• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Volusia County...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map for broad land...
 Soil maps for detailed plannin...
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Illustrations
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Volusia County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025707/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Volusia County, Florida
Physical Description: ix, 207 p., 55 fold. leaves of plates : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Baldwin, Robert, 1944-
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: [1980]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Volusia County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Volusia County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 105-106.
Statement of Responsibility: by Robert Baldwin ... et al. ; United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Station, Soil Science Department.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued February 1980."
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025707
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001217011
notis - AFW7302
oclc - 06920584
lccn - 80602334

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
    Location of Volusia County in Florida
        Page x
    General nature of the county
        History and development
            Page 1
        Climate
            Page 2
        Natural resources
            Page 3
        Farming
            Page 3
        Transportation
            Page 4
        Recreation
            Page 4
        Geology, physiography, and drainage
            Page 4
            Page 5
    How this survey was made
        Page 6
    General soil map for broad land use planning
        Page 7
        Soils of the sand ridges and coastal dunes
            Palm Beach-Paola-Canaveral
                Page 7
            Paola-Orsino
                Page 8
            Astatula-Tavares
                Page 8
            Daytona-Paola-Astatula
                Page 8
            Daytona-Satellite-Cassia
                Page 9
        Soils of the flatwoods
            Page 9
            Myakka-Smyrna-Immokalee
                Page 9
            Pomona-Wauchula
                Page 10
            Pineda-Malabar-Wabasso
                Page 10
        Soils of low-lying hammocks
            Tuscawilla-Chobee
                Page 11
        Soils of the St. Johns river flood plain
            Bluff-Tequestra-Astor
                Page 11
        Soils of the inland and coastal wetlands
            Samsula-Terra Ceila-Tomoka
                Page 12
            Hydraquents-Turnbull
                Page 12
    Soil maps for detailed planning
        Page 13
        Map unit descriptions
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
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            Page 25
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            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 50
        Crops and pasture
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Yields per acre
                Page 53
            Capability classes and subclasses
                Page 53
        Range and woodland grazing
            Page 54
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 55
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 56
        Costal dune management
            Page 56
        Engineering
            Page 56
            Building site development
                Page 57
            Sanitary facilities
                Page 58
            Construction materials
                Page 59
            Water management
                Page 59
        Recreation
            Page 60
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 61
    Soil properties
        Engineering properties
            Page 62
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 63
        Soil and water features
            Page 64
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Engineering test data
            Page 67
    Classification of the soils
        Soil series and morphology
            Astatula series
                Page 69
            Apopka series
                Page 68
            Astor series
                Page 70
            Brasinger series
                Page 70
            Bluff series
                Page 71
            Bulow series
                Page 72
            Canaveral series
                Page 72
            Cassia series
                Page 73
            Chobee series
                Page 74
            Cocoa series
                Page 74
            Daytona series
                Page 75
            Deland series
                Page 75
            EauGallie series
                Page 76
            Electra series
                Page 77
            Farmton series
                Page 78
            Gator series
                Page 79
            Holopaw series
                Page 80
            Hontoon series
                Page 80
            Immokalee series
                Page 81
            Malabar series
                Page 82
            Myakka series
                Page 83
            Myakka variant
                Page 84
            Orsino variant
                Page 84
            Paisley series
                Page 85
            Palm Beach series
                Page 86
            Paola series
                Page 86
            Pineda series
                Page 87
            Pinellas series
                Page 88
            Placid series
                Page 89
            Pomona series
                Page 89
            Pompano series
                Page 90
            Riviera series
                Page 90
            Samsula series
                Page 91
            Satellite series
                Page 92
            Scoggin series
                Page 92
            Smyrna series
                Page 93
            St. Johns series
                Page 94
            St. Lucie series
                Page 95
            Tavares series
                Page 95
            Tequesta series
                Page 96
            Terra Ceia series
                Page 97
            Tomoka Ceia series
                Page 97
            Turnbull series
                Page 98
            Turnbull variant
                Page 98
            Tuscawilla series
                Page 99
            Valkaria series
                Page 100
            Wabasso series
                Page 101
            Wauchula series
                Page 102
            Winder series
                Page 103
    Formation of the soils
        Climate
            Page 104
        Parent material
            Page 104
        Parent material
            Page 104
        Parent material
            Page 104
        Living organisms
            Page 104
        Relief
            Page 105
        Time
            Page 105
    References
        Page 105
    Glossary
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Illustrations
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Tables
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
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        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
    General soil map
        Page 208
    Index to map sheets
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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Full Text




soil sURVEy of

volusiA COUNTy, FloRidA














-
4-- ,
W.e Stats D
SolCnsrain evc






HOW TO U


Locate your area ol interest on.
1 the "Index to Map Sheets" (the
last page of this publication.














Locate your area of interest
Note the number of the map
r- *2. sheet and turn to that sheet.









d) ii ,A j _
i 1.6 13.. ,5

L' I'A I "







List the map unit symbols
thal are in your area Symbols


151C. 27C
56B
S 27-c -"" 131B
134A
56B 131B
14 \ 148B
134A/ V V Bl- 151C






HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5. which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described.





















See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6 Contents) for location of additional data -- -------
on a specific soil use.




_- -
-~ -r -I~-- ---




















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.



















This is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort of
the United States Department of Agriculture and agencies of the States, usually
the Agricultural Experiment Stations. In some surveys, other Federal and local
agencies also contribute. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the
Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in the period 1969-1977.
Soil names and descriptions were approved in 1977. Unless otherwise indicat-
ed, statements in the publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1977.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Ex-
periment Stations, and Soil Science Department and was financed in part by
the Volusia County Board of Commissioners. It is part of the technical assist-
ance furnished to the Volusia County Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission, but any enlarge-
ment of these maps can cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping and
result in erroneous interpretations. Enlarged maps do not show small areas of
contrasting soils that could have been shown at a larger mapping scale.









Cover: The Palm Beach-Paola-Canaveral map unit between the Ponce
Inlet Lighthouse and Daytona Beach. Photo courtesy of James Fenner
Doane, Jr., Aerial Photography Services, Dunwoody, Georgia.











I I









Contents

Page Page
Index to m ap units................................. ................. iv Astatula series .............................. ........... 69
Sum m ary of tables........................................................ v Astor series ................................. .................... 70
Forew ord .................................................................... x Basnger series ............................. .......... 70
General nature of the county..................................... 1 Bluff series.......... 71
History and develop ent.......................................... 1 Bulow series..................... .................................. 72
C lim ate ......................................................................... 2 C anaveral series ...................................................... 72
Climate ................. .. .............. 2 Canaveral series ................... ..... 72
Natural resources ......................... .............. 3 Cassia series....................................... ................ 73
Farm ing ............................................. .............. 3 C hobee series .......................................................... 74
Transportation ......................... ........... 4 C ocoa series ............................................................ 74
R creation ........................ ................................. 4 Daytona series ......................................................... 75
Geology, physiography, and drainage..................... 4 Deland series ........................................................... 75
How this survey was made......................................... 6 EauGallie series.................................. ................... 76
General soil map for broad land use planning....... 7 Electra series ............................ ............ 77
Soils of the sand ridges and coastal dunes........... 7 Farmton series........................ ....................... 78
1. Palm Beach-Paola-Canaveral........................ 7 Gator series........................................... 79
2. Paola-O rsino....................... .......... ..... 8 Holopaw series ............................... ................... 80
3. Astatula-Tavares ............................................. 8 Hontoon series............................... ............. 80
4. Daytona-Paola-Astatula ................................. 8 Immokalee series......................................... ...... 81
5. Daytona-Satellite-Cassia................................ 9 Malabar series................... 82
Soils of the flatwoods ........................ ............... 9 Myakka series ........................................ ......... 83
6. Myakka-Smyrna-mmokalee ...................... 9 Myakka variant..................................................... 84
7. Pomona-Wauchula.................................. 10 Orsino series ................................. ............. 84
8. Pineda-Malabar-Wabasso .............................. 10 Paisley series ................................... 85
Soils of low-lying hammocks............................... 11 Palm Beach series............................................ 86
9. Tuscawilla-Chobee ....................................... 11 Paola series.................... ................. 86
Soils of the St. Johns River flood plain .................... 11 Pineda series .......................................................... 87
10. B luff-T equesta-A store ...................................... 11 nes .......................................................... 8
Soils of the inland and coastal wetlands.................. 12 Pomona series ......................................................... 89
11. Samsula-Terra Ceia-Tomoka ....................... 12 Pompano series ...................................................... 90
12. Hydraquents-Turnbull ................................. 12 Riviera series.......... .............................. 90
Soil m aps for detailed planning ................................ 13 Samsula series.................................................
Map unit descriptions....................... .... 14 Satellite series .................. ... 92
Use and management of the soils............................ 50 Scoggin series............... ......................... 92
Crops and pasture............................. ............. 51 Smyrna series ....................................... 93
Yields per acre............................................ 53 St. Johns series .......................................... 94
Capability classes and subclasses................. 53 St. Lucie series .............. ....................... 95
Range and woodland grazing .................................... 54 Tavares series.................... 95
Woodland management and productivity................. 55 Tequesta series ................................. 96
Windbreaks and environmental plantings................. 56 Terra Ceia series............................... ....... ... 97
Coastal dune management........................ Tomoka series.............. 56 Tomoka series.......... .............. 97
Engineering ................................................. 56 Turnbull series.......................................... 98
Building site develop ent............. .......................... 57 Turnbull variant ........................................................ 98
Sanitary facilities..................... ..... ................. 58 Tuscawilla series.................................. 99
Construction m materials ........................................... 59 Valkaria series................................. ... ............ 100
W after management.............................................. 59 W abasso series ....................................... .. .. 10
Recreation ............................................................. 60 W auchula series ................................ .......... 102
W wildlife habitat .............................. ........................ 61 W inder series ..................... .. 103
Soil properties ...................................... 62 Formation of the soils.... ................... .......... 104
Engineering properties................................. 62 Climate....................... ............................... 104
Physical and chemical properties .............................. 63 Parent material........................ ......... 104
Soil and water features............ .................. 64 Living organisms................................................ 104
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of Relief ................................... 10
selected soils.................. ............................... 65 Tim e ..........................105
Engineering test data ............................. ..... .. 67 References ......................... 105
Classification of the soils..................................... 68 Glossary .... ............................. 10
Soil series and m orphology ................................. .. 68 Illustrations....... .............................. 1
A p o p ka se rie s .......................................................... 6 8 T a b le s ............................................................................. 1 15
Apopka series .......................................68 Tables ................................. 125

Issued February 1980
iii









Index to map units

Page Page
1-Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............. 14 40-Palm Beach-Urban land-Paola complex, 0 to 8
2-Apopka fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes.......... 15 percent slopes ....................... ................... 32
3- Arents................................. ................................ 15 41- Palm Beach-Paola association, 2 to 8 percent
4- Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ........... 16 slopes............................. .................................... 33
5-Astatula fine sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes......... 16 42-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes................ 33
6-Astatula-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent 43-Paola fine sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes.............. 33
slopes............................................... ................... 17 44- Paola-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent
7- Astor fine sand ..................... ........ ................. 17 slopes................................................... 34
8- Basinger fine sand, depressional ......................... 17 45- Pineda fine sand.............................. .................. 34
9-Beaches............................................... 18 46-Pinellas fine sand........................................ 35
10-Bluff sandy clay loam ................................. 18 47-Pits ..............................................35
11--Bulow sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............... 18 48-Placid fine sand, depressional ............................... 35
12-Canaveral sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 19 49-Pomona fine sand ................................. 36
13-Cassia fine sand................................... ........ 19 -Pomona fine sand...... ..................36
14-Chobee fine sandy loam ..................................... 19 5-Pomona e sand, depress .................... 3
15-Cocoa sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .................. 20 51-Pomona-St. Johns complex... .............................. 37
16-Cocoa-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 52-Pompano fine sand................................................. 38
slopes................................... 20 53- Pompano-Placid complex....................................... 38
17-Daytona sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .............. 21 54-Quartzipsamments, gently sloping........................ 39
18-Daytona-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 55-Riviera fine sand................................ ................ 40
slopes................. ......................................... 21 56- Samsula muck ......................... .................. 40
19-Deland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............. 21 57-Satellite sand.......................... .... ........... 41
20- EauGallie fine sand......................... .................... 22 58- Satellite-Urban land complex................................. 41
21- EauGallie fine sand, depressional......................... 22 59- Scoggin sand ...................... ................... 41
22-Electra fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 23 60-Smyrna fine sand ......................................... .. 42
23-Farmton fine sand........................................ 23 61-St. Johns fine sand ......................................... ... 42
24-Fluvaquents............................. 24 62-St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes........... 43
26-Holopaw sand .............................................. 25 63-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 43
27- Hontoon m ucky peat.......................................................... 25 64- Tequesta m uck.................................... ................. 44
27- Hontoon mucky peat..... ............ ............ ............ 25 6 Terra Cqu esta muck........................... .................. .. 44
28-Hydraquents .......................... 26 65-Terra Ceia muck.............................44
29-- mmokalee sand ........................ ................... 27 66- Tomoka muck................................ .................... 45
30-- mmokalee sand, depressional.............................. 27 67- Turnbull muck................................. ................... 45
31- Malabar fine sand ........................................ 28 68- Turnbull Variant sand.............................................. 46
32-Myakka fine sand ......................................... 28 69-Tuscawilla fine sand ........................................ 46
33-Myakka fine sand, depressional.......................... 29 70-Tuscawilla-Urban land complex............................. 47
34-Myakka-St. Johns complex ................................. 29 71-Urban land...................... .................... 47
35-Myakka-Urban land complex ................................ 30 72-Valkaria fine sand........... ................. ..... 47
73-Wabasso fine sand ..................... 48
36-Myakka Variant fine sand................................. 30 74-Wabasso fine sand, depressional............48
37-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 31 75-Wauchula fine sand ................................... 49
38- Paisley fine sand................................................ 31 76- W auchula fine sand, depressional ........................ 50
39-Palm Beach sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes........... 32 77-Winder fine sand ...................................... 50














