberry. Dogwood,
brownish yellow that has reddish yellow mottles, and the sassafras, waxmyrtle, and vines and grasses are
lower 18 inches is light brownish gray that has red and common.
strong brown mottles. This unit makes up about 14,170 acres, or 3 percent,
Lutterloh soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, of the land area of the county. It is about 45 percent
the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand about 7 Blanton soils, 35 percent Wagram soils, 15 percent
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 52 Troup soils, and 5 percent of minor extent.
inches thick. The upper 33 inches is mixed light gray and Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
white, and the lower 19 inches is white. The subsoil the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 7
extends below 80 inches. The upper 12 inches of the inches thick. The subsurface layer, about 45 inches
subsoil is gray fine sandy loam, and the lower 9 inches is thick, is brown, light yellowish brown, and pale brown
light gray sandy clay. fine sand. The upper 10 inches of the subsoil is brownish
Chaires soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface yellow sandy clay loam mottled reddish yellow, and the
layer is dark brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The lower part is light brownish gray mottled with red and
subsurface layer is fine sand about 21 inches thick. The strong brown.
upper 10 inches is dark grayish brown and the lower 11 Wagrarn soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
inches is light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is very layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand about 3 inches
dark brown, dark reddish brown, dark brown, and dark thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown and
yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part is gray and brownish yellow loamy fine sand to a depth of about 31
light greenish gray sandy clay loam that extends to a inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 62 inches. The
depth of 80 inches or more. upper 12 inches of the subsoil is brownish yellow fine






Leon County, Florida 9



sandy loam; and the lower 19 inches is brownish yellow and reddish yellow sandy clay. The substratum is
sandy clay loam. Beneath the subsoil is mottled red, mottled brownish yellow, strong brown, and gray sandy
brownish yellow, and light gray sandy clay that extends clay that extends to 80 inches or more.
to a depth of 80 inches or more. Of minor extent in this unit are Blanton, Faceville,
Troup soils are well drained. Typically, the surface Wagram, Yonges, and Lynchburg soils and Urban land.
layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches Many areas of this unit are in native trees. Some areas
thick. The upper subsurface layer is yellowish brown have been cleared for improved pasture, hay, and
sand about 18 inches thick, the next layer is reddish cultivated crops such as corn, peanuts, and soybeans
yellow fine sand about 18 inches thick. The subsoil is (fig. 2). Some areas are in urban uses.
sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 or more inches. The
upper 10 inches of the subsoil is strong brown, the next 5. Fuquay-Leefield-Bonifay
19 inches is yellowish red, and the lower part is red. Nearly eve to sloping, wedrained and somewhat
Minor soils in this unit are Norfolk, Bonifay, Dothan' poorly drained soils; most are sandy to a depth of 20 to
Fuquay, Ocilla, Albany, Leefield, Lucy, Faceville, 40 inches and loamy below; some are sandy from 40 to
Plummer, Pelham, and Lynchburg soils.es ad loay bo
This unit is mostly cleared for crops or pasture and 80 inches and loamy below
hay. Some areas remain in loblolly and longleaf pines This map unit occurs as one area about 4 miles wide
and mixed hardwoods. and 8 miles long in the east-central part of the county.
This unit includes Shemonie Lake.
4. Orangeburg-Lucy-Norfolk This unit consists of nearly level to sloping soils on
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils; some uplands. There is a moderately well developed drainage
are loamy throughout; some are sandy to a depth less system of creeks and branches and a few small ponds
than 20 inches and loamy below; some are sandy from and wet swampy areas. The native trees include hickory,
20 to 40 inches and loamy below red oak, live oak, laurel oak, white oak, and longleaf and
loblolly pines.
This map unit is the largest unit in the county and This map unit makes up about 9,440 acres, or 2
occupies most of the northern part. There are two areas. percent, of the land area of the county. It is about 45
The city of Tallahassee and Lake Jackson are in this percent Fuquay soils, 28 percent Leefield soils, 18
unit. percent Bonifay soils, and 9 percent soils of minor
This unit consists of nearly level to gently sloping soils extent.
on uplands in most areas but consists of sloping to Fuquay soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
strongly sloping soils in drainageways. There is a fairly layer is grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick.
well developed drainage system of creeks and branches. The subsurface layer consists of 7 inches of yellowish
Many ponds and small lakes are scattered throughout brown and brownish yellow fine sand, 7 inches of
the unit. The native trees include slash, longleaf, yellowish brown fine sand, and 16 inches of yellowish
shortleaf, and loblolly pines, live oak, red oak, white oak, brown loamy fine sand. The upper 27 inches of the
hickory, magnolia, sweetgum, dogwood, and an subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower 38
understory of woody shrubs and grasses, inches is mottled reddish yellow, light gray, brownish
This unit makes up about 112,800 acres, or 26 yellow, and red sandy clay loam. The subsoil contains
percent, of the county land area. It is about 60 percent about 8 percent plinthite.
Orangeburg soils, 13 percent Lucy soils, 5 percent Leefield soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
Norfolk soils, and 22 percent soils of minor extent, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy sand
Orangeburg soils are well drained. Typically, the about 10 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 26
surface and subsurface layers are fine sandy loam. The inches thick. The upper 9 inches is grayish brown loamy
upper 5 inches is brown, and the lower 5 inches is sand, and the lower 17 inches is yellow loamy sand that
yellowish red. The subsoil, extending to 80 inches or has brown and gray mottles. The subsoil is yellowish
more, is yellowish red and red sandy clay loam. brown sandy clay loam that has gray and red mottles
Lucy soils are well drained. Typically, the surface layer and extends to a depth of 80 or more inches.
is dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The Bonifay soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
subsurface layer is dark yellowish brown, dark brown, layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches
and strong brown fine sand about 19 inches thick. The thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown fine sand
subsoil is yellowish red sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 in the upper 10 inches and is brownish yellow and yellow
inches or more. loamy fine sand in the lower 24 inches. The subsoil is
Norfolk soils are well drained. Typically, the surface yellowish brown sandy clay loam in the upper 11 inches
layer is yellowish brown loamy fine sand about 4 inches and mottled red, white, yellow, and brown sandy clay in
thick. The subsoil is brownish yellow and yellowish the lower part.
brown fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a depth Minor soils in this unit are Wagram, Norfolk, Dothan,
of about 58 inches where it changes to strong brown Troup, Albany, and Ocilla soils.








10 Soil survey
























Figure 2.-Areas of pasture and cropland are common in the Orangeburg-Lucy-Norfolk general soil map unit.


About half of this unit is cleared for cultivated crops or Dothan soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
is in hay and improved pasture. The other half is in layer is loamy fine sand about 13 inches thick. The
natural vegetation, upper 5 inches is brown and the lower 8 inches is
yellowish brown. The subsoil in sequence from the top is
6. Dothan-Orangeburg-Fuquay yellowish brown fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick;
yellowish brown sandy clay loam about 19 inches thick,
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils; some and then reticulately mottled brown, yellow, red, and gray
are loamy throughout; some are sandy to a depth less sandy cy lm to a depth of 80 inches or more.
than 20 inches and loamy below some are sandy from Orangeburg soils are well drained. Typically, the
20 to 40 inches and loamy below surface and subsurface layers are brown and yellowish
This map unit is one area about 4 1/2 miles wide and red fine sandy loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is
8 miles long in the north-central part of the county. This yellowish red sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of
unit includes the community of Centerville and Cromartie 80 inches or more.
Arm of Lake lamonia, Pickle Pond, Boat Pond, and Fuquay soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
Bradford Pond. layer is grayish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick.
This unit consists mainly of nearly level to gently The subsurface layer consists of 7 inches of yellowish
sloping soils on uplands but has sloping to strongly brown and brownish yellow fine sand, 7 inches of
sloping soils in drainageways. There is a fairly well yellowish brown fine sand, and 16 inches of yellowish
developed drainage system of creeks and branches and brown loamy fine sand. The upper 27 inches of the
a few ponds and swampy areas. The native trees include subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, shortleaf pine, live oak, red part that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more is
oak, white oak, laurel oak, magnolia, maple, and mottled reddish yellow, red, brownish yellow, and light
sycamore that has an understory of dogwood and other gray sandy clay loam. The subsoil contains about 8
woody shrubs and vines. percent plinthite.
This map unit makes up about 16,240 acres, or 4 Minor soils are Norfolk, Bonifay, Albany, Troup, Lucy,
percent, of the land area in the county. It is about 40 Wagram, Leefield, Ocilla, and Plummer soils.
percent Dothan soils, 20 percent Orangeburg soils, 10 About half of this unit is cleared for improved pasture,
percent Fuquay soils, and 30 percent soils of minor hay, or cultivated crops. The other part is in natural
extent. woodland trees and plants.






Leon County, Florida 11



7. Faceville-Orangeburg-Dothan and some to 40 to 80 inches; all are loamy below. These
Gently sloping to strongly sloping, well drained soils; all soils are scattered throughout most of the northern half
are sandy or loamy to a depth less than 20 inches; some of the county.
are clayey below and some are loamy below
This unit extends across the northern part of the 8. Plummer-Pelham-Yonges
county almost to the Ochlockonee River. It is about 17 Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some are loamy
miles wide and 2 1/2 miles long. This unit includes Dry throughout; some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40
Creek, Ferguson Pond, Strickland Arm, and the inches; some are sandy from 40 to 80 inches; all are
community of lamonia. loamy below
This unit consists mainly of nearly level to gently Areas of this map unit are mostly in the eastern and
sloping soils on uplands but has sloping to strongly northern parts of the county. Most areas are long and
sloping soils along drainageways. There is a fairly well narrow, but the areas around Lake lamonia and Carr
developed drainage system of creeks and branches and Lake are roughly oblong.
a few wet swampy areas and depressional areas. The This unit consists of nearly level soils in narrow
native trees include longleaf, loblolly, and shortleaf drainageways, in depressional areas (fig. 3), and on
pines, and live oak, red oak, white oak, hickory, and shorelines of large lakes. Streams are common. The
magnolia along with an understory of woody bushes and native trees include mostly wetland hardwoods such as
vines, swamp chestnut oak, swamp cottonwood, willow,
This unit makes up about 36,630 acres, or 9 percent, sweetgum, water oak, blackgum, and cypress. Around
of the land area of the county. It is about 55 percent some of the lakes, the plants are water-tolerant sedges
Faceville soils, 20 percent Orangeburg soils, 8 percent and grasses.
Dothan soils, and 17 percent soils of minor extent. This unit makes up about 30,740 acres, or 7 percent,
Faceville soils are well drained. Typically, the surface of the land area of the county. It is about 60 percent
layer is dark grayish brown sandy loam about 8 inches Plummer soils, 20 percent Pelham soils, 15 percent
thick. The subsurface layer is strong brown sandy loam Yonges soils, and 5 percent soils of minor extent.
about 7 inches thick. The subsoil extends to 80 inches Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
or more. The upper 33 inches is yellowish red sandy surface layer is fine sand about 17 inches thick. The
clay, the next 13 inches is yellowish red sandy clay upper 6 inches is very dark grayish brown, and the lower
mottled strong brown; and the lower 19 inches is sandy 11 inches is dark grayish brown. The subsurface layers,
clay mottled yellowish red, reddish yellow, light gray, to a depth of 61 inches, are gray, gray that has strong
white, and yellowish brown. brown mottles, and light gray fine sand. The subsoil
Orangeburg soils are well drained. Typically, the extending to 80 inches or more is light gray fine sandy
surface and subsurface layers are brown and yellowish loam that has yellowish red mottles.
red fine sandy loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil Pelham soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
extending to 80 inches or more is yellowish red sandy layer is very dark gray fine sand, about 5 inches thick.
clay loam. The subsurface layers are dark gray, light brownish gray,
Dothan soils are well drained. Typically, the surface and light gray fine sand about 21 inches thick. The
layer is brown and yellowish brown loamy fine sand subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or
about 13 inches thick. The subsoil in sequence from the more. The upper 6 inches is gray that has brown
top is yellowish brown fine sandy loam about 6 inches mottles, and the lower part is light gray that has yellow,
thick, yellowish brown sandy clay loam about 19 inches red, and brown mottles.
thick, and then reticulately mottled brown, yellow, red, Yonges soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam about 5 inches
more thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray fine sand about
Minor soils in this unit are Fuquay, Bonifay, Norfolk, 4 inches thick. The subsoil is gray, greenish gray, olive
Lucy, Wagram, Blanton, Troup, Albany, Plummer, and gray, and light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80
Lucy, Wagram, Blanton, Troup, Albany, Plummer, and inches or more.
Pelham soils. inches or more.
am sois. Minor soils in this unit are Rutlege, Sapelo, Albany,
About two-thirds of this unit is in native woodland. The Ocilla, Pamlico, and Dorovan soils.
other part is cleared and used for improved pasture and Some areas of this unit are in pasture but most areas
hay or for cultivated crops. are still in native plants.
soils of the upland depressions and lake basins
This general soil map unit consists of poorly drained, soils of the swamps, flatwoods, and low ridges
nearly level soils in upland depressions, narrow This general soil map unit consists of somewhat poorly
drainageways, and shorelines of large lakes. Some are drained to very poorly drained soils on the flatwoods.
sandy to less than 20 inches, some to 20 to 40 inches, Some are organic, some are sandy throughout, and






12 Soil survey
















q 1J


















Figure 3.-Shallow ponds are common in the Plummer-Pelham-Yonges general soil map unit. These ponds are important wildlife
habitat.
some have a sandy subsoil. These soils occur in the On the flatwoods are longleaf and slash pines,
southwestern and southeastern parts of the county. sawpalmetto, running oak, inkberry, fetterbush, and
pineland threeawn. Native trees on the low ridges are
9. Dorovan-Talquin-Chipley similar to those on the flatwoods, but there are scattered
Nearly level, somewhat poorly drained to very poorly oaks.
drained soils; some are organic; some are sandy to a This map unit makes up about 93,400 acres, or 22
depth of 80 inches; some have a sandy subsoil percent, of the land area of the county. It is about 34
percent Dorovan soils, 22 percent Talquin soils, 11
Two areas of this unit are in the southern part of the percent Chipley soils, and 33 percent soils of minor
county. The larger area is in the southwestern part of the extent.
county within the Apalachicola National Forest. It is Dorovan soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
about 17 miles wide and 10 miles long. The other have a surface layer of black mucky peat about 5 inches
smaller area is in the southeastern corner of the county a e a surface layer extends to about 5 inches
and includes the Natural Bridge and the St. Marks River. thick. The subsurface layer extends to about 65 inches.
This unit consists of nearly level soils in swamps (fig. It is black and very dark brown muck. The next layer is
4), on the flatwoods and low ridges. It consists of broad about 4 inches of very dark gray sandy loam. Black sand
flatwoods interspersed with many small to large swampy extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
depressional areas, poorly defined drainageways, and Talquin soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
scattered low ridges. The native trees in the swamps layer is dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
and drainageways are mostly titi, cypress, sweetbay, subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 15 inches
blackgum, red maple, sweetgum, black willow, and alder, thick. The subsoil is very dark gray and brown fine sand





Leon County, Florida 13



Minor soils in this unit are Leon, Yonges, Pelham,
Plummer, Ortega, Foxworth, Blanton, Rutlege, Sapelo,
and Chaires soils.
Most areas of flatwoods and low ridges either have
natural stands of longleaf pine or are planted to slash
pine. The swamp areas are in native plants.

Soils of the flood plains
This general soil map unit consists of poorly drained,
nearly level soils on river flood plains. They are loamy to
less than 20 inches deep and clayey below. These soils
are along the western edge of the county.

10. Meggett
Nearly level, poorly drained soils, loamy to a depth less
than 20 inches and clayey below
This map unit occurs as long, narrow areas in the
western part of the county along the Ochlockonee River
except where Lake Talquin has covered the flood plain.
A large area extends from about 3 miles southwest of
Interstate Highway 10 north to the Georgia State line.
Another area extends southwest from Florida Highway
267 to the Wakulla County line.
This unit consists of nearly level soils on long, narrow,
low ridges and in bottom channels on river flood plains.
The native trees are mostly wetland hardwoods such as
sweetgum, sweetbay, willows, and swamp birch. Live
oak, laurel oak, spruce pine, and loblolly pine are on the
low ridges.
This unit makes up about 9,440 acres, or 2 percent, of
the land area in the county. It is about 52 percent
Meggett soils and 48 percent soils of minor extent
including some that are similar to Meggett soils but are
Figure 4.-Cypress swamps are frequent in the Dorovan- very poorly drained and have a black and very dark gray
Talquin-Chipley general soil map unit. surface layer.
Meggett soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
about 12 inches thick. Below the subsoil is light yellowish layer is dark gray sandy loam about 6 inches thick, the
brown fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or subsurface layer is gray loam about 6 inches thick. The
more. subsoil, extending to a depth of 50 inches, is gray clay
Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, mottled red and yellow. Beneath the subsoil is gray and
the surface layer is very dark gray and dark grayish light gray loam that extends to a depth of 80 inches or
brown fine sand about 15 inches thick. The underlying more.
layers to a depth of 80 inches or more are brown fine Minor soils in this unit in addition to the similar soils
sand that has gray mottles, brownish yellow fine sand are Pamlico, Dorovan, Plummer, Rutlege, Yonges,
that has reddish yellow and gray mottles, and brownish Blanton, and Albany soils in about equal proportions.
yellow, light brownish gray, and white fine sand. This unit is still in native plants.









15









detailed soil map units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil of these included soils have properties that differ
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be differences could significantly affect use and
used to plan the management needed for those uses. management of the soils in the map unit. The included
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
under "Use and management of the soils." small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an a special symbol on the soil maps.
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
for which the unit is named, have little or no soil material and support little or no
A number identifying the soil precedes the map unit vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
general facts about the soil and gives the principal shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for maps.
specific uses. Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of tables")
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the give properties of the soils and the limitations,
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
a series have major horizons that are similar in defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
composition, thickness, and arrangement. Soil descriptions of the detailed map units follow.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in 1-Albany loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soil is on lower
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the elevations of uplands.
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil Typically the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil loamy sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil loamy sand about 46 inches thick-the upper 17 inches
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or is pale brown, the next 15 inches is very pale brown, and
management. For example, Orangeburg fine sandy loam, the lower 14 inches is mottled very pale brown, yellow
1 to 5 percent slopes is one of several phases in the and brownish yellow. The subsoil extends to a depth of
Orangeburg series. 78 inches-the upper 13 inches is mottled light gray and
Some map units are made up of two or more major yellowish brown sandy loam and the lower 15 inches is
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, or light yellowish brown sandy clay loam. Below 78 inches
undifferentiated groups. is light gray very fine sandy loam that has yellow and
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such reddish yellow mottles.
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The Troup and Plummer soils. These inclusions make up
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar about 20 percent of the map unit.
in all areas. Pamlico-Dorovan complex is an example. This Albany soil has a seasonal high water table 12 to
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more 30 inches below the surface for 1 to 2 months in most
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped years. Available water capacity is very low in the surface
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be The native trees include longleaf and slash pines and
made up of all of them. Rutlege soils is an mixed hardwoods-white oak, live oak, laurel oak,
undifferentiated group in this survey area. sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and persimmon trees. The






16 Soil survey



understory consists of native grasses and shrubs undrained areas, the water table is 12 to 30 inches
including huckleberry, briers, and pineland threeawn. below the surface for 1 or 2 months in most years.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops Drainage systems have been established in many areas,
because of periodic wetness and droughtiness in the however, and the depth to the water table depends on
root zone. With adequate water control, such crops as the drainage system.
corn, soybeans, and peanuts are moderately well suited. The present land use precludes the use of the Albany
Management includes close-growing, soil-improving soil for cultivated crops or improved pasture.
crops in rotation with row crops. The close-growing This map unit has not been assigned to a capability
crops should be used two-thirds of the time. To help subclass.
improve the soil tilth, cover crops and crop residues
should be used to protect the soil from erosion. Fertilizer 3-Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
and lime are needed, excessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is
The soil is moderately suited for pastures and hay on ridges, knolls, and broad upland areas. Slopes are
crops. Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers smooth to broken.
are well suited to this soil. These plants respond well to Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4
fertilizers and lime. Drainage removes excess internal inches thick. The subsurface layer, extending to a depth
water in wet seasons. Controlled grazing maintains of about 55 inches, is very pale brown sand. White
vigorous plants. mottles and splotches are in the lower part. The
The potential is moderately high for pine trees on this underlying material extending to 90 inches or more is
soil. Moderate equipment use limitations, seedling white sand that has thin brownish yellow bands or
mortality, and plant competition are management lenses.
concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the best suited Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
trees to plant for commercial woodland production. Kershaw, Ortega, Blanton, and Troup soils that are on
trees to plant for commercial woodland production. tesame slp pstin as t pin soi Afew a of
This Albany soil is in capability subclass IIIw. the same slope position as this Alpin soil. A few areas of
these soils are also on slopes ranging to about 12
2-Albany-Urban land complex, 0 to 2 percent percent. Small areas are on foot slopes or side slopes
slopes. This map unit consists of Albany loamy sand where limestone is within 80 inches of the surface and
slopes. This map unit consists of Albany loamy sand
and Urban land in areas that are so intermixed that occasionally outcrops at the surface. These inclusions
mapping them separately was not practical at the scale make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
usd for mapping. The water table of this Alpin soil is below a depth of
About 50 to 70 percent of the unit consists of the 80 inches. Available water capacity is low to very low,
nearly level Albany soil. In places, the soil has been and permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility is low.
bNative trees include longleaf pine, turkey oak, bluejack
reworked or reshaped but is still recognizable as Albany
soil. oak, and blackjack oak; the understory includes
honeysuckle, pineland threeawn, and running oak.
Typically, the Albany soil has a 4-inch thick very dark hoisu oilehas venrsevere limitations for cutiated
grayish brown loamy sand surface layer. The subsurface as ve evee orc
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
layer is loamy sand to a depth of about 50 inches. It is reduce the potential yields of suited crops. Row crops
reduce the potential yields of suited crops. Row crops
pale brown, very pale brown, and mottled brown and should be planted on the contour. Crop rotations should
yellow The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about include close-growing plants at least three-fourths of the
63 inches, is mottled light gray and yellowish brown time. Soil-improving crops and crop residue should be
sandy loam, and the lower part, to a depth of 78 inches used to protect the soil from erosion. Irrigation of
or more, is light yellowish brown sandy clay loam. suitable crops is usually feasible where water is readily
About 15 to 50 percent of this unit is Urban land. The available.
areas are covered by houses, streets, driveways, The soil is moderately suited to pastures and hay
buildings, and parking lots. Uncovered areas are mainly crops. Deep-rooting plants such as coastal
lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds. These are areas of bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are well suited, but
Albany soil, but they are so small that it was not practical yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
to map them separately. Included in mapping, and fertilizing and liming are needed. Grazing should be
making up about 15 percent of the unit, are areas of controlled to help plants maintain vigor.
Ocilla, Plummer, and Pelham soils. Urban land makes up Potential is moderately high for pine trees on this soil.
as much as 80 percent or as little as 10 percent of a few Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality are
mapped areas, management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the
Areas where the soil has been modified by grading best suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
and shaping are not so extensive in the older production.
communities as in the newer ones. Excavating below the This Alpin soil is in capability subclass IVs.
original surface layer and spreading this material over
adjacent soils is common. Soil material dug from 4-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
drainage ditches is often used as fill in low areas. In scattered throughout most of the county but is most






Leon County, Florida 17



common near urban areas. Most areas are former low These inclusions make up 15 to 20 percent of the map
places that have been filled with sandy, loamy, and unit.
clayey materials. This Blanton soil has a water table that is perched
The texture and thickness of the layers of this soil are above the subsoil for less than a month during wet
highly variable within short distances. Typically, the seasons. In other seasons the water table is below 72
surface layer is a mixture of brown, yellow, red, and gray inches. The available water capacity is very low to low in
loamy fine sand about 20 inches thick. The next layer, to the surface and subsurface layer and medium in the
about 30 inches, is gray sandy clay loam that has brown subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
and yellow mottles. The next layer, to 45 inches is light subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
gray clay that has yellow and red mottles. The next fertility is low.
layer, to 50 inches, is stratified brown sandy loam and This soil has severe limitations for most cultivated
gray clay. The undisturbed soil begins at a depth of crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
about 50 inches. To about 60 inches is very dark grayish limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of
brown fine sand, to 75 inches is gray fine sand, and to suited crops. Row crops should be planted on the
about 80 inches or more is light brownish gray fine sand. contour. The crop rotation should include close-growing
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas cover crops at least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving
where the soil has been excavated to below natural cover crops and crop residue should be used to protect
ground level and areas of Blanton, Alpin, Lakeland, the soil from erosion. Irrigating high value crops is
Troup, Lucy, Orangeburg, Albany, and Norfolk soils. Also usually feasible where water is readily available.
included are areas used as trench type sanitary landfills. The soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
These areas are more highly variable in their crops. Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass
composition. Solid waste materials such as plastic, are well suited but yields are reduced by periodic
wood, paper, metal, or glass comprise 50 to 80 percent droughts. Grasses respond to regular fertilizing and
of these areas. liming. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
The water table of this Arents soil is at a depth of 60 vigor and a good ground cover.
to 80 inches in most areas and below 80 inches in many The potential is moderately high for pine trees.
areas. Available water capacity and permeability are Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
variable within short distances, competition are management concerns. Slash and
Native plants on this soil include primarily weeds, a longleaf pine are the best suited trees to plant for
few scrubs, and pine trees. commercial wood production.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated This Blanton soil is in capability subclass Ills.
crops. Because of the variability of the composition and
thickness of the overburden, rating this soil is difficult for 6-Bonifay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
cultivated crops. Areas with thin layers of overburden well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on
can be used with proper management, upland ridges. Slopes are smooth and generally uniform.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
Seedbed preparation may be a problem because of a sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
clayey surface in some places; however, after grasses sand, to a depth of about 18 inches, and loamy fine
are established, good yields can be expected with proper sand, to a depth of 42 inches. The upper 10 inches is
management. yellowish brown, the next 13 inches is brownish yellow,
This soil has a high potential for pine trees. Plant the lower 11 inches is yellow. The upper part of the
competition is the main management concern. Slash and subsoil to about 53 inches is yellowish brown sandy clay
loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for loam and reticulately mottled red, white, yellow, and
commercial woodland production, brown sandy clay in the lower part to 80 inches or more.
This Arents soil is in capability subclass IVs. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Fuquay, Wagram, Troup, Blanton, and Norfolk soils. Also
5-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This included in mapping are small areas where the subsoil is
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained slightly above 40 inches. These inclusions make up less
soil is on small to large areas of the uplands. than 20 percent of this map unit.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine Available water capacity for this Bonifay soil is low in
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, the surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
extending to a depth of 52 inches, is brown, light subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
yellowish brown, and very pale brown fine sand. The subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or subsoil, and moderately slow in the lower part. A water
more-the upper 10 inches is brownish yellow that has table is perched above the subsoil for less than 60 days
reddish yellow mottles, and the lower 18 inches is light in most years. Natural fertility is low.
brownish gray that has red and strong brown mottles. The native trees on this soil include live oak, slash
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of pine, and hickory. The understory consists of dogwood,
Troup, Kershaw, Chipley, Albany, and Norfolk soils. brackenfern, switchgrass, and panicum.






18 Soil survey



This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. water control system that removes excess water after
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit heavy rainfall and serves to supply subsurface irrigation
the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of during dry seasons is needed.
suitable crops. Row crops should be planted on the This soil is well suited for pasture and hay crops;
contour. The crop rotations should include close- however, a good water control system is needed to
growing, soil-improving crops on the surface at least two- remove excess water. Regular applications of fertilizer
thirds of the time. These soil-improving crops and all and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps maintain
crop residue should be used to protect the soil from vigorous plant growth.
erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied as needed. This soil has a moderately high potential for pine
Irrigating such high value crops as watermelons and trees. Slash pines are the best suited trees to plant for
tobacco is usually feasible where water is readily commercial woodland production. Equipment use
available. limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
The soil is moderately suited to improved pasture, management concerns. Planting the trees on beds
Deep-rooting plants such as bermudagrass and lowers the effective depth of the water table.
bahiagrass are well adapted. They grow well and This Chaires soil is in the capability subclass IVw.
produce good ground cover when the soil is limed and
fertilized as needed. Controlled grazing helps maintain 8-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This
vigorous plants. Yields are occasionally reduced by somewhat poorly drained, nearly level soil is on
extended severe droughts. moderately low uplands. Slopes are smooth.
This soil has moderately high potential for pine trees. Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 15
Equipment use limitations, plant competition, and inches thick. The upper 5 inches is very dark gray and
seedling mortality are management concerns. Slash and the lower 10 inches is dark grayish brown. The
loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for underlying layer is fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
commercial woodland production. more-the upper 8 inches is brown that has gray
This Bonifay soil is in capability subclass Ills. mottles; the next 14 inches is brownish yellow that has
reddish yellow and gray mottles; and the lower 43 inches
7-Chaires fine sand. This nearly level, poorly is brownish yellow, light brownish gray, and white.
drained soil is on broad flatwoods. Slopes are 0 to 2 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
percent. Rutlege, Ortega, and Albany soils. Ortega soils are on
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand slightly higher positions and Rutlege soils in low
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand positions. These inclusions make up less than 20
to a depth of 28 inches-the upper 10 inches is dark percent of the map unit.
grayish brown, and the lower 11 inches is light gray. The This Chipley soil has a water table within a depth of 20
upper part of the subsoil, to about 54 inches, is very dark to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months in most years. The
brown, dark reddish brown, dark brown, and dark available water capacity is low in the surface layer and
yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil very low in the other layers. Permeability is rapid. Natural
is gray and light greenish gray sandy clay loam that fertility is low.
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Native trees and understory consist mostly of slash
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of and longleaf pine, scattered post, turkey oak, blackjack
Talquin, Leon, Pelham, Sapelo, Plummer, and Lutterloh oak, and pineland threeawn.
soils. These inclusions make up less than 20 percent of This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
the map unit. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
This Chaires soil has a water table at a depth of 10 the choice of crops and reduce potential yields of
inches for 1 to 3 months during high rainfall and within suitable crops. The presence of a water table within 20
20 to 40 inches for 6 months or more in most years, to 40 inches of the surface in wet seasons affects the
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface availability of water in the root zone by providing water
layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and through capillary rise to supplement the low available
moderately slow to slow in the lower part. Natural fertility water capacity. In very dry seasons the water table drops
is low. Available water capacity is very low in the surface well below the root zone and little capillary water is
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil, available to plants. The crop rotation should include
The native trees include scattered bluejack, blackjack, close-growing crops to cover the soil at least two-thirds
laurel oak, water oak, longleaf pine, and sweetgum; in of the time. Lime and fertilizer should be applied as
the understory are sawpalmetto, dwarf blueberry, needed. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue
greenbrier, fetterbush, gallberry, bromegrass, and should be used to protect the soil from erosion. Irrigating
pineland threeawn. high value crops is usually feasible where water is readily
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated available. Tile or other drainage methods are needed for
crops. Because of wetness and sandy texture, good some crops that could be damaged by a high water table
water control and soil-improving crops are necessary. A during the growing season.






