• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Soil survey reports
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Nassau County...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Nassau County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025708/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Nassau County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 219 p., 50 folded leaves of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watts, Frank C
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: [1991]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Nassau County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Nassau County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 135-136).
Statement of Responsibility: by Frank C. Watts ; United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued March 1991."
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025708
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001641678
notis - AHV3114
oclc - 25165020
lccn - 91601345

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Soil survey reports
        Page 1
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Nassau County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    How this survey was made
        Page 6
        Map unit composition
            Page 7
        Use of ground-penetrating radar
            Page 8
        Confidence limits of soil survey information
            Page 8
    General soil map units
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
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        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 77
        Crops and pasture
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 82
        Recreation
            Page 82
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 83
            Page 84
        Coastal dune management
            Page 85
        Engineering
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
    Soil properties
        Page 91
        Engineering index properties
            Page 91
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 92
        Water features
            Page 93
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
        Engineering index test data
            Page 98
    Classification of the soils
        Page 99
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 99
        Albany series
            Page 99
        Blanton series
            Page 100
        Boulogne series
            Page 101
        Brookman series
            Page 102
        Buccaneer series
            Page 103
        Centenary series
            Page 104
        Chaires series
            Page 105
        Corolla series
            Page 106
        Croatan series
            Page 107
        Echaw series
            Page 108
        Ellabelle series
            Page 109
        Evergreen series
            Page 109
        Fripp series
            Page 110
        Goldhead series
            Page 111
        Hurricane series
            Page 111
        Kershaw series
            Page 112
        Kingsferry series
            Page 113
        Kingsland series
            Page 114
        Kureb series
            Page 114
        Leefield series
            Page 115
        Leon series
            Page 116
        Lynn Haven series
            Page 117
        Mandarin series
            Page 118
        Maurepas series
            Page 119
        Meadowbrook series
            Page 119
        Meggett series
            Page 120
        Newhan series
            Page 121
        Ocilla series
            Page 122
        Ortega series
            Page 122
        Osier series
            Page 123
        Ousley series
            Page 124
        Penney series
            Page 125
        Pottsburg series
            Page 125
        Resota series
            Page 126
        Ridgewood series
            Page 127
        Rutlege series
            Page 128
        Sapelo series
            Page 128
        Tisonia series
            Page 129
        Wesconnett series
            Page 130
    Formation of the soils
        Page 131
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 131
            Page 132
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 133
            Page 134
    Reference
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Glossary
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Tables
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
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        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
    General soil map
        Page 220
        Page 221
    Index to map sheets
        Page 222
    Map
        Map 1
        Map 2
        Map 3
        Map 4
        Map 5
        Map 6
        Map 7
        Map 8
        Map 9
        Map 10
        Map 11
        Map 12
        Map 13
        Map 14
        Map 15
        Map 16
        Map 17
        Map 18
        Map 19
        Map 20
        Map 21
        Map 22
        Map 23
        Map 24
        Map 25
        Map 26
        Map 27
        Map 28
        Map 29
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        Map 31
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        Map 37
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        Map 40
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        Map 44
        Map 45
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        Map 47
        Map 48
        Map 49
        Map 50
        Map 51
        Map 52
        Map 53
        Map 54
        Map 55
        Map 56
        Map 57
        Map 58
        Map 59
        Map 60
        Map 61
        Map 62
        Map 63
        Map 64
        Map 65
        Map 66
        Map 67
        Map 68
        Map 69
        Map 70
        Map 71
        Map 72
        Map 73
        Map 74
        Map 75
        Map 76
        Map 77
        Map 78
        Map 79
        Map 80
        Map 81
        Map 82
        Map 83
        Map 84
        Map 85
        Map 86
        Map 87
        Map 88
        Map 89
        Map 90
        Map 91
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        Map 93
        Map 94
        Map 95
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Full Text

United States
Department of
Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil
Science Department;
and Florida Department
of Agriculture and
Consumer Services


Soil Survey of

Nassau County,

Florida


&










SOIL SURVEY REPORTS: NOT AS DAUNTING AS THEY SEEM
BY: DR. RANDY BROWN, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA



Many potential users of soil survey reports never get past
their first flip-through, mainly because of all the jargon
encountered. Such folks need to realize that, while the
reports are indeed rather rigidly formatted and technical in
their language, they do contain lots of interesting and
useful information.

At the beginning of a soil survey report are informative
sections dealing with the nature of the study area, its
history, its agriculture, climate, geology, and major land
uses.

There follows a section describing the generalized map units
that are found on the General Soil Map of the County (i.e.,
the colored fold-out map that appears near the back of the
book). These generalized map unit descriptions, together
with the general soil map itself, can be very useful in
gaining a feel for the overall landscape of the county.

The next section of the report gives descriptions of the map
units that are found on the fold-out, photo based soil maps
that are attached in the back of the book. These detailed
soil map unit descriptions help the user to envision and
understand the three-dimensional landscape. Here one gains
feel for the occurrence, appearance, nature, and behavior of
the soils at different places in the survey area.

Next in the soil survey report are discussions of the use
and management of the soils of the county. finally, there
are lengthy tabulations of interpretations, or predictions,
of the behavior o the soil map units in the contexts of a
wide variety of land uses, from agricultural to not-
agricultural.

Every land user should take the time to become familiar with
the contents of the soil survey report for the are of
interest. Users should also remember that assistance is
available to better understand the nature and use of soil
survey reports and of the lands and soils of the survey
area. Such assistance may be obtained through local Soil
and Water Conservation District offices, usually listed in
the phone book under county government (or perhaps under
U.S. Government-Department of Agriculture-Soil Conservation
Service, which is the federal agency that staffs these Soil
and Water Conservation District offices along with county
personnel).







Nassau Soil & Water Conservation District
314 S. Kings Rd. P. 0. Box 753
Thompson Mall-Suite A
Callahan, Florida 32011'




How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -

K0K( mo
To find information about /-- --
your area of interest, 21 It2 <3 4
locate that area on the 0 Q -
Index to Map Sheets, MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil Rq 5
maps. Note the number of 1.. 17 18 9 .. o
the map sheet, and turn to
INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
that sheet.


Locate your area of 7 Fa BaCac F
interest on the map N AsB
sheet. Note the map unit Bac
symbols that are in that ,
area. Turn to the Index AREA OF INTEREST
to Map Units (see Con- AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
tents), which lists the map survey may consist only ot numbers or
units by symbol and leliers. or they may be a combination
name and shows the ot numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1987. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1987. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1987. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. The survey is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Nassau County Soil and Water Conservation District.
The Nassau County Board of County Commissioners contributed financially to
the acceleration of the survey. Additional assistance was provided by the Florida
Department of Transportation.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: This scenic river is a valuable natural resource in Nassau County. The Kingsland and
Maurepas soils along the river are used for wildlife refuge.

















Contents


Index to m ap units ............................... iv
Sum mary of tables .............. ................ v
Foreword ......................... ............ vii
General nature of the county ....................... 1
How this survey was made......................... 6
Map unit composition ........................... 7
Use of ground-penetrating radar................. 8
Confidence limits of soil survey information ........ 8
General soil map units.............. ............. 9
Detailed soil map units .......................... 19
Use and management of the soils............... 77
Crops and pasture ............................. 77
Woodland management and productivity ........ 79
Windbreaks and environmental plantings ......... 82
Recreation ............. ... ............. 82
Wildlife habitat ......................... 83
Coastal dune management............ ........ 85
Engineering ............ .. ........... 85
Soil properties ................................. 91
Engineering index properties .................... 91
Physical and chemical properties ............... 92
Water features................................. 93
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
selected soils .............................. 94
Engineering index test data ..................... 98
Classification of the soils ........................ 99
Soil series and their morphology...... .......... 99
Albany series .................................. 99
Blanton series ................. ........... 100
Boulogne series ............................. 101
Brookman series ............. .......... 102
Buccaneer series ......................... 103
Centenary series................ ............. 104
Chaires series .............. ............. 105
Corolla series........... .. ............. 106
Croatan series................ ............... 107


Echaw series ................ ...........
Ellabelle series ...............................
Evergreen series ...........................
Fripp series ............. ..............
G oldhead series .............. ...............
Hurricane series ............. ..............
Kershaw series ..................... ..........
Kingsferry series...............................
Kingsland series ..............................
Kureb series ..................................
Leefield series ................................
Leon series ................................
Lynn Haven series .. .........................
Mandarin series ............................
Maurepas series .....................
Meadowbrook series ............. ............
Meggett series ................................
Newhan series ................................
Ocilla series .........................
O rtega series...... .. ........ ... .. ............
Osier series ................................
O usley series .................................
Penney series ................................
Pottsburg series .............. ...............
Resota series.................. ..............
Ridgewood series.............. ..............
Rutlege series .......................
Sapelo series .................................
Tisonia series ................................
W esconnett series ............................
Formation of the soils .....................
Factors of soil formation .......................
Processes of horizon differentiation.............
References ..................................
Glossary............. .......................
T a b les ................ .......................


Issued March 1991


108
109
109
110
111
111
112
113
114
114
115
116
117
118
119
119
120
121
122
122
123
124
125
125
126
127
128
128
129
130
131
131
133
135
137
145

















Index to Map Units


2- Arents, nearly level ................. ..........
3- Beaches ........................... .. .......
4- Echaw fine sand ....................... ......
5- Fripp fine sand, rolling .........................
6-Hurricane-Pottsburg fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
slopes................................
7-Kingsland mucky peat, frequently flooded .......
8-Kureb fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ..........
9- Leon fine sand .................... .... ........
10-Mandarin fine sand .....................
1 1- Chaires fine sand ..........................
12-Newhan-Corolla, rarely flooded, fine sands,
rolling .................................... ..
13- Goldhead fine sand ..........................
14-Rutlege mucky fine sand, frequently flooded....
15-Buccaneer clay, frequently flooded ............
16-Ellabelle mucky fine sand, frequently flooded ...
17- Urban land ................. ......... .....
18-Lynn Haven-Wesconnett-Leon complex,
depressional .........................
19-Leon fine sand, tidal ......................
20-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........
21-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......
22-Sapelo-Leon fine sands ....................
23-Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .........
24-Kingsferry fine sand.............. .......
25-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded............
26-Centenary fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.....
27-Ridgewood fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....
28-Tisonia mucky peat, frequently flooded.........


29-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 49
30-Kureb-Resota fine sands, rolling.............. 50
31-Kershaw fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes ...... 51
32-Aqualfs, loamy .............................. 53
33-Goldhead-Meadowbrook fine sands,
depressional .................. ............. 53
34-Croatan muck, frequently flooded............. 54
36-Boulogne fine sand ......................... 54
37-Meggett loamy fine sand .................... 56
38-Meggett fine sandy loam, rarely flooded........ 57
39-Evergreen-Leon mucks, depressional.......... 59
40-Brookman mucky fine sandy loam,
depressional ................. .............. 59
44-Corolla fine sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes,
rarely flooded ............................... 60
45-Meggett loamy fine sand, depressional......... 61
46-Buccaneer clay, rarely flooded ............... 61
47-Leefield fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....... 62
49-Ousley and Mandarin fine sands,
occasionally flooded ......................... 63
50-Blanton fine sand, 12 to 20 percent slopes ..... 65
51-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........ 66
52-Osier loamy fine sand, frequently flooded ...... 67
53-Meadowbrook fine sand ..................... 68
54-Sapelo fine sand........................... 69
55-Meadowbrook-Goldhead-Meggett complex,
2 to 5 percent slopes ........... .......... 71
56-Blanton-Ortega fine sands, 5 to 12 percent
slopes...................................... 72
57-Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....... 73
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ............................ 146

Freeze data (table 2)............... .... .... .. ............... 147

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3) .................... 148
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4)... 149
Land capability. Corn. Bahiagrass. Grain sorghum.
Improved bermudagrass.

Woodland management and productivity (table 5)......................... 152
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Recreational development (table 6)................ ..................... 157
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

W wildlife habitat (table 7) ................................................ 162
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 8) ......................... ........... 166
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.

Sanitary facilities (table 9) ............................ ................. 171
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.

Construction materials (table 10) ............. .......................... 176
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.

Water management (table 11)........................................... 180
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.




















Engineering index properties (table 12) ................ ................. 186
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 13)................... 192
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.

Water features (table 14) ................................... ............ 196
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table.

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 15) ........................... 199
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 16)......................... 206
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 17) .............. ............... 213
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.

Engineering index test data (table 18) ................... ............... 216
FDOT report number. Classification-AASHTO, Unified.
Mechanical analysis. Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture
density.

Classification of the soils (table 19) .................................... 219
Family or higher taxonomic class.
















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Nassau County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be used
as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to
use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly
suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service









































































Location of Nassau County in Florida.














Soil Survey of

Nassau County, Florida


By Frank C. Watts, Soil Conservation Service

Others participating in the fieldwork were J. Andrew Adam, James W. Bell,
Donald 0. Clark, David J. Hvizdak, Jeffery A. Lepp, Robert D. Weihrouch,
Bradley A. Wheeler, David L. White, and David E. Wilkinson, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services


NASSAU COUNTY is in the extreme northeast corner of
Florida. The St. Marys River and the Georgia state line
form the entire northern boundary and most of the
western boundary of the county. The Atlantic Ocean is
to the east, Duval County is to the south, and Baker
County is to the southwest. The total area of the county
is 428,826 acres, or 649 square miles. Bodies of water
that are more than 40 acres in size cover 13,440 acres.
Fernandina Beach, the county seat, is on Amelia
Island in the northeast corner of Nassau County. It has
a population of about 7,800. The total population of the
county is about 39,000.
Forestry and agriculture are the main businesses.
The forestry industry is mainly concentrated in the
eastern half of the county with two pulp mills on Amelia
Island and a paper bag manufacturing company south
of Yulee.


General Nature of the County
This section gives general information about the
climate; history and development; natural resources;
agriculture; transportation facilities; and geomorphology,
geology, and hydrogeology in Nassau County.


Climate
The climate in Nassau County is characterized by
long, warm, humid summers and mild winters. It is
favorable for the production of crops, livestock, and pine
trees. The moderating influence of the Atlantic Ocean
and the Gulf Stream on maximum temperatures in
summer and on minimum temperatures in winter is
pronounced along the coast but diminishes noticeably a
few miles inland.
Rainfall is heaviest in the summer. About 65 percent
of the annual total falls from June through October in an
average year. The growing season falls within this
period for most crops. The remaining 35 percent is
more or less evenly distributed during the rest of the
year.
The average maximum temperature shows little day-
to-day variation. The temperature can be as high as 96
degrees F for at least 1 day a month during the
summer. The minimum temperature in winter varies
considerably from day to day, mainly because of
periodic invasions of cold, dry air moving southward
from across the continent. Table 1 shows summarized
climatic data based on records collected at the
Jacksonville International Airport (17, 19). The highest







Soil Survey


recorded temperature during the period 1941 to 1985
was 105 degrees in July 1942, and the lowest
temperature was 7 degrees in January 1985.
In many areas, particularly near the water,
temperatures seldom drop below freezing.
Temperatures fall to freezing or below about 12 times a
year. It is rare when the temperature does not rise
above 32 degrees during the day; in fact, there have
been only five occasions on which it failed to do so
(19). Most notable of these was the great freeze of
February 13, 1899, when the maximum temperature for
the day was only 27 degrees. The freeze data shown in
table 2 were taken at the Jacksonville International
Airport (18). The average date of the first freeze is
December 16 and that of the last is February 6.
Most rainfall in the summer occurs as afternoon or
evening showers and thundershowers; sometimes, 2 to
3 inches fall within an hour. Daylong rains in the
summer are rare. Generally, they are associated with
tropical storms. Rainfall in the fall, winter, and spring is
seldom as intense as in the summer. According to the
Environmental Data Service at the Jacksonville
International Airport Weather Station, rainfall in excess
of 8 inches during a 24-hour period can be expected
sometime during the year in about 1 year out of 10. Hail
falls occasionally during thunderstorms, but hailstones
generally are small and seldom cause much damage.
Snowfall is rare in Nassau County. When it does
occur, it generally melts as it hits the ground. Since
1871, snow has fallen in the following measurable
amounts: 1.9 inches on February 12-13, 1899; 1.5
inches on February 13, 1958; and 0.5 inch on March 1,
1986. On January 10, 1800, 5 inches of snow was
recorded at Point Peter, near the mouth of the St.
Marys River.
Tropical storms can affect the area from early in
June through mid-November. The chance of winds
reaching hurricane force, 74 miles per hour or more, in
the Jacksonville area is about 1 in 50. The copious
rains and the flooding associated with these storms can
cause considerable damage.
Extended periods of dry weather can occur in any
season but are most common in the spring and fall. Dry
periods in April and May generally are shorter than
those in the fall but are more serious; temperatures are
higher and the need for moisture is greater.
Prevailing winds are generally northeasterly in the fall
and winter and southwesterly in the spring and summer.
Wind speed, which averages slightly less than 9 miles
per hour, is 2 or 3 miles per hour higher in early
afternoon. It is slightly higher in the spring than in other
seasons of the year.


History and Development
Jan H. Johannes, Sr., author, "Yesterday's Reflections," a history
of Nassau County, helped prepare this section.
In June 1521, Francisco Gordilla led the first
expedition into the area that would later become
Nassau County. He explored from what is now the St.
Johns River past the present day Nassau and St. Marys
Rivers.
Forty-one years later, Jean Ribault, a French admiral
and explorer, recorded the first contact with the
Timuquan Indians. He named present-day Amelia Island
the "Isle de Mai." In 1567, Pedro Menendez, the
Spanish Governor of Florida, built a small fort on the
Isle de Mai. Many missions were established to
Christianize and educate the Indians.
After years of hostilities between the Spanish and
English for control of Florida, Spain ceded all of Florida
to England in 1763 in the Treaty of Paris. The treaty of
1783 returned Florida to Spanish control. A land-grant
system similar to that used by the Spanish in their
earlier occupation of Florida evolved. The platting of the
donated land formed the unequal and unusually shaped
sections of the county that remain today.
On July 10, 1821, an agreement between the United
States and Spain made it possible for Florida to
become part of the United States. In 1822, Congress
passed legislation making Florida a territory. In the first
months of its existence as a territory, the area between
the St. Marys and Nassau Rivers, including Amelia
Island, was part of Duval County. During one of the first
councils, this land was separated from Duval County,
and Nassau County was established in 1824. In the
United States, only Amelia Island has been under eight
different flags-French, Spanish, English, Patriots,
Green Cross of Florida, Mexican, Confederate, and
United States (4).
Fernandina was first designated as the county seat.
In 1835, the county seat was moved to the Sand Hill
area east of present-day Evergreen. In about 1862, it
was moved to Kings Ridge, about 5 miles north of
present-day Callahan. In 1865, the county seat was
returned to Fernandina Beach, where it remains.
In 1842, a tract of land on the north end of Amelia
Island was purchased by the U.S. Government for a
military installation to guard the mouth of the St. Marys
River, protect coastal and interior shipping, and defend
the port of Fernandina. The fort was named in honor of
General Duncan Lamont Clinch, who fought in the
Second Seminole War. In 1926, it was purchased by a
private interest but was later sold to the state of Florida.
Fort Clinch State Park was established in 1936 and







Nassau County, Florida


became one of the first parks in the Florida park
system.
In 1896, the running of contraband to the Rebel
Cuban Army during the Cuban Revolution brought new
prosperity to Fernandina. During 1913 and 1914,
shrimp, oyster, canning, fertilizer, and fishing industries
were started in Nassau County. In 1936 and 1937, the
construction of two mills was the greatest contributing
factor to the economic growth of Fernandina.
Callahan, a town of 1 square mile, was incorporated
in 1911. It was named for a 19th century railroad
construction gang leader, Daniel Callahan. The town
has always been a stopover for travelers for both the
railroad and a well used road, originally named Kings,
which bisects the town. The Civil War temporarily
destroyed the railroad lines, but people continued to
move into the Callahan area because Confederate
sympathizers left threatened coastal areas and moved
inland. Rail repair was completed by the late 1860's,
but even with the supply lines reopened by rail,
Callahan residents continued to grow their own rice,
corn, cotton, and cane. Two water-powered grits mills
thrived on Alligator Creek, which was the site of the
1778 Revolutionary War battle of Alligator Bridge,
where the British defeated the American Patriots.
Hilliard was incorporated in 1947. It was founded in
1881 by Cuyler Walter Hilliard and James Bailey.
Hilliard, a south Georgia native and Confederate Army
officer in the War Between the States, went into the
timber business with Bailey after the war. The town of
Hilliard was a center of timber production and an
agricultural community. In the early 1900's, a decision
was made to move the community's main business
district away from the railroad tracks, 1 block east, to
border the Kings Highway, a major north-south
connector road, which today is U.S. Highways 1, 23,
and 301. Hilliard today remains a rural community of
small shops, timber operations, and farming. Its largest
employer is the Federal Aviation Administration's air
traffic control center, which is a major aircraft control
center for the southeast.
Bryceville is an unincorporated community in the
southwest corner of Nassau County. Like many towns
in the county, its existence began and flourished
because of the railroad. Brandy Branch was the first
name for Bryceville. Brandy Branch was a stream that
meandered through Nassau County. A railroad was
constructed in the mid-1850's near the stream, making
it possible to market the virgin interior pine. During this
time George W. Bryce built a country store. In 1879,
Bryce became postmaster of the Brandy Branch Post
Office, which was along the rails east of the swamp


area. Perhaps to distinguish themselves from Brandy
Branch as the new center of growth, Bryce changed the
name of the post office to Bryceville. Lumbering was the
biggest industry around Bryceville. Steam engines that
ran on the railroad had an insatiable appetite for wood
to fuel their fires. Many people derived income from
selling firewood to the Florida Line. Woodracks were
built along the line and stocked.
In 1839, in an effort to create a direct 15-mile route
between Jacksonville and St. Marys, Georgia, the U.S.
Congress granted $7,500 to construct Harts Road,
which crossed through Nassau County in much the
same location where U.S. Highway 17 runs today. The
road soon became a major artery. In the late 1850's,
with the addition of David Yulee's Florida Railroad (the
first railroad in the state to travel from the Atlantic
Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico), a community sprang up
at the intersection of the railroad and the new north-
south thoroughfare. After the Civil War this community,
originally named Harts Road, adopted Yulee's name
and continued to grow, although it has never become
incorporated. Yulee remains at the crossroads of major
highway and rail traffic in Nassau County.
Many communities formed in Nassau County
because of the railroads, lumbering, and rivers. In 1790,
Brickyard was the site of a brick plant along the St.
Marys River. It did not evolve into a community until the
1840's. In 1791, Nassauville was a community in the
southeastern part of the county along the Nassau River.
In 1797, O'Neal was a farming community now along
the Yulee-Fernandina Railroad. In the 1850's, Dyal was
a farming community about 5 miles north of Callahan.
By 1881, Dyal station was built along the Savannah,
Florida, and Western Railroad that ran from Waycross
to Jacksonville. In 1853, Orange Bluff became a
lumbering community on a bluff along the St. Marys
River. In 1876, Dutton was a lumbering community 12
miles south of Callahan, along the rails. In 1880, Ratliff
was a lumbering settlement on the Savannah, Florida,
and Western Railroad at the Duval County line. In 1880,
Boulougne was a community that formed where the
Savannah, Florida, and Western Railroad crossed over
the St. Marys River. This community has relocated to
three different locations.
In 1881, Italia had a brick factory along the railroad
from Fernandina to Cedar Key and between Callahan
and Yulee. In 1883, Crawford was founded as a
lumbering community 4 miles south of Callahan. In
1898, it also became the eastern end of the St. Marys
Railroad, which was a short lumbering railroad built into
Florida from Georgia. Lessie was the site of a
turpentine still north of the Wilder Swamp. In 1891,







Soil Survey


Ingehome (later Ingle) was a lumbering community 2
miles north of Bryceville and along the railroad. In 1890,
Kent was a lumbering community along the St. Marys
Railroad about 3 miles east of the St. Marys River. In
1901, Mattox was the southwesternmost community in
Nassau County at the junction of the Seaboard and the
Jacksonville and Southwestern Railroads. In 1912,
Gross had a turpentine still along the railroad from
Yulee to Kingsland, Georgia.

Natural Resources
Heavy minerals have higher specific gravities than
quartz, or ordinary sand. Those commonly found in
Florida include ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and staurolite.
They are used to manufacture paint, cement, glass,
electronics, and porcelain (5).
Heavy minerals were mined from the Boulogne ore
body on the Duval Upland about 2 miles south of
Boulogne in western Nassau County (11). These
minerals occurred in the form of sand-size grains mixed
with ordinary quartz sand grains.
Sand and clayey sand cover the surface of Nassau
County to varying depths. Although they are not being
mined at present, the potential for development exists
for their use as base material or fill material for roads.
Soil is an important resource in the county. Soil
suitability for various uses generally is based on
evaluation of soil properties. Interpretations in this soil
survey are made as to the effects these properties can
have on use.

Agriculture
In 1983, about 300 farms were in Nassau County.
Land classified as agricultural acreage made up
350,134 acres, or 84.3 percent, of the county. Of that
total, 338,634 acres was in woodland, 10,750 acres in
cropland, and 750 acres in pasture. The average size of
a farm was about 178 acres. The total acreage in farms
was 54,131.
In addition to dairy, poultry, and beef sales, Nassau
County farmers produce small amounts of corn and
tobacco.
Woodland makes up 338,634 acres, or 81.5 percent,
of the county. It includes public land, commercial and
privately owned woodland, and forest industry
woodland.

Transportation Facilities
Nassau County is served by a good transportation
network. Interstate Highway 95 and U.S. Highway 17


GEORGIA


Tidal creeks


SEA ISLANDS


ATLANTIC OCEA\


GEORGIA



BAKER COUNTY


0 5 10 1 24 Mi
0 8 lb 24 -12 4P K,


Figure 1.-Geomorphic provinces of Nassau County.



traverse the central part of the county, and U.S.
Highways 1, 23, and 301 traverse the western part.
Several paved state and county roads serve most of the
other parts of the county.
One railroad provides freight transportation in Nassau
County. The Fernandina Beach Municipal Airport on
Amelia Island can accommodate planes up to medium-
sized jets. Commercial air passenger service is
available at the nearby Jacksonville International
Airport.

Geomorphology, Geology, and
Hydrogeology
Richard A. Johnson, Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology,
Florida Department of Natural Resources, prepared this section.
Nassau County has a humid, subtropical climate.
Elevation ranges between mean sea level (m.s.l.) and
about 90 feet above m.s.l. in the western part of the
county. Over three-quarters of Nassau County's
boundary line is formed by the St. Marys and Nassau
Rivers, and these rivers were the main influence on its
geomorphic evolution.

Geomorphology
Nassau County has three major geomorphic
subdivisions. From east to west, they are the Sea
Islands, the St. Marys Meander Plain, and the Duval
Upland (fig. 1). Most of the material for this section was
summarized from The Geomorphology of the Florida
Peninsula (20).
The county is dominated by the meandering, muddy







Nassau County, Florida


Nassau and St. Marys Rivers and their abandoned
channels and other tributaries rather than by the marine
influences that are dominant to the south of the county.
The county is the southern end of a large geomorphic
area, the Sea Islands, which extend north into South
Carolina. These barrier islands, which are separated
from the mainland by shallow, meandering tidal creeks
rather than by broad, open lagoons, are characteristic
of this subdivision. They are a consequence of the large
amount of sediment, which is carried by the rivers and
is emptied into the tidal creeks. Amelia Island is typical
of the Sea Islands.
The St. Marys Meander Plain is in the central and
east-central parts of the county. It is a relatively flat
plain that has a maximum elevation of about 25 feet
above m.s.l. It is characterized by active streams that
have cut into the plain. This process has apparently
been active in the past since evidence exists of many
older meandering streams throughout the area.
The Duval Upland is in the western part of the
county. It is a high, flat area that has elevations of 70 to
90 feet above m.s.l. The local streams and creeks in
this subdivision have also formed deep valleys similar
to those in the St. Marys Meander Plain to the east.
Geology
The sediments of northeastern Florida generally are
divided into two categories. The first consists of several
hundred feet of sand and clay at and near the surface
interbedded with minor carbonate beds of limestone and
dolomite. Below these sediments, the second category
is a thick sequence of Cenozoic era carbonates that
extend to a depth of about 2,500 feet (6). The upper
part of this carbonate section makes up the Floridan
Aquifer. Figure 2 shows an east-to-west cross section
of the county from the base of the Floridan Aquifer
upward.
The Avon Park Formation consists of a thick
sequence of interbedded limestone and dolomite, which
has mostly been recemented and hardened through the
action of ground water. The formation is about 500 to
700 feet thick. The top of the formation begins between
700 and 900 feet below the land surface (5). Dolomite
beds are most common at the top and base of the Avon
Park Formation, which consists of very hard, brown,
recrystallized, unfossiliferous dolomite. Large cracks or
joints are common in this section. The limestone
consists of white to light brown, very fine grained,
calcite particles, which are sometimes intermixed with
peat and, in places, with small fossils.
The Ocala Group consists predominantly of relatively
pure white limestone. It is as much as 250 feet thick.


The limestone generally is made up of the shells of
microscopic, single-celled animals foraminiferaa), which
are poorly cemented and very crumbly to well cemented
and hard. Throughout most of the county, the top of the
Ocala Group limestone is between 400 and 550 feet
below the land surface.
Overlying the Ocala Group is the Hawthorn Group,
which consists of interbedded sand, clay, and
carbonate. The beds of sand and clay are dominant
except near the base of the Hawthorn Group where
thick, hard, sandy carbonate beds occur. Throughout
most of this group, sand-size grains of phosphate are
common except in some areas where the very top of
the Hawthorn Group consists of relatively thin clay and
carbonate beds that are nonphosphatic to sparsely
phosphatic. The Hawthorn Group is between 300 and
500 feet thick in Nassau County. The top of the
Hawthorn Group is from 120 to 170 feet below the land
surface.
Shell beds overlie the Hawthorn Group throughout
most of the county. If present, they range up to 50 feet
in thickness. The shell beds consist of clay and sand,
which form the matrix for the shell material. The top of
the shell beds is between 30 and 75 feet below the land
surface.
The undifferentiated surficial material consists of
consolidated to unconsolidated sand and clay. Shell
beds are also included with this material. This material
generally covers the entire county and is between 30
and 75 feet thick.
Hydrogeology
In Nassau County, most of the ground water used for
private, commercial, and municipal purposes is derived
from the Floridan Aquifer, which is a thick series of
limestone and dolomite beds underlying the entire area.
Depth to the top of the aquifer varies between 400 and
550 feet below the land surface. The Ocala Group is
the uppermost group that makes up the aquifer system;
however, in most commercial and city wells that are
about 700 to 1,700 feet deep, water production
originates in the Avon Park Formation. The Avon Park
Formation is characterized by numerous joints or by
fractures and caverns enhanced by the action of the
ground water. Water flows freely from these cracks
directly into any well that penetrates them. Most wells
are cased, or lined with pipe, into the top of the
limestone and are open holed, or uncased, in the hard
carbonate of the aquifer system below.
Many smaller, private or commercial wells penetrate
the Ocala Group limestone and are between 400 and
700 feet deep. In these wells, the water enters the







Soil Survey


Fernandina Beach


Hawthorn Group
(Sand, Clay, and Carbonate)


Avon Park Formation
(Limestone and Dolomite)


Miles


Figure 2.-An east-to-west geologic cross section of Nassau County.


uncased part of the well from between the tiny shells
foraminiferaa) that make up the Ocala Group. These
wells generally do not provide as much water as the
deeper wells because water flows more easily and
quickly from large joints or fractures in the Avon Park
Formation than from the tiny intergranular pore spaces
between foraminifera in the Ocala Group. Deeper wells
also penetrate more of the aquifer; therefore, they
penetrate a thicker section of water-bearing material.
The freshwater of the Floridan Aquifer is underlain by
saltwater at varying depths throughout the county. Near
the coast of Fernandina Beach, many very deep and
large diameter industrial wells have been used to
remove large quantities of freshwater for a long time.
This causes the upward movement of saltwater, or
saltwater intrusion. The saltwater mixes with the
freshwater and causes many problems. To decrease


this mixing, most of the wells have been backplugged
with cement to a more shallow depth, and other
shallower wells have been drilled over a wider area.
In some areas of the county, a very shallow,
relatively thin surficial bed of carbonate rock at the top
of the Hawthorn Group provides some small private
wells that produce good quality water. Because this bed
is thin and discontinuous and because it does not
contain as much water as the Floridan Aquifer, it can
only be considered a minor source of water in Nassau
County.

How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a


Boulogne


West


Callahan


" 400


Ocala Group
(Limestone)







Nassau County, Florida


discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; and the kinds of
crops and native plants growing on the soils. They dug
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The
profile extends from the surface down into the
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
living organisms and has not been changed by other
biological activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms,
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area.
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with a considerable degree
of accuracy the kind of soil at a specific location on the
landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size, and shape of soil aggregates, distribution of plant
roots, reaction, and other features that enable them to
identify soils. After describing the soils in the survey
area and determining their properties, the soil scientists
assigned the soils to taxonomic classes (units).
Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each taxonomic class
has a set of soil characteristics with precisely defined
limits. The classes are used as a basis for comparison
to classify soils systematically. The system of taxonomic
classification used in the United States is based mainly
on the kind and character of soil properties and the
arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil
scientists classified and named the soils in the survey
area, they compared the individual soils with similar
soils in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that


they could confirm data and assemble additional data
based on experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
of the soils in the area generally are collected for
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of
the soils are field tested through observation of the soils
in different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and some new interpretations are developed to meet
local needs. Data are assembled from other sources,
such as research information, production records, and
field experience of specialists. For example, data on
crop yields under defined levels of management are
assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given
soil will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic










class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
In the general soil map units, they are called soils of
minor extent.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.

Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar
In Nassau County, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR)
system (8, 9, 10, 12) and hand transects were used to
document the type of variablility of the soils in the
detailed soil map units. About 510 random transects
were made with the GPR and by hand. Information from


notes and ground-truth observations made in the field
was used with radar data from this study to classify the
soils and to determine the composition of map units.
The map units, as described in the section "Detailed
Soil Map Units," are based on this data.

Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information
Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
probability that the composition of a map unit or a
property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
data to determine confidence limits, the natural
variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
must be considered. The composition of map units and
other information are derived largely from extrapolations
made from a small sample. Also, information about the
soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
The information presented in the soil survey is not
meant to be used as a substitute for onsite
investigation. Soil survey information can be used to
select alternative practices or general designs that may
be needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition of most
map units in Nassau County were determined by
random transects made with the GPR across mapped
areas. The data are statistically summarized in the
description of each soil in the section "Detailed Soil
Map Units." Soil scientists made enough transects and
took enough samples to characterize each map unit at
a specific confidence level. For example, in 95 percent
of the areas mapped as Leon fine sand, Leon soil will
be within the range given in the map unit description. In
about 5 percent of this map unit, the percentage of
Leon soil can be higher or lower than the given range.
The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
map units was based on the judgment of the soil
scientist and was not determined by a statistical
procedure.










class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
In the general soil map units, they are called soils of
minor extent.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.

Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar
In Nassau County, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR)
system (8, 9, 10, 12) and hand transects were used to
document the type of variablility of the soils in the
detailed soil map units. About 510 random transects
were made with the GPR and by hand. Information from


notes and ground-truth observations made in the field
was used with radar data from this study to classify the
soils and to determine the composition of map units.
The map units, as described in the section "Detailed
Soil Map Units," are based on this data.

Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information
Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
probability that the composition of a map unit or a
property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
data to determine confidence limits, the natural
variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
must be considered. The composition of map units and
other information are derived largely from extrapolations
made from a small sample. Also, information about the
soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
The information presented in the soil survey is not
meant to be used as a substitute for onsite
investigation. Soil survey information can be used to
select alternative practices or general designs that may
be needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition of most
map units in Nassau County were determined by
random transects made with the GPR across mapped
areas. The data are statistically summarized in the
description of each soil in the section "Detailed Soil
Map Units." Soil scientists made enough transects and
took enough samples to characterize each map unit at
a specific confidence level. For example, in 95 percent
of the areas mapped as Leon fine sand, Leon soil will
be within the range given in the map unit description. In
about 5 percent of this map unit, the percentage of
Leon soil can be higher or lower than the given range.
The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
map units was based on the judgment of the soil
scientist and was not determined by a statistical
procedure.

















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it
consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making
up one unit can occur in another but in a different
pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.

Soils on the Sand Ridges and Coastal Dunes
The four general soil map units in this group consist
of nearly level to moderately steep, excessively drained
to poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 80
inches or more. Some of the soils are loamy below a
depth of 40 inches. These map units are in the eastern
part of the county. They are also along an area east of
Boulogne to west of Callahan, southward along the St.
Marys River, and in a small area near Evergreen.

1. Kureb-Fripp-Newhan
Nearly level to rolling, excessively drained, sandy soils;
in high positions on the landscape
The soils in this map unit are on narrow, rolling,
sandy, dunelike ridges interspersed with narrow swales.
These ridges and swales are elongated, and their long
axis generally is oriented from the north to the south.
They are parallel to the Atlantic Ocean coast and
extend inland for about 1 to 2 miles in the northern and
southern parts of the county and about 0.5 mile in the
central part of Amelia Island. The ridges form the
primary dunes adjacent to the ocean beach and to the


relict beach dunes farther inland. The height of the
ridges ranges from 4 to 35 feet, and the slope generally
is 8 to 100 feet or more in length. An area of soils that
are similar to the Kureb-Fripp-Newhan soils is in
downtown Fernandina Beach. Slopes are complex. This
map unit is elongated and is relatively large in size.
This map unit makes up about 6,230 acres, or 1.5
percent, of the county. It is about 20 percent Kureb
soils, 15 percent Fripp soils, 11 percent Newhan soils,
and 54 percent soils of minor extent (fig. 3).
The natural vegetation consists of live oak and water
oak. The understory includes saw palmetto, yaupon,
and wiregrass on Kureb and Fripp soils and seaoats on
Newhan soils.
The Kureb soils are nearly level to rolling on ridges
and nearly level and gently sloping in areas just west of
the ridges. The surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
19 inches, is light-brownish gray fine sand. The
underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. It is strong brown fine sand and has tongues of
white fine sand in the upper part and yellowish brown,
brownish yellow, yellow, and very pale brown fine sand
in the lower part.
The Fripp soils are rolling and are on ridges that can
support trees. These soils are west of the Newhan soils.
The surface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about
4 inches thick. The underlying material, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is very pale brown fine sand.
The Newhan soils are rolling and are on ridges that
do not support trees. These soils generally are west of
the beaches. The surface layer is white fine sand about
8 inches thick. The underlying material, to a depth of
about 80 inches, is very pale brown fine sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Beaches and
Corolla, Echaw, Kershaw, Leon, Mandarin, Tisonia, and
Resota soils.
In most areas the soils in this map unit are used for
urban development. The remaining acreage is in
woodland. Many beach houses have been built along
the Atlantic Ocean.







Soil Survey


Figure 3.-Typical pattern of soils and parent material in an area of the Kureb-Fripp-Newhan and Mandarin-Echaw map units.


2. Mandarin-Echaw
Nearly level, somewhat poorly drained and moderately
well drained soils; in high positions on the landscape
The soils in this map unit are in slightly elevated
flatwood areas. The map unit is on Amelia Island in the
eastern part of the county.
This map unit makes up about 4,570 acres, or 1.1
percent, of the county. It is about 66 percent Mandarin
soils, 9 percent Echaw soils, and 25 percent soils of
minor extent (fig. 3).
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, water oak, and live oak. The understory
includes saw palmetto, fetterbush lyonia, and pineland
threeawn.
The Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained.
The surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about


20 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The subsoil
extends to a depth of about 31 inches. It is dark reddish
brown fine sand in the upper part and yellowish brown
fine sand in the lower part. The substratum, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is white fine sand.
The Echaw soils are moderately well drained. The
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 35
inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of about 38 inches, is dark brown
fine sand. Separating the upper and lower parts of the
subsoil, to a depth of about 78 inches, are buried
subsurface layers. In sequence downward, these layers
are yellowish brown, light yellowish brown, light gray,
and brown fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is dark reddish brown fine
sand.







Nassau County, Florida


Of minor extent in this map unit are Leon and Resota
soils.
The soils in this map unit mostly support natural
vegetation. In some areas they are used for urban
development.

3. Ridgewood-Hurricane-Pottsburg
Nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and poorly drained, sandy soils; in high positions on the
landscape
The soils in this map unit are on slightly elevated
ridges interspersed with flatwoods, depressions, and
drainageways. The map unit is in the eastern and
western parts of the county and in one small area near
Evergreen. The individual mapped areas are irregular in
shape or elongated and are small to relatively large in
size.
This map unit makes up about 34,060 acres, or 8.2
percent, of the county. It is about 22 percent Ridgewood
soils, 21 percent Hurricane soils, 17 percent Pottsburg
soils, and 40 percent soils of minor extent.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
slash pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, and live oak. The
understory includes American holly, gallberry, saw
palmetto, pineland threeawn, and bluestem.
The nearly level and gently sloping Ridgewood soils
are somewhat poorly drained. The surface layer is gray
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth
of about 24 inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand.
The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is fine
sand. It is light yellowish brown in the upper part, pale
brown in the next part, and light gray in the lower part.
The nearly level and gently sloping Hurricane soils
are somewhat poorly drained. The surface layer is
grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 68 inches, is fine
sand. It is yellowish brown in the upper part, light
yellowish brown in the next part, and light gray in the
lower part. The subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is fine sand. It is dark brown in the upper part
and dark reddish brown in the lower part.
The nearly level Pottsburg soils are poorly drained.
The surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
55 inches, is fine sand. It is brown in the upper part,
dark gray in the next part, and gray in the lower part.
The subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark
reddish brown fine sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Albany, Blanton,
Centenary, Leon, Lynn Haven, Mandarin, Ortega,
Rutlege, and Wesconnett soils.


The soils in this map unit mostly support natural
vegetation or have been planted to woodland. In some
areas they are used for urban development.

4. Albany-Blanton-Penney
Nearly level to moderately steep, somewhat poorly
drained, moderately well drained, and excessively
drained soils; in high positions on the landscape
The soils in this map unit are on slightly elevated and
elevated ridges and on the uplands. The map unit is
generally along the St. Marys River. The individual
mapped areas are irregular in shape or elongated and
are small or medium in size.
This map unit makes up about 17,446 acres, or 4.2
percent, of the county. It is about 46 percent Albany
soils, 14 percent Blanton soils, 7 percent Penney soils,
and 33 percent soils of minor extent (fig. 4).
The natural vegetation on the ridges consists of
longleaf pine, slash pine, water oak, turkey oak, and
live oak. The understory includes gallberry, pineland
threeawn, and bluestem. The natural vegetation on the
uplands consists of longleaf pine, live oak, and turkey
oak. The understory includes bluestem and pineland
threeawn.
The nearly level and gently sloping Albany soils are
somewhat poorly drained. The surface layer is very dark
gray fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface
layer extends to a depth of about 50 inches. It is fine
sand. It is yellowish brown in the upper part, light
yellowish brown in the next part, and light gray in the
lower part. The subsoil, to a depth of about 80 inches,
is yellowish brown fine sandy loam in the upper part,
grayish brown sandy clay loam in the next part, and
olive gray sandy clay loam in the lower part.
The nearly level to moderately steep Blanton soils
are somewhat poorly drained or moderately well
drained. The surface layer is very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 22 inches, is
yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
about 49 inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to
a depth of 80 inches or more, is brownish yellow fine
sandy loam in the upper part, brownish yellow sandy
clay loam in the next part, and mottled sandy clay loam
in the lower part.
The nearly level and gently sloping Penney soils are
excessively drained. The surface layer is dark gray fine
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 41 inches, is light yellowish brown and
very pale brown fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is very pale brown fine sand that has







Soil Survey


Figure 4.-Typical pattern of soils and parent material in an area of the Albany-Blanton-Penney and Osier-Ousley-Mandarin map units.


thin strong brown loamy fine sand lamellae.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Ellabelle,
Kershaw, Leefield, Leon, Mandarin, Meggett, Ocilla,
Ortega, Osier, Ousley, Goldhead, Meadowbrook,
Ridgewood, and Sapelo soils.
The soils in this map unit are mostly in woodland. In
some cleared areas they are used as pasture. A small
acreage is used for urban development.

Soils on the Flatwoods
The four general soil map units in this group consist
of nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and
very poorly drained, sandy soils that generally have a
dark subsoil within 30 inches of the surface. Some of
the soils have a dark subsoil below a depth of 30
inches. These map units are in the eastern part of the
county.


5. Leon-Boulogne-Kingsferry

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
that are sandy throughout; in low positions on the
landscape
The soils in this map unit are on flatwoods
interspersed with grassy ponds, drainageways, and
small, grassy, wet depressions. The map unit is in the
eastern and western parts of the county. The individual
mapped areas vary in shape and size (fig. 5).
This map unit makes up about 118,800 acres, or
28.6 percent, of the county. It is about 34 percent Leon
soils, 25 percent Boulogne soils, 13 percent Kingsferry
soils, and 28 percent soils of minor extent.
The natural vegetation on the flatwoods consists of
longleaf pine and slash pine. The understory includes
saw palmetto, gallberry, pineland threeawn, and







Nassau County, Florida


Figure 5.-Typical pattern of soils and parent material in an area of the Leon-Boulogne-Kingsferry map unit.


bluestem. The natural vegetation in the ponds,
depressions, and drainageways consists dominantly of
pond pine, cypress, and sweetgum. The understory
includes water-tolerant grasses.
The Leon soils are poorly drained and very poorly
drained. The surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 18 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of
the subsoil, to a depth of about 31 inches, is black and
dark reddish brown fine sand. Separating the upper and
lower parts of the subsoil, to a depth of about 37
inches, is a buried subsurface layer of yellowish brown
fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of
80 inches or more, is dark brown and black fine sand.
The Boulogne soils are poorly drained. The surface
layer is fine sand about 10 inches thick. It is very dark
gray in the upper part and dark gray in the lower part.


The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 13
inches, is dark brown fine sand. Separating the upper
and lower parts of the subsoil, to a depth of about 33
inches, are buried subsurface layers of fine sand. In
sequence downward, these layers are grayish brown,
dark grayish brown, and light gray. The lower part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is loamy fine
sand. In sequence downward, it is dark brown, black,
and dark reddish brown and black.
The Kingsferry soils are very poorly drained. The
surface layer is fine sand about 7 inches thick. It is very
dark gray in the upper part and dark gray in the lower
part. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 24
inches, is dark gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth
of about 80 inches, is fine sand. It is very dark gray in
the upper part, dark reddish brown in the next part, and
black in the lower part.







Soil Survey


Of minor extent in this map unit are Evergreen,
Hurricane, Lynn Haven, Pottsburg, Ridgewood, Rutlege,
and Wesconnett soils.
The soils in this map unit mostly support natural
vegetation. In most cleared areas they are pastured. In
some areas they are used for urban development.

6. Sapelo-Leon-Goldhead
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy in the
upper part and loamy or sandy in the lower part; in low
positions on the landscape
The soils in this map unit are on flatwoods
interspersed with grassy sloughs and cypress ponds.
Areas of this map unit are near and around Interstate
95 and U.S. Highway 17 in the east-central part of the
county. The individual mapped areas vary in shape and
size.
This map unit makes up about 9,140 acres, or 2.2
percent, of the county. It is about 53 percent Sapelo
soils, 31 percent Leon soils, 11 percent Goldhead soils,
and 5 percent soils of minor extent.
The natural vegetation on the flatwoods is mixed
longleaf pine and slash pine. The understory consists
dominantly of saw palmetto, gallberry, pineland
threeawn, and bluestem. The natural vegetation in the
sloughs is slash pine, and the understory is pineland
threeawn. The natural vegetation in the depressions is
cypress, pond pine, and sweetgum. The understory
includes water-tolerant grasses.
The Sapelo soils have a black fine sand surface layer
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 21 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 43 inches,
is black and brown fine sand. The lower part of the
subsoil, to a depth of about 70 inches, is gray and light
brownish gray fine sandy loam. The substratum, to a
depth of about 80 inches, is gray loamy fine sand.
The Leon soils have a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is fine
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. In sequence
downward, it is black and dark reddish brown, dark
brown, pale brown, and light gray.
The Goldhead soils have a black fine sand surface
layer about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 33 inches, is fine sand. It is dark gray in
the upper part and gray in the lower part. The subsoil,
to a depth of about 69 inches, is olive gray sandy clay
loam. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is greenish gray loamy fine sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Albany, Ellabelle,
and Meadowbrook soils.


The soils in this map unit mostly support natural
vegetation. In most cleared areas they are pastured. In
some areas these soils are used for urban
development.

7. Goldhead-Chaires-Meadowbrook
Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and very
poorly drained soils that are sandy in the upper part and
loamy in the lower part; in low positions on the
landscape
The soils in this map unit are in the slightly lower
positions on broad, smooth flatwoods interspersed with
cypress depressions. This map unit is in the central and
western parts of the county.
This map unit makes up about 97,200 acres, or 23.4
percent, of the county. It is about 51 percent Goldhead
soils, 21 percent Chaires soils, 7 percent Meadowbrook
soils, and 21 percent soils of minor extent.
The natural vegetation on the flatwoods is slash pine,
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, sweetgum, blackgum, water
oak, and maple. The understory includes gallberry,
waxmyrtle, briers, pineland threeawn, bluestem, and a
few saw palmettos. The vegetation in the depressions is
ferns, water-tolerant grasses, pond pine, and cypress.
The nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained
and very poorly drained Goldhead soils have a black
fine sand surface layer about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 33 inches, is fine
sand. It is dark gray in the upper part and gray in the
lower part. The subsoil, to a depth of about 69 inches,
is olive gray sandy clay loam. The substratum, to a
depth of about 80 inches, is greenish gray loamy fine
sand.
The nearly level, poorly drained Chaires soils have a
black fine sand surface layer about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is gray
fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 80
inches. In sequence downward, it is black fine sand,
dark reddish brown fine sand, yellowish brown fine
sand, light brownish gray sandy clay loam, light gray
sandy clay loam, and brownish gray fine sandy loam.
The nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained
and very poorly drained Meadowbrook soils have a fine
sand surface layer about 10 inches thick. It is black in
the upper part and dark gray in the lower part. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 44 inches, is light
brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth
of 80 inches or more. It is light brownish gray fine sandy
loam in the upper part and gray sandy clay loam in the
lower part.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Albany, Croatan,







Nassau County, Florida


Figure 6.-Typical pattern of soils and parent material in an area of the Meggett-Goldhead map unit.


Ellabelle, Leefield, Meggett, Ocilla, Buccaneer, and
Sapelo soils.
The soils in this map unit mostly support natural
vegetation. In some areas they are pastured. In a few
areas these soils are used for urban development.

8. Meggett-Goldhead
Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and very
poorly drained soils that are sandy in the upper part and
clayey or loamy in the lower part; in low positions on the
landscape
The soils in this map unit generally are in the slightly
elevated, low positions on the broad, nearly smooth
flatwoods interspersed with cypress depressions. In
some areas they are adjacent to drainageways and
flood plains. In some areas these soils are subject to


rare flooding. This map unit is in an area about 4 to 7
miles wide in a north-south direction through Callahan
and northeast of Hilliard to Kingsferry.
This map unit makes up about 44,030 acres, or 10.6
percent, of the county. It is about 64 percent Meggett
soils, 23 percent Goldhead soils, and 13 percent soils
of minor extent (fig. 6).
The natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine,
sweetgum, and red maple. The understory includes
gallberry, pineland threeawn, and various bluestems
and sedges. Cabbage palm and sawgrass are in the
areas that are flooded.
The nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly
drained Meggett soils have a loamy fine sand surface
layer about 12 inches thick. The surface layer is very
dark gray in the upper part and dark gray in the lower
part. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 16







Soil Survey


inches, is light brownish gray loamy fine sand. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In
sequence downward, it is grayish brown sandy clay,
gray clay, grayish brown clay, and light olive gray clay.
The nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained
and very poorly drained Goldhead soils have a very
dark gray fine sand surface layer about 8 inches thick.
The subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 26
inches. It is dark grayish brown fine sand in the upper
part and grayish brown fine sand in the lower part. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In
sequence downward, it is grayish brown sandy clay
loam, grayish brown clay, light gray clay, and light olive
gray clay.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Brookman,
Ocilla, Chaires, and Buccaneer soils.
The soils in this map unit mostly support natural
vegetation. In some areas they are pastured. In other
areas these soils are used for urban development.

Soils in the Swamps and on the Flood Plains
The three general soil map units in this group consist
of level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained to
very poorly drained soils. Some of the soils have an
organic layer more than 51 inches deep; some have a
clayey subsoil within 20 inches of the surface; some are
sandy and have a loamy subsoil between depths of 20
to 40 inches; and some are sandy or are sandy and
have a dark subsoil. These map units are in swamps
along the St. Marys River, the Nassau River, the Little
St. Marys River, Mills Creek, and Alligator Creek in the
central, northern, and southern parts of the county.

9. Kingsland-Maurepas

Level and nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils;
in low positions on the landscape
The soils in this map unit are in large, low-lying
swamps on the flood plains. They are along the St.
Marys River, the Nassau River, the Little St. Marys
River, Mills Creek, and Alligator Creek in the central,
northern, and southern parts of the county. In most of
these areas, the soils are flooded for long periods.
This map unit makes up about 9,555 acres, or 2.3
percent, of the county. It is about 49 percent Kingsland
soils, 46 percent Maurepas soils, and 5 percent soils of
minor extent.
The natural vegetation in the swamp hardwoods
consists of water tupelo, sweetgum, bay, baldcypress,
and pond pine. The understory includes greenbrier,
fetterbush lyonia, aster, and willow.


The Kingsland soils are black mucky peat to a depth
of 65 inches or more.
The Maurepas soils have a very dark brown muck
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The next layer, to a
depth of 65 inches or more, is black muck.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Croatan soils.
These soils are in similar landscape positions as the
Kingsland and Maurepas soils.
The soils in this map unit support natural vegetation.
They are used mostly as habitat for wildlife.

10. Buccaneer-Ellabelle

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; in low positions on
the landscape
The soils in this map unit are in swamps and
drainageways on the flood plains. The map unit is in the
central and southern parts of the county. The individual
mapped areas are narrow and elongated.
This map unit makes up about 43,615 acres, or 10.5
percent, of the county. It is about 62 percent Buccaneer
soils, 32 percent Ellabelle soils, and 6 percent soils of
minor extent.
The natural vegetation is dominantly baldcypress,
sweetgum, blackgum, water tupelo, water oak, and
pond pine.
The Buccaneer soils have a black clay loam surface
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of
about 65 inches, is clay. It is very dark gray in the
upper part, dark gray in the next part, and gray in the
lower part. The substratum, to a depth of about 80
inches, is light olive gray clay.
The Ellabelle soils have a black mucky fine sand
surface layer about 22 inches thick. The subsoil, to a
depth of about 80 inches, is sandy clay loam. It is dark
gray in the upper part and gray in the lower part.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Croatan and
Kingsferry soils.
The soils in this map unit support natural vegetation.

11. Osier-Ousley-Mandarin

Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and
somewhat poorly drained, sandy soils; in low positions
on the landscape
The soils in this map unit are on elevated ridges and
on flood plains interspersed with swamps, depressions,
oxbows, and slight knolls or small bluffs adjoining the
St. Marys River. Extreme variations in the water level of
the St. Marys River affect the water table of the soils.
The individual mapped areas are mostly narrow and
elongated.







Nassau County, Florida


This map unit makes up about 3,740 acres, or 0.9
percent, of the county. It is about 53 percent Osier
soils, 22 percent Ousley soils, 6 percent Mandarin soils,
and 19 percent soils of minor extent (fig. 4).
The natural vegetation on the flood plains is
dominantly pond pine, baldcypress, water tupelo,
sweetgum, and water oak. The understory includes saw
palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and bluestem. The
natural vegetation on the slightly elevated ridges
consists of slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine,
scattered blackjack oak, turkey oak, post oak, willow
oak, and red maple. The understory includes gallberry,
saw palmetto, running oak, pineland threeawn, and
bluestem.
The Osier soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
The surface layer is fine sand about 14 inches thick. It
is very dark gray in the upper part and dark grayish
brown in the lower part. The underlying material
extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is grayish
brown, light brownish gray, and dark grayish brown fine
sand in the upper part; grayish brown fine sandy loam
in the next part; and white fine sand in the lower part.
The Ousley soils are nearly level and gently sloping
and are somewhat poorly drained. The surface layer is
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying
material is fine sand to a depth of about 80 inches. In
sequence downward, it is pale brown, olive yellow,
yellow, light yellowish brown, and brown.
The Mandarin soils are nearly level and somewhat
poorly drained. The surface layer is gray fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 11 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The
subsoil, to a depth of about 80 inches, is dark brown
fine sand in the upper part and yellowish brown fine
sand in the lower part.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Ellabelle,
Kingsferry, and Goldhead soils. These soils are in


similar landscape positions as the Osier, Ousley, and
Mandarin soils.
The soils in this map unit support natural vegetation.

Soils in the Tidal Marsh
This map unit consists of level and nearly level, very
poorly drained, saline, organic soils underlain by clayey
material. These soils are in the eastern part of the
county. They are in broad, tidal marshes along the St.
Marys River, the Nassau River, Egans Creek, and the
Intracoastal Waterway.

12. Tisonia

Level and nearly level, very poorly drained, saline,
organic soils; in low positions on the landscape
The soils in this map unit are in the eastern part of
the county. They are in tidal marshes along the St.
Marys River, the Nassau River, Egans Creek, and the
Intracoastal Waterway. The tidal marshes are saline in
most places but are brackish where small feeder
streams enter. These soils are flooded daily.
This map unit makes up about 27,000 acres, or 6.5
percent, of the county. It is about 96 percent Tisonia
soils and 4 percent soils of minor extent.
The natural vegetation consists of needlegrass rush
and sand cordgrass.
The Tisonia soils have a very dark grayish brown
mucky peat surface layer about 40 inches thick. The
underlying material, to a depth of about 65 inches, is
dark olive gray clay.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Arents and
Kingsland, Leon, and Maurepas soils.
The soils in this map unit mostly support natural
vegetation. In most places they are used as spawning
areas for many commercially important finfish and
shellfish.




















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Blanton fine sand, 12 to 20
percent slopes, is a phase of the Blanton series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or
undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar
in all areas. Meadowbrook-Goldhead-Meggett complex,
2 to 5 percent slopes, is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more


soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
the soils in the mapped areas are not uniform. An area
can be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can
be made up of all of them. Ousley and Mandarin fine
sands, occasionally flooded, is an undifferentiated group
in this survey area.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named.
Some of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
areas have little or no soil material and support little or
no vegetation. The map unit Beaches is an example.
Miscellaneous areas are shown on the soil maps. Some
that are too small to be shown are identified by a
special symbol on the soil maps.
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

2-Arents, nearly level. These nearly level soils are
made up of heterogeneous overburden material that
was removed from other areas and used in land
leveling or as fill material to elevate building sites. They
are a mixture of fine sand and fragments of the loamy
subsoil material or the dark sandy subsoil material from
the associated Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, Chaires, and
Goldhead soils. The individual mapped areas are
triangular or polygonal in shape and range from about 3
to 100 acres. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, these soils are variable and have
discontinuous lenses, pockets, and streaks of black,







Soil Survey


gray, and grayish brown sand. Few or common black
and dark reddish brown sandy fragments and gray loam
fragments are at a depth of 20 inches or more. Some
soils occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to
Arents, but they generally are used for sanitary landfills.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These soils contain shell fragments, rocks,
organic matter, or muck.
The permeability of Arents is variable but generally is
rapid. The available water capacity is variable but
generally is low. The seasonal high water table is at a
depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months of the year.
The soil is low in natural fertility.
These areas are used for building site development
except in areas of sanitary landfills. They are
moderately suited to pasture.
These soils are moderately suited to recreational
development. Erosion and sedimentation can be
controlled and the esthetic value of the area can be
enhanced by maintaining adequate plant cover. The
plant cover can be maintained by controlling traffic.
This map unit has not been assigned a land
capability classification nor a woodland ordination
symbol.

3-Beaches. Beaches consist of narrow strips of
nearly level fine sand along the Atlantic Ocean. They
are inundated with salt water daily at high tide. The soil
is a mixture of quartz sand and shell fragments, is bare
of vegetation, and is subject to movement by wind and
tide.
Beaches are used intensively for sunbathing and
water-related recreational activities. Other uses are not
practical because of the unique location of the Beaches,
their value for recreational activities, and the daily tidal
flooding. These areas are important as nesting grounds
for sea turtles.
This map unit has not been assigned a land
capability classification nor a woodland ordination
symbol.

4-Echaw fine sand. This nearly level, moderately
well drained soil is on narrow to broad ridges. The
mapped areas range from about 3 to 50 acres. Slopes
are smooth, convex, or concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 88 percent of the areas mapped as Echaw fine
sand, Echaw soils make up 84 to 91 percent of the map
unit. Dissimilar soils make up 9 to 16 percent. They
generally are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 35 inches, is light gray fine sand. The


upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 38 inches,
is dark brown fine sand. Separating the upper and lower
parts of the subsoil are buried subsurface layers that
are fine sand to a depth of about 78 inches. In
sequence downward, these layers are yellowish brown,
light yellowish brown, light gray, and brown. The lower
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
dark reddish brown fine sand.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Leon, Lynn Haven, Mandarin, and
Resota soils. Leon and Mandarin soils are on flatwoods.
Lynn Haven soils are in depressions. Resota soils are
on the slightly higher ridges. Also included are soils that
are somewhat excessively drained.
Permeability of this Echaw soil is moderately rapid.
The available water capacity is very low or low in the
surface and subsurface layers and in the substratum
and is low in the subsoil. The seasonal high water table
is at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for 6 to 9 months of the
year. The soil is very low in natural fertility.
In most areas this soil is used for urban
development. In a few areas it is used as woodland.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, water oak, and live oak. The understory
includes saw palmetto and fetterbush lyonia. The most
common grasses are pineland threeawn, lopsided
indiangrass, switchgrass, panicum, paspalum, creeping
bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, and splitbeard
bluestem.
This soil is moderately suited to slash pine and is
poorly suited to longleaf pine. Growth estimates are
given in feet for the expected height a tree will reach in
a specific number of years. Site quality curves, which
are based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine is 50 feet.
The potential production is 18 cords per acre for slash
pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation. The average site
index for longleaf pine is 60 feet. The estimated
potential production is 30 cords per acre for longleaf
pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,
and plant competition. During some periods of heavy
rainfall, a perched water table is at a shallow depth for
a short time. Construction of access roads, logging
activities, and site preparation should be avoided in
streambeds and adjacent areas to reduce the hazard of
erosion. Tree limbs and tops should be kept clear of the







Nassau County, Florida


stream channel because they can block streamflow.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
herbicide application, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Chopping should be
done late in the fall or in the winter. Frequently,
chopping only destroys the aboveground growth, and
hardwood root systems sprout profusely in spring and
summer. Repeated chopping is needed to destroy the
sprouts in dense stands of hardwoods. The amount of
hardwood understory can be reduced by controlled
burning, applications of herbicide, or girdling or cutting
of the unwanted trees. A major management concern is
the very low or low available water capacity of the soil,
which causes severe seedling mortality and retards
plant growth. The soil commonly is very low in organic
matter content. Harvesting methods that remove all tree
biomass from the site further reduce the fertility of the
soil. Logging operations should leave residual biomass
distributed over the site. Management practices should
include selection of appropriate plants and applications
of fertilizer during planting operations.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main
limitations are the very low available water capacity,
droughtiness, and the very low fertility. The available
water capacity limits the production of plants during
extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such as
coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more
drought tolerant if fertilizer and lime are added.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the very low fertility and the droughtiness.
This soil provides good habitat for deer, bobcats,
skunks, opossums, raccoons, quail, turkeys, and birds,
particularly warblers. It provides fair habitat for squirrels
and poor habitat for doves. Wildlife in the urban areas
consists mostly of songbirds. The areas of the soil that
have been left in native vegetation provide good cover
and escape routes for most wildlife.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
The main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system is needed to prevent
the contamination of water supplies resulting from
seepage. Septic tank absorption fields are mounded in
most areas. Unless vegetation is established, erosion
and sedimentation commonly are problems in some
water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem
in unvegetated areas and is especially severe in the
spring.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants.


Vegetation is difficult to establish because the soil is
infertile, coarse textured, and drought. The native trees
consist of American holly, cabbage palm, common
persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The
native shrubs include American beautyberry, coontie,
coralbean, partridge pea, pawpaw, saw palmetto,
shining sumac, tarflower, and southern waxmyrtle. The
herbaceous plants are blazingstar, Catesby lily,
grassleaf goldaster, hibiscus, iris, meadow beauty,
sunflower, and zephyr lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the sandy texture of the surface
layer. The loose sand makes walking difficult. A plant
cover is difficult to establish and maintain, but it can be
maintained by controlling heavy traffic and by irrigating.
Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil blowing can
occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 5S.

5-Fripp fine sand, rolling. This gently rolling to
hilly, excessively drained soil is on narrow, dunelike
ridges along the Atlantic coast. It is subject to flooding
on rare occasions during prolonged, high-intensity
storms. The mapped areas range from about 3 to 300
acres. Slopes are smooth, convex, or concave and
range from 5 to 20 percent.
In 99 percent of the areas mapped as Fripp fine
sand, rolling, the Fripp soil makes up 94 to 100 percent
of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 6 percent.
They generally are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is light brownish gray fine
sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying material, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is very pale brown fine
sand.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Kureb, Newhan, and Resota soils.
Kureb and Resota soils are on broad, nearly level
ridges. Newhan soils are between the Fripp soil and
Beaches.
Permeability of this Fripp soil is rapid. The available
water capacity is very low or low. The seasonal high
water table is at a depth of about 72 to 80 inches or
more during most of the year. The soil is very low in
natural fertility.
The natural vegetation consists of live oak and water
oak. The understory includes saw palmetto and yaupon.
The most common grasses are seaoats and
beachgrass.
This soil is very poorly suited to pine trees, pasture,
and cultivated crops. Droughtiness and the very low
fertility are the main limitations.