iv










Summary of tables

Page
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (Table 4)............................. 128
Acres. Percent.
Building site development (Table 8) .............................................................. 141
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial build-
ings. Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscap-
ing.
Chemical properties of selected soils (Table 19)........................................... 198
Depth. Extractable bases-Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sum. Ex-
tractable acidity. Cation exchange capacity. Base
saturation. Organic carbon. Electrical conductivity.
pH-water, calcium chloride, potassium chloride. Pyr-
ophosphate extractable-C, Fe, Al. Citrate dithionite
extractable-A/, Fe.
Classification of the soils (Table 22) .................................. ................ 207
Soil name. Family or higher taxonomic class.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (Table 20)................................................ 201
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals-Mont-
morillonite, 14 angstrom intergrade, Kaolinite, Gibb-
site, Quartz.
Construction m materials (Table 10)...................................................................... 152
Roadfill Sand. Gravel Topsoil
Engineering properties and classifications (Table 15).................................. 175
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified,
AASHTO. Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percent-
age passing sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid
limit. Plasticity index.
Engineering test data (Table 21)................................................................... 203
FDOT report number. Depth. Moisture density-
Maximum dry density, Optimum moisture content.
Mechanical analysis-Percentage passing sieve no.
10, no. 40, no. 200; Percentage smaller than -
0.05mm, 0.02 mm, 0.005 mm, 0.002 mm. Liquid limit.
Plasticity index. Classification-AASHTO, Unified.
Freeze data (Table 3)........................................................ .... ................. 127
Freeze threshold temperature. Mean date of last
spring occurrence. Mean date of first fall occurrence.
Mean number of days between dates. Probability of
an occurrence within a given year.









v






Summary of tables-Continued
Page
Physical and chemical properties of soils (Table 16).................................. 184
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Availa-
ble water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-
swell potential. Erosion factors-K, T Wind erodibi-
lity group. Organic matter.
Physical properties of selected soils (Table 18) ........................................... 195
Depth. Horizon. Particle size distribution-Very
coarse sand, Coarse sand, Medium sand, Fine sand,
Very fine sand, Total sand, Silt, Clay. Textural class.
Hydraulic conductivity. Bulk density. Water content-
1/10 bar, 1/3 bar, 15 bar.
Potential production of livestock forage (Table 6)..................................... 134
Potential production-Kind of year, Dry weight. Com-
position of forage-Grass and grasslike plants,
Forbs, Woody plants and trees.
Recreational development (Table 13) ........................................................... 165
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and
trails. Golf fairways.
Sanitary facilities (Table 9)...................................................... ...................... 146
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily
cover for landfill.
Soil and water features (Table 17) ............................................................ 190
Hydrologic group. Flooding-Frequency, Duration,
Months. High water table-Depth, Kind, Months.
Bedrock-Depth, Hardness. Subsidence-Initial,
Total. Risk of corrosion-Uncoated steel. Concrete.
Temperature and precipitation data at Daytona Beach (Table 1)............... 126
Month. Temperature-Average daily, Average daily
maximum, Average daily minimum; Average number
of days with temperature of-90 degrees F or higher,
32 degrees F or lower. Precipitation-Normal total,
Maximum total, Minimum total; Average number of
days with-Heavy fog, Thundershowers.
Temperature and precipitation data at DeLand (Table 2).............................. 126
Month. Temperature-Average daily, Average daily
maximum, Average daily minimum, Extreme maxi-
mum, Extreme minimum; Average number of days
with temperature of-90 degrees F or higher, 32 de-
grees F or lower. Precipitation-Average total; Aver-
age number of days with rainfall of-0. 10 inch or
more, 0.50 inch or more.
W ater management (Table 12) ...................................................................... 157
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Fea-
tures affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and di-
versions, Grassed waterways.


vi









Summary of tables-Continued
Page
W ater table data (Table 11)......................................................... 156
Depth to water table-Highest, Lowest.
W wildlife habitat potentials (Table 14) ............................................................. 171
Potential for habitat elements-Grain and seed
crops, Grasses and legumes, Wild herbaceous
plants, Hardwood trees, Coniferous plants, Wetland
plants, Shallow-water areas. Potential as habitat
for-Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland
wildlife.
Woodland management and productivity (Table 7)....................................... 138
Ordination symbol. Management concerns-Erosion
hazard, Equipment limitation, Seedling mortality,
Windthrow hazard. Potential productivity-Common
trees, Site index. Trees to plant.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (Table 5) ........................................... 130
Oranges. Grapefruit. Watermelons. Cabbage. Cu-
cumbers. Bahiagrass. Grass-clover



































vii
















Foreword


The Soil Survey of Volusia County, Florida contains much information
useful in any land-planning program. Of prime importance are the predictions of
soil behavior for selected land uses. Also highlighted are limitations or hazards
to land uses that are inherent in the soil, improvements needed to overcome
these limitations, and the impact that selected land uses will have on the envi-
ronment.
This soil survey has been prepared for many different users. Farmers,
ranchers, foresters, and agronomists can use it to determine the potential of
the soil and the management practices required for food and fiber production.
Planners, community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and homebuyers
can use it to plan land use, select sites for construction, develop soil resources,
or identify any special practices that may be needed to insure proper perform-
ance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife
management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the soil survey to
help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur even within short distances.
Soils may be seasonally wet or subject to flooding. They may be shallow to
bedrock. They may be too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or
roads. Very clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to septic tank absorption
fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or under-
ground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map; the
location of each kind of soil is shown on detailed soil maps. Each kind of soil in
the survey area is described, and much information is given about each soil for
specific uses. Additional information or assistance in using this publication can
be obtained from the local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the Coop-
erative Extension Service.
This soil survey can be useful in the conservation, development, and pro-
ductive use of soil, water, and other resources.





William E. Austin
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service







ix






























^ \ 4;5 '-TALLAHASSEE
PENSAOi ACKSONVILLE
PENSACOLA -


c: GAINESVIL E


DELAND


APPROXIMATE SCALES
ORLAN
0 50 100 TAMPA
MILES

0 100 200
II II I
KILOMETERS







MIAMI


SState Agricultural Experiment Station




Location of Volusia County in Florida.
















soil SURVEY of

volusiA COUNTY, floRidA


United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with

University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department

By Robert Baldwin, Chester L. Bush,
Robert B. Hinton, Horace F. Huckle, Paul Nichols,
Frank C. Watts, and James A. Wolfe, Soil Conservation Service

Others participating in the field survey were
Frank L. Nelson and Everett C. A. Stuart, Soil Conservation Service


VOLUSIA COUNTY is about one-fourth the distance General nature of the county
down the Florida peninsula from the Florida-Georgia
State line. It is bounded on the north by Flagler and The following paragraphs describe environmental and
Putnam Counties, on the west by Marion and Lake cultural factors that affect the use and management of
Counties, on the south by Seminole, Orange, and Bre- soils in Volusia County-the history and development,
vard Counties, and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. the climate, the natural resources, the farming, the trans-
The St. Johns River and several large lakes, such as portation, the recreational facilities, and the geology,
Lake George, Lake Woodruff, Lake Monroe, Lake physiography, and drainage.
Harney, and Puzzle Lake, separate Volusia County from
Marion, Lake, Seminole, and Orange Counties. The land History and development
area within Volusia County is 713,600 acres, or 1,115
square miles. DeLand, the county seat, is in the west- When Ponce de Leon discovered the east coast of
central part of the county. The largest city, Daytona Florida in 1513, the region, including Volusia County (7),
Beach, is in the east-central part of the county near the was inhabited by the Timucuan Indians. After Spanish
ocean. Approximate distances by air from Daytona colonization, the Franciscans established missions in the
Beach to principal cities in the State are shown on the vicinity of the Tomoka River as early as 1587. So suc-
map on the facing page. cessful were the friars at evangelizing the Indians that
Most of the population is in several communities in the many of the Timucuans became known as the Mission
vicinity of Daytona Beach and DeLand. Many of these Indians.
communities are settled by retirees. During winter the The Spaniards considered Florida to be of little impor-
population increases. About 73 percent of the population tance except for establishment of military outposts and
lives in coastal areas and 26 percent in the western part missions. When Cuba was taken by the English in 1763,
of the county. Only about 1 percent is in the central part, the Spaniards gave Florida to England in exchange for
where large tracts of land are owned by pulp and paper the return of Cuba.
companies, investment corporations, and ranchers. Unlike the Spanish, the English encouraged agricul-
Aside from agriculture, tourism is the principal busi- ture. Settlers cleared several thousand acres of land
ness. The county supports some small industry, but it is near New Smyrna Beach and raised sugar cane and
not highly industrialized. indigo. After 1783, however, when the English ceded

1







2 SOIL SURVEY



Florida back to Spain, the agricultural land became refor- the evening. The showers are local, and as a result
ested. monthly rainfall totals recorded at nearby stations fre-
In 1821, the United States acquired Florida from quently show considerable variation, but over long peri-
Spain, and the land was again settled. Volusia County ods the averages are not considerably different. Occa-
was established in 1854. About 30 families were living in sionally the showers produce as much as 2 or 3 inches
the area. Enterprise was selected as the seat of the of rain within 1 or 2 hours. Frequent showers can persist
county government. At the start of the Civil War, the in an area for a week or longer, resulting in an abnormal-
county had slightly more than 1,000 inhabitants. After the ly high water table. In poorly drained areas, problems
war, the county developed as different means of trans- caused by excess water are to be expected. The record
portation became available. Until the railroads were built monthly precipitation was 24.82 inches in October, 1924;
in the 1880's, the steamboat was important. Two steam- 12.85 inches of rain fell in 24 hours. Severe thunder-
boat lines regularly made trips up and down the St. storms are accompanied by strong gusty winds. Occa-
Johns River. The chief riverport in the county was at sionally they develop into hailstorms and tornadoes, but
Enterprise. After the coming of the railroad, Enterprise usually these do not cause much damage. In summer,
declined in importance. In 1880 the county seat was rain lasting all day is uncommon unless it is associated
moved from Enterprise to DeLand. with tropical disturbances.
In 1870, Mathias Day purchased 3,200 acres of the Tropical disturbances, or tropical depressions, can pro-
Atlantic coast for 1,200 dollars. This area, later known as duce very heavy rainfall in summer and in fall. These low
Daytona Beach, became a hub of activity after 1900, as pressure systems sometimes influence rainfall patterns
the automobile became a favorite mode of transporta- for several days, even when the center of the storm
tion. In 1903, the Florida East Coast Automobile Associ- poses no threat to the area. The more intense storm
ation was established to promote sports, chiefly auto- systems have hurricane-force winds and copious rains,
mobile racing. At first, the races were held on the which cause considerable damage and flooding in low-
smooth, firm, sandy beach in the Daytona Beach- lying areas. Storm-driven waves may inundate low areas
Ormond Beach area, but later they were moved to the along bays and inlets, and erosion can be severe along
Daytona International Speedway west of Daytona Beach. beaches, especially in areas where the natural vegeta-
Volusia County experienced sharp increases in popula- tion has been removed or badly disturbed.
tion and economic growth after both world wars. The After the rainy season ends, rainfall is fairly evenly
population is still increasing rapidly. In 1940, according to distributed. It is approximately 2 to 3 inches per month.
the U. S. Census, it was 53,710; in 1977, it was about The rainfall is generally over a wide area, and it can
200,000. Within 20 years, the population is expected to occur at any time of day. Almost all of this rain is associ-
be about a half million. ated with frontal passages. Sometimes overcast, drizzly
conditions last 2 or 3 days. Drought can occur at any
Climate time, even during the rainy season, but it is usually more
severe in spring because of higher temperatures and
Volusia County has a subtropical maritime climate (11, increased plant growth.
12). The average temperature is about 70 degrees F, In summer, the average day-to-day temperature is
and the average annual rainfall is about 50 inches. Rain- fairly uniform. The temperature reaches about 90 de-
fall is heaviest in summer. Winters are mild except for grees F early in the afternoon. By morning it drops to
brief invasions of cold, dry air from across the continent, about 70 degrees. Although temperatures as high as 102
Snow, which is rare, melts when it hits the ground. degrees have been recorded, the temperature rarely
Heavy fog is common early in the morning in winter, but reaches 95 degrees because of the cooling effects of
it usually dissipates soon after sunrise. Dew is usually sea breezes near the coast and of thundershowers far-
heavy because of the high humidity. Most of the time their inland. Probability of a thunderstorm occurring at a
relative humidity is more than 50 percent at midday and given location on any summer day is about 50 percent.
increases to more than 80 percent at night. Prevailing In winter, the average temperature is about 60 de-
winds are from the east, but often wind is from the grees. The maximum is near 70, and the minimum near
southwest or northwest. Average windspeed is slightly 50. A greater day-to-day variation may be expected in
more than 10 miles per hour in February, March, and winter than in summer. Temperatures in the high 80's
April and slightly less than 10 miles per hour the rest of and below freezing are to be expected. The extremes
the year. The hurricane season is from June to mid- are associated with the passage of fronts. The more
November. The chance of a hurricane occurring in any noticeable fronts are the cold waves. These cold waves
given year is about 1 in 30. seldom last more than 3 or 4 days. The lowest tempera-
About 60 percent of the annual rainfall occurs be- ture recorded at Daytona Beach was 18 degrees, in
tween the first of June and the middle of October, the January 1940, but lower temperatures have been record-
rainy season. The major part of this rainfall occurs as ed in other parts of the county. Significant differences in
convective thundershowers late in the afternoon and in temperature occur at places not far apart, especially in