Leon County, Florida 19



The soil is moderately well suited for pastures and concerns. Baldcypress is the best suited tree to plant for
hay. Suitable plants include coastal bermudagrass and commercial woodland production.
bahiagrasses. The soils often require fertilizer and lime. This Dorovan soil is in capability subclass IVw.
Controlled grazing maintains vigorous plants.
The potential for trees on this soil is high. Equipment 10-Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
use limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition This well drained gently sloping soil is on uplands.
are management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are Slopes are generally smooth.
the best suited trees to plant for commercial woodland Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about 13
production. inches thick. The upper 5 inches is brown and the lower
This Chipley soil is in capability subclass Ills. 8 inches is yellowish brown. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part of the
9-Dorovan mucky peat. This nearly level, very subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of
poorly drained soil is in depressional areas and on flood 19 inches; the next part is yellowish brown sandy clay
plains of tributaries of major streams. Slopes are less loam to about 38 inches; below this is reticulately
than 1 percent. mottled brown, yellow, red, and gray, sandy clay loam to
Typically, the surface layer is black mucky peat about a depth of 80 or more inches. More than 5 percent
5 inches thick. The muck subsurface layer extends to a plinthite is above a depth of 60 inches.
depth of 65 inches-the upper 11 inches is black; the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
lower 49 inches is very dark brown. The substratum is Fuquay, Norfolk, and Wagram soils. Also included are
very dark gray sandy loam to about 69 inches. Below small areas that have 5 percent or more plinthite above
this black sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
^ ;na depth of 24 inches. These inclusions make up less
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of a depth of 24 inches make up less
Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer, and Rutlege soils that are in than 20 percent of the map unit.
the same position as this Dorovan soil. These inclusions This Dothan soil has a perched water table briefly
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. during wet periods above the reticulately mottled part of
The water table of this Dorovan soil is above the the subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
surface 5 to 8 months in most years and within a depth surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
of 10 inches other times. Available water capacity is very subsoil Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface
high, and permeablility is moderate in the organic layers and subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
and rapid in the substratum. Organic matter content is subsoil, and moderately slow in the lower part. Natural
very high. fertility is moderate.
Native trees consist mostly of water-tolerant Native plants include longleaf pine, shortleaf pine,
hardwoods such as water oak, sweetbay, blackgum, loblolly pine, slash pine, live oak, wild cherry, hickory,
sweetgum, red maple, black willow, smooth alder, and and white oak. The understory includes sassafras, briers,
cypress. Around the perimeter of areas, the plants ferns, vines, and pineland threeawn.
include pond pine, shortleaf pine, and slash pine. Almost This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops.
all areas are still in native plants. They provide a wildlife The types of crops are somewhat limited by occasional
habitat. wetness. Crops such as corn and peanuts are suited
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated when the soil is properly managed. Because of the
crops. Because of wetness, this soil is not suitable for hazard of erosion, terraces that have stabilized outlets
cultivation, but with adequate water control, crops and and contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips of
most vegetable crops can be grown. A well designed cover crops are needed. The crop rotation should
and maintained water control system should remove include cover crops at least half the time. To reduce the
excess water when crops are grown and should keep erosion hazard, crop residues and the soil-improving
the soils saturated with water at all other times. Crops on cover crops should be left on the surface. Tile helps
this soil respond well to fertilizers. Water-tolerant cover maintain good drainage for such crops as tobacco, which
crops can be grown on the soils when row crops are not could be damaged by the slight wetness. A good
planted. To help improve the soil, all crop residues and seedbed, fertilizer, and lime are needed.
cover crops should be incorporated into the soil. The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Most improved grasses and clovers grow well on this Improved pasture plants such as clover, coastal
soil when water is controlled. Water control should bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well suited.
maintain the water table near the surface to prevent Fertilizing, liming, and controlled grazing help maintain
excessive oxidation of the organic horizons. Fertilizers vigorous plants and a good ground cover.
high in potash, phosphorus, and minor elements are This soil has high potential for pine trees. Plant
needed. Controlled grazing helps maintain the vigor of competition is a management concern. Slash and loblolly
plants, pine are the best suited trees to plant for commercial
The potential of this soil for woodland is low. Seedling woodland production.
mortality and equipment use limitations are management This Dothan soil is in capability subclass lie.





20 Soil survey



11-Dothan loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, subsoil is sandy clay to a depth of 80 inches or more-
This well drained, sloping soil is on hillsides leading to the upper 33 inches is yellowish red, the next 13 inches
drainageways. Slopes are generally smooth. is yellowish red mottled strong brown, and the lower 19
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown inches is mottled yellowish red, reddish yellow, light gray,
loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface white, and yellowish brown.
layer is yellowish brown fine sandy loam about 10 inches Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
thick. The upper part of the subsoil is brownish yellow Orangeburg, Dothan, Norfolk, Fuquay, Wagram, and
sandy clay loam to a depth of 64 inches, and the lower Lucy soils. Also included are small areas that have about
part is mottled brownish yellow, yellow, red, light gray, 5 to 15 percent smooth hard concretions on the surface.
and strong brown sandy clay loam that extends to a These inclusions make up less than 20 percent of the
depth of 80 inches or more. More than 5 percent map unit.
plinthite is within a depth of 60 inches. The water table of this Faceville soil is below a depth
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of of 72 inches. Available water capacity is low in the
Fuquay, Norfolk, and Wagram soils. Also included in surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
mapping are small areas of moderately to severely subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
eroded areas and areas where 5 percent or more subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
plinthite occurs at a depth of about 24 inches. fertility is moderate.
This Dothan soil has a perched water table briefly Native trees include longleaf pine, shortleaf pine,
during wet periods above the reticulately mottled subsoil. loblolly pine, slash pine, live oak, hickory, beech, wild
The available water capacity is low in the surface and cherry, and white oak. The understory includes briers,
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. ferns, sassafras, dogwood, and pineland threeawn.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface and This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops.
subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the Such crops as corn and soybeans grow well when
subsoil, and moderately slow in the lower part. Natural properly managed. Because of the hazard of erosion,
fertility is low. necessary controls include terraces that have stabilized
Native plants include longleaf pine, shortleaf pine, outlets and contour cultivation of row crops. The crop
loblolly pine and slash pine, live oak, hickory, and white rotation should include cover crops at least half the time.
oak. The understory includes sassafras, briers, ferns, To reduce the hazard of erosion, soil-improving cover
vines, and pineland threeawn. crops and crop residues should be used to protect the
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. soil from erosion. A good seedbed, fertilizer, and lime
Because of the hazard of erosion, this soil is only are necessary.
moderately suitable for crops such as corn, soybeans, The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
and peanuts. The types of crops are somewhat limited Pasture grasses such as tall fescue, coastal
by occasional wetness. bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well suited.
Necessary erosion control measures for this soil Clovers and other legumes are also suited. Fertilizing,
include terraces that have stabilized outlets, row crops liming, and controlled grazing help maintain vigorous
planted on contour cultivation, and crop rotations that plants for a good soil cover.
include close-growing crops on the soil at least two- This soil has moderately high potential for pine trees.
thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop Plant competition is a management concern. Slash and
residues should be used to protect the soil from erosion. loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for
Tile or open drainage intercepts seepage water from commercial woodland production.
higher areas. A good seedbed, fertilizer, and lime are This Faceville soil is in capability subclass lie.
needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Coastal 13-Faceville sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrasses produce well This well drained, sloping soil is on hillsides leading to
when properly managed. Controlled grazing maintains drainageways and in surrounding sinkholes and
vigorous plants for a good soil cover, depressional areas. Slopes are generally smooth.
This soil has high potential for pine trees. Plant Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
competition is a management concern. Slash and loblolly sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
pine are the best suited trees to plant for commercial strong brown sandy loam about 7 inches thick. The
woodland production, subsoil is sandy clay and clay to a depth of 60 inches or
This Dothan soil is in capability subclass Ille. more-the upper 12 inches is yellowish red, the next 29
inches is red, and the next 8 inches is red that has
12-Faceville sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, yellowish and brownish mottles. Below this is sandy clay
This well drained, gently sloping soil is on uplands. loam mottled yellow, white, strong brown, red, and dark
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown red that extends to 80 inches or more.
sandy loam about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
strong brown sandy loam about 7 inches thick. The Dothan, Orangeburg, Fuquay, Norfolk, and Lucy soils.






Leon County, Florida 21



Also included in mapping are small areas of soils that surface and subsurface layers and is medium in the
are moderately to severely eroded, some of which have subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
5 to 15 percent ironstone nodules on the surface. These subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
inclusions make up about 20 percent of the map unit. fertility is low.
The water table of this Faceville soil is below 72 Native trees include shortleaf and longleaf pine, red
inches. The available water capacity is low in the surface oak, live oak, white oak, and hickory. The understory
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. consists mainly of briers and bahiagrass.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is crops. It is poorly suited to row crops because slopes
moderately low. are too steep to be safely cultivated or effectively
Native trees include longleaf pine, shortleaf pine, terraced. The practical erosion control measure is an
loblolly pine, slash pine, live oak, hickory, and white oak. adequate plant cover. If row crops are grown, planting
The understory includes sassafras, briers, ferns, vines, should be in narrow strips on the contour. The crop
and pineland threeawn. rotation should keep the soil under close-growing plants
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops. at least three-fourths of the time. Crop residue should be
Such crops as corn and soybeans grow well when left on the surface. Both row crops and close-growing
properly managed. Because of the hazard of erosion, crops require lime and fertilizer.
necessary controls include terraces that have stabilized The soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture.
outlets and contour cultivation of row crops. The crop Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and improved
rotation should include cover crops at least two-thirds of bahiagrass are well suited. Fertilizing, liming, and
the time. Soil-improving cover crops and crop residues controlled grazing are needed for vigorous plants and to
should be used to reduce erosion. A good seedbed, assure a complete plant cover for erosion control.
fertilizer, and lime are necessary. This soil has moderately high potential for pine trees.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Plant competition, equipment limitations, and erosion
Pasture grasses such as tall fescue, coastal hazard are management concerns. Slash and loblolly
bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well suited. pine are the best suited trees to plant for commercial
Clovers and other legumes are also suited and grow well woodland production.
when properly managed. Fertilizing, liming, and This Faceville soil is in capability subclass IVe.
controlled grazing maintain vigorous plants and a good
soil cover. 15-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
This soil has moderately high potential for pine trees. moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
Plant competition is a management concern. Slash and soil is on rolling upland sand hills around the perimeter
loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for of coastal flatwoods.
commercial woodland production. Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 4 inches
This Faceville soil is in capability subclass Ille. thick. The underlying layers are sand to a depth of 80
inches or more. The first 5 inches is pale brown sand,
14-Faceville sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent slopes, the next 37 inches is very pale brown sand that has
This well drained, strongly sloping soil is on upland yellow mottles, the next 8 inches is white sand, and the
hillsides. lower 26 inches is brownish yellow and brown sand.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
sandy loam about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is Ortega soil on the same slope positions and Talquin,
strong brown sandy loam about 8 inches thick. The Chipley, and Albany soils in the lower positions. Also
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 43 inches, included are small areas of soils that have an organic
is yellowish red sandy clay; and the lower part, to about stained layer at depths of 75 to 80 inches. These
60 inches, is yellowish red sandy clay that has yellowish inclusions make up less than 20 percent of the map unit.
and brownish mottles. Beneath the subsoil is coarsely The water table of this Foxworth soil is between
mottled yellowish brown, red, brownish yellow, strong depths of 40 to 72 inches for 1 to 3 months during most
brown, and white sandy clay to 80 inches or more. This years. Available water capacity is low to very low.
lower mottled layer contains about 10 percent smooth Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility is low.
hard concretions. Native trees are dominantly blackjack oak and longleaf
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of pine that have an understory of pineland threeawn.
Orangeburg, Dothan, Fuquay, and Norfolk soils. Also This soil has severe limitations for crops. Droughtiness
included are small areas of moderately eroded and and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of
severely eroded soils, which have 15 to 25 percent plants and reduce potential yields of suited crops. Row
smooth hard concretions on the surface. These crops should be planted on the contour. The crop
inclusions make up about 20 percent of the map unit. rotation should include close-growing crops on the soil at
The water table of this Faceville soil is below a depth least two-thirds of the time. Crops respond well to
of 72 inches. The available water capacity is low in the fertilizer and lime. Soil-improving cover crops and crop






22 Soil survey



residue should be used to protect the soil from erosion. during wet periods above the reticulately mottled lower
Irrigating high value crops is usually feasible where water subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
is readily available. surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay. subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
Plants such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
well suited. They require fertilizer and lime. Controlled subsoil, and slow in the lower part. Natural fertility is
grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants. moderately low.
This soil has a moderately high potential for longleaf This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops.
and slash pine. Slash and loblolly pine are the best This soil can be cultivated safely with good farming
suited trees to plant for commercial woodland methods, but droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
production. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, nutrients from the thick sandy surface layer limit the
and plant competition are management concerns, choice of crops and potential yields. Corn, soybeans,
This Foxworth soil is in capability subclass Ills. peanuts, and tobacco can be grown. Row crops should
be planted on the contour. The crop rotation should
16-Fuquay fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This include cover crops at least half the time. Soil-improving
well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on cover crops and residues of crops should be used to
uplands. Slopes are generally smooth to concave. protect the soil from erosion. A good seedbed, fertilizer,
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand and lime are needed.
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 30 inches The soil is well suited to pasture. Coastal
thick-7 inches of yellowish brown and brownish yellow bermudagrass (fig. 5) and bahiagrasses are well suited
fine sand, 7 inches of yellowish brown fine sand, and 16 and respond well to fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing
inches of yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The upper helps maintain vigorous plants.
part of the subsoil, to about 57 inches, is yellowish The potential is moderately high for pine trees.
brown sandy clay loam. The lower part that extends to Equipment use limitations, seeding mortality, and plant
80 inches or more is reticulately mottled red, yellowish competition are management concerns. Slash and
brown, and light gray sandy clay loam and sandy clay. loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for
The subsoil contains about 8 percent plinthite. commercial woodland production.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This Fuquay soil is in capability subclass Ils.
Bonifay and Wagram soils. Also included in mapping are
areas of 5 to 8 percent slopes. These inclusions make 17-Fuquay fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
up less than 20 percent of the map unit. well drained, sloping soil is on uplands. Slopes are
This Fuquay soil has a perched water table briefly generally smooth.























Figure 5.-Fuquay fine sand. 0 to 5 percent slopes, produces good yields of coastal bermudagrass hay when properly managed.






Leon County, Florida



Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine Native plants include turkey oak, longleaf pine,
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 21 blackjack oak, and bluejack oak. The understory includes
inches thick-9 inches of brownish yellow fine sand and pineland threeawn and scattered wild lupine.
12 inches of yellowish brown fine sand. The upper part This soil is not suitable for cultivated field crops.
of the subsoil, to a depth of about 32 inches, is yellowish The soil has only fair suitability for pasture. Grasses
brown sandy loam; to about 40 inches is yellowish brown such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass make
sandy clay loam; the lower part is mottled reddish yellow, only fair growth if fertilized. Clovers are not suited to this
light gray, brownish yellow, and red sandy clay loam that soil.
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The subsoil Potential is low for pine trees. Seedling mortality is the
contains about 6 percent plinthite. major management concern. Sand pines are the best
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
Dothan, Wagram, and Lucy soils. These inclusions make production.
up less than 20 percent of the map unit. This Kershaw soil is in capability subclass VIIs.
This Fuquay soil has a perched water table briefly
during wet periods above the reticulately mottled lower 19-Kershaw sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the sloping, excessively drained soil is on small to large
surface and subsurface layers and medium in the hillsides on uplands.
subsoil. Permeability is'rapid in the surface and Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the about 5 inches thick. The underlying layers are yellow
subsoil, and slow in the lower part. Natural fertility is low. sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients Lakeland, Alpin, and Troup soils on the same general
severely limit the suitability of this soil for most row slopes as this Kershaw soil and Ortega and Blanton soils
crops. The steepness of slopes increases the hazard of on side and foot slopes. These inclusions make up less
erosion and makes cultivation more difficult. Cultivated than 20 percent of the map unit.
row crops should be planted on the contour. The crop This Kershaw soil does not have a water table within a
rotation should keep the soil under close-growing crops depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is very
at least two-thirds of the time. Crops respond well to low throughout. The natural fertility is low. Permeability is
fertilizer and lime. Soil-improving cover crops andr ra and rnff i
residues of all other crops should be used to protect the very rapid, and runoff is slow.
soil from erosion. Native trees include turkey oak, blackjack oak, and
The soil is moderately well suited to pastures. Deep- longleaf pine. The understory includes pineland
The soil is moderately well suited to pastures. Deep-wild lupine, and sparkleberry.
rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and threeawn, wild lupine, and sparkleberry.
bahiagrass are well suited. Steepness of slope increases This soil is not suited for cultivated field crops.
the erosion hazard and reduces the potential yields. The soil has only fair suitability for pasture. Grasses
Good stands of grass can be produced by fertilizing and such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass make
liming. Controlled grazing permits the plants to maintain only fair growth if fertilized. Clovers are not suited to this
their vigor and provide soil cover. soil.
The potential is moderately high for pine trees on this This soil has low potential productivity for pine trees.
soil. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and Seedling mortality is the major management concern.
plant competition are the main management concerns. Sand pine are the best suited trees to plant for
Slash and loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant commercial woodland production.
for commercial woodland production. This Kershaw soil is in the capability subclass VIIs.
This Fuquay soil is in capability subclass Ille. 2n l c 0 t 5
20-Kershaw-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
18-Kershaw sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This slopes. This map unit consists of Kershaw sand and
nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil is Urban land in areas that are so intermingled that
on small to large uplands. separating them was not practical at the scale used for
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand mapping.
about 7 inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a About 40 to 70 percent of the map unit consists of the
depth of more than 80 inches-the upper 4 inches is nearly level to gently sloping Kershaw soil or soil that
very pale brown and the rest is yellow, has been reworked or reshaped but is still recognizable
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of as Kershaw soil. Typically, Kershaw soil has a grayish
Ortega, Lakeland, Troup, and Alpin soils. These brown sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. Very pale
inclusions make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. brown, yellow, and pale yellow sand extends to a depth
This Kershaw soil does not have a water table within of 80 inches or more. The water table is below a depth
80 inches of the surface. The available water capacity is of 80 inches throughout the year.
very low throughout. The natural fertility is low. About 15 to 50 percent of the unit is Urban land.
Permeability is very rapid, and runoff is slow. Urban land consists of areas that are covered by







24 Soil survey


houses, streets, driveways, buildings, and parking lots. This Lakeland soil is in capability subclass IVs.
Uncovered areas consist of the Kershaw soil mainly in
lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds. Included in mapping, 22-Leefield loamy sand. This somewhat poorly
and making up about 15 percent of the unit, are areas of drained, nearly level soil is along drainageways and on
Lakeland, Ortega, and Troup soils. Urban land makes up low foot slopes of hillsides. Slopes are smooth to
as much as 80 percent or as little as 10 percent of a few concave, ranging from 0 to 2 percent.
mapped areas. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
Areas where the soil has been modified by grading loamy sand about 10 inches thick. The subsurface layer
and shaping are not so extensive in the older is loamy sand about 26 inches thick-the top 9 inches is
communities as in the newer ones. Excavating below the grayish brown and the lower 17 inches is yellow that has
original surface layer and spreading this material over brownish and gray mottles. The subsoil extending to a
the adjacent soil or using it to shape building sites is depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish brown sandy
common. clay loam mottled gray and red.
The present land use precludes the use of the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Kershaw soil for cultivated crops, pasture, or forest. Albany soils. These inclusions make up less than 15
This map unit was not assigned to a capability percent of the map unit.
subclass. This Leefield soil has a water table at depths of 18 to
30 inches for about 4 months in most years and within
21-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This depths of 10 inches briefly during extended heavy rainfall
excessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is periods. This soil has low available water capacity in the
in small to large areas on uplands. Slopes are smooth. surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand 5 subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
inches thick. The underlying layers are light yellowish subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
brown and reddish yellow sand that extends to 80 inches subsoil, and moderately stow in the lower part. Natural
or more. subsoil, and moderately slow in the lower part. Natural
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of fertility is low.
Kershaw and Troup soils that are on the same position Native trees include laurel oak, sassafras, live oak, pin
Kershaw and Troup soils that are on the same position oak and slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. In
as this Lakeland soil. Also included are small areas oak and slash por onelooly pne, and longleaf pine. In
where the slope exceeds 5 percent. These inclusions the nderstory are honeysuckle, waxmyrtle, greenber,
make up less than 25 percent of the map unit. and sawpalmetto.
This Lakeland soil does not have a water table within This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops.
80 inches of the surface throughout the year. The These crops are limited by the water table at or near the
available water capacity is low. Permeability is very rapid, surface much of the time. Crops such as corn and
and there is little or no runoff. Natural fertility is very low. soybeans are suitable only if soils are properly drained.
Native plants consist of bluejack oak, post oak, turkey Tile drains or open ditches help protect crops from
oak, longleaf pine, creeping bluestem, lopsided wetness. Row crops should be rotated with cover crops
indiangrass, splitbeard bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, that remain on the land at least half the time. Soil-
and pineland threeawn. improving cover crops and crop residues should be used
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated to protect the soil from erosion. A good seedbed,
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients fertilizer, and lime are necessary.
reduce potential yields of suitable crops. Row crops The soil is well suited for pasture and hay crops. Such
should be planted on the contour. The crop rotation grasses as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses
should keep the soil under close-growing plants at least grow well with good management. White clover and
three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops and all other legumes are moderately suitable. Fertilizer, lime,
crop residue should be used to protect the soil from and controlled grazing help to maintain plant vigor.
erosion. A few crops produce good yields without This soil has moderately high potential for pine trees.
irrigation. Irrigating these crops is usually feasible where The management concerns are equipment use
water is readily available. limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
This soil is moderately suited for pasture and hay Loblolly and slash pine are the best suited trees to plant
crops. Deep-rooting plants such as coastal for commercial woodland production.
bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well suited, but yields This Leefield soil is in capability subclass IIw.
are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular fertilizing and
liming are needed. Controlled grazing permits plants to 23-Leon sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil
maintain vigor. is in the flatwoods. Slopes are less than 2 percent and
This soil has moderately high potential for pine trees, smooth to concave.
Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and plant Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 6
competition are management concerns. Slash and inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand about 19
loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for inches thick. The upper 7 inches is light brownish gray
commercial woodland production. sand, and the lower 12 inches is light gray sand. The






Leon County, Florida 25



upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 29 inches, is in the surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
black loamy sand and very slightly cemented; to about subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
41 inches, it is dark reddish brown sand. Below the subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
subsoil is dark yellowish brown sand that extends 80 fertility is low.
inches or more. The native trees include slash and longleaf pine, live
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of oak, post oak, red oak, and dogwood trees. The
Talquin, Rutlege, and Sapelo soils. These inclusions understory consists of native shrubs and grasses,
make up less than 20 percent of the map unit. including huckleberry, southern dewberry, smilax, Virginia
This Leon soil has a water table at depths of 10 to 40 creeper, American beautyberry, muscadine grape,
inches for more than 9 months during most years, and at yaupon, and sparse pineland threeawn.
depths less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months in most This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops.
years during periods of high rainfall. Available water Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients from
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers the thick sandy surface layer limit the choice of crops
and low in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the and the potential yields of suitable crops. Such crops as
surface and subsurface layers, moderate to moderately corn, soybeans, peanuts, and tobacco can be grown.
rapid in the subsoil, and very rapid in the substratum. Row crops should be planted on the contour. The crop
Natural fertility is low. rotation should include cover crops at least half the time.
Native trees include longleaf pine, slash pine, water Cover crops and crop residues should be used to protect
oak, and myrtle; a thick understory includes the soil from erosion. A good seedbed, fertilizer, and lime
sawpalmetto, running oak, fetterbush, gallberry, and are necessary. Irrigating high value crops such as
pineland threeawn. tobacco is usually feasible where irrigation water is
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated readily available.
crops. Because of wetness and sandy texture, a water The soil is well suited to pastures. Deep-rooting plants
control system that removes excess water after heavy such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are
rainfall and supplies subsurface irrigation during dry well suited and respond well to fertilizer and lime.
seasons is needed for high yields for a few suited crops. Controlled grazing is important to maintain vigorous
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops; plants and a good cover.
however, a good water control system is needed to The potential is moderately high for pine trees on this
remove excess water. Pasture and forage plants respond soil. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and
well to fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing helps plant competition are management concerns. Loblolly
maintain vigorous plant growth, and slash pine are the best suited trees to plant for
This soil has moderate potential for pine trees. Slash commercial woodland production.
pines are the best suited trees to plant for commercial This Lucy soil is in capability subclass Ils.
woodland production. Equipment use limitations, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are the main limitations. 25-Lucy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of sloping, well drained soil is on upland hillsides.
the water table. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand
This Leon soil is in the capability subclass IVw. about 5 inches thick. The next 8 inches is brown fine
sand; extending to a depth of 30 inches is reddish yellow
24-Lucy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This well and strong brown fine sand. The subsoil extends to a
drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on upland depth of 80 inches or more-the upper 6 inches is
ridges. Slopes are smooth and uniform to irregular in yellowish red fine sandy loam, the next 39 inches is red
shape. sandy clay loam, and the lower 5 inches is yellowish red
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine fine sandy loam.
sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand Included with these soils are small areas of
and extends to a depth of 26 inches-the upper 4 inches Orangeburg and Troup soils. These inclusions make up
is dark yellowish brown, the next 7 inches is dark brown, less than 20 percent of the map unit.
and the lower 10 inches is strong brown. The subsoil is This Lucy soil has a water table below depths of 80
yellowish red sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or inches throughout the year. The available water capacity
more. is low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
Orangeburg and Troup soils on the same slope positions subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
as this Lucy soil. Small areas of Wagram and Blanton fertility is low.
soils are on some top slopes. Also included in mapping Native trees include slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
are small areas where the surface layer is sand or loamy post oak, red oak, and dogwood trees. The understory
sand. These inclusions make up 15 percent or less of consists of native shrubs and grasses, including
the map unit. huckleberry, southern dewberry, smilax, Virginia creeper,
This Lucy soil does not have a water table within a American beautyberry, muscadine grape, yaupon, and
depth of 80 inches. The available water capacity is low pineland threeawn.






26 Soil survey



This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops, moderately well suited. Good management includes
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients from close-growing, soil-improving crops in rotation with row
the thick sandy surface layer severely limit the suitability crops. The close-growing crops should be on the soil at
of this soil for most row crops. least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops
The steepness of slopes further limits the suitability by and the residue of crops should be used to protect the
making cultivation more difficult and by increasing the soil from erosion. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
hazard of erosion. Row crops should be planted on the These soils are moderately suited to pasture and hay
contour. The crop rotation should keep the soil under crops. Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers
close-growing crops at least two-thirds of the time. All are well suited. Plants respond well to fertilizers and
crops respond to fertilizer and lime. Soil-improving cover lime. Simple drainage removes excess water in wet
crops and crop residue should be used to protect the seasons. Grazing control helps maintain vigorous plants.
soil from erosion. Potential for pine trees is moderately high. Equipment
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. Deep- use limitations during periods of high rainfall, plant
rooting plants such as coastal bermudagrass and competition, and seedling mortality caused by excessive
bahiagrasses are well suited to this soil. Steepness of or insufficient moisture are management concerns. Slash
slope increases the erosion hazard and reduces the or loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for
potential yields. Grasses respond to fertilizer and lime. commercial woodland production.
Controlled grazing permits the plants to maintain their This Lutterloh soil is in capability subclass Illw.
vigor and to provide good protective cover.
The potential is moderately high for pine trees. 27-Lynchburg fine sandy loam. This somewhat
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant poorly drained, nearly level soil is in shallow depressional
competition are management concerns. Slash and areas and on broad interstream divides. Slopes range
loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for from 0 to 2 percent.
commercial woodland production. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
This Lucy soil is in capability subclass Ills. fine sandy loam about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is grayish brown fine sandy loam about 10 inches
26-Lutterloh fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This thick. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of about
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping 65 inches. The upper 12 inches is brown that has gray
soil is on broad, low upland flatwood areas. Slopes are and yellowish brown mottles and the lower 35 inches is
smooth and slightly irregular. grayish brown that has gray mottles. The substratum is
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand gray sandy clay loam that has brownish yellow mottles.
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
about 52 inches thick-the upper 33 inches is mixed Rains and Ocilla soils. Also included are areas where the
light gray and white, and the lower 19 inches is white. surface is loamy fine sand. These inclusions make up
The subsoil extends below 80 inches. The upper 12 about 15 percent of the map unit.
inches of the subsoil is gray very fine sandy loam and This Lynchburg soil has a water table that is 6 to 20
the lower 9 inches is light gray sandy clay. inches below the surface for 1 to 3 months during spring
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of and winter months in most years. The available water
Chaires, Albany, and Plummer soils. Also included in capacity is medium. Permeability is rapid in the surface
mapping are small areas of similar soil that is underlain and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
by limestone. These inclusions make up less than 20 Natural fertility is low.
percent of the map unit. Native trees include sweetgum, blackgum, dogwood,
This Lutterloh soil has a water table that is within 20 to longleaf pine, slash pine, loblolly pine; the understory is
30 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months of most inkberry and pineland threeawn. Many areas are cleared
years. Available water capacity is very low in the surface and used for improved pasture grasses.
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface The presence of a water table near the surface limits the
layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and kinds of crops that can be grown. If the soil is
moderately slow to slow in the lower part. Natural fertility adequately drained, such crops as corn, soybeans, and
is low. peanuts can be grown. The crop rotation should include
Native plants include waxmyrtle, gallberry, longleaf a close-growing crop at least some of the time. Soil-
pine, bluejack oak, dogwood, greenbrier, pineland improving cover crops and crop residues should be used
threeawn, blueberry, and brackenfern. Many areas have to protect the soil from erosion. A good seedbed that
been planted to slash pines. has the rows bedded, fertilizer, and lime are necessary.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Such
The number of suited crops is limited unless water grasses as coastal bermudagrass and improved
control measures are used. With adequate water control, bahiagrass are well suited. White clover and other
such crops as corn, soybeans, and peanuts are legumes are moderately well suited. Fertilizer and lime






Leon County, Florida 27



are necessary as well as carefully controlled grazing to Yonges, Blanton, and Albany soils in about equal
maintain vigorous plants and a good cover, proportion.
This soil has a high potential for pine trees. Equipment These Meggett soils are mostly in native trees,
use limitations and plant competition are management including live oak, laurel oak, spruce pine, loblolly pine,
concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the best suited sweetgum, sweetbay, and swamp birch.
trees to plant for commercial woodland production. This unit has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
This Lynchburg soil is in capability subclass llw. The types of crops are limited by wetness that is
moderately difficult to control. With adequate water
28-Meggett soils, frequently flooded. These nearly control, the soil is well suited to several crops. The water
level, dominantly poorly drained soils are on the flood control system should remove excess surface and
plain of the Ochlockonee River. The unit consists of internal water rapidly. Seedbeds should be prepared by
Meggett soils and similar soils that do not occur in a bedding the rows. The crop rotation should include
regular and repeating pattern. One or all of these soils close-growing, soil-improving crops at least two-thirds of
make up about 75 percent of each map unit. Individual the time. Crop residues and soil-improving crops should
areas of each soil are large enough to map separately, be used to protect the soil from erosion. Fertilizer and
but because of lack of accessibility and present and lime are needed.
predicted use, they were not separated in mapping. These soils are well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Areas of this unit are mostly long and narrow and range A drainage system will remove excess surface water
up to 1,000 acres. Individual areas of each soil range during heavy rains. Coastal bermudagrass and improved
from 50 to 500 acres.
from 50 to 500 acres. cbahiagrasses are well suited. White clover is also well
Typically, Meggett soils have a 6-inch thick subsurface These grasses and legumes on this soil require
suited. These grasses and legumes on this soil require
layer of dark gray very fine sandy loam and a 6-inch fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing prevents
thick surface layer of gray loam. The subsoil extends to
a depth of about 50 inches. It is gray clay that has red overgr and reduce the vor of plants.
The unit has very high potential for pine trees but the
and yellow mottles. The underlying layers are gray and potential is attainable only on areas with adequate
lg potential is attainable only on areas with adequate
These Meggett soils have a water table 10 inches below surface drainage. Equipment use limitations and seedling
the surface for about 6 months in most years. These mortality are management concerns. Slash and loblolly
soils are frequently flooded for about 2 to 15 days. pine are the best suited trees to plant for commercial
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface and woodland production but only on areas with adequate
subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil. Available surface drainage.
water capacity is medium in the surface and subsurface Meggett soils are in capability subclass Vw.
layers and high in the subsoil.
Some of the soils similar to Meggett soils are very 29-Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
poorly drained. Typically, these soils have a black and slopes. This well drained, gently sloping soil is on
very dark gray loam surface layer about 16 inches thick. uplands. Slopes are smooth and convex.
The subsoil extending to 60 inches or more is gray clay. Typically, the surface layer is 4 inches of grayish
These soils have a water table 10 inches below the brown loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is also 4
surface for about 6 to 9 months in most years and are inches thick and is yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The
frequently flooded. Available water capacity is medium in subsoil is brownish yellow and yellowish brown fine
the surface layer and high in the subsoil. Permeability is sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a depth of about 58
moderate in the surface layer and slow in the subsoil. inches where it changes to strong brown and reddish
Some of the soils similar to Meggett soils are yellow sandy clay. The underlying substratum extends to
somewhat poorly drained. Typically, these soils have a 6- 80 inches or more and is mottled brownish yellow, strong
inch thick surface layer of very dark gray fine sand. The brown, and gray sandy clay.
subsurface layer is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of
about 10 inches thick. The subsoil, to about 40 inches, is Orangeburg and Wagram soils. These inclusions make
yellowish brown sandy clay loam and sandy clay that is up about 15 percent of the map unit.
mottled gray. Beneath the subsoil, to about 70 inches, is The water table of this Norfolk soil is perched above
mottled sandy loam and loamy sand; white sand extends the lower subsoil for brief periods during the winter. The
to a depth of 80 inches or more. available water capacity is low in the surface and
These soils, occasionally flooded, have a water table subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
between 20 to 40 inches below the surface for about 6 Permeability is moderate to rapid in the surface and
months in most years. The permeability is moderately subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
rapid in the surface layer, slow in the subsoil, and rapid fertility is moderate.
in the substratum. Available water capacity is medium in The native trees consist of longleaf pine, slash pine,
the surface layer and high in the subsoil. and loblolly pine and mixed hardwoods-white oak, red
Minor soils make up about 25 percent of the unit. The oak, live oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood,
most extensive are Pamlico, Dorovan, Plummer, Rutlege, and persimmon. The understory consists of native






28 Soil survey



grasses and shrubs including huckleberry, briers, and 30-Norfolk loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
pineland threeawn. Many areas have been cleared and slopes. This well drained, sloping soil is on uplands.
are used for crops and pasture. Slopes are smooth to choppy and irregular in shape.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about 5
Such crops as corn and soybeans are well suited when inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay
properly managed. To help reduce the erosion hazard, a loam to a depth of 80 or more inches. The lower part is
system of well designed terraces that have stabilized mottled red, brown, and gray.
outlets is needed as well as contour cultivation of row Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
crops. The crop rotation should include cover crops at Wagram, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils that are on the
least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops same slope positions as this Norfolk soil. Also included
and crop residues should be used to protect the soil are small areas of Orangeburg soils on slopes greater
from erosion. A good seedbed, fertilizer, and lime are than 8 percent and small areas of soils where the
necessary. surface layer is sand or fine sandy loam. These
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. inclusions make up 20 percent of the map unit.
Pasture grasses such as tall fescue, coastal This Norfolk has a perched water table above the
bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well suited. lower subsoil for brief periods during the winter. The
Clovers and other legumes are also suited. These available water capacity is low in the surface layer and
grasses and legumes require fertilizer, lime, and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is moderate to rapid
controlled grazing to maintain vigorous plants and a in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
good soil cover. fertility is moderate.
This soil has high potential for pine trees (fig. 6). Plant The native trees are longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and
competition is a management concern. Slash and loblolly slash pine and mixed hardwoods- white oak, red oak,
pine are the best suited trees to plant for commercial live oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and
woodland production, persimmon. The understory consists of native grasses
This Norfolk soil is in capability subclass lie. and shrubs including huckleberry, briers, and pineland




























Figure 6.-This stand of pine trees is making excellent growth on Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is one
of the better soils for pine trees.