Soil Survey


This soil provides good habitat for a variety of
shorebirds, such as gulls and terns, for crustaceans,
such as crabs and sea turtles, and for mammals, such
as mice, raccoons, bobcats, foxes, and skunks. Many
songbirds also inhabit areas of this soil. The native
grasses and legumes provide a good food source and
nesting sites. Wildlife in the urban areas consist mostly
of songbirds, shorebirds, and crustaceans. The areas of
this soil that have been left in native vegetation provide
food, cover, and escape routes for most wildlife.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
The main limitations are the slope and the
droughtiness. Roads and streets should be constructed
above the expected level of flooding. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent the contamination of water
supplies resulting from seepage. The slope is a concern
in installing septic tank absorption fields. Lateral lines
should be installed on the contour. Designing access
roads so that they have adequate cut-slope grades and
installing drains help to control surface runoff and keep
soil losses to a minimum. Areas adjacent to the ocean
are subject to coastal dune erosion, especially if
construction alters the natural processes and destroys
excessive amounts of native vegetation. Vegetation is
difficult to establish because the soil is infertile, coarse
textured, excessively drained, and saline and because
of the salt spray. Intensive management practices,
including irrigation, are needed to establish and
maintain vegetation on this soil. Unless vegetation is
established, water and wind erosion can become a
problem during and after construction.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of cabbage palm, Chickasaw plum,
live oak, redbay, red cedar, slash pine, magnolia, and
sand pine. The native shrubs include beargrass,
pricklypear cactus, coontie, coralbean, yaupon, lantana,
marshelder, partridge pea, saw palmetto, Spanish
bayonet, and waxmyrtle. The most common grasses are
seaoats, marshhay cordgrass, bitter panicum, seashore
saltgrass, gulf bluestem, seashore paspalum, seashore
dropseed, common bermudagrass, and shoredune
panicum. The herbaceous plants and vines are beach
morningglory, fiddler-leaf morningglory, blanketflower,
largeleaf pennywort, sea purslane, greenbrier, and wild
grape.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitations are the slope and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. The loose sand makes
walking difficult. Because of the slope, recreation areas


on this soil are limited to a few paths and trails, which
should extend across the slope. A plant cover is difficult
to establish and maintain, but it can be maintained by
controlling heavy traffic and by irrigating. Vehicles are
very easily mired down, and soil blowing can occur if
the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is VlIs. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

6-Hurricane-Pottsburg fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
slopes. These nearly level and gently sloping,
somewhat poorly drained and poorly drained soils are
on narrow to broad ridges and on isolated knolls
interspersed with flatwoods. The mapped areas range
from about 3 to 150 acres. Slopes are smooth or
concave.
In 97 percent of the areas mapped as Hurricane-
Pottsburg fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Hurricane,
Pottsburg, and similar soils make up 88 to 93 percent of
the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 7 to 12 percent.
They generally are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 50 percent
Hurricane and similar soils, 39 percent Pottsburg soils,
and 11 percent dissimilar soils. The soils in this map
unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to map
them separately at the scale used. The proportions and
patterns of the Hurricane, Pottsburg, and similar soils,
however, are relatively consistent in most areas.
The Hurricane soil is nearly level and gently sloping
and is somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is fine sand. It extends to a depth
of about 68 inches. It is yellowish brown in the upper
part, light yellowish brown in the next part, and light
gray in the lower part. The subsoil, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is fine sand. It is dark brown in the
upper part and dark reddish brown in the lower part.
Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to the Hurricane soil but have a black and very
dark gray surface layer about 10 to 30 inches thick.
These soils are near the communities of Hedges and
Crandall.
The Pottsburg soil is nearly level and is poorly
drained. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
a depth of about 55 inches, is fine sand. It is brown and
dark gray in the upper part and gray in the lower part.
The subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark
reddish brown fine sand.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Boulogne, Leon, Mandarin, Resota,
and Ridgewood soils. Boulogne, Leon, and Mandarin







Nassau County, Florida


soils are on flatwoods. Resota and Ridgewood soils are
on the slightly higher ridges.
The Hurricane soil has a seasonal high water table at
a depth of 24 to 42 inches for 2 to 6 months of the
year. Permeability is rapid in the upper part of the soil
and moderately rapid in the lower part. The available
water capacity is very low or low in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
content of organic matter and natural fertility are low.
The Pottsburg soil has a seasonal high water table at
a depth of 12 to 24 inches for 1 to 4 months of the
year. The water table may rise to within 6 inches of the
surface for brief periods after heavy rainfall.
Permeability is rapid in the upper part of the soil and
moderate in the lower part. The available water capacity
is very low or low in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil. The content of organic
matter and natural fertility are low.
These soils are used mainly as woodland. In a few
areas they are used for pasture or crops.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
slash pine, turkey oak, and live oak. The understory
includes gallberry, pineland threeawn, bluestem, hairy
panicum, lovegrass, and broom sedge.
These soils are well suited to slash pine and loblolly
pine and are moderately suited to longleaf pine. Growth
estimates are given in feet for the expected height a
tree will reach in a specific number of years. Site quality
curves, which are based on a growth estimate for 25
years, are often used for short-rotation products, such
as cordwood and pulp. Site index curves generally are
based on a growth estimate for 50 years or more and
are used for slower growing species or products
requiring a longer rotation. The average site quality
rating for slash pine and loblolly pine is 60 to 65 feet.
The potential production is 28 to 34 cords per acre for
slash pine and 36 to 42 cords per acre for loblolly pine
based on a 25-year rotation (7). The average site index
for longleaf pine is 70 to 75 feet. The estimated
potential production is 43 to 49 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,
and plant competition. Using tracks or floatation tires on
planting and harvesting machinery and scheduling
harvesting operations during dry periods can help to
overcome the equipment limitation, minimize soil
compaction, and minimize root damage during thinning
operations. Construction of access roads, logging
activities, and site preparation should be avoided in
streambeds and adjacent areas because of the hazard
of erosion. Tree limbs and tops should be kept clear of


the stream channel because they can block streamflow.
Stream crossing should be avoided if possible. Culverts
and bridges may be needed.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Special site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, can help
to establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality
rate, and increase the early growth rate. Bedding
should be planned so that it does not impair natural
surface drainage. Conventional harvesting methods
generally are suitable. If heavy equipment is used
during wet periods, the extent of soil compaction will
increase. Management practices should include
selection of appropriate plants and applications of
fertilizer during planting operations. These soils
commonly are low in organic matter content, and
harvesting methods that remove all tree biomass from
the site can reduce the fertility of these soils. Logging
operations should leave residual biomass distributed
over the site.
Because of droughtiness and the low fertility, the
Hurricane soil is only moderately well suited to pasture.
The Pottsburg soil is well suited. The best suited
pasture plants are coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass.
The Hurricane soil is poorly suited to cultivated
crops, and the Pottsburg soil is very poorly suited. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness and the low fertility. If water-control and
soil-improving measures are applied, these soils are
moderately well suited to most cultivated crops. The
main crops are corn and grain sorghum. These soils are
friable, are easy to keep in good tilth, and can be
worked throughout a wide range of moisture content.
Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
grass-legume mixture can help to conserve moisture,
maintain fertility, and control erosion. Frequent
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
These soils provide good habitat for deer and turkey.
Many birds inhabit the area, including warblers,
towhees, crested flycatchers, dove, and quail. Several
varieties of native legumes provide food for the birds.
The harvesting of timber and similar disturbances
improve wildlife food values by increasing the amount,
availability, and types of herbaceous plants and by
producing new sprouts. The areas of these soils that
have been left in native vegetation provide good cover,
food, and travel and escape routes for most wildlife.
If these soils are used for urban development, the







Soil Survey


main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness. Septic tank absorption fields should be
mounded. Establishing vegetation commonly is difficult
because the soils are infertile, coarse textured, and
somewhat poorly drained or poorly drained. Intensive
management practices are needed to establish
vegetation on these soils, and irrigation is required for
the best results during dry periods. Adequate
applications of fertilizer are needed. Unless vegetation
is established, wind erosion can become a problem
during and after construction.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, Chickasaw plum,
longleaf pine, slash pine, live oak, southern redcedar,
sand pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, and Florida
chinkapin. The native shrubs include adam's needle,
American beautyberry, Carolina holly, coontie,
coralbean, pawpaw, pricklypear cactus, saw palmetto,
shining sumac, and yaupon. The herbaceous plants
include aster, beebalm, crotalaria, blanketflower,
blazingstar, goldaster, lupine, morningglory, goldenrod,
and sunflower.
These soils are poorly suited to recreational
development. The main limitations are the wetness and
the sandy texture of the surface layer. The loose sand
makes walking difficult. A plant cover is somewhat
difficult to establish and maintain, but it can be
maintained by controlling heavy traffic and by irrigating.
Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil blowing can
occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is IIIw. The
woodland ordination symbol is 11W in areas of the
Hurricane soil and 8W in areas of the Pottsburg soil.

7-Kingsland mucky peat, frequently flooded. This
nearly level, very poorly drained soil is on the flood
plains along the tributaries and major streams that are
influenced by tidal action. It is frequently flooded for
very long periods in most years. The mapped areas
range from about 5 to 250 acres. Slopes are smooth or
concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 92 percent of the areas mapped as Kingsland
mucky peat, frequently flooded, Kingsland and similar
soils make up 77 to 100 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 23 percent. They generally
are in areas less than 5 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black mucky peat about
12 inches thick. It is underlain by black mucky peat to a
depth of 80 inches or more. Soils occurring in areas of
this map unit that are similar to the Kingsland soil are


Maurepas soils and some soils that have a loamy
substratum at a depth of 40 inches or more.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Ousley and Tisonia soils. Ousley soils
are higher on the landscape than the Kingsland soil.
Tisonia soils are in tidal areas.
Permeability of this Kingsland soil is rapid. The
available water capacity is very high. The seasonal high
water table is near or at the surface during most of the
year. The soil is high in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of water tupelo, sweetgum, bay,
baldcypress, and pond pine. The understory includes
greenbrier, fetterbush lyonia, aster, and willow.
The potential of this soil for the production of
baldcypress and pond pine is high. The main concerns
in producing and harvesting timber are the very severe
seedling mortality and the equipment limitation, both of
which are caused by wetness. Overcoming the wetness
is very difficult. The trees selected for planting should
be those that are water tolerant. Planting and
harvesting should be scheduled during extended dry
periods. If nursery stock is used to establish or improve
a stand, hand planting generally is necessary.
Management practices should include selection of
appropriate plants.
This soil is very poorly suited to pasture, cultivated
crops, and urban or recreational development because
of the wetness and the flooding.
This soil provides good habitat for a large variety of
wildlife, especially for waterfowl, reptiles, and
amphibians, and for mammals, such as gray squirrels,
minks, raccoons, and river otters. Many birds inhabit the
area, including the chickadee, titmouse, yellow-billed
cuckoo, wood duck, limpkin, acadian flycatcher, owl,
woodcock, hooded warbler, cedar waxwing,
woodpecker, and wren. The various hardwoods provide
a good source of food and cover for these wildlife
species.
The land capability classification is Vllw. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

8-Kureb fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level and gently sloping, excessively drained soil
is on broad upland ridges. The mapped areas range
from about 3 to 50 acres. Slopes are smooth.
In 93 percent of the areas mapped as Kureb fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Kureb and similar soils
make up 84 to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 0 to 16 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5







Nassau County, Florida


inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
19 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The
underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
fine sand. To a depth of about 30 inches, it is strong
brown and has light gray tongues. Below that depth, it
is yellowish brown, brownish yellow, yellow, and very
pale brown. Kershaw soils, which are similar to the
Kureb soil, are in areas of this map unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Resota soils, which are on the lower
ridges.
Permeability of this Kureb soil is rapid. The available
water capacity is very low. The seasonal high water
table is at a depth of about 72 to 80 inches or more
during most of the year. The soil is very low in natural
fertility.
This soil is used mainly for urban development.
The natural vegetation consists of live oak and water
oak. The understory includes saw palmetto and yaupon.
The most common grasses are pineland threeawn and
pinehill, little, and slender bluestems.
This soil is moderately suited to longleaf pine and
sand pine. Growth estimates are given in feet for the
expected height a tree will reach in a specific number of
years. Site index curves generally are based on a
growth estimate for 50 years or more and are used for
slower growing species or products requiring a longer
rotation. The average site index is 40 feet for longleaf
pine and 70 feet for sand pine. The estimated potential
production is 10 cords per acre for longleaf pine and 30
cords per acre for sand pine based on a 50-year
rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality and the equipment
limitation. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling planting and
harvesting operations during dry periods can help to
overcome the equipment limitation. Hardwood
understory can be reduced by controlled burning,
applications of herbicide, or girdling or cutting of the
unwanted trees. A major management concern is the
very low available water capacity, which causes severe
seedling mortality and retards plant growth. Planting
special nursery stock that is larger than usual or that is
containerized can reduce the seedling mortality rate.
Natural regeneration may be preferable in the drier
areas. Management practices should include selecting
appropriate plants and leaving debris on the site. The
soil commonly is very low in organic matter content.
Harvesting methods that remove all tree biomass from
the site further reduce the fertility of the soil. Logging


operations should leave residual biomass distributed
over the site.
This soil is very poorly suited to pasture and to
cultivated crops because of droughtiness and the very
low fertility.
This soil provides habitat for deer and turkeys. Many
birds inhabit the area, including warblers, rufous-sided
towhees, great crested flycatchers, scrub jays, and
quail. Several varieties of native legumes furnish food
for the birds. Palmettos, gopher apple, and various oaks
provide a good source of wildlife food when they are
bearing fruit. The harvesting of timber and other
disturbances improve wildlife food values by increasing
the amount, availability, and types of herbaceous plants
and by producing new sprouts. Wildlife in the urban
areas consists mostly of birds, but gopher tortoises,
sand skinks, scrub lizards, and snakes also inhabit
these areas. The areas of this soil that have been left in
native vegetation provide good cover and escape routes
for most wildlife.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
The main limitation is droughtiness. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of water
supplies resulting from seepage. Vegetation is difficult
to establish because the soil is infertile, coarse textured,
and drought. Water moves rapidly through the soil.
Intensive management practices, including irrigation,
are needed to establish and maintain vegetation on this
soil. Unless vegetation is established, wind erosion can
be a problem during and after construction. Erosion-
control and water-retention facilities generally are not
needed.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of live oak, sand live oak, sand
pine, turkey oak, and eastern redcedar. The native
shrubs include adam's needle, coralbean, Carolina
holly, gopher apple, pawpaw, pricklypear cactus,
rosemary, saw palmetto, and shining sumac. Some of
the herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, crotalaria,
blanketflower, blazingstar, goldaster, goldenrod, lupine,
morningglory, and sunflower.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the sandy texture of the surface
layer. The loose sand makes walking difficult. A plant
cover is difficult to establish and maintain, but it can be
maintained by controlling heavy traffic and by irrigating.
Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil blowing can
occur if the surface is bare.







Soil Survey


The land capability classification is VIIs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 3S.

9-Leon fine sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
soil is on flatwoods. The mapped areas range from
about 3 to 75 acres. Slopes are smooth and are 0 to 2
percent.
In 94 percent of the areas mapped as Leon fine
sand, Leon and similar soils make up 89 to 98 percent
of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 2 to 11
percent. They generally are in areas less than 3 acres
in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 18 inches, is gray fine sand. The subsoil,
to a depth of about 31 inches, is black and dark reddish
brown fine sand. Separating the upper and lower parts
of the subsoil, to a depth of about 37 inches, is a buried
subsurface layer of yellowish brown fine sand. The
lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is dark brown and black fine sand. Soils occurring
in areas of this map unit that are similar to the Leon soil
are Boulogne soils and some soils that have a black or
very dark gray surface layer 8 to more than 10 inches
thick. The thickness of the surface layer is caused by
forestry bedding practices. There are also similar soils
that have thin layers of loamy fine sand directly above
the lower part of the subsoil.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Kingsferry, Pottsburg, Ridgewood,
Sapelo, and Wesconnett soils. Sapelo soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the Leon
soil. Kingsferry soils are lower on flatwoods than the
Leon soil. Pottsburg and Ridgewood soils are on ridges
and knolls. Wesconnett soils are in depressions.
Permeability of this Leon soil is rapid in the surface,
subsurface, and buried subsurface layers and moderate
or moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water
capacity is very low in the surface, subsurface, and
buried subsurface layers and low in the subsoil. The
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches for 1 to 4 months during periods of heavy rainfall
and at a depth of 12 to 42 inches for 2 to 8 months of
the year. The soil is very low in natural fertility. Root
penetration is obstructed by the subsoil.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. It is also used
for urban development.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine and
longleaf pine. The understory includes saw palmetto
and gallberry. The most common grasses are pineland
threeawn, creeping and chalky bluestems, hairy
panicum, and lopsided indiangrass.


This soil is moderately suited to slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Growth estimates are given in
feet for the expected height a tree will reach in a
specific number of years. Site quality curves, which are
based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine and
loblolly pine is 55 feet. The potential production is 23
cords per acre for slash pine and 31 cords per acre for
loblolly pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation. The
average site index for longleaf pine is 65 feet. The
estimated potential production is 36 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are the equipment limitation and seedling
mortality. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods can help to
overcome the equipment limitation, minimize soil
compaction, and minimize root damage during thinning
operations. Construction of access roads, logging
activities, and site preparation should be avoided in
streambeds and adjacent areas because of the hazard
of erosion. Tree limbs and tops should be kept clear of
the stream channel because they can block streamflow.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Special site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, can help
to establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality
rate, and increase the early growth rate. Bedding
should be planned so that it does not impair natural
surface drainage. Short-term drainage is needed on the
wet sites until the pine's uptake of water lowers the
water table, at which time the drains should be blocked.
A major management concern is the low available water
capacity, which causes severe seedling mortality and
retards plant growth. Management practices should
include selection of appropriate plants. The soil
commonly is very low in organic matter content.
Harvesting methods that remove all tree biomass from
the site further reduce the fertility of the soil. Logging
operations should leave residual biomass distributed
over the site.
This soil is well suited to pasture. The main
limitations are the periodic wetness and the very low
fertility. Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and
legumes are the best suited pasture plants. Proper







Nassau County, Florida


stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing
during wet periods help to keep the pasture in good
condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes.
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness and the very low fertility. Corn and grain
sorghum are the best suited crops to plant. Proper row
arrangement, field ditches, and vegetated outlets help
to remove excess surface water. Returning all crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture
help to maintain fertility. Frequent applications of
fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
This soil provides good habitat for deer, bobcats,
skunks, opossums, raccoons, quail, and turkeys and for
many birds, particularly warblers. It provides fair habitat
for squirrels and poor habitat for doves. Wildlife in the
urban areas consists mostly of birds. The areas of this
soil that have been left in native vegetation provide
good cover and escape routes for most wildlife.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
main limitation is the wetness. Drainage is needed if
roads and building foundations are constructed. The
wetness can be reduced by installing tile drains around
the footings. Housing development plans should provide
for the preservation of as many trees as possible.
Vegetation is difficult to establish because the soil is
infertile, coarse textured, and drought. Mulch, fertilizer,
and irrigation help to establish lawn grasses and other
small seeded plants. Drainage is needed for the best
results with most lawn grasses, shade trees,
ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, and vegetable
gardens. Septic tank absorption fields are mounded in
most areas. The moderate permeability can be
overcome by increasing the size of the absorption field.
Unless vegetation is established, erosion and
sedimentation commonly are problems in some water
management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in
unvegetated areas and is especially severe in the
spring.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, cabbage palm,
common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash
pine. The native shrubs include American beautyberry,
coontie, coralbean, partridge pea, pawpaw, saw
palmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern
waxmyrtle. The herbaceous plants are blazingstar,
Catesby lily, grassleaf goldaster, hibiscus, iris, meadow
beauty, sunflower, and zephyr lily.


This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitations are the wetness and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. The loose sand makes
walking difficult. Good drainage should be provided for
paths and trails.
The land capability classification is IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8W.

10-Mandarin fine sand. This nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soil is on narrow to broad
ridges. The mapped areas range from about 3 to 100
acres. Slopes are smooth to slightly convex and are 0
to 2 percent.
In 84 percent of the areas mapped as Mandarin fine
sand, Mandarin soils make up 76 to 93 percent of the
map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 7 to 24 percent.
They generally are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 20 inches, is gray and light gray fine
sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 59 inches, is
dark reddish brown fine sand in the upper part and
yellowish brown fine sand in the lower part. The
substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is white
fine sand.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Echaw, Hurricane, Leon, and Resota
soils. Echaw soils are on the slightly higher ridges.
Hurricane and Resota soils are on ridges. Leon soils
are on low flatwoods.
Permeability of this Mandarin soil is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is very low or low
in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in
the subsoil. The seasonal high water table is at a depth
of 18 to 42 inches for 4 to 6 months of the year. It is at
a depth of 12 to 18 inches during periods of heavy
rainfall. The soil is very low in natural fertility.
In most areas this soil is used as woodland. In a few
areas it is used for urban development.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, water oak, and live oak. The understory
includes saw palmetto and fetterbush lyonia. The most
common grasses are pineland threeawn, creeping
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and
paspalum.
This soil is moderately suited to slash pine and
loblolly pine and is poorly suited to longleaf pine.
Growth estimates are given in feet for the expected
height a tree will reach in a specific number of years.
Site quality curves, which are based on a growth
estimate for 25 years, are often used for short-rotation







Soil Survey


products, such as cordwood and pulp. Site index curves
generally are based on a growth estimate for 50 years
or more and are used for slower growing species or
products requiring a longer rotation. The average site
quality rating for slash pine and loblolly pine is 55 feet.
The potential production is 23 cords per acre for slash
pine and 31 cords per acre for loblolly pine (7) based
on a 25-year rotation. The average site index for
longleaf pine is 60 feet. The estimated potential
production is 30 cords per acre for longleaf pine based
on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,
and plant competition. Using tracks or floatation tires on
planting and harvesting machinery and scheduling
harvesting and planting operations during dry periods
can help to overcome the equipment limitation,
minimize soil compaction, and minimize root damage
during thinning operations. Construction of access
roads, logging activities, and site preparation should be
avoided in streambeds and adjacent areas because of
the hazard of erosion. Tree limbs and tops should be
kept clear of the stream channel because they can
block streamflow.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Chopping should be
done late in the fall or in the winter. Frequently,
chopping only destroys the aboveground growth, and
hardwood root systems sprout profusely in spring and
summer. Repeated chopping is needed to destroy the
sprouts in dense stands of hardwoods. The amount of
hardwood understory can be reduced by controlled
burning, applications of herbicide, or girdling or cutting
of the unwanted trees. Special site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, can help to establish seedlings,
reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase the
early growth rate. A major management concern is the
low available water capacity, which causes severe
seedling mortality and retards plant growth. The soil
commonly is very low in organic matter content.
Harvesting methods that remove all tree biomass from
the site further reduce the fertility of the soil. Logging
operations should leave residual biomass distributed
over the site. Management practices include selection
of appropriate plants and applications of fertilizer during
planting operations.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main
limitations are periodic droughtiness and the very low
fertility. The very low available water capacity of the soil
is a limitation affecting plant growth during extended dry


periods. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more drought
tolerant if fertilizer and lime are added. Proper stocking
rates, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of grazing
help to keep the pasture in good condition.
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops
because of droughtiness and the very low fertility.
This soil provides good habitat for deer, bobcat,
skunks, opossums, raccoons, quail, and turkeys and for
many birds, particularly warblers. It provides fair habitat
for squirrels. Wildlife in the urban areas consists mostly
of birds. The areas of this soil that have been left in
native vegetation provide good food, cover, and escape
routes for most wildlife.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
main limitations are the seasonal high water table and
the droughtiness. If the density of housing is moderate
or high, a community sewage system is needed to
prevent contamination of water supplies resulting from
seepage. Unless vegetation is established, erosion and
sedimentation commonly are problems in some water
management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in
unvegetated areas and is especially severe in the
spring.
Housing development plans should provide for the
preservation of as many trees as possible. Mulching
and fertilizing cut areas help to establish plants.
Selection of suitable vegetation is critical for the
establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable
gardens. Native plants should be used for beautification
and landscaping because they are more easily
established and require less maintenance than other
plants. The native trees consist of American holly,
cabbage palm, common persimmon, live oak, longleaf
pine, and slash pine. The native shrubs include
American beautyberry, coontie, coralbean, partridge
pea, pawpaw, saw palmetto, shining sumac, tarflower,
and southern waxmyrtle. The herbaceous plants are
blazingstar, Catesby lily, grassleaf goldaster, hibiscus,
iris, meadow beauty, sunflower, and zephyr lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the sandy texture of the surface
layer. The loose sand makes walking difficult. A plant
cover is somewhat difficult to establish and maintain,
but it can be maintained by controlling heavy traffic and
by irrigating. Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil
blowing can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is Vis, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

11-Chaires fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained soil is on broad flatwoods. The mapped areas







Nassau County, Florida


range from about 3 to 60 acres. Slopes are smooth and
are 0 to 2 percent.
In 91 percent of the areas mapped as Chaires fine
sand, Chaires and similar soils make up 86 to 96
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 4 to
14 percent. They generally are in areas less than 3
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 7
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
18 inches, is gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of
80 inches or more, is, in sequence downward, black
fine sand, dark reddish brown fine sand, yellowish
brown fine sand, light brownish gray sandy clay loam,
light gray sandy clay loam, and light brownish gray fine
sandy loam. Sapelo soils, which are similar to the
Chaires soil, are in areas of this map unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Ocilla, Goldhead, Meadowbrook, and
Meggett soils. Ocilla soils are on slightly elevated
ridges. Goldhead and Meadowbrook soils are in
depressions, in sloughs, and on low flats. Meggett soils
are in sloughs and on low flats. Also included are soils
that have a dark subsoil immediately below the surface
layer.
Permeability of this Chaires soil is rapid in the
surface, subsurface, and buried subsurface layers,
moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and
moderately slow in the lower part. The available water
capacity is very low or low in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
inches for 1 to 4 months of the year. The soil is very
low or low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf pine, and
water oak. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, pineland threeawn, creeping bluestem, chalky
bluestem, hairy panicum, and lopsided indiangrass.
This soil is moderately suited to slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Growth estimates are given in
feet for the expected height a tree will reach in a
specific number of years. Site quality curves, which are
based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine and
loblolly pine is 60 feet. The potential production is 28
cords per acre for slash pine and 36 cords per acre for
loblolly pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation. The
average site index for longleaf pine is 70 feet. The


estimated potential production is 43 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are the equipment limitation and seedling
mortality. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods help to overcome
the equipment limitation, minimize soil compaction, and
minimize root damage during thinning operations.
Construction of access roads, logging activities, and site
preparation should be avoided in streambeds and
adjacent areas because of the hazard of erosion. Tree
limbs and tops should be kept clear of the stream
channel because they can block streamflow.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Special site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, can help
to establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality
rate, and increase the early growth rate. Bedding
should be planned so that it does not impair natural
surface drainage. Short-term drainage is needed on
some of the wet sites until the pine's uptake of water
lowers the water table, at which time the drains should
be blocked. A major management concern is the low
available water capacity, which causes severe seedling
mortality and retards plant growth. Management
practices should include selection of appropriate plants
and applications of fertilizer during planting operations.
The soil commonly is very low in organic matter
content. Harvesting methods that remove all tree
biomass from the site can further reduce the fertility of
the soil. Logging operations should leave residual
biomass distributed over the site.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness and the low fertility. The wetness limits the
choice of plants that can be grown and the period of
grazing. When the soil is wet, grazing causes
compaction of the surface layer and damage to the
plant community. The low available water capacity is a
limitation affecting the growth of plants suitable for
pasture. Drought-tolerant plants, such as bahiagrass,
coastal bermudagrass, and legumes, are the best suited
pasture plants. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation,
and restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep
the pasture in good condition. Fertilizer and lime are
needed for optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
wetness, the low fertility, the droughtiness, and the low
available water capacity are the main limitations. Corn







Soil Survey


and grain sorghum are the best suited crops to plant.
Proper row arrangement, field ditches, and vegetated
outlets help to remove excess surface water. Returning
all crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume
mixture help to maintain fertility. Frequent applications
of fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
This soil provides very good habitat for deer, quail,
bobcats, skunks, opossums, raccoons, and turkeys and
for many birds, particularly warblers. It provides fair
habitat for squirrels and poor habitat for doves. Wildlife
in the urban areas consists mostly of birds. The areas
of this soil that have been left in native vegetation
provide good cover and escape and travel routes for
most wildlife.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
main limitation is the periodic wetness. Drainage is
needed if roads and building foundations are
constructed. The wetness can be reduced by installing
tile drains around the footings. If the density of housing
is moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent the contamination of water supplies
resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption fields
are mounded in most areas. Unless vegetation is
established, erosion and sedimentation commonly are
problems in some water management systems. Wind
erosion is a problem in unvegetated areas and is
especially severe in the spring.
Housing development plans should provide for the
preservation of as many trees as possible. Mulch,
fertilizer, and irrigation help to establish lawn grasses
and other small seeded plants. Drainage is needed for
most lawn grasses, shade trees, ornamental trees,
shrubs, vines, and vegetable gardens. Native plants
should be used for landscaping and beautification
because they are more easily established and require
less maintenance than other plants. The native trees
consist of American holly, cabbage palm, common
persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The
native shrubs include American beautyberry, coontie,
coralbean, partridge pea, pawpaw, saw palmetto,
shining sumac, tarflower, and southern waxmyrtle. The
herbaceous plants are blazingstar, Catesby lily,
grassleaf goldaster, hibiscus, iris, meadow beauty,
sunflower, and zephyr lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitations are the periodic wetness and the
sandy texture of the surface layer. The loose sand
makes walking difficult. Good drainage is needed for
paths and trails. Vehicles are easily mired down, and
soil blowing occurs if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is IVw, and the


woodland ordination symbol is 10W.

12-Newhan-Corolla, rarely flooded, fine sands,
rolling. These gently rolling to hilly, excessively
drained, moderately well drained, and somewhat poorly
drained soils are on narrow, dunelike ridges along the
Atlantic coast. The Corolla soil is subject to flooding on
rare occasions during prolonged, high-intensity storms.
The mapped areas range from about 5 to 300 acres.
Slopes are convex or concave and range from 2 to 20
percent.
In 100 percent of the areas mapped as Newhan-
Corolla, rarely flooded, fine sands, rolling, Newhan and
Corolla soils make up 98 to 100 percent of the map
unit. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 2 percent. They
generally are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 77 percent
Newhan soils, 21 percent Corolla soils, and 2 percent
dissimilar soils. The soils in this map unit are so
intermingled that mapping them separately is not
practical at the scale used. The proportions and
patterns of the Newhan and Corolla soils, however, are
relatively consistent in most areas.
The Newhan soil is excessively drained. It is at the
higher elevations and has slopes that range from 5 to
20 percent. Typically, the surface layer is white fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The underlying material, to a
depth of about 80 inches, is very pale brown fine sand.
The Corolla soil is moderately well drained and
somewhat poorly drained. It is in low positions on the
landscape and has slopes of less than 6 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very pale brown fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The underlying material, to a
depth of about 80 inches, is fine sand. It is pale brown
and light yellowish brown in the upper part and light
gray in the lower part.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Fripp soils and Beaches. Fripp soils
are in the western part of the areas.
The Newhan soil has a seasonal high water table at
a depth of more than 72 inches during most years. The
Corolla soil has a seasonal high water table at a depth
of 18 to 36 inches for 2 to 6 months and at a depth of
more than 36 inches for the rest of the year. The
permeability of the Newhan and Corolla soils is very
rapid. The available water capacity is very low. These
soils are very low in natural fertility.
These soils are used mainly for urban development.
The natural vegetation consists of yaupon and live
oak. The most common grasses are seaoats and bushy
bluestem.
These soils are not suited to pine trees, to pasture,







Nassau County, Florida


or to cultivated crops because of salt spray.
These soils provide very good habitat for a variety of
songbirds; for shorebirds, such as gulls and terns; and
for crustaceans, such as crabs and sea turtles. They
also provide good habitat for mammals, such as mice,
raccoons, bobcats, foxes, and skunks. The native
grasses and legumes provide good food sources and
nesting sites. The areas of these soils that have been
left in native vegetation provide good cover and escape
routes for most wildlife.
These soils are moderately well suited to urban
development. The main limitations are the slope and
droughtiness. Roads and streets should be constructed
above the expected level of flooding. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent the contamination of water
supplies resulting from seepage. The slope is a concern
in installing septic tank absorption fields. Lateral lines
should be installed on the contour. Designing access
roads so that they have adequate cut-slope grades and
installing drains help to control surface runoff and keep
soil losses to a minimum. Areas adjacent to the ocean
are subject to coastal dune erosion, especially if
construction alters the natural processes and destroys
excessive amounts of native vegetation. Vegetation is
difficult to establish because the soil is infertile, coarse
textured, excessively drained, and saline and because
of the salt spray. Intensive management practices,
including irrigation, are needed to establish and
maintain vegetation on these soils. Unless vegetation is
established, water and wind erosion can be a problem
during and after construction.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of cabbage palm, Chickasaw plum,
live oak, redbay, red cedar, slash pine, magnolia, and
sand pine. The native shrubs include beargrass,
pricklypear cactus, coontie, coralbean, yaupon, lantana,
marshelder, partridge pea, saw palmetto, Spanish
bayonet, and waxmyrtle. The most common grasses are
seaoats, marshhay cordgrass, bitter panicum, seashore
saltgrass, gulf bluestem, seashore paspalum, seashore
dropseed, common bermudagrass, and shoredune
panicum. The herbaceous plants and vines are beach
morningglory, fiddler-leaf morningglory, blanketflower,
largeleaf pennywort, sea purslane, greenbrier, and wild
grape.
These soils are poorly suited to recreational
development. The main limitations are the slope and the
sandy texture of the surface layer. The loose sand
makes walking difficult. Because of the slope, recreation


areas on these soils are limited to paths and trails,
which should extend across the slope. A plant cover is
difficult to establish and maintain, but it can be
maintained by controlling heavy traffic and by irrigating.
Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil blowing can
occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is VIIIs. These soils
have not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

13-Goldhead fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained soil is on broad, low flats and in sloughs. The
mapped areas range from about 3 to 150 acres. Slopes
are smooth or convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 93 percent of the areas mapped as Goldhead fine
sand, Goldhead and similar soils make up 90 to 96
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 4 to
10 percent. They generally are in areas less than 3
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
33 inches, is fine sand. The upper part is dark gray, and
the lower part is gray. The subsoil, to a depth of about
69 inches, is olive gray clay loam. The substratum, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is greenish gray loamy fine
sand. Soils occurring in areas of this map unit that are
similar to the Goldhead soil are Meadowbrook soils and
some soils that have a black and very dark gray surface
layer more than 8 inches thick. The dark color of the
surface layer is caused by forestry bedding practices.
Also, there are similar soils that have a subsoil within
20 inches of the surface or a dark subsoil directly below
the surface layer.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Blanton, Ellabelle, Leefield, Chaires,
Meggett, and Ocilla soils. Blanton soils are on elevated
ridges. Ellabelle soils are in drainageways. Leefield and
Ocilla soils are on slightly higher elevations than the
Goldhead soils. Chaires soils are on flatwoods. Meggett
soils are on broad, low flats and in sloughs and
depressions.
Permeability of this Goldhead soil is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderately slow in
the subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The seasonal high water table is within 12
inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months of the year. The
surface layer remains wet for long periods after heavy
rainfall. The soil is low in natural fertility.
In most areas this soil is used as woodland. In a few
areas it is used for pasture or crops.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly
pine, longleaf pine, sweetgum, blackgum, and water







Soil Survey


oak. The understory includes briers, gallberry,
waxmyrtle, and a few saw palmettos. The most
common native grasses are pineland threeawn, pinehill
bluestem, little bluestem, panicum, toothachegrass,
muhly, and switchgrass.
This soil is well suited to slash pine and loblolly pine
and is moderately suited to longleaf pine. Growth
estimates are given in feet for the expected height a
tree will reach in a specific number of years. Site quality
curves, which are based on a growth estimate for 25
years, are often used for short-rotation products, such
as cordwood and pulp. Site index curves generally are
based on a growth estimate for 50 years or more and
are used for slower growing species or products
requiring a longer rotation. The average site quality
rating for slash pine and loblolly pine is 65 feet. The
potential production is 34 cords per acre for slash pine
and 42 cords per acre for loblolly pine (7) based on a
25-year rotation. The average site index for longleaf
pine is 75 feet. The estimated potential production is 39
cords per acre for longleaf pine based on a 50-year
rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality and the equipment
limitation. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods can help to
overcome the equipment limitation, minimize soil
compaction, and minimize root damage during thinning
operations. Construction of access roads, logging
activities, and site preparation should be avoided in
streambeds and adjacent areas because of the hazard
of erosion. Tree limbs and tops should be kept clear of
the stream channel because they can block streamflow.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Special site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, can help
to establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality
rate, and increase the early growth rate. Bedding
should be planned so that it does not impair natural
surface drainage. Short-term drainage is needed on
some of the wet sites until the pine's uptake of water
lowers the water table, at which time the drains should
be blocked. Management practices should include
selection of appropriate plants and applications of
fertilizer during planting operations.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. When the
soil is wet, grazing causes compaction of the surface
layer and damage to the plant community. Excess
surface water can be removed from most areas by


installing and maintaining field drains. Tall fescue,
coastal bermudagrass, and bahiagrass are the best
suited pasture plants. Proper stocking rates, pasture
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help
to keep the pasture in good condition. Fertilizer and
lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes.
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and the low
fertility. Corn and grain sorghum are the best suited
crops to plant. A drainage system is needed for most
cultivated crops and pasture plants. Proper row
arrangement, lateral ditches or tile drains, and properly
constructed outlets will remove the excess surface
water. Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
grass-legume mixture help to maintain fertility. Frequent
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
This soil provides good habitat for deer, bobcats,
skunks, opossums, raccoons, quail, and turkeys and for
many birds, particularly warblers. It provides fair habitat
for squirrels and poor habitat for doves. Wildlife in the
urban areas consists mostly of birds. The areas of this
soil that have been left in native vegetation provide a
good source of food, cover, and escape routes for most
wildlife.
If this soil is used for urban development, the main
limitations are the periodic wetness and droughtiness.
Drainage is needed if roads and building foundations
are constructed. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system is needed to prevent
contamination of water supplies resulting from seepage.
Septic tank absorption fields are mounded in most
areas (fig. 7). Unless vegetation is established, erosion
and sedimentation commonly are problems in some
water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem
in unvegetated areas and is especially severe in the
spring.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, cabbage palm,
common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash
pine. The native shrubs include American beautyberry,
coontie, coralbean, partridge pea, pawpaw, saw
palmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern
waxmyrtle. The herbaceous plants are blazingstar,
Catesby lily, grassleaf goldaster, hibiscus, iris, meadow
beauty, sunflower, and zephyr lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitations are the wetness and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. The loose sand makes







Nassau County, Florida


- "

-'-

) ,, f .*' o .-.;.#%,.-


Figure 7.-A septic tank absorption field in an area of Goldhead fine sand. It was mounded because the seasonal high water table is near
the soil surface.


walking difficult. Good drainage should be provided for
paths and trails. Vehicles are easily mired down, and
soil blowing can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is IIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11W.