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 3



areas where topographic differences are marked. On is Blue Springs. Its average flow is 105 million gallons
calm, clear nights, cold air collects in depressions, or per day. Ponce de Leon Springs has an average flow of
cold pockets, where plants may be killed. 20 million gallons per day. Temperature of the water
Some years, and occasionally several years in succes- from the springs is 73 to 74 degrees F. The high content
sion, winter passes without widespread frost damage, but of chloride make the springs poorly suited as public
in other years cold waves repeatedly invade throughout water supplies.
the winter bringing freezing temperatures. Heating Most of the freshwater in the county is from rainfall,
degree days indicate the severity of a winter. Beginning which averages about 50 inches per year. Much of the
in the fall, heating degree days accumulate by the rainfall is retained on the land. Little runoff occurs on the
amount that the average temperature each day is less rapidly permeable sandy soils of the karst DeLand and
than base temperature of 65 degrees. Normally, there Crescent City Ridges and the sandy shoreline ridges.
are 902 heating degree days at Daytona Beach. Be- Surface water is removed slowly from the broad
tween 1935 and 1973, the maximum was 1377 heating marine terraces, or flatwoods, which do not have well-
degree days in the winter of 1939-40, and the minimum defined streams with incised channels. The water table
was 441 in the winter of 1971-72. is at or near the surface during the summer rainy
Both summer and winter temperatures are moderated season. Depressions where water stands for long peri-
by nearness to the Atlantic Ocean. Tables 1 and 2 show ods are common. These inland wetlands are known as
that temperatures are somewhat less extreme at Dayto- cypress domes, bay heads, and swamps; many contain
na Beach than at DeLand, which is inland in the western organic soils or muck.
part of the county. Table 3 also shows that at DeLand The Floridan Aquifer underlies all of Volusia County.
the mean date of freezing temperatures is earlier in fall This limestone and dolomitic limestone aquifer supplies
and later in spring than at Daytona Beach. In addition to about 95 percent of the water used in the county. The
the moderating influence of the ocean, temperature is cities use about 60 percent. The rest is used mostly to
influenced by the presence of other bodies of water and irrigate crops. Recharge to the Floridan Aquifer occurs
by the topographic position of an area. Microclimate is throughout the county, but the areas of greatest re-
important in farming, because many of the common charge are the deep sandy soils of the karst sand ridges
crops, such as citrus, ferns, and vegetables, are sensi- in the western part of the county. Saltwater is moving
tive to the intensity, duration, and seasonal distribution of into the aquifer in both the eastern part of the county
freezing temperatures. along the coast and the western part along the St. Johns
River. Saltwater intrusion occurs when the withdrawal of
Natural resources freshwater from the aquifer exceeds the recharge from
freshwater percolating back into the aquifer. The sources
Volusia County lies between the Atlantic Ocean on the of the saltwater are the ocean, the rivers, and the an-
east and the St. Johns River on the west. The St. Johns cient seawater trapped below the freshwater aquifer. In
River, the "Nile of Florida," flows northward for nearly the last few years, the coastal cities have had to move
200 miles. The water in the St. Johns River is brackish. It their well fields several miles inland. In the vicinity of
is polluted from many sources, including sewage effluent, Osteen, the salt content in some wells has become so
storm sewer outfall, pesticides, and sediments from high that the water cannot be used for irrigation.
dredging and filling. Pollution problems have increased Rocks and minerals other than quartz sand are rare.
because of the decline in the rate of flow caused by Some coquina rock and shells are mined in the eastern
diversion of water for irrigation and by flood control in part of the county for use in construction.
the headwaters. Most of the soils are sandy and low in natural fertility,
The waters of the St. Johns, Halifax, and Indian Rivers but the products of these soils are valuable. Many crops
are used for navigation, recreation, and sport and com- can be grown here that cannot be grown easily in most
mercial fishing. Other permanent streams of significant areas of the United States. The forests are valuable not
size in the county include the Tomoka River, Spruce only for lumber and paper production, but also as a
Creek, Little Haw Creek, and Deep Creek. habitat for many game animals and other wildlife. Many
Quantities of freshwater are among the county's most ornamental plants and plant products used for decora-
valuable assets (6). These are numerous lakes in the tion are obtained from the numerous natural plant com-
county. More than 120 are larger than 5 acres. Most munities, which have diverse and sometimes unique spe-
occur in karst topography on the DeLand and Crescent cies. The scenery, too, is a valuable resource. It attracts
City Ridges. Almost all are water table lakes that form many visitors to the area.
where the level of the aquifer is above the surface of the
land. For the most part, the lakes have water of high Farming
quality. Many are used for boating and fishing.
Large springs on the low slopes of the DeLand Ridge The soils and climate of Volusia County are favorable
discharge water that has infiltrated the ridge. The largest for farming and agricultural industries. As early in 1767,







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 3



areas where topographic differences are marked. On is Blue Springs. Its average flow is 105 million gallons
calm, clear nights, cold air collects in depressions, or per day. Ponce de Leon Springs has an average flow of
cold pockets, where plants may be killed. 20 million gallons per day. Temperature of the water
Some years, and occasionally several years in succes- from the springs is 73 to 74 degrees F. The high content
sion, winter passes without widespread frost damage, but of chloride make the springs poorly suited as public
in other years cold waves repeatedly invade throughout water supplies.
the winter bringing freezing temperatures. Heating Most of the freshwater in the county is from rainfall,
degree days indicate the severity of a winter. Beginning which averages about 50 inches per year. Much of the
in the fall, heating degree days accumulate by the rainfall is retained on the land. Little runoff occurs on the
amount that the average temperature each day is less rapidly permeable sandy soils of the karst DeLand and
than base temperature of 65 degrees. Normally, there Crescent City Ridges and the sandy shoreline ridges.
are 902 heating degree days at Daytona Beach. Be- Surface water is removed slowly from the broad
tween 1935 and 1973, the maximum was 1377 heating marine terraces, or flatwoods, which do not have well-
degree days in the winter of 1939-40, and the minimum defined streams with incised channels. The water table
was 441 in the winter of 1971-72. is at or near the surface during the summer rainy
Both summer and winter temperatures are moderated season. Depressions where water stands for long peri-
by nearness to the Atlantic Ocean. Tables 1 and 2 show ods are common. These inland wetlands are known as
that temperatures are somewhat less extreme at Dayto- cypress domes, bay heads, and swamps; many contain
na Beach than at DeLand, which is inland in the western organic soils or muck.
part of the county. Table 3 also shows that at DeLand The Floridan Aquifer underlies all of Volusia County.
the mean date of freezing temperatures is earlier in fall This limestone and dolomitic limestone aquifer supplies
and later in spring than at Daytona Beach. In addition to about 95 percent of the water used in the county. The
the moderating influence of the ocean, temperature is cities use about 60 percent. The rest is used mostly to
influenced by the presence of other bodies of water and irrigate crops. Recharge to the Floridan Aquifer occurs
by the topographic position of an area. Microclimate is throughout the county, but the areas of greatest re-
important in farming, because many of the common charge are the deep sandy soils of the karst sand ridges
crops, such as citrus, ferns, and vegetables, are sensi- in the western part of the county. Saltwater is moving
tive to the intensity, duration, and seasonal distribution of into the aquifer in both the eastern part of the county
freezing temperatures. along the coast and the western part along the St. Johns
River. Saltwater intrusion occurs when the withdrawal of
Natural resources freshwater from the aquifer exceeds the recharge from
freshwater percolating back into the aquifer. The sources
Volusia County lies between the Atlantic Ocean on the of the saltwater are the ocean, the rivers, and the an-
east and the St. Johns River on the west. The St. Johns cient seawater trapped below the freshwater aquifer. In
River, the "Nile of Florida," flows northward for nearly the last few years, the coastal cities have had to move
200 miles. The water in the St. Johns River is brackish. It their well fields several miles inland. In the vicinity of
is polluted from many sources, including sewage effluent, Osteen, the salt content in some wells has become so
storm sewer outfall, pesticides, and sediments from high that the water cannot be used for irrigation.
dredging and filling. Pollution problems have increased Rocks and minerals other than quartz sand are rare.
because of the decline in the rate of flow caused by Some coquina rock and shells are mined in the eastern
diversion of water for irrigation and by flood control in part of the county for use in construction.
the headwaters. Most of the soils are sandy and low in natural fertility,
The waters of the St. Johns, Halifax, and Indian Rivers but the products of these soils are valuable. Many crops
are used for navigation, recreation, and sport and com- can be grown here that cannot be grown easily in most
mercial fishing. Other permanent streams of significant areas of the United States. The forests are valuable not
size in the county include the Tomoka River, Spruce only for lumber and paper production, but also as a
Creek, Little Haw Creek, and Deep Creek. habitat for many game animals and other wildlife. Many
Quantities of freshwater are among the county's most ornamental plants and plant products used for decora-
valuable assets (6). These are numerous lakes in the tion are obtained from the numerous natural plant com-
county. More than 120 are larger than 5 acres. Most munities, which have diverse and sometimes unique spe-
occur in karst topography on the DeLand and Crescent cies. The scenery, too, is a valuable resource. It attracts
City Ridges. Almost all are water table lakes that form many visitors to the area.
where the level of the aquifer is above the surface of the
land. For the most part, the lakes have water of high Farming
quality. Many are used for boating and fishing.
Large springs on the low slopes of the DeLand Ridge The soils and climate of Volusia County are favorable
discharge water that has infiltrated the ridge. The largest for farming and agricultural industries. As early in 1767,






4 SOIL SURVEY



colonists near New Smyrna Beach were producing sugar Federal highways. Two railways extend north and south
and indigo and cutting timber for sailing vessels. After across the county, the Seaboard Coast Line in the west
the county government was established, settlers estab- and the Florida East Coast Railway in the east. Sched-
lished homesteads and began farming along the St. uled airline service is available at the Daytona Beach
Johns River and the Atlantic Coast. Regional Airport. Other municipal or private airports are
The first cattle were brought to Florida by the early available for private or charter flights.
Spanish explorers. By the 1860's, the range cattle indus-
try was well established. Today there are approximately Recreation
25,000 head of cattle on rangeland and pastures
throughout the county. Most are beef cattle; only about Recreation is a major enterprise in Volusia County
2,500 are dairy cattle. (13). Mild winters, sandy beaches, and a wide variety of
Timber is commercially produced in large areas of the tourist attractions bring many visitors to the county annu-
county, chiefly the flatwoods. In the early part of the 20th ally. One major attraction is the Daytona International
century, the turpentine industry flourished. Today, the Speedway, where automobile and motorcycle racing en-
principal forest products are lumber, poles, and pulp- thusiasts gather from all over the world. Many other
wood. types of recreation are available-from jaialai and do-
Vegetable production began in the 1870's near gracing to shuffleboard. During spring training, major
Osteen. Produce was shipped to market on the St. league baseball is also available. Many sports activities,
Johns River. Currently, most commercial vegetable pro- including golf and tennis, are available in most communi-
duction is in the flatwood areas near Samsula, Osteen, ties in the county. Cultural entertainment is offered by
and Lake Ashby. The major crops are cabbage, cucum- several organizations, schools, and museums.
bers, and sweet peppers. Blue Spring, Hontoon, and Tomoka State parks and
Citrus was introduced by the early Spaniards. Com- other areas have facilities for picnicking, camping, swim-
mercial groves were established in the 1880's, largely as ming, boating, canoeing, hiking, and relaxing. There are
a result of the development of improved varieties, some areas of archeological or historical interest, including
of which originated in Volusia County. Several varieties Indian shell mounds and plantation sugar mill ruins.
of fruit were developed by the horticulturist Lue Gim Opportunities for fishing and hunting are plentiful. Mari-
Gong, a Chinese immigrant who came to DeLand in nas are numerous along the St. Johns River and the
1886. About the same time, another DeLand resident, nas are numerous along the St. Johns River and the
A.G. Hamin, discovered the Hamin orange in a grove at ocean. Many of the large tracts of land, especially in the
A.G. Hamlin, discovered the Hamlin orange in a grove at
Highland Park, 5 miles west of DeLand and 2 miles from central part of the county, are designated Wildlife Man-
Highland Park, 5 miles west of DeLand and 2 miles from
the grove of Lue Gim Gong. agement areas, where hunting of deer and other game is
The fern industry, begun in 1904 at Pierson, accounts permitted in season.
for about half of the agricultural income in the county There are many opportunities for observing wildlife.
(fig. 1). Gross sales in 1976 were estimated at 20 million The Lake Woodruff National Refuge is excellent for bird-
dollars, or double the 1974 figure. Leatherleaf ferns and watching. The bald eagle can be seen along Lake
asparagus or plumosus ferns are grown. They are cut by George and elsewhere. In winter, the manatee lives in
hand, and sprays are shipped throughout the world for the warm water of Blue Springs. Several other rare,
floral arrangements. Ferns are very sensitive to climatic unique, or endangered species inhabit the county.
and soil conditions. They require hand labor, irrigation,
and careful and frequent applications of pesticides and Geology, physiography, and drainage
fertilizers. Only about 3,000 acres in the county is in
ferns, but many ferneries are being expanded and new Volusia County is within the lower Atlantic Coastal
ones constructed. Although most ferneries are in the Plain (6). The surface is covered with sandy marine sedi-
vicinity of Pierson, some are widely distributed over the ments of Pleistocene to Recent age (15). The broad,
DeLand and Crescent City Ridges. nearly level marine terraces, relict shorelines, and karst
Swine, horses, poultry, ornamental shrubs and flowers, ridges that characterize the landscape are of Pleistocene
and honey also are produced in the county, all on a age. The areas adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and the St.
small scale. The number of laying hens has increased Johns River are of more recent geologic origin.
significantly in recent years. The geologic material can be divided into an upper
sequence of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated clas-
.n tic deposits and a lower sequence of carbonate rocks.
Transportation The upper surface of the rock unit dips eastward toward
Volusia County is served by good transportation facili- the coast at about 3 feet per mile. At the coast, the
ties. Interstate Highways 4 and 95 are within a short depth to rock is about 100 feet. At the eastern edge of
distance of the major cities. Most other parts of the the DeLand Ridge, the depth to rock is about 65 feet.
county are easily reached by well kept county, State, and The thickness of the plastic deposits varies from 50 to