Leon County, Florida 29



threeawn. Many areas have been cleared and used for well designed terraces that have stabilized outlets and
crops and pasture. by contour cultivation of row crops. The crop rotation
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops, should include cover crops at least two-thirds of the
Such crops as corn and soybeans are well suited when time. Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue
properly managed. The hazard of erosion is reduced by should be used to protect the soil from erosion. A good
well designed terraces that have stabilized outlets and seedbed, fertilizer, and lime are necessary.
by contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips with The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
cover crops. The crop rotation should include cover Pasture grasses such as tall fescue, coastal
crops at least half the time. Soil-improving cover crops bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well suited.
and crop residue should be used to protect the soil from Clovers and other legumes are also suited. These
erosion. A good seedbed, fertilizer, and lime are grasses and legumes require fertilizing, liming, and
necessary. controlled grazing to maintain vigorous plants and a
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. good soil cover.
Pasture grasses such as tall fescue, coastal The potential is high for pine trees on this soil. Plant
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass are well suited. competition is the main management concern. Slash and
Clovers and other legumes are also suited. These loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for
grasses and legumes require fertilizer, lime, and commercial woodland production.
controlled grazing-to maintain vigorous plants and a The Norfolk soil is in capability subclass Ille.
good soil cover.
This soil has high potential for pine trees. Plant 32-Ocilla fine sand. This somewhat poorly drained,
competition is a management concern. Slash and loblolly nearly level soil is on moderately low uplands. Slopes
pine are the best suited trees to plant for commercial range from 0 to 2 percent and are slightly convex.
woodland production. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
This Norfolk soil is in capability subclass Ille. about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 29 inches-the upper 3 inches is pale
31-Norfolk loamy sand, clayey substratum, 5 to 8 olive fine sand, the next 16 inches is light yellowish
percent slopes. This well drained sloping soil is on brown loamy fine sand, and the lower 7 inches is
upland hillsides. Slopes are generally smooth, brownish yellow loamy fine sand. The subsoil extending
Typically, the surface layer is darkbrown loam sand 7 to 80 inches or more is yellowish brown sandy clay loam
inches thick. The subsoil, extending to a depth of 64 that has gray mottles in the upper part and is dominantly
s igray sandy clay loam in the lower part.
inches, is fine sandy loam in the upper 7 inches and gray sandy clay loam in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
sandy clay loam in the rest. The color is yellowish brown Lynchburg, Albany, Plummer, Pelham, Blanton, and
or brownish yellow. The lower 5 inches is mottled
brownish yellow, strong brown, and light gra. The Chipley soils. These inclusions make up less than 20
brownish yellow, strong brown, and light gray. clay that is mottled brownish percent of the map unit.
substratum is light gray clay that is mottled brownish This Ocilla soil has a water table within depths of 15
yellow to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months. The available water
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
Norfolk and Orangeburg soils, generally occurring on the medium in the su bsoil. Permeability is rapid to

similar soils that have a reddish subsoil and a few areas and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
of this Norfolk soil that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. A Native trees include laurel oak, live oak, pin oak, and
few areas are included where the clay material occurs at slash and loblolly pine. The understory includes
depths shallower than 50 inches. These inclusions make greenbrier, honeysuckle, muscadine grapes, waxmyrtle,
up less than 20 percent of the map unit. sawpalmetto, inkberry, wild mulberry, and pineland
This soil has a perched water table above the threeawn.
substratum during wet periods. The available water This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
capacity is low in the surface layer and moderate in the Because of periodic wetness and the thick sandy surface
subsoil and substratum. Permeability is rapid in the layer, water control is necessary. With adequate water
surface layer, moderate in the subsoil, and very slow in control, crops such as corn, soybeans, and peanuts are
the substratum. Natural fertility is low. moderately well suited. Good management includes
Native trees include shortleaf pine, loblolly pine, close-growing, soil-improving crops in rotation with row
longleaf pine and slash pine, live oak, wild cherry, crops. The close-growing crops should be on the land at
hickory, dogwood, holly, persimmon, and white oak. The least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops
understory includes greenbrier, several bluestems, and and the residue of all other crops should be used to
pineland threeawn. protect the soil from erosion. Fertilizer and lime are
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. needed.
Such crops as corn and soybeans are well suited when The soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay crops
properly managed. The hazard of erosion is reduced by but requires good management for good yields. Coastal






30 Soil survey



bermudagrass, bahiagrasses and clovers are well suited. 34-Orangeburg fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
These plants respond well to fertilizer and lime. Drainage slopes. This well drained, sloping soil is on small areas
is needed to remove excess internal water in wet on uplands. Slopes are irregularly shaped.
seasons. Grazing control helps maintain vigorous plants. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
The potential is moderately high for pine trees. fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
Equipment use limitations in periods of high rainfall, layer is yellowish brown fine sandy loam about 12 inches
seedling mortality, and plant competition are thick. The subsoil is yellowish red sandy clay loam that
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the extends to 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
best suited trees to plant for commercial woodland Troup, Lucy, and Blanton soils. These total inclusions
production make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
This Ocilla soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The water table of this Orangeburg soil is below 72
inches throughout the year. The available water capacity
33-Orangeburg fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent is low in the surface layer and medium in the subsoil.
slopes. This is a well drained, gently sloping soil that Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and
occurs on uplands. moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate.
Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are fine Native trees include longleaf pine, slash pine, and
sandy loam about 10 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is loblolly pine and mixed hardwoods-white oak, red oak,
brown and the lower 5 inches is yellowish red. The live oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and
subsoil that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more is persimmon. The understory is native grasses and shrubs
yellowish red and red sandy clay loam. including huckleberry, briers, and pineland threeawn.
Included with this soil are small areas of Blanton, Many areas have been cleared and are used for crops
Lucy, and Troup soils. These inclusions make up about and pasture.
20 percent of the map unit. This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
The water table of this Orangeburg soil is below 72 Such crops as corn and soybeans grow well when
inches throughout the year. The available water capacity properly managed. The hazard of erosion is reduced by
Swell designed terraces that have stabilized outlets and
is low in the surface layer and medium in the subsoil.planted on the contour. The crop rotation
by row crops planted on the contour. The crop rotation
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and should include cover crops at least two-thirds of the
moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate, time. Soil-improving cover crops and crop residue should
Native trees include longleaf pine, slash pine, and be used to protect soil from erosion. A good seedbed,
loblolly pine, and mixed hardwoods-white oak, red oak, fertilizer, and lime are needed.
live oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
persimmon. The understory is native grasses and shrubs Pasture grasses such as tall fescue, coastal
including huckleberry, briers and pineland threeawn. bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass are well suited.
Many areas have been cleared and are used for crops Clover and other legumes are suited. The grasses and
and pasture. legumes require fertilizer, lime, and controlled grazing to
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops, maintain vigorous plants and a good soil cover.
The hazard of erosion can be reduced by well designed This soil has high potential for pine trees. Plant
terraces that have stabilized outlets and by row crops competition is a management concern. Slash and loblolly
planted on the contour. Such crops as corn and pine are the best suited trees to plant for commercial
soybeans are well suited when properly managed. The woodland production.
crop rotation should include cover crops at least half the This Orangeburg soil is in capability subclass Ille.
time. Soil-improving cover crops and crop residue should 3 ,
be used to protect the soil from erosion. A good s35--rangeburg fine sandy loam, 8 to 12 percent
seedbed, fertilizer, and lime are necessary. sopes.his well drained, strongly sloping soil is on
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. upland hillsides.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
Pasture grasses such as tall fescue, coastal fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrasses are well layer is yellowish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of
suited. Clover and other legumes are suited. These about 19 inches. The subsoil is yellowish red sandy clay
grasses and legumes require fertilizing, liming, and loam to about 64 inches. The substratum is mottled
controlled grazing to maintain vigorous plants and a reddish yellow and red sandy clay loam that extends to
good soil cover. 80 inches or more.
This soil has high potential for pine trees. Plant Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
competition is a management concern. Slash and loblolly Troup, Lucy, and Blanton soils. These inclusions make
pine are the best suited trees to plant for commercial up about 20 percent of the map unit.
woodland production. The water table of this Orangeburg soil is below 72
This Orangeburg soil is in capability subclass lie. inches throughout the year. The available water capacity






Leon County, Florida 31



is low in the surface layer and medium in the subsoil. communities as in the newer ones. Excavating below the
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and original surface layer and spreading this material over
moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderately the adjacent soil or using it to shape building sites is
low. common.
Native trees include longleaf pine, slash pine, and The extensive urban use precludes use of the
loblolly pine, and mixed hardwoods-white oak, red oak, Orangeburg soil for cultivated crops, pasture, or forest.
live oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, and This map unit is not placed in a capability subclass.
persimmon. The understory is of native grasses and
shrubs including huckleberry, briers, and pineland 37-Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly
threeawn. Some areas have been cleared and used for level to gently sloping, moderately well drained soil is on
crops and pasture. small and medium areas on upland ridges.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated Typically, the surface layer is sand about 10 inches
crops. This soil is poorly suited for row crops because thick. The upper 4 inches is gray, and the lower 6 inches
slopes are too steep to be safely cultivated. The slopes is light brownish gray. The underlying layers are sand to
are too steep to be effectively terraced, and erosion a depth of about 44 inches and fine sand to 80 inches or
control is limited mainly to use of a plant cover. If row more. From 10 to 18 inches is very pale brown, the next
crops are grown, they should be planted in narrow strips 16 inches is yellow, the next 28 inches is yellow that has
on the contour with alternating wider strips of close- brownish mottles, and the lower 8 inches is white that
growing crops. The crop rotation should include close- has yellowish mottles.
growing crops at least three-fourths of the time. All crop Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
residue should be left on the surface. For row crops and Blanton and Kershaw soils. These inclusions make up
close-growing crops, lime and fertilizer are needed. about 25 percent of the map unit.
The soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture. This Ortega soil has a water table that fluctuates
Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and improved between depths of about 60 to 72 inches in many years
bahiagrasses are well suited. Fertilizer, lime, and during rainy seasons and within depths of 40 to 60
controlled grazing are needed to assure a plant cover to inches occasionally during heavy rainfall periods.
prevent severe erosion. Available water capacity is low in the surface layer and
This soil has high potential for pine trees. Plant very low in the underlying layers. Permeability is rapid.
competition is the main management concern. Slash and Natural fertility is low.
loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for
commercial woodland production. Native trees are dominantly longleaf pines that have a
This Orangeburg soil is in capability subclass IVe. ground cover of pineland threeawn.
This soil has severe limitations for most cultivated
36-Orangeburg-Urban land complex, 2 to 12 crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
percent slopes. This map unit consists of Orangeburg limit the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of
fine sandy loam and Urban land. The Orangeburg soil suitable crops. To reduce the erosion hazard, row crops
and Urban land are so intermingled that separating them should be planted on the contour. The crop rotation
was not practical at the scale used for mapping. should include close-growing crops on the soil at least
About 40 to 65 percent of the map unit consists of two-thirds of the time. Crops respond well to fertilizer
gently sloping to steep Orangeburg soil or soil that has and lime. Soil-improving cover crops and crop residue
been reworked or reshaped but is still recognizable as should be used to protect the soil from erosion. Irrigation
Orangeburg soil. Typically, Orangeburg soil has a 6-inch of high-value crops is usually feasible where water is
thick very dark grayish brown fine sandy loam surface readily available.
layer and a 12-inch thick yellowish brown fine sandy These soils are moderately well suited to pasture and
loam subsurface layer. The subsoil is yellowish red hay. Plants such as coastal bermudagrass and
sandy clay loam that extends to depths greater than 80 bahiagrass are well suited. Fertilizer and lime are
inches. The water table is below a depth of 72 inches needed. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
throughout the year. vigorous plants.
About 15 to 50 percent of this unit is Urban land. This soil has a moderately high potential for pine
Urban land consists of areas that are covered by trees. Slash and longleaf pine are the best suited trees
houses, streets, driveways, buildings, and parking lots. to plant for commercial woodland production.
Uncovered areas consist of Orangeburg soil mainly in This Ortega soil is in capability subclass Ills.
lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds. Included in
mapping, and making up about 15 percent of the unit, 38-Pamlico-Dorovan complex. This map unit
are Lucy, Troup, Norfolk, and Norfolk Variant soils. In a consists of nearly level, very poorly drained Dorovan and
few areas, Urban land makes up as much as 80 Pamlico soils that are so intermixed that separating them
percent or as little as 10 percent of a mapped area. was not practical at the scale selected for mapping.
Areas where the soil has been modified by grading These soils are irregularly shaped areas of 20 to 200
and shaping are not so extensive in the older acres in the flatwoods, along some flood plains, and






32 Soil survey



along the edges of gently sloping to sloping soils on elements are needed. Controlled grazing helps maintain
uplands. Individual areas of each soil in this unit range vigorous plants.
from about 1/8 to 3 acres in size. The potential of these soils is low for use as
Pamlico mucky peat makes up about 40 to 50 percent woodland. Seedling mortality and equipment limitations
of each mapped area. Typically, the soil has a black are management concerns. The best suited trees to
mucky peat surface layer about 4 inches thick. The next plant for commercial woodland production are
layer to about 28 inches is very dark brown muck. The baldcypress on the Dorovan soils and slash and loblolly
substratum is very dark gray and dark gray sand that pine on the Pamlico soils.
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The Pamlico and Dorovan soil are in capability
The Pamlico soil has a water table above the surface subclass IVw.
for 5 to 8 months in most years and 10 inches below the
surface most of the remaining time. Organic matter 39-Pelham fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
content is very high. Permeability is moderate in the level soil is on broad flatwoods, in depressional areas,
organic layers and rapid in the sandy substratum, and in some drainageways on uplands. Slopes range
Available water capacity is very high in the organic layers from 0 to 2 percent.
and very low in the substratum. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
The Dorovan mucky peat makes up about 30 to 40 about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray,
percent of each mapped area. Typically, the surface light brownish gray, and light gray fine sand about 21
layer is black mucky peat about 5 inches thick. The next inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay loam that extends
layer to about 16 inches is black muck and then is very to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 6 inches of
dark brown muck to a depth of 65 inches. The upper the subsoil is gray that has brown mottles, and the lower
part of the substratum is very dark gray sandy loam part is light gray that has yellow, brown, and red mottles.
about 4 inches thick; then black sand extends to a depth Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
of 80 inches or more. Plummer soils. These inclusions make up less than 15
The Dorovan soil has a water table above the surface percent of the map unit.
5 to 8 months in most years and 10 inches below the The water table of this Pelham soil is within 15 inches
surface most of the remaining time. Permeability is of the soil surface for 3 to 6 months in most years.
moderate in the organic layers and rapid in the Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
substratum. Available water capacity is very high. and moderate in the subsoil. The available water
Organic matter content is very high. capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
Minor soils make up about 5 to 20 percent of the unit. medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
Most of these soils have similar drainage but.some are Native trees include slash pine and loblolly pine,
sandy and have a thin organic surface layer less than 16 sweetgum, blackgum, and water oak. The understory
inches thick. includes greenbrier, waxmyrtle, and inkberry.
Native trees include mostly water-tolerant hardwoods This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
such as water oak, sweetbay, blackgum, sweetgum, red crops. Because of wetness and thick sandy surface
maple, black willow, common alder, and cypress. At the layers, a good water control system is needed before
perimeter of areas, the trees are pond pine, shortleaf this soil is suitable for cultivation. The system should
pine, and slash pine. Almost all areas are still in native remove excess surface water and excess internal water
trees. They provide a wildlife habitat. from the surface layers in wet seasons. The crop
The Pamlico and Dorovan soils have very severe rotation should include a close-growing, soil-improving
limitations for cultivated crops. Generally, these soils are crop on the soil at least three-fourths of the time.
not suitable for cultivation, but with adequate water Seedbed preparation should include bedding the rows.
control, they are suitable for some row crops and most Crops respond to fertilizer and lime. Crop residue and
vegetable crops. A well designed and maintained water soil-improving crops should be used to protect the soil
control system is needed. The water control system from erosion.
should remove excess water when row crops are on the This soil is poorly to moderately suited to pasture and
soils and keep the soils saturated with water at all other hay crops. Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and
times. Fertilizers that contain phosphates, potash, and bahiagrass are well suited to this soil. These grasses
minor elements are needed. Water-tolerant cover crops respond to fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be
should be on the soils when row crops are not being controlled to prevent overgrazing and reducing the vigor
grown. Crop residue and cover crops should be used to of the plants. Management should include water control
protect the soil from erosion, to remove excess surface water.
Most adapted improved grasses and clovers grow well This soil has high potential for pine trees, but surface
on these soils when water is properly controlled. Water drainage is needed for high productivity. Equipment use
control should maintain the water table near the surface limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
to prevent excessive oxidation of the organic horizons, management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the
Fertilizers high in potash, phosphorus, and minor best suited trees to plant for commercial woodland






Leon County, Florida 33



production, but tree planting is feasible only with This Plummer soil is in capability subclass IVw.
adequate surface drainage.
This Pelham soil is in capability subclass IVw. 42-Plummer mucky fine sand, depressional. This
nearly level poorly drained soil is in swamps of uplands.
40-Pits. This miscellaneous area consists of open Slopes are generally concave and less than 1 percent.
excavations from which soil material has been removed. Typically, the upper 4 inches is partly decomposed leaf
The material is used for construction work, roadbeds, and twig litter. The surface layer is very dark gray, mucky
and fill. The pits range from 2 to 15 acres and from 5 to fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
30 feet in depth. They occur throughout the county. fine sand about 51 inches thick-the upper 20 inches is
Pits are not assigned to a capability subclass, gray and the lower 31 inches is light gray. The subsoil is
gray and light gray sandy clay loam that extends to a
41-Plummer fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly depth of 80 inches or more.
level soil is in low areas and in poorly defined Included with this soil are small areas of Dorovan,
drainageways. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Pamlico, and Pelham soils, areas of soils without a fine
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 17 textured subsoil within a depth of 80 inches, and areas
inches thick. The upper 6 inches is very dark grayish of soils where the subsoil is within 20 inches of the
brown, and the lower 11 inches is dark grayish brown. surface. These inclusions make up about 20 percent of
The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 61 the map unit.
inches-the upper 11 inches is gray, the next 8 inches is This Plummer soil is ponded for about 10 months in
gray that has strong brown mottles, and the lower 25 most years and has a water table 10 inches below the
inches is light gray. The subsoil extending to 80 inches surface the remaining 2 months. Available water capacity
or more is light gray fine sandy loam that has yellowish is low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium
red mottles. in the subsoil. The surface and subsurface layers are
Included with this soil are small areas of Pelham soils. rapidly permeable and the subsoil is moderately
These inclusions make up less than 10 percent of the permeable. Natural fertility is low.
map unit. The native trees include cypress, sweetgum,
A water table of this Plummer soil is within 15 inches blackgum, black willow, bayberry, and tupelo. The
of the soil surface for 3 to 6 months in most years. The understory consists of native shrubs including
available water capacity is low to very low in the surface huckleberry, buttonbush, elderberry, Carolina ash, and
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. dahoon holly.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface and This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops or
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural improved pasture grasses.
fertility is low. This soil has low potential for pine trees, but drainage
The native trees include loblolly pine and slash pine, is needed. Equipment use limitations and seedling
sweetgum, blackgum, and cypress. The understory mortality are the management concerns. Slash or loblolly
includes inkberry, waxmyrtle, ferns, and pineland pine are the best suited trees to plant for commercial
threeawn. woodland production, but only after drainage is
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated established.
crops. Because of wetness and thick sandy surface This Plummer soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
layers, a good water control system is needed before
these soils are suitable for cultivated crops. The system 43-Rutlege loamy fine sand. This very poorly
should remove excess surface and subsurface water drained, nearly level soil is in shallow upland
during heavy rainfall. Seedbed preparation should depressional areas and in narrow natural drainageways.
include bedding of rows. Row crops should be rotated Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
with close-growing crops at least three-fourths of the Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray and black
time. Crop residue and cover crops should be used to loamy fine sand and loamy sand about 23 inches thick.
protect the soil from erosion. Crops respond to fertilizer The underlying layers are sand and fine sand to depths
and lime. of 80 inches or more-the upper 9 inches is grayish
The soil is only fairly suited to pasture. Most improved brown, the next 25 inches is grayish brown, and the
grasses and legumes are poorly suited. Water control, remaining is light gray.
controlled grazing, fertilizing, and liming help produce Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
poor to moderate yields of pasture grasses. poorly drained Plummer and Pelham soils. These
With adequate surface drainage, this soil has high inclusions make up less than 20 percent of the map unit.
potential for pine trees. Equipment use limitations, This soil has a water table at or near the surface for
seedling mortality, and plant competition are long periods of each year. Most areas are flooded
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the frequently for brief periods. It has a high available water
best suited trees to plant for commercial woodland capacity in the surface layer and is low in the next layer.
production, but tree planting is feasible only on areas Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is
with surface drainage, moderate.






34 Soil survey



The native trees include sweetbay, loblolly pine, flooded frequently for brief periods. Available water
bayberry, blackgum, pond pine, slash pine, and titi; the capacity is high in the surface layer and low below.
understory includes blueberry, fetterbush, and large Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is
gallberry. Some areas do not have trees but have pitcher moderate.
plants, sedges, beak rushes, and pineland threeawn. Minor soils make up about 15 percent of the unit. The
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops, most extensive of these are Leon, Talquin, Sapelo,
Without good water control, the number of crops is Plummer, Dorovan, and Pamlico soils. The mineral soils
limited. With adequate water control, such crops as corn are usually around the perimeter of the association, and
and soybeans can be grown. The water control system the organic soils are in the center.
should remove excess water rapidly after heavy rainfall. Most areas of this unit are still in native trees of
Seedbed preparation should include bedding the rows. blackgum, slash pine, pond pine, cypress, and sweetbay
Management includes fertilizing, liming, and rotating and has an understory of titi, greenbrier, huckleberry,
crops to include close-growing, soil-improving crops on myrtle, inkberry, fetterbush, and water-tolerant grasses
the soil at least two-thirds of the time. Crop residue from and sedges.
row crops and soil-improving crops should be used to This unit has severe limitations for cultivated crops
protect the soil from erosion. because of wetness. Without good water control
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. measures, the number of suited crops is limited. With
Surface ditches remove excess surface water during adequate water control, such crops as corn and
heavy rainfall. Tall fescue, bahiagrasses, and white soybeans can be grown. The water control system
clovers are well suited. They respond to fertilizer and should remove excess water rapidly after heavy rainfall.
lime. Grazing control helps maintain vigorous plants. Seedbed preparation should include bedding the rows.
With adequate surface drainage this soil has high Management includes fertilizing, liming, and rotating
potential for pine trees. Equipment use limitations, crops to include close-growing, soil-improving crops on
seedling mortality, and competing plants are the soil at least two-thirds of the time. Crop residue from
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the row crops and soil-improving crops should be used to
best suited trees to plant for commercial woodland protect the soil from erosion.
production, but tree planting is feasible only on areas This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Surface field ditches are needed to remove excess
with adequate surface drainage, surface water during heavy rainfall. Tall fescue,
This Rutlege soil is in capability subclass Illw. bahiagrass, and white clovers are well suited. They

44-Rutlege soils, occasionally flooded. These respond to fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing helps
44-Rukege sboils, ocrcasiontoeall f ndl maintain the vigor of the plants.
nearly level, very poorly drained soils are in swamps, maintain the vigor of the plants.
depressional areas, and along natural drainageways in
the Apalachicola National Forest. The unit consists of potential for pine trees. Equipment use limitations,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are
Rutlege soils and similar soils that do not occur in a aian aa
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the
regular and repeating pattern. One or more of these soils bt lato o ble
make up about 75 percent of each map unit. Individual suited treeto plant for oercial oola
areas of each soil range up to 60 acres and are large production, but tree planting is feasible only on areas
areas of each soil range up to 60 acres and are large with surface drainage.
enough to map separately, but because of present and This Rutlege soil is in capability subclass IVw.
predicted use, they were not separated in mapping.
Areas of this association range from about 100 acres to 45-Sapelo fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
several hundred acres. level soil is on the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to
Rutlege soils make up about 60 percent of the unit. concave, ranging from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, Rutlege soils have a loamy fine sand surface Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
layer about 15 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is black, about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
and the lower 7 inches is very dark gray. The layer fine sand to about 14 inches. The upper part of the
beneath the surface is fine sand to a depth of 80 inches subsoil, to about 26 inches, is fine sand. The first 2
or more. The upper 23 inches is light gray, and the lower inches is dark reddish brown, the next 6 inches is dark
42 inches is very light gray. Yellowish mottles are in brown, and the lower 3 inches is brown. The dark color
these layers. is organic matter that coats the sand grains. The next
The soils in this unit that are similar to Rutlege soils layer is very pale brown and light gray fine sand to a
have a thicker surface layer. Typically, these soils have a depth of 43 inches. The lower part of the subsoil is gray
black and very dark gray loamy fine sand surface layer fine sandy loam that extends to 80 inches or more.
about 30 inches thick. The underlying layer is gray and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
light gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches Rutlege and Plummer soils. Also included are small
or more. areas that are not loamy in the lower part of the subsoil.
All these soils have a water table at or near the These inclusions make up less than 20 percent of the
surface for long periods of each year. Most areas are map unit.