14-Rutlege mucky fine sand, frequently flooded.
This nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in narrow
drainageways. It is frequently flooded for very long
periods in most years (fig. 8). The mapped areas range
from about 3 to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth or
concave and are 0 to 2 percent.


In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Rutlege mucky
fine sand, frequently flooded, Rutlege and similar soils
make up 76 to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 0 to 24 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is about 16 inches thick.
It is black mucky fine sand in the upper part and very
dark gray fine sand in the lower part. The underlying
material, to a depth of about 80 inches, is fine sand. It
is dark gray in the upper part, gray in the next part, and
light gray in the lower part. Some soils occurring in
areas of this map unit are similar to the Rutlege soil but







Soil Survey


Figure 8.-An area of Rutlege mucky fine sand, frequently flooded, after a period of heavy rainfall.


have a surface layer that is covered with 4 to 8 inches
of organic material or have a dark surface layer that is
less than 10 inches thick in places.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Croatan, Ellabelle, and Kingsferry soils.
Croatan and Ellabelle soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Rutlege soil. Kingsferry soils are
on low flatwoods. Other included soils are similar to the
Croatan soils but have only 8 to 16 inches of organic
material.
Permeability of this Rutlege soil is rapid. The
available water capacity is very high in the surface layer
and low in the underlying material. The seasonal high
water table is at or near the surface during most of the
year. The soil is moderate in natural fertility.


This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of baldcypress, water tupelo, pond
pine, and sweetgum. The understory includes giant
gallberry, huckleberry, greenbrier, and bayberry.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees. Under
natural conditions, however, it is suited to cypress and
hardwoods. The major management concern is the high
water table, which causes severe seedling mortality.
The water table and the high organic matter content in
the surface layer prevent the use of heavy equipment.
Adequate drainage outlets generally are not available;
therefore, drainage is not practical.
This soil is very poorly suited to pasture and to
cultivated crops because of the wetness and the
flooding.







Nassau County, Florida


This soil provides good habitat for waterfowl, reptiles,
and amphibians and for mammals, such as gray
squirrels, minks, raccoons, and river otters. Many birds
inhabit the area, including the chickadee, titmouse,
yellow-billed cuckoo, wood duck, limpkin, acadian
flycatcher, owl, hooded warbler, cedar waxwing,
woodpecker, and wren. The various hardwoods provide
a good source of food and cover for the wildlife.
This soil is very poorly suited to urban or recreational
development because of the wetness and the flooding.
The land capability classification is VIw. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

15-Buccaneer clay, frequently flooded. This nearly
level, very poorly drained soil is in large drainageways
on the flood plains. It is frequently flooded for very long
periods in most years. The mapped areas range from
about 50 to 500 or more acres. Slopes are smooth or
convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 94 percent of the areas mapped as Buccaneer
clay, frequently flooded, Buccaneer and similar soils
make up 88 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 1 to 12 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black clay about 5
inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of about 65 inches,
is clay. It is very dark gray in the upper part, dark gray
in the next part, and gray in the lower part. The
substratum, to a depth of about 80 inches, is light olive
gray clay. Soils occurring in areas of this map unit that
are similar to the Buccaneer soil are Ellabelle soils and
some soils that have a surface layer covered with less
than 8 inches of organic material, that are sandy within
60 inches of the surface, that are rarely flooded, or that
have a sandy clay loam subsoil.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Croatan and Meggett soils. Croatan
soils are in positions on the landscape similar to those
of the Buccaneer soil. Meggett soils are on broad, low
flats.
Permeability of this Buccaneer soil is very slow. The
available water capacity is high or very high. The
seasonal high water table is at or above the surface for
6 to 9 months of the year. The surface layer remains
wet for long periods after heavy rainfall. The soil is high
in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of baldcypress, sweetgum, water
tupelo, and water oak. The most common grass is
panicum.
The potential of this soil for the production of


baldcypress trees is high. The main concerns in
producing and harvesting timber are the equipment
limitation and seedling mortality. The wetness is a
limitation affecting the use of equipment. Using tracks
or floatation tires on planting and harvesting machinery
and scheduling harvesting and planting operations
during extended dry periods can help to overcome the
equipment limitation, minimize soil compaction, and
minimize root damage during thinning operations. If
nursery stock is used to establish or improve a stand,
hand planting generally is necessary. Drainage is
needed. Overcoming the wetness is very difficult.
This soil is not suited to pasture, to cultivated crops,
or to urban or recreational development because of the
wetness and the flooding.
This soil provides good habitat for a large variety of
wildlife, especially for waterfowl, reptiles, and
amphibians and for mammals, such as gray squirrels,
minks, raccoons, and river otters. Many birds inhabit
this area, including the chickadee, titmouse, yellow-
billed cuckoo, wood duck, limpkin, acadian flycatcher,
owl, woodcock, hooded warbler, cedar waxwing,
woodpecker, and wren. The various hardwoods provide
a good source of food and cover for these wildlife
species.
The land capability classification is VIw. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

16-Ellabelle mucky fine sand, frequently flooded.
This nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in
drainageways. It is frequently flooded for very long
periods during most years. The mapped areas range
from about 3 to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth or
convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 91 percent of the areas mapped as Ellabelle
mucky fine sand, frequently flooded, Ellabelle and
similar soils make up 86 to 97 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 3 to 14 percent. They generally
are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is about 12 inches thick.
It is black mucky fine sand in the upper part and very
dark gray fine sand in the lower part. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 36 inches, is fine sand. It is
gray in the upper part and grayish brown in the lower
part. The subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
dark gray sandy clay loam in the upper part, grayish
brown sandy clay in the next part, and greenish gray
sandy clay in the lower part. Some soils occurring in
areas of this map unit are similar to the Ellabelle soil
but have as much as 8 inches of muck on the surface,
have a loamy subsoil at a depth of more than 40







Soil Survey


inches, have a subsoil that is sandy within 60 inches of
the surface, or have a loamy subsoil that is 6 to 20
inches thick.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Kingsferry, Meggett, and Goldhead
soils. Kingsferry, Meggett, and Goldhead soils are on
broad, low flats.
Permeability of this Ellabelle soil is moderately rapid
in the upper part of the soil and moderately slow in the
lower part. The available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate or high in
the subsoil. The seasonal high water table is at or near
the surface for 6 to 9 months of the year. The surface
layer remains wet for long periods after heavy rainfall.
The soil is low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of pond pine, sweetgum, blackgum,
water oak, baldcypress, and water tupelo. The
understory includes fetterbush lyonia, red maple,
southern bayberry, giant gallberry, and sweetbay. The
native grasses include plumegrass, longleaf uniola, and
sedge.
This soil generally is very poorly suited to pine trees.
Under natural conditions, however, it is suited to
cypress and hardwoods. The major management
concern is the high water table, which causes severe
seedling mortality. The water table and the high organic
matter content in the surface layer prevent the use of
heavy equipment. Adequate drainage outlets generally
are not available; therefore, drainage is not practical.
This soil is very poorly suited to pasture, to cultivated
crops, and to urban or recreational development
because of the flooding and the wetness.
This soil provides good habitat for waterfowl, reptiles,
and amphibians and for mammals, such as gray
squirrels, minks, raccoons, and river otters. Many birds
inhabit the area, including the chickadee, titmouse,
yellow-billed cuckoo, wood duck, limpkin, acadian
flycatcher, owl, woodcock, hooded warbler, cedar
waxwing, woodpecker, and wren. The various
hardwoods provide a good source of food and cover for
these wildlife species.
The land capability classification is Vw. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

17-Urban land. This map unit consists of areas that
are 75 percent or more covered with streets, houses,
commercial buildings, parking lots, shopping centers,
industrial parks, airports, and related urban facilities.
Included in mapping are very small areas of Meggett,
Leon, Kureb, Mandarin, Resota, and Goldhead soils.
These included soils are mostly in areas of lawns,


parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds. Other areas are
made up of drastically disturbed soil material. The
included soils are in tracts that are too small to be
mapped separately.
This map unit has not been assigned a land
capability classification nor a woodland ordination
symbol.

18-Lynn Haven-Wesconnett-Leon complex,
depressional. These nearly level, very poorly drained
soils are in depressions on flatwoods. The water table
is above the surface for 6 to 9 months in most years.
The mapped areas range from about 3 to 40 acres.
Slopes are smooth or concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 93 percent of the areas mapped as Lynn Haven-
Wesconnett-Leon complex, depressional, Lynn Haven,
Wesconnett, and Leon soils make up 86 to 100 percent
of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 14
percent. They generally are in areas less than 3 acres
in size.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 35 percent
Lynn Haven soils, 30 percent Wesconnett soils, 28
percent Leon soils, and 7 percent dissimilar soils. The
soils in this map unit are so intermingled that it is not
practical to map them separately at the scale used. The
proportions and patterns of the Lynn Haven,
Wesconnett, and Leon soils, however, are relatively
consistent in most areas.
Typically, the surface layer of the Lynn Haven soil is
about 9 inches thick. It is black fine sand in the upper
part and very dark gray fine sand in the lower part. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 25 inches, is fine
sand. It is gray in the upper part and light gray in the
lower part. The subsoil, to a depth of about 80 inches,
is fine sand. It is black in the upper part and dark
reddish brown in the lower part.
Typically, the surface layer of the Wesconnett soil is
fine sand about 12 inches thick. It is black in the upper
part and very dark gray in the lower part. The subsoil,
to a depth of about 65 inches, is fine sand. It is black in
the upper part, dark reddish brown in the next part, and
yellowish brown in the lower part. The substratum, to a
depth of about 80 inches, is grayish brown fine sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Leon soil is black
muck about 3 inches thick. Below that layer, to a depth
of about 8 inches, is black fine sand. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 17 inches, is light brownish
gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about
80 inches. It is dark reddish brown loamy fine sand in
the upper part and dark reddish brown fine sand in the
lower part.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar







Nassau County, Florida


soils. These are Evergreen soils. They are in the center
of the map unit and have an organic surface layer.
Permeability of these Lynn Haven, Wesconnett, and
Leon soils is rapid in the upper part of the soil and
moderate or moderately rapid in the lower part. The
available water capacity is low, moderate, or very high
in the surface layer, low or moderate in the subsurface
layer, and moderate in the subsoil. These soils are low
or medium in natural fertility.
These soils are used mainly as woodland. The
natural vegetation consists of cypress and pond pine.
The understory includes pondweed. The most common
grass is maidencane.
These soils are very poorly suited to pine trees.
Under natural conditions, however, they are suited to
cypress and hardwoods. The major management
concern is the high water table, which causes seedling
mortality. The water table and the high organic matter
content in the surface layer prevent the use of heavy
equipment. Adequate drainage outlets generally are not
available; therefore, drainage is not practical in these
areas.
These soils are very poorly suited to urban or
recreational development because of the ponding.
The land capability classification is VIIw. These soils
have not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

19-Leon fine sand, tidal. This nearly level, very
poorly drained soil is in narrow tidal marshes bordering
flatwoods. It is subject to flooding by normal high tides.
The mapped areas range from about 3 to 50 acres.
Slopes are smooth and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 96 percent of the areas mapped as Leon fine
sand, tidal, Leon soils make up 88 to 100 percent of the
map unit. Dissimilar soils make up about 0 to 12
percent. They generally are in areas less than 3 acres
in size.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 26
inches thick. It is dark gray in the upper part and very
dark gray in the lower part. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of about 40 inches, is dark grayish
brown and dark brown fine sand. Separating the upper
and lower parts of the subsoil, to a depth of about 43
inches, is a buried subsurface layer of light gray fine
sand. The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of about
58 inches, is dark brown fine sand. The substratum, to
a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark olive gray fine
sand.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Tisonia soils and Arents. Arents are
higher on the landscape than the Leon soils, and
Tisonia soils are lower.


Permeability of this Leon soil is moderately rapid in
the surface layer and moderate or moderately rapid in
the subsoil and the substratum. The available water
capacity is low to high. The seasonal high water table is
at or near the surface during most of the year. The soil
is low in natural fertility.
The natural vegetation consists of saltwort, bushy
seaoxeye, marshhay cordgrass, seashore cordgrass,
batis, and smooth cordgrass.
This soil is not suited to pine trees, pasture, or
cultivated crops because of the excessive salinity, the
flooding, and the wetness.
Salt marshes provide good habitat for a variety of
wildlife. The habitat generally is maintained by natural
forces and influences, such as by tidal action and
periodic hurricanes.
Storms generally create "open" water in salt and
brackish marshes and also change salinity levels. The
resulting effect is that plant succession is set back and
a more favorable habitat can be created for waterfowl,
furbearers, and other forms of wildlife, such as wading
birds. Artificially created dikes that control salinity are
used in managing marsh plants for wildlife. Prescribed
burning is also used in marsh management.
This soil is very poorly suited to urban or recreational
development. The main limitations are the excessive
salinity, the wetness, and the flooding.
The land capability classification is VIIIw. This soil
has not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

20-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained
soil is on narrow to broad ridges and on isolated knolls.
The mapped areas range from about 3 to 85 acres.
Slopes are smooth or concave.
In 93 percent of the areas mapped as Ortega fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ortega and similar soils
make up 88 to 98 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up about 2 to 12 percent. They generally are
in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 6
inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand to a
depth of about 80 inches or more. It is brown and light
yellowish brown in the upper part, pale brown in the
next part, and light gray in the lower part. Soils
occurring in areas of this map unit that are similar to the
Ortega soil are Blanton and Centenary soils and, in the
community of Crandall, Ortega soils that have a dark
gray and very dark gray surface layer 10 to 30 inches
thick.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Albany, Hurricane, Kershaw, and







Soil Survey


Ridgewood soils. Albany, Hurricane, and Ridgewood
soils are on the lower ridges and on flatwoods. Kershaw
soils are on the more elevated ridges and knolls.
Permeability of this Ortega soil is rapid. The available
water capacity is very low or low. The seasonal high
water table is at a depth of 42 to 60 inches for 6 to 8
months of the year. The soil is very low in natural
fertility.
In most areas this soil is used as woodland. In a few
areas it is used for urban development.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, turkey oak, and live oak. The understory
includes saw palmetto. The most common grasses are
pineland threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum,
grassleaf lovegrass, purple lovegrass, broom sedge,
and creeping and chalky bluestems.
This soil is moderately suited to slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Growth estimates are given in
feet for the expected height a tree will reach in a
specific number of years. Site quality curves, which are
based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine and
loblolly pine is 55 feet. The potential production is 23
cords per acre for slash pine and 31 cords per acre for
loblolly pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation. The
average site index for longleaf pine is 60 feet. The
estimated potential production is 30 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are the equipment limitation and seedling
mortality. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods can help to
overcome the equipment limitation, minimize soil
compaction, and minimize root damage during thinning
operations.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Hardwood understory
can be reduced by controlled burning, applications of
herbicide, or girdling or cutting of the unwanted trees. A
major management concern is the low available water
capacity, which causes severe seedling mortality and
retards plant growth. Planting special nursery stock that
is larger than usual or that is containerized can reduce
the seedling mortality rate. Natural regeneration may be
preferable in the drier areas. Management practices


should include selecting appropriate plants and leaving
debris on the site. The soil commonly is very low in
organic matter content. Harvesting methods that
remove all tree biomass from the site further reduce the
fertility of the soil. Logging operations should leave
residual biomass distributed over the site.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The main
limitations are the available water capacity and rapid
leaching of plant nutrients. The very low or low
available water capacity is a limitation affecting plant
growth during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted
plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
are more drought tolerant if fertilizer and lime are
added. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
timely deferment of grazing can help to keep the
pasture in good condition.
The soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The main
limitations are droughtiness and the rapid leaching of
plant nutrients. Grain sorghum is the best suited crop to
plant. Droughtiness is a concern in management,
especially during extended dry periods. Returning all
crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume
mixture can help to maintain fertility. Frequent
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
This soil provides habitat for deer and turkeys. Many
birds inhabit the area, including warblers, towhees,
crested flycatchers, doves, and quail. Several varieties
of native legumes furnish food for the birds. The
harvesting of timber and similar disturbances improve
wildlife food values by increasing the amount,
availability, and types of herbaceous plants and by
producing new sprouts. Wildlife in the urban areas
consists mostly of birds. The areas of this soil that have
been left in native vegetation provide a good source of
food, cover, and escape routes for most wildlife.
This soil is well suited to urban development. The
main limitation is the droughtiness. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of water
supplies resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption
fields are mounded in most areas. Establishing
vegetation commonly is difficult because the soil is
infertile, coarse textured, and drought. Intensive
management practices are needed to establish and
maintain vegetation on this soil, including irrigation and
applications of adequate fertilizer. Unless vegetation is
established, wind erosion can become a problem during
and after construction.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The







Nassau County, Florida


native trees consist of American holly, Chickasaw plum,
longleaf pine, slash pine, live oak, southern redcedar,
sand pine, turkey oak, and bluejack oak. The native
shrubs include adam's needle, American beautyberry,
Carolina holly, coontie, coralbean, Florida chinkapin,
pawpaw, pricklypear cactus, saw palmetto, shining
sumac, and yaupon. The herbaceous plants are aster,
beebalm, crotalaria, blanketflower, blazingstar,
goldaster, lupine, morningglory, goldenrod, and
sunflower.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the sandy texture of the surface
layer. A plant cover is difficult to establish and maintain,
but it can be maintained by controlling heavy traffic and
by irrigating. Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil
blowing can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 10S.

21-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly
drained or moderately well drained soil is on narrow to
broad ridges and isolated knolls. The mapped areas
range from about 3 to 80 acres. Slopes are smooth or
concave.
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Blanton fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Blanton and similar soils
make up 82 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 1 to 18 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of
the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 42 inches, is
pale brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
about 56 inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is brownish
yellow sandy clay loam that has mottles in shades of
gray, yellow, and brown in the upper part and mixed
light gray, brownish yellow, and strong brown sandy
clay loam in the lower part. Ortega soils, which are
similar to the Blanton soil, are in areas of this map unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Albany, Ocilla, Penney, and Ridgewood
soils. Albany, Ocilla, and Ridgewood soils are in slightly
lower positions on the landscape than the Blanton soil,
and Penney soils are in higher positions.
Permeability of this Blanton soil is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is very low or low
in the surface and subsurface layers and moderately
rapid in the upper part of the subsoil. The seasonal high
water table is at a depth of 30 to 48 inches for 1 to 4


months of the year and at a depth of 48 to 60 inches for
4 to 8 months or more. The soil is low in natural fertility.
In most areas this soil is used as woodland. In a few
areas it is used for pasture or crops.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
slash pine, flowering dogwood, turkey oak, and water
oak. The most common grasses are pineland threeawn,
broomsedge bluestem, and low panicum.
This soil is moderately suited to slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Growth estimates are given in
feet for the expected height a tree will reach in a
specific number of years. Site quality curves, which are
based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine and
loblolly pine is 55 feet. The potential production is 23
cords per acre for slash pine and 31 cords per acre for
loblolly pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation. The
average site index for longleaf pine is 65 feet. The
estimated potential production is 36 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,
and plant competition. Using tracks or floatation tires on
harvesting and planting machinery and scheduling
harvesting operations during dry periods can help to
overcome the equipment limitation, minimize soil
compaction, and minimize root damage during thinning
operations. Construction of access roads, logging
activities, and site preparation should be avoided in
streambeds and adjacent areas because of the hazard
of erosion. Tree limbs and tops should be kept clear of
the stream channel because they can block streamflow.
Stream crossing should be avoided if possible. Culverts
and bridges may be needed.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Special site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, can help
to establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality
rate, and increase the early growth rate. Bedding
should be planned so that it does not impair natural
surface drainage. Conventional harvesting methods
generally are suitable. If heavy equipment is used
during wet periods, the extent of soil compaction will
increase. Management practices should include
selection of appropriate plants and use of fertilizer
during planting operations. The soil commonly is very







Soil Survey


low in organic matter content. Harvesting methods that
remove all tree biomass from the site further reduce the
fertility of the soil. Logging operations should leave
residual biomass distributed over the site.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. The
main limitations are droughtiness and the low fertility.
Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are the best
suited grasses to plant. Proper stocking rates, pasture
rotation, and timely deferment of grazing can help to
keep the pasture in good condition. Fertilizer and lime
are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The low
fertility and the droughtiness are the main limitations. If
water-control and soil-improving measures are applied,
the soil is moderately well suited to most cultivated
crops. The main crops are corn, grain sorghum, and
tobacco. The soil is friable, is easy to keep in good tilth,
and can be worked throughout a wide range of moisture
content. Returning all crop residue to the soil and using
a cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
grass-legume mixture help to maintain fertility. Frequent
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
The mixed hardwoods and pines on this soil provide
very good habitat for deer, turkeys, squirrels, and birds.
Hardwood mast, such as acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and
berries, is a good source of food for wildlife. The mature
hardwoods and snags provide good nesting sites for
birds. This soil also provides good habitat for raccoons,
opossums, bobwhite quail, and doves; fair habitat for
reptiles; and poor habitat for most amphibians. Wildlife
in the urban areas consists mostly of birds and
squirrels. The areas of this soil that have been left in
native vegetation provide good cover and escape routes
for most wildlife.
If this soil is used for urban development, the main
limitations are the periodic wetness and droughtiness. If
the density of housing is moderate or high, a community
sewage system is needed to prevent contamination of
water supplies resulting from seepage. Septic tank
absorption fields are mounded in most areas.
Housing development plans should provide for the
preservation of as many trees as possible. Native trees
and plants are easily established and require less
maintenance than introduced ornamentals. The native
trees consist of American holly, laurel cherry,
Chickasaw plum, dogwood, hickory, southern magnolia,
oak, pine, persimmon, redbud, red maple, red cedar,
and sweetgum. The native shrubs include American
beautyberry, coralbean, pawpaw, strawberry bush,
shining sumac, viburnum, and waxmyrtle. The


herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, blazingstar, iris,
and sunflower.
If this soil is used for recreational development, the
main limitations are the wetness and the sandy texture
of the surface layer. Good drainage is needed for paths
and trails. Plant cover can be maintained by controlling
heavy traffic and by irrigating. Vehicles are easily mired
down, and soil blowing can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11S.

22-Sapelo-Leon fine sands. These nearly level,
poorly drained soils are on broad flatwoods. The
mapped areas range from about 3 to 50 acres. Slopes
are smooth and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 93 percent of the areas mapped as Sapelo-Leon
fine sands, Sapelo, Leon, and similar soils make up 86
to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up
about 1 to 14 percent. They generally are in areas less
than 3 acres in size.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 59 percent
Sapelo and similar soils, 34 percent Leon soils, and 7
percent dissimilar soils. The soils in this map unit are so
intermingled that it is not practical to map them
separately at the scale used. The proportions and
patterns of the Sapelo, Leon, and similar soils,
however, are relatively consistent in most areas.
Typically, the surface layer of the Sapelo soil is black
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
a depth of about 21 inches, is gray and light gray fine
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about
27 inches, is black fine sand. Separating the upper and
lower parts of the subsoil, to a depth of about 43
inches, is a buried subsurface layer of dark brown
loamy fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil, to a
depth of about 70 inches, is gray fine sandy loam and
light brownish gray sandy clay loam. The substratum, to
a depth of about 80 inches, is gray loamy fine sand.
Chaires soils, which are similar to the Sapelo soil, are
in areas of this map unit.
Typically, the surface layer of the Leon soil is very
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 20 inches, is gray
fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
about 24 inches, is black and dark reddish brown fine
sand. Separating the upper and lower parts of the
subsoil is a buried subsurface layer of brown fine sand.
The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is thin pale brown fine sand and light gray fine
sand.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar







Nassau County, Florida


soils. These are Albany, Leon, Goldhead, and
Meadowbrook soils. Albany soils are on slightly
elevated ridges. Leon soils are on flatwoods. Goldhead
and Meadowbrook soils are in sloughs and depressions.
Permeability of these Sapelo and Leon soils is rapid
in the surface, subsurface, and buried subsurface layers
and moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil. The
available water capacity is very low or low in the
surface, subsurface, and buried subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil. The seasonal high water table
is within 12 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months of
the year. These soils are very low in natural fertility.
These soils are used mainly as woodland. The
natural vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf pine,
and water oak. The understory includes saw palmetto,
gallberry, southern bayberry, and dwarf huckleberry.
The most common grasses are pineland threeawn,
creeping bluestem, pineywoods dropseed, and panicum.
These soils are moderately suited to slash pine,
loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. Growth estimates are
given in feet for the expected height a tree will reach in
a specific number of years. Site quality curves, which
are based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine and
loblolly pine is 55 to 60 feet. The potential production is
23 to 28 cords per acre for slash pine and 31 to 36
cords per acre for loblolly pine (7) based on a 25-year
rotation. The average site index for longleaf pine is 65
to 70 feet. The estimated potential production is 36 to
43 cords per acre for longleaf pine based on a 50-year
rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are the equipment limitation and seedling
mortality. The wetness is a limitation affecting use of
equipment. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting
and harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting
and planting operations during dry periods help to
overcome the equipment limitation, minimize soil
compaction, and minimize root damage during thinning
operations. Construction of access roads, logging
activities, and site preparation should be avoided in
streambeds and adjacent areas because of the hazard
of erosion. Tree limbs and tops should be kept clear of
the stream channel because they can block streamflow.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Special site


preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, can help
to establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality
rate, and increase the early growth rate. Bedding
should be planned so that it does not impair natural
surface drainage. Short-term drainage is needed in
some of the more wet areas until the pine's uptake of
water lowers the water table, at which time the drains
should be blocked. A major management concern is the
low available water capacity, which causes severe
seedling mortality and retards plant growth.
Management practices should include selection of
appropriate plants and applications of fertilizer during
planting operations. These soils commonly are very low
in organic matter content. Harvesting methods that
remove all tree biomass from the site further reduce the
fertility of the soils. Logging operations should leave
residual biomass distributed over the site.
These soils are well suited to pasture. The main
limitations are the periodic wetness and droughtiness
and the very low fertility. The wetness limits the choice
of plants that can be grown and the period of grazing.
When the soil is wet, grazing causes compaction of the
surface layer and damage to the plant community. The
low available water capacity limits the production of
plants suitable for pasture. Drought-tolerant plants, such
as bahiagrass, coastal bermudagrass, and legumes, are
the best suited pasture plants. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
periods help to keep the pasture in good condition.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes.
These soils are very poorly suited to cultivated crops.
The main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness and the very low fertility. Corn and grain
sorghum are the best suited crops to plant. Proper row
arrangement, field ditches, and vegetated outlets help
remove excess surface water. Returning all crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture
help to maintain fertility. Frequent applications of
fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
These soils provide very good habitat for deer,
bobcats, quail, turkeys, skunks, opossums, and
raccoons and for many songbirds, particularly warblers.
These soils provide fair habitat for squirrels and poor
habitat for doves.
These soils are poorly suited to urban development.
The main limitation is the wetness. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of water
supplies resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption
fields are mounded in most areas. The moderate







Soil Survey


permeability can be overcome by increasing the size of
the septic tank absorption fields. Unless vegetation is
established, erosion and sedimentation commonly are
problems in some water management systems. Wind
erosion is a problem in unvegetated areas and is
especially severe in the spring. Drainage is needed if
roads and building foundations are constructed. The
wetness can be reduced by installing tile drains around
the footings.
Housing development plans should provide for the
preservation of as many trees as possible. These soils
need to be mulched, fertilized, and irrigated to establish
and maintain lawn grasses and other small seeded
plants. Drainage is needed for most lawn grasses,
shade trees, ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, and
vegetable gardens. Native plants should be used for
landscaping and beautification because they are more
easily established and require less maintenance than
other plants. The native trees consist of American holly,
cabbage palm, common persimmon, live oak, longleaf
pine, and slash pine. The native shrubs include
American beautyberry, coontie, coralbean, partridge
pea, pawpaw, saw palmetto, shining sumac, tarflower,
and southern waxmyrtle. The herbaceous plants are
blazingstar, Catesby lily, grassleaf goldaster, hibiscus,
iris, meadow beauty, sunflower, and zephyr lily.
These soils are poorly suited to recreational
development. The main limitations are the wetness and
the sandy texture of the surface layer. The loose sand
makes walking difficult. Good drainage is needed for
paths and trails. Vehicles are easily mired down, and
soil blowing can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is IVw. The
woodland ordination symbol is 7W for the Sapelo soil
and 8W for the Leon soil.

23-Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly
drained soil is on narrow to broad ridges and on
isolated knolls. The mapped areas range from about 3
to 90 acres. Slopes are smooth or concave.
In about 94 percent of the areas mapped as Ocilla
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ocilla and similar soils
make up 84 to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 0 to 16 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
depth of about 34 inches. It is light yellowish brown in
the upper part and light gray in the lower part. The
subsoil extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is
brownish yellow loamy fine sand in the upper part, gray


sandy clay loam in the next part, and light brownish
gray fine sandy loam in the lower part. Albany and
Leefield soils, which are similar to the Ocilla soil, are in
areas of this map unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Chaires and Goldhead soils. They are
on flatwoods.
Permeability of this Ocilla soil is moderately rapid or
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderately slow in the subsoil. The available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
low or moderate in the subsoil. The seasonal high water
table is at a depth of 12 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months
of the year. The soil is low in natural fertility.
In most areas this soil is used as woodland. In a few
areas it is used for pasture or crops.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
slash pine, turkey oak, and water oak. The understory
includes gallberry. The most common grasses are
pineland threeawn, little bluestem, pinehill bluestem,
slender bluestem, panicum, toothachegrass, and
switchgrass.
This soil is well suited to slash pine and loblolly pine
and is moderately suited to longleaf pine. Growth
estimates are given in feet for the expected height a
tree will reach in a specific number of years. Site quality
curves, which are based on a growth estimate for 25
years, are often used for short-rotation products, such
as cordwood and pulp. Site index curves generally are
based on a growth estimate for 50 years or more and
are used for slower growing species or products
requiring a longer rotation. The average site quality
rating for slash pine and loblolly pine is 65 feet. The
potential production is 34 cords per acre for slash pine
and 42 cords per acre for loblolly pine (7) based on a
25-year rotation. The average site index for longleaf
pine is 70 feet. The estimated potential production is 43
cords per acre for longleaf pine based on a 50-year
rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,
and plant competition. Using tracks or floatation tires on
planting and harvesting machinery and scheduling
harvesting and planting operations during dry periods
help to overcome the equipment limitation, minimize soil
compaction, and minimize root damage during thinning
operations. Measures that reduce the hazard of erosion
are needed when timber is harvested. Construction of
access roads, logging activities, and site preparation
should be avoided in streambeds and adjacent areas
because of the hazard of erosion. Tree limbs and tops
should be kept clear of the stream channel because







Nassau County, Florida


they can block streamflow. Stream crossing should be
avoided if possible. Culverts and bridges may be
needed.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Special site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, can help
to establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality
rate, and increase the early growth rate. Bedding
should be planned so that it does not impair natural
surface drainage. Conventional harvesting methods
generally are suitable. If heavy equipment is used
during wet periods, the extent of soil compaction will
increase. Management practices include selecting
appropriate plants, fertilizing during planting operations,
and leaving debris on the site.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Grazing
when the soil is wet results in compaction of the surface
layer and damage to the plant community. Excess
surface water can be removed from most areas by
installing and maintaining field drains. Coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass are the best suited
pasture plants. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation,
and timely deferment of grazing help to keep the
pasture in good condition. Fertilizer and lime are
needed for optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and the sandy
surface layer. If water-control and soil-improving
measures are applied, the soil is moderately well suited
to most cultivated crops. Corn, grain sorghum, and
tobacco are the main crops. The soil is friable, is easy
to keep in good tilth, and can be worked throughout a
wide range of moisture content. Returning all crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture
help to maintain fertility. Frequent applications of
fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
This soil provides very good habitat for deer, turkey,
and squirrel and for many birds. Hardwood mast, such
as acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and berries, is a good
source of food for wildlife. The mature hardwoods and
snags provide good nesting sites for birds. The soil also
provides good habitat for raccoons, opossums,
bobwhite quail, and doves; fair habitat for reptiles; and
poor habitat for most amphibians. Wildlife in the urban
areas consists mostly of birds and squirrels. The areas
of this soil that have been left in native vegetation
provide a good source of food, cover, and escape
routes for most wildlife.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.


The main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness. Drainage is needed if roads and building
foundations are constructed. If the density of housing is
moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent contamination of water supplies
resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption fields
are mounded in most areas.
Housing development plans should provide for the
preservation of as many trees as possible. Vegetation is
difficult to establish because the soil is infertile, coarse
textured, and drought. Selection of suitable vegetation
is critical for the establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees,
and vegetable gardens. Native plants are more easily
established and require less maintenance than
introduced ornamentals. The native trees consist of
American holly, laurel cherry, Chickasaw plum,
dogwood, fringe tree, hickory, southern magnolia, oak,
pine, persimmon, redbud, red maple, red cedar, and
sweetgum. The native shrubs include American
beautyberry, coralbean, pawpaw, strawberry bush,
shining sumac, viburnum, and waxmyrtle. The
herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, blazingstar, iris,
and sunflower.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitations are the wetness and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. The loose sand makes
walking difficult. Good drainage should be provided for
paths and trails. A plant cover is somewhat difficult to
establish and maintain, but it can be maintained by
controlling heavy traffic and by irrigating.
The land capability classification is IIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8W.