4 SOIL SURVEY



colonists near New Smyrna Beach were producing sugar Federal highways. Two railways extend north and south
and indigo and cutting timber for sailing vessels. After across the county, the Seaboard Coast Line in the west
the county government was established, settlers estab- and the Florida East Coast Railway in the east. Sched-
lished homesteads and began farming along the St. uled airline service is available at the Daytona Beach
Johns River and the Atlantic Coast. Regional Airport. Other municipal or private airports are
The first cattle were brought to Florida by the early available for private or charter flights.
Spanish explorers. By the 1860's, the range cattle indus-
try was well established. Today there are approximately Recreation
25,000 head of cattle on rangeland and pastures
throughout the county. Most are beef cattle; only about Recreation is a major enterprise in Volusia County
2,500 are dairy cattle. (13). Mild winters, sandy beaches, and a wide variety of
Timber is commercially produced in large areas of the tourist attractions bring many visitors to the county annu-
county, chiefly the flatwoods. In the early part of the 20th ally. One major attraction is the Daytona International
century, the turpentine industry flourished. Today, the Speedway, where automobile and motorcycle racing en-
principal forest products are lumber, poles, and pulp- thusiasts gather from all over the world. Many other
wood. types of recreation are available-from jaialai and do-
Vegetable production began in the 1870's near gracing to shuffleboard. During spring training, major
Osteen. Produce was shipped to market on the St. league baseball is also available. Many sports activities,
Johns River. Currently, most commercial vegetable pro- including golf and tennis, are available in most communi-
duction is in the flatwood areas near Samsula, Osteen, ties in the county. Cultural entertainment is offered by
and Lake Ashby. The major crops are cabbage, cucum- several organizations, schools, and museums.
bers, and sweet peppers. Blue Spring, Hontoon, and Tomoka State parks and
Citrus was introduced by the early Spaniards. Com- other areas have facilities for picnicking, camping, swim-
mercial groves were established in the 1880's, largely as ming, boating, canoeing, hiking, and relaxing. There are
a result of the development of improved varieties, some areas of archeological or historical interest, including
of which originated in Volusia County. Several varieties Indian shell mounds and plantation sugar mill ruins.
of fruit were developed by the horticulturist Lue Gim Opportunities for fishing and hunting are plentiful. Mari-
Gong, a Chinese immigrant who came to DeLand in nas are numerous along the St. Johns River and the
1886. About the same time, another DeLand resident, nas are numerous along the St. Johns River and the
A.G. Hamin, discovered the Hamin orange in a grove at ocean. Many of the large tracts of land, especially in the
A.G. Hamlin, discovered the Hamlin orange in a grove at
Highland Park, 5 miles west of DeLand and 2 miles from central part of the county, are designated Wildlife Man-
Highland Park, 5 miles west of DeLand and 2 miles from
the grove of Lue Gim Gong. agement areas, where hunting of deer and other game is
The fern industry, begun in 1904 at Pierson, accounts permitted in season.
for about half of the agricultural income in the county There are many opportunities for observing wildlife.
(fig. 1). Gross sales in 1976 were estimated at 20 million The Lake Woodruff National Refuge is excellent for bird-
dollars, or double the 1974 figure. Leatherleaf ferns and watching. The bald eagle can be seen along Lake
asparagus or plumosus ferns are grown. They are cut by George and elsewhere. In winter, the manatee lives in
hand, and sprays are shipped throughout the world for the warm water of Blue Springs. Several other rare,
floral arrangements. Ferns are very sensitive to climatic unique, or endangered species inhabit the county.
and soil conditions. They require hand labor, irrigation,
and careful and frequent applications of pesticides and Geology, physiography, and drainage
fertilizers. Only about 3,000 acres in the county is in
ferns, but many ferneries are being expanded and new Volusia County is within the lower Atlantic Coastal
ones constructed. Although most ferneries are in the Plain (6). The surface is covered with sandy marine sedi-
vicinity of Pierson, some are widely distributed over the ments of Pleistocene to Recent age (15). The broad,
DeLand and Crescent City Ridges. nearly level marine terraces, relict shorelines, and karst
Swine, horses, poultry, ornamental shrubs and flowers, ridges that characterize the landscape are of Pleistocene
and honey also are produced in the county, all on a age. The areas adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and the St.
small scale. The number of laying hens has increased Johns River are of more recent geologic origin.
significantly in recent years. The geologic material can be divided into an upper
sequence of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated clas-
.n tic deposits and a lower sequence of carbonate rocks.
Transportation The upper surface of the rock unit dips eastward toward
Volusia County is served by good transportation facili- the coast at about 3 feet per mile. At the coast, the
ties. Interstate Highways 4 and 95 are within a short depth to rock is about 100 feet. At the eastern edge of
distance of the major cities. Most other parts of the the DeLand Ridge, the depth to rock is about 65 feet.
county are easily reached by well kept county, State, and The thickness of the plastic deposits varies from 50 to






4 SOIL SURVEY



colonists near New Smyrna Beach were producing sugar Federal highways. Two railways extend north and south
and indigo and cutting timber for sailing vessels. After across the county, the Seaboard Coast Line in the west
the county government was established, settlers estab- and the Florida East Coast Railway in the east. Sched-
lished homesteads and began farming along the St. uled airline service is available at the Daytona Beach
Johns River and the Atlantic Coast. Regional Airport. Other municipal or private airports are
The first cattle were brought to Florida by the early available for private or charter flights.
Spanish explorers. By the 1860's, the range cattle indus-
try was well established. Today there are approximately Recreation
25,000 head of cattle on rangeland and pastures
throughout the county. Most are beef cattle; only about Recreation is a major enterprise in Volusia County
2,500 are dairy cattle. (13). Mild winters, sandy beaches, and a wide variety of
Timber is commercially produced in large areas of the tourist attractions bring many visitors to the county annu-
county, chiefly the flatwoods. In the early part of the 20th ally. One major attraction is the Daytona International
century, the turpentine industry flourished. Today, the Speedway, where automobile and motorcycle racing en-
principal forest products are lumber, poles, and pulp- thusiasts gather from all over the world. Many other
wood. types of recreation are available-from jaialai and do-
Vegetable production began in the 1870's near gracing to shuffleboard. During spring training, major
Osteen. Produce was shipped to market on the St. league baseball is also available. Many sports activities,
Johns River. Currently, most commercial vegetable pro- including golf and tennis, are available in most communi-
duction is in the flatwood areas near Samsula, Osteen, ties in the county. Cultural entertainment is offered by
and Lake Ashby. The major crops are cabbage, cucum- several organizations, schools, and museums.
bers, and sweet peppers. Blue Spring, Hontoon, and Tomoka State parks and
Citrus was introduced by the early Spaniards. Com- other areas have facilities for picnicking, camping, swim-
mercial groves were established in the 1880's, largely as ming, boating, canoeing, hiking, and relaxing. There are
a result of the development of improved varieties, some areas of archeological or historical interest, including
of which originated in Volusia County. Several varieties Indian shell mounds and plantation sugar mill ruins.
of fruit were developed by the horticulturist Lue Gim Opportunities for fishing and hunting are plentiful. Mari-
Gong, a Chinese immigrant who came to DeLand in nas are numerous along the St. Johns River and the
1886. About the same time, another DeLand resident, nas are numerous along the St. Johns River and the
A.G. Hamin, discovered the Hamin orange in a grove at ocean. Many of the large tracts of land, especially in the
A.G. Hamlin, discovered the Hamlin orange in a grove at
Highland Park, 5 miles west of DeLand and 2 miles from central part of the county, are designated Wildlife Man-
Highland Park, 5 miles west of DeLand and 2 miles from
the grove of Lue Gim Gong. agement areas, where hunting of deer and other game is
The fern industry, begun in 1904 at Pierson, accounts permitted in season.
for about half of the agricultural income in the county There are many opportunities for observing wildlife.
(fig. 1). Gross sales in 1976 were estimated at 20 million The Lake Woodruff National Refuge is excellent for bird-
dollars, or double the 1974 figure. Leatherleaf ferns and watching. The bald eagle can be seen along Lake
asparagus or plumosus ferns are grown. They are cut by George and elsewhere. In winter, the manatee lives in
hand, and sprays are shipped throughout the world for the warm water of Blue Springs. Several other rare,
floral arrangements. Ferns are very sensitive to climatic unique, or endangered species inhabit the county.
and soil conditions. They require hand labor, irrigation,
and careful and frequent applications of pesticides and Geology, physiography, and drainage
fertilizers. Only about 3,000 acres in the county is in
ferns, but many ferneries are being expanded and new Volusia County is within the lower Atlantic Coastal
ones constructed. Although most ferneries are in the Plain (6). The surface is covered with sandy marine sedi-
vicinity of Pierson, some are widely distributed over the ments of Pleistocene to Recent age (15). The broad,
DeLand and Crescent City Ridges. nearly level marine terraces, relict shorelines, and karst
Swine, horses, poultry, ornamental shrubs and flowers, ridges that characterize the landscape are of Pleistocene
and honey also are produced in the county, all on a age. The areas adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and the St.
small scale. The number of laying hens has increased Johns River are of more recent geologic origin.
significantly in recent years. The geologic material can be divided into an upper
sequence of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated clas-
.n tic deposits and a lower sequence of carbonate rocks.
Transportation The upper surface of the rock unit dips eastward toward
Volusia County is served by good transportation facili- the coast at about 3 feet per mile. At the coast, the
ties. Interstate Highways 4 and 95 are within a short depth to rock is about 100 feet. At the eastern edge of
distance of the major cities. Most other parts of the the DeLand Ridge, the depth to rock is about 65 feet.
county are easily reached by well kept county, State, and The thickness of the plastic deposits varies from 50 to