Leon County, Florida 35



This Sapelo soil has a water table at 15 to 30 inches This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
below the surface for about 2 to 4 months in most years. Because of wetness, good water control is necessary to
Permeability is moderate in both the upper and lower grow such crops as corn and soybeans. The water
parts of the subsoil and rapid in the other layers. control system should remove excess water rapidly after
Available water capacity is medium in the upper and a heavy rainfall. Seedbed preparation should include
lower parts of the subsoil and low in the other layers. bedding the rows. Management includes fertilizing,
Natural fertility is low. liming, and rotating crops to include close-growing, soil-
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated improving crops on the soil at least two-thirds of the
crops because of wetness and sandy texture. With good time. Crop residue from row crops and soil-improving
water control measures and soil-improving measures, crops should be used to protect the soil from erosion.
this soil is suitable for crops such as corn, peanuts, The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
soybeans, and watermelons. A complete water control Surface ditches are needed to remove excess surface
system should remove excess water quickly after heavy water during heavy rains. Tall fescue, bahiagrasses, and
rainfall and serve to supply subsurface irrigation in dry white clover are well suited. Grasses and legumes
seasons. Row crops should be rotated with soil- respond to fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be
improving crops. The soil-iriproving crops should be on controlled to maintain vitality of the plants.
the land at least three-fourths of the time. Crop residue With adequate surface drainage this soil has high
and the soil-improving crops should be used to protect potential for pine trees. Equipment use limitations,
the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation should seedling mortality, and plant competition are
include bedding of the rows. Crops respond to fertilizer management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the
and lime, which should be added according to soil tests. best suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. production but tree planting is feasible only on areas with
Coastal bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and several adequate surface drainage.
legumes are adapted. Water control measures are This Surrency soil is in capability subclass Illw.
needed to remove excess water during heavy rainfall.
Fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be 47-Talquin fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
controlled to maintain vigorous plants. level soil is on broad flatwoods. Slopes are 0 to 2
The potential is moderately high for pine trees on this percent and smooth to concave.
soil. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand 7
plant competition are management concerns. Slash and inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
loblolly pine are the best suited trees to plant for about 15 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand about 12
commercial woodland production. inches thick-the upper 2 inches is very dark gray and
This Sapelo soil is in capability subclass IVw. the lower 10 inches is brown. Below the subsoil is light
yellowish brown fine sand that extends to 80 inches or
46-Surrency loamy sand. This very poorly drained, more.
nearly level soil is in drainageways and depressional Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
areas. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Chaires, Leon, Plummer, Rutlege, and Sapelo soils. Total
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy inclusions make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
sand about 16 inches thick. The subsurface layer is This Talquin soil has a water table 10 inches below
grayish brown, loamy sand to about 36 inches. The the surface for 1 to 3 months in most years and is at
upper part of the subsoil to 54 inches is light gray sandy depths of 20 to 40 inches 9 or more months in most
loam and the lower part to 65 inches is light brownish years. Available water capacity is very low in the surface,
gray sandy clay loam. subsurface, and substratum layers and low in the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface, subsurface,
Rutlege, Dorovan, and Pamlico that occur on the same and substratum layers and moderate to moderately rapid
slope position as this Surrency soil. Also included are in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
areas with highly mottled subsoil. These inclusions make Native plants include longleaf and slash pine,
up less than 15 percent of the map unit. scattered water oaks and waxmyrtle, and a thick
The water table of this Surrency soil is at the surface undergrowth of sawpalmetto, running oak, fetterbush,
for long periods of the year and flooding of this soil is gallberry, and pineland threeawn.
common. Available water capacity is high, and This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers crops. Because of wetness and sandy texture, a water
and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and organic control system that removes excess water after heavy
matter content are low. rainfall and supplies subsurface irrigation during dry
Native trees include blackgum, cypress, sweetbay, seasons is needed for high yields. With good water
slash pine, and pond pine in the overstory; swamp control this soil is fairly well suited to most local crops.
cyrilla, littleleaf cyrilla, azalea, gallberry, smilax, and These crops respond well to lime and fertilizer. Returning
brambles are in the understory; and water-tolerant crop residue and cover crops to the soil helps to protect
grasses are on the forest floor, the soils from erosion.






36 Soil survey



This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops; This Troup soil is in capability subclass Ills.
however, a good water control system is needed to
remove excess water. Fertilizer and lime are needed. 49-Urban land. This map unit consists of areas that
Controlled grazing helps maintain vigorous plant growth, are more than 85 percent covered by buildings, streets,
This soil has moderately high potential for pine trees. houses, schools, and shopping centers, primarily in the
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant downtown area of the city. The open areas are usually in
competition are management concerns. Planting the lawns and playgrounds and are so small they could not
trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water be separated on the soil map. Soils in these open areas
table. Slash and longleaf pine are the best suited trees have been so reworked that they can no longer be
to plant for commercial woodland production. recognized.
This Talquin soil is in the capability subclass IVw. This map unit is not assigned to a capability subclass.

48-Troup fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This 50-Wagram loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
nearly level to gently sloping well drained soil is on slopes. This well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
medium to large uplands, soil is on broad upland ridges. Slopes are smooth to
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine choppy.
sand about 8 inches thick. The upper 11 inches of the Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine
subsurface layer is yellowish brown fine sand as well as sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layers are
the next 7 inches that has light gray uncoated sand grain loamy fine sand to a depth of 31 inches-the upper 16
pockets. The lower 18 inches of the subsurface layer is inches is yellowish brown; the lower 12 inches is
reddish yellow fine sand. The subsoil is fine sandy loam brownish yellow. The subsoil extends to a depth of 62
and sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of 80 inches-the upper 12 inches is brownish yellow fine
inches or more. The upper 10 inches of the subsoil is sandy loam; the lower 19 inches is brownish yellow
strong brown, the next 19 inches is yellowish red, and sandy clay loam. Beneath the subsoil is mottled red,
the lower 7 inches is red. brownish yellow, and light gray sandy clay that extends
Included with this soil are small areas of Blanton, to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Lucy, and Norfolk soils. These inclusions make up about Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
20 percent of the map unit. Blanton and Norfolk soils that occur on the same slope
The water table of this Troup soil is below a depth of positions. Also included are small areas of this soil on 5
80 inches throughout the year. The available water to 8 percent slopes. These inclusions make up about 15
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and percent of the map unit.
medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the This Wagram soil does not have a water table within
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the 80 inches of the surface. The available water capacity is
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium in
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops, the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit subsurface layers, moderate in the subsoil, and
the choice of plants and reduce potential yields of suited moderately slow below the subsoil. Natural fertility is
crops. Soil management should include row crops moderately low.
planted on the contour. Crop rotations should include Native trees include mixed hardwoods and
close-growing soil-improving crops on the soil at least predominantly shortleaf pines. Understory plants include
two-thirds of the time. The soil-improving crops and the southern honeysuckle, greenbrier, dogwood, and
residue of all other crops should be used to protect the blackberries.
soil from erosion. All crops respond to lime and fertilizer. This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops.
Irrigation of high value crops such as watermelons and Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients of the
tobacco is usually feasible where water is readily thick sandy surface layers limit the type of crops and the
available, potential yields. With good management such crops as
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture, corn, soybeans, peanuts, and tobacco can be grown.
Deep-rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and Row crops should be planted on the contour. The crop
improved bahiagrasses are well suited. These grasses rotation should include cover crops at least half the time.
produce good ground cover when lime and fertilizer are Cover crops and crop residue should be used to protect
applied. Grazing should be controlled to prevent the soil from erosion. A good seedbed, fertilizer, and lime
overgrazing and to maintain vigorous plants. Yields are are needed. Irrigation of some high value crops such as
occasionally reduced by severe drought. tobacco is usually feasible where water is readily
The potential is moderately high for pine trees on this available.
soil. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are The soil is well suited to improved pasture. Deep-
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and
best suited trees to plant for commercial woodland bahiagrasses are well suited. These grasses produce
production, well when fertilizer and lime are applied. Controlled






Leon County, Florida 37



grazing helps to maintain vigorous plants and good soil. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality are
cover, management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the
The potential is moderately high for pine trees. best suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are production.
management concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the This Wagram soil is in capability subclass Ills.
best suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
production. 52-Yonges fine sandy loam. This poorly drained,
This Wagram soil is in capability subclass Ils. nearly level soil is in low areas and in poorly defined
drainageways on uplands. Slopes are less than 2
51-Wagram loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent percent.
slopes. This well drained, sloping soil is on upland Typically, the surface layer is fine sandy loam about 5
hillsides. Slopes are smooth to very rough. inches thick and is very dark gray. The subsurface layer
Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about 6 is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsoil
inches thick and is dark gray. The subsurface layer is is sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
yellowish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of 33 inches. upper 15 inches of the subsoil is gray, the next 29
The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam to about inches is greenish gray, the next 18 inches is olive gray,
70 inches. Beneath the subsoil is mottled yellowish and the bottom 9 inches is light gray.
brown, light gray, and yellowish red sandy clay. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Ocilla and Lynchburg soils. These inclusions make up
Blanton and Norfolk soils on the same slope position. about 25 percent of the map unit.
Also included are small wet seepy areas usually at the This Yonges soil has a water table that is 10 inches
bottom of slopes. These inclusions make up about 15 below the surface for about 6 months in most years. It is
percent or less of the map unit. frequently flooded for long periods in the winter.
This Wagram soil does not have a water table within Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in the
80 inches of the surface. The available water capacity is surface layer and moderately slow in the subsoil.
low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium in Available water capacity is medium. Natural fertility is
the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. low.
Native trees include upland hardwoods and shortleaf This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
pines. Dominant understory plants include dogwood, The number of suitable crops is limited by wetness that
honeysuckle, greenbrier, and Virginia creeper, is moderately difficult to control. With adequate water
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. control, this soil is well suited for several important
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients from crops. The water control system should remove excess
the thick sandy surface layers severely limits the surface and internal water rapidly. Seedbeds should be
suitability of this soil for most row crops. The steepness prepared by bedding the rows. Crop rotations are
of slopes further limits the suitability because cultivation needed that include close-growing, soil-improving crops
would be difficult and would increase the hazard at least two-thirds of the time. Crop residues and soil-
of erosion. However, cultivated row crops could be improving crops should be used to protect the soil from
planted in strips on the contour alternating with wider erosion. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
strips of close-growing, soil-improving crops. A crop This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. A
rotation should keep the land under close-growing crops drainage system is necessary to remove excess surface
at least two-thirds of the time. Crops on this soil respond water during heavy rains. Coastal bermudagrass and
to fertilizer and lime. Soil-improving cover crops and improved bahiagrasses are well suited. White clover is
other crop residue should be used to protect the soil also well suited. These grass and legume crops need
from erosion, fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing helps prevent
The soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture, overgrazing and reducing the vigor of plants.
Deep-rooting plants such as coastal bermudagrass and The soil has a very high potential for pine trees on
bahiagrasses are well suited. Steepness of slope areas with adequate surface drainage. Equipment use
increases the erosion hazard and reduces the potential limitations and seedling mortality are management
yields. Good stands of grass can be produced by concerns. Slash and loblolly pine are the best suited
fertilizing and liming. Controlled grazing helps the plants trees to plant for commercial woodland production only
to maintain vigor and to provide a good protective cover, on areas with surface drainage.
The potential is moderately high for pine trees on this This Yonges soil is in capability subclass IIIw.









39









use and management of the soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and pasture plants are listed for
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed soil map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, More than 50,000 acres in the survey area was used
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses for crops and pastures in 1976, according to the Soil
and management. Field experience and collected data Conservation Service "Now-on-the-Land" report, and
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Leon County Extension Service estimates. Of this total
in predicting soil behavior, about 36,000 acres was used for permanent pasture,
Information in this section can be used to plan the use and about 14,000 acres of field crops was corn and
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as soybeans (fig. 7). In addition, about 1,125 acres of
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, specialty crops such as watermelons, vegetables,
highways oodland other transportation systems, and parks landscape nursery plants, and turf grass was grown.
highways and other transportation systems, and parks The potential of the soils in Leon County for increased
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It food production is good. About 205,000 acres of
food production is good. About 205,000 acres of
can be used to identify the suitability, potentials, and potentially good cropland is used as woodland, 36,000
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help ace a pasture, and s17,00 as of dle cropland,
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil Intensive conservation measures to control erosion
properties.Intensive conservation measures to control erosion
properties. would be needed on many gently sloping and sloping
Planners and others using soil survey information can soils. In addition to the reserve productive capacity
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity represented by this land, food production could also be
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. increased by applying new crop production technology to
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a all cropland in the county. This soil survey can greatly
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. facilitate the application of such technology.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of Acreage in crops and pasture has gradually been
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to decreasing as more and more land is used for urban
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil development. In 1967 there were about 21,000 acres of
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, urban or built-up areas in the county (4); this figure has
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and been growing at the rate of about 1,500 acres per year.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can The use of this soil survey to help make land use
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate decisions that will influence the future of farming in the
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, county is discussed in the section, "General soil map
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. units".
Soil erosion is a major problem on about two-thirds of
crops and pasture the cropland and pastureland in Leon County. If the
slope is more than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard.
John Griffin, state conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation Orangeburg soils, for example, have slopes of 2 to 12
Service, helped prepare this section. percent.
General management needed for crops and pasture is Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of incorporated into the plow layer. Second, soil erosion on
land capability classification used by the Soil farmland may result in sediment entering streams.
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated Control of erosion minimizes such pollution to streams






39









use and management of the soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and pasture plants are listed for
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed soil map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, More than 50,000 acres in the survey area was used
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses for crops and pastures in 1976, according to the Soil
and management. Field experience and collected data Conservation Service "Now-on-the-Land" report, and
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Leon County Extension Service estimates. Of this total
in predicting soil behavior, about 36,000 acres was used for permanent pasture,
Information in this section can be used to plan the use and about 14,000 acres of field crops was corn and
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as soybeans (fig. 7). In addition, about 1,125 acres of
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, specialty crops such as watermelons, vegetables,
highways oodland other transportation systems, and parks landscape nursery plants, and turf grass was grown.
highways and other transportation systems, and parks The potential of the soils in Leon County for increased
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It food production is good. About 205,000 acres of
food production is good. About 205,000 acres of
can be used to identify the suitability, potentials, and potentially good cropland is used as woodland, 36,000
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help ace a pasture, and s17,00 as of dle cropland,
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil Intensive conservation measures to control erosion
properties.Intensive conservation measures to control erosion
properties. would be needed on many gently sloping and sloping
Planners and others using soil survey information can soils. In addition to the reserve productive capacity
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity represented by this land, food production could also be
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. increased by applying new crop production technology to
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a all cropland in the county. This soil survey can greatly
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. facilitate the application of such technology.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of Acreage in crops and pasture has gradually been
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to decreasing as more and more land is used for urban
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil development. In 1967 there were about 21,000 acres of
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, urban or built-up areas in the county (4); this figure has
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and been growing at the rate of about 1,500 acres per year.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can The use of this soil survey to help make land use
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate decisions that will influence the future of farming in the
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, county is discussed in the section, "General soil map
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. units".
Soil erosion is a major problem on about two-thirds of
crops and pasture the cropland and pastureland in Leon County. If the
slope is more than 2 percent, erosion is a hazard.
John Griffin, state conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation Orangeburg soils, for example, have slopes of 2 to 12
Service, helped prepare this section. percent.
General management needed for crops and pasture is Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of incorporated into the plow layer. Second, soil erosion on
land capability classification used by the Soil farmland may result in sediment entering streams.
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated Control of erosion minimizes such pollution to streams






40 Soil survey


























Figure 7.-Soybeans are well suited to Wagram loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


as sediment and helps maintain the quality of water for Blanton, Bonifay, Lakeland, Fuquay, Lucy, Troup, and
municipal use, for recreation, and for fish and wildlife Wagram soils. Soil blowing can damage these soils and
habitat. the tender crops growing on them in a few hours if winds
Erosion control provides surface protection, reduces are strong and the soils are dry and bare of plants or
runoff, and increases infiltration. A cropping system that surface mulch. Maintaining plant cover and surface
keeps a plant cover on the surface for extended periods mulch minimizes soil blowing. Windbreaks of trees and
can hold soil erosion losses to amounts that will maintain shrubs, such as slash pine, southern redcedar, Japanese
the productivity of the soils. On livestock farms, which privet, and Carolina laurelcherry are effective in reducing
require pasture and hay, the grass and legume forage wind erosion and crop damage. Strip crops of small grain
crops in the cropping system reduce erosion on sloping are also effective in reducing wind erosion and crop
land and also provide nitrogen and improve tilth for the damage.
following crop. Information for the design of erosion controls for each
Slopes are so short and irregular that contour farming kind of soil is available in the local office of the Soil
or terracing is not practical in many areas of the sloping Conservation Service.
Dothan, Norfolk, and Orangeburg soils. On these Soil drainage is a major management need on about
irregular slopes, cropping systems that provide one-fifth of the acreage used for crops and pasture in
substantial plant cover are necessary to control erosion. one-fifth of the acreage used for crops and pasture in
Leaving crop residues on the surface help to increase the county. Some soils are naturally so wet that the
infiltration and reduce the hazards of runoff and erosion. production of crops and pasture common to the area is
No tillage for corn and soybeans is effective in reducing generally not possible without adequate drainage or
erosion on sloping land and can be adapted to most water control. These are the very poorly drained Rutlege
soils in the county. soils and the poorly drained Chaires, Leon, Pelham,
Sapelo, and Yonges soils, which make up about 36,000
Terraces and diversions reduce the length of slope acres in Leon County.
and reduce runoff and erosion. They are most practical artificially drained the somewhat oorl
on deep, well drained loamy surface soils that have Unless artificially drained, the somewhat poorly
regular slopes. The Dothan, Norfolk and Orangeburg drained soils are so wet that crops are damaged during
soils with regular uniform slopes are suitable for terraces. most years. In this category are Albany, Lutterloh,
Chipley, Leefield, Lynchburg, and Ocilla soils, which
Soil blowing is a slight hazard on the sandy Alpin, make up about 44,000 acres.






Leon County, Florida 41



Blanton soils have good natural drainage most of the grown. Corn and, to an increasing extent, soybeans, and,
year, but they tend to dry out slowly after rains. Small to a lesser extent, peanuts and tobacco, are the crops
areas of wetter soils along drainageways and in swales grown. Grain sorghum, potatoes, sunflowers, and similar
are commonly included in areas of moderately well crops can be grown if economic conditions are
drained soils, especially those that have slopes of 2 to 5 favorable. Soybeans and peanuts could be increased
percent. Artificial drainage is needed in some of these under favorable economic conditions. Grass seed can be
wetter areas, produced from bahiagrass and bermudagrass.
The design of both surface and subsurface drainage Wheat, oats, and rye are common close-growing
systems varies with type of soil. A combination of crops. Soil-improving cover crops that will improve or
surface drainage and tile drainage is needed in most maintain good physical condition of the soil include
areas of the poorly drained and very poorly drained soils cowpeas, clover, hairy indigo, and Florida beggarweed.
used for row cropping. Drains should be more closely Special crops grown commercially in the county are
spaced in soils with slow permeability than the more watermelons, sweet potatoes, okra, string beans,
permeable soils. Finding adequate outlets for tile squash, field peas, lima beans, nursery plants, and turf
drainage systems is difficult in many areas of poorly grasses. In addition, large areas can be adapted to other
drained soils. special crops such as muscadine grapes, blackberries,
Organic soils oxidize and subside when the pore blueberries, peaches, and many vegetables.
space is filled with air, therefore special drainage Deep soils that have good natural drainage are
systems are needed to control the depth and period of especially well suited to vegetables and small fruits. In
drainage. Keeping the water table at the level required the county these are the Dothan, Faceville, Norfolk, and
by crops during the growing season and raising it to the Orangeburg soils on slopes of less than 8 percent, and
surface during other parts of the year minimize the they total about 109,000 acres, Also, if irrigated, about
oxidation and subsidence of organic soils. Information on 45,000 acres of Blanton, Bonifay, Lucy, Troup, and
drainage design for each type of soil is available at the Wagram soils that have slopes less than 8 percent are
local office of the Soil Conservation Service. well suited to small fruits and vegetables
Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the county. Most of the well drained soils in the county are
The organic Dorovan and Pamlico soils have a dark-
The organic Dorovan and Pamlico soils have a dark- suitable for orchards and nursery plants. Soils in low
colored surface layer, but the other soils have a light-
colored surface layer. The Orangeburg and Faceville positions where frost is possible and air drainage is poor
colored surface layer. The Orangeburg and Faceville
soils have a loamy surface layer and the other mineral generally are poorly suited to early vegetables, small
soils have a sandy surface layer fruits, nursery plants, and orchards.
Most of the soils are naturally strongly to very strongly Latest information and suggestions for growing special
acid, and if they have never been limed, they require crops can be obtained from the local office of the
applications of ground limestone to raise the pH level for Cooperative Extension Service or the Soil Conservation
good growth of crops. Nitrogen and available Service.
phosphorus and potash levels are naturally low in most Pastures in the survey area are used to produce
of these soils. On all soils additions of lime and fertilizer forage for beef and dairy cattle. Cow-calf operations are
should be based on the results of soil tests, on the the main beef cattle programs. Bahiagrass and improved
needs of the crops, and the expected level of yields. The bermudagrass are the main pasture plants grown in the
Cooperative Extension Service can help in determining county. Many farmers seed small grains on cropland in
the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime to apply. the fall for winter and spring forage. Excess grass in the
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of summer months is harvested as hay for feeding during
seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils with the winter. The well drained soils that have a loamy
good tilth are granular and porous. surface, such as Dothan, Faceville, and Orangeburg are
Most of the soils in the survey area have a sandy or well suited to growing legumes with bahiagrass and
sandy loam surface layer that is light in color and low in improved bermudagrass. Legumes such as white,
content of organic matter. Generally, the structure of crimson, and arrowleaf clovers are well suited to these
such soils is weak, and intense rainfall causes the soils when adequate lime and fertilizer are used.
formation of crust on the surface. The crust is hard when The well drained and moderately well drained soils,
it is dry, and it is slightly impervious to water. Once the Blanton, Bonifay, Fuquay, Lucy, Troup, and Wagram, are
crust forms, it reduces infiltration and increases runoff. well suited to pasture of bahiagrass and improved
Incorporating crop residues, manure and other organic bermudagrass.
material into the surface layer can help to improve soil The somewhat poorly drained soils, Albany, Lutterloh,
tilth and to reduce crust formation. Chipley, Leefield, Lynchburg, and Ocilla are well suited
Fall plowing is not practical on the county's soils to bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass with legumes
because about two-thirds of the cropland is sloping soils such as sweet clover and arrowleaf clover, when
that are subject to the hazards of erosion. adequate lime and fertilizer are applied.
Field crops suited to the soils and climate of the With adequate surface drainage, the poorly and very
survey area include many that are not now commonly poorly drained soils, Leon, Yonges, Pelham, Plummer,






42 Soil survey



Rutlege, and Sapelo are well suited to bahiagrass and not take into account major and generally expensive
limpo pastures. Legumes such as white clover are well landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
suited to these soils when adequate lime and fertilizer characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible
are applied, but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability
Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly depleted classification is not a substitute for interpretations
by excessive grazing. Yields of pasture are increased designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of
with lime, fertilizer, legumes, and other management soils for woodland, and for engineering purposes.
practices. In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
are related closely to the type of soil. Management of class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
pasture is based on the relationship of soils, pasture are defined in the following paragraphs.
plants, lime, fertilizer, and moisture. Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
Information for growing pastures can be obtained from designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
the local office of the Cooperative Extension Service or numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
the Soil Conservation Service. narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
yields per acre Class I soils have slight limitations that restrict their
The average yields per acre that can be expected of use.
the principal crops under a high level of management Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because practices.
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
The yields are based mainly on the experience and choice of plants or that require special conservation
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension practices, or both.
agnt. Available yield data from nearby counties and Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
gens.d bn the choice of plants or that require very careful
results of field trials and demonstrations are also the choice of plants or that require very careful
considered. management, or both.
The management needed to obtain the indicated Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
yielhe vmargement needeped to obta the kind cate so limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
yields of the various crops depends on the ind of soil Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion generally unsuitable for cultivation.
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; them unsuitable for cultivation.
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, crop production.
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop Capability subc/asses are soil groups within one class.
residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss c, to the class numeral, for example, Ile. The letter e
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
to increase as new production technology is developed, water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
other soils, however, is not likely to change. corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
Leon County, but estimated yields are not listed because and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
the acreage of such crops is small. The local office of shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
the Soil Conservation Service or of the Cooperative or very dry.
Extension Service can provide information about the In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
management and productivity of the soils. this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
land capability classification subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
Land capability classification shows, in a general way, other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
that require special management are excluded. The soils The acreage of soils in each capability class and
are grouped according to their limitations for field crops, subclass is shown in table 6. The capability classification
the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed soil
way they respond to management. The grouping does map units."






Leon County, Florida 43



woodland management and productivity including baldcypress, hickories, sweetgum, blackgum,
elm, redbay, and water oak grow on the flood plain along
Carl D. DeFazio. forester, Soil Conservation Service, and Ronald the Ochlockonee River. Major soils of the flood plain are
Heierman, forester, Florida Division of Forestry, helped prepare this Plummer, Pelham, Yonges, and Meggett. Orangeburg
section, soil is the predominant series above the flood plain. The
Woodland in Leon County is about 318,000 acres, or principal trees growing on this soil are loblolly and
75 percent, of the total land area. The soils and climate shortleaf pines and several kinds of oaks.
are good for growing timber with the majority of the An excellent market exists for wood in Leon County.
forest land occurring on Orangeburg, Dothan, and Alpin The major market is for pulpwood; however, there is a
soils. great demand for poles, posts, veneer, and lumber.
The woodland resources can be divided into four More detailed information on woodland management
distinct ownership classes-large private plantations, can be obtained from the local office of the Soil
large corporate ownerships, national forest, and small Conservation Service, the Florida Division of Forestry, or
privately owned tracts. Commercial woodland is the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
increasing in Leon County primarily because of the Table 7 can be used by woodland owners or forest
expansion of forest industry ownership. managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.
Major needle-leaved trees include loblolly, longleaf, Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
slash and shortleaf pines and southern baldcypress. table lists the ordination symbol for each soil. Soils
Broad-leaved trees include southern red, water and assigned the same ordination symbol require the same
laurel oaks; hickories, sweetgum; and blackgum. general management and have about the same potential
Wildlife habitat management, particularly for bobwhite productivity.
quail, has a significant effect on woodland management The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
throughout the county. This is most noticeable in the indicates the potential productivity of the soils for
northeastern part of the county. important trees. The number 1 indicates very high
Large plantations, ranging from 5,000 to 25,000 acres productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate;
are characteristic of the northeastern part of the county. and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter,
Much of the land is cleared and in pasture; however, a indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter w,
large percentage of the area consists of loblolly and excessive water in or on the soil; s, sandy texture; The
shortleaf pine forests. These species are well adapted to letter o indicates that limitations or restrictions are
the soils and climate of this rolling area. Orangeburg and insignificant.
Faceville soils are common in this area. Management, to In table 7, sight, moderate, and severe indicate the
a great extent, is primarily for quail production. Periodic degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
thinnings, with frequent prescribed burnings, which management
increase food and understory cover for quail, are the Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss
usual forestry management practices. of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the
Intensive commercial pulpwood production dominates expected soil loss is small and moderate if measures are
the southeastern part of the county. This area has needed to control erosion during logging and road
corporately owned and managed farms to produce wood construction.
fiber. Slash pines are the principal trees grown. Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the
Management consists of short pulpwood rotations characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use
followed by clearcutting, intensive site preparation and of the equipment generally needed in woodland
tree planting (fig. 8). Talquin, Blanton, and Ortega soils management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates
are the dominant soils occurring in this section. that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
Most of the southwestern part of Leon County is in the equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short
Apalachicola National Forest. Kershaw, Ortega, Talquin, seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in
and Dorovan soils are common in this area. The management or in equipment; and severe indicates a
principal trees are longleaf, slash, and loblolly pines, seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or
Associated trees include post, turkey, laurel and live management, or a hazard in the use of equipment.
oaks. Much of the area is thinned and burned regularly Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
to increase and improve quail habitat. The forest is the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
managed primarily for sawlog production. New stands competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
are usually regenerated by natural reseeding; however, apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly
some stands are established by direct aerial seeding planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of
with fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters, slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
Small, wooded private ownerships are characteristic of 25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe,
the northwestern portion of the county. Little timber more than 50 percent.
management is practiced in this area. Population growth Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to
from Tallahassee is extending into this section. Urban which undesirable plants are expected to invade where
forestry activities are prominent. A variety of trees there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading







44 Soil survey




















4-=
J 1-
.5 ,




















."








Figure 8.-These logs were harvested from an area of Lutterloh fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Forests in the county provide good yields of timber.



plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A favor in intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are
rating of slight indicates little or no competition from selected on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and
other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is marketability.
expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant and to commercial wood production.
competition is expected to prevent the establishment of
a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared,
weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable windbreaks and environmental plantings
plants.
The potential productivity of merchantable or common Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens, and
the average height, in feet, that dominant and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low- and
codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs
number of years. Site index was calculated at age 30 provide the most protection.
years for eastern cottonwood, 35 years for American Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
sycamore, 25 years for south Florida slash pine and 50 angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
years for all other species. The site index applies to fully across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
grown trees are those that woodland managers generally from wind, and provide food and cover for wildlife.






Leon County, Florida



Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
of suitable species should be planted properly on a well and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
prepared site and maintained in good condition. depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
recreation Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8 bicycling should require little or no cutting and filling. The
according to limitations that affect their suitability for best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the once a year during the period of use. They have
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a the surface.
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
size and shape of the area, its scenic quality, vegetation, wildlife habitat
access to water, potential water impoundment sites, and
access to public sewerlines. The capacity of the soil to John F. vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare
absorb septic tank effluent and the ability of the soil to
support vegetation are also important. Soils subject to The soils of Leon County support a variety of plants
flooding are limited for recreation use by the duration that produce food and cover for many different kinds of
and intensity of flooding and the season when flooding wildlife. The primary ecological communities include the
occurs. In planning recreation facilities, onsite lakes, marshes, swamp forests, pine flatwoods, sandhills,
assessment of the height, duration, intensity, and and upland mixed hardwood and pine.
frequency of flooding is essential. The primary game species are white-tailed deer,
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as bobwhite quail, gray squirrel, wild turkey, mourning dove,
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil and waterfowl. Other wildlife includes raccoon, opossum,
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are fox, bobcat, rabbit, fox squirrel, armadillo, and a wide
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that variety of songbirds, woodpeckers, wading birds, reptiles,
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, and amphibians.
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil Urbanization in the central part of the county has
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be eliminated much wildlife habitat and urban expansion
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design, remains the biggest threat; however, the major land area
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of the county still supports good wildlife habitat. The
of these measures. Apalachicola National Forest, which covers most of the
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by southwestern part of the county, the large forest industry
other information in this survey, for example, holdings that are generally in the southeastern part, the
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table large private plantations that are located primarily in the
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements northern part, and the large lakes and river swamps
for local roads and streets in table 10.
r a areas requ ste prepat such as shaping throughout the county all provide extensive areas of
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping excellent wildlife habitat.
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads n be f threatened endaneed ecie ch
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary A number of threatened or endangered species, such
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary as alligator or red-cockaded woodpecker, are in the
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to counts alli r or ed lis-coc witoodpeer, are in ahe
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best county. A detailed listing with information on range and
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best habitat may be obtained from the local District
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject totat may be obtained from the local District
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or Conservationist.h t i
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes available to wildlife as foodandcove. They also affect
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
constructing campsites, abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking be created or improved by planting appropriate
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or Wildlife habitat thrives on disturbances such as
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivating, water
sites or of building access roads and parking areas, level manipulating, mowing, and sometimes the use of






Leon County, Florida



Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
of suitable species should be planted properly on a well and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
prepared site and maintained in good condition. depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
recreation Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8 bicycling should require little or no cutting and filling. The
according to limitations that affect their suitability for best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the once a year during the period of use. They have
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a the surface.
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
size and shape of the area, its scenic quality, vegetation, wildlife habitat
access to water, potential water impoundment sites, and
access to public sewerlines. The capacity of the soil to John F. vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare
absorb septic tank effluent and the ability of the soil to
support vegetation are also important. Soils subject to The soils of Leon County support a variety of plants
flooding are limited for recreation use by the duration that produce food and cover for many different kinds of
and intensity of flooding and the season when flooding wildlife. The primary ecological communities include the
occurs. In planning recreation facilities, onsite lakes, marshes, swamp forests, pine flatwoods, sandhills,
assessment of the height, duration, intensity, and and upland mixed hardwood and pine.
frequency of flooding is essential. The primary game species are white-tailed deer,
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as bobwhite quail, gray squirrel, wild turkey, mourning dove,
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil and waterfowl. Other wildlife includes raccoon, opossum,
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are fox, bobcat, rabbit, fox squirrel, armadillo, and a wide
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that variety of songbirds, woodpeckers, wading birds, reptiles,
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, and amphibians.
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil Urbanization in the central part of the county has
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be eliminated much wildlife habitat and urban expansion
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design, remains the biggest threat; however, the major land area
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of the county still supports good wildlife habitat. The
of these measures. Apalachicola National Forest, which covers most of the
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by southwestern part of the county, the large forest industry
other information in this survey, for example, holdings that are generally in the southeastern part, the
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table large private plantations that are located primarily in the
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements northern part, and the large lakes and river swamps
for local roads and streets in table 10.
r a areas requ ste prepat such as shaping throughout the county all provide extensive areas of
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping excellent wildlife habitat.
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads n be f threatened endaneed ecie ch
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary A number of threatened or endangered species, such
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary as alligator or red-cockaded woodpecker, are in the
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to counts alli r or ed lis-coc witoodpeer, are in ahe
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best county. A detailed listing with information on range and
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best habitat may be obtained from the local District
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject totat may be obtained from the local District
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or Conservationist.h t i
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes available to wildlife as foodandcove. They also affect
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
constructing campsites, abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking be created or improved by planting appropriate
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or Wildlife habitat thrives on disturbances such as
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivating, water
sites or of building access roads and parking areas, level manipulating, mowing, and sometimes the use of







46 Soil survey



pesticides. Each kind of wildlife occupies a niche in a layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
plant type; therefore, if management is for a particular stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
species, an attempt is made to keep the plants in the moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
stage or stages that favor that species. herbaceous plants are partridgepea, low panicum,
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the beggarweed, mushroom, ragweed, and deerstongue.
plant diversity in an area. A wide range in plant types or Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
age classes is generally favorable to wildlife. Increasing
dominance by a few plant species is commonly or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
accompanied by a corresponding decrease in numbers properties and features that affect the growth of
of wildlife, hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
according to their potential for providing habitat for these plants are oak, cherry, saw palmetto, huckleberry,
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in gallberry, titi, wild grape, dogwood, blackberry, and
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and blueberry.
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are Coniferous plants furnish browse, seeds, and cones.
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the intensity of management needed for each element of the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, and
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or cedar.
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or cedar.
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or Wetland pants are annual and perennial wild
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be properties and features affecting wetland plants are
established, improved, or maintained in most places. texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
Moderately intensive management is required for slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that plants are smartweed, wild millet, maidencane, cattail,
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind rushes, sedges, and reeds.
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
maintained in most places, but management is difficult than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
and must be intensive. A rating of verypoor indicates created by dams, levees, or other water-control
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are created by darmslevees or other affectingarol
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
impractical or impossible. stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
following paragraphs. ponds.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and the following paragraphs.
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops Habitat for open/and wildlife consists of cropland,
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
seed crops are corn, soybeans, cowpeas, and millet, include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses cottontail rabbit, and sparrow hawk.
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features cttotail rabbit, and wie c s of as
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard, associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
ryegrass, bahiagrass, hairy indigo, clover, and lespedeza. raccoon, wild hog, white-tailed deer, and owl.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
properties and features that affect the growth of these attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, ibis,
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface kingfisher, alligator, mink, and otter.