24-Kingsferry fine sand. This nearly level, very
poorly drained soil is on broad, low flats. The mapped
areas are from about 3 to 75 acres. Slopes are smooth
and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 89 percent of the areas mapped as Kingsferry fine
sand, Kingsferry and similar soils make up 78 to 100
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to
22 percent. They generally are in areas less than 3
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 17
inches thick. It is black in the upper part, very dark gray
in the next part, and dark gray in the lower part. The
subsoil is fine sand to a depth of about 80 inches. It is
very dark gray in the upper part, dark reddish brown in
the next part, and black in the lower part. Boulogne
soils, which are similar to the Kingsferry soil, are in
areas of this map unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Leon, Lynn Haven, and Rutlege soils.







Soil Survey


Leon soils are in the higher positions on flatwoods.
Lynn Haven soils are in depressions. Rutlege soils are
in drainageways.
Permeability of this Kingsferry soil is moderately
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and in the
upper part of the subsoil and is moderately slow in the
lower part of the subsoil. The available water capacity is
moderate. The seasonal high water table is within 6
inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months of the year and
is at the surface for 1 to 3 months. It is at a depth of 24
inches for 6 to 9 months of the year. The soil is low in
natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of slash pine and longleaf pine. The
understory includes giant gallberry, gallberry, saw
palmetto, and greenbrier. The most common grasses
are wiregrass, bushy bluestem, and switchcane.
This soil generally is very poorly suited to pine trees.
Under natural conditions, however, it is suited to
cypress and hardwoods. The major management
concern is the high water table, which causes seedling
mortality. The water table and the high organic matter
content in the surface layer prevent the use of heavy
equipment (fig. 9). Adequate drainage outlets generally
are not available; therefore, drainage is not practical.
This soil is well suited to pasture. The main limitation
is the wetness, which affects the choice of plants that
can be grown and the period of grazing. When the soil
is wet, grazing causes compaction of the surface layer
and damage to the plant community. The low available
water capacity is a limitation affecting the growth of
plants that are suitable for pasture. Drought-tolerant
plants, such as bahiagrass, coastal bermudagrass, and
legumes, are the best suited pasture plants. Proper
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing
during wet periods help to keep the pasture in good
condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitation is the wetness. Corn and grain sorghum
are the best suited crops to plant. Proper row
arrangement, field ditches, and vegetated outlets are
needed to remove excess surface water. Returning all
crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume
mixture help to maintain fertility. Frequent applications
of fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
This soil provides good habitat for deer, bobcats,
skunks, opossums, raccoons, quail, and turkeys and for
birds, particularly warblers. It provides fair habitat for
squirrels and poor habitat for doves. Wildlife in urban
areas consists mostly of birds. The areas of this soil


that have been left in native vegetation provide a good
source of food, cover, and escape routes for most
wildlife.
This soil is very poorly suited to urban development.
The main limitation is the wetness. The native trees
consist of American holly, cabbage palm, common
persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The
native shrubs include American beautyberry, coontie,
coralbean, partridge pea, pawpaw, saw palmetto,
shining sumac, tarflower, southern lily, grassleaf
goldaster, hibiscus, iris, meadow beauty, sunflower, and
zephyr lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitations are the wetness and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. The loose sand makes
walking difficult. Good drainage should be provided for
paths and trails. Vehicles are easily mired down.
The land capability classification is IVw. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

25-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded. This
nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in drainageways
and along the tributaries of major streams that are
influenced by tidal action. It is frequently flooded for
brief to very long periods in most years. The mapped
areas range from about 3 to 100 acres. Slopes are
smooth or concave and are 0 to 1 percent.
In 86 percent of the areas mapped as Maurepas
muck, frequently flooded, Maurepas soils make up 78 to
95 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 5
to 22 percent. They generally are in areas less than 5
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is muck to a depth of
about 80 inches or more. It is very dark brown in the
upper 5 inches and black in the lower part.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Croatan, Evergreen, and Rutlege soils.
Croatan, Evergreen, and Rutlege soils are adjacent to
mineral soils. Also included are soils that have organic
layers less than 51 inches thick and are underlain by
loamy material.
Permeability of this Maurepas soil is rapid. The
available water capacity is very high. The seasonal high
water table is near or above the surface for 6 to 9
months of the year. The soil is high in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of loblolly pine, baldcypress, water
tupelo, blackgum, sweetgum, and sweetbay. The
understory includes giant gallberry, greenbrier,
bayberry, fetterbush lyonia, aster, and willow.
The potential of this soil for production of baldcypress
and pond pine is high. The main concerns in producing







Nassau County, Florida


Figure 9.-An area of Kingsferry fine sand. Long periods of wetness make it difficult to use heavy equipment for harvesting timber.


and harvesting timber are seedling mortality and the
equipment limitation. The wetness is a limitation
affecting the use of equipment. The trees selected for
planting should be those that are water tolerant.
Planting and harvesting operations should be scheduled
during extended dry periods. If nursery stock is used to
establish or improve a stand, hand planting generally is
needed. A major management concern is the high
water, which causes very severe seedling mortality.
Overcoming the wetness is very difficult. Management
practices should include selection of appropriate plants.


This soil is very poorly suited to pasture, to cultivated
crops, and to urban or recreational development
because of the flooding, the wetness, and subsidence
of the soil.
This soil provides good habitat for a large variety of
wildlife, especially for waterfowl, reptiles, and
amphibians and for mammals, such as gray squirrels,
minks, raccoons, and river otters. Many birds inhabit the
area, including the chickadee, titmouse, yellow-billed
cuckoo, wood duck, limpkin, acadian flycatcher, owl,
woodcock, hooded warbler, cedar waxwing,






Soil Survey


woodpecker, and wren. The various hardwoods provide
a good source of food and cover for these wildlife
species.
The land capability classification is VIIIw. This soil
has not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

26-Centenary fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well
drained soil is on narrow to broad ridges and on
isolated knolls. The mapped areas range from about 3
to 90 acres. Slopes are smooth or concave.
In 88 percent of the areas mapped as Centenary fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Centenary and similar soils
make up 76 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 1 to 24 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the upper 3 inches of the surface layer is
dark gray fine sand and the lower 4 inches is light
grayish brown fine sand. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 66 inches, is fine sand. It is light
yellowish brown in the upper part and light gray in the
lower part. The subsoil, to a depth of about 80 inches,
is fine sand. It is dark brown in the upper part and dark
reddish brown in the lower part. Some soils occurring in
areas of this map unit are similar to the Centenary soil
but have a dark subsoil at a depth of more than 80
inches. These soils are near the community of Crandall.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Hurricane and Ortega soils. Hurricane
soils are in lower positions on the landscape than the
Centenary soil. Ortega soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Centenary soil.
Permeability of this Centenary soil is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderately rapid in
the subsoil. The available water capacity is very low or
low. Depth to the seasonal high water table and the
effective rooting depth are about 42 to 60 inches for 2
to 4 months of the year. The soil is very low in natural
fertility.
In most areas this soil is used as woodland. In a few
areas it is used for urban development.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, turkey oak, and live oak. The understory
includes saw palmetto. The most common grasses are
pineland threeawn, little bluestem, panicum,
toothachegrass, cutover muhly, and switchgrass.
This soil is moderately suited to slash pine and
longleaf pine. Growth estimates are given in feet for the
expected height a tree will reach in a specific number of
years. Site quality curves, which are based on a growth
estimate for 25 years, are often used for short-rotation
products, such as cordwood and pulp. Site index curves


generally are based on a growth estimate for 50 years
or more and are used for slower growing species or
products requiring a longer rotation. The average site
quality rating for slash pine is 60 feet. The potential
production is 24 cords per acre for slash pine (7) based
on a 25-year rotation. The average site index for
longleaf pine is 70 feet. The estimated potential
production is 43 cords per acre for longleaf pine based
on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are the equipment limitation and seedling
mortality. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods help to overcome
the equipment limitation. Site preparation, such as roller
chopping, burning, applications of herbicide, and
bedding, can reduce the amount of debris, control
immediate plant competition, and facilitate mechanical
planting. Hardwood understory can be reduced by
controlled burning, applications of herbicide, or girdling
or cutting of the unwanted trees. A major management
concern is the low available water capacity, which
causes severe seedling mortality and retards plant
growth. Planting special nursery stock that is larger than
usual or that is containerized can reduce the seedling
mortality rate. Natural regeneration may be preferable in
the drier areas. Management practices should include
selecting appropriate plants and leaving debris on the
site. These soils commonly are very low in organic
matter content. Harvesting methods that remove all tree
biomass from the site further reduce the fertility of the
soil. Logging operations should leave residual biomass
distributed over the site.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. The
main limitations are the low available water capacity
and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. The available
water capacity is a limitation affecting plant growth
during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such
as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more
drought tolerant if fertilizer and lime are added. Proper
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of
grazing help to keep the pasture in good condition.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are droughtiness and the very low soil
fertility. Grain sorghum is a suitable crop to plant.
Droughtiness is a concern in management, especially
during extended dry periods. Returning all crop residue
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to
maintain fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer and
lime generally are needed.
This soil provides good habitat for deer and turkeys.







Nassau County, Florida


Many birds inhabit the area, including warblers,
towhees, crested flycatchers, doves, and quail. Several
varieties of native legumes furnish food for the birds.
The harvesting of timber and similar disturbances
improve wildlife food values by increasing the amount,
availability, and types of herbaceous plants and by
producing new sprouts. Wildlife in the urban areas
consists mostly of birds. The areas of this soil that have
been left in native vegetation provide a good source of
food, cover, and escape routes for most wildlife.
This soil has few limitations if used for urban
development. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system is needed to prevent
contamination of water supplies resulting from seepage.
Septic tank absorption fields should be mounded.
Establishing vegetation commonly is difficult because of
the drought soil conditions. Bedding should be on the
contour, if possible, to reduce soil erosion. Intensive
management practices, including irrigation during dry
periods, are needed to establish and maintain
vegetation on this soil. Maintenance is a problem
without adequate applications of fertilizer. Unless
vegetation is established, wind erosion can be a
problem during and after construction.
Unless intensive management practices are used to
establish and maintain vegetation on this soil, native
plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, Chickasaw plum,
longleaf pine, slash pine, live oak, southern redcedar,
sand pine, turkey oak, and bluejack oak. The native
shrubs include adam's needle, American beautyberry,
Carolina holly, coontie, coralbean, Florida chinkapin,
pawpaw, pricklypear cactus, saw palmetto, shining
sumac, and yaupon. The herbaceous plants are aster,
beebalm, crotalaria, blanketflower, blazingstar,
goldaster, lupine, morningglory, goldenrod, and
sunflower.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the sandy texture of the surface
layer. A plant cover is difficult to establish and maintain,
but it can be maintained by controlling heavy traffic and
by irrigating. Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil
blowing can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is Ills, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11S.

27-Ridgewood fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly
drained soil is on narrow to broad ridges and on
isolated knolls. The mapped areas range from about 3


to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth or convex.
In 91 percent of the areas mapped as Ridgewood
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ridgewood and similar
soils make up 83 to 99 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 17 percent. They generally
are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7
inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of about 24 inches,
is light yellowish brown fine sand. The substratum, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is fine sand. It is light
yellowish brown in the upper part, pale brown in the
next part, and light gray in the lower part. Soils
occurring in areas of this map unit that are similar to the
Ridgewood soil are the Albany and Hurricane soils.
These soils have a water table that is slightly higher
than that of the Ridgewood soil where they are on the
lower parts of the landscape.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Centenary, Mandarin, Ortega, and
Pottsburg soils. Centenary and Ortega soils are on the
higher ridges. Mandarin and Pottsburg soils are on
flatwoods.
Permeability of this Ridgewood soil is rapid. The
available water capacity is very low or low. The
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 42
inches for 2 to 4 months of the year. It rises to a depth
of 15 to 24 inches for brief periods of less than 3
weeks. The soil is very low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. In a few areas
it is used for pasture or crops.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
slash pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, and live oak. The
understory includes American holly, gallberry, and saw
palmetto. The most common grasses are pineland
threeawn, broomsedge bluestem, and panicum.
This soil is well suited to slash pine and moderately
suited to longleaf pine. Growth estimates are given in
feet for the expected height a tree will reach in a
specific number of years. Site quality curves, which are
based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine and
loblolly pine is 60 feet. The potential production is 28
cords per acre for slash pine (7) based on a 25-year
rotation. The average site index for longleaf pine is 70
feet. The estimated potential production is 43 cords per
acre for longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,







Soil Survey


and plant competition. Using tracks or floatation tires on
planting and harvesting machinery and scheduling
harvesting and planting operations during extended dry
periods help to overcome the equipment limitation,
minimize soil compaction, and minimize root damage
during thinning operations. Construction of access
roads, logging activities, and site preparation should be
avoided in streambeds and adjacent areas because of
the hazard of erosion. Tree limbs and tops should be
kept clear of the stream channel because they can
block streamflow. Stream crossing should be avoided if
possible. Culverts and bridges may be needed.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Special site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, can help
to establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality
rate, and increase the early growth rate. Bedding
should be planned so that it does not impair natural
surface drainage. Conventional harvesting methods
generally are suitable. If heavy equipment is used
during wet periods, the extent of soil compaction will
increase. Management practices should include
selection of appropriate plants and applications of
fertilizer during planting operations. These soils
commonly are low in organic matter content. Harvesting
methods that remove all tree biomass from the site
further reduce soil fertility. Logging operations should
leave residual biomass distributed over the site.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture because
of droughtiness and the very low fertility. When the soil
is wet, grazing causes compaction of the surface layer
and damage to the plant community. Excess surface
water can be removed from most areas by installing
and maintaining field drains. Coastal bermudagrass and
bahiagrass are the best suited pasture plants. Proper
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and the timely
deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in good
condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness and the very low fertility. If water-control
and soil-improving measures are applied, the soil is
moderately well suited to most cultivated crops. Corn
and grain sorghum are the main crops. The soil is
friable, is easy to keep in good tilth, and can be worked
throughout a wide range of moisture content. Returning
all crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume
mixture help to maintain fertility. Frequent applications


of fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
This soil provides good habitat for deer and turkeys.
Many birds inhabit the area, including warblers,
towhees, crested flycatchers, doves, and quail. Several
varieties of native legumes furnish food for the birds.
The harvesting of timber and similar disturbances
improve wildlife food values by increasing the amount,
availability, and types of herbaceous plants and by
producing new sprouts. Wildlife in the urban areas
consists mostly of birds. The areas of this soil that have
been left in native vegetation provide a good source of
food, cover, and escape routes for most wildlife.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
The main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness. Drainage is needed if roads and building
foundations are constructed. If the density of housing is
moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent contamination of water supplies
resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption fields
should be mounded. Establishing vegetation commonly
is difficult because the soil is infertile, coarse textured,
and somewhat poorly drained. Intensive management
practices, including irrigation during dry periods, are
needed to establish and maintain vegetation on this
soil. Maintenance can be a problem without adequate
applications of fertilizer. Unless vegetation is
established, wind erosion can be a problem during and
after construction and water erosion can be a problem
on the steeper slopes.
Unless intensive management practices are used to
establish and maintain vegetation on this soil, native
plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, Chickasaw plum,
longleaf pine, slash pine, live oak, southern redcedar,
sand pine, turkey oak, and bluejack oak. The native
shrubs include adam's needle, American beautyberry,
Carolina holly, coontie, coralbean, Florida chinkapin,
pawpaw, pricklypear cactus, saw palmetto, shining
sumac, and yaupon. The herbaceous plants are aster,
beebalm, crotalaria, blanketflower, blazingstar,
goldaster, lupine, morningglory, goldenrod, and
sunflower.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitations are the wetness and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. The loose sand makes
walking difficult. Good drainage should be provided for
paths and trails. A plant cover is difficult to establish
and maintain, but it can be maintained by controlling
heavy traffic and by irrigating. Vehicles are easily mired
down.







Nassau County, Florida


The land capability classification is IVs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

28-Tisonia mucky peat, frequently flooded. This
nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in broad tidal
marshes. It is subject to flooding daily during high tide.
The mapped areas range from about 10 to 1,000 or
more acres. Slopes are smooth and are 0 to 1 percent.
In 98 percent of the areas mapped as Tisonia mucky
peat, frequently flooded, Tisonia soils make up 95 to
100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 0
to 5 percent. They generally are in areas less than 5
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown mucky peat about 40 inches thick. The
underlying material, to a depth of about 65 inches, is
dark olive gray clay.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Maurepas and Kingsland soils. They
are in drainageways. Trees grow on these soils.
Permeability of this Tisonia soil is rapid in the upper
part of the soil and very slow in the lower part. The
available water capacity is very high. The seasonal high
water table is at or near the surface during most of the
year.
The natural vegetation consists of needlegrass rush,
seashore saltgrass, marshhay cordgrass, and smooth
cordgrass.
This soil is not suited to pine trees, to pasture, to
cultivated crops, or to urban or recreational
development because of excessive salinity, wetness,
and the flooding.
The land capability classification is VlIw. This soil
has not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

29-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained
soil is on narrow to broad ridges and on isolated knolls.
The mapped areas range from about 3 to 25 acres.
Slopes are smooth or convex.
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Resota fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Resota and similar soils
make up 86 to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 0 to 14 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of about 27 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The
subsoil, to a depth of about 80 inches, is yellowish
brown and light yellowish brown fine sand. Soils
occurring in areas of this map unit that are similar to the
Resota soil are Echaw soils and some soils that have a


dark subsoil at a depth of 80 inches or less.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Kureb and Ridgewood soils. Kureb
soils are on the more elevated ridges. Ridgewood soils
are on lower ridges. Also included are soils near Fort
Clinch State Park. These soils have shell fragments in
the substratum.
Permeability of this Resota soil is very rapid. The
available water capacity is very low. The seasonal high
water table is at a depth of 42 to 60 inches for 6 to 9
months of the year. The soil is very low in natural
fertility.
This soil is used mainly for woodland. In a few areas
it is used for urban development.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, live oak, and water oak. The understory
includes saw palmetto. The most common native
grasses are pineland threeawn, sand heath, panicum,
and bluestem.
This soil is moderately suited to longleaf pine.
Growth estimates are given in feet for the expected
height a tree will reach in a specific number of years.
Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site index for longleaf pine is 65 feet. The
estimated potential production is 36 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are the equipment limitation and seedling
mortality. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods help to overcome
the equipment limitation, minimize soil compaction, and
minimize root damage during thinning operations. Site
preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate mechanical planting. Hardwood understory
can be reduced by controlled burning, applications of
herbicide, or girdling or cutting of the unwanted trees.
Planting special nursery stock that is larger than usual
or that is containerized can reduce the seedling
mortality rate. Natural regeneration may be preferable in
the drier areas. Management practices should include
selecting appropriate plants and leaving debris on the
site. The soil commonly is very low in organic matter
content. Harvesting methods that remove all tree
biomass from the site further reduce soil fertility.
Logging operations should leave residual biomass
distributed over the site.







Soil Survey


This soil is very poorly suited to pasture and to
cultivated crops.
This soil provides habitat for deer and turkeys. Many
birds inhabit the area, including warblers, rufous-sided
towhees, great crested flycatchers, scrub jays, and
quail. Several varieties of native legumes furnish food
for the birds. Palmetto, gopher apple, and various oaks
provide a good source of food when they are bearing
fruit. The harvesting of timber and other disturbances
increase wildlife food value by increasing the amount,
availability, and types of herbaceous plants and by
producing new sprouts. Wildlife in the urban areas
consists mostly of birds. Gopher tortoises, scrub lizards,
and snakes are some of the reptiles inhabiting urban
areas. The areas of this soil that have been left in
native vegetation provide good cover and escape routes
for most wildlife.
This soil is well suited to urban development. The
main limitation is droughtiness. If the density of housing
is moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent contamination of water supplies
resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption fields
are mounded in most areas. Vegetation is difficult to
establish because the soil is infertile, coarse textured,
and drought. Water moves rapidly through the soil.
Intensive management practices, including irrigation,
are needed to establish and maintain vegetation on this
soil. Unless vegetation is established, wind erosion can
be a problem during and after construction. Erosion-
control and water-retention facilities generally are not
needed.
Selection of suitable vegetation is critical for the
establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable
gardens. Mulch, fertilizer, and irrigation are needed to
establish lawn grasses and other small seeded plants.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of live oak, sand live oak, sand
pine, turkey oak, and eastern redcedar. The native
shrubs include adam's needle, coralbean, Carolina
holly, gopher apple, pawpaw, pricklypear cactus,
rosemary, saw palmetto, and shining sumac. The
herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, crotalaria,
blanketflower, blazingstar, goldaster, goldenrod, lupine,
morningglory, and sunflower.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the sandy texture of the surface
layer. The loose sand makes walking difficult. A plant
cover is difficult to establish and maintain, but it can be
maintained by controlling heavy traffic and by irrigating.


Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil blowing can
occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is Vis, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

30-Kureb-Resota fine sands, rolling. These gently
rolling to hilly, excessively drained and moderately well
drained soils are on narrow, dunelike ridges along the
Atlantic coast. The mapped areas range from about 10
to 525 acres. Slopes are smooth, convex, or concave
and range from 0 to 20 percent.
In 83 percent of the areas mapped as Kureb-Resota
fine sands, rolling, Kureb, Resota, and similar soils
make up 75 to 91 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 9 to 25 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 5 acres in size.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 53 percent
Kureb soils, 30 percent Resota and similar soils, and 17
percent dissimilar soils. The soils in this map unit are so
intermingled that it is not practical to map them
separately at the scale used. The proportions and
patterns of Kureb, Resota, and similar soils, however,
are relatively consistent in most areas.
The Kureb soil is nearly level to hilly and is
excessively drained. It is at higher elevations than the
Resota soil and has slopes as much as 20 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about
2 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
about 10 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The
subsoil, to a depth of about 30 inches, is light yellowish
brown fine sand. The underlying material, to a depth of
about 80 inches, is fine sand. It is very pale brown in
the upper part and white in the lower part.
The Resota soil is nearly level and gently sloping and
is moderately well drained. It is at low elevations and
has slopes of 5 to 8 percent. Typically, the surface layer
is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 27 inches, is gray
and light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of
about 80 inches, is yellowish brown and light yellowish
brown fine sand. In places a dark subsoil is within about
80 inches of the surface. Echaw soils, which are similar
to the Resota soil, are in areas of this map unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Leon, Mandarin, and Ridgewood soils.
The southern part of Amelia Island has a higher
percentage of inclusions. Leon and Mandarin soils are
on low flatwoods. Ridgewood soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Kureb and Resota soils.
Permeability of the Kureb and Resota soils in this
map unit is rapid or very rapid. The available water







Nassau County, Florida


capacity is very low. The Kureb soil has a seasonal
high water table at a depth of about 72 to more than 80
inches during most of the year. The Resota soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of about 42 to 60
inches for 6 months or more in most years and at a
depth of 60 to 80 inches during dry periods. Both of
these soils are very low in natural fertility.
These soils are used mainly for urban development.
The natural vegetation consists of live oak and water
oak. The understory includes saw palmetto and yaupon.
The most common grasses are pineland threeawn,
pinehill bluestem, little bluestem, and slender bluestem.
These soils are poorly suited to longleaf pine. Growth
estimates are given in feet for the expected height a
tree will reach in a specific number of years. Site index
curves generally are based on a growth estimate for 50
years or more and are used for slower growing species
or products requiring a longer rotation. The average site
index for longleaf pine is 50 to 55 feet. The estimated
potential production is 20 to 36 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality and the equipment
limitation. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods help to overcome
the equipment limitation, minimize soil compaction, and
minimize root damage during thinning operations.
Hardwood understory can be reduced by controlled
burning, applications of herbicide, or girdling or cutting
of the unwanted trees. A major management concern is
the very low available water capacity, which causes
severe seedling mortality and retards plant growth.
Planting special nursery stock that is larger than usual
or that is containerized can reduce the seedling
mortality rate. Natural regeneration may be preferable
on drier sites. Management practices should include
selecting appropriate plants and leaving debris on the
site. These soils commonly are very low in organic
matter content. Harvesting methods that remove all tree
biomass from the site further reduce soil fertility.
Logging operations should leave residual biomass
distributed over the site.
These soils are very poorly suited to pasture and to
cultivated crops because of droughtiness and the very
low natural fertility.
These soils provide good habitat for deer and
turkeys. Many birds inhabit the area, including warblers,
rufous-sided towhees, great crested flycatchers, scrub
jays, and quail. Several varieties of native legumes
provide food for the birds. Palmetto, gopher apple, and
various oaks provide a good source of food when they


are bearing fruit. The harvesting of timber and other
disturbances increase wildlife food value by increasing
the amount, availability, and types of herbaceous plants
and by producing new sprouts. Wildlife in the urban
areas consists mostly of birds. Gopher tortoise, sand
skink, scrub lizard, and snakes are some of the reptiles
that also inhabit these areas. The areas of this soil that
have been left in native vegetation provide good cover,
food, and travel and escape routes for most wildlife.
These soils are moderately suited to urban
development. The main limitations are the slope and the
droughtiness. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system is needed to prevent
contamination of water supplies resulting from seepage.
Vegetation is difficult to establish because the soil is
infertile, coarse textured, and drought. Water moves
rapidly through the soil. Intensive management
practices, including irrigation, are needed to establish
and maintain vegetation on these soils. Unless
vegetation is established, wind erosion can be a
problem during and after construction. Erosion-control
and water-retention facilities generally are needed.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of live oak, sand live oak, sand
pine, turkey oak, and eastern redcedar. The native
shrubs include adam's needle, coralbean, Carolina
holly, gopher apple, pawpaw, pricklypear cactus,
rosemary, saw palmetto, and shining sumac. The
herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, crotalaria,
blanketflower, blazingstar, goldaster, goldenrod, lupine,
morningglory, and sunflower.
These soils are poorly suited to recreational
development. The main limitations are the slope and the
sandy texture of the surface layer. Because of the
slope, the recreation areas on these soils are limited to
a few paths and trails, which should extend across the
slope. A plant cover is difficult to establish and
maintain, but it can be maintained by controlling heavy
traffic and by irrigating. Vehicles are easily mired down,
and soil blowing can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is VIIs. The
woodland ordination symbol is 3S for the Kureb soil and
8S for the Resota soil.

31-Kershaw fine sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes. This
gently sloping or sloping, excessively drained soil is on
broad ridges and on isolated knolls. The mapped areas
range from about 3 to 50 acres. Slopes are smooth or
concave.
In 98 percent of the areas mapped as Kershaw fine







Soil Survey


sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes, Kershaw and similar soils
make up 92 to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 0 to 8 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying
material, to a depth of about 80 inches, is fine sand. It
is yellowish brown in the upper part and yellow in the
lower part. Some soils occurring in areas of this map
unit are similar to the Kershaw soil but have a light
colored subsurface layer 1 to 4 inches thick.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Ortega soils. They are in lower
positions on the landscape than the Kershaw soil.
Permeability of this Kershaw soil is very rapid. The
available water capacity is very low. The seasonal high
water table is at a depth of about 72 to 80 inches or
more during most of the year. The soil is very low in
natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly for urban development.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine, live
oak, and turkey oak. The understory includes saw
palmetto and yaupon. The most common grasses are
pineland threeawn, pinehill bluestem, little bluestem,
and slender bluestem.
This soil is poorly suited to slash pine and longleaf
pine and well suited to sand pine. Growth estimates are
given in feet for the expected height a tree will reach in
a specific number of years. Site quality curves, which
are based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine is 40 feet.
The potential production is 11 cords per acre for slash
pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation. The average site
index is 50 feet for longleaf pine and 75 feet for sand
pine. The estimated potential production is 24 cords per
acre for longleaf pine and 34 cords per acre for sand
pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality and the equipment
limitation. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods help to overcome
the equipment limitation, minimize soil compaction, and
minimize root damage during thinning operations.
Hardwood understory can be reduced by controlled
burning, applications of herbicide, or girdling or cutting
of the unwanted trees. A major management concern is


the low available water capacity, which causes severe
seedling mortality and retards plant growth. Planting
special nursery stock that is larger than usual or that is
containerized can reduce the seedling mortality rate.
Natural regeneration may be preferable on the drier
sites. Management practices should include selecting
appropriate plants and leaving debris on the site. The
soil commonly is very low in organic matter content.
Harvesting methods that remove all tree biomass from
the site further reduce soil fertility. Logging operations
should leave residual biomass distributed over the site.
This soil is very poorly suited to pasture and to
cultivated crops because of the droughtiness and the
very low fertility.
This soil provides habitat for deer and turkeys. Many
birds inhabit the area, including warblers, towhees,
crested flycatchers, doves, and quail. Several varieties
of native legumes furnish food for the birds. The
harvesting of timber and similar disturbances improve
wildlife food values by increasing the amount,
availability, and types of herbaceous plants and by
producing new sprouts. Wildlife in the urban areas
consists mostly of birds. The areas of this soil that have
been left in native vegetation provide a good source of
food, cover, and escape routes for most wildlife.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
The main limitation is the droughtiness and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. If the density of housing is
moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent contamination of water supplies
resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption fields
are mounded in most areas. Establishing vegetation
commonly is difficult because the soil is infertile, coarse
textured, and drought. Intensive management
practices, including irrigation during dry periods, are
needed to establish and maintain vegetation on this
soil. Maintenance can be a problem without adequate
applications of fertilizer. Unless vegetation is
established, wind erosion can be a problem during and
after construction.
Unless intensive management practices are used to
establish and maintain vegetation, native plants should
be used for beautification and landscaping because
they are more easily established and require less
maintenance than other plants. The native trees consist
of American holly, Chickasaw plum, longleaf pine, slash
pine, live oak, southern redcedar, sand pine, turkey
oak, and bluejack oak. The native shrubs include
adam's needle, American beautyberry, Carolina holly,
coontie, coralbean, Florida chinkapin, pawpaw,
pricklypear cactus, saw palmetto, shining sumac, and







Nassau County, Florida


yaupon. The herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm,
crotalaria, blanketflower, blazingstar, goldaster, lupine,
morningglory, goldenrod, and sunflower.
This soil is moderately suited to recreational
development. The main limitation is the sandy texture of
the surface layer. The loose sand makes walking
difficult. Because of the slope, recreation areas are
limited to a few paths and trails, which should extend
across the slope. A plant cover is difficult to establish
and maintain, but it can be maintained by controlling
heavy traffic and by irrigating. Vehicles are easily mired
down, and soil blowing can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is VIIls, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.

32-Aqualfs, loamy. This map unit consists of gently
sloping excavations from which soil and geologic
material have been removed for use in road
construction, foundations, and septic tank absorption
fields. The excavations have short, steep side slopes.
Most areas of this map unit are abandoned, but
excavation is continuing in a few places. Those areas
that have been excavated below the normal water table
generally contain water; and if the areas are large
enough, they have been mapped as water.
This map unit is not associated with or confined to a
particular kind of soil.
Aqualfs, loamy, do not have an orderly sequence of
soil layers. The vegetation consists of pineland
threeawn and various weeds.
Most soil properties vary. The seasonal high water
table is generally near the surface but varies with the
depth of the excavations.
This map unit has not been assigned a land
capability classification nor a woodland ordination
symbol.