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 5


100 feet under the DeLand Ridge because of differences The Atlantic Coastal Lagoons consist of the Halifax
in local relief. River, the Indian River, Mosquito Lagoon, and adjacent
The carbonate rocks of the lower sequence are lime- areas that have halophytic vegetation. These areas are
stone and dolomite of middle and upper Eocene age. protected from the turbulence of the open ocean. As a
These rocks are also known as the Floridan Aquifer. result, plants can root in the shallow waters. After vege-
Downward movement of slightly acid ground water has station is established, the water is calmer around the
resulted in the formation of solution caverns that hold plants. Silt and clay settle to the bottom, resulting in the
and transmit large quantities of water. About 95 percent buildup of land into tidal flats. Gradually plants grow
of the county's freshwater supply for domestic and agri- outward from these flats, and more land is formed.
cultural use comes from the Floridan Aquifer. Extending from the Atlantic Coastal Lagoons to the
The plastic unit ranges in age from Miocene to Atlantic Coastal Ridge is an area that has been referred
Recent. The material is mostly sand, especially at the to as the Silver Bluff Terrace. It contains well preserved
surface, but it contains discontinuous and interfingering features that reflect a complex geologic history. Subsur-
lenses and beds of clay and shells. In places the shell face beds of shells are extensive, and in many places
beds are as much as 50 feet thick. In coastal areas they are less than 6 feet beneath the surface. Based on
where there is a saltwater intrusion into the Floridan differences in elevation, surface features, and soil char-
Aquifer, these shell beds are the source of a limited acteristics, the area may be divided into two sections.
amount of freshwater. The eastern section appears to be a former shoreline
Most of the landscape in Volusia County formed during ridge and the western section a lagoon. They are much
the Pleistocene Epoch. As ice sheets formed and like the Atlantic Beach Ridge and the Atlantic Coastal
melted, the level of the oceans fell and rose. During Lagoons are today. The eastern section, where it has
periods of maximum glaciation, shorelines were below not been altered by human activity, consists mostly of a
the present sea level. During interglacial periods, the sea series of long, narrow, moderately well drained to well
level was much higher than it is today. When the sea drained sand ridges separated by troughs that are poorly
level remained stationary for a long period, waves and drained to very poorly drained. The ridges are approxi-
wind built dunes, forming a shoreline ridge, and the mately parallel to the present shoreline. Elevation of the
ocean floor was eroded, forming a nearly level marine eastern section is dominantly more than 10 feet above
terrace. This process was repeated several times. A sea level. Elevation of the western section is less than
series of relict shoreline ridges and terraces has been 10 feet and in some places is 5 feet. Most soils of the
identified throughout the Coastal Plain. The terraces that western section have significant amounts of clay at or
include Volusia County are the Wicomico, Penholoway, slightly below the surface and contain large amounts of
Talbot, Pamlico, and Silver Bluff. Their relict shorelines calcium carbonate underlain by thick beds of shells. In
are at 100, 70, 42, 25, and 8 feet respectively above sea some areas the calcium carbonate has hardened into
level (5). limestone.
During Recent, or Holocene, times the Atlantic Ocean Unusual geologic formations are evident in the Silver
has formed a shoreline ridge or barrier chain separated Bluff Terrace. One is the Daytona Bone Bed, where
from the mainland by the Atlantic Coastal Lagoons. In skeletons of several animals, including the giant ground
addition, there are recent alluvial deposits in the western sloth, are found among the well preserved remains of
part of the county along the St. Johns River. woody and herbaceous plants. Another is the Anastasia
The major features of Volusia County are shown on Formation, a rock of cemented coquina shells that un-
the map of Physiographic Regions (fig. 2) and a diagram- derlies some of the sand ridges, in places within a depth
matic cross-section of the county (fig. 3) (14). of 6 feet. In some places the Anastasia Formation is
The Atlantic Beach Ridge extends along the eastern associated with the Atlantic Coastal Ridge just west of
part of Volusia County. It is a barrier chain separated the Silver Bluff Terrace.
from the rest of the county by the Atlantic Coastal La- The Pamlico and Talbot Terraces are broad, nearly
goons. The Atlantic Beach Ridge consists of the Beach level, poorly drained areas characterized by numerous
and a series of dunes, the present shoreline ridge. Here shallow depressions and poorly defined drainageways.
the geologic material consists of quartz sand mixed with Few streams have dissected the terraces.
varying amounts of shell fragments. After waves deposit The Atlantic Coastal Ridge and a range that includes
sand on the beach, winds pile it into dunes. Often dunes Rima Ridge are relict shoreline ridges. The Atlantic
are also eroded by wind and waves. After vegetation is Coastal Ridge extends the length of the county and rises
established, the dunes are less susceptible to erosion, about 10 to 15 feet above the Pamlico terrace to the
Eventually additional dunes are formed along the beach. west. The Rima Ridge extends along the eastern margin
This process may be repeated several times, resulting in of the Talbot Terrace to the vicinity of Lake Ashby,
the formation of a series of dune ridges progressively where both the ridges and the terrace appear to end.
older at greater distances from the beach. The Rima Ridge rises about 5 to 10 feet above the







6 SOIL SURVEY



Talbot Terrace. It is older than the Atlantic Coastal Ridge How this survey was made
and is therefore much more eroded.
The DeLand and Crescent City Ridges, karst ridges, Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
are older marine terraces. The surface has been altered soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they
by erosion and the collapse of solution caverns in the can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know-
underlying limestone. Of the approximately 120 lakes of ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew
more than 5 acres in the county, 90 percent are within something about and perhaps identify some they had
these karst ridges. Local relief is greater than in any of never seen before. They observed the steepness, length,
the other physiographic regions. A few areas on the and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general
DeLand Ridge are slightly more than 100 feet above sea pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops;
level. Others are less than 25 feet. the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They
The rest of the county, in the St. Johns River Valley, dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the
consists mainly of nearly level terraces of various origins, sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex-
In some places this region grades imperceptibly into tends from the surface down into the parent material,
other regions. The separation is made where drainage which has been changed very little by leaching or by the
patterns become oriented toward the river, action of plant roots.
The St. Johns River flows slowly northward along the The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
western boundary of Volusia County. Where it enters the profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles
county, the elevation is only about 5 feet above sea with others in counties nearby and in places more dis-
level. Where it flows into Lake George, the elevation tant. Thus, through correlation, they classified and
drops to about 1 foot. The St. Johns River receives named the soils according to nationwide, uniform proce-
slightly more than 60 percent of the runoff from the dures.
county. The rest flows in a more direct path to the After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was
Atlantic Ocean, mainly by way of the Tomoka River and worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the
Spruce Creek. individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo-
Surface drainage patterns, especially in the central graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads,
part of the county, are in an early stage of development, and other details that help in drawing boundaries accu-
Few streams have well defined channels. Runoff is slow rately. The soil map at the back of this publication was
in most of the county because of topographic features, prepared from aerial photographs.
The nearly level marine terraces, or flatwoods, make up The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map
a large part of the county. When the sandy soils become units. Some map units are made up of one kind of soil,
saturated, water accumulates in swales and depressions. others are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a
The shoreline ridges commonly prevent the water from few have little or no soil material at all. Map units are
flowing directly to the ocean. Runoff is through a system discussed in the sections "General soil map for broad
of poorly defined drainageways and sloughs that are land use planning" and "Soil maps for detailed plan-
approximately parallel to the ocean. Near the St. Johns ning."
River and other major drainageways, the poorly defined While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
drainageways merge into strands and creeks. The Pam- taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for
lico Terrace is drained mostly by the Tomoka River and engineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpre-
Spruce Creek, both of which cut through the Atlantic stations of their behavior are modified as necessary
Coastal Ridge and the Silver Bluff Terrace before they during the course of the survey. New interpretations are
empty into the Atlantic Coastal Lagoons. The southern added to meet local needs, mainly through field observa-
part of the Pamlico Terrace is drained by Cow Creek. tions of different kinds of soil in different uses under
The Talbot Terrace is drained by Middle Haw and Little different levels of management. Also, data are assem-
Haw Creeks to the north and by Deep Creek to the bled from other sources, such as test results, records,
south, field experience, and information available from state
The karst and shoreline ridges have little or no runoff and local specialists. For example, data on crop yields
because most of the rain percolates rapidly down under defined practices are assembled from farm rec-
through the sandy soil. Water that is not lost through ords and from field or plot experiments on the same
evapotranspiration soon reaches the water table, where kinds of soil.
it recharges the aquifer, accumulates in lakes or depres- But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
sions, or seeps outward from the base of the ridges, have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Ponce de Leon and Blue Springs are two large aquifer- on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
fed springs at the western boundary of the DeLand other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
Ridge. In some areas there are artesian wells, where information then needs to be organized so that it is
water is confined under a head of pressure by an imper- readily available to different groups of users, among
vious layer, such as clay. them farmers, managers of rangeland and woodland,







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 7



engineers, planners, developers and builders, home- percent of the county. It is about 56 percent Palm Beach
buyers, and those seeking recreation, soils, 15 percent Paola soils, 10 percent Canaveral soils,
12 percent Beaches, and 7 percent Quartzipsamments
and Orsino and Daytona soils.
General soil map for broad land use In the Palm Beach and Paola part of the unit, about
planning half the acreage is used for housing and urban develop-
ment. In the development areas, about 30 percent of the
The general soil map at the back of this publication acreage is Urban land, where soils are largely covered
shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of with houses, streets, driveways, buildings, and parking
soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a lots.
unique natural landscape (4). Typically, a map unit con- The Palm Beach soils are excessively drained or well
sists of one or more major soils and some minor soils. It drained, the Paola soils excessively drained, and the
is named for the major soils. The soils making up one Canaveral soils moderately well drained or somewhat
unit can occur in other units but in a different pattern, poorly drained. All are quartz sand with generous
The general soil map provides a broad perspective of amounts of multicolored shell fragments. The more
the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a recent dunes near the beach show little evidence of
basis for comparing the potential of large areas for gen- profile development. In several back dunes, however,
eral kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most part, disintegration of shells and translocation of iron and or-
suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land uses
can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils Natural vegetation changes as distance from the
having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer- beach increases. Each change represents a different
tain land uses can be located. beach increases. Eac change represents a different
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the stage of primary succession. The most recent dunes
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for near the beach have pioneer species, such as sea-oats,
planning the management of a farm or field or for select- railroad-vine, seashore panicum, and beach sunflower.
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The These pioneer species protect the dunes from wind ero-
sion. Once dunes are stabilized, other plant communities
kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to sion. nce dunes are stabilize other plant communities
place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other char- become established. First is a dense growth of sawpal-
acteristics that affect their management. metto, which gives way to a thicket of scrub oak along
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten- with other plants, such as buckthorn and greenbrier. On
tial for major land uses. Some of the major uses and the older dunes adjacent to the Atlantic coastal lagoons,
limitations of the soils are briefly described in the de- there are coastal hammocks dominated by live oak,
scriptions of the general soil map units. To determine the shore bay, and cabbage palm. Yaupon, southern redce-
potential of an individual soil for a particular use, refer to dar, myrsine, marlberry, and eugenia are common in the
the map unit description under "Soil maps for detailed understory. The coastal hammocks have a great assort-
planning." ment of plants, including epiphytes, or air plants, such as
orchids and ferns.
Soils of the sand ridges and coastal Because of its attractive beaches, this map unit is
dunes popular for recreation. The Canaveral National Seashore,
in the southern part of the unit, makes up about 13
The five map units in this group are predominantly percent of the unit. It is largely in its natural state. About
excessively drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly 50 percent of the unit is highly urbanized, and much of
level to moderately steep soils that are generally sandy the rest has undergone some development. Of the 51
to a depth of 80 inches or more. They are on barrier miles of shoreline dunes, 32.7 miles had been disturbed
dunes, former shoreline ridges, and the karst DeLand by 1973, an increase of 21.2 miles since 1943.
and Crescent City Ridges. They make up approximately Nearness to the beaches and the ocean, the factor
one-fourth of the acreage in the county. that makes the area highly valued for urban develop-
ment, also creates, problems. The supply of fresh water
1. Palm Beach-Paola-Canaveral is limited in some areas. Septic tank absorption fields
Long, narrow coastal dune ridges, predominantly of ex- an pollute theater because the sandy soils are rapidly
cessively drained to somewhat poorly drained, grayish Unless plants adapted to drughty conditions are droughty.sed,
and brownish, shelly and sandy soils; includes coastal unless pants gaden to rurhty conditions are used,
beaches lawns and gardens require intensive maintenance.
Unless the surface is protected, wind piles sand into
The landscape of this map unit is one of beach ridges, shifting dunes. Damage from salt spray can be anticipat-
beaches, and barrier dunes along the Atlantic Ocean. ed. Much damage can be caused by winds of hurricane
The unit makes up approximately 12,130 acres, or 1.7 force.







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 7



engineers, planners, developers and builders, home- percent of the county. It is about 56 percent Palm Beach
buyers, and those seeking recreation, soils, 15 percent Paola soils, 10 percent Canaveral soils,
12 percent Beaches, and 7 percent Quartzipsamments
and Orsino and Daytona soils.
General soil map for broad land use In the Palm Beach and Paola part of the unit, about
planning half the acreage is used for housing and urban develop-
ment. In the development areas, about 30 percent of the
The general soil map at the back of this publication acreage is Urban land, where soils are largely covered
shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of with houses, streets, driveways, buildings, and parking
soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a lots.
unique natural landscape (4). Typically, a map unit con- The Palm Beach soils are excessively drained or well
sists of one or more major soils and some minor soils. It drained, the Paola soils excessively drained, and the
is named for the major soils. The soils making up one Canaveral soils moderately well drained or somewhat
unit can occur in other units but in a different pattern, poorly drained. All are quartz sand with generous
The general soil map provides a broad perspective of amounts of multicolored shell fragments. The more
the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a recent dunes near the beach show little evidence of
basis for comparing the potential of large areas for gen- profile development. In several back dunes, however,
eral kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most part, disintegration of shells and translocation of iron and or-
suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land uses
can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils Natural vegetation changes as distance from the
having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer- beach increases. Each change represents a different
tain land uses can be located. beach increases. Eac change represents a different
Because of its small scale, the map does not show the stage of primary succession. The most recent dunes
kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for near the beach have pioneer species, such as sea-oats,
planning the management of a farm or field or for select- railroad-vine, seashore panicum, and beach sunflower.
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The These pioneer species protect the dunes from wind ero-
sion. Once dunes are stabilized, other plant communities
kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to sion. nce dunes are stabilize other plant communities
place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other char- become established. First is a dense growth of sawpal-
acteristics that affect their management. metto, which gives way to a thicket of scrub oak along
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten- with other plants, such as buckthorn and greenbrier. On
tial for major land uses. Some of the major uses and the older dunes adjacent to the Atlantic coastal lagoons,
limitations of the soils are briefly described in the de- there are coastal hammocks dominated by live oak,
scriptions of the general soil map units. To determine the shore bay, and cabbage palm. Yaupon, southern redce-
potential of an individual soil for a particular use, refer to dar, myrsine, marlberry, and eugenia are common in the
the map unit description under "Soil maps for detailed understory. The coastal hammocks have a great assort-
planning." ment of plants, including epiphytes, or air plants, such as
orchids and ferns.
Soils of the sand ridges and coastal Because of its attractive beaches, this map unit is
dunes popular for recreation. The Canaveral National Seashore,
in the southern part of the unit, makes up about 13
The five map units in this group are predominantly percent of the unit. It is largely in its natural state. About
excessively drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly 50 percent of the unit is highly urbanized, and much of
level to moderately steep soils that are generally sandy the rest has undergone some development. Of the 51
to a depth of 80 inches or more. They are on barrier miles of shoreline dunes, 32.7 miles had been disturbed
dunes, former shoreline ridges, and the karst DeLand by 1973, an increase of 21.2 miles since 1943.
and Crescent City Ridges. They make up approximately Nearness to the beaches and the ocean, the factor
one-fourth of the acreage in the county. that makes the area highly valued for urban develop-
ment, also creates, problems. The supply of fresh water
1. Palm Beach-Paola-Canaveral is limited in some areas. Septic tank absorption fields
Long, narrow coastal dune ridges, predominantly of ex- an pollute theater because the sandy soils are rapidly
cessively drained to somewhat poorly drained, grayish Unless plants adapted to drughty conditions are droughty.sed,
and brownish, shelly and sandy soils; includes coastal unless pants gaden to rurhty conditions are used,
beaches lawns and gardens require intensive maintenance.
Unless the surface is protected, wind piles sand into
The landscape of this map unit is one of beach ridges, shifting dunes. Damage from salt spray can be anticipat-
beaches, and barrier dunes along the Atlantic Ocean. ed. Much damage can be caused by winds of hurricane
The unit makes up approximately 12,130 acres, or 1.7 force.