Leon County, Florida



engineering small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same or
Bishop C. Beville, environmental engineer, Soil Conservation Service, similar soils.
helped prepare this section. The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
This section provides information for planning land the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
uses related to urban development and to water survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
given in the following tables: Building site development, Glossary.
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed building site development
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
test data in the "Soil properties" section. that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
Information in this section is intended for land use without basements, small commercial buildings, and local
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for roads and streets. The limitations are considered slight if
planning site investigations prior to design and soil properties and site features are generally favorable
construction. The information, however, has limitations. for the indicated use and limitations are minor and easily
For example, estimates and other data generally apply overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
soil. site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
The information is not site specific and does not overcome that special design, significant increases in
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the are required. Special feasibility studies may be required
design and construction of engineering works. where the soil limitations are severe.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
not considered in preparing the information in this utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
section. Local ordinances and regulations need to be ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
Soil properties, site features, and observed filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
performance were considered in determining the ratings bedrock or a very firm dense layer; stone content; soil
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, texture; and slope. The time of the year that excavations
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, can be made is affected by the depth to a seasonal high
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to water table and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding.
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the The resistance of the excavation walls or banks to
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water sloughing or caving is affected by soil texture and the
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure depth to the water table.
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink- dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
swell potential, available water capacity, and other for small commercial buildings without basements, for
behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses. dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
This information can be used to (1) evaluate the basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
and recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
construction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative routes layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5) construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
(6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a







48 Soil survey



flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
properties, site features, and observed performance of compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the soils. Depth to bedrock, a high water table, flooding, the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
large stones, and slope affect the ease of excavating impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
and grading. Soil strength (as inferred from the required to minimize seepage and contamination of
engineering classification of the soil), shrink-swell ground water.
potential, and depth to a high water table affect the Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
traffic supporting capacity. up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
sanitary facilities excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
are considered slight if soil properties and site features to bedrock, flooding, large stones, and content of
are generally favorable for the indicated use and organic matter.
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if Excessive seepage caused by rapid permeability of the
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level
indicated use and special planning, design, or of sewage in the lagoon could cause it to function
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
special design, significant increases in construction lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope and
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required. bedrock can cause construction problems, and large
Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use stones can hinder compaction of the lagoon floor.
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
and good performance and low maintenance can be landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
features are moderately favorable for the use and one or daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
more soil properties or site features make the soil less area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
that one or more soil properties or site features are and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable away from the site.
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
costly alteration. vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil needs to be considered.
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties,
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is site features, and observed performance of the soils.
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site Permeability, depth to bedrock, a high water table, slope,
features, and observed performance of the soils, and flooding affect both types of landfill. Texture, stones
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock, and and boulders, highly organic layers, soil reaction, and
flooding affect absorption of the effluent. Large stones content of salts and sodium affect trench type landfills.
and bedrock interfere with installation. Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption part of the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate may not
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect be valid. Onsite investigation is needed.
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
the absorption field to effectively filter the effluent. Many affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
thickness free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.






Leon County, Florida



After soil material has been removed, the soil material Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
bedrock, or the water table to permit revegetation. The gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
soil material used as final cover for a landfill should be Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only
suitable for plants. The surface layer generally has the the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
best workability, more organic matter, and the best evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
potential for plants. Material from the surface layer purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
s dbe purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
should be stockpiled for use as the final cover, excavation of the material.
excavation of the material.
construction materials The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
Table 12 gives information about the soils as a sourceation of
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated by the engineering classification of the soil), the
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil. thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain
properties and site features that affect the removal of sizes is given in the table on engineering index
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal properties.
compaction, minor processing, and other standard A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
and used in road embankments in another place. In this stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less limestone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
exacting in design than higher embankments. Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading. the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
their profile. The table showing engineering index
their profile. The table showing engineering index ptas soil reaffectedion, available wby t after capacity, and b suc
properties provides detailed information about each soil properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
layer. This information can help determine the suitability fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
in the ratings. of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
after it has been compacted and drained is determined are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering not so wet that excavation is difficult.
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential. Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more not so wet that excavation is difficult.
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or a inches of suitable materalts, have a large amount
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10, than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of near the surface.
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
thick. moisture and nutrients for plant growth.







50



water management A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and It alsoaffects trafficabiity.
site features that affect water management. The degree Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
areas, and embankments, dikes, and levees. The effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site bedrock, or to other layers that affect the rate of water
features are generally favorable for the indicated use movement; permeability; depth to a high water table or
and limitations are minor and are easily overcome; depth of standing water if the soil is subject to ponding;
moderate if soil properties or site features are not slope; susceptibility to flooding; subsidence of organic
favorable for the indicated use and special planning, layers; and potential frost action. Excavating and grading
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or and the stability of ditchbanks are affected by depth to
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones, slope, and
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to the hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of the
overcome that special design, significant increase in soil after drainage is adversely affected by extreme
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance acidity or by toxic substances in the root zone, such as
are required. salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive not considered in the ratings.
features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
diversions, and grassed waterways. supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or and management of an irrigation system are affected by
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
of the reservoir area. by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures sodium, and soil reaction.
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
constructed to impound water or to protect land against combination of channels and ridges constructed across
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 depth to bedrock affect the construction of terraces and
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a severe hazard of
and compacted during construction. wind or water erosion, an excessively coarse texture,
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural and restricted permeability adversely affect maintenance.
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
depth even greater than the height of the embankment channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
can affect performance and safety of the embankment. surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock affect the
determine these properties, construction of grassed waterways. A hazard of wind
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to erosion, low available water capacity, restricted rooting
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable depth, toxic substances such as salts or sodium, and
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include restricted permeability adversely affect the growth and
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content maintenance of the grass after construction.
of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.






51









soil properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the adopted by the American Association of State Highway
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (1).
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on The Unified system classifies soils according to
the following pages, properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to soils as Pt. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in SM.
table 20. The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
Estimates of soil properties are based on field those properties that affect roadway construction and
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
accurately by field observation, and help characterize Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
key soils. of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
limits, the engineering classifications, ard the physical If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
engineering properties can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
classification and of the range of index properties for the for soils tested, with group index numbers in
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils parentheses, is given in table 20.
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
or 6 feet. indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
properties of each layer are given for each soil series weight percentage.
under "Soil series and their morphology." Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined inches in diameter based on an oven-dry weight. The
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 laboratory tests of soils sampled in the county and in
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary. indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
Classification of the soils is determined according to estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system from nearby areas and on field examination.






51









soil properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the adopted by the American Association of State Highway
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (1).
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on The Unified system classifies soils according to
the following pages, properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to soils as Pt. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in SM.
table 20. The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
Estimates of soil properties are based on field those properties that affect roadway construction and
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
accurately by field observation, and help characterize Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
key soils. of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
limits, the engineering classifications, ard the physical If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
engineering properties can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
classification and of the range of index properties for the for soils tested, with group index numbers in
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils parentheses, is given in table 20.
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
or 6 feet. indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
properties of each layer are given for each soil series weight percentage.
under "Soil series and their morphology." Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined inches in diameter based on an oven-dry weight. The
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 laboratory tests of soils sampled in the county and in
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary. indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
Classification of the soils is determined according to estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system from nearby areas and on field examination.






52 Soil survey



physical and chemical properties each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
The estimates are based on field observations and on corrosion.
test data for these and similar soils. Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter, soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in measurements of similar soils.
a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations. If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 often needed.
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the is sometimes used.
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems, sheet and rill erosion by water.
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
rate of water movement under saturated conditions average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
affects behavior. can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies, erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
depending on soil properties that affect the retention of susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of
water and the depth of the root zone. The most soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following
important properties are the content of organic matter, distinctions:
soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available 1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
water capacity is an important factor in the choice of sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops.
plants or crops to be grown and in the design and They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to
management of irrigation systems. Available water establish.
capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water 2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very
actually available to plants at any given time. fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is can be grown if intensive measures to control wind
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of erosion are used.






Leon County, Florida 53



3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
control wind erosion are used. that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided transmission.
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
are used. layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
control wind erosion are used. runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
control wind erosion are used. Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly rainfall and water in swamps and marshes are not
erodible. Crops can easily be grown. considered flooding.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
be grown. are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
to wind erosion. flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the possible under unusual weather conditions; common that
soil at various stages of decomposition. it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter of occurs on an average of once or less in 2 years; and
the plow layer is expressed as a percentage, by weight, frequent that it occurs on an average of more than once
of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if less
diameter. than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more than 7
The content of organic matter of a soil can be days. Probable dates are expressed in months;
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the November-May, for example, means that flooding can
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity, occur during the period November through May.
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and The information is based on evidence in the soil
other nutrients for crops. profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
soil and water features matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject
Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water to flooding.
features. The estimates are used in land use planning Also considered are local information about the extent
that involves engineering considerations, and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
according to the intake of water when the soils are delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long- levels.
duration storms. High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
The four hydrologic soil groups are: saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal
transmission. high water table; the kind of water table-that is,






54 Soil survey



perched, or apparent; and the months of the year that physical, chemical, and mineralogical
the water table commonly is high. A water table that is analyses
seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in
table 16. V. W. Carlisle, assistant professor, and C. T. Hallmark and R. E.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water Caldwell, professors, Soil Science Department, University of Florida;
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, prepared this section.
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched representative pedons sampled in Leon County are
water table is water standing above an unsaturated presented in tables 17, 18, and 19. The analyses were
zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is conducted and coordinated by the Soil Characterization
separated from a lower one by a dry zone. Laboratory at the University of Florida. Detailed profile
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet descriptions of soils analyzed are given in the section
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth d"assiiction of sheosoaly."
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the Classification of the soils."
soil and the soil is ponded. The first numeral in the range Soils were sampled from typifying pedons. Samples
indicates how high the water rises above the surface. were air-dried, crushed, and sieved through a 2-
The second numeral indicates the depth below the millimeter screen. Most analytical methods used are
surface. outlined in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1 (7).
Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth Particle size distributions were determined using
of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and modified pipette data reported for the Alpin, Bonifay,
on observations during soil mapping. The rock is Chaires, Foxworth, Fuquay, Kershaw, Lakeland, Leefield,
specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or Leon, Lutterloh, Meggett, Ocilla, Pelham, Sapelo, and
fractured, excavations can be made with trenching Talquin soils. Hydraulic conductivity and bulk density
machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard were determined on undisturbed soil cores. Water
or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is retention parameters were obtained from duplicate
needed for excavation. undisturbed soil cores placed in Tempe pressure cells.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of Weight percentages of water retained at 100-centimeter
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence water (1/10 bar) and 345-centimeter water (1/3 bar)
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation were calculated from volumetric water percentages
of organic material, or both, following drainage, divided by bulk density. Samples were ovendried, ground
Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and 15-bar water retention
of several years. Table 16 shows the expected initial was determined. Organic carbon was determined by a
subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and modification of the Walkley-Black wet combustion
annual subsidence, which usually is a result of oxidation. method.
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground 1N ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium and
water throughout an extensive area as a result of potassium in the extract were determined by flame
lowering the water table. emission and calcium and magnesium by atomic
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced absorption spectrophotometry. Extractable acidity was
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or determined by the barium chloride-triethanolamine
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of ete d b t chid- it a
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as method at pH 8.2. Cation-exchange capacity was
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and calculated by summation of extractable bases and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of extractable acidity. Base saturation is the ratio of
concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium extractable bases to cation-exchange capacity
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil. expressed in percent. The pH measurements were made
Special site examination and design may be needed if with a glass electrode using a soil water ratio of 1:1; a
the combination of factors creates a severe corrosion 0.01 M calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solution
environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil ratio; and 1N potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-
boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion solution ratio. Sodium citrate-dithionite extractable
than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind aluminum and iron from selected horizons of Ultisols and
of soil or within one soil layer. Spodosols were analyzed by atomic absorption
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as spectrophotometry.
low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class, Mineralogy of the clay fraction (less than 2 microns)
total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and was ascertained by X-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18
electrical conductivity of the saturation extract. angstrom, 14 angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, 4.83 angstrom,
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed and 4.31 angstrom positions represent montmorillonite,
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture, interstratified expandable vermiculite or 14-angstrom
acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract. intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz, respectively.






Leon County, Florida 55



Peaks were measured, summed, and normalized to give with a cation-exchange capacity of 10 milliequivalents
percent soil minerals identified in the X-ray per 100 grams or more. Enhanced cation-exchange
diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate capacity is expected in surface and spodic horizons
absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do because of the increased reactivity associated with
imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular organic matter. Higher cation-exchange capacity values
mineral suite. Absolute percentages would require in argillic horizons of Chaires, Meggett, Norfolk clayey
additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit substratum, Ocilla, and Yonges soils are attributed to the
structure substitution, and matrix problems, presence of the much more highly reactive
Sands are by far the major particle size fraction in all montmorillonitic clays.
horizons of all pedons (table 17) with exception of the Soils with low cation-exchange capacities such as
Meggett soil and the IIC horizon of Norfolk clayey Alpin, Foxworth, Kershaw, Lutterloh, and Talquin require
substratum. Alpin, Foxworth, Kershaw, Ortega, and only small amounts of bases to significantly alter both
Talquin pedons contain less than 2.5 percent clay base status and soil reaction in the upper horizons.
throughout their profiles to depths of 2 meters. With Successful crop production on these soils usually
exception of the B21h horizon of the Talquin series, the requires small but frequent applications of fertilizer. High
silt content in these soils is less than 5 percent. Chipley, cation-exchange capacities and high base saturation
Lakeland, Leon, and Rutlege soils are also inherently values are properties of fertile soils.
sandy with less than 6 percent clay throughout their Organic carbon contents are usually less than 2
pedons and silt content in most horizons is percent in surface soils with the notable exception of
proportionately low. Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chaires, larger amounts in the Pelham, Rutlege, and Yonges
Lutterloh, Plummer, Sapelo, and Troup soils are soils. Usually organic carbon contents decrease rapidly
inherently sandy to depths of more than 1 meter but with depth in all pedons except Chaires, Leon, and
have textural increases of clay in lower horizons. Other Sapelo soils that have Bh horizons most frequently
soils such as Fuquay, Leefield, Lucy, Ocilla, Pelham, and containing less than 2 percent organic carbon. Cation-
Wagram are inherently sandy to depths of slightly less exchange capacities of sandy soils in Leon County are
than 1 meter. With the exception of Albany, Foxworth, primarily caused by organic carbon content.
and Lakeland pedons the sand fraction of all these soils Conservation and maintenance of organic carbon in
is dominated by fine sand. Droughtiness is a common these soils should be included in all agricultural
characteristic of sandy soils, particularly those that are management practices.
moderately well drained, well drained, or excessively Consistently low electrical conductivity values are
drained, indicative of low soluble salt content of Leon County
Alpin, Foxworth, Kershaw, Lakeland, and Ortega soils soils. Soil reaction, with few exceptions, is between pH 4
retain very low amounts of plant-available water, and pH 6. Reaction seldom ranges more than 1.5 pH
Hydraulic conductivity, as expected for these Typic units between horizons within the same pedon.
Quartzipsamments, is unusually high. However, in some Correlation between percent base saturation and pH is
argillic horizons of Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chaires, not always evident, such as the values reported for
Fuquay, Lucy, Meggett, Norfolk, Norfolk clayey certain horizons in the Bonifay, Chaires, Meggett,
substratum, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, Troup, Wagram, Plummer, Troup, and Yonges soils. Values for aluminum
and Yonges soils the hydraulic conductivity approaches extracted by citrate-dithionite were 0.40 percent or above
or may be zero. in some horizons of the Bonifay, Fuquay, Leon, and
Generally low values for extractable bases, cation- Orangeburg soils. Iron by this extraction exceeded a
exchange capacities (sum cations) and base saturations value of 1 percent in some horizons of the Albany,
(table 18) are indicative of low inherent soil fertility. Only Bonifay, Fuquay, Lucy, Norfolk, Norfolk clayey
Meggett, Orangeburg, and Yonges soils have somewhat substratum, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. Plant-available
consistent cation-exchange capacities in excess of 10 phosphorus is detrimentally affected in soils containing
milliequivalents per 100 grams. Calcium is usually the high amounts of citrate-dithionite extractable aluminum
predominant base followed by magnesium with the and iron.
largest amounts occurring in the Meggett and Yonges Sand fraction (2 to .05 millimeter) mineralogy is
soils. Sodium consistently occurs in low amounts and the siliceous with quartz dominant in all pedons. Small
usual trace amounts of potassium support the absence amounts of heavy minerals, mostly ilmenite, occur in
of appreciable quantities of weatherable minerals (not most horizons with the greatest concentration in the very
reported) in these soils. fine sand fraction. Crystalline mineral components of the
Cation-exchange capacity exceeds 10 milliequivalents clay fraction (<0.002 millimeter) are reported in table 19
per 100 grams in the surface horizons of Chipley, for specific horizons of selected pedons. In general the
Leefield, Leon, Meggett, Ocilla, Orangeburg, Pelham, clay mineralogical suite is composed of montmorillonite,
Rutlege, and Yonges soils. Blanton, Chaires, Leon, a 14-angstrom intergrade, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz.
Meggett, Norfolk clayey substratum, Sapelo, Troup, and Montmorillonite occurred in the Chaires, Meggett, Norfolk
Yonges soils contain at least one subsurface horizon clayey substratum, and Yonges soils. Kaolinite, 14-






56



angstrom intergrade, and quartz occurred in practically The mechanical analyses were made by combined
all pedons. Gibbsite was detected in Kershaw, Lakeland, sieve and hydrometer methods. In this method, the
and Ortega soils. various grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis
Montmorillonite, least stable of the mineral of all the material in the soil sample, including that
components in the present environment, appears to coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The mechanical
have been inherited in the Chaires, Meggett, Norfolk analyses used in this method should not be used in
clayey substratum, and Yonges soils as evidenced by naming textural classes of soils.
relative large amounts or increases with increased profile Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in
depth. Considerable volume changes could result from earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively
shrinkage upon drying and swelling upon wetting of the higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
predominantly montmorillonitic clays in these soils. The effort remains constant, the density of the compacted
general tendency for 14-angstrom intergrade mineral to material increases until the optimum moisture content is
decrease with increasing depth coupled with the general, reached. After that, density decreases with increase in
although not consistent, increase in kaolinite with depth moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the
suggest that the 14-angstrom intergrade is the most compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a
stable mineral species in this weathering environment, rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the
Unpredictable occurrence of gibbsite is suggestive of soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.
inherited properties. Severe weathering in upper soil Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
horizons results in generally larger amounts of quartz in water on the strength and consistence of the soil
the clay fraction. Clay mineralogy of most Leon County material. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is
soils influences their use and management less increased from a dry state, the material changes from a
frequently than the total clay content. semisolid to a plastic state.
If the moisture content is further increased, the
engineering test data material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil
Table 20 contains engineering test data made by the material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state, and
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation, the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
soil series in the county. These tests were made to help plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
classifications given are based on data obtained by moisture content within which a soil material is plastic.
mechanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table
limits and plastic limits, are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.






57









classification of the soils


The system of soil classification used by the National mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (8). Beginning zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
with the broadest, these categories are the order, permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the properties. An example is fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic,
field or inferred from those observations or from Typic Paleudults.
laboratory measurements. In table 21, the soils of the SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
survey area are classified according to the system. The horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
forming processes and the degree of soil formation, differ within a series.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Ultisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders soil series and their morphology
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the
that reflect the most important variables within the survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder in alphabetic order.
indicates the order. An example is Udult (Ud, meaning Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
humid, plus ult, from Ultisol). formed are identified for each series. The soil is
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
base status. Each great group is identified by the name follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (6). Many of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined
the soil. An example is Paleudults (Pale, meaning old or in Soil Taxonomy (8). Unless otherwise stated, colors in
excessive development, plus udult, the suborder of the the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
Ultisols that have an udic moisture regime). description is the range of important characteristics of
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. the soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The The map units of each soil series are described in the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not section "Detailed soil map units."
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Albany series
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each drained, moderately permeable, nearly level soils in
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives lower positions on uplands. They formed in
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective unconsolidated deposits of marine sandy and loamy
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. A water
group. An example is Typic Paleudults. table is 12 to 30 inches below the surface for 1 to 2
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on months in most years. These soils are loamy, siliceous,
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the Albany soils are closely associated with Ocilla,
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Plummer, and Troup soils. Ocilla soils do not have an A
there is much biological activity. Among the properties horizon more than 40 inches thick. Albany soils are
and characteristics considered are particle-size class, better drained than Plummer soils that are in lower






58 Soil survey



positions, and these soils are more poorly drained than with value of 5 and chroma of 4 or 6, with value of 6 and
Troup soils that are on higher positions. chroma of 4, or with value of 7 and chroma of 2 to 6 that
Typical pedon of Albany loamy sand in a wooded area has common to many mottles of red, brown, yellow or
4.5 miles west of Silver Lake Road, on Forest Service gray. In some pedons, this sandy loam or sandy clay
Road 301, which is 2.5 miles south of Florida Highway loam horizon does not have a matrix color and is mottled
20, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 13, T. 1 S., R. 3 W. with the above colors.
The C horizon extends to depths greater than 80
A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) inches and has colors similar to the B2t horizon. This
loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; very horizon ranges from loamy sand to sandy clay loam and
friable; many fine and medium roots; extremely acid; is frequently stratified.
clear wavy boundary.
A21-4 to 21 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loamy Alpin series
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. The Alpin series consists of excessively drained, very
A22-21 to 36 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) rapidly permeable, nearly level to gently sloping soils on
loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; very high uplands. They formed in thick beds of sandy eolian
friable; common medium distinct light gray (10YR or marine deposits. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
7/1) and reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/8) mottles; The water table is below a depth of 80 inches
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, throughout the year. These soils are thermic, coated
A23-36 to 50 inches; mottled very pale brown (10YR Typic Quartzipsamments.
7/3), yellow (10YR 7/6) and brownish yellow (10YR Alpin soils are closely associated with Blanton,
6/6) loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; very Kershaw, Ortega, and Troup soils. Blanton and Troup
friable; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. soils have an argillic horizon. Kershaw soils do not have
B21t-50 to 63 inches; mottled light gray (10YR 7/1) lamellae and are in an uncoated family. Ortega soils do
and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy loam; weak not have lamellae and are moderately well drained.
medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; Typical pedon of Alpin sand in wooded area about 0.9
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly mile east of State Highway 61, 50 feet south of State
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Highway 260, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 11, T. 2 S., R. 1W.
B22t-63 to 78 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) A1-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine
sandy clay loam; many coarse distinct strong brown and medium granular structure; very friable; many
(7.5YR 5/6) and few medium distinct reddish brown fine, medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid;
(5YR 5/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular clear wavy boundary.
blocky structure; friable; sand grains well coated and A21-4 to 17 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand;
bridged with clay; strongly acid; clear wavy common coarse white (1 YR 8/2) mottles of
boundary. uncoated sand grains; single grained; loose; many
C-78 to 100 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) very fine fine and medium charcoal stains and chips; many
sandy loam; common medium distinct yellow (10YR medium and coarse roots; strongly acid; gradual
7/6) and few fine prominent reddish yellow (7.5YR wavy boundary.
6/6) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky A22-17 to 40 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) sand;
structure: very friable; strongly acid. common coarse white (1 OYR 8/1) mottles of
uncoated sand; single grained; loose; few medium
The solum is from 60 to 96 inches thick. Soil reaction and coarse roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid in the Al boundary.
horizon and is strongly acid or very strongly acid in all A23-40 to 55 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) and
other horizons, white (10YR 8/1, 8/2) sand; single grained; loose;
The Ap or Al horizon ranges from 4 to 8 inches thick. many uncoated sand grains; medium acid; gradual
It has color in hue of 10YR with value of 3 through 5 and wavy boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2 or with value of 6 and chroma of 2. A2&B-55 to 90 inches; A2 portion white (10YR 8/1)
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5 and sand; single grained; loose; sand grains mostly
chroma of 2 or 4, with value of 6 and chroma of 2 to 8, uncoated; medium acid; B portion common brownish
or with value of 7 and chroma of 1 to 4; or hue of 2.5Y yellow (10YR 6/6) and yellow (10YR 7/6) sand
with value of 6 to 8 and chroma of 4 or with value of 7 and lamellae about 2 millimeters thick that are
chroma of 2 that has few to many brown, yellow, or gray discontinuous in length within pedon; sand grains in
mottles. Thickness of the A horizon is more than 40 lamellae are coated and weakly bridged with clay;
inches. strongly acid.
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5 and
chroma of 1 to 8, with value of 6 and chroma of 1 to 6, Solum thickness is 80 inches or more. Lamellae (fig. 9)
or with value of 7 and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 2.5Y begin at depths of about 45 to 70 inches and have a






Leon County, Florida 59



cumulative thickness of 1 to 6 inches within depths of 80 horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5 and chroma of
inches. Reaction is very strongly acid to medium acid. 4 through 8, with value of 6 and chroma of 6 or 8, or with
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 3 and value of 7 and chroma of 6; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5,
chroma of 3 or with value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 1 to chroma of 6 or 8. This horizon is sand, loamy sand, or
3. sandy loam. Thickness of lamellae ranges from about 1
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5 centimeter to 2.5 centimeters.
through 7 and chroma of 3 through 8 or with value of 8
and chroma of 3 that may or may not have streaks or Arents
pockets of uncoated sand grains that has hue of 10YR, Arents in this survey area are nearly level to gently
value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. sloping, moderately well drained to well drained soils
The A2 portion of the A2&B horizon has the same consisting of variable-textured fill materials that have
colors as the A2 horizon. The B2 portion of the A2&B been reworked by earth moving equipment and
deposited over undisturbed natural soil, usually in former
low areas. The fill material contains fragments of former
subsoils. It has been excavated from soils that have
S(1Ysandy, loamy, or clayey subsoils. The water table is
.i below a depth of 60 inches in most areas and below 80
Inches in other areas.
Parents are closely associated with many of the soils in
the survey area. They are commonly not associated with
any one or several soils. They differ from the associated
soils by not having an orderly sequence of soil horizons.
Reference pedon of Arents located at intersection of
Gearhart and Mission Roads at Interstate Highway 10,
SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 17, T. 1 N., R. 1 W.

C1-0 to 20 inches; mixed brown (10YR 5/3), brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6), very dark gray (10YR 3/1), and
yellowish red (5YR 5/8) loamy fine sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; very strongly acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
C2-20 to 25 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam;
few fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles and common fine faint light greenish gray
(5GY 7/1) streaks of clay; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
C3-25 to 30 inches; light gray (N 7/0) sandy clay loam;
common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
and yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles, common
coarse distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
mottles, and few thin light greenish gray (5GY 7/1)
clay lenses; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
C4-30 to 45 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) clay; common
medium and coarse distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR
6/8) mottles; few fine distinct red (2.5YR 5/8)
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
C5-45 to 50 inches; mixed streaks and pockets of
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy loam and gray
(10YR 6/1) clay; massive; friable to firm; very
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Figure 9.-This profile of Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
slopes, shows the thin loamy fine sand IIAlb-50 to 60 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
lamellae that are characteristic of this soil. The 3/2) fine sand; single grained; loose; very strongly
auger is 80 inches long. acid; clear wavy boundary.