33-Goldhead-Meadowbrook fine sands,
depressional. These nearly level, very poorly drained
soils are in depressions. They are ponded for 6 to 9
months in most years. The mapped areas range from
about 3 to 80 acres. Slopes are smooth and are 0 to 2
percent.
In 92 percent of the areas mapped as Goldhead-
Meadowbrook fine sands, depressional, the Goldhead,
Meadowbrook, and similar soils make up 75 to 100
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to
25 percent. They generally are in areas less than 5
acres in size.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 64 percent
Goldhead and similar soils, 27 percent Meadowbrook
soils, and 9 percent dissimilar soils. The soils in this


map unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to
map them separately at the scale used. The proportions
and patterns of Goldhead, Meadowbrook, and similar
soils, however, are relatively consistent in most areas.
Typically, the surface layer of the Goldhead soil is
fine sand about 8 inches thick. It is very dark gray in the
upper part and dark gray in the lower part. The
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 19
inches. It is light brownish gray in the upper part and
dark gray in the lower part. The subsoil is sandy clay
loam to a depth of about 80 inches. It is light gray in the
upper part, dark gray in the next part, and gray in the
lower part. Some soils occurring in areas of this map
unit are similar to the Goldhead soil but have a subsoil
that is within 20 inches of the surface.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil
is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 55 inches, is dark brownish
gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth
of about 68 inches, is grayish brown fine sandy loam.
The lower part, to a depth of about 80 inches or more,
is grayish brown sandy clay loam.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Croatan soils, which are in
depressions, and some soils that have 8 to 16 inches of
organic material underlain by thin, sandy layers over a
loamy subsoil.
Permeability of the Goldhead and Meadowbrook soils
in this map unit is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and
moderately slow in the lower part. The available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil. These soils dry slowly after
periods of heavy rainfall. They are low in natural fertility.
The natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, pond
pine, and sweetgum. The understory includes ferns,
water grasses, and St Johnswort.
These soils generally are very poorly suited to pine
trees. Under natural conditions, however, they are
suited to cypress and hardwoods. The major
management concern is the high water table, which
causes seedling mortality. The water table and the high
organic matter content in the surface layer prevent the
use of heavy equipment. Adequate drainage outlets
generally are not available; therefore, drainage is not
practical in these areas.
These soils are very poorly suited to pasture, to
cultivated crops, and to urban or recreational
development because of the ponding.
These soils provide habitat that is very important for
wildlife refuge areas and turkey roosting areas. They
also provide good habitat for waterfowl and wading







Soil Survey


birds. Aquatic animals inhabit the area in large
numbers. The permanent residents of cypress heads
are relatively few, but most of the wildlife on flatwoods
is dependent on ponds for breeding purposes.
The land capability classification is VIIw. These soils
have not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

34-Croatan muck, frequently flooded. This nearly
level, very poorly drained soil is along the tributaries of
major streams and in drainageways. It is frequently
flooded for very long periods during most years. The
mapped areas range from about 3 to 100 acres. Slopes
are smooth or concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 87 percent of the areas mapped as Croatan muck,
frequently flooded, Croatan and similar soils make up
77 to 97 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make
up 3 to 23 percent. They generally are in areas less
than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 24 inches
thick. It is dark reddish brown in the upper part and
black in the lower part. The underlying material, to a
depth of about 65 inches, is olive gray and light olive
gray sandy clay loam. Soils occurring in areas of this
map unit that are similar to the Croatan soil are
Maurepas soils and some soils that have 8 to 16 inches
of organic material on the surface. These soils are on
the outside edge of drainageways and in depressions.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Ellabelle, Kingsferry, Leon, and
Goldhead soils. Ellabelle, Kingsferry, and Leon soils are
in drainageways, and Goldhead soils are on low flats.
Permeability of this Croatan soil is moderately rapid
in the organic material and moderately slow in the
underlying material. The available water capacity is very
high in the organic material and moderate or high in the
underlying material. The seasonal high water table is at
or near the surface for 4 to 6 months in most years.
The soil is high in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of baldcypress, water tupelo, and
pond pine. The understory includes giant gallberry,
huckleberry, greenbrier, and bayberry.
This soil is very poorly suited to pine trees. Under
natural conditions, however, it is well suited to
baldcypress and hardwoods. The major management
concern is the high water table, which causes severe
seedling mortality. The water table and the high organic
matter content in the surface layer prevent the use of
heavy equipment. Adequate drainage outlets generally
are not available; therefore, drainage is not practical in
these areas.
This soil is very poorly suited to pasture, to cultivated


crops, and to urban or recreational development
because of the wetness and the flooding.
This soil provides good habitat for waterfowl, reptiles,
and amphibians and for mammals, such as gray
squirrels, minks, raccoons, and river otters. Many birds
inhabit the area, including the chickadee, titmouse,
yellow-billed cuckoo, wood duck, limpkin, acadian
flycatcher, owl, hooded warbler, cedar waxwing,
woodpecker, and wren. The various hardwoods provide
a good source of food and cover for these wildlife
species.
The land capability classification is Vllw. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

36-Boulogne fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained soil is on flatwoods. The mapped areas range
from about 3 to 50 acres. Slopes are smooth and are 0
to 2 percent.
In 99 percent of the areas mapped as Boulogne fine
sand, Boulogne and similar soils make up 96 to 100
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 4
percent. They generally are in areas less than 3 acres
in size.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 10
inches thick. It is very dark gray in the upper part and
dark gray in the lower part. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of about 13 inches, is dark brown
fine sand. Separating the upper and lower parts of the
subsoil, to a depth of about 33 inches, are buried
subsurface layers of fine sand. These layers are grayish
brown in the upper part, dark grayish brown in the next
part, and light gray in the lower part. The lower part of
the subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is loamy
fine sand. In sequence downward, it is dark brown,
black, dark reddish brown, and black. Soils occurring in
areas of this map unit that are similar to the Boulogne
soil are Kingsferry, Leon, and Pottsburg soils and some
soils that have a dark subsoil directly below the surface
layer and a dark subsoil at a depth of 26 to 34 inches
or have a 4- to 6-inch transitional layer of fine sandy
loam underlain by a dark subsoil.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Hurricane and Ridgewood soils, which
are on slightly elevated ridges.
Permeability of this Boulogne soil is rapid in the
surface layer and buried subsurface layer, moderately
rapid in the upper part of the subsoil, and slow or very
slow in the lower part. The available water capacity
generally is moderate. It is low in the buried surface
layer. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6
to 18 inches for 1 to 6 months of the year. It recedes to
a depth of 12 to 42 inches during prolonged dry







Nassau County, Florida


periods. The soil is low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of water oak, slash pine, and
longleaf pine. The understory includes saw palmetto
and gallberry. The most common grasses are pineland
threeawn, creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, and
other perennial grasses.
This soil is well suited to slash pine and loblolly pine
and is moderately suited to longleaf pine. Growth
estimates are given in feet for the expected height a
tree will reach in a specific number of years. Site quality
curves, which are based on a growth estimate for 25
years, are often used for short-rotation products, such
as cordwood and pulp. Site index curves generally are
based on a growth estimate for 50 years or more and
are used for slower growing species or products
requiring a longer rotation. The average site quality
rating for slash pine and loblolly pine is 70 feet. The
potential production is 41 cords per acre for slash pine
and 47 cords per acre for loblolly pine (7) based on a
25-year rotation. The average site index for longleaf
pine is 80 feet. The estimated potential production is 54
cords per acre for longleaf pine based on a 50-year
rotation.
If not controlled, the growth of hardwoods will
interfere with that of pines; therefore, growing
hardwoods could be a less expensive management
alternative initially. The main limitations are the wetness
and some droughtiness, which cause seedling mortality,
restrict equipment use, and increase plant competition.
Short-term drainage is needed in some of the wetter
areas until the pine's uptake of water lowers the water
table, at which time the drains should be blocked. A
major management concern is the low available water
capacity, which causes severe seedling mortality and
retards plant growth. Harvesting and planting operations
should be scheduled during dry periods to minimize soil
compaction and to minimize root damage during
thinning operations. Construction of access roads,
logging activities, and site preparation should be
avoided in streambeds and adjacent areas because of
the hazard of erosion. Chopping should be done late in
the fall or in the winter. It should be followed by
applications of herbicide in the spring and by burning in
the summer. Hand planting can be less expensive than
machine planting.
Special site preparation, such as harrowing, bedding,
or double bedding, can help to establish seedlings,
reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase the
early growth rate. Management practices should include
selecting appropriate plants, restricted burning, and
leaving debris on the site. Tree limbs and tops should


be kept clear of the stream channel because they can
block streamflow.
This soil is well suited to pasture. The main
limitations are the wetness and the low fertility. The
wetness is a limitation affecting the choice of plants that
can be grown and the period of grazing. When the soil
is wet, grazing causes compaction of the surface layer
and damage to the plant community. Excess surface
water can be removed from most areas by installing
and maintaining field drains. The low available water
capacity is a limitation affecting plant growth during
extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such as
coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more
drought tolerant if fertilizer and lime are added. Proper
grazing practices, weed control, and fertilizer are
needed to ensure maximum quality of forage.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness and the low fertility. Corn and grain
sorghum are the best suited crops to plant. The soil is
friable, is easy to keep in good tilth, and can be worked
throughout a wide range of moisture content. Proper
row management, lateral ditches or tile drains, and
properly constructed outlets remove the excess surface
water. Returning crop residue to the soil or regularly
adding other organic matter will improve fertility, reduce
crusting, and increase the water infiltration rate.
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime generally are
needed.
This soil provides good habitat for deer, quail,
turkeys, skunks, opossums, and raccoons. It provides
fair habitat for squirrels and poor habitat for doves.
Wildlife in the urban areas consists mostly of birds. The
areas of this soil that have been left in native vegetation
provide a good source of food, cover, and escape
routes for most wildlife.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
main limitation is the wetness. If the density of housing
is moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent contamination of water supplies
resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption fields
are mounded in most areas. Drainage is needed if
roads and building foundations are constructed.
Establishing vegetation commonly is difficult on steep
channel side slopes and on fertile spoil. Special
techniques may be required. Unless vegetation is
established, erosion and sedimentation commonly are
problems in some water management systems. Wind
erosion is a problem in unvegetated areas and is
especially severe in the spring.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established







Soil Survey


and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, cabbage palm,
common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, water oak,
and slash pine. The shrubs include American
beautyberry, coontie, coralbean, partridge pea, saw
palmetto, pawpaw, shining sumac, tarflower, and
southern waxmyrtle. The herbaceous plants and vines
are blazingstar, Catesby lily, grassleaf goldaster,
hibiscus, iris, meadow beauty, sunflower, and zephyr
lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitations are the wetness and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. The loose sand makes
walking difficult. Good drainage is needed for paths and
trails. Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil blowing
can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is IIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8W.

37-Meggett loamy fine sand. This nearly level,
poorly drained soil is on broad, low flats. Excess water
ponds in the low-lying areas for short periods after
heavy rainfall. The mapped areas range from about 3 to
350 acres. Slopes are smooth or concave and are 0 to
2 percent.
In 83 percent of the areas mapped as Meggett loamy
fine sand, Meggett and similar soils make up 77 to 89
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 11 to
23 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about
12 inches thick. It is very dark gray in the upper part
and dark gray in the lower part. The subsurface layer,
to a depth of about 16 inches, is light brownish gray
loamy fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is, in sequence downward, grayish brown sandy
clay, gray clay, and light olive gray clay. Some soils
occurring in areas of this map unit are similar to the
Meggett soil but the upper 20 inches of the subsoil has
an average texture of sandy clay loam and is underlain
by sandy clay and clay. In areas where these similar
soils are rarely flooded, they have a fine sand surface
layer.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Brookman, Goldhead, and Buccaneer
soils. Brookman and Goldhead soils are in lower
positions on the landscape than the Meggett soil.
Buccaneer soils are in drainageways. Also included are
other Meggett soils in depressions and some soils that
have a loamy subsoil within 20 inches of the surface.
Permeability of this Meggett soil is moderately rapid
in the upper part of the soil and slow in the lower part.
The available water capacity is moderate in the surface


and subsurface layers and moderate or high in the
subsoil. The seasonal high water table is within 12
inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months of the year. The
soil is low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. In a few areas
it is used for pasture.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly
pine, and sweetgum. The understory includes giant
cane, inkberry, and gallberry. The most common
grasses are pineland threeawn, pinehill bluestem, little
bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola,
sedges, and plumegrass.
This soil is well suited to slash pine and loblolly pine.
Growth estimates are given in feet for the expected
height a tree will reach in a specific number of years.
Site quality curves, which are based on a growth
estimate for 25 years, are often used for short-rotation
products, such as cordwood and pulp. The average site
quality rating is 70 feet for slash pine and 65 feet for
loblolly pine. The potential production is 34 cords per
acre for slash pine and 47 cords per acre for loblolly
pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation.
If not controlled, the growth of hardwoods will
interfere with that of pines; therefore, growing
hardwoods could be a less expensive management
alternative initially. The main concern in management
for producing and harvesting timber is the seasonal
high water table. Special site preparation, such as
harrowing, bedding, or double bedding, can help to
establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate,
and increase the early growth rate. Bedding should be
planned so that it does not impair natural surface
drainage. Short-term drainage is needed on some of the
wetter sites until the pine's uptake of water lowers the
water table, at which time the drains should be blocked.
Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods help to overcome
the equipment limitation.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate planting. Hand planting methods can be
used when the soil is too wet to support heavy
equipment. Hardwood understory can be reduced by
controlled burning, applying herbicide, or girdling or
cutting of the unwanted trees. Chopping should be done
late in the fall or in the winter. It should be followed by
applications of herbicide in the spring and by burning in
the summer. Construction of access roads, logging
activities, and site preparation should be avoided in
streambeds and adjacent areas because of the hazard







Nassau County, Florida


of erosion. Tree limbs and tops should be kept clear of
the stream channel because they can block streamflow.
This soil is well suited to pasture. The wetness is a
limitation affecting the plant species that can be grown
and the period of grazing. Excess surface water can be
removed from most areas by installing and maintaining
field drains. Coastal bermudagrass, improved
bahiagrass, and white clover are the best suited pasture
plants. Proper stocking rates and restricted grazing
during wet periods help to keep the pasture in good
condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitation is the seasonal high water table. Grain
sorghum and corn are the best suited crops to plant. If
adequate drainage outlets are available, lateral ditches
and tile drains can be used to lower the water table.
Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
grass-legume mixture help to maintain fertility and tilth.
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime generally are
needed.
This soil provides good habitat for deer, quail,
turkeys, skunks, opossums, and raccoons. It provides
fair habitat for squirrels and poor habitat for doves.
Wildlife in the urban areas consists mostly of birds. The
areas of this soil that have been left in native vegetation
provide a good source of food, cover, and escape
routes for most wildlife.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
main limitations are the seasonal high water table and
slow permeability. Drainage is needed if roads and
building foundations are constructed. Establishing
vegetation commonly is difficult on steep channel side
slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques may be
required. The slow permeability and the high water
table increase the possibility that septic tank absorption
fields will not function properly. Septic tank absorption
fields should be mounded. Unless vegetation is
established, erosion and sedimentation commonly are
problems in some water management systems. Wind
erosion is a problem in unvegetated areas and is
especially severe in the spring.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, cabbage palm,
common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, water oak,
and slash pine. The native shrubs include American
beautyberry, coontie, coralbean, partridge pea, pawpaw,
saw palmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern
waxmyrtle. The herbaceous plants and vines are


blazingstar, Catesby lily, grassleaf goldaster, hibiscus,
iris, meadow beauty, sunflower, and zephyr lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the seasonal high water table.
Good drainage is needed for paths and trails. Vehicles
are easily mired down, and soil blowing can occur if the
surface is bare.
The land capability classification is IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 9W.

38-Meggett fine sandy loam, rarely flooded. This
nearly level, poorly drained soil is on broad, low flats. It
is subject to flooding on rare occasions. The mapped
areas range from about 3 to 30 acres in size. Slopes
are smooth or concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 93 percent of the areas mapped as Meggett fine
sandy loam, rarely flooded, Meggett and similar soils
make up 87 to 99 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 1 to 13 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sandy loam about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer,
to a depth of about 11 inches, is dark gray loamy fine
sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 80
inches. It is gray sandy clay in the upper part, gray clay
in the next part, and light olive gray clay in the lower
part. Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to the Meggett soil but have a surface layer that
is loamy fine sand and a subsoil that is sandy clay loam
in the upper part.
Included in the map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Brookman, Meggett, Goldhead, and
Buccaneer soils. Brookman soils are in depressions.
Meggett and Goldhead soils are on broad, low flats and
in depressions. Buccaneer soils are in drainageways.
Permeability of this Meggett soil is moderately rapid
in the upper part of the soil and very slow or slow in the
lower part. The available water capacity is moderate in
the surface and subsurface layers and moderate or high
in the subsoil. The seasonal high water table is within 6
inches of the surface for 4 to 8 months of the year. The
soil is low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland and for pasture.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly
pine, cabbage palm, and red maple. The understory
includes inkberry. The most common grasses are
sawgrass, maidencane, hairy panicum, panicum,
southern bayberry, and little bluestem.
This soil is well suited to slash pine and loblolly pine.
Growth estimates are given in feet for the expected
height a tree will reach in a specific number of years.
Site quality curves, which are based on a growth







Soil Survey


estimate for 25 years, are often used for short-rotation
products, such as cordwood and pulp. The average site
quality rating for slash pine and loblolly pine is 70 feet.
The potential production is 41 cords per acre for slash
pine and 47 cords per acre for loblolly pine (7) based
on a 25-year rotation.
If not controlled, the growth of hardwoods will
interfere with that of pines; therefore, growing
hardwoods could be a less expensive management
alternative initially. The main concern in management
for producing and harvesting timber is the seasonal
high water table. Special site preparation, such as
harrowing, bedding, or double bedding on poorly
drained soils, can help to establish seedlings, reduce
the seedling mortality rate, and increase the early
growth rate. Bedding should be planned so that it does
not impair natural surface drainage. Short-term drainage
is needed in some of the wetter areas until the pine's
uptake of water lowers the water table, at which time
the drains should be blocked. Using tracks or floatation
tires on planting and harvesting machinery and
scheduling planting and harvesting operations during
dry periods help to overcome the equipment limitation,
minimize soil compaction, and minimize root damage
during thinning operations.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate planting. Hand planting methods can be
used when the soil is too wet to support heavy
equipment. Hardwood understory can be reduced by
controlled burning, applications of herbicide, or girdling
or cutting of the unwanted trees. Chopping should be
done late in the fall or in the winter. It should be
followed by applications of herbicide in the spring and
by burning in the summer. Management practices
should include selection of appropriate plants and
applications of fertilizer during planting operations.
Construction of access roads, logging activities, and site
preparation should be avoided in streambeds and
adjacent areas because of the hazard of erosion. Tree
limbs and tops should be kept clear of the stream
channel because they can block streamflow.
This soil is well suited to pasture. The periodic
wetness is a limitation affecting the plant species that
can be grown and the period of grazing. Excess surface
water can be removed from most areas by installing
and maintaining field drains. Coastal bermudagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover are the best
suited pasture plants. Proper stocking rates, pasture
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help
to keep the pasture in good condition. Fertilizer and


lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
legumes.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitation is the wetness. Grain sorghum and corn
are the best suited crops to plant. If adequate drainage
outlets are available, lateral ditches and tile drains can
be used to lower the water table. Returning all crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture
help to maintain fertility and tilth. Frequent applications
of fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
This soil provides good habitat for deer, quail,
turkeys, bobcats, skunks, opossums, and raccoons. It
provides fair habitat for squirrels and poor habitat for
doves. Wildlife in the urban areas consists mostly of
birds. The areas of this soil that have been left in native
vegetation provide a good source of food, cover, and
escape routes for most wildlife.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
main limitations are the seasonal high water table and
slow permeability. Drainage is needed if roads and
building foundations are constructed. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of water
supplies resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption
fields are mounded in most areas. Effluent can surface
in downslope areas and create a health hazard.
Establishing vegetation commonly is difficult on steep
channel side slopes and on fertile spoil. Special
techniques may be required. Unless vegetation is
established, erosion and sedimentation commonly are
problems in some water management systems. Wind
erosion is a problem in unvegetated areas and is
especially severe in the spring.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, cabbage palm,
common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, water oak,
and slash pine. The native shrubs include American
beautyberry, coontie, coralbean, partridge pea, pawpaw,
saw palmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern
waxmyrtle. The herbaceous plants and vines are
blazingstar, Catesby lily, grassleaf goldaster, hibiscus,
iris, meadow beauty, sunflower, and zephyr lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the periodic wetness. Good
drainage is needed for paths and trails. Vehicles are
easily mired down, and soil blowing can occur if the
surface is bare.
The land capability classification is IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 13W.







Nassau County, Florida


39-Evergreen-Leon mucks, depressional. These
nearly level, very poorly drained soils are in
depressions. They are ponded for 9 to 12 months in
most years. The mapped areas range from about 3 to
125 acres. Slopes are smooth or concave and are 0 to
2 percent.
In 100 percent of the areas mapped as Evergreen-
Leon mucks, depressional, Evergreen, Leon, and
similar soils make up 100 percent of the map unit.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 64 percent
Evergreen and similar soils and about 36 percent Leon
and similar soils. The soils in this map unit are so
intermingled that it is not practical to map them
separately at the scale used. The proportions and
patterns of Evergreen, Leon, and similar soils, however,
are relatively consistent in most areas.
Typically, the surface layer of the Evergreen soil
extends to a depth of about 17 inches. It is black muck
in the upper part, black loamy fine sand in the next part,
and very dark gray fine sand in the lower part. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 26 inches, is light
brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of
about 80 inches, is dark reddish brown loamy fine sand
in the upper part and dark reddish brown fine sand in
the lower part. Some soils occurring in areas of this
map unit are similar to the Evergreen soil but generally
have more than 16 inches of organic material where
they are in the center of the delineations.
Typically, the surface layer of the Leon soil extends
to a depth of about 8 inches. It is black muck in the
upper part and black fine sand in the lower part. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 17 inches, is light
brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of
about 83 inches, is dark reddish brown loamy fine sand
in the upper part and dark reddish brown fine sand in
the lower part. Soils occurring in areas of this map unit
that are similar to the Leon soil are Kingsferry and
Rutlege soils.
Permeability of these Evergreen and Leon soils is
rapid in the organic layer and in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
available water capacity is very high in the organic
layers and very low or low in the mineral layers. The
seasonal high water table is at or above the surface
during most of the year. These soils are high in natural
fertility.
These soils are used mostly as woodland. The
natural vegetation consists of baldcypress and pond
pine. The understory includes large gallberry, ferns,
water grasses, huckleberry, greenbrier, and southern
bayberry.
These soils are very poorly suited to pine trees.


Under natural conditions, however, they are suited to
cypress and hardwoods. The major management
concern is the high water table, which causes seedling
mortality. The water table and the high organic matter
content in the surface layer prevent the use of heavy
equipment. Adequate drainage outlets generally are not
available; therefore, drainage is not practical.
These soils are very poorly suited to pasture, to
cultivated crops, and to urban and recreational
development because of the ponding.
These soils provide habitat that is very important for
wildlife refuge areas and turkey roosting areas. They
also provide very good habitat for waterfowl and wading
birds. Aquatic animals inhabit the area in large
numbers. The permanent residents of cypress heads
are relatively few, but most of the wildlife on flatwoods
is dependent on these ponds for breeding purposes.
The land capability classification of this map unit is
VIIw. These soils have not been assigned a woodland
ordination symbol.

40-Brookman mucky fine sandy loam,
depressional. This nearly level, very poorly drained soil
is in depressions. It is ponded for 6 to 9 months in most
years. The mapped areas range from about 3 to 25
acres in size. Slopes are smooth or convex and are 0 to
2 percent.
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Brookman
mucky fine sandy loam, depressional, Brookman and
similar soils make up 79 to 100 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 21 percent. They generally
are in areas less than 5 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black mucky fine sandy
loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a
depth of about 80 inches. In sequence downward, it is
black sandy clay loam, very dark gray sandy clay, dark
gray clay, and light olive gray clay. Soils occurring in
areas of this map unit that are similar to the Brookman
soil are Meggett and Buccaneer soils and some soils
that have a surface layer that is covered with 2 to 6
inches of organic material.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Croatan and Goldhead soils, which are
on broad, low flats and in depressions.
Permeability of this Brookman soil is moderate in the
surface and subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil.
The available water capacity is high in the surface layer
and subsoil. In most years undrained areas are ponded
for 6 to 9 months of the year. The soil dries slowly after
periods of heavy rainfall. It is low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of cypress, sweetgum, and pond







Soil Survey


pine. The understory includes sourwood, fern,
greenbrier, switchgrass, giant gallberry, and American
holly.
This soil is generally very poorly suited to pine trees.
Under natural conditions, however, it is suited to
cypress and hardwoods. The major management
concern is the high water table, which causes severe
seedling mortality. The high water table and the high
organic matter content in the surface layer prevent the
use of heavy equipment. Adequate drainage outlets
generally are not available; therefore, drainage is not
practical.
This soil is very poorly suited to pasture, to cultivated
crops, and to urban or recreational development
because of the ponding.
This soil provides habitat that is very important for
wildlife refuge areas and turkey roosting areas. It
provides good habitat for waterfowl and wading birds.
Aquatic animals inhabit the area in large numbers. The
various hardwoods provide a good source of food and
cover for the wildlife.
The land capability classification is VIIw. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

44-Corolla fine sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rarely
flooded. This gently sloping to sloping, moderately well
drained and somewhat poorly drained soil is on narrow,
dunelike ridges along the Atlantic coast. It is subject to
flooding on rare occasions during prolonged, high-
intensity storms. The mapped areas range from about 3
to 500 acres in size. Slopes are convex or concave.
In 93 percent of the areas mapped as Corolla fine
sand, 2 to 6 percent slopes, rarely flooded, Corolla and
similar soils make up 72 to 100 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 28 percent. They generally
are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very pale brown fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying material, to a
depth of about 80 inches, is fine sand. In sequence
downward, it is pale brown, light yellowish brown, pale
brown, and light gray. Some soils occurring in areas of
this map unit are similar to the Corolla soil but are
slightly better drained where the slope is more than 6
percent or where dunes occur.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Newhan soils and Beaches. Newhan
soils are on dunes.
Permeability of this Corolla soil is very rapid. The
available water capacity is very low. In most years the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36
inches for 2 to 6 months of the year. It is below a depth


of 36 inches during prolonged dry periods. The soil is
very low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly for urban development.
The natural vegetation consists of waxmyrtle and live
oak. The most common grasses are seaoats, bitter
panicum, woody beachheather, coastal lovegrass,
seabeach eveningprimrose, maritime groundcherry, and
bushy bluestem.
This soil is not suited to pine trees, to pasture, or to
cultivated crops because of ocean salt spray.
This soil provides good habitat for a variety of
shorebirds, such as gulls and terns, and crustaceans,
such as crabs and turtles. The native grasses and
legumes provide a good source of food and nesting
sites. The areas of this soil that have been left in native
vegetation provide a good source of food, cover, and
escape routes for most wildlife.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
main limitations are the wetness and a poor filtering
capacity. The flooding is a hazard. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of water
supplies resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption
fields are mounded in most areas. Areas adjacent to the
water are subject to coastal dune erosion, especially if
construction alters the natural processes and destroys
excessive amounts of native vegetation.
Vegetation is difficult to establish because the soil is
infertile, coarse textured, drought, and saline and
because of the salt spray. Intensive management
practices, including irrigation during dry periods, are
needed to establish and maintain vegetation on this
soil. Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of cabbage palm, Chickasaw plum,
live oak, redbay, red cedar, slash pine, magnolia, and
sand pine. The native shrubs include beargrass,
pricklypear cactus, coontie, coralbean, yaupon, lantana,
marshelder, partridge pea, oats, saw palmetto, Spanish
bayonet, and waxmyrtle. The native grasses include
seaoats, marshhay cordgrass, bitter panicum, seashore
saltgrass, gulf bluestem, seashore paspalum, seashore
dropseed, common bermudagrass, and shoredune
panicum. The herbaceous plants and vines are
morningglory, fiddler leaf morningglory, blanketflower,
largeleaf pennywort, sea purslane, greenbrier, and wild
grape.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the sandy texture. The flooding is
a hazard. Because of the slope, recreation areas are







Nassau County, Florida


limited to a few paths and trails, which should extend
across the slope. A plant cover is difficult to establish
and maintain, but it can be maintained by controlling
heavy traffic. Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil
blowing can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is VIIs. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

45-Meggett loamy fine sand, depressional. This
nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in depressions
and is ponded for 6 to 9 months in most years. The
mapped areas range from about 3 to 50 acres. Slopes
are less than 1 percent.
In 89 percent of the areas mapped as Meggett loamy
fine sand, depressional, Meggett and similar soils make
up 81 to 98 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils
make up about 2 to 19 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 18 inches, is light brownish gray loamy
fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 80
inches. It is grayish brown sandy clay in the upper part
and gray clay in the lower part. Some soils occurring in
areas of this map unit are similar to the Meggett soil but
are covered with 2 to 6 inches of organic material and
have a subsoil at a depth of more than 20 inches.
These soils are on the outer edge of the depressions.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Brookman soils, which are in the center
of the depressions.
Permeability of this Meggett soil is moderately rapid
in the surface and subsurface layers and slow in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is moderate in the
surface layer and the subsoil and low in the subsurface
layer. The soil dries slowly after periods of heavy
rainfall. It is low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of pond pine and cypress. The
understory includes pondweed and ferns.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees. Under
natural conditions, however, it is suited to cypress and
hardwoods. The major management concern is the high
water table, which causes severe seedling mortality.
The water table and the high organic matter content in
the surface layer prevent the use of heavy equipment.
Adequate drainage outlets generally are not available;
therefore, drainage is not practical in these areas.
This soil is very poorly suited to pasture, to cultivated
crops, and to urban and recreational development
because of the ponding.
This soil provides habitat that is very important for


wildlife refuge areas and turkey roosting areas. It
provides good habitat for waterfowl and wading birds.
Aquatic animals inhabit the area in large numbers. The
various hardwoods provide a good source of food and
cover for the wildlife.
The land capability classification is VIIw. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

46-Buccaneer clay, rarely flooded. This nearly
level, very poorly drained soil is on slightly elevated,
broad, low flats. It is subject to flooding on rare
occasions. Water ponds in low-lying areas after periods
of heavy rainfall. The mapped areas range from about 3
to 100 acres. Slopes are smooth and are 0 to 2
percent.
In 92 percent of the areas mapped as Buccaneer
clay, rarely flooded, Buccaneer and similar soils make
up 77 to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils
make up 0 to 23 percent. They generally are in areas
less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black clay about 5
inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of about 65 inches
is clay. It is very dark gray in the upper part, dark gray
in the next part, and gray in the lower part. The
substratum, to a depth of about 80 inches, is light olive
gray clay. Brookman soils, which are similar to the
Buccaneer soil, are in areas of this map unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Meggett soils, which are in higher
positions on the landscape than the Buccaneer soil.
Permeability of this Buccaneer soil is slow in the
upper part of the soil and very slow in the lower part.
The available water capacity is high or very high. The
seasonal high water table is within 6 inches of the
surface for 6 to 9 months of the year. The soil is
medium in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of loblolly pine, cabbage palm, red
maple, and willow oak. The understory includes
waxmyrtle. The most common grasses are little
bluestem, slender bluestem, and panicum.
This soil generally is very poorly suited to pine trees.
Under natural conditions, however, it is suited to
cypress and hardwoods. The major management
concern is the high water table, which causes seedling
mortality. The water table and the high organic matter
content in the surface layer prevent the use of heavy
equipment. Adequate drainage outlets generally are not
available; therefore, drainage is not practical.
This soil is well suited to pasture. The wetness is a
limitation affecting the plant species that can be grown
and the period of grazing. Excess surface water can be






Soil Survey


removed from most areas by installing and maintaining
field drains. Coastal bermudagrass, improved
bahiagrass, and white clover are the best suited pasture
plants. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep the
pasture in good condition. Fertilizer is needed for
optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitation is the periodic wetness.
This soil provides good habitat for deer, bobcats,
skunks, opossums, raccoons, quail, and turkeys and for
many birds, particularly warblers. It provides fair habitat
for squirrels and poor habitat for doves. Wildlife in the
urban areas consists mostly of birds. The areas of this
soil that have been left in native vegetation provide a
good source of food, cover, and escape routes for most
wildlife.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
main limitations are the seasonal high water table and
very slow permeability. The native trees consist of
American holly, cabbage palm, common persimmon,
live oak, longleaf pine, water oak, and slash pine. The
native shrubs include American beautyberry, coontie,
coralbean, partridge pea, pawpaw, saw palmetto,
shining sumac, tarflower, and southern waxmyrtle. The
herbaceous plants are blazingstar, Catesby lily,
grassleaf goldaster, hibiscus, iris, meadow beauty,
sunflower, and zephyr lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the seasonal high water table.
Good drainage is needed for paths and trails. Vehicles
are easily mired down.
The land capability classification is IIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 13W.

47-Leefield fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly
drained soil is on narrow to broad ridges and isolated
knolls. The mapped areas range from about 3 to 50
acres. Slopes are smooth or concave.
In 94 percent of the areas mapped as Leefield fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Leefield and similar soils
make up 91 to 98 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 2 to 9 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of
about 29 inches. It is light yellowish brown fine sand in
the upper part, pale yellow fine sand in the next part,
and brownish yellow loamy fine sand in the lower part.
The subsoil extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is
light yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has plinthite


in the upper part and is light gray sandy clay loam in
the lower part. Soils occurring in areas of this map unit
that are similar to the Leefield soil are Ocilla soils and
some soils that are moderately well drained and are
near drainageways.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Albany and Goldhead soils. Albany
soils are in positions on the landscape similar to those
of the Leefield soil. Goldhead soils are on flatwoods.
Permeability of this Leefield soil is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the upper
part of the subsoil, and moderately slow in the lower
part. The available water capacity is very low or low in
the surface and subsurface layers and low or moderate
in the subsoil. The seasonal high water table is at a
depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months of the year
and at a depth of 30 to 50 inches for 3 to 6 months or
more. The soil is low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. It is also used
for pasture.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
slash pine, turkey oak, and live oak. The understory
includes gallberry. The most common grasses are
pineland threeawn, panicum, toothachegrass, muhly,
switchgrass, and various bluestems.
This soil is well suited to slash pine and loblolly pine
and is moderately suited to longleaf pine. Growth
estimates are given in feet for the expected height a
tree will reach in a specific number of years. Site quality
curves, which are based on a growth estimate for 25
years, are often used for short-rotation products, such
as cordwood and pulp. Site index curves generally are
based on a growth estimate for 50 years or more and
are used for slower growing species or products
requiring a longer rotation. The average site quality
rating for slash pine and loblolly pine is 65 feet. The
potential production is 34 cords per acre for slash pine
and 42 cords per acre for loblolly pine (7) based on a
25-year rotation. The average site index for longleaf
pine is 70 feet. The estimated potential production is 43
cords per acre for longleaf pine based on a 50-year
rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,
and plant competition. Using tracks or floatation tires on
the planting and harvesting machinery and scheduling
harvesting and planting operations during dry periods
help to overcome the equipment limitation, minimize soil
compaction, and minimize root damage during thinning
operations. Measures that reduce the hazard of erosion
are needed when timber is harvested. Construction of
access roads, logging activities, and site preparation







Nassau County, Florida


should be avoided in streambeds and adjacent areas
because of the hazard of erosion. Tree limbs and tops
should be kept clear of the stream channel because
they can block streamflow. Stream crossing should be
avoided if possible. Culverts and bridges may be
needed.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate planting. Special site preparation, such as
harrowing, bedding, or double bedding, can help to
establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate,
and increase the early growth rate. Bedding should be
planned so that it does not impair natural surface
drainage. Conventional harvesting methods generally
can be used, but their use can be limited during rainy
periods, generally from June to September.
Management practices include selecting appropriate
plants, applying fertilizer during planting operations, and
leaving debris on the site.
This soil is well suited to pasture. When the soil is
wet, grazing causes compaction of the surface layer
and damage to the plant community. Excess surface
water can be removed from most areas by installing
and maintaining field drains.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are the low fertility and the periodic
wetness and droughtiness. If water-control and soil-
improving measures are applied, the soil is moderately
well suited to most cultivated crops. Corn, grain
sorghum, and tobacco are the main crops. The soil is
friable, is easy to keep in good tilth, and can be worked
throughout a wide range of moisture content. Returning
all crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume
mixture help to maintain fertility and tilth. Frequent
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
This soil provides very good habitat for deer, turkey,
squirrel, and many birds. Hardwood mast, such as
acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and berries, is a good source
of food for wildlife. The mature hardwoods and snags
provide good nesting sites for birds. The soil also
provides good habitat for raccoons, opossums,
bobwhite quail, and doves. It provides fair habitat for
reptiles and poor habitat for most amphibians. Wildlife
in the urban areas consists mostly of birds. The areas
of this soil that have been left in native vegetation
provide a good source of food, cover, and escape
routes for most wildlife.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
The main limitations are the periodic wetness and


droughtiness. Drainage is needed if roads and building
foundations are constructed. Vegetation is difficult to
establish because the soil is infertile, coarse textured,
and drought. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system is needed to prevent
contamination of water supplies resulting from seepage.
Septic tank absorption fields are mounded in most
areas.
Housing development plans should provide for the
preservation of as many trees as possible. Selection of
suitable vegetation is critical for the establishment of
lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens. Native
plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, laurelcherry,
Chickasaw plum, dogwood, fringetree, hickory, southern
magnolia, oak, pine, persimmon, redbud, red maple, red
cedar, and sweetgum. The native shrubs include
American beautyberry, coralbean, pawpaw, strawberry
bush, shining sumac, viburnum, and waxmyrtle. The
herbaceous plants and vines are aster, beebalm,
blazingstar, iris, and sunflower.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. The main limitations are the wetness and
the sandy texture of the surface layer. The loose sand
makes walking difficult. Good drainage is needed for
paths and trails. A plant cover is somewhat difficult to
establish and maintain, but it can be maintained by
controlling heavy traffic and by irrigating.
The land capability classification is IIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8W.