8 SOIL SURVEY



2. Paola-Orsino local relief is generally not so great. In addition, the soils
are not highly leached.
Broad, high ridges of excessively drained and moderately This unit makes up about 82,780 acres, or 11.6 per-
well drained, grayish sandy soils that have a yellowish cent of the county. It is about 45 percent Astatula soils,
sandy subsoil; interspersed with sinks, lakes, and wet 20 percent Tavares soils, 8 percent Deland soils, 7 per-
depressions cent Apopka soils, and 20 percent soils such as Paola,
This map unit is associated with karst ridges. The Orsino, Daytona, Cassia, and Myakka soils and small
largest area is at the southern end of the DeLand Ridge bodies of water.
in the vicinity of Deltona. Many landlocked lakes, sinks, The Astatula soils are excessively drained. They gen-
and wet depressions are distributed throughout the unit. erally occur where the landscape is rolling to undulating
Many lakes are shallow and intermittent and generally and local relief is the greatest. The Tavares soils are
have marshy vegetation, moderately well drained. They are in lower areas. The
This unit makes up about 37,100 acres, or 5.2 percent DeLand soils are well drained. They generally occur in
of the county. It is about 48 percent excessively drained nearly level areas. The Apopka soils are widely distribut-
Paola soils, which occur at the higher elevations, 14 ed along the western part of the DeLand Ridge near
percent moderately well drained Orsino soils, almost 14 DeLand and on the Crescent City Ridge in the vicinity of
percent Apopka soils, and 24 percent minor soils, such Seville.
as Daytona, Astatula, Tavares, and Immokalee soils, and Natural vegetation is commonly an open forest of
small bodies of water. longleaf pine. The understory is turkey oak, bluejack oak,
Natural vegetation on the more freely drained soils is a laurel oak, and live oak. Ground cover is mostly pineland
sand pine-scrub oak community, which serves as habitat threeawn, or wiregrass. Sawpalmetto, huckleberry,
for various kinds of wildlife. It is an open to closed gopher apple, rabbit tobacco, pricklypear, tread-softly,
canopy of sand pine and a sparse to dense understory and green-eyes are scattered but conspicuous. In areas
of scrub oak-sand live oak, myrtle oak, and Chapman's that have been protected from fire long enough, plant
oak-sawpalmetto, and staggerbush. Rosemary is a succession has resulted in the establishment of xeric
common shrub. Lichens are conspicuous on the other- and mesic hammocks. These hammocks have a closed
wise bare ground. The sand pine-scrub community is a canopy mainly of laurel and live oak. The mesic ham-
result of fires. If fire is excluded for a long time, a xeric mock has greater diversity in the understory than the
hammock type of vegetation eventually replaces the xeric. Southern magnolia and holly are indicators. A pine-
sand pine-scrub oak community. Plant succession is palmetto community occupies the poorly drained areas.
slow, however, on these dry, infertile soils. Bay heads or swamps occupy the very poorly drained
The soils in this unit are sandy and drought and have areas.
low natural fertility. For the most part, they are in natural The major soils of this unit are sandy. They become
vegetation. They are poorly suited to vegetable or field very dry after a few days without rain. During periods of
crops. Permanent pasture and citrus groves are difficult heavy rainfall, inorganic nutrients are readily leached.
to establish and maintain unless management is inten- Unless specially suited to these soils, plants require gen-
sive. erous amounts of water and regular fertilization, meas-
Some parts of the unit have been developed for urban ures that are not practical unless the plants have a high
and residential use. Except in a few low-lying areas, a economic or esthetic value. Ferns, a high value crop,
high water table is no problem. Because the sandy soils grow well on most soils of this unit, but high level man-
absorb water rapidly, runoff and erosion generally do not agement is needed. These soils are well suited to citrus,
occur unless slopes are steep or large areas have been and most of the groves are in this part of the county.
covered with housing and pavement. Lawns and gardens Improved pasture is common. The soils are moderately
well suited to drought-resistant varieties of grasses.
require liberal amounts of water and frequent applica- w ell suited to drought-resistant varieties of grasses.
Most of the older settlements in western Volusia
tions of fertilizer. Unless paved, roads and streets are
difficult to travel because of loose, dry sand. County are in this unit, and most areas are satisfactory
difficult to travel because of loose, dry sand. development. Loose sand is a problem to traf-
for urban development. Loose sand is a problem to traf-
fic unless streets and lanes are paved. Because these
3. Astatula-Tavares sandy soils are drought and have low natural fertility,
Broad, undulating ridges of excessively drained and landscaping should make maximum use of native vege-
moderately well drained, brownish and grayish, sandy station and other suitable plants.
soils, interspersed with a few sinks, lakes, and depres-
sions4. Daytona-Paola-Astatula
This map unit makes up the greater part of the Mostly long, narrow sand ridges of moderately well
DeLand and Crescent City Ridges. The topography is drained, grayish sandy soils that have an organic-stained
generally similar to that in the Paola-Orsino unit; but subsoil and excessively drained, grayish and brownish,






8 SOIL SURVEY



2. Paola-Orsino local relief is generally not so great. In addition, the soils
are not highly leached.
Broad, high ridges of excessively drained and moderately This unit makes up about 82,780 acres, or 11.6 per-
well drained, grayish sandy soils that have a yellowish cent of the county. It is about 45 percent Astatula soils,
sandy subsoil; interspersed with sinks, lakes, and wet 20 percent Tavares soils, 8 percent Deland soils, 7 per-
depressions cent Apopka soils, and 20 percent soils such as Paola,
This map unit is associated with karst ridges. The Orsino, Daytona, Cassia, and Myakka soils and small
largest area is at the southern end of the DeLand Ridge bodies of water.
in the vicinity of Deltona. Many landlocked lakes, sinks, The Astatula soils are excessively drained. They gen-
and wet depressions are distributed throughout the unit. erally occur where the landscape is rolling to undulating
Many lakes are shallow and intermittent and generally and local relief is the greatest. The Tavares soils are
have marshy vegetation, moderately well drained. They are in lower areas. The
This unit makes up about 37,100 acres, or 5.2 percent DeLand soils are well drained. They generally occur in
of the county. It is about 48 percent excessively drained nearly level areas. The Apopka soils are widely distribut-
Paola soils, which occur at the higher elevations, 14 ed along the western part of the DeLand Ridge near
percent moderately well drained Orsino soils, almost 14 DeLand and on the Crescent City Ridge in the vicinity of
percent Apopka soils, and 24 percent minor soils, such Seville.
as Daytona, Astatula, Tavares, and Immokalee soils, and Natural vegetation is commonly an open forest of
small bodies of water. longleaf pine. The understory is turkey oak, bluejack oak,
Natural vegetation on the more freely drained soils is a laurel oak, and live oak. Ground cover is mostly pineland
sand pine-scrub oak community, which serves as habitat threeawn, or wiregrass. Sawpalmetto, huckleberry,
for various kinds of wildlife. It is an open to closed gopher apple, rabbit tobacco, pricklypear, tread-softly,
canopy of sand pine and a sparse to dense understory and green-eyes are scattered but conspicuous. In areas
of scrub oak-sand live oak, myrtle oak, and Chapman's that have been protected from fire long enough, plant
oak-sawpalmetto, and staggerbush. Rosemary is a succession has resulted in the establishment of xeric
common shrub. Lichens are conspicuous on the other- and mesic hammocks. These hammocks have a closed
wise bare ground. The sand pine-scrub community is a canopy mainly of laurel and live oak. The mesic ham-
result of fires. If fire is excluded for a long time, a xeric mock has greater diversity in the understory than the
hammock type of vegetation eventually replaces the xeric. Southern magnolia and holly are indicators. A pine-
sand pine-scrub oak community. Plant succession is palmetto community occupies the poorly drained areas.
slow, however, on these dry, infertile soils. Bay heads or swamps occupy the very poorly drained
The soils in this unit are sandy and drought and have areas.
low natural fertility. For the most part, they are in natural The major soils of this unit are sandy. They become
vegetation. They are poorly suited to vegetable or field very dry after a few days without rain. During periods of
crops. Permanent pasture and citrus groves are difficult heavy rainfall, inorganic nutrients are readily leached.
to establish and maintain unless management is inten- Unless specially suited to these soils, plants require gen-
sive. erous amounts of water and regular fertilization, meas-
Some parts of the unit have been developed for urban ures that are not practical unless the plants have a high
and residential use. Except in a few low-lying areas, a economic or esthetic value. Ferns, a high value crop,
high water table is no problem. Because the sandy soils grow well on most soils of this unit, but high level man-
absorb water rapidly, runoff and erosion generally do not agement is needed. These soils are well suited to citrus,
occur unless slopes are steep or large areas have been and most of the groves are in this part of the county.
covered with housing and pavement. Lawns and gardens Improved pasture is common. The soils are moderately
well suited to drought-resistant varieties of grasses.
require liberal amounts of water and frequent applica- w ell suited to drought-resistant varieties of grasses.
Most of the older settlements in western Volusia
tions of fertilizer. Unless paved, roads and streets are
difficult to travel because of loose, dry sand. County are in this unit, and most areas are satisfactory
difficult to travel because of loose, dry sand. development. Loose sand is a problem to traf-
for urban development. Loose sand is a problem to traf-
fic unless streets and lanes are paved. Because these
3. Astatula-Tavares sandy soils are drought and have low natural fertility,
Broad, undulating ridges of excessively drained and landscaping should make maximum use of native vege-
moderately well drained, brownish and grayish, sandy station and other suitable plants.
soils, interspersed with a few sinks, lakes, and depres-
sions4. Daytona-Paola-Astatula
This map unit makes up the greater part of the Mostly long, narrow sand ridges of moderately well
DeLand and Crescent City Ridges. The topography is drained, grayish sandy soils that have an organic-stained
generally similar to that in the Paola-Orsino unit; but subsoil and excessively drained, grayish and brownish,