60 Soil survey



IIA21b-60 to 75 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; B22t-62 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy sandy clay loam; common medium distinct red
boundary. (2.5YR 4/8) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles;
IIA22b-75 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
fine sand; common fine distinct light gray (10YR sand grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly
7/1) mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
acid.
Soil reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid
Soil reaction of the overburden ranges from very throughout, except where limed.
strongly acid to medium acid. Thickness of the A horizon is 40 to 80 inches, but it is
This soil does not have orderly sequence of horizons. most commonly 50 to 70 inches. The Ap or Al horizon
Depth of fill material or C horizon ranges from about 40 ranges from 6 to 10 inches thick and has hue of 10YR,
to 80 inches. The C horizon is a mixture of sandy value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 to 3.
material and fragments from former loamy or clayey The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5 and
argillic horizons.and, in places, sandy spodic horizons. chroma of 4 to 8, with value of 6, chroma of 1 or 4, or
The soil is highly variable within short distances. with value of 7 and chroma of 1 to 8. It has or does not
have few to many pockets of uncoated sand grains.
Blanton series The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5 and
chroma of 6 or 8, with value of 6 and chroma of 3 to 8,
The Blanton series consists of moderately well or with value of 7 and chroma of 3 or 4; or hue of 7.5YR,
drained, moderately permeable, nearly level to gently value of 5, and chroma of 6 or 8 that has or does not
sloping soils on broad uplands. They formed in sandy and have brown, yellow, or red mottles. Thickness ranges
loamy marine or eolian deposits. Slopes range from 0 to from 8 to 14 inches.
5 percent. A perched water table is above the Bt horizon The B22t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and
for less than 1 month during wet seasons and below a chroma of 2 that has yellow, brown, or red mottles; or
depth of 72 inches in other seasons. These soils are hue of 10YR with value of 6 and chroma of 4 to 8 or
loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleudults. with value of 5 and chroma of 6 or 8 that has gray and
Blanton soils are associated with Albany, Chipley, red mottles. The B2t horizon is fine sandy loam or sandy
Kershaw, and Troup soils. Troup soils are well drained, clay loam. Content of plinthite is less than 5 percent
Albany and Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained, within a depth of 60 inches.
In addition, Chipley soils are sandy to a depth of 80
inches or more. Kershaw soils are excessively drained Bonifay series
and do not have a Bt horizon.
Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand in field 400 feet The Bonifay series consists of well drained,
south of U.S. Highway 27 and 1,000 feet west of Old moderately slowly permeable, nearly level to gently
Bainbridge Road, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 1 W. sloping soils on upland ridges. They formed in thick
deposits of sandy and loamy marine sediments. Slopes
Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine range from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is perched
sand; single grained; loose; many fine and few above the argillic horizon for less than 60 days in most
medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. years. These soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic
A12-7 to 18 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults.
grained; loose; common fine and few fine roots; Bonifay soils are associated with Dothan, Fuquay,
medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. Lakeland, Lucy, Ocilla, Troup, and Wagram soils. Dothan
A21-18 to 30 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) soils have an A horizon less than 20 inches thick.
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; Fuquay, Lucy, Ocilla, and Wagram soils have an A
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, horizon 20 to 40 inches thick. In addition, Lucy, Ocilla,
A22-30 to 39 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine and Wagram soils do not have significant amounts of
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual plinthite within a depth of 60 inches and Ocilla soils are
wavy boundary. more poorly drained. Lakeland soils are sandy to a depth
A23-39 to 52 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine of 80 inches or more. Troup soils do not have plinthite.
sand; single grained; loose; many uncoated sand Typical pedon of Bonifay fine sand in pasture 0.6 mile
grains; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. west of State Highway 364, 40 feet south of Wadesboro
B21t--52 to 62 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) Road SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 7, T. 1 N., R. 3 E.
sandy clay loam; few fine faint brownish yellow
(10YR 6/8) and reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) mottles; Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; sand; weak fine and medium granular structure; very
friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay; friable; many fine and medium roots; medium acid;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. clear smooth boundary.






Leon County, Florida 61



A21-8 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine flatwoods. They formed in sandy and loamy marine
sand; few medium organic stains of dark grayish sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The water
brown (10YR 4/2); single grained; loose; few fine table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months
roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. during high rainfall and within 20 to 40 inches for 6
A22-18 to 31 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) months or more in most years. These soils are sandy,
loamy fine sand; few fine and medium distinct siliceous, thermic Alfic Haplaquods.
reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/8) mottles; weak medium Chaires soils are associated with Leon, Lutterloh, and
granular structure; very friable; few fine and medium Talquin soils. Leon and Talquin soils do not have an
roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. argillic horizon. Lutterloh soils do not have a spodic
A23-31 to 42 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) loamy fine horizon.
sand; many coarse distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) Typical pedon of Chaires fine sand in cleared area 1/4
uncoated sand grain bodies and reddish yellow mile east of Natural Bridge, 170 feet south of Natural
(7.5YR 6/8) mottles; weak medium granular Bridge Road, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 29, T. 2 S., R. 2 E.
structure; very friable; very strongly acid; irregular
boundary. Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) rubbed fine
B21t-42 to 53 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
clay loam; moderate medium and coarse subangular coarse and many fine and medium roots; unrubbed
blocky structure; friable; estimated 5 to 7 percent color is a mixture of uncoated sand grains and black
plinthite with red (2.5YR 4/8) interior and strong organic matter; very strongly acid; clear smooth
brown (7.5YR 5/8) exterior; strongly acid; abrupt boundary.
wavy boundary. A12-7 to 17 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
B22t-53 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled red (2.5YR sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
4/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), very pale brown medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid; abrupt
(10YR 7/3) and white (10YR 8/1); sandy clay; wavy boundary.
moderate medium subangular blocky structure A2-17 to 28 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
parting to moderate coarse angular blocky; friable; common, medium distinct dark grayish brown (10YR
strongly acid. 4/2) streaks along old root channels; single grained;
loose; few medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt
Solum thickness ranges from 60 to more than 80 wavy boundary.
inches. Depth to plinthite ranges from 45 to 60 inches. B21h-28 to 30 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine
Unless the soil is limed, reaction is strongly acid or very sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
strongly acid throughout. massive and weakly cemented or brittle in less than
The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 3 50 percent of horizon; extremely acid; clear wavy
and chroma of 2, with value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 1 to boundary.
3, or with value of 6 and chroma of 1; or hue of 2.5Y, B22h-30 to 35 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
value of 5, and chroma of 2. Thickness ranges from 4 to fine sand; weak fine granular structure; friable;
9 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 massive and weakly cemented or brittle in less than
through 7, and chroma of 3 through 8 that has or does 50 percent of horizon; sand grains coated with
not have mottles of light colored uncoated sand grains, colloidal organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
Thickness ranges from 36 to 50 inches. The Al horizon wavy boundary.
is fine sand, and the A2 horizon is fine sand or loamy B23h-35 to 47 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine
fine sand. sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; sand
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5 or 6 grains coated with colloidal organic matter; very
and chroma of 4 to 8 or with value of 7 and chroma of 6; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 or 8 that B24h-47 to 52 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
has yellow, brown, and red mottles. In some pedons the fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
lower B2t horizon does not have a matrix color and is sand grains thinly coated with colloidal organic
reticulately mottled red, brown, yellow, and gray. The matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
upper B2t horizon is sandy clay loam or fine sandy loam. B25h-52 to 54 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
The lower B2t horizon is sandy clay. Average clay fine sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; sand
content of the upper 20 inches of the B2t horizon ranges grains coated with colloidal organic matter; very
from 15 to 30 percent. Plinthite ranges from 5 to about strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
15 percent within a depth of 60 inches. B21tg-54 to 68 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
Chaires series sand grains coated with clay; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
The Chaires series consists of poorly drained, slowly B22tg-68 to 80 inches; light greenish gray (5GY 7/1)
permeable, nearly level soils on broad areas of sandy clay loam; massive in place; parts to weak






62 Soil survey



medium subangular blocky structure; firm; strongly and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth
acid. boundary.
A12-5 to 15 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
Solum thickness ranges from 60 to 80 inches or more. sand; single grained; loose; many fine and medium
Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid in roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
the A and Bh horizons and from very strongly acid to C1-15 to 23 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand;
neutral in the Btg horizon. common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1) mottles;
Thickness of the A horizon is less than 30 inches and single grained; loose; many fine roots; strongly acid;
combined thickness of the A and Bh horizon is more gradual wavy boundary.
than 40 inches. The A horizon is sand or fine sand. The C2-23 to 37 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 2 sand; common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1) and
to 4, and chroma of 2 or less. Where value is less than yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; single grained;
3.5, thickness is less than 10 inches. few fine roots; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or neutral, C3-37 to 47 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 0 to 2. In some pedons, this sand; common medium distinct reddish yellow
horizon has mottles of stronger chroma or vertical (7.5YR 6/8) and light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles;
streaks of black, very dark gray, or gray. single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual
The B2 horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 2 and wavy boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2, or with value of 3 and chroma of 2 or C4-47 to 66 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
5YR with value of 2 and chroma of 1 or 2 or with value wavy boundary.
of 3 and chroma of 2 to 4. The B24h horizon, where C5-66 to 70 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
present, has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 3 sand; single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual
or 4, or hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 4. wavy boundary.
Consistence ranges from very friable to weakly C6-70 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
cemented and brittle. All subhorizons of the Bh horizon single grained; loose; slightly acid.
are more than 50 percent friable or very friable. This
horizon is sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand. Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly
The B21tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 acid in all horizons.
to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. This horizon is sandy loam, The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 3
fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. The B22tg horizon through 5 and chroma of 1 or 2 or with value of 2 and
has hue of 5Y to 5GY, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 4 to 15 inches.
or 2. Texture is sandy clay loam or sandy clay. In some Where value is less than 3.5, thickness is less than 10
pedons, few to common mottles of red, brown, yellow, or inches.
gray are in the B2tg horizon. The C horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 7 and
chroma of 1 through 8, with value of 5 or 6 and chroma
Chipley series of 2 through 8, or with value of 4 and chroma of 3; hue
of 2.5Y, value of 6 through 8, and chroma of 4; hue of
The Chipley series consists of somewhat poorly 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6; or hue of 5Y, value
drained, rapidly permeable, nearly level soils on of 7, and chroma of 3. Common to many gray and
moderately low uplands. They formed in deposits of yellowish red or reddish yellow iron segregated mottles
sandy marine sediment. Slopes range from 0 to 2 are within depths of 30 to 40 inches.
percent. The water table is within a depth of 20 to 40
inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. These soils Dorovan series
are sandy, coated, thermic Aquic Quartzipsamments.
Chipley soils are associated with Albany, Ortega, and The Dorovan series consists of very poorly drained,
Rutlege soils. These soils are more poorly drained than moderately permeable, nearly level soils in depressional
the Ortega soils and have coated sand grains. These areas and on flood plains of tributaries of major streams.
Chipley soils are better drained than Rutlege soils and They formed in thick deposits of highly decomposed
do not have an umbric epipedon. Albany soils have a Bt organic materials. Slopes are less than 1 percent. The
horizon within a depth of 80 inches whereas Chipley water table is above the surface 5 to 8 months in most
soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. years and within a depth of 10 inches the rest of the
Typical pedon of Chipley fine sand in a wooded area year. These soils are flooded frequently. These soils are
about 50 feet east of Florida Highway 36, 1.5 miles dysic, thermic Typic Medisaprists.
northwest of Capitola, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 19, T. 1 N., R. Dorovan soils are closely associated with Pamlico,
3 E. Pelham, Plummer, and Rutlege soils. All but Pamlico are
mineral soils. Dorovan soils have layers of organic
A11-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; material more than 51 inches thick; Pamlico soils have
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine mineral material within a depth of 51 inches.






Leon County, Florida 63



Typical pedon of Dorovan mucky peat in a swamp soils have less than 5 percent plinthite within a depth of
about 200 feet west and 200 feet south of the second 60 inches. Orangeburg soils also have redder colors in
bridge from Jefferson County line on Tram Road, the subsoil.
SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 25, T. 1 S., R. 2 E. Typical pedon of Dothan loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes, in wooded areas approximately 3 miles
Oe-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky peat north of U.S. Highway 90 on Florida Highway 59 on east
consisting of partly decomposed moss, leaves, side of road across from church SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 20,
roots, and twigs; 25 percent fiber content after T. 2 N., R. 3 E.
rubbing; slightly sticky; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary. A1-0 to 5 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) loamy fine sand;
Oal-5 to 16 inches; black (10YR 2/1), rubbed muck; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
very dark brown (10YR 2/2) pressed; about 25 roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
percent fiber, less than 5 percent rubbed; fiber A2-5 to 13 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loamy
remaining after rubbing is partly decomposed wood fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
1 to 2 millimeters; massive; common to few roots; common fine roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth
very strongly acid; diffuse wavy boundary. boundary.
Oa2-16 to 65 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) B21t-13 to 19 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine
rubbed muck; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) pressed; sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
about 10 percent fiber less than 2 percent rubbed; structure, parting to moderate medium granular;
fiber remaining after rubbing is partly decomposed friable; common fine roots; medium acid; gradual
wood 1 to 2 millimeters; massive; few roots that wavy boundary.
decrease with depth; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy B22t--19 to 38 inches; yellowish brown (1 OYR 5/8)
boundary. sandy clay loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
IIC1g-65 to 69 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy structure; friable; few fine roots; few fine pores; thin
loam; massive; friable; very strongly acid; gradual discontinuous clay films on many faces of peds;
wavy boundary, prominent clay bridging between sand grains;
IIC2g-69 to 80 inches; black (N 2/0) sand; single medium acid; clear irregular boundary.
grained; friable; very strongly acid. B23t-38 to 46 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
sandy clay loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
Thickness of the Oe and Oa horizons is more than 51 structure; firm; discontinuous clay films on many
inches. Reaction is very strongly acid or extremely acid faces of peds; few fine and medium pores; about 8
throughout. percent red (10YR 4/8) plinthite; medium acid; clear
The Oe horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 2, irregular boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2, or with value of 3 and chroma of 2. B24t-46 to 58 inches; reticulately mottled brownish
Fiber content is from 35 to 50 percent after rubbing. yellow (10YR 6/6), yellow (10YR 7/6), light gray
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and (10YR 7/1), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), red (2.5YR
chroma of 1 or 2. Fiber content is less than 10 percent 4/8), and light red (2.5YR 6/6) sandy clay loam;
after rubbing, moderate medium subangular blocky structure to
The IICg horizon ranges from sand to sandy clay loam weak medium platy; very firm; common moderately
that has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 thick clay films on faces of peds; common 1/16- to
or 2; or hue of N and value of 2 to 5. 1/18-inch diameter round and oblong voids that
have clay films on inside surfaces; about 5 to 7
Dothan series percent plinthite; medium acid; gradual irregular
boundary.
The Dothan series consists of well drained, moderately B25t-58 to 75 inches; mottled brownish yellow (10YR
slowly permeable, gently sloping to sloping soils on 6/6), yellow (10YR 7/6), light gray (10YR 7/1),
undulating uplands and hillsides leading to drainageways. strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), red (2.5YR 4/8) and light
They formed in thick beds of unconsolidated loamy red (2.5YR 6/6) sandy clay loam; red mottles are
marine sediment. Slopes range from 2 to 8 percent. A mostly very coarse, others are fine and medium,
water table is perched above the lower part of the gray mottles mostly vertical oriented; many red
subsoil briefly during wet periods. These soils are fine- mottles have very thin streaks of gray intermixed;
loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Paleudults. very coarse subangular blocky structure becoming
Dothan soils are closely associated with Fuquay, massive with depth; firm, compact; few thin
Leefield, Norfolk, Ocilla, and Orangeburg soils. Fuquay, discontinuous clay films on few peds; about 5
Leefield, and Ocilla soils each have an A horizon 20 to percent plinthite; strongly acid.
40 inches thick. In addition, Leefield, soils are more
poorly drained and Ocilla soils do not have plinthite Solum thickness ranges from 60 to 80 inches or more.
within a depth of 60 inches. Norfolk and Orangeburg Depth to plinthite ranges from 24 to 50 inches. Soil






64 Soil survey



reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid in the A decayed root channels and on some ped surfaces;
horizon and ranges from very strongly acid to medium very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
acid in the subsoil. B23t-54 to 62 inches; red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy clay; few
Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 6 to 17 to common medium distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR
inches. The Ap or Al and A2 horizons have hue of 10YR 7/6) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles;
with value of 5 and chroma of 2 to 4, with value of 4 and moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
chroma of 2 or 3, or with value of 6 and chroma of 4; or friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
hue of 2.5Y with value of 5 and chroma of 2 or 4 or with common thin clay films on faces of peds; strongly
value of 6 and chroma of 4. Some pedons have a thin acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Al horizon that has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and B3-62 to 80 inches; coarsely mottled yellowish red
chroma of 2. (5YR 4/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8) and
The B21t, B22t, and B23t horizons have hue of 10YR, dusky red (10R 3/4) heavy sandy clay loam;
values of 5 or 6, and chroma of 6 or 8. Texture is fine moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Weighted clay content friable; few fine distinct white (10YR 8/2) mottles of
of the upper 20 inches of the B2t horizon is 18 to 35 kaolin clay; strongly acid.
percent.
The B24t and B25t horizons are mottled yellow, Solum thickness ranges from 65 to 80 inches or more.
brown, red, and gray in hues of 10YR, 7.5YR, and Soil reaction is strongly acid to very strongly acid in all
2.5YR. Texture is sandy clay loam, but in some pedons it horizons except the surface layer in limed areas.
is sandy clay. Plinthite in the B2t horizon is within a The A horizon ranges from 5 to 18 inches thick. The
depth of 60 inches and ranges from 5 to about 10 Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 4 and
percent, chroma of 2 to 4 or with value of 5 and chroma of 2. The
A2 horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR,
Faceville series value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 4 through 8.
The B2t horizon has hue of 2.5YR, or 5YR, value of 4
The Faceville series consists of well drained, or 6, and chroma of 4 through 8. Texture is clay or sandy
moderately permeable, gently sloping to strongly sloping clay. Average clay content is more than 35 percent.
soils on rolling uplands. They formed in clayey marine Mottles in shades of yellow, brown, and red range from
sediments. Slopes range from 2 to 12 percent. The few to common in B23t horizons.
water table is below a depth of 72 inches. These soils The B3 horizon is coarsely mottled in shades of
are clayey, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Paleudults. yellow, white, strong brown, red, and dark red in hues of
Faceville soils are closely associated with Dothan, 10YR, 7.5YR, and 2.5YR, and 10R. It is heavy sandy
Fuquay, Lucy, Norfolk, and Orangeburg soils. clay loam or sandy clay.
Orangeburg and Norfolk are in a fine-loamy siliceous
family. Dothan soils have more than 5 percent plinthite Foxworth series
within a depth of 60 inches. Fuquay and Lucy soils each
have an A horizon 20 to 40 inches thick. The Foxworth series consists of deep, moderately well
Typical pedon of Faceville sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent drained, very rapidly permeable, nearly level to gently
slopes along a road cut 1 mile south of State Highway sloping soils on rolling sandhills of the lower coastal
12 on Meridian Road NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 18, T. 3 N., R. 1 plain. They formed in thick deposits of sandy marine or
E. eolian sediments. The water table is between depths of
40 to 72 inches for 1 to 3 months. These soils are
Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sandy thermic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments.
loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; Foxworth soils are associated with Alpin, Chipley, and
many fine roots; slightly acid; clear smooth Ortega soils. Foxworth soils are better drained than the
boundary. Chipley soils and more poorly drained than the Aplin and
A2-6 to 13 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sandy Ortega soils. In addition, Foxworth soils do not have the
loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; thin lamellae that are in Alpin soils.
friable; few roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy Typical pedon of Foxworth sand in a wooded area
boundary. 0.45 mile east of Forest Road 305A, 200 feet north of
B21t-13 to 25 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy Forest Road 305, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 28, T. 1 S., R. 2 W.
clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay; A1-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grained;
common thin clay films on faces of peds; strongly loose; many fine, medium and coarse roots; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary. acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22t-25 to 54 inches; red (2.5YR 5/8) clay; moderate C1-4 to 9 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; clay grained; loose; many fine, medium, and coarse
bridging between sand grains; common clay films in roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.






Leon County, Florida 65



C2-9 to 36 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; Typical pedon of Fuquay fine sand in wooded area 2.5
white (10YR 8/2) sand stripping; single grained; miles east of Baum Road, 1,500 feet north of U.S. 90
loose; many fine and medium roots; very strongly SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 32, T. 2 N., R. 3 E.
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C3-36 to 46 inches; very pale brown (1OYR 8/4) sand; A1-0 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
common medium distinct white (10YR 8/2) and moderate fine and medium crumb structure; very
common fine distinct yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles; friable; many fine and medium roots; medium acid;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual gradual wavy boundary.
wavy boundary. A21-7 to 14 inches; mixed yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
C4-46 to 54 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; common and brownish yellow (1 YR 6/6) fine sand; single
grained; loose; very friable; few fine, medium and
medium distinct very pale brown (1OYR 8/4) and coarse roots; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; A22-14 to 21 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy sand; single grained; loose; few fine, medium and
boundary. coarse roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C5-54 to 64 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; A23-21 to 37 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
common medium distinct white (10YR 8/1), few fine loamy fine sand; weak medium subangular blocky
distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) and few fine distinct structure; very friable; few medium roots; strongly
yellowish red (5YR 5/6) mottles; single grained; acid; gradual wavy boundary.
loose; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. B21t-37 to 49 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
C6-64 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; few fine sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular
distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/6) and few fine faint blocky structure; friable; few medium roots; clay
dark reddish gray mottles; weak fine granular bridges between sand grains; strongly acid; gradual
structure; slight increase in clay content; very friable; wavy boundary.
very strongly acid. B22t-49 to 64 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular
Soil reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid blocky structure; firm; thin patchy clay films on faces
throughout. of peds; estimated 5 to 7 percent red (2.5YR 5/8)
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, plinthite; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
and chroma of 1 or 2. B23t-64 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled red (2.5YR
The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 5 5/8), and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy clay
to 7 and chroma of 3 to 8. Few to common fine to large loam and light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay;
pockets or mottles of uncoated sand grains occur in moderate coarse columnar structure parting to
these horizons in some pedons but are not indicative of moderate fine and medium angular and subangular
wetness. blocky; firm; sand grains coated with clay; very
The C3, C4, and C5 horizons have hue of 10YR, value strongly acid.
of 6 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 4 that has few to common,
fine, or medium brownish, yellowish, or reddish Solum thickness is more than 80 inches. Depth to
segregated iron mottles. Depth to mottles is commonly plinthite ranges from 45 to 60 inches. Reaction is very
45 to 60 inches but ranges from 40 to 72 inches. The C6 strongly acid or strongly acid throughout except for the
horizon as described is not present in all pedons. surface layer in limed areas.
Thickness of the A horizon is 20 to 40 inches. The Ap
or Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
Fuquay series chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 9 inches.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7,
The Fuquay series consists of well drained, slowly and chroma of 3 through 6.
permeable, nearly level to gently sloping soils on The B21t and B22t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of
uplands. They formed in thick deposits of sandy and 5, and chroma of 4 to 8; hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and
loamy marine sediments. A perched water table is above chroma of 4 to 8; or hue of 2.5Y with value of 4 and
the reticulately mottled Bt horizon briefly during wet chroma of 4, with value of 5 and chroma of 4 or 6, or
periods. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. These soils with value of 6 and chroma of 6 or 8. Texture is fine
are loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic Plinthic Paleudults. sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Content of plinthite
Fuquay soils are closely associated with Dothan, ranges from about 5 to 10 percent.
Leefield, Norfolk, Ocilla, and Wagram soils. Dothan and The B23t horizon is reticulately mottled in shades of
Norfolk soils have an A horizon less than 20 inches thick red, brown, yellow, and gray. The reddish, yellowish, and
and, in addition, Norfolk soils have less than 5 percent brownish parts are sandy loam or sandy clay loam, and
plinthite within a depth of 60 inches. Leefield and Ocilla the gray parts are heavy sandy clay loam or sandy clay.
soils are somewhat poorly drained. Wagram soils have Overall texture of the B23t horizon ranges from sandy
less than 5 percent plinthite within a depth of 60 inches. clay loam to light sandy clay.






66 Soil survey



Kershaw series of marine eolian or fluvial sand deposits. Slopes range
from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is below a depth of
The Kershaw series consists of excessively drained, 80 inches. These soils are thermic, coated Typic
very rapidly permeable, nearly level to sloping soils on Quartzipsamments.
high uplands. They formed in thick deposits of coastal Lakeland soils are closely associated with Chipley,
marine sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. Kershaw, Orangeburg, Ortega, and Troup soils. Chipley
Depth to the water table is more than 80 inches. These soils are somewhat poorly drained. Kershaw soils are in
soils are thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. an uncoated family. Orangeburg and Troup soils have an
Kershaw soils are closely associated with Alpin, argillic horizon. Ortega soils are in an uncoated family
Lakeland, Ortega, and Troup soils. Lakeland soils are in and have a seasonal high water table within a depth of
a coated family and Troup soils have an argillic horizon 80 inches.
within a depth of 80 inches. Kershaw soils do not have Typical pedon of Lakeland sand in a pine plantation
the thin lamellae of Alpin soils, and they are better 0.7 mile west of Capital Circle east, 170 feet south of
drained than the Ortega soils. All of these soils are in Tram Road SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 20, T. 1 S., R. 1 E.
similar positions.
Typical pedon of Kershaw sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes A1-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
in a wooded area 3.75 miles east of Capital Circle East, single grained; loose; few coarse, many fine and
40 feet south of Tram Road, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 25, T. 1 medium roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth
S., R. 1 E. boundary.
C1-5 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
A1-0 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; sand; single grained; loose; many medium and few
single grained; loose;.many fine and medium roots; fine and coarse roots; few uncoated sand grains;
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary, strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C1--7 to 11 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; C2-20 to 32 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6) sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; single grained; loose; few medium and coarse roots;
sand grains are uncoated; strongly acid; gradual few uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary, wavy boundary.
C2-11 to 21 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) sand; pale C3-32 to 41 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/8) sand;
brown (10YR 6/3) organic stains; single grained; single grained; loose; few fine roots; few uncoated
loose; few medium and coarse roots; sand grains sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
are uncoated; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. C4-41 to 78 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) sand;
C3-21 to 44 inches; yellow (10YR 7/8) sand; single single grained; loose; few to common uncoated
grained; loose; very few medium and coarse roots; sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
sand grains are uncoated; medium acid; gradual C5-78 to 91 inches; reddish yellow (5YR 6/8) sand;
wavy boundary. single grained; loose; common uncoated sand
C4-44 to 63 inches; yellow (10YR 8/6) sand; single grains; strongly acid.
grained; loose; sand grains are uncoated; medium
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium
C5-63 to 80 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) sand; single acid throughout. In the 10- to 40-inch control section silt
grained; loose; sand grains are uncoated; medium plus clay content is 5 to 10 percent.
acid. The A horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 4 and
chroma of 1 to 3 or with value of 5 and chroma of 1 or
Soil reaction ranges from strongly acid to medium 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 6 inches.
acid. The C horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5 and
Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 4 to 8, or with value of 6 or 7 and chroma of
chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 7 inches. 3 to 8; hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 6 or
The C horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5 and 8; or hue of 5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 6 or 8.
chroma of 4 or 6, with value of 6 and chroma of 3 to 8, Most of the sand grains in the 10- to 40-inch control
with value of 7 and chroma of 4 to 8, or with value of 8 section are coated. In some pedons, there are small
and chroma of 3 to 6. The horizon is sand or fine sand. pockets of white or light gray uncoated sand grains
Silt plus clay in the 10- to 40-inch control section is less below a depth of 40 inches. The C horizon extends to
than 5 percent. more than 80 inches.

Lakeland series Leefield series
The Lakeland series consists of excessively drained, The Leefield series consists of somewhat poorly
very rapidly permeable, nearly level to gently sloping drained, moderately slowly permeable, nearly level soils
soils on high upland areas. They formed in thick deposits along drainageways and on low foot slopes of hillsides.






Leon County, Florida 67



They formed in thick deposits of sandy and loamy value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 0 to 2. Thickness of this
marine sediments. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent. A water horizon ranges from 4 to 12 inches. The A2 horizon has
table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches for about 4 hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 2 to 6 and has
months. These soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic none to common gray, brown, and yellow mottles.
Plinthaquic Paleudults. The B21t and B22t horizons have hue of 10YR or
Leefield soils are closely associated with Albany, 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, chroma of 4 to 8 that have
Dothan, Fuquay, Lakeland, and Ocilla soils. Albany and common to many gray, brown, and red mottles. In some
Ocilla soils have less than 5 percent plinthite although pedons, the B22t horizon is reticulately mottled gray,
Leefield soils have more. In addition, Albany soils have brown, red, and yellow. The Bt horizon is sandy loam or
an A horizon more than 40 inches thick. Dothan soils sandy clay loam.
have an A horizon less than 20 inches thick and are well
drained. Fuquay soils are well drained and do not have Leon series
gray mottles within 30 inches of the surface. Lakeland
soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more and are The Leon series consists of poorly drained, moderately
excessively drained, to moderately rapidly permeable, nearly level soils on
Typical pedon of Leefield loamy sand in a cultivated broad flatwood areas and, in some places, along
area 2.75 miles east of Capital Circle, 150 feet north of drainageways. They formed in thick beds of acid sandy
U.S. Highway 27, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 1, T. 1 S., R. 1 E. marine sediments. Slopes are less than 2 percent. The
water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more
Ap-0 to 10 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) than 9 months and at a depth of less than 10 inches for
loamy sand; moderate medium granular structure; 1 to 4 months during periods of high rainfall. These soils
very friable; many fine roots; medium acid; abrupt are sandy, siliceous, thermic Aeric Haplaquods.
wavy boundary. Leon soils are closely associated with Rutlege,
A21-10 to 19 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy Sapelo, and Talquin soils. Talquin soils have a less well
sand; few pockets of light yellowish brown (10YR developed spodic horizon. Sapelo soils have an argillic
6/4); weak fine granular structure; very friable; few horizon beneath the spodic horizon. Rutlege soils have
fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. an umbric epipedon but do not have a spodic horizon.
A22-19 to 23 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) loamy sand; Typical pedon of Leon sand, in a wooded area about 5
few fine distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3) and olive miles east of Capital Circle, 400 yards of Tram Road,
gray (5Y 5/2) mottles; weak fine granular structure; NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 29, T. 1 S., R. 2 E.
very friable; few fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary. A1-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) rubbed sand;
A23-23 to 36 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) loamy sand; weak, coarse granular structure; friable; many fine
common fine and medium distinct brownish yellow and medium and few coarse roots; extremely acid;
(10YR 6/8) mottles; weak fine granular structure; clear smooth boundary.
very friable; few fine and medium roots; less than 3 A21-6 to 13 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
percent yellowish red (5YR 5/6) and reddish yellow sand; single grained; loose; many fine and medium
(7.5YR 6/8) plinthite; strongly acid; abrupt wavy roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
boundary. A22-13 to 25 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single
B21t-36 to 51 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) grained; loose; many fine roots; very strongly acid;
sandy clay loam; many medium and coarse distinct abrupt wavy boundary.
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) and light gray (10YR B21h-25 to 29 inches; black (5YR 2/1) loamy sand;
7/1) mottles; weak medium and coarse subangular weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable,
blocky structure; friable; estimated 5 to 7 percent slight cementation; sand grains well coated with
yellowish red (5YR 5/6) and reddish yellow (7.5YR organic matter; extremely acid, abrupt wavy
6/8) plinthite; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
boundary. B22h-29 to 36 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
B22t-51 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
sandy clay loam; many medium and coarse distinct friable; sand grains well coated with organic matter;
gray (10YR 6/1) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
mottles; weak medium and coarse subangular B23h-36 to 41 inches; dark reddish brown; (5YR 2/2)
blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid. sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; sand grains well coated with organic matter;
Solum thickness ranges from 60 to 80 inches or more. very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Depth to horizons with more than 5 percent plinthite B31-41 to 50 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
ranges from 30 to 60 inches. Unless the soil is limed, sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
reaction is very strongly acid. wavy boundary.
Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 20 to 40 B32-50 to 80 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4)
inches. The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid.