49-Ousley and Mandarin fine sands, occasionally
flooded. These nearly level and gently sloping,
somewhat poorly drained and moderately well drained
soils are on low terraces and flood plains along the St.
Marys River. They are occasionally flooded for brief
periods in most years. The mapped areas range from
about 3 to 80 acres. Slope is 0 to 5 percent.
In 85 percent of the areas mapped as Ousley and
Mandarin fine sands, occasionally flooded, Ousley,
Mandarin, and similar soils make up 76 to 94 percent of
the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 6 to 24 percent.
They generally are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 68 percent
Ousley and similar soils, 18 percent Mandarin and
similar soils, and 14 percent dissimilar soils. Some
areas are Ousley and similar soils, some are Mandarin
and similar soils, and others are made up of both
Ousley and Mandarin soils. Areas of the individual soils







Soil Survey


are large enough to be mapped separately; however, in
considering the present and predicted use, they were
mapped as one unit.
The Ousley soil is somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about
7 inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand to a
depth of about 80 inches. In sequence downward, it is
light gray, pale brown, olive yellow, yellow, light
yellowish brown, and brown. Osier soils, which are
similar to the Ousley soil, are in some areas of this map
unit.
The Mandarin soil is somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
11 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil,
to a depth of about 16 inches, is fine sand. It is dark
brown in the upper part and yellowish brown in the
lower part. The upper part of the substratum, to a depth
of about 23 inches, is brown fine sand and the lower
part, to a depth of about 80 inches, is light brownish
gray fine sand.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Albany, Goldhead, and Meadowbrook
soils. They are in positions on the landscape similar to
those of the Ousley and Mandarin soils.
Permeability of the Ousley soil is rapid. The available
water capacity is very low or low. The seasonal high
water table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches for 4 to 6
months each year. The soil is very low in natural
fertility.
Permeability of the Mandarin soil is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is very low or low
in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in
the subsoil. The seasonal high water table is at a depth
of 18 to 42 inches for 4 to 6 months of the year. The
soil is very low in natural fertility.
Both of these soils are used mainly as woodland.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly
pine, longleaf pine, scattered blackjack oak, turkey oak,
post oak, willow oak, and red maple. The understory
includes gallberry, saw palmetto, running oak, and
waxmyrtle. The most common grasses are pineland
threeawn, broomsedge bluestem, and panicum.
These soils are poorly suited to slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Growth estimates are given in
feet for the expected height a tree will reach in a
specific number of years. Site quality curves, which are
based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower


growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine and
loblolly pine is 50 to 55 feet. The potential production is
18 to 23 cords per acre for slash pine and 26 to 30
cords per acre for loblolly pine (7) based on a 25-year
rotation. The average site index for longleaf pine is 60
feet. The estimated potential production is 30 cords per
acre for longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,
and plant competition. Using tracks or floatation tires on
planting and harvesting machinery and scheduling
harvesting and planting operations during dry periods
help to overcome the equipment limitation, minimize soil
compaction, and minimize root damage during thinning
operations. Reducing the hazard of erosion is an
essential concern in management when harvesting
timber. Construction of access roads, logging activities,
and site preparation should be avoided in streambeds
and adjacent areas because of the hazard of erosion.
Tree limbs and tops should be kept clear of the stream
channel because they can block streamflow. Stream
crossing should be avoided if possible. Culverts and
bridges may be needed.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate planting. Special site preparation, such as
harrowing, bedding, or double bedding, can help to
establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate,
and increase the early growth rate. If heavy equipment
is used during wet periods, the extent of soil
compaction will increase. Management practices should
include selection of appropriate plants and applications
of fertilizer during planting operations. These soils
commonly are very low in organic matter content.
Harvesting methods that remove all tree biomass from
the site further reduce the fertility of these soils.
Logging operations should leave residual biomass
distributed over the site.
These soils are moderately suited to pasture. The
very low fertility and droughtiness are the main
limitations. When the soil is wet, grazing causes
compaction of the surface layer, poor tilth, and
excessive runoff. Excess surface water can be removed
from most areas by installing field drains. Coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass are the best suited
pasture plants. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation,
and timely deferment of grazing help to keep the
pasture in good condition. Fertilizer and lime are
needed for optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
These soils are moderately well suited to cultivated







Nassau County, Florida


crops. The main limitations are the periodic wetness
and droughtiness. These soils are friable, are easy to
keep in good tilth, and can be worked throughout a
wide range of moisture content. Land grading and
smoothing will improve surface drainage and permit
more efficient use of farm equipment. Returning all crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture
help to maintain fertility and tilth. Frequent applications
of fertilizer and lime generally are needed. A good
ground cover of close-growing plants between tree rows
can reduce the hazard of erosion.
These soils provide good habitat for deer and turkey.
Many birds inhabit the area, including warblers, towhee,
crested flycatchers, and quail. The areas of this map
unit that have been left in native vegetation provide
good food sources, nesting sites, cover, and escape
routes for most wildlife.
These soils are poorly suited to urban development.
The main limitations are the wetness and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. The flooding is a hazard.
Generally, soils in adjacent, higher-lying areas are
better suited to urban development. Roads and streets
should be constructed above the expected level of
flooding. Major flood-control structures are needed to
control flooding. Septic tank absorption fields are
mounded in most areas. Effluent can surface in
downslope areas and create a health hazard.
These soils are poorly suited to recreational
development. The main limitations are the wetness and
the sandy texture of the surface layer. The flooding is a
hazard. Water-control structures must be constructed
and maintained to control flooding and to remove
excess surface water. The loose sand makes walking
difficult. A plant cover is difficult to establish and
maintain. Vehicles are easily mired down.
The land capability classification is IIIw. The
woodland ordination symbol is 8W for the Ousley soil
and 8S for the Mandarin soil.

50-Blanton fine sand, 12 to 20 percent slopes.
This moderately steep, somewhat poorly drained and
moderately well drained soil is on side slopes near the
St. Marys River. The mapped areas range from about 3
to 80 acres. Slope is 12 to 20 percent.
In 96 percent of the areas mapped as Blanton fine
sand, 12 to 20 percent slopes, Blanton and similar soils
make up 90 to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 0 to 10 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown fine
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a


depth of about 57 inches, is fine sand. It is brown in the
upper part, pale brown in the next part, and light gray in
the lower part. The subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is light brownish gray sandy clay loam. Soils
occurring in areas of this map unit that are similar to the
Blanton soil are the Albany, Ocilla, Ortega, and
Ridgewood soils and some soils that have short, steep
slopes.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Goldhead, Meadowbrook, and
Pottsburg soils, which are on the lower part of the side
slopes. Also included are other soils that have a yellow
loamy subsoil within 20 inches of the surface, that are
sandy to a depth of 60 inches, or that have a red loamy
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Permeability of this Blanton soil is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. In most years the seasonal high water table is
at a depth of 30 to 48 inches for more than 4 to 8
months of the year. It recedes to a depth of 40 to 60
inches during prolonged dry periods. The soil is low in
natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of turkey oak, water oak, slash pine,
and longleaf pine. The understory includes gallberry.
The most common grasses are pineland threeawn, little
bluestem, pinehill bluestem, slender bluestem, panicum,
toothachegrass, and switchgrass.
This soil is moderately suited to slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Growth estimates are given in
feet for the expected height a tree will reach in a
specific number of years. Site quality curves, which are
based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine and
loblolly pine is 55 feet. The potential production is 23
cords per acre for slash pine and 31 cords per acre for
loblolly pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation. The
average site index for longleaf pine is 65 feet. The
estimated potential production is 36 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,
plant competition, and the erosion hazard. Using tracks
or floatation tires on planting and harvesting machinery
and scheduling harvesting and planting operations
during dry periods help to overcome the equipment







Soil Survey


limitation, minimize soil compaction, and minimize root
damage during thinning operations. Construction of
access roads, logging activities, and site preparation
should be avoided in streambeds and adjacent areas
because of the hazard of erosion. Tree limbs and tops
should be kept clear of the stream channel because
they can block streamflow. To reduce erosion, fire lines
and access roads should slope gently to streams and
cross at a right angle. Stream crossing should be
avoided if possible. Culverts and bridges may be
needed. Access roads and water bars on skid trails and
fire lines need water turnouts, or broad-based dips, to
direct water and sediment away from the roads, water
bars, and streams and into the surrounding woods.
When the roads are no longer in use, they should be
closed and seeded to prevent erosion. Measures that
reduce the hazard of erosion are needed when timber is
harvested.
Special site preparation, such as harrowing, bedding,
or double bedding, can help to establish seedlings,
reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase the
early growth rate. Conventional harvesting methods
generally are difficult to use on this soil because of the
slope; however, they can be used in the more gently
sloping areas. The high-lead logging method is more
efficient than most other methods and is less damaging
to the soil surface. Mechanically planting trees on the
contour helps to control erosion. A major management
concern is the very low available water capacity, which
causes severe seedling mortality and retards plant
growth. Management practices should include selection
of appropriate plants and applications of fertilizer during
planting operations.
This soil is very poorly suited to pasture or to
cultivated crops because of the low fertility, the
droughtiness, and the slope.
This soil provides a very good habitat for deer,
turkey, squirrel, and many birds. Hardwood mast, such
as acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and berries, is a good
source of food for wildlife. The mature hardwoods and
snags provide good nesting sites for birds. The soil also
provides good habitat for raccoons, opossums,
bobwhite quail, and doves. It provides fair habitat for
reptiles and poor habitat for most amphibians.
This soil is very poorly suited to urban development
and poorly suited to recreational development. The
main limitation is the steep slope. Because of the slope,
recreation areas are limited to a few paths and trails,
which should extend across the slope. Erosion and
sedimentation can be controlled, and the esthetic value
of the area can be enhanced by maintaining adequate
plant cover.


The land capability classification is Vis, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 11 S.

51-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly
drained soil is on narrow to broad ridges and isolated
knolls. The mapped areas range from about 3 to 50
acres. Slopes are smooth or concave.
In 86 percent of the areas mapped as Albany fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Albany and similar soils
make up 80 to 92 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 8 to 20 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of about 50 inches, is fine sand. It is yellowish
brown in the upper part, light yellowish brown in the
next part, and light gray in the lower part. The subsoil,
to a depth of about 80 inches, is yellowish brown fine
sandy loam in the upper part, grayish brown sandy clay
loam in the next part, and olive gray fine sandy loam in
the lower part. Ridgewood soils, which are similar to the
Albany soil, are in areas of this map unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Blanton, Hurricane, Leefield, Leon,
Ocilla, Meadowbrook, and Sapelo soils. Blanton soils
are on the higher ridges. Leefield, Ocilla, and Hurricane
soils are in positions on the landscape similar to those
of the Albany soil. Leon and Sapelo soils are on
flatwoods. Meadowbrook soils are on broad, low flats.
Permeability of this Albany soil is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderately slow in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of
12 to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months of the year. The soil
is very low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. In a few areas
it is used for pasture.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
slash pine, water oak, turkey oak, and live oak. The
understory includes gallberry. The most common
grasses are pineland threeawn, little bluestem, pinehill
bluestem, slender bluestem, panicum, toothachegrass,
and switchgrass.
This soil is well suited to slash pine and loblolly pine
and is moderately suited to longleaf pine. Growth
estimates are given in feet for the expected height a
tree will reach in a specific number of years. Site quality
curves, which are based on a growth estimate for 25
years, are often used for short-rotation products, such
as cordwood and pulp. Site index curves generally are







Nassau County, Florida


based on a growth estimate for 50 years or more and
are used for slower growing species or products
requiring a longer rotation. The average site quality
rating for slash pine and loblolly pine is 60 feet. The
potential production is 28 cords per acre for slash pine
and 36 cords per acre for loblolly pine (7) based on a
25-year rotation. The average site index for longleaf
pine is 70 feet. The estimated potential production is 43
cords per acre for longleaf pine based on a 50-year
rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,
and plant competition. Using tracks or floatation tires on
planting and harvesting machinery and scheduling
harvesting and planting operations during dry periods
help to overcome the equipment limitation, minimize soil
compaction, and minimize root damage during thinning
operations. With proper management, trees can be
harvested during the wetter periods. Construction of
access roads, logging activities, and site preparation
should be avoided in streambeds and adjacent areas
because of the hazard of erosion. Tree limbs and tops
should be kept clear of the stream channel because
they can block streamflow. Stream crossing should be
avoided if possible. Culverts and bridges may be
needed.
Site preparation, such as chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate planting. Special site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, can help to establish seedlings,
reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase the
early growth rate. Bedding should be planned so that it
does not impair natural surface drainage. Conventional
harvesting methods generally can be used, but their use
should be limited during rainy periods, generally from
June to September. Management practices should
include selecting appropriate plants, applying fertilizer
during planting operations, and leaving debris on the
site.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture.
Droughtiness and the very low fertility are the main
limitations. When the soil is wet, grazing causes
compaction of the surface layer and damage to the
plant community. Excess surface water can be removed
from most areas by installing and maintaining field
drains. Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are the
best suited pasture plants. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help to
keep the pasture in good condition.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and


droughtiness and the very low fertility. If water-control
and soil-improving measures are applied, the soil is
moderately well suited to most cultivated crops. Corn,
grain sorghum, and tobacco are the main crops. The
soil is friable, is easy to keep in good tilth, and can be
worked throughout a wide range of moisture content.
Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
grass-legume mixture help to maintain fertility and tilth.
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime generally are
needed.
Wildlife in the urban areas consists mostly of birds
and squirrels. The areas of this soil that have been left
in native vegetation provide a good source of food,
cover, and escape routes for most wildlife.
If this soil is used for urban development, the main
limitations are the periodic wetness and droughtiness.
Drainage is needed if roads and building foundations
are constructed. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system is needed to prevent
contamination of water supplies resulting from seepage.
Septic tank absorption fields are mounded in most
areas.
Housing development plans should provide for the
preservation of as many trees as possible. Selection of
suitable vegetation is critical for the establishment of
lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens. The native
trees consist of American holly, laurelcherry, Chickasaw
plum, dogwood, fringetree, hickory, southern magnolia,
oak, pine, persimmon, redbud, red maple, red cedar,
and sweetgum. The native shrubs include American
beautyberry, coralbean, pawpaw, strawberry bush,
shining sumac, viburnum, and waxmyrtle. The
herbaceous plants and vines are aster, beebalm,
blazingstar, iris, and sunflower.
This soil is moderately well suited to recreational
development. The main limitation is the wetness. The
sandy texture of the surface layer makes walking
difficult. Good drainage is needed for paths and trails. A
plant cover is somewhat difficult to establish and
maintain, but it can be maintained by controlling heavy
traffic and by irrigating.
The land capability classification is IIIw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 9W.

52-Osier loamy fine sand, frequently flooded. This
nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flood plains and in
drainageways of the St. Marys River. It is frequently
flooded for brief periods in most years. The mapped
areas range from about 3 to 75 acres. Slopes are
smooth, convex, or concave and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 99 percent of the areas mapped as Osier loamy







Soil Survey


fine sand, frequently flooded, Osier and similar soils
make up 96 to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 0 to 4 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about
14 inches thick. It is very dark gray in the upper part
and dark grayish brown in the lower part. The
underlying material, to a depth of about 80 inches, is, in
sequence downward, grayish brown fine sand, light
brownish gray fine sand, dark grayish brown fine sand,
grayish brown loamy fine sand, and white fine sand.
Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to the Osier soil but are covered with 8 to 16
inches of organic material and other soils have stratified
layers of loamy fine sand and fine sandy loam.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Ellabelle soils, which are in positions
on the landscape similar to those of the Osier soil.
Permeability of this Osier soil is rapid. The available
water capacity is very low or low. The seasonal high
water table is within 6 inches of the surface for 3 to 6
months in most years. The soil is low or very low in
natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of pond pine, baldcypress, water
tupelo, sweetgum, and water oak. The understory
includes saw palmetto, gallberry, and waxmyrtle. The
most common grasses are little bluestem, panicum,
pineland threeawn, toothachegrass, and cutover muhly.
This soil generally is very poorly suited to pine trees.
Under natural conditions, however, it is suited to
cypress and hardwoods. The main concerns in
producing and harvesting timber are seedling mortality
and the equipment limitation. The wetness is a limitation
affecting the use of equipment. Planting trees on
bedded rows will lower the effective depth of the water
table. Trees selected for planting should be those that
can withstand the wetness, and they should be planted
or harvested during dry periods. Hand planting methods
can be used when the soil is too wet to support heavy
equipment.
This soil is very poorly suited to pasture and to
cultivated crops because of the wetness, the flooding,
and the low fertility.
This soil provides good habitat for waterfowl, reptiles,
amphibians, and mammals. Many birds inhabit the area,
including chickadee, titmouse, yellow-billed cuckoo,
wood duck, limpkin, acadian flycatcher, owl, hooded
warbler, cedar waxwing, woodpecker, and wren. The
various native vegetation on this soil provides a good
source of food, cover, and escape routes for the
wildlife.


This soil is very poorly suited to urban or recreational
development because of the wetness and the flooding.
The land capability classification is Vw. This soil has
not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

53-Meadowbrook fine sand. This nearly level,
poorly drained soil is on broad, low flats and in sloughs.
The mapped areas range from about 3 to 50 acres.
Slopes are smooth or convex and are 0 to 2 percent.
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Meadowbrook
fine sand, Meadowbrook and similar soils make up 80
to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up
0 to 20 percent. They generally are in areas less than 3
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
44 inches, is fine sand. In sequence downward, it is
dark gray, gray, and light gray. The subsoil, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is greenish gray sandy clay loam.
Goldhead soils, which are similar to the Meadowbrook
soil, are in areas of this map unit.
Included in the map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Albany, Boulogne, Osier, and Sapelo
soils. Albany soils are in higher positions on the
landscape than the Meadowbrook soil. Boulogne and
Sapelo soils are on flatwoods. Osier soils are in
positions on the landscape similar to those of the
Meadowbrook soil.
Permeability of this Meadowbrook soil is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderately slow in
the subsoil. The available water capacity is very low or
low in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate
in the subsoil. The seasonal high water table is within
12 inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months of the year.
The surface layer remains wet for long periods after
heavy rainfall. The soil is low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. In a few areas
it is used for pasture or crops.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
longleaf pine, sweetgum, blackgum, and water oak. The
understory includes a few saw palmetto. The most
common grasses are pineland threeawn, pinehill
bluestem, little bluestem, panicum, toothachegrass,
muhly, and switchgrass.
This soil is moderately suited to slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Growth estimates are given in
feet for the expected height a tree will reach in a
specific number of years. Site quality curves, which are
based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower







Nassau County, Florida


growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine and
loblolly pine is 60 feet. The potential production is 28
cords per acre for slash pine and 36 cords per acre for
loblolly pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation. The
average site index for longleaf pine is 70 feet. The
estimated potential production is 43 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality and the equipment
limitation. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods help to overcome
the equipment limitation, minimize soil compaction, and
minimize root damage during thinning operations.
Construction of access roads, logging activities, and site
preparation should be avoided in streambeds and
adjacent areas because of the hazard of erosion. Tree
limbs and tops should be kept clear of the stream
channel because they can block streamflow.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate planting. Special site preparation, such as
harrowing, bedding, or double bedding, can help to
establish seedlings, reduce the seedling mortality rate,
and increase the early growth rate. Bedding should be
planned so that it does not impair natural surface
drainage. Short-term drainage is needed in some of the
wetter areas until the pine's uptake of water lowers the
water table, at which time the drains should be blocked.
Management practices should include selection of
appropriate plants and applications of fertilizer during
planting operations.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Wetness,
the low fertility, and droughtiness are the main
limitations. When the soil is wet, grazing causes
compaction of the surface layer and damage to the
plant community. Excess surface water can be removed
from most areas by installing and maintaining field
drains. Tall fescue, coastal bermudagrass, and
bahiagrass are the best suited pasture plants. Proper
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing
during wet periods help to keep the pasture in good
condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
growth of grasses and legumes.
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and the low
fertility. Corn and grain sorghum are the best suited
crops to plant. A drainage system is needed for most
cultivated crops and pasture plants. Proper row
arrangement, field ditches, and vegetated outlets are


needed to remove excess surface water. Returning all
crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
that includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume
mixture help to maintain fertility and tilth. Frequent
applications of fertilizer and lime generally are needed.
This soil provides good habitat for deer, bobcats,
skunks, opossums, quail, and turkeys. It provides fair
habitat for squirrels and for many birds, particularly
warblers, and poor habitat for doves. Wildlife in the
urban areas consists mostly of birds. The areas of this
soil that have been left in native vegetation provide a
good source of food, cover, and escape routes for most
wildlife.
If this soil is used for urban development, the main
limitations are the periodic wetness and droughtiness.
Drainage is needed if roads and building foundations
are constructed. Structures to divert runoff are needed if
buildings and roads are constructed. Housing
development plans should provide for the preservation
of as many trees as possible. If the density of housing
is moderate or high, a community sewage system is
needed to prevent contamination of water supplies
resulting from seepage. Septic tank absorption fields
are mounded in most areas. Topsoil can be stockpiled
and used to reclaim areas disturbed by cutting and
filling.
Drainage is needed for the best results with most
lawn grasses, shade trees, ornamental trees, shrubs,
vines, and vegetable gardens. Native plants should be
used for beautification and landscaping because they
are more easily established and require less
maintenance than other plants. The native trees consist
of American holly, cabbage palm, common persimmon,
live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The native
shrubs include American beautyberry, coontie,
coralbean, partridge pea, pawpaw, saw palmetto,
shining sumac, tarflower, and southern waxmyrtle. The
herbaceous plants are blazingstar, Catesby lily, goldleaf
goldaster, hibiscus, iris, meadow beauty, sunflower, and
zephyr lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitations are the wetness and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. Good drainage is needed
for paths and trails. Vehicles are easily mired down,
and soil blowing can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 7W.

54-Sapelo fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained soil is on broad flatwoods. The mapped areas
range from about 3 to 80 acres. Slopes are smooth and
are 0 to 2 percent.







Soil Survey


In 89 percent of the areas mapped as Sapelo fine
sand, Sapelo and similar soils make up 83 to 95
percent of the map unit. Dissimilar soils make up 5 to
17 percent. They generally are in areas less than 3
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
21 inches, is fine sand. It is gray in the upper part and
light gray in the lower part. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of about 27 inches, is black fine
sand. Separating the upper and lower parts of the
subsoil is a buried subsurface layer. This layer, to a
depth of about 43 inches, is brown loamy sand. The
lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 70 inches,
is gray fine sandy loam and light brownish gray sandy
clay loam. The substratum, to a depth of about 80
inches, is gray loamy fine sand. Soils occurring in areas
of this map unit that are similar to the Sapelo soil are
Boulogne and Chaires soils.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Albany, Leon, Goldhead, and
Meadowbrook soils. Albany soils are on slightly
elevated ridges. Leon soils are on flatwoods. Goldhead
and Meadowbrook soils are in sloughs and depressions.
Also included are soils that have a dark subsoil just
below the surface layer.
Permeability of this Sapelo soil is rapid in the
surface, subsurface, and buried subsurface layers;
moderate in the upper part of the subsoil; and
moderately slow in the lower loamy part. The available
water capacity is very low or low in the surface,
subsurface, and buried subsurface layers and moderate
in the subsoil. The seasonal high water table is within
12 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months of the year.
The soil is very low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland. The natural
vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf pine, and
water oak. The understory includes saw palmetto and
gallberry. The most common grasses are pineland
threeawn, creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, hairy
panicum, and lopsided indiangrass.
This soil is moderately suited to slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine. Growth estimates are given in
feet for the expected height a tree will reach in a
specific number of years. Site quality curves, which are
based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating for slash pine and
loblolly pine is 60 feet. The potential production is 28


cords per acre for slash pine and 36 cords per acre for
loblolly pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation. The
average site index for longleaf pine is 70 feet. The
estimated potential production is 43 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are the equipment limitation and seedling
mortality. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods help to overcome
the equipment limitation, minimize soil compaction, and
minimize root damage during thinning operations.
Construction of access roads, logging activities, and site
preparation should be avoided in streambeds and
adjacent areas because of the hazard of erosion. Tree
limbs and tops should be kept clear of the stream
channel because they can block streamflow.
Site preparation, such as roller chopping, burning,
applications of herbicide, and bedding, can reduce the
amount of debris, control immediate plant competition,
and facilitate planting. Special site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, can help to establish seedlings,
reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase the
early growth rate. Bedding should be planned so that it
does not impair natural surface drainage. Short-term
drainage is needed in some of the wetter areas until the
pine's uptake of water lowers the water table, at which
time the drains should be blocked. A major
management concern is the low available water
capacity, which causes severe seedling mortality and
retards plant growth. Management practices should
include selection of appropriate plants and applications
of fertilizer during planting operations. The soil
commonly is very low in organic matter content.
Harvesting methods that remove all tree biomass from
the site further reduce soil fertility. Logging operations
should leave residual biomass distributed over the site.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness. All native pasture plants can be grown,
but bunch-type species, if planted alone, generally are
not suitable because of the hazard of erosion. The
wetness is a limitation affecting the plant species that
can be grown and the period of grazing. When the soil
is wet, grazing causes compaction of the surface layer,
poor tilth, and excessive runoff. The low available water
capacity is a limitation affecting the growth of plants that
are suitable for pasture. Drought-tolerant species, such
as bahiagrass, coastal bermudagrass, and legumes, are
the best suited pasture plants. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
periods help to keep the pasture in good condition.







Nassau County, Florida


Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes.
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
main limitations are the periodic wetness and
droughtiness and the very low fertility. Corn and grain
sorghum are the best suited crops to plant. Proper row
management, lateral ditches or tile drains, and properly
constructed outlets will remove the excess surface
water. Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
grass-legume mixture can help to maintain fertility and
tilth. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime
generally are needed.
This soil provides very good habitat for deer, quail,
bobcats, skunks, opossums, raccoons, and turkeys and
for many birds, particularly warblers. It provides fair
habitat for squirrels and poor habitat for doves. Wildlife
in the urban areas consists mostly of birds and
squirrels. The areas of this soil that have been left in
native vegetation provide a good source of food, cover,
and escape routes for most wildlife.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
main limitation is the wetness. Drainage is needed if
roads and building foundations are constructed. The
wetness can be reduced by installing tile drains around
the footings. If the density of housing is moderate or
high, a community sewage system is needed to prevent
contamination of water supplies resulting from seepage.
Septic tank absorption fields are mounded in most
areas. Unless vegetation is established, erosion and
sedimentation commonly are problems in some water
management systems.
Housing development plans should provide for the
preservation of as many trees as possible. Mulch,
fertilizer, and irrigation are needed to establish lawn
grasses and other small seeded plants. Drainage is
needed for most lawn grasses, shade trees, ornamental
trees, shrubs, vines, and vegetable gardens. Native
plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, cabbage palm,
common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash
pine. The native shrubs include American beautyberry,
coontie, coralbean, partridge pea, pawpaw, saw
palmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern
waxmyrtle. The herbaceous plants and vines are
blazingstar, Catesby lily, grassleaf goldaster, hibiscus,
iris, meadow beauty, sunflower, and zephyr lily.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitations are the wetness and the sandy
texture of the surface layer. The loose sand makes


walking difficult. Good drainage is needed for paths and
trails. Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil blowing
can occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is IVw, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 7W.

55-Meadowbrook-Goldhead-Meggett complex, 2
to 5 percent slopes. These gently sloping, poorly
drained soils are on side slopes near the St. Marys
River. The mapped areas range from about 3 to 75
acres. Slopes are 2 to 5 percent.
In 97 percent of the areas mapped as Meadowbrook-
Goldhead-Meggett complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
Meadowbrook, Goldhead, Meggett, and similar soils
make up 94 to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 0 to 6 percent. They are generally in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 41 percent
Meadowbrook and similar soils, 31 percent Goldhead
and similar soils, 22 percent Meggett soils, and 6
percent dissimilar soils. The soils in this map unit are so
intermingled that it is not practical to map them
separately at the scale used. The proportions and
patterns of the Meadowbrook, Goldhead, Meggett, and
similar soils, however, are relatively consistent in most
areas.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meadowbrook soil
is black fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of about 65 inches, is grayish brown
and dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil, to a
depth of about 80 inches, is light gray fine sandy loam.
Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to the Meadowbrook soil but have slopes of
more than 5 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Goldhead soil is
very dark brown fine sand about 2 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 32 inches, is fine
sand. It is gray in the upper part, dark gray in the next
part, and light gray in the lower part. The subsoil, to a
depth of about 80 inches, is gray fine sandy loam in the
upper part and gray sandy clay loam in the lower part.
Some soils occurring in areas of this map unit are
similar to the Goldhead soil but have slopes of more
than 5 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Meggett soil is very
dark brown fine sandy loam about 8 inches thick. The
subsoil extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is dark
gray sandy clay in the upper part, light brownish gray
sandy clay and light brownish gray sandy clay loam in
the next part, and gray clay loam in the lower part.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These are Albany, Boulogne, Chaires, and Sapelo







Soil Survey


soils. They are in the more elevated positions on the
landscape.
Permeability of the Goldhead and Meadowbrook soils
is rapid in the upper part of the soil and moderately
slow in the lower part. The permeability of the Meggett
soil is moderately rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and slow in the upper part of the subsoil. The
available water capacity of all three soils is low or
moderate in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate or high in the subsoil. The seasonal high
water table is within 6 inches of the surface for 3 to 6
months of the year. The Goldhead and Meadowbrook
soils are low in natural fertility.
These soils are used mainly as woodland. The
natural vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf pine,
sweetgum, blackgum, water oak, and bay. The
understory includes saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
and greenbrier. The most common grasses are pineland
threeawn, pinehill bluestem, little bluestem, panicum,
toothachegrass, and switchgrass.
These soils generally are very poorly suited to pine
trees. Under natural conditions, however, they are
suited to cypress and hardwoods. The major
management concern is the high water table, which
causes seedling mortality. The water table and high
organic matter content in the surface layer prevent the
use of heavy equipment. Adequate drainage outlets are
not available; therefore, drainage is not practical.
These soils are moderately suited to pasture.
Seedbed preparation should be on the contour or
across the slope, if it is practical. The wetness is a
limitation affecting the plant species that can be grown
and the period of grazing. When the soil is wet, grazing
causes surface compaction, poor tilth, and excessive
runoff. A cover of pasture grasses helps to control
erosion. The best suited pasture plants are tall fescue,
coastal bermudagrass, and bahiagrass. Proper stocking
rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
periods help to keep the pasture in good condition.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
grasses and legumes.
These soils are very poorly suited to cultivated crops.
These soils provide very good habitat for deer,
bobcats, skunks, opossums, raccoons, quail, and
turkeys. They provide fair habitat for squirrels and poor
habitat for doves.
These soils are very poorly suited to urban
development. The main limitations are the wetness, the
slope, and the sandy texture of the surface layer.
These soils are poorly suited to recreational
development. The main limitations are the wetness, the


slope, and the sandy texture of surface layer. Because
of the slope, recreation areas are limited to a few paths
and trails, which should extend across the slope. Good
drainage is needed for paths and trails. Cuts and fills
should be seeded or mulched. Erosion and
sedimentation can be controlled and the beauty of the
area can be enhanced where adequate plant cover is
maintained by control of heavy traffic and by irrigation.
The land capability classification is IVw. These soils
have not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

56-Blanton-Ortega fine sands, 5 to 12 percent
slopes. These sloping and strongly sloping, somewhat
poorly drained and moderately well drained soils are on
side slopes near the St. Marys River. The mapped
areas range from about 3 to 65 acres. Slopes are 5 to
12 percent.
In 87 percent of the areas mapped as Blanton-Ortega
fine sands, 5 to 12 percent slopes, Blanton, Ortega, and
similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent of the map unit.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 25 percent. They generally
are in areas less than 3 acres in size.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 73 percent
Blanton and similar soils, 20 percent Ortega and similar
soils, and 7 percent dissimilar soils. The soils in this
map unit are so intermingled that it is not practical to
map them separately at the scale used. The proportions
and patterns of the Blanton, Ortega, and similar soils,
however, are relatively consistent in most areas.
Typically, the surface layer of the Blanton soil is dark
grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 58 inches, is very
pale brown fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is light yellowish brown fine sandy
loam. Soils occurring in areas of this map unit that are
similar to the Blanton soil are Albany, Ocilla, and
Kershaw soils and some soils that have a slope of more
than 12 percent, have a yellowish brown subsoil at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches, or are well drained and have
a loamy subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches.
The Ortega soil is moderately well drained. Typically,
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about
3 inches thick. The underlying material, to a depth of
about 80 inches, is fine sand. It is yellowish brown in
the upper part, yellow in the next part, and very pale
brown in the lower part. Ridgewood soils, which are
similar to the Ortega soil, are in small areas of this map
unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These soils have a loamy subsoil within 20 inches
of the surface.