8 SOIL SURVEY



2. Paola-Orsino local relief is generally not so great. In addition, the soils
are not highly leached.
Broad, high ridges of excessively drained and moderately This unit makes up about 82,780 acres, or 11.6 per-
well drained, grayish sandy soils that have a yellowish cent of the county. It is about 45 percent Astatula soils,
sandy subsoil; interspersed with sinks, lakes, and wet 20 percent Tavares soils, 8 percent Deland soils, 7 per-
depressions cent Apopka soils, and 20 percent soils such as Paola,
This map unit is associated with karst ridges. The Orsino, Daytona, Cassia, and Myakka soils and small
largest area is at the southern end of the DeLand Ridge bodies of water.
in the vicinity of Deltona. Many landlocked lakes, sinks, The Astatula soils are excessively drained. They gen-
and wet depressions are distributed throughout the unit. erally occur where the landscape is rolling to undulating
Many lakes are shallow and intermittent and generally and local relief is the greatest. The Tavares soils are
have marshy vegetation, moderately well drained. They are in lower areas. The
This unit makes up about 37,100 acres, or 5.2 percent DeLand soils are well drained. They generally occur in
of the county. It is about 48 percent excessively drained nearly level areas. The Apopka soils are widely distribut-
Paola soils, which occur at the higher elevations, 14 ed along the western part of the DeLand Ridge near
percent moderately well drained Orsino soils, almost 14 DeLand and on the Crescent City Ridge in the vicinity of
percent Apopka soils, and 24 percent minor soils, such Seville.
as Daytona, Astatula, Tavares, and Immokalee soils, and Natural vegetation is commonly an open forest of
small bodies of water. longleaf pine. The understory is turkey oak, bluejack oak,
Natural vegetation on the more freely drained soils is a laurel oak, and live oak. Ground cover is mostly pineland
sand pine-scrub oak community, which serves as habitat threeawn, or wiregrass. Sawpalmetto, huckleberry,
for various kinds of wildlife. It is an open to closed gopher apple, rabbit tobacco, pricklypear, tread-softly,
canopy of sand pine and a sparse to dense understory and green-eyes are scattered but conspicuous. In areas
of scrub oak-sand live oak, myrtle oak, and Chapman's that have been protected from fire long enough, plant
oak-sawpalmetto, and staggerbush. Rosemary is a succession has resulted in the establishment of xeric
common shrub. Lichens are conspicuous on the other- and mesic hammocks. These hammocks have a closed
wise bare ground. The sand pine-scrub community is a canopy mainly of laurel and live oak. The mesic ham-
result of fires. If fire is excluded for a long time, a xeric mock has greater diversity in the understory than the
hammock type of vegetation eventually replaces the xeric. Southern magnolia and holly are indicators. A pine-
sand pine-scrub oak community. Plant succession is palmetto community occupies the poorly drained areas.
slow, however, on these dry, infertile soils. Bay heads or swamps occupy the very poorly drained
The soils in this unit are sandy and drought and have areas.
low natural fertility. For the most part, they are in natural The major soils of this unit are sandy. They become
vegetation. They are poorly suited to vegetable or field very dry after a few days without rain. During periods of
crops. Permanent pasture and citrus groves are difficult heavy rainfall, inorganic nutrients are readily leached.
to establish and maintain unless management is inten- Unless specially suited to these soils, plants require gen-
sive. erous amounts of water and regular fertilization, meas-
Some parts of the unit have been developed for urban ures that are not practical unless the plants have a high
and residential use. Except in a few low-lying areas, a economic or esthetic value. Ferns, a high value crop,
high water table is no problem. Because the sandy soils grow well on most soils of this unit, but high level man-
absorb water rapidly, runoff and erosion generally do not agement is needed. These soils are well suited to citrus,
occur unless slopes are steep or large areas have been and most of the groves are in this part of the county.
covered with housing and pavement. Lawns and gardens Improved pasture is common. The soils are moderately
well suited to drought-resistant varieties of grasses.
require liberal amounts of water and frequent applica- w ell suited to drought-resistant varieties of grasses.
Most of the older settlements in western Volusia
tions of fertilizer. Unless paved, roads and streets are
difficult to travel because of loose, dry sand. County are in this unit, and most areas are satisfactory
difficult to travel because of loose, dry sand. development. Loose sand is a problem to traf-
for urban development. Loose sand is a problem to traf-
fic unless streets and lanes are paved. Because these
3. Astatula-Tavares sandy soils are drought and have low natural fertility,
Broad, undulating ridges of excessively drained and landscaping should make maximum use of native vege-
moderately well drained, brownish and grayish, sandy station and other suitable plants.
soils, interspersed with a few sinks, lakes, and depres-
sions4. Daytona-Paola-Astatula
This map unit makes up the greater part of the Mostly long, narrow sand ridges of moderately well
DeLand and Crescent City Ridges. The topography is drained, grayish sandy soils that have an organic-stained
generally similar to that in the Paola-Orsino unit; but subsoil and excessively drained, grayish and brownish,






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 9



sandy soils; interspersed with areas of poorly drained having an organic-stained subsoil; interspersed with
and very poorly drained soils areas of poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
This map unit occurs in the eastern part of the county This map unit consists of separate areas of low sand
on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and on another former ridges. The most conspicuous is a series of ridges, in-
shoreline ridge in the eastern bay shore part of the Silver cluding Rima Ridge, along a former shoreline. Other low
Bluff Terrace, adjacent to the Atlantic Coastal Lagoons. sand ridges in the vicinity of the DeLand and Crescent
These two shoreline ridges run almost parallel to the Ridges are also part of the unit.
present shoreline. Soil characteristics are variable and This unit makes up about 11,420 acres, or 1.6 percent
frequently change within short distances. Long, narrow of the county. It is about 40 percent Daytona soils, 18
dunelike ridges of freely drained soils are commonly sep- percent Satellite soils, 7 percent Cassia soils, and about
arated by narrow swales of poorly drained and very 35 percent poorly drained to well drained minor soils.
poorly drained soils. Natural vegetation is mostly the sand pine-scrub oak
This unit makes up about 6.5 percent of the county, or type, but other plant communities are conspicuous be-
46,390 acres. It is about 14 percent Daytona soils, 13 cause of the wide variations among the soils.
percent Paola soils, and 11 percent Astatula soils. Bulow Most areas of this unit are forest and wildlife habitat.
and Cocoa soils make up about 8 percent. They are Some are improved pasture or range. A few are satellite
underlain by coquina rock of the Anastasia Formation communities of the larger urban areas nearby and con-
and are on some of the narrow ridges. The moderately tain some urban land.
well drained Orsino and Tavares soils and the somewhat Because of the wide range in soil properties in this
poorly drained Cassia soils make up about 24 percent, unit, the various soils in the unit are suited to a variety of
Poorly drained soils, such as Immokalee, Myakka, uses. Detailed soil maps should be consulted before
Smyrna, Basinger, and Riviera soils, make up about 20 general planning is undertaken.
percent, and very poorly drained soils the remaining 10
percent. Soils of the flatwoods
The vegetation in this unit, like the soils, is highly
variable. Coastal hammocks occur on the bay shore The three map units in this group are predominantly
ridge adjacent to the Halifax River and Indian River poorly drained, nearly level sandy soils that have a sea-
Lagoon. Other soils of that same shoreline ridge are sonally high water table. They are mainly on marine
covered with a dense thicket of scrub oak that is similar terraces, and they make up approximately half of the
to the sand pine-scrub oak communities on the Atlantic acreage in the county. Most of the soils in this group
Coastal Ridge but has little sand pine. The poorly have a subsoil that is stained by organic matter or iron
drained soils support a slash pine-sawpalmetto commu- and is underlain by sandy or loamy material. Scattered
nity. The very poorly drained soils are marshes or hard- swamps are throughout these areas.
wood swamps where red maple and Coastal Plain willow
are abundant. 6. Myakka-Smyrna-lmmokalee
Citrus is grown on many of the better drained soils in
this map unit, especially in the Oak Hill vicinity. There are Nearly evel, poorly drained soils that have a dark, organ-
a few areas of improved pasture. Sizeable areas where ic-stained subsoil underlain by sandy material; inter-
natural vegetation is largely intact are in the northern spersed with swamps and poorly defined drainageways
and southern parts of the unit. The southern part in- This map unit, the largest in the county, is in the broad
cludes part of the Canaveral National Seashore. flatwoods that cover a large part of the county. It makes
The central part of the unit contains some urban and up about 172,690 acres, or 24.2 percent of the county. It
suburban areas. Even in areas that are not densely set- is about 33 percent Myakka soils, 17 percent Smyrna
tied, the otherwise abandoned and undeveloped land soils, 17 percent Immokalee soils, and 33 percent minor
contains scattered subdivisions, mobile home parks, soils. Most of these minor soils are in swamps, depres-
commercial establishments, pits, canals, and other urban sions, poorly defined drainageways, and low areas adja-
development. cent to the swamps, and they are very poorly drained or
Because of the wide range in soil properties in this unit poorly drained. Only about 4 percent of the acreage in
detailed soil maps should be consulted before general the unit is somewhat poorly drained or moderately well
planning is undertaken. Onsite investigation is needed drained.
for specific uses. The major soils and many of the minor soils have a
spodic horizon, locally called a hardpan. A spodic hori-
5. Daytona-Satellite-Cassia zon is a type of subsoil into which organic matter has
been translocated and has accumulated. Even many of
Low sand ridges dominated by moderately well drained the soils in swamps in this unit have a spodic horizon,
to somewhat poorly drained, grayish sandy soils, some although the surface is covered with a shallow layer of






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 9



sandy soils; interspersed with areas of poorly drained having an organic-stained subsoil; interspersed with
and very poorly drained soils areas of poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
This map unit occurs in the eastern part of the county This map unit consists of separate areas of low sand
on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and on another former ridges. The most conspicuous is a series of ridges, in-
shoreline ridge in the eastern bay shore part of the Silver cluding Rima Ridge, along a former shoreline. Other low
Bluff Terrace, adjacent to the Atlantic Coastal Lagoons. sand ridges in the vicinity of the DeLand and Crescent
These two shoreline ridges run almost parallel to the Ridges are also part of the unit.
present shoreline. Soil characteristics are variable and This unit makes up about 11,420 acres, or 1.6 percent
frequently change within short distances. Long, narrow of the county. It is about 40 percent Daytona soils, 18
dunelike ridges of freely drained soils are commonly sep- percent Satellite soils, 7 percent Cassia soils, and about
arated by narrow swales of poorly drained and very 35 percent poorly drained to well drained minor soils.
poorly drained soils. Natural vegetation is mostly the sand pine-scrub oak
This unit makes up about 6.5 percent of the county, or type, but other plant communities are conspicuous be-
46,390 acres. It is about 14 percent Daytona soils, 13 cause of the wide variations among the soils.
percent Paola soils, and 11 percent Astatula soils. Bulow Most areas of this unit are forest and wildlife habitat.
and Cocoa soils make up about 8 percent. They are Some are improved pasture or range. A few are satellite
underlain by coquina rock of the Anastasia Formation communities of the larger urban areas nearby and con-
and are on some of the narrow ridges. The moderately tain some urban land.
well drained Orsino and Tavares soils and the somewhat Because of the wide range in soil properties in this
poorly drained Cassia soils make up about 24 percent, unit, the various soils in the unit are suited to a variety of
Poorly drained soils, such as Immokalee, Myakka, uses. Detailed soil maps should be consulted before
Smyrna, Basinger, and Riviera soils, make up about 20 general planning is undertaken.
percent, and very poorly drained soils the remaining 10
percent. Soils of the flatwoods
The vegetation in this unit, like the soils, is highly
variable. Coastal hammocks occur on the bay shore The three map units in this group are predominantly
ridge adjacent to the Halifax River and Indian River poorly drained, nearly level sandy soils that have a sea-
Lagoon. Other soils of that same shoreline ridge are sonally high water table. They are mainly on marine
covered with a dense thicket of scrub oak that is similar terraces, and they make up approximately half of the
to the sand pine-scrub oak communities on the Atlantic acreage in the county. Most of the soils in this group
Coastal Ridge but has little sand pine. The poorly have a subsoil that is stained by organic matter or iron
drained soils support a slash pine-sawpalmetto commu- and is underlain by sandy or loamy material. Scattered
nity. The very poorly drained soils are marshes or hard- swamps are throughout these areas.
wood swamps where red maple and Coastal Plain willow
are abundant. 6. Myakka-Smyrna-lmmokalee
Citrus is grown on many of the better drained soils in
this map unit, especially in the Oak Hill vicinity. There are Nearly evel, poorly drained soils that have a dark, organ-
a few areas of improved pasture. Sizeable areas where ic-stained subsoil underlain by sandy material; inter-
natural vegetation is largely intact are in the northern spersed with swamps and poorly defined drainageways
and southern parts of the unit. The southern part in- This map unit, the largest in the county, is in the broad
cludes part of the Canaveral National Seashore. flatwoods that cover a large part of the county. It makes
The central part of the unit contains some urban and up about 172,690 acres, or 24.2 percent of the county. It
suburban areas. Even in areas that are not densely set- is about 33 percent Myakka soils, 17 percent Smyrna
tied, the otherwise abandoned and undeveloped land soils, 17 percent Immokalee soils, and 33 percent minor
contains scattered subdivisions, mobile home parks, soils. Most of these minor soils are in swamps, depres-
commercial establishments, pits, canals, and other urban sions, poorly defined drainageways, and low areas adja-
development. cent to the swamps, and they are very poorly drained or
Because of the wide range in soil properties in this unit poorly drained. Only about 4 percent of the acreage in
detailed soil maps should be consulted before general the unit is somewhat poorly drained or moderately well
planning is undertaken. Onsite investigation is needed drained.
for specific uses. The major soils and many of the minor soils have a
spodic horizon, locally called a hardpan. A spodic hori-
5. Daytona-Satellite-Cassia zon is a type of subsoil into which organic matter has
been translocated and has accumulated. Even many of
Low sand ridges dominated by moderately well drained the soils in swamps in this unit have a spodic horizon,
to somewhat poorly drained, grayish sandy soils, some although the surface is covered with a shallow layer of