68 Soil survey



Depth to the Bh horizon ranges from 20 to 30 inches. B22t-36 to 75 inches; red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam;
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to extremely acid in moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
all horizons, friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
The Al or Ap horizon has color in hue of 10YR, value strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
of 2 through 4, chroma of 1 or 2. When dry, this horizon B3-75 to 80 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) fine sandy
has a salt-and-pepper appearance caused by the mixing loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
of organic matter and white sand grains, friable; strongly acid.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through
8, and chroma of 2 or less. Unless the soil is limed, reaction is strongly acid or
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR, very strongly acid.
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 through 3. This horizon Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 20 to 40
is noncemented. Texture is sand or loamy sand. inches. The Ap or Al horizon ranges from 4 to 13 inches
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 3 thick. It has hue of O1YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of
or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4 that has or does not have 2 or 3. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, with value of 4
mottles of ra brown or yellow and chroma of 4, with value of 5 and chroma of 4 to 8;
The C horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, value or with value of 6 and chroma of 3 to 6; or hue of 7.5YR
of 6 through 8, and chroma of less than 4. with value of 4 and chroma of 4, with value of 5 and
chroma of 6 or 8, or with value of 6 and chroma of 6.
The B2t horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4
Lucy series or 5, and chroma of 6 or 8. Texture is fine sandy loam or
The Lucy series consists of well drained, moderately sandy clay loam. The B3 horizon where present, has the
permeable, nearly level to sloping soils on upland ridges same color as the B2t horizon, and texture of fine sandy
and hillsides. They formed in unconsolidated marine loam or loamy fine sand. Depth to the B3 horizon is
sandy and loamy sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 8 more than 60 inches.
percent. The water table is below 80 inches. These soils
are loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic Paleudults. Lutterloh series
Lucy soils are closely associated with Orangeburg, The Lutterloh series consists of somewhat poorly
Troup, and Wagram soils. Orangeburg soils do not have drained, slowly permeable, nearly level to gently sloping
an A horizon 20 to 40 inches thick that is characteristic soils on broad upland flatwoods. They formed in
of Lucy soils. Troup soils have an A horizon greater than unconsolidated sandy and loamy marine sediments.
40 inches thick. Wagram soils do not have the darker Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. A water table is within
red colors in the Bt horizon that are in Lucy soils, a depth of 20 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months. These
Typical pedon of Lucy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic
slopes, in field 400 feet south of U.S. Highway 27 on Paleudalfs.
Bainbridge Road and 200 feet west of pavement, Lutterloh soils are closely associated with Chaires,
SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 1 W. Leon, and Talquin soils. Lutterloh soils are better drained
and do not have the spodic horizon of all the associated
Ap-0 to 5 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; soils.
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine Typical pedon of Lutterloh fine sand in wooded area, 4
and medium roots; medium acid; clear smooth miles east of Woodville, 50 feet south of Natural Bridge
boundary. Road, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 23, T. 2 S., R. 1 E.
A12-5 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; Ap-0 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
medium acid; gradual smooth boundary, weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
A21-13 to 22 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
sand; single grained; loose; many medium and few boundary.
fine roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. A21-7 to 24 inches; mixed light gray (10YR 7/2) and
A22-22 to 30 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; single grained; loose;
sand; single grained; loose; few light gray (10YR few fine medium and coarse roots; many uncoated
7/1) uncoated sand grain splotches and thin sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
yellowish red (5YR 5/8) lenses of loamy fine sand; A22-24 to 40 inches; mixed white (10YR 8/2) and light
few medium roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth gray (5Y 7/2) fine sand; single grained; loose; few
boundary. fine roots; sand grains mostly uncoated; strongly
B21t-30 to 36 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) fine acid; clear wavy boundary.
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky A23-40 to 59 inches; white (5Y 8/1) fine sand with
structure; very friable; few medium roots; sand common coarse faint white (5Y 8/2) mottles; single
grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid; grained; loose; sand grains mostly uncoated;
abrupt smooth boundary, medium acid; clear wavy boundary.






Leon County, Florida 69



B21tg-59 to 71 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) very fine sandy 6/1) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak
loam; many medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few
5/8) mottles; moderate fine and medium subangular medium and coarse roots; sand grains coated and
blocky structure; friable; sand grains bridged and bridged with clay; strongly acid; gradual wavy
coated with clay; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. boundary.
IIB22tg-71 to 94 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy clay; B22t-30 to 65 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
weak medium platy structure, parting to weak clay loam; common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1)
medium subangular blocky; friable to firm; sand mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid. structure; friable; few coarse roots; sand grains
coated and bridged with clay; very strongly acid;
The soil is strongly acid or medium acid throughout. gradual wavy boundary.
Thickness of the A horizon is dominantly 42 to 65 Cg-65 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam;
inches. The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of many medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
3 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The A2 horizon has hue of and gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; massive; friable; very
10YR to 5Y, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 3 or less. strongly acid.
Some pedons have mottles of stronger chroma in this S t l
horizon. Color is that of uncoated sand grains. Solum thickness is more than 60 inches. Soil reaction
horizon. Color is that of uncoated sand grains.
The B21tg and IIB22tg horizons have hue of 10YR to is strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout.
e anthThickness of the A horizon is less than 20 inches. The
5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less with none to Thickness of the A horizon is lessYR, value of 20 inches. The
Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
common mottles of brown, yellow, or red. Texture of the chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5YR, value of 3 or 4, and
B21t horizon ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay chroma of 2; or hue of N and value of 2 to 4. This
loam; texture of the IIB22tg horizon is sandy clay loam or horizon is 6 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon has hue of
sandy clay. Average clay content of upper 20 inches of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 4; hue of
the argillic horizon ranges from 18 to 35 percent. Depth 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or 4; or hue of N
to the IIB22tg horizon ranges from 65 to 75 inches, and value of 4 to 7 that has mottles in shades of yellow,
brown, or gray.
Lynchburg series The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 3 through 8; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or
drainThe Lynchburg series consists of somewhat poorly in 6, and chroma of 4 or 6. Mottles that have chroma of 2 or
drained, moderately permeable, nearly level soils in les areewto man
shallow depressional areas and on broad interstream The B22t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
divides. They formed in thick marine sediments of loamy and chroma of 1 or 2 that has common to many mottles
texture. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The water of higher chroma. The Bt horizon is fine sandy loam or
table is within a depth of 6 to 20 inches for 1 to 3 sandy clay loam. The clay content by weight of the
months in spring and winter during most years. These upper 20 inches of the argillic horizon ranges from 18 to
soils are fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Aeric Paleaquults. about 30 percent.
Lynchburg soils are closely associated with Norfolk, The C horizon is gray to coarsely mottled. The texture
Ocilla, Orangeburg, Pelham, and Yonges soils. Norfolk is sandy, loamy, or clayey and is stratified in many
and Orangeburg soils are well drained and are on higher pedons.
elevations than Lynchburg soils. Ocilla and Pelham soils
have a thicker A horizon. Pelham and Yonges soils are Meggett series
more poorly drained and are on slightly lower elevations.
Typical pedon of Lynchburg fine sandy loam in a These poorly drained, slowly permeable, nearly level
wooded area 3/4 mile south of Lake lamonia on Bull soils are on broad flood plains and low terraces of the
Headly Road, 1,000 feet west of road, SE1/4SE1/4 sec. Ochlochonee River. They formed in clayey marine and
7, T. 3 N., R. 1 W. fluvial sediments. The water table is near the surface in
winter and early in the spring. Meggett soils are
Al-0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) frequently flooded, primarily in the winter (fig. 10). Slopes
fine sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; range from 0 to 2 percent. Soils of the Meggett series
friable; many fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt smooth are fine, mixed, thermic Typic Albaqualfs.
boundary. Meggett soils are closely associated with Albany,
A2-8 to 18 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine Blanton, Dorovan, Pamlico, Plummer, Rutlege, and
sandy loam, few fine faint gray mottles; weak, Yonges soils. Albany and Blanton soils are better
coarse medium granular structure; friable; many fine drained than Meggett soils. In addition, they have an A
and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy horizon more than 40 inches thick. Dorovan and Pamlico
boundary. soils are organic, and Meggett soils are mineral.
B21t-18 to 30 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sandy clay Plummer soils have an A horizon more than 40 inches
loam; many fine and medium distinct gray (10YR thick and are in a loamy family. Rutlege soils have an






70 Soil survey



few fine medium and coarse roots; very strongly
acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21tg-12 to 28 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) clay; many fine
distinct red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine
angular blocky; firm; few fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-28 to 35 inches; gray (N 5/0) clay; common
medium distinct red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate
medium subangular blocky structure parting to weak
fine angular blocky structure; firm; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B23tg-35 to 50 inches; gray (N 5/0) clay; many fine
distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and common
fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure
parting to weak fine angular blocky structure; firm;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B31g-50 to 64 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) clay loam;
many fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6) and
common medium distinct light reddish brown (2.5YR
6/4) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; firm; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B32g-64 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 6/1) clay loam;
common medium distinct light olive brown (2.5Y
5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; firm; slightly
acid.

Solum thickness ranges from 40 to 80 inches.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid
throughout.
Figure 10.-This area of Meggett soils, frequently flooded, The A horizon ranges from 3 to 13 inches thick. The
is near the Ochlockonee River. In areas with Al horizon has color in hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4,
adequate surface drainage, potential is high and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness of this horizon ranges
from 3 to 6 inches. The A2 horizon, where present, has
hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2.
umbric epipedon and are sandy throughout. Yonges soils Texture is loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam.
do not have an abrupt textural change and are in a fine- The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
loamy family. 7, and chroma of 2 or less that has few to many distinct
Typical pedon of Meggett very fine sandy loam in higher chroma mottles. This horizon is sandy clay or
wooded area about 380 yards west of National Forest clay. Average clay content of the upper 20 inches is 40
boundary, 2.5 miles south of Forest Service Road 305, to 60 percent, and silt content is less than 30 percent.
SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 11, T. 2 S., R. 5 W. The B3g horizon has the same color range as that of the
B2tg horizon. The B3g horizon is clay loam or sandy clay
A1--0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) very fine sandy loam. In some pedons fine concretions of calcium
loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) carbonate are in this horizon.
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; Some pedons have IIC horizons below a depth of 50
friable; many fine, medium and coarse roots; inches. Where present, this horizon has hue of 10YR to
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. 5Y, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 2 or less. Texture
A2g-6 to 12 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) loam; common ranges from sand to loamy fine sand.
fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and many These soils have a very strongly acid B2t horizon that
medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and many is confirmed by laboratory data and outside the series
medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; range in characteristics. These soils are considered
strong medium subangular blocky structure; friable; taxadjuncts to the Meggett series.






Leon County, Florida 71



Norfolk series of intersection with Perkin Road, SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 5, T.
1 N., R. 1 W.
The Norfolk series consists of well drained, moderately
or very slowly permeable, gently sloping to sloping soils Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) loamy sand;
on undulating uplands. They formed in medium to weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
moderately fine textured marine sediments, which in roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
places overlie clayey materials high in montmorillonitic B21t-7 to 14 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
clay. Slopes range from 2 to 8 percent. The water table fine sandy loam; moderate medium subangular
is perched above the lower part of the subsoil for brief blocky structure; friable; many fine roots; clay
periods during the winter. These soils are fine-loamy, bridging between sand grains; strongly acid; clear
siliceous, thermic Typic Paleudults. smooth boundary.
Norfolk soils are closely associated with Orangeburg, B22t-14 to 29 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
Troup, and Wagram soils. Orangeburg soils have red sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular
colors in the argillic horizon and do not have a seasonal blocky structure; friable; clay bridging between sand
high water table. Troup soils have an A horizon more grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
than 40 inches thick. Wagram soils have an A horizon 20 B23t-29 to 51 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
to 40 inches thick. sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular
Typical pedon of Norfolk loamy fine sand, 50 feet east blocky structure; friable; bridging of clay between
of power line and 2,800 feet south of Maclay Road, sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 6, T. 1 N., R. 1 E. B24t-51 to 59 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
sandy clay loam; common medium distinct strong
Ap-0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; angular blocky structure; friable; thin clay films on
many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear ped surfaces; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
smooth boundary. B25t-59 to 64 inches; mottled brownish yellow (10YR
A2-4 to 8 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loamy 6/6), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and light gray (10YR
fine sand; weak medium granular structure; very 7/1) sandy clay loam; moderate fine angular blocky
friable; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; structure; friable; common coarse iron nodules;
clear smooth boundary. strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21t-8 to 15 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine IIC-64 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) clay;
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky common medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
structure; friable; many fine and few medium roots; 6/8) mottles; moderate fine angular blocky structure
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary, grading to massive with depth; firm, plastic;
B22t-15 to 31 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) extremely acid.
sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; thin clay coatings on faces of Solum thickness ranges from 60 to more than 70
peds; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy inches. Unless limed, soil reaction is strongly acid to very
boundary. strongly acid in the A and Bt horizons. Reaction is
B23t-31 to 44 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) extremely acid to strongly acid in the IIC horizon where
sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky present.
structure; friable; thin clay coatings on faces of The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
peds; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 4. Texture is loamy fine
boundary. sand or loamy sand. Thickness ranges from 3 to 10
B24t-44 to 58 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) inches.
sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky The B2t horizon color is in hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
structure; friable; clay coatings on faces of peds; value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Few to common
very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. mottles of red, brown, yellow, and gray are in the lower
B3-58 to 68 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and part of the Bt horizon below a depth of 50 inches.
reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/8) sandy clay; weak Chroma 2 mottles associated with wetness are below a
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; very depth of 50 inches. Texture ranges from fine sandy loam
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, to clay loam. Average clay content in the upper 20
C-68 to 80 inches; mottled brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), inches of the B2t horizon is 18 to 30 percent.
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), and gray (10YR 5/1) The B3 horizon, where present, is mottled in hue of
sandy clay; massive; friable; very strongly acid. 7.5YR, 10YR, or 10R, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 6
or 8. Texture is sandy clay loam or sandy clay.
Typical pedon of Norfolk loamy sand, clayey The C horizon, where present, extends to depths
substratum, 5 to 8 percent slopes, in permanent pasture greater than 80 inches. It is mottled in hue of 7.5YR or
100 feet west of Old Bainbridge Road and 300 feet north 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 6. The texture






72 Soil survey



is variable but most commonly sandy clay loam or sandy B22tg-39 to 56 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
clay. loam; many fine and medium distinct light yellowish
The IIC horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or brown (10YR 6/4) and many fine and medium
7.5YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 2 or less, or is prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles;
mottled in these colors. Texture is dominantly clay but weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
ranges to sandy clay and is high in montmorillonitic clay. sand grains bridged and coated with clay; strongly
Depth to the IIC horizon ranges from 50 to 70 inches, acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B23tg-56 to 80 inches; mottled gray (10YR 5/1) and
Ocilla series dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy clay loam;
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable;
The Ocilla series consists of somewhat poorly drained, very strongly acid.
moderately permeable, nearly level soils on moderately
low positions in the uplands. They formed in sandy and Soil reaction is extremely acid to very strongly acid in
loamy marine sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 2 the A horizon and strongly acid or very strongly acid in
percent. The water table is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches the Bt horizon. Solum thickness is more than 72 inches.
for 2 to 6 months. These soils are loamy, siliceous, Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 20 to 40
thermic Aquic Arenic Paleudults. inches. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR or N, value of 3
Ocilla soils are geographically closely associated with or 4, and chroma of 0 or 1. Thickness ranges from 3 to 6
Albany, Lynchburg, Norfolk, Orangeburg, Plummer, and inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6
Pelham soils. Norfolk and Orangeburg soils are better and chroma of 3 or 4; hue of 2.5Y with value of 5 and
drained, have an A horizon less than 20 inches thick, chroma of 2, with value of 6 and chroma of 2 or 4, or
and are on higher positions than Ocilla soils. Albany soils with value of 7 or 8 and chroma of 4; or hue of 5Y, value
are on similar positions but have an A horizon more than of 6, and chroma of 3. Mottles in brown, yellow, gray,
40 inches thick. Plummer and Pelham soils are on lower and olive range from few to many. Texture of the A2
positions and are poorly drained. In addition, Plummer horizon is fine sand or loamy fine sand.
soils have an A horizon more than 40 inches thick. The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and
Typical pedon of Ocilla fine sand in a wooded area chroma of 4 to 8; or hue of 2.5YR, with value of 5 and
300 feet north and 50 feet east of Maddox and Flat chroma of 4 or 6, with value of 6 and chroma of 4, or
Roads intersection, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 7, T. 1 N., R. 1 with value of 7 and chroma of 6. Mottles of gray, brown,
W. or yellow range from common to many. Thickness
ranges from 6 to 12 inches.
A1-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) rubbed fine The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; and chroma of 6 or 8; hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and
many fine and medium roots; unrubbed color has chroma of 4; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of
salt-and-pepper appearance; extremely acid; abrupt 6 or 8 that has few to many mottles with chroma of 2.
wavy boundary. The B22tg and B23tg horizons range from mottled
A21-3 to 6 inches; pale olive (5Y 6/3) fine sand; few shades of yellow, brown, red, and gray, to a matrix in
fine distinct gray (5Y 5/1) mottles; weak fine hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1. The B2t
granular structure; very friable; few medium and horizon is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The clay
ar very strongly acid; gradual wavy content of the upper 20 inches of B2t horizon ranges
coarse roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary. from about 18 to 35 percent.
A22-6 to 22 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5YR 6/4)
loamy fine sand; few fine distinct gray (5Y 5/1) and Orangeburg series
common fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) The Orangeburg series consists of well drained,
mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable; moderately permeable, gently sloping to strongly sloping
few medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy soils on rolling uplands and hillsides. They formed in
boundary, loamy and clayey deposits. Slopes range from 2 to 12
81-22 to 29 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) loamy percent. The water table is below a depth of 72 inches.
fine sand; common medium distinct gray (N 5/0) These soils are fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic
and olive yellow (2.5Y 6/8) mottles; moderate fine Paleudults.
granular structure; very friable; few medium roots; Orangeburg soils are closely associated with Blanton,
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. Lucy, Norfolk, and Troup soils. Blanton soils have an A
B21t-29 to 39 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) horizon more than 40 inches thick and are not as well
sandy clay loam; common coarse distinct light olive drained as Orangeburg soils. Norfolk soils have a
gray (5Y 6/2) mottles; weak medium subangular yellowish Bt horizon. Lucy and Troup soils have an A
blocky structure; friable; sand grains coated and horizon more than 40 inches thick.
bridged with clay; strongly acid; clear wavy Typical profile of Orangeburg fine sandy loam in
boundary, wooded area 3,000 feet northwest of Woods Road at






Leon County, Florida 73



rear of Maclay Gardens where powerline crosses Maclay Ortega soils are closely associated with Albany,
Road, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 31, T. 2 N., R. 1 E. Kershaw, Plummer, and Rutlege soils. Albany soils do
not have a Bt horizon and are not as well drained as
A1-0 to 5 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/2) fine sandy loam; Ortega soils. Kershaw soils are better drained. Plummer
weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and and Rutlege soils are not as well drained. Ortega soils
medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. do not have the argillic horizon of Plummer soils and the
Bit-5 to 10 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/8) fine sandy umbric epipedon of Rutlege soils.
loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; Typical pedon of Ortega sand in a wooded area 1 1/2
few dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) stains; many fine and miles south of intersection of Florida Highway 369 and
medium roots; medium acid; clear smooth boundary. Capitol Circle, 1/2 mile east of Florida Highway 369 on
B21t-10 to 16 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) sandy Woods Road and 50 feet south of Woods Road
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 36, T. 1 S., R. 1 W.
structure; friable; many medium and few fine roots;
few clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid; A1-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grained;
gradual smooth boundary. loose; many fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
B22t-16 to 41 inches; red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; boundary.
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; C1-4 to 10 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
friable; few medium roots; few clay films on faces of sand; single grained; loose; many fine roots; strongly
peds; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary, acid; gradual irregular boundary.
B23t-41 to 80 inches; red (2.5YR 5/6) sandy clay loam; C2-10 to 28 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; single grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly
friable; few medium roots; patchy clay films on faces acid; gradual wavy boundary.
of peds; strongly acid. C3-28 to 44 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual
Solum thickness is more than 60 inches. Unless the wavy boundary.
soil is limed, reaction is strongly acid or very strongly C4-44 to 72 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single
acid. grained; loose; few faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
The A horizon is from 4 to 20 inches thick. The Ap or mottles; medium acid; gradual irregular boundary.
Al horizon ranges from 4 to 10 inches thick. It has hue C5-72 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 or 4. grained; loose; common medium distinct light
Some pedons have an A2 horizon. It has hue of 10YR yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; slightly acid.
with value of 5 and chroma of 4 or 6 or with value of 5
and chroma of 3 or 4. Soil reaction is very strongly acid to slightly acid.
The Bit horizon has hue of 5YR with value of 4 and The Ap or Al horizon ranges from 3 to 4 inches. It has
chroma of 8 or with value of 5 and chroma of 5 or 6; hue hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2.
of 7.5YR with value of 5 and chroma of 4 to 8 or with The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 5
value of 6 and chroma of 6 or 8; or hue of 10YR, value through 7 and chroma of 4 to 6. Few to common, fine to
of 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. Thickness ranges to 14 coarse mottles or pockets of white or light gray uncoated
inches, sand grains are in these horizons in some pedons but
The B2t horizon is sandy clay loam but ranges to fine are not indicative of wetness. Silt plus clay in the 10- to
sandy loam. Color is similar to the Bit horizon. Average 40-inch control section is less than 5 percent. The C3
clay content of the upper 20 inches of the Bt horizon horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of
ranges from 20 to 35 percent. 6 to 8 and few to common yellowish or reddish mottles
The C horizon, where present, extends to 80 inches or below 40 inches.
more. It has variable shades of yellow, brown, and red. The C4 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
Texture is variable, ranging from sandy loam to sandy chroma of 1 or 2, and has common medium distinct
clay. yellow, red or brown mottles. Depth to the C4 horizon is
more than 60 inches.
Ortega series
Pamlico series
The Ortega series consists of moderately well drained, Palico series
rapidly permeable, nearly level to gently sloping soils on The Pamlico series consists of very poorly drained,
ridges on the uplands. They formed in thick sandy moderately permeable, nearly level soils in drainageways
marine or eolian deposits. Slopes range from 0 to 5 and depressional areas. They formed in well
percent. The water table is from 60 to 72 inches below decomposed organic matter overlying sandy mineral
the surface generally and is from 40 to 60 inches sediments. Slopes are less than 1 percent. The water
occasionally during heavy rainfall. These soils are table is above the surface for 5 to 8 months and within a
thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. depth of 10 inches other months in most years. These






74 Soil survey



soils are flooded frequently. These soils are sandy or Pelham soils are associated with Albany, Lynchburg,
sandy-skeletal, siliceous, dysic, thermic Terric Ocilla, and Plummer soils. Albany, Lynchburg, and Ocilla
Medisaprists. soils are better drained and are on higher positions. In
Pamlico soils are closely associated with Dorovan, addition, Albany soils have an A horizon more than 40
Pelham, Plummer, and Rutlege soils. All these soils are inches thick and Lynchburg soils have an A horizon less
mineral in origin except Dorovan soils. Dorovan soils than 20 inches thick. Plummer soils are on a similar
have thicker layers of organic material, position but have an A horizon more than 40 inches
Typical pedon of Pamlico mucky peat from a swamp thick.
about 50 feet west of the Capitol Circle Highway, NW1/4 Typical pedon of Pelham fine sand in a cleared area
sec. 32, T. 1 N., R. 1 W. about 0.4 mile west of Bradfordville and 0.5 mile south of
Centerville Road, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 11, T. 2 N., R. 2 E.
0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky peat consisting of A1-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
partly decomposed moss, leaves, roots, and twigs; 35 weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
percent fiber content after rubbing; friable; slightly and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
sticky; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. boundary.
4 to 13 inches; black (10YR 2/1) rubbed muck; very dark A21-5 to 12 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
brown (10YR 2/2) pressed; about 25 percent fiber, few medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
less than 5 percent rubbed; fiber remaining after mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
rubbing is partly decomposed wood 1 to 2 millimeters; common fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
massive; friable; common to few fine and medium boundary.
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. A22-12 to 21 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Oa2-13 to 32 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fine sand; common medium and coarse distinct light
rubbed muck; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) pressed; gray (5Y 7/1) mottles; weak fine granular structure;
fiber remaining after rubbing is partly decomposed very friable; few fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
wood 1 to 2 millimeters; massive; friable; few fine boundary.
roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. A23-21 to 26 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) fine sand;
IlClg-32 to 60 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; single grained; loose; few medium root channels
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual that have red (2.5YR 4/8) interior coatings; strongly
wavy boundary. acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
IIC2g-60 to 80 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; B21tg-26 to 32 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay loam;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid. many fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
mottles; moderate fine and medium subangular
Combined thickness of the organic horizons ranges blocky structure; sand grains coated and bridged
from 16 to 40 inches. Reaction ranges from strongly acid with clay; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
to extremely acid throughout. B22tg-32 to 80 inches; light gray (2.5YR 7/2) sandy
The Oe horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and clay loam; common medium distinct yellow (5Y 7/6),
chroma of 1; or hue of N, value of 2 or 3. Fiber content many fine medium and coarse distinct yellowish
ranges from 35 to 50 percent after rubbing. Thickness brown (10YR 5/8), and many fine medium and
ranges from 0 to 4 inches. coarse prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 2 and medium subangular blocky structure; friable; thin
chroma of 1 or 2 or with value of 3 and chroma of 1 to clay coatings on faces of peds; very strongly acid.
3; hue of N with value of 2 or 3; or hue of 7.5YR, value
of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2. Fiber content after rubbing is Unless limed, soil reaction is strongly acid or very
less than 10 percent. The IICg horizon is sand or fine strongly acid.
sand and has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and chroma Thickness of the A horizon is 20 to 40 inches. The Al
of 1 or 2. horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of
1 or 2. It is 4 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon has hue
of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Pelham series The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 0 to 2 that may have mottles in shades
The Pelham series consists of poorly drained, of yellow, brown, or red. Texture is dominantly sandy
moderately permeable, nearly level soils in shallow loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam, but ranges to
depressional areas and on broad flats on the uplands sandy clay in a few places.
and along some drainageways. They formed in loamy
marine sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Plummer series
The water table is within 15 inches of the surface for 3
to 6 months in most years. These soils are loamy, The Plummer series consists of poorly drained,
siliceous, thermic Arenic Paleaquults. moderately permeable, nearly level soils on broad low






Leon County, Florida 75



areas, in poorly defined drainageways, and in Rutlege series
depressional areas. They formed in marine or fluvial
sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The water The Rutlege series consists of very poorly drained,
table is at the surface or within a depth of 15 inches for rapidly permeable, nearly level soils in shallow
3 to 6 months in most years. Depressional areas are depressional areas and narrow natural drainageways.
ponded for 6 months or more. These soils are loamy, They formed in deposits of sandy marine sediments.
siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleaquults. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The water table is at
Plummer soils are closely associated with Leon, or near the surface most of the year. Many areas are
Pelham, and Rutlege soils. Leon soils are on slightly flooded frequently for brief periods. These soils are
higher positions, have a spodic horizon, and are sandy to sandy, siliceous, thermic Typic Humaquepts.
a depth of 80 inches or more. Pelham soils have an Rutlege soils are closely associated with the Plummer,
argillic horizon between depths of 20 and 40 inches. Chipley, Ortega, Blanton, and Kershaw soils. Plummer
Rutlege soils have an umbric epipedon and are sandy soils do not have an umbric epipedon but do have an
throughout. argillic horizon. Chipley soils are on higher positions and
Typical pedon of Plummer fine sand in an idle area are better drained than Rutlege soils. Ortega soils are on
along Lake Jackson, 50 feet south of Longview Drive, much higher positions, are better drained, and do not
and 300 feet from Lake Jackson, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 4, T. have an umbric epipedon. Blanton soils are on a higher
1 N., R. 1 W. position, have an argillic horizon between depths of 40
and 80 inches, and do not have an umbric epipedon.
A11-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) Kershaw soils are excessively drained, are on high
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; positions, and do not have an umbric epipedon.
many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear Typical pedon of Rutlege loamy fine sand in wooded
wavy boundary. area 1,300 feet south of Jefferson Road, 2 miles
A12-6 to 17 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine northwest of Lloyd, SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 17, T. 1 N., R. 3
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy E.
boundary.
A21g-17 to 28 inches; gray (N 5/0) fine sand; single A11-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy
grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
boundary, many fine roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy
A22g-28 to 36 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sand; few fine boundary.
prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; single A12-5 to 23 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy sand;
grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
boundary, roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A23g-36 to 61 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; C1-23 to 32 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; loose; few coarse slightly cemented common medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
nodules; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
B2tg-61 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sandy wavy boundary.
loam; common fine prominent yellowish red (5YR C2-32 to 57 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky sand; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
structure; friable; sand grains bridged with clay; mottles; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
strongly acid. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C3-57 to 62 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few
Solum thickness is more than 72 inches. Reaction medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles;
ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid in the A single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
horizons, and very strongly acid to strongly acid in the boundary.
Btg horizon. C4-62 to 82 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 40 to 80 few medium distinct reddish brown (5YR 5/3)
inches. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid.
3 or 4, and chroma of 0 to 2. This horizon ranges from 4
to 17 inches thick. Texture is fine sand or mucky fine Reaction ranges from strongly acid to extremely acid
sand. The A2g horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, in the A horizon and from extremely acid to medium acid
and chroma of 1; hue of 5Y, value of 5 to 8, and chroma in the C horizon.
of 1; hue of 2.5Y, value of 8, and chroma of 2; or hue of The A horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or N, value of 2
N with value of 5 to 8. In some pedons, there are few to or 3, and chroma of 0 to 2. Thickness ranges from 15 to
common mottles in colors of brown, yellow, or gray. 24 inches. The horizon is loamy sand or loamy fine sand.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR through 5Y, value of
through 7, and chroma of 0 to 2 that may have mottles 5 through 7, and chroma of 0 or 1 and may not have
of red, yellow, or brown. This horizon is sandy loam, fine mottles. If mottled, the value is 4 through 7 and chroma
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. is 2 or less. The horizon is sand or fine sand.