Nassau County, Florida


Permeability of the Blanton soil is rapid in the upper
part of the soil and moderate in the lower part. The
available water capacity is very low or low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. In most years the seasonal high water table is
at a depth of 30 to 48 inches for 1 to 3 months of the
year and at a depth of 48 to 60 inches for 4 to 8 months
or more. The soil is low in natural fertility.
Permeability of the Ortega soil is rapid. The available
water capacity is low or very low. In most years the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 42 to 60
inches for 6 to 8 months or more. It recedes to a depth
of more than 60 inches during prolonged dry periods.
The soil is low in natural fertility.
These soils are used mainly as woodland. The
natural vegetation consists of turkey oak, water oak,
slash pine, and longleaf pine. The understory includes
gallberry. The most common grasses are pineland
threeawn, little bluestem, pinehill bluestem, slender
bluestem, panicum, toothachegrass, and switchgrass.
These soils are moderately suited to slash pine,
loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. Growth estimates are
given in feet for the expected height a tree will reach in
a specific number of years. Site quality curves, which
are based on a growth estimate for 25 years, are often
used for short-rotation products, such as cordwood and
pulp. Site index curves generally are based on a growth
estimate for 50 years or more and are used for slower
growing species or products requiring a longer rotation.
The average site quality rating is 55 feet for slash pine
and for loblolly pine. The potential production is 23
cords per acre for slash pine and 31 cords per acre for
loblolly pine (7) based on a 25-year rotation. The
average site index for longleaf pine is 65 feet. The
estimated potential production is 36 cords per acre for
longleaf pine based on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality, the equipment limitation,
plant competition, and the hazard of erosion. Using
tracks or floatation tires on planting and harvesting
machinery and scheduling harvesting and planting
operations during dry periods help to overcome the
equipment limitation, minimize soil compaction, and
minimize root damage during thinning operations.
Construction of access roads, logging activities, and site
preparation should be avoided in streambeds and
adjacent areas because of the hazard of erosion. Tree
limbs and tops should be kept clear of the stream
channel because they can block streamflow. To reduce
the hazard of erosion, fire lines and access roads
should slope gently to the streams and cross the


streams at a right angle. Stream crossing should be
avoided if possible. Culverts and bridges may be
needed. Access roads and water bars on skid trails and
fire lines need water turnouts, or broad-based dips, to
direct water and sediment away from the roads, water
bars, and streams and into the surrounding woods.
When the roads are no longer in use, they should be
closed and seeded to prevent erosion. Measures that
reduce the hazard of erosion are needed when timber is
harvested.
Special site preparation, such as harrowing, bedding,
or double bedding, can help to establish seedlings,
reduce the seedling mortality rate, and increase the
early growth rate. Conventional harvesting methods can
be used in the more gently sloping areas, but they are
difficult to use in the steeper areas. Mechanically
planting trees on the contour helps to control erosion. A
major management concern is the very low available
water capacity, which causes severe seedling mortality
and retards plant growth. Management practices should
include selection of appropriate plants and applications
of fertilizer during planting operations.
These soils are poorly suited to pasture and to
cultivated crops because of droughtiness, the low
fertility, and the slope.
These soils provide very good habitat for deer,
turkey, and squirrel and for many songbirds. They also
provide good habitat for raccoons, opossums, bobwhite
quail, and doves; fair habitat for reptiles; and poor
habitat for most amphibians. Hardwood mast, such as
acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and berries, is a good source
of food for wildlife. The mature hardwoods and snags
provide good nesting sites for birds.
These soils are poorly suited to urban and
recreational development because of the slope. The
slope affects the use of these soils for paths and trails,
which should extend across the slope. Good drainage
for paths and trails is necessary. Areas that have been
cut and filled should be seeded or mulched. Erosion
and sedimentation can be controlled and the beauty of
the area can be enhanced by maintaining an adequate
plant cover.
The land capability classification is IVs. The
woodland ordination symbol is 11S for the Blanton soil
and 10S for the Ortega soil.

57-Penney fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level and gently sloping, excessively drained soil
is on broad ridges and on isolated knolls. The mapped
areas range from about 3 to 120 acres. Slopes are
smooth or convex.







Soil Survey


In 94 percent of the areas mapped as Penney fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Penney and similar soils
make up 87 to 100 percent of the map unit. Dissimilar
soils make up 0 to 13 percent. They generally are in
areas less than 3 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 80 inches. The upper part is light
yellowish brown and very pale brown fine sand. The
lower part, which has been mixed with the subsoil, is
very pale brown fine sand that has thin lamellae of
strong brown loamy fine sand. Kershaw soils, which are
similar to the Penney soil, are in some areas of this
map unit.
Included in this map unit are small areas of dissimilar
soils. These soils are well drained and have a loamy
subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches.
Permeability of this Penney soil is rapid. The
available water capacity is very low and low. The
seasonal high water table is below a depth of 72
inches. The soil is low in natural fertility.
This soil is used mainly as woodland and for urban
development.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine, live
oak, and turkey oak. The most common grasses are
chalky bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum,
creeping bluestem, slender bluestem, and pineland
threeawn.
This soil is poorly suited to slash pine and is
moderately suited to longleaf pine and sand pine.
Growth estimates are given in feet for the expected
height a tree will reach in a specific number of years.
Site quality curves, which are based on a growth
estimate for 25 years, are often used for short-rotation
products, such as cordwood and pulp. Site index curves
generally are based on a growth estimate for 50 years
or more and are used for slower growing species or
products requiring a longer rotation. The average site
quality rating for slash pine is 50 feet. The potential
production is 18 cords per acre for slash pine (7) based
on a 25-year rotation. The average site index is 70 feet
for longleaf pine and 80 feet for sand pine. The
estimated potential production is 43 cords per acre for
longleaf pine and 38 cords per acre for sand pine based
on a 50-year rotation.
The main concerns in producing and harvesting
timber are seedling mortality and the equipment
limitation. Using tracks or floatation tires on planting and
harvesting machinery and scheduling harvesting and
planting operations during dry periods help to overcome
the equipment limitation. Hardwood understory can be


reduced by controlled burning, applying herbicide, or
girdling or cutting of the unwanted trees. A major
management concern is the low and very low available
water capacity, which causes severe seedling mortality
and reduces growth. Planting special nursery stock that
is larger than usual or that is containerized can reduce
the seedling mortality rate. Natural regeneration may be
preferable in the drier areas. Management practices
should include selecting appropriate plants and leaving
debris on the site. The soil commonly is very low in
organic matter content. Harvesting methods that
remove all tree biomass from the site further reduce soil
fertility. Logging operations should leave residual
logging biomass distributed over the site.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and to cultivated
crops because of droughtiness and the low fertility.
This soil provides habitat for deer and turkey,
especially for use as escape cover. Many birds,
including warblers, towhees, crested flycatchers, doves,
and quail, inhabit the area. Several varieties of native
legumes furnish food for the birds. The harvesting of
timber and similar disturbances improve wildlife food
values by increasing the amount, availability, and types
of herbaceous plants and by producing new sprouts.
Wildlife in the urban areas consists mostly of birds. The
areas of this soil that have been left in native vegetation
provide a good source of food, cover, and escape
routes for most wildlife.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
The main limitation is the droughtiness. If the density of
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
system is needed to prevent contamination of water
supplies resulting from seepage. Vegetation is difficult
to establish because the soil is infertile, coarse textured,
and drought. Water moves rapidly through the soil.
Intensive management practices, including irrigation
during dry periods, are needed to establish and
maintain vegetation on this soil. Maintenance is difficult
without adequate applications of fertilizer. Unless
vegetation is established, wind erosion can be a
problem during and after construction.
Native plants should be used for beautification and
landscaping because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance than other plants. The
native trees consist of American holly, Chickasaw plum,
longleaf pine, slash pine, live oak, southern redcedar,
sand pine, turkey oak, and bluejack oak. The native
shrubs include adam's needle, American beautyberry,
Carolina holly, coontie, coralbean, Florida chinkapin,
pawpaw, pricklypear cactus, saw palmetto, shining
sumac, and yaupon.







Nassau County, Florida


This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
The main limitation is the sandy texture of the surface
layer. The loose sand makes walking difficult. A plant
cover is difficult to establish and maintain, but it can be
maintained by controlling heavy traffic and by irrigating.


Vehicles are easily mired down, and soil blowing can
occur if the surface is bare.
The land capability classification is IVs, and the
woodland ordination symbol is 8S.




















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It
can be used to identify the limitations of each soil for
specific land uses and to help prevent construction
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
This section was prepared by Allen L. Moore, district
conservationist, William F. Kuenstler, agronomist, and E. Norman
Porter, area agronomist, Soil Conservation Service.
General management needed for crops and pasture


is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
More than 10,000 acres in Nassau County is used for
crops and pasture. About 9,100 acres is used as
permanent pasture and more than 1,600 acres for
crops, such as corn and grain sorghum. The acreage in
crops and pasture has gradually been decreasing as
more and more land is used for urban development.
Soil erosion is not a major problem on the cropland
and pastureland in the county. Information on the
design of erosion control practices for each kind of soil
is available from the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service.
Soil blowing can be a hazard on the better drained
sandy soils and on the more poorly drained sandy soils
that have been drained. It can damage crops in a few
hours if the wind is strong and the soil is dry and bare
of vegetation or surface mulch. Soil blowing can be
reduced by maintaining a vegetative cover or surface
mulch; by planting windbreaks of adapted plant species,
such as pine, red cedar, and myrtle; and by planting
properly spaced temporary strips of seasonal small
grain at a right angle to the damaging wind.
Soil drainage is a major concern in management on
most of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the
county. Some soils are wet and need artificial drainage
or water control for the production of specialty crops
and pasture grasses. These soils include the poorly
drained Meggett, Boulogne, Leon, Chaires,
Meadowbrook, Pottsburg, Goldhead, and Sapelo soils
and the very poorly drained Kingsferry soils. Albany,

















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It
can be used to identify the limitations of each soil for
specific land uses and to help prevent construction
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
This section was prepared by Allen L. Moore, district
conservationist, William F. Kuenstler, agronomist, and E. Norman
Porter, area agronomist, Soil Conservation Service.
General management needed for crops and pasture


is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
More than 10,000 acres in Nassau County is used for
crops and pasture. About 9,100 acres is used as
permanent pasture and more than 1,600 acres for
crops, such as corn and grain sorghum. The acreage in
crops and pasture has gradually been decreasing as
more and more land is used for urban development.
Soil erosion is not a major problem on the cropland
and pastureland in the county. Information on the
design of erosion control practices for each kind of soil
is available from the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service.
Soil blowing can be a hazard on the better drained
sandy soils and on the more poorly drained sandy soils
that have been drained. It can damage crops in a few
hours if the wind is strong and the soil is dry and bare
of vegetation or surface mulch. Soil blowing can be
reduced by maintaining a vegetative cover or surface
mulch; by planting windbreaks of adapted plant species,
such as pine, red cedar, and myrtle; and by planting
properly spaced temporary strips of seasonal small
grain at a right angle to the damaging wind.
Soil drainage is a major concern in management on
most of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the
county. Some soils are wet and need artificial drainage
or water control for the production of specialty crops
and pasture grasses. These soils include the poorly
drained Meggett, Boulogne, Leon, Chaires,
Meadowbrook, Pottsburg, Goldhead, and Sapelo soils
and the very poorly drained Kingsferry soils. Albany,






Soil Survey


Blanton, Centenary, Hurricane, Leefield, Ocilla, Ortega,
and Ridgewood soilshave good natural drainage and
tend to dry out quickly after rains. Irrigation is needed
for crop production during periods of low rainfall.
The design of both surface and subsurface drainage
systems varies with the kind of soils. Surface drainage
is needed in most areas of poorly drained and very
poorly drained soils that are used for specialty crops
and pasture. If surface ditches are used, the poorly
drained soils on flatwoods are well suited to improved
pasture grasses. Unless some of the poorly drained
soils are artificially drained, excessive wetness will
cause some damage to pasture grasses during wet
seasons.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the
county. Most of the soils are naturally acid. Meggett
soils range from slightly acid to mildly alkaline and are
higher in plant nutrients than most of the other soils in
the county.
The addition of lime and fertilizer should be based on
the results of soil tests, on the needs of the crop, and
on the expected level of yields. The Cooperative
Extension Service can help in determining the kinds and
amounts of fertilizer and lime to apply.
Field crops grown in the county include corn, grain
sorghum, and some tobacco. The corn and grain
sorghum are used as feed for dairy cattle.
The latest information and suggestions for growing
specialty crops can be obtained from the local offices of
the Soil Conservation Service and the Cooperative
Extension Service.
The main pasture plants in the county are improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass. Excess grass is
harvested as hay and is either sold or is used as winter
feed. Millet, sorghum, and Sudan grass hybrids are
grown during the summer for green chop or are used
for grazing. The latest information and suggestions for
growing and managing pasture can be obtained from
the local offices of the Soil Conservation Service and
the Cooperative Extension Service.
Farm income in the county is derived mostly from
livestock enterprises, mainly dairy farms. On most
dairies the forage produced is supplemented by corn or
grain sorghum silage.
In areas of similar climate and topography,
differences in the kinds and amounts of forage that the
pasture can produce are related closely to the kind of
soil. Pasture management is based on the relationship
among soils, pasture plants, lime and fertilizer, and
grazing systems. Yields can be increased by adding
lime and fertilizer and by including grass-legume
mixtures in the cropping system.


Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage,
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
the smallest possible loss.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
likely to increase as new production technology is
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops.
Crops that require special management are excluded.
The soils are grouped according to their limitations for
field crops, the risk of damage if they are used for
crops, and the way they respond to management. The
criteria used in grouping the soils do not include major
and generally expensive landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and







Nassau County, Florida


limitations of groups of soils for woodland and for
engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
erosion unless close-growing plant cover is maintained;
w shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant
growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be
partly corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the
soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or
stony; and c, used in only some parts of the United
States, shows that the chief limitation is climate that is
very cold or very dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils
of this class have few limitations. Class V contains only
the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils
in class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
The capability classification of each map unit is given
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."


Woodland Management and Productivity
This section was prepared by Scott Zobel, forester, Nassau
County; Robert C. Williams, forest area supervisor, Florida Division of
Forestry; and Marshall A. Jacobson, senior research forester, ITT
Rayonier, Incorporated.
About 338,600 acres, or nearly 82 percent of Nassau
County, is in woodland. Forestry has played an
important economic role in the county's growth. After
the early settlement of the county, longleaf pine
dominated the better drained sites and slash pine the
wet flatwoods. Longleaf pine was the only tree that
could withstand the fires set by the settlers to clear
woodland for grazing. Baldcypress, pondcypress, black
tupelo, sweetgum, red maple, and various bays were
the main trees on the river flood plain and along ponds,
drainageways, and swamps.
Harvesting timber, collecting pine gum resin, and
cutting railroad crossties once provided many jobs to
area residents. Past, and some current, timber cutting
practices by private landowners, however, have failed to
provide for adequate regeneration of commercially
important species. Also, exclusion of fire from the
woods has allowed undesirable hardwoods to dominate
and has further inhibited the establishment and growth
of pine trees.
The soils and climate of the county are excellent for
the management of southern pines. Slash pine is the
dominant commercial tree and is planted throughout the
county. Loblolly pine is widely planted on Meggett and
Goldhead soils in the central part of the county. Natural
stands of longleaf pine are scattered throughout the
area on Blanton, Centenary, Hurricane, Kershaw,
Ortega, Penney, and Ridgewood soils. Soil fertility
gradually increases from the coastal areas inland to
U.S. Highway 1. Applications of nitrogen, phosphorus,
and potassium during planting operations encourage
excellent growth response. Loblolly pine and slash pine
grow best if adequate phosphorus is applied. Additional
applications of fertilizer at midrotation should be based
on a soil test or tissue analysis. Timber management
consists mainly of clearcutting and intensive site
preparation. The thinning of pine stands for residual
sawtimber growth and salvage purposes is practiced on
a small scale in the area. Prescribed burning is very
important for slash removal during site preparation, for
reducing the wildfire hazard in established stands, and
for encouraging the growth of grasses and forbs that
provide food or cover for cattle and a diversity of
wildlife.
On the poorly drained soils in most of Nassau







Soil Survey


County, management practices are those that help to
overcome the seasonal wetness and plant competition.
The equipment limitation is severely restricted during
wet periods. Plant competition from heavy brush and
hardwood sprouting can severely affect seedling
survival and growth. Site preparation, such as chopping
and bedding or double bedding, helps establish
seedlings, reduces seedling mortality, and increases
early growth of the seedlings. Bedding should not block
natural drainage.
A high demand for timber is expected to continue
well into the next century. This solid market has helped
many landowners continue growing and managing their
woodland for maximum production. To make the most
of an investment in timber, decisions about which trees
to plant should be based on an evaluation of soil
productivity as well as quality of products produced at
final harvest. Physical soil characteristics indicate
productivity. The most important characteristic that
affects production capacity is the ability of the soil to
provide adequate moisture. Other factors include the
thickness of the surface layer and its content of organic
matter, the natural supply of nutrients, texture and
consistency of the soil material, aeration, internal
drainage capabilities, and the depth to the water table.
A well managed stand of trees prevents soil
deterioration and conserves soil and water resources.
One important function of trees is to protect the soil.
Erosion is not an important factor in most of the county;
however, the ability of tree cover to allow more moisture
to enter the soil by reducing rainfall impact with the soil
is important to ground-water supplies.
Markets are plentiful for local wood producers. Six
pulpmills are within a 60-mile radius of Nassau County.
Chip-n-saw logs, poletimber, and veneer timber are
aggressively marketed. Timber buyers and loggers are
abundant with more than 20 companies serving the
area. The market for cypress sawtimber is growing.
Most cypress is sold locally for fencing and rough
lumber, and residual material is sold for mulch.
Management of woodland wildlife habitat is an
important recreational and economic concern in the
area. In 1987, the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish
Commission had more than 40,168 acres of timberland
open to the public in the Nassau Wildlife Management
Area; however, most of the land was leased to
individual hunting clubs. Current forestry practices, such
as clearcutting and burning, favor wildlife food and
cover. Deer, turkey, feral hogs, and quail are the main
game animals.
Cary State Forest is along the Nassau-Duval county
line in the southwestern part of the county. This 3,400-


acre area is managed under a multiple-use concept.
Educational activities, timber production, recreation, and
wildlife habitat are the main considerations. An
environmental education pavilion, primitive campsite,
fire tower, and ranger residence are located in the
forest. Environmental education classes for local
students in Nassau and Duval Counties are conducted
year round. Timber management practices include
thinning, prescribed burning, natural pine reproduction,
and some tree planting. Diversity is a key element to
management.
Individuals own thousands of acres of poorly stocked
woodland throughout the county. Information is
available about individual soils and about site selection
that can help landowners make decisions that are
necessary to increase productivity and yields on their
land. More detailed information on woodland
management can be obtained at the local office of the
Soil Conservation Service, the Florida Division of
Forestry, or the Cooperative Extension Service.
Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
The available water capacity and depth of the root zone
are major influences of tree growth.
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
land. Some soils respond better to fertilization than
others, and some are more susceptible to erosion after
roads are built and timber is harvested. Some soils
require special efforts to reforest. In the section
"Detailed Soil Map Units," each map unit in the survey
area suitable for producing timber presents information
about productivity, limitations for harvesting timber, and
management concerns for producing timber. The
common forest understory plants are also listed. Table
5 summarizes this forestry information and rates the
soils for a number of factors to be considered in
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be
considered in forest management.
The first tree listed for each soil under the column
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil.
An indicator species is a tree that is common in the
area and that is generally the most productive on a
given soil.
Table 5 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
species in cords per acre. The larger the number, the
greater the potential productivity. Potential productivity







Nassau County, Florida


is based on the site quality and site index.
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which
excessive water, either seasonal or year round, causes
a significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry,
sandy soil. If a soil has more than one limitation, the
priority is W and then S.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or
harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight
if no particular preventive measures are needed under
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control
measures are needed for particular silvicultural
activities; and severe if special precautions are needed
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings
of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of
roads, additional care in planning of harvesting and
reforestation operations, or use of specialized
equipment.
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
use of forest management equipment, year round or
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
wetness, or susceptibility of the surface layer to
compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used.
The rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil
wetness for less than 2 months and if special
equipment is not needed. The rating is moderate if
slopes are steep enough that wheeled equipment
cannot be operated safely across the slope, if soil
wetness restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per
year, or if special equipment is needed to avoid or
reduce soil compaction. The rating is severe if soil
wetness restricts equipment use for more than 6
months per year or if special equipment is needed to
avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or
severe indicate a need to choose the most suitable
equipment and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting
and other management operations.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
death of naturally occurring or properly planted
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much
water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil
for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer,
depth and duration of the water table, rooting depth,
and the aspect of the slope. Mortality generally is
greatest on soils that have a sandy or clayey surface


layer. The risk is slight if, after site preparation,
expected mortality is less than 25 percent; moderate if
expected mortality is between 25 and 50 percent; and
severe if expected mortality exceeds 50 percent.
Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it may be
necessary to use containerized or larger than usual
planting stock or to make special site preparations,
such as bedding, furrowing, or installing surface
drainage. Reinforcement planting is often needed if the
risk is moderate or severe. Reinforcement planting is
interplanting in the fall with containerized seedlings if
stocking is inadequate.
Ratings of windthrow hazard indicate the likelihood of
trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting
depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth
can be restricted by a high water table or by a
combination of such factors as soil wetness, texture,
structure, and depth. The risk is slight if strong winds
cause trees to break but do not uproot them; moderate
if strong winds cause an occasional tree to be blown
over and many trees to break; and severe if moderate
or strong winds commonly blow trees over. Ratings of
moderate or severe indicate the need for care in
thinning or possibly not thinning. Specialized equipment
may be needed to avoid damage to shallow root
systems in partial cutting operations. A plan for periodic
salvage of windthrown trees and the maintenance of a
road and trail system may be needed. Annosus root rot
fungus, which can infest thinned pine plantations on
better drained soils, can cause a windthrow problem.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition becomes more severe on the more
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, on dry sandy
soils, and on soils having a restricted root zone that
holds moisture. The risk is slight if competition from
undesirable plants inhibits adequate natural or artificial
reforestation but does not necessitate intensive site
preparation and maintenance. The risk is moderate if
competition from undesirable plants inhibits natural or
artificial reforestation to the extent that intensive site
preparation and maintenance are needed. The risk is
severe if competition from undesirable plaints prevents
adequate natural or artificial reforestation unless the
site is intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate
or severe rating indicates the need for site preparation
to ensure the development of an adequately stocked
stand. Managers must plan site preparation measures
to ensure reforestation without delays.
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil
is expressed as site quality, site index, and cords per
acre. Common trees are listed in the order of their







Soil Survey


observed general occurrence. Generally, only two or
three tree species dominate. For the soils that are
commonly used to produce timber, the yield is predicted
in cords per acre (3, 7, 16). Site quality applies to fully
stocked, even-aged, managed pine plantations. If a
plantation is more than 10 years old, site quality curves
of slash pine and loblolly pine can be used to estimate
plantation site quality on a 25-year basis. Site index
curves of base age 50 are available for sand pine and
second-growth natural longleaf pine stands. Since
longleaf pine is most often managed for sawtimber
products, all values for longleaf pine are based on site
index.
Cords per acre is the volume of wood produced by
the most important trees. Production figures are based
on a stocking of 400 even-aged trees per acre and a
4-inch top outside bark measurement. If a plantation of
longleaf pine at age 25 had a site quality of 70, the
yield would be 3,870 cubic feet per acre. If 1 rough cord
is equal to about 92.5 cubic feet, then the yield would
be 42 cords per acre. By applying intensive forest
management practices, wood fiber production may be
significantly increased over what natural stands will
produce.

Woodland Grazing
Clifford Carter, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
helped to prepare this section.
Because Nassau County has a large acreage in
woodland production, the county has a high potential for
woodland grazing. Many of the small, privately owned
woodland tracts are fenced and provide some livestock
grazing. Most of the larger woodland tracts, which are
owned by the timber companies, however, are not
fenced, and the forage produced is not harvested.
Because forage production and availability are
directly related to tree canopy, the different age classes
of trees cause a wide variation in forage production in a
given tract. In some places fencing of large areas
provides adequate forage for a small number of cattle.
Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory
of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory
is an integral part of the woodland plant community.
The native plants can be grazed without significantly
impairing other woodland values. On such woodland,
grazing is compatible with timber management if
grazing is controlled or managed so that timber and
forage resources are maintained or enhanced.
Understory vegetation is grazed by livestock and by
wildlife. Some woodland, if well managed, can produce
enough understory vegetation to support grazing by


optimum numbers of livestock or wildlife, or both,
without damage to the trees. Prescribed burning and
commercial thinning are examples of management
practices.
Forage production on grazeable woodland varies
according to the different kinds of grazeable woodland;
the amount of shade cast by the canopy; the
accumulation of fallen needles; the influence of time
and intensity of grazing on the grasses and forage; and
the number, size, spacing, and method of site
preparation for tree plantings.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a commercial nursery.

Recreation
Many recreational facilities are available in Nassau
County. The most important tourist attractions are Fort
Clinch State Park and the many miles of Atlantic Ocean
beaches.
Fishing, hunting, boating, and camping are popular
recreational activities. The Atlantic Ocean, the
Intracoastal Waterway, and the St. Marys and Nassau
Rivers and their major tributaries provide excellent
fishing and boating. Large acreages of woodland are
used by private hunting clubs. The Nassau Wildlife
Management Area, which is controlled by the Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, provides
public hunting on a permit basis. Recreational activities
are available at Fort Clinch State Park. Camping,







Soil Survey


observed general occurrence. Generally, only two or
three tree species dominate. For the soils that are
commonly used to produce timber, the yield is predicted
in cords per acre (3, 7, 16). Site quality applies to fully
stocked, even-aged, managed pine plantations. If a
plantation is more than 10 years old, site quality curves
of slash pine and loblolly pine can be used to estimate
plantation site quality on a 25-year basis. Site index
curves of base age 50 are available for sand pine and
second-growth natural longleaf pine stands. Since
longleaf pine is most often managed for sawtimber
products, all values for longleaf pine are based on site
index.
Cords per acre is the volume of wood produced by
the most important trees. Production figures are based
on a stocking of 400 even-aged trees per acre and a
4-inch top outside bark measurement. If a plantation of
longleaf pine at age 25 had a site quality of 70, the
yield would be 3,870 cubic feet per acre. If 1 rough cord
is equal to about 92.5 cubic feet, then the yield would
be 42 cords per acre. By applying intensive forest
management practices, wood fiber production may be
significantly increased over what natural stands will
produce.

Woodland Grazing
Clifford Carter, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
helped to prepare this section.
Because Nassau County has a large acreage in
woodland production, the county has a high potential for
woodland grazing. Many of the small, privately owned
woodland tracts are fenced and provide some livestock
grazing. Most of the larger woodland tracts, which are
owned by the timber companies, however, are not
fenced, and the forage produced is not harvested.
Because forage production and availability are
directly related to tree canopy, the different age classes
of trees cause a wide variation in forage production in a
given tract. In some places fencing of large areas
provides adequate forage for a small number of cattle.
Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory
of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory
is an integral part of the woodland plant community.
The native plants can be grazed without significantly
impairing other woodland values. On such woodland,
grazing is compatible with timber management if
grazing is controlled or managed so that timber and
forage resources are maintained or enhanced.
Understory vegetation is grazed by livestock and by
wildlife. Some woodland, if well managed, can produce
enough understory vegetation to support grazing by


optimum numbers of livestock or wildlife, or both,
without damage to the trees. Prescribed burning and
commercial thinning are examples of management
practices.
Forage production on grazeable woodland varies
according to the different kinds of grazeable woodland;
the amount of shade cast by the canopy; the
accumulation of fallen needles; the influence of time
and intensity of grazing on the grasses and forage; and
the number, size, spacing, and method of site
preparation for tree plantings.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a commercial nursery.

Recreation
Many recreational facilities are available in Nassau
County. The most important tourist attractions are Fort
Clinch State Park and the many miles of Atlantic Ocean
beaches.
Fishing, hunting, boating, and camping are popular
recreational activities. The Atlantic Ocean, the
Intracoastal Waterway, and the St. Marys and Nassau
Rivers and their major tributaries provide excellent
fishing and boating. Large acreages of woodland are
used by private hunting clubs. The Nassau Wildlife
Management Area, which is controlled by the Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, provides
public hunting on a permit basis. Recreational activities
are available at Fort Clinch State Park. Camping,







Nassau County, Florida


picnicking, swimming, fishing, and nature study areas in
rustic settings are provided for local residents and
tourists. Several large golf courses on Amelia Island
and near Callahan are available to the general public.
Other recreation facilities available in the county are
swimming pools, tennis courts, football and baseball
stadiums, and neighborhood playgrounds.
In table 6, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 6, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 6 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 9
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
for local roads and streets in table 8.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking


areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access
roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
have moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil for tees
or greens is not considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
prepare this section.
Nassau County, which is mainly rural, provides good
habitat for wildlife. The main habitats are the shore
along the Atlantic Ocean, the large swamps along the
St. Marys and Nassau Rivers and their larger
tributaries, and the large tracts of pine flatwoods. More
than 220,000 acres is in large forest-industry tracts,
including the 40,168-acre Nassau Wildlife Management
Area.
Game species include white-tailed deer, squirrels,
turkey, bobwhite quail, feral hogs, and waterfowl.
Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit, armadillo,
opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray fox, red fox, otter, and a
variety of songbirds, wading birds, woodpeckers,
predatory birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
The freshwater streams and the salt-water areas
along the coast provide good fishing opportunities. The
main species in the freshwater streams include
largemouth bass, channel catfish, bullhead catfish,
bluegill, redear sunfish, spotted sunfish, warmouth,
black crappie, chain pickerel, gar, bowfin, and sucker. A
wide variety of species, including spotted sea trout,
flounder, mullet, red drum, and blue crabs, are in the
salt-water areas.
A number of endangered and threatened species are
in the county. These include the seldom seen red-







Soil Survey


cockaded woodpecker and the more commonly seen
alligator. A detailed list of these species with information
on range and habitat needs is available at the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
plants.
In table 7, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element
of the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, and flood
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are
corn, wheat, oats, soybeans, browntop millet, dove
praso millet, and grain sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features


that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, flood hazard, and slope. Soil
temperature and soil moisture are also considerations.
Examples of grasses and legumes are bahiagrass,
florida beggarweed, lovegrass, clover, sesbania, hairy
indigo, and aeschynomene.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, and flood
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants are
bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed, partridge pea, and
bristlegrass.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, waxmyrtle, palmetto, cherry,
sweetgum, wild grape, hawthorn, dogwood, persimmon,
hickory, blackberry, gallberry, and blueberry. Examples
of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on
soils rated good are firethorn, wild plum, and blackberry.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, fir,
cedar, and juniper.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
and slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed,
wild millet, wild rice, saltgrass, cordgrass, rushes,
sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are wetness, slope, and permeability.
Examples of shallow water areas are marshes,
waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
in the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas







Nassau County, Florida


produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these
areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, opossum, woodcock, armadillo, thrushes,
woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox, raccoon, deer, and
bobcat.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
birds, otter, mink, and sandhill crane.

Coastal Dune Management
John D. Griffin, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
prepare this section.
The coastal dune is a very recent formation in
geologic time. It is controlled by the ocean waves and
winds. The resulting soil moisture, soil salinity, and salt
spray create a harsh environment for most plants.
Dune stabilization depends on the anchoring of
vegetation. If the use of shallow wells lowers ground
water below a critical level, the stabilizing plants will
die. The vegetation is very fragile and vulnerable to
trampling. Small jetties extending from the shore arrest
the littoral drift and prevent the sand from
supplementing the dunes.
The beach can be used for swimming, picnicking,
shell collecting, fishing, and sunbathing, but the primary
dune cannot withstand heavy traffic. Bridges should be
used to cross the primary dune. The trough is less likely
to be damaged by traffic, and incidental development
can occur. The lowering of the ground water, however,
can cause vegetation to die.
The inland dune is the second line of defense and is
as vulnerable as the primary dune. It is not suitable for
development. The back dune provides the most suitable
environment on the coastal dune for people and
development.
The estuarine and bay shore environments are
among the most productive aquatic areas in the world.
Valuable shellfish and fingerlings of important fish
species inhabit these areas.
Some of the more important plants on the coastal
dune are seaoats, marshhay cordgrass, beach
morningglory, bay bean, shoredune panicum, seagrape,
and myrtle.


Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness,
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood
of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell
potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral
characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to (1) evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreational uses; (2) make preliminary estimates
of construction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative
routes for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and
underground cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for
sanitary landfills, septic tank absorption fields, and
sewage lagoons; (5) plan detailed onsite investigations
of soils and geology; (6) locate potential sources of







Nassau County, Florida


produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these
areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, opossum, woodcock, armadillo, thrushes,
woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox, raccoon, deer, and
bobcat.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
birds, otter, mink, and sandhill crane.

Coastal Dune Management
John D. Griffin, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
prepare this section.
The coastal dune is a very recent formation in
geologic time. It is controlled by the ocean waves and
winds. The resulting soil moisture, soil salinity, and salt
spray create a harsh environment for most plants.
Dune stabilization depends on the anchoring of
vegetation. If the use of shallow wells lowers ground
water below a critical level, the stabilizing plants will
die. The vegetation is very fragile and vulnerable to
trampling. Small jetties extending from the shore arrest
the littoral drift and prevent the sand from
supplementing the dunes.
The beach can be used for swimming, picnicking,
shell collecting, fishing, and sunbathing, but the primary
dune cannot withstand heavy traffic. Bridges should be
used to cross the primary dune. The trough is less likely
to be damaged by traffic, and incidental development
can occur. The lowering of the ground water, however,
can cause vegetation to die.
The inland dune is the second line of defense and is
as vulnerable as the primary dune. It is not suitable for
development. The back dune provides the most suitable
environment on the coastal dune for people and
development.
The estuarine and bay shore environments are
among the most productive aquatic areas in the world.
Valuable shellfish and fingerlings of important fish
species inhabit these areas.
Some of the more important plants on the coastal
dune are seaoats, marshhay cordgrass, beach
morningglory, bay bean, shoredune panicum, seagrape,
and myrtle.


Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness,
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood
of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell
potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral
characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to (1) evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreational uses; (2) make preliminary estimates
of construction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative
routes for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and
underground cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for
sanitary landfills, septic tank absorption fields, and
sewage lagoons; (5) plan detailed onsite investigations
of soils and geology; (6) locate potential sources of







Soil Survey


gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil; (7) plan drainage
systems, irrigation systems, ponds, terraces, and other
structures for soil and water conservation; and (8)
predict performance of proposed small structures and
pavements by comparing the performance of existing
similar structures on the same or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
this survey, can be used to make additional
interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.

Building Site Development
Table 8 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
site features are generally favorable for the indicated
use and limitations are minor and easily overcome;
moderate if soil properties or site features are not
favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
overcome that special design, significant increases in
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
are required. Special feasibility studies may be required
where the soil limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by the soil texture
and slope. The time of the year that excavations can be
made is affected by the depth to a seasonal high water
table and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The
resistance of the excavation walls or banks to sloughing
or caving is affected by soil texture and the depth to the
water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
made for small commercial buildings without
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
soil properties, site features, and observed performance


of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell
potential, and organic layers can cause the movement
of footings. A high water table and flooding affect the
ease of excavation and construction. Landscaping and
grading that require cuts and fills of more than 5 or 6
feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. A high water table, flooding, and slope affect
the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high water table
affect the traffic-supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table, the
available water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the
content of salts and sulfidic materials affect plant
growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, and the amount of
sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface layer affect
trafficability after vegetation is established.

Sanitary Facilities
Table 9 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are
required.
Table 9 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates
that soil properties and site features are favorable for
the use and good performance and low maintenance
can be expected; fair indicates that soil properties and
site features are moderately favorable for the use and
one or more soil properties or site features make the




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