76 Soil survey



Sapelo series Solum thickness ranges from 45 to 80 inches or more.
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid. Depth to
The Sapelo series consists of poorly drained, the Bh horizon ranges from 12 to 30 inches.
moderately permeable, nearly level soils in flatwoods. The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or N, value of
They formed in thick deposits of sandy and loamy 1 through 4, and chroma of 2 or less. Thickness ranges
materials. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. A from 3 to 7 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 2.5Y,
water table is 15 to 30 inches below the surface for 2 to 10YR, or N, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 2 or
4 months. These soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic Ultic less. Thickness of this horizon ranges from 8 to 20
Haplaquods. inches.
Sapelo soils are closely associated with Chipley, The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR or 10YR, value
Dorovan, Kershaw, Leon, Ortega, Pamlico, and Rutlege of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. This horizon is fine sand
soils. The associated soils do not have a spodic horizon or loamy fine sand and ranges from 6 to 20 inches in
except Leon. Leon soils do not have an argillic horizon, thickness. The B3 horizon is not present in all pedons.
Chipley, Kershaw, and Ortega soils are on higher Where present, hue is 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
positions and are better drained than Sapelo soils. chroma of 3. Thickness ranges from 2 to 4 inches.
Dorovan and Pamlico are organic soils and are more The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 5
poorly drained. Rutlege soils are more poorly drained through 7 and chroma of 2, or with value of 7 and
and have an umbric epipedon chroma of 3 or 4; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 through 8,
Typical pedonchroma of 2 or 4. This horizon is fine sand or sand
0.75 mile north of Capitola on Florida Highway 364, and chroma of or n i ine sd o s
about 30 feet west of highway, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 26, T. and ranges from 15 to 30 inches in thickness. Mottles
1 N., R. 2 E. range from few to many.
The B'2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 to 8,
Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5Y with value of 7 or 8
fine sand; moderate fine and medium granular and chroma of 1 or 2, with value of 5 or 6 and chroma of
structure; very friable; many fine and coarse roots; 1. This horizon is sandy clay loam or fine sandy loam.
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A2-6 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; Surrency series
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. The Surrency series consists of very poorly drained,
B21h-14 to 16 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) moderately permeable, nearly level soils in drainageways
loamy fine sand; weak fine granular structure; and depressional areas. They formed from marine or
friable; slightly brittle; few fine and medium roots; fluvial deposits of sandy and loamy materials. Slopes are
sand grains coated with colloidal organic matter; less than 2 percent. The water table is at the surface for
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. long periods and flooding is common. These soils are
B22h-16 to 22 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) loamy loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic Umbric Paleaquults.
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; few Surrency soils are closely associated with Dorovan,
brittle fragments; few fine and medium roots; sand Pamlico, and Rutlege soils. Dorovan and Pamlico soils
grains coated with colloidal organic matter; very are organic and Rutlege soils do not have an argillic
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. horizon.
B3-22 to 26 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; few Typical pedon of Surrency loamy sand, 100 feet north
medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and of Forest Service Road 301 and 0.1 mile east of Forest
very pale brown (10YR 7/3) mottles; weak fine Service Road 305N, sec. 14, T. 1 S., R. 3 W.
granular structure; very friable; many uncoated sand
grains; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. 01-3 inches to 0; roots and partly decomposed organic
A'21-26 to 33 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine matter.
sand; common medium distinct olive yellow (2.5Y A1-0 to 16 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy
6/6) and light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) mottles; sand; few medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) streaks;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
boundary, to medium roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy
A'22-33 to 43 inches; light gray (2.5YR 7/2) fine sand; boundary.
common medium distinct olive yellow (2.5Y 6/8) A2-16 to 36 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear sand; few medium faint gray (10YR 6/1) streaks;
wavy boundary. weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine
B'2tg-43 to 80 inches; gray (5YR 5/1) fine sandy loam; and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
many coarse prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) boundary.
mottles; weak medium and coarse subangular B21t-36 to 54 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
blocky structure; friable; sand grains coated and loam; common medium distinct mottles of yellowish
bridged with clay; very strongly acid. brown (10YR 5/6); weak fine subangular blocky






Leon County, Florida 77



structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy B22h-27 to 37 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand;
boundary, common medium faint dark brown (7.5YR 3/2)
B22t-54 to 65 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) stains along root channels; weak medium granular
sandy clay loam that has common medium distinct structure; very friable, noncemented; sand grains
mottles of yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and pale thinly coated with colloidal organic matter; very
brown (10YR 7/4); weak medium subangular blocky strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
structure; firm; very strongly acid. C-37 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
Solum thickness is 70 or more inches. Reaction is
extremely acid or very strongly acid. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or less, Total thickness of the A horizon is less than 30 inches.
and chroma of 1 or less and streaks that have hue of The Al or Ap horizon has rubbed hue of 10YR or N,
10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1. value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 0 to 2. Unrubbed, this
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through horizon is a mixture of white uncoated sand grains and
7, and chroma of 2 that has common mottles of chroma black organic matter. When dry, soil in this horizon has a
6 through 8 and streaks that have hue of 10YR, value of salt-and-pepper appearance. The A2 horizon has hue of
5 or 6, and chroma of 1. This horizon is loamy sand or 10YR or N, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 0 to 2. In
sand. some pedons this horizon has mottles of stronger
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 to chroma or vertical streaks of black, very dark gray, or
7, and chroma of 2 or less; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or gray.
6, and chroma of 2 that has common to many mottles The B21h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4,
that have hue of 10YR, 2.5YR, or 7.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1; or hue of N and value of 3. This
and chroma of 1 through 8. The Bt horizon is sandy horizon has many uncoated sand grains and does not
loam or sandy clay loam. meet the requirements of a spodic horizon. The B22h
horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 2 and chroma of
Talquin series 1, with value of 3 and chroma of 2 or 3, or with value of
The Talquin series consists of poorly drained, 4 and chroma of 2 to 4; hue of 7.5YR with value of 3
moderately to moderately rapidly permeable, nearly level and chroma of 2, or with value of 4 and chroma of 2 or
soils on broad flatwood areas. They formed in thick beds 4; or hue of 5YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 3 or 4.
of sandy marine sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 2 Sand grains are thinly to moderately coated with colloidal
percent. The water table is within 10 inches of the organic matter. B22h horizons meet the requirements of
surface for 1 to 3 months during high rainfall and within spodic horizon but do not have a weighted average of
depths of 20 to 40 inches for 9 months or more during 0.6 percent or more organic carbon in the matrix of the
most years. These soils are sandy, siliceous, thermic upper 12 inches or 2.3 percent or more in the upper 2
Entic Haplaquods. centimeters.
Talquin soils are closely associated with Leon, The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or N, value of 5
Rutlege, and Sapelo soils. Sapelo soils have an argillic to 7, and chroma of 0 to 4 that may or may not have
horizon beneath the spodic horizon. Rutlege soils have mottles of gray, brown, or yellow.
an umbric epipedon but do not have a spodic horizon.
Leon soils have better developed spodic horizons. Troup series
Typical pedon of Talquin fine sand in cleared area 1.5
miles east of Natural Bridge, 30 feet north of Natural The Troup series consists of well drained, moderately
Bridge Road, SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 2 S., R. 2 E. permeable, nearly level to gently sloping soils on high
uplands. They formed in unconsolidated marine or fluvial
Ap-0 to 10 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) rubbed fine deposits of sands and sandy clay loams. Slopes range
sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable; from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is below a depth of
many fine medium and large roots; many uncoated 80 inches or more. These soils are loamy, siliceous,
sand grains give a salt-and-pepper appearance; thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
extremely acid; clear smooth boundary. Troup soils are closely associated with Blanton, Lucy,
A2-10 to 25 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; Norfolk, and Orangeburg soils. Troup soils are better
common medium faint streaks of gray; single drained than Blanton soils. Norfolk and Orangeburg soils
grained; loose; few fine medium and large roots; have an A horizon less than 20 inches thick, and Lucy
very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary, soils have an A horizon 20 to 40 inches thick.
B21h-25 to 27 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine Typical pedon of Troup fine sand in old field 500 feet
sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable, south of U.S. Highway 27 on Old Bainbridge Road and
noncemented; common uncoated sand grains; very 100 feet west of pavement, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 31, T. 2
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. N., R. 1 W.






78 Soil survey



Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine than 5 percent plinthite in the argillic horizon. Lucy soils
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; have hues redder than 7.5YR in the argillic horizon.
many fine and medium roots; medium acid; gradual Ocilla soils are wetter and have low-chroma mottles
wavy boundary. within a depth of about 30 inches.
A21-8 to 19 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine Typical pedon of Wagram loamy fine sand, 0 to 5
sand; single grained; loose; many fine and medium percent slopes, in wooded area 50 feet north of
roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Bermuda Road, 0.5 mile west of Meridian Road,
A22-19 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 13, T. 1 N., R. 1 W.
sand; single grained; loose; common medium
pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1) uncoated sand A1-0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine
grains; few thin (2 to 4 millimeter) discontinuous sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy sand lamellae; many roots; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth
many medium and fine roots; slightly acid; gradual boundary.
wavy boundary. A21-3 to 9 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loamy
A23-26 to 44 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) fine fine sand; single grained; loose; many roots; strongly
sand; single grained; very friable; many medium and acid; gradual wavy boundary.
few fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. A22-9 to 19 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loamy
B21t-44 to 54 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) fine fine sand; single grained; loose; few roots; strongly
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky acid; gradual wavy boundary.
structure; friable; sand grains thinly coated and A23-19 to 31 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
bridged with clay; medium acid; gradual smooth loamy fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid;
boundary. gradual wavy boundary.
B22t-54 to 73 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sandy B21t-31 to 43 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) fine
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; sand grains coated and bridged structure; friable; clay bridging between sand grains;
with clay; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B23t-73 to 80 inches; red (2.5YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; B22t-43 to 52 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay; structure; friable; clay bridging between sand grains;
strongly acid. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Unless limed, reaction is strongly acid or very strongly B23t-52 to 62 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
acid throughout. sandy clay loam; few medium distinct red (2.5YR
The A horizon is from 40 to 80 inches or more in 5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
thickness. The Al or Ap horizon ranges from 2 to 8 structure; friable; clay bridging between sand grains;
inches thick. It has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and strongly acid; gradual irregular boundary.
chroma of 2. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of C-62 to 80 inches; reticulately mottled light gray (10YR
5 or 6, and chroma of 3 to 6; hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 7/1) red (10R 5/8) and brownish yellow (10bYR 6/8)
6, and chroma of 6 or 8; or hue of 5YR, value of 4, and sandy clay; weak coarse subangular blocky
chroma of 6 or 8. structure, grading to massive with depth; friable;
The B2t horizon extends to 80 inches or more. It has- strongly acid.
hue of 10R, 2.5R or 5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of
6 or 8; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 6 Reaction is strongly acid to very strongly acid
or 8. The texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. throughout.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR with value of 4
Wagram series or 5 and chroma of 1 or 2 or with value of 6 and chroma
of 2; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2.
The Wagram series consists of well drained, Thickness ranges from 3 to 6 inches. The A2 horizon
moderately permeable, nearly level to sloping soils on has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4
broad ridges and hillsides on the uplands. They formed through 6. Thickness ranges from 20 to 30 inches.
in loamy marine sediments. Slopes range from 0 to 8 The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
percent. The water table is below 72 inches. These soils chroma of 6 or 8. Texture is sandy clay loam or fine
are loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic Paleudults. sandy loam, but dominant texture is sandy clay loam. In
Wagram soils are closely associated with Blanton, some pedons the B3 horizon is not present, and the Bt
Dothan, Lucy, Norfolk, Ocilla, and Troup soils. Blanton horizon extends to 80 inches or more. Where present,
and Troup soils have an A horizon more than 40 inches the Bt horizon is reticulately mottled gray, red, brown, or
thick. Dothan and Norfolk soils have an A horizon less yellow sandy clay loam or sandy clay. Depth to the C
than 20 inches thick. In addition, Dothan soils have more horizon is more than 60 inches.






Leon County, Florida 79



Yonges series coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; many
fine roots; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The Yonges series consists of poorly drained, B22tg-24 to 53 inches; greenish gray (5G 5/1) sandy
moderately slowly permeable, nearly level soils in low clay loam; common medium distinct grayish green
areas and poorly defined drainageways on the uplands. (5G 5/2) mottles; moderate medium subangular
They formed in loamy marine sediments. Slopes are less blocky structure; friable; neutral; gradual wavy
than 2 percent. The water table is within 10 inches of the boundary.
soil surface for about 6 months. They are flooded B23tg-53 to 71 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) sandy clay
frequently for long periods in the winter. These soils are loam; common medium distinct gray (5Y 5/1, 6/1)
fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Typic Ochraqualfs. mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
Yonges soils are closely associated with Albany, friable to firm; dark gray (5Y 4/1) stains on structural
Dothan, Lynchburg, Norfolk, Orangeburg, and Plummer planes; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
soils. These soils have low base saturation. In addition, B3g-71 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/2) sandy clay
Albany soils have an A horizon 20 to 40 inches thick; loam; common medium distinct olive yellow (5Y 6/8)
Dothan, Norfolk, and Orangeburg soils are well drained; mottles; massive; friable; sticky; few lenses of sand
Lynchburg soils are somewhat poorly drained; and 1 inch thick; neutral.
Plummer soils have an A horizon more than 40 inches
thick. The solum thickness is 50 to 80 inches or more. Soil
Typical pedon of Yonges fine sandy loam 100 feet reaction ranges from extremely acid to mildly alkaline in
south of private road, 500 feet east of U.S. Highway 27, the A horizon and from medium acid to moderately
about 4,200 feet northwest of intersection of U.S. alkaline in the Btg horizon.
Highway 27 and Florida Highway 157, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. Thickness of the A horizon is about 20 inches. The Al
30, T. 2 N., R. 1 W. horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of
1 or 2. It is 5 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon has hue
A1-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) of 10YR, value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 0 to
fine sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; very 8 inches thick.
friable; many roots; extremely acid; clear smooth The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4
boundary. to 7, and chroma of 0 to 2. Texture is sandy clay loam.
A2-5 to 9 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine Mottles range from few to many. The B3g horizon has
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; color like that of the Btg horizon. This horizon is fine
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
B21tg-9 to 24 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay The Cg horizon, where present, has color similar to
loam; common medium distinct light olive brown (5Y that of the Btg horizon. Texture is sandy loam, fine
5/4) and dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) mottles; weak sandy loam or sandy clay loam and is usually stratified.









81








formation of the soils


In this section, the factors of soil formation are plants and animals
discussed and related to the soils in Leon County. In Plants have been the principal biological factor in the
addition, the processes of soil formation are described, formation of soils in this survey area. Animals, insects,
bacteria, and fungi also have been important in
factors of soil formation furnishing organic matter and bringing plant nutrients
from the lower to the upper horizons. Differences among
Soil is produced by forces of weathering and soil soils in amount of organic matter, nitrogen, and plant
formation acting on the parent material that has been nutrients and in soil structure and porosity are among
deposited or accumulated by geologic agencies. The those caused by plants and animals.
kind of soil that forms depends on five major factors-
the climate under which soil material has existed since parent material
accumulation; the plant and animal life in and on the soil; The parent material of the soils in Leon County
the type of parent material; the relief, or lay of the land; consists of beds of sandy and clayey materials that were
and the length of time the forces of soil formation have transported by floodwaters of major streams and by
acted on the soil material. waters of the sea, which covered the area a number of
The five soil-forming factors are interdependent; each times during the Pleistocene. During the high stands of
modifies the effect of the others. Any one of the five the sea, the Mio-Pliocene sediments were eroded and
factors can have more influence than the others on the redeposited or were reworked on the shallow sea bottom
formation of a soil and can account for most of its to form marine terraces and hills.
properties. For example, if the parent material is quartz All of Leon County is underlain by the Suwannee
sand, the soil generally has only weakly expressed Limestone. The Suwannee Formation is covered in the
horizons. The effect of the parent material is modified northern part of the county by sand and clay of the
horizions.Theefe of the p t m a i modified Miccosukee and Hawthorne Formations, in the
greatly in some places by the effects of climate, relief, southwestern part by sand of the St. Marks Formation
and plants and animals in and on the soil. As a soil and in the southeastern part by sand of the St. Marks Formation
S. rhand in the southwestern part by sand of the Jackson
forms, it is influenced by more than one of the five Bluff Formation. Several sinkholes in the southern part of
factors, but in some places all but one factor can have the county expose the Suwannee Limestone.
little effect. A modification or variation in any of these The parent materials in the county differ widely in
factors results in a different soil. mineral and chemical composition and in their physical
constitution. The main physical differences, for example
climate the differences between sand, silt, and clay, can be
The amount of precipitation, the temperature, the observed in the field. Other differences, such as mineral
humidity, and the wind are the climatic forces that act on and chemical composition, are important to soil
miit, f a ac o formation and affect present physical and chemical
parent material of soils. These forces also cause some characteristics of the soils. Many differences among soils
variation in the plant and animal life on and in the soils. in the county reflect original differences among the
In this way they influence changes in the parent material parent materials.
that result in soil development.
Leon County has a warm humid climate. The Gulf of relief
Mexico, together with numerous inland lakes, has a Relief has affected the formation of soils in Leon
moderating effect on both summer and winter County primarily through its influence on soil-water
temperatures. Summer temperatures are fairly uniform relationships and through its effect on erosion in the
from day to day. Winter temperatures, however, vary northern part of the county. Other factors of soil
considerably from day to day. Rainfall averages about 57 formation normally associated with relief, such as
inches a year. temperature and plant cover, are of minor importance in
Because of warm climate and abundant rainfall, the county.
chemical and biological actions are rapid. The abundant Four general relief areas-flatwoods, sand hills, rolling
rain leaches the soil of many plant nutrients, uplands, and flood plains-are in the county. There are






82



differences in soils in these different general areas that Relatively little geological time has elapsed since the
are directly related to relief, material in which the soils in the county formed was laid
The soils in the flatwoods area have a high water table down by the sea. The loamy and clayey horizons formed
and are periodically wet at the surface. These soils are in places through processes of clay translocation.
not as highly leached as those of the sandhills and the
rolling uplands. The soils in the sandhills are deep sandy processes of soil formation
soils that are subject to droughtiness. The soils on the Soil morphology refers to the process involved in the
rolling uplands are mostly loamy and clayey. These soils formation of a soil horizon or soil horizon differentiation.
are subject to erosion. The soils on the flood plains are The differentiation of horizons in soils in Leon County is
subject to flooding and prolonged wetness. the result of the accumulation of organic matter, the
e leaching of carbonates, the reduction and transfer of
iron, the accumulation of silicate clay minerals, or more
Time is an important factor in soil formation. The than one of these processes.
physical and chemical changes brought about by climate, Some organic matter has accumulated in the upper
living organisms, and relief are slow. The length of time layer of most of the soils to form an Al horizon. The
needed to convert raw geologic materials into soil varies quantity of organic matter is small in some of the soils
according to the nature of the geologic material and the but large in others.
interaction of the other factors. Some basic minerals, Leaching of carbonates and salts has occurred in
from which soils are formed, weather fairly rapidly, but nearly all of the soils. The effect of leaching has been
others are chemically inert and show little change over indirect in that the leaching permitted the subsequent
long periods of time. The processes of translocation of translocation of silicate clay materials in some soils.
fine particles within the soil to form various horizons is Most of the soils of the county are leached to varying
variable under different conditions, but the processes degrees.
always involve relatively long periods of time. Reduction and transfer of iron has occurred in most of
In Leon County the dominant geological materials are the soils in the county except the organic soils. In some
inactive. The sands are almost pure quartz and are of the wet soils, iron has been segregated within the
highly resistant to weathering. The finer textured silts deeper horizons to form reddish brown mottles and
and clays are the product of earlier weathering. concretions.






83








references


(1) American Association of State Highway [and Trans- (7) United States Department of Agriculture. 1967. Soil
portation] Officials. 1970. Standard specifications for survey laboratory methods and procedures for col-
highway materials and methods of sampling and lecting soil samples. Soil Survey Investigations Re-
testing. Ed. 10, 2 Vol., illus. port 1, 50 pp., illus.

(2) American Society for Testing and Materials. 1974. (8) United States Department of Agriculture. 1975. Soil
Method for classification of soils for engineering pur- taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for
poses. ASTM Stand. D 2487-69. In 1974 Annual making and interpreting soil surveys. Soil Conserva-
Book of ASTM Standards, Part 19, 464 pp., illus. tion Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Hand-
book 436, 754 pp., illus.
(3) Bureau of Geology, Division of Natural Resources,
Florida Department of Natural Resources. 1972. En- (9) United States Department of Commerce. 1964. Cli-
vironmental Geology and Hydrology, Tallahassee matic summary of the United States. Supplement for
Area, Florida. Special Publication No. 16. 1951 through 1960, Florida, Climatography of the
United States. No. 86-6, 61 pp., illus.
(4) Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services. 1967. Conservation needs inventory. (10) United States Department of Commerce. 1972. Cli-
mate of the United States. Climate of Florida, Clima-
(5) Hendry, Jr., Charles W., and Charles R. Sproul. tography of the United States. No. 60-8, 31 pp., illus.
1966. Geology and ground-water resources of Leon
County, Florida, Florida Geological Survey Bulletin. (11) West Florida Resource Conservation and Develop-
No. 47, 178 pp. illus. ment (RC&D) Associated Measure No. 2. 1970. An
appraisal of outdoor recreation potential in Leon
(6) United States Department of Agriculture. 1951. Soil County. (Mimeograph) West Florida RC&D Office,
survey manual. U.S. Department of Agriculture Marianna, Fla.
Handbook 18, 503 pp., illus. [Supplements replacing
pp. 173-188 issued May 1962]









85








glossary


ABC soil. A soil having an A, a B, and a C horizon, synonymous with base-exchange capacity, but is
AC soil. A soil having only an A and a C horizon, more precise in meaning.
Commonly such soil formed in recent alluvium or on Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less
steep rocky slopes, than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural
Aeration, soil. The exchange of air in soil with air from class, soil material that is 40 percent or more clay,
the atmosphere. The air in a well aerated soil is less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40 percent
similar to that in the atmosphere; the air in a poorly silt.
aerated soil is considerably higher in carbon dioxide Clay film. A thin coating of oriented clay on the surface
and lower in oxygen. of a soil aggregate or lining pores or root channels.
Aggregate, soil. Many fine particles held in a single Synonyms: clay coating, clay skin.
mass or cluster. Natural soil aggregates, such as Coarse fragments. If round, mineral or rock particles 2
granules, blocks, or prisms, are called peds. Clods millimeters to 25 centimeters (10 inches) in
are aggregates produced by tillage or logging. diameter; if flat, mineral or rock particles (flagstone)
Area reclaim (in tables). An area difficult to reclaim after 15.2 to 38.1 centimeters (6 to 15 inches) long.
the removal of soil for construction and other uses. Coarse textured soil. Sand or loamy sand.
Revegetation and erosion control are extremely Complex slope. Irregular or variable slope. Planning or
difficult. constructing terraces, diversions, and other water-
Available water caacit (available moisture control measures on a complex slope is difficult.
cAvaiabl e water capacity of ( ilsabl e moisture Concretions. Grains, pellets, or nodules of various
cavaiable for e bcciy mof sols to hold ais c ny sizes, shapes, and colors consisting of concentrated
available for use by most plants. It is commonly compounds or cemented soil grains. The
defined as the difference between the amount of compounds or cemented soil grains. The
id as the difference btwn the amount composition of most concretions is unlike that of the
soil water at field moisture capacity and the amount surrounding soil. Calcium carbonate and iron oxide
at wilting point. It is commonly expressed as inches are common compounds in concretions.
of water per inch of soil. The capacity, in inches, in Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease with
a 60-inch profile or to a limiting layer is expressed which a lump can be crushed by the fingers. Terms
as- commonly used to describe consistence are-
inches Loose.-Noncoherent when dry or moist; does not
Very low........................................................... 0 to 3 hold together in a m ass.
Low............................. ............................ 3 to 6 Friable.- W hen moist, crushes easily under gentle
aig e ........................... .. .. .. 9 to 12 pressure between thumb and forefinger and can be
Very high.................................................... More than 12 pressed together into a lum p.
Firm.-When moist, crushes under moderate
Base saturation. The degree to which material having pressure between thumb and forefinger, but
cation exchange properties is saturated with resistance is distinctly noticeable.
exchangeable bases (sum of Ca, Mg, Na, K), Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate
expressed as a percentage of the total cation pressure but can be pressed into a lump; will form a
exchange capacity. "wire" when rolled between thumb and forefinger.
Bedrock. The solid rock that underlies the soil and other Sticky.-When wet, adheres to other material and
unconsolidated material or that is exposed at the tends to stretch somewhat and pull apart rather than
surface. to pull free from other material.
Cation. An ion carrying a positive charge of electricity. Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to pressure;
The common soil cations are calcium, potassium, can be broken with difficulty between thumb and
magnesium, sodium, and hydrogen. forefinger.
Cation-exchange capacity. The total amount of Soft.-When dry, breaks into powder or individual
exchangeable cations that can be held by the soil, grains under very slight pressure.
expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100 grams Cemented.-Hard; little affected by moistening.
of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some other stated Contour stripcropping. Growing crops in strips that
pH value. The term, as applied to soils, is follow the contour. Strips of grass or close-growing






86 Soil survey



crops are alternated with strips of clean-tilled crops during the growing season. Wetness markedly
or summer fallow. restricts the growth of mesophytic crops unless
Control section. The part of the soil on which artificial drainage is provided. Somewhat poorly
classification is based. The thickness varies among drained soils commonly have a slowly pervious
different kinds of soil, but for many it is that part of layer, a high water table, additional water from
the soil profile between depths of 10 inches and 40 seepage, nearly continuous rainfall, or a combination
or 80 inches. of these.
Corrosive. High risk of corrosion to uncoated steel or Poorly drained.-Water is removed so slowly that
deterioration of concrete. the soil is saturated periodically during the growing
Cover crop. A close-growing crop grown primarily to season or remains wet for long periods. Free water
improve and protect the soil between periods of is commonly at or near the surface for long enough
regular crop production, or a crop grown between during the growing season that most mesophytic
trees and vines in orchards and vineyards, crops cannot be grown unless the soil is artificially
Cutbanks cave (in tables). The walls of excavations drained. The soil is not continuously saturated in
tend to cave in or slough. layers directly below plow depth. Poor drainage
Deferred grazing. Postponing grazing or arresting results from a high water table, a slowly pervious
grazing for a prescribed period, layer within the profile, seepage, nearly continuous
Depth to rock (in tables). Bedrock is too near the rainfall, or a combination of these.
surface for the specified use. Very poorly drained.-Water is removed from the
Diversion (or diversion terrace). A ridge of earth, soil so slowly that free water remains at or on the
generally a terrace, built to protect downslope areas surface during most of the growing season. Unless
by diverting runoff from its natural course, the soil is artificially drained, most mesophytic crops
Drainage class (natural). Refers to the frequency and cannot be grown. Very poorly drained soils are
duration of periods of saturation or partial saturation commonly level or depressed and are frequently
during soil formation, as opposed to altered ponded. Yet, where rainfall is high and nearly
drainage, which is commonly the result of artificial continuous, they can have moderate or high slope
drainage or irrigation but may be caused by the gradients.
sudden deepening of channels or the blocking of Drainage, surface. Runoff, or surface flow of water,
drainage outlets. Seven classes of natural soil from an area.
drainage are recognized: Eluviation. The movement of material in true solution or
Excessively drained.-Water is removed from the colloidal suspension from one place to another
soil very rapidly. Excessively drained soils are within the soil. Soil horizons that have lost material
commonly very coarse textured, rocky, or shallow, through eluviation are eluvial; those that have
Some are steep. All are free of the mottling related received material are illuvial.
to wetness. Erosion. The wearing away of the land surface by water,
Somewhat excessively drained.-Water is removed wind, ice, or other geologic agents and by such
from the soil rapidly. Many somewhat excessively processes as gravitational creep.
drained soils are sandy and rapidly pervious. Some Erosion (geologic). Erosion caused by geologic
are shallow. Some are so steep that much of the processes acting over long geologic periods and
water they receive is lost as runoff. All are free of resulting in the wearing away of mountains and the
the mottling related to wetness. building up of such landscape features as flood
Well drained.-Water is removed from the soil plains and coastal plains. Synonym: natural erosion.
readily, but not rapidly. It is available to plants Erosion (accelerated). Erosion much more rapid
throughout most of the growing season, and than geologic erosion, mainly as a result of the
wetness does not inhibit growth of roots for activities of man or other animals or of a
significant periods during most growing seasons. catastrophe in nature, for example, fire, that
Well drained soils are commonly medium textured. exposes the surface.
They are mainly free of mottling. Excess fines (in tables). Excess silt and clay in the soil.
Moderately well drained.--Water is removed from The soil does not provide a source of gravel or sand
the soil somewhat slowly during some periods, for construction purposes.
Moderately well drained soils are wet for only a Fast intake (in tables). The rapid movement of water
short time during the growing season, but into the soil.
periodically they are wet long enough that most Fertility, soil. The quality that enables a soil to provide
mesophytic crops are affected. They commonly plant nutrients, in adequate amounts and in proper
have a slowly pervious layer within or directly below balance, for the growth of specified plants when
the solum, or periodically receive high rainfall, or light, moisture, temperature, tilth, and other growth
both. factors are favorable.
Somewhat poorly drained.-Water is removed slowly Field moisture capacity. The moisture content of a soil,
enough that the soil is wet for significant periods expressed as a percentage of the ovendry weight,






Leon County, Florida 87



after the gravitational, or free, water has drained C horizon.-The mineral horizon or layer, excluding
away; the field moisture content 2 or 3 days after a indurated bedrock, that is little affected by soil-
soaking rain; also called normal field capacity, forming processes and does not have the properties
normal moisture capacity, or capillary capacity, typical of the A or B horizon. The material of a C
Fine textured soil. Sandy clay, silty clay, and clay. horizon may be either like or unlike that in which the
Flood plain. A nearly level alluvial plain that borders a solum formed. If the material is known to differ from
stream and is subject to flooding unless protected that in the solum, the Roman numeral II precedes
artificially, the letter C.
Genesis, soil. The mode of origin of the soil. Refers R layer.--Consolidated rock beneath the soil. The
especially to the processes or soil-forming factors rock commonly underlies a C horizon, but can be
responsible for the formation of the solum, or true directly below an A or a B horizon.
soil, from the unconsolidated parent material. Humus. The well decomposed, more or less stable part
Gleyed soil. Soil that formed under poor drainage, of the organic matter in mineral soils.
resulting in the reduction of iron and other elements Hydrologic soil groups. Refers to soils grouped
in the profile and in gray colors and mottles, according to their runoff-producing characteristics.
Grassed waterway. A natural or constructed waterway, The chief consideration is the inherent capacity of
typically broad and shallow, seeded to grass as soil bare of vegetation to permit infiltration. The
protection against erosion. Conducts surface water slope and the kind of plant cover are not considered
away from cropland. but are separate factors in predicting runoff. Soils
Gravel. Rounded or angular fragments of rock up to 3 are assigned to four groups. In group A are soils
inches (2 millimeters to 7.5 centimeters) in diameter. having a high infiltration rate when thoroughly wet
An individual piece is a pebble. and having a low runoff potential. They are mainly
Ground water (geology). Water filling all the unblocked deep, well drained, and sandy or gravelly. In group
pores of underlying material below the water table. D, at the other extreme, are soils having a very slow
Gully. A miniature valley with steep sides cut by running infiltration rate and thus a high runoff potential. They
water and through which water ordinarily runs only have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface,
after rainfall. The distinction between a gully and a have a permanent high water table, or are shallow
rill is one of depth. A gully generally is an obstacle over nearly impervious bedrock or other material. A
to farm machinery and is too deep to be obliterated soil is assigned to two hydrologic groups if part of
by ordinary tillage; a rill is of lesser depth and can thneacreae is artificially drained and part is
be smoothed over by ordinary tillage. Illuviation. The movement of soil material from one
Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to Iluviaton. The movement of soil material from one
the surface, having distinct characteristics produced materizon to another in the soil profile. Generally,
by soil-forming processes. In the identification of soil deposite ifrom an upper horizon and
deposited in a lower horizon.
horizons, an upper case letter represents the major Impervious soil. A soil through which water, air, or roots
horizons. Numbers or lower case letters that follow penetrate slowly or not at all. No soil is absolutely
represent subdivisions of the major horizons. An impervious to air and water all the time.
explanation of the subdivisions is given in the Soil Infiltration. The downward entry of water into the
Survey Manual. The major horizons of mineral soil immediate surface of soil or other material, as
are as follows: contrasted with percolation, which is movement of
0 horizon.-An organic layer of fresh and decaying water through soil layers or material.
plant residue at the surface of a mineral soil. Infiltration rate. The rate at which water penetrates the
A horizon.-The mineral horizon at or near the surface of the soil at any given instant, usually
surface in which an accumulation of humified expressed in inches per hour. The rate can be
organic matter is mixed with the mineral material, limited by the infiltration capacity of the soil or the
Also, a plowed surface horizon, most of which was rate at which water is applied at the surface.
originally part of a B horizon. Irrigation. Application of water to soils to assist in
B horizon.-The mineral horizon below an A horizon, production of crops. Methods of irrigation are-
The B horizon is in part a layer of transition from the Border.-Water is applied at the upper end of a strip
overlying A to the underlying C horizon. The B in which the lateral flow of water is controlled by
horizon also has distinctive characteristics such as small earth ridges called border dikes, or borders.
(1) accumulation of clay, sesquioxides, humus, or a Basin.-Water is applied rapidly to nearly level
combination of these; (2) prismatic or blocky plains surrounded by levees or dikes.
structure; (3) redder or browner colors than those in Controlled flooding.-Water is released at intervals
the A horizon; or (4) a combination of these. The from closely spaced field ditches and distributed
combined A and B horizons are generally called the uniformly over the field.
solum, or true soil. If a soil does not have a B Corrugation.-Water is applied to small, closely
horizon, the A horizon alone is the solum. spaced furrows or ditches in fields of close-growing




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