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 9



sandy soils; interspersed with areas of poorly drained having an organic-stained subsoil; interspersed with
and very poorly drained soils areas of poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
This map unit occurs in the eastern part of the county This map unit consists of separate areas of low sand
on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and on another former ridges. The most conspicuous is a series of ridges, in-
shoreline ridge in the eastern bay shore part of the Silver cluding Rima Ridge, along a former shoreline. Other low
Bluff Terrace, adjacent to the Atlantic Coastal Lagoons. sand ridges in the vicinity of the DeLand and Crescent
These two shoreline ridges run almost parallel to the Ridges are also part of the unit.
present shoreline. Soil characteristics are variable and This unit makes up about 11,420 acres, or 1.6 percent
frequently change within short distances. Long, narrow of the county. It is about 40 percent Daytona soils, 18
dunelike ridges of freely drained soils are commonly sep- percent Satellite soils, 7 percent Cassia soils, and about
arated by narrow swales of poorly drained and very 35 percent poorly drained to well drained minor soils.
poorly drained soils. Natural vegetation is mostly the sand pine-scrub oak
This unit makes up about 6.5 percent of the county, or type, but other plant communities are conspicuous be-
46,390 acres. It is about 14 percent Daytona soils, 13 cause of the wide variations among the soils.
percent Paola soils, and 11 percent Astatula soils. Bulow Most areas of this unit are forest and wildlife habitat.
and Cocoa soils make up about 8 percent. They are Some are improved pasture or range. A few are satellite
underlain by coquina rock of the Anastasia Formation communities of the larger urban areas nearby and con-
and are on some of the narrow ridges. The moderately tain some urban land.
well drained Orsino and Tavares soils and the somewhat Because of the wide range in soil properties in this
poorly drained Cassia soils make up about 24 percent, unit, the various soils in the unit are suited to a variety of
Poorly drained soils, such as Immokalee, Myakka, uses. Detailed soil maps should be consulted before
Smyrna, Basinger, and Riviera soils, make up about 20 general planning is undertaken.
percent, and very poorly drained soils the remaining 10
percent. Soils of the flatwoods
The vegetation in this unit, like the soils, is highly
variable. Coastal hammocks occur on the bay shore The three map units in this group are predominantly
ridge adjacent to the Halifax River and Indian River poorly drained, nearly level sandy soils that have a sea-
Lagoon. Other soils of that same shoreline ridge are sonally high water table. They are mainly on marine
covered with a dense thicket of scrub oak that is similar terraces, and they make up approximately half of the
to the sand pine-scrub oak communities on the Atlantic acreage in the county. Most of the soils in this group
Coastal Ridge but has little sand pine. The poorly have a subsoil that is stained by organic matter or iron
drained soils support a slash pine-sawpalmetto commu- and is underlain by sandy or loamy material. Scattered
nity. The very poorly drained soils are marshes or hard- swamps are throughout these areas.
wood swamps where red maple and Coastal Plain willow
are abundant. 6. Myakka-Smyrna-lmmokalee
Citrus is grown on many of the better drained soils in
this map unit, especially in the Oak Hill vicinity. There are Nearly evel, poorly drained soils that have a dark, organ-
a few areas of improved pasture. Sizeable areas where ic-stained subsoil underlain by sandy material; inter-
natural vegetation is largely intact are in the northern spersed with swamps and poorly defined drainageways
and southern parts of the unit. The southern part in- This map unit, the largest in the county, is in the broad
cludes part of the Canaveral National Seashore. flatwoods that cover a large part of the county. It makes
The central part of the unit contains some urban and up about 172,690 acres, or 24.2 percent of the county. It
suburban areas. Even in areas that are not densely set- is about 33 percent Myakka soils, 17 percent Smyrna
tied, the otherwise abandoned and undeveloped land soils, 17 percent Immokalee soils, and 33 percent minor
contains scattered subdivisions, mobile home parks, soils. Most of these minor soils are in swamps, depres-
commercial establishments, pits, canals, and other urban sions, poorly defined drainageways, and low areas adja-
development. cent to the swamps, and they are very poorly drained or
Because of the wide range in soil properties in this unit poorly drained. Only about 4 percent of the acreage in
detailed soil maps should be consulted before general the unit is somewhat poorly drained or moderately well
planning is undertaken. Onsite investigation is needed drained.
for specific uses. The major soils and many of the minor soils have a
spodic horizon, locally called a hardpan. A spodic hori-
5. Daytona-Satellite-Cassia zon is a type of subsoil into which organic matter has
been translocated and has accumulated. Even many of
Low sand ridges dominated by moderately well drained the soils in swamps in this unit have a spodic horizon,
to somewhat poorly drained, grayish sandy soils, some although the surface is covered with a shallow layer of






10 SOIL SURVEY



muck. Almost all soils of this unit are sandy to a depth of This unit is similar to the Myakka-Smyrna-lmmokalee
80 inches (2 meters) or more. unit. Vegetation in both is the pine-palmetto type of
Natural vegetation consists of pine-palmetto communi- flatwoods, often called "acid flatwoods" because the
ties. Most of the trees are slash pine, but longleaf and soils are acid. The major difference between this unit
pond pine are common in some areas. The understory is and the Myakka-Smyrna-lmmokalee unit is that in this
a thick, scrubby growth of sawpalmetto and other unit the major soils have a loamy subsoil below the
shrubs, such as gallberry and fetterbush. Unless the area spodic horizon. Use and management of soils in the two
is entirely covered with sawpalmetto, the ground cover units are similar.
consists mostly of pineland threeawn, or wiregrass, and
some bluestem (fig. 4). Dwarf huckleberry is common in 8. Pineda-Malabar-Wabasso
many areas.
The pine-palmetto flatwoods are considered to be a Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a yellowish,
fire subclimax. They have a history of frequent fires, iron-stained subsoil or a dark, organic-stained subsoil
caused either by lightning or by man. The flatwoods are and are underlain by loamy material; interspersed with
often burned to destroy the palmetto foliage so that swamps and depressions
grasses can grow as feed for range cattle. Sawpalmetto T m .
is more scattered in the poorly defined drainageways. It Ths map unit s mostly along the St. Johns River in
is generally replaced by grasses, such as blue maiden- the southern part of the county. Smaller areas are asso-
is generally replaced by grasses, such as blue maiden- ciated with the Pamlico Terrace, especially in the vicinity
cane and pineland threeawn, and sometimes by shrubs, ated wth the Pamlico Terrace, especially in the vicinit
such as gallberry and waxmyrtle. Vegetation in the de- of Samsula and the Tomoka Farms Road. This unit
pressions is grassy, and the shrubby St.-Johnswort is a makes up about 34,960 acres, or 4.9 percent of the
conspicuous component. county. It is about 23 percent Pineda soils, 23 percent
Most soils of this unit have a seasonal high water Malabar soils, 14 percent Wabasso soils, 9 percent Eau-
table (fig. 5). This creates problems because water Gallie soils, 7 percent Riviera soils, and 24 percent other
stands at or near the surface during the rainy season. minor soils. Almost half the acreage of the minor soils is
During the dry season, however, the water table re- in swamps, and the soils are very poorly drained or
cedes, and these sandy soils become drought. poorly drained.
A large part of this unit is used as range and improved This unit is closely associated with the Pomona-Wau-
pasture, for production of pines, and as a habitat for chula unit. In natural areas, however, it is generally in
wildlife. The soils are well suited to, or have good poten- slightly lower or wetter positions. Wabasso soils and
tial for, all of these uses. Vegetables, such as cabbages, other soils that have a spodic horizon are generally a
sweet peppers, watermelons, and cucumbers, are grown few inches higher in elevation than the Pineda and Mala-
in some areas. A system of ditches for drainage and bar soils, which have a yellowish, iron-stained subsoil.
irrigation is needed. Like soils of the Pomona-Wauchula unit, the major soils
The major limitation to the use of these soils for urban of this unit have a loamy subsoil. In this unit, however,
development is the wetness or the seasonal high water the subsoil generally has a higher concentration of
table. This limitation can be overcome. Often, corrective bases, especially calcium, resulting in soils that are less
measures are impractical because of expense and other acid in reaction. These areas are sometimes referred to
restrictions, as "sweet flatwoods."
Natural vegetation on this unit (fig. 6) tends to be more
7. Pomona-Wauchula grassy and have fewer slash pines and sawpalmettos
than the vegetation on the other two flatwoods units.
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a dark, organ- The scattered clumps of sawpalmetto are more numer-
ic-stained subsoil underlain by loamy material; inter- ous on soils that have a spodic horizon. Cabbage palm
spersed with swamps and depressions and waxmyrtle are common. In spring, flowering herba-
This map unit, the second largest in the county, covers ceous plants, such as butterworts, pitcher plants, and
a large part of the Pamlico and Talbot Terraces. It violets, are conspicuous.
makes up about 127,160 acres, or 17.8 percent of the In the lower areas of this unit the soils have a high
county. It is about 43 percent Pomona soils, 11 percent water table that may rise a few inches above the surface
Wauchula soils, 12 percent closely related soils, such as during the rainy season. Because of wetness, the soils
EauGallie and Wabasso soils, 6 percent Malabar and have severe limitations for urban development. Slash
Pineda soils, and 28 percent minor soils. Most of the pine grows well if bedding or drainage can be installed to
minor soils occur in swamps, depressions, poorly defined remove surface water. Most areas are range or improved
drainageways, and low areas adjacent to the swamps, pasture. Because these soils are less acid and have
and they are very poorly drained or poorly drained. Only fewer sawpalmetto than other flatwoods areas, they are
about 2 percent of the acreage is somewhat poorly more easily adapted to the production of row crops.
drained or moderately well drained. Excavating canals for irrigation and removing excess






10 SOIL SURVEY



muck. Almost all soils of this unit are sandy to a depth of This unit is similar to the Myakka-Smyrna-lmmokalee
80 inches (2 meters) or more. unit. Vegetation in both is the pine-palmetto type of
Natural vegetation consists of pine-palmetto communi- flatwoods, often called "acid flatwoods" because the
ties. Most of the trees are slash pine, but longleaf and soils are acid. The major difference between this unit
pond pine are common in some areas. The understory is and the Myakka-Smyrna-lmmokalee unit is that in this
a thick, scrubby growth of sawpalmetto and other unit the major soils have a loamy subsoil below the
shrubs, such as gallberry and fetterbush. Unless the area spodic horizon. Use and management of soils in the two
is entirely covered with sawpalmetto, the ground cover units are similar.
consists mostly of pineland threeawn, or wiregrass, and
some bluestem (fig. 4). Dwarf huckleberry is common in 8. Pineda-Malabar-Wabasso
many areas.
The pine-palmetto flatwoods are considered to be a Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a yellowish,
fire subclimax. They have a history of frequent fires, iron-stained subsoil or a dark, organic-stained subsoil
caused either by lightning or by man. The flatwoods are and are underlain by loamy material; interspersed with
often burned to destroy the palmetto foliage so that swamps and depressions
grasses can grow as feed for range cattle. Sawpalmetto T m .
is more scattered in the poorly defined drainageways. It Ths map unit s mostly along the St. Johns River in
is generally replaced by grasses, such as blue maiden- the southern part of the county. Smaller areas are asso-
is generally replaced by grasses, such as blue maiden- ciated with the Pamlico Terrace, especially in the vicinity
cane and pineland threeawn, and sometimes by shrubs, ated wth the Pamlico Terrace, especially in the vicinit
such as gallberry and waxmyrtle. Vegetation in the de- of Samsula and the Tomoka Farms Road. This unit
pressions is grassy, and the shrubby St.-Johnswort is a makes up about 34,960 acres, or 4.9 percent of the
conspicuous component. county. It is about 23 percent Pineda soils, 23 percent
Most soils of this unit have a seasonal high water Malabar soils, 14 percent Wabasso soils, 9 percent Eau-
table (fig. 5). This creates problems because water Gallie soils, 7 percent Riviera soils, and 24 percent other
stands at or near the surface during the rainy season. minor soils. Almost half the acreage of the minor soils is
During the dry season, however, the water table re- in swamps, and the soils are very poorly drained or
cedes, and these sandy soils become drought. poorly drained.
A large part of this unit is used as range and improved This unit is closely associated with the Pomona-Wau-
pasture, for production of pines, and as a habitat for chula unit. In natural areas, however, it is generally in
wildlife. The soils are well suited to, or have good poten- slightly lower or wetter positions. Wabasso soils and
tial for, all of these uses. Vegetables, such as cabbages, other soils that have a spodic horizon are generally a
sweet peppers, watermelons, and cucumbers, are grown few inches higher in elevation than the Pineda and Mala-
in some areas. A system of ditches for drainage and bar soils, which have a yellowish, iron-stained subsoil.
irrigation is needed. Like soils of the Pomona-Wauchula unit, the major soils
The major limitation to the use of these soils for urban of this unit have a loamy subsoil. In this unit, however,
development is the wetness or the seasonal high water the subsoil generally has a higher concentration of
table. This limitation can be overcome. Often, corrective bases, especially calcium, resulting in soils that are less
measures are impractical because of expense and other acid in reaction. These areas are sometimes referred to
restrictions, as "sweet flatwoods."
Natural vegetation on this unit (fig. 6) tends to be more
7. Pomona-Wauchula grassy and have fewer slash pines and sawpalmettos
than the vegetation on the other two flatwoods units.
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a dark, organ- The scattered clumps of sawpalmetto are more numer-
ic-stained subsoil underlain by loamy material; inter- ous on soils that have a spodic horizon. Cabbage palm
spersed with swamps and depressions and waxmyrtle are common. In spring, flowering herba-
This map unit, the second largest in the county, covers ceous plants, such as butterworts, pitcher plants, and
a large part of the Pamlico and Talbot Terraces. It violets, are conspicuous.
makes up about 127,160 acres, or 17.8 percent of the In the lower areas of this unit the soils have a high
county. It is about 43 percent Pomona soils, 11 percent water table that may rise a few inches above the surface
Wauchula soils, 12 percent closely related soils, such as during the rainy season. Because of wetness, the soils
EauGallie and Wabasso soils, 6 percent Malabar and have severe limitations for urban development. Slash
Pineda soils, and 28 percent minor soils. Most of the pine grows well if bedding or drainage can be installed to
minor soils occur in swamps, depressions, poorly defined remove surface water. Most areas are range or improved
drainageways, and low areas adjacent to the swamps, pasture. Because these soils are less acid and have
and they are very poorly drained or poorly drained. Only fewer sawpalmetto than other flatwoods areas, they are
about 2 percent of the acreage is somewhat poorly more easily adapted to the production of row crops.
drained or moderately well drained. Excavating canals for irrigation and removing excess







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA


water, however, are still needed. A supply of fresh water Nova Road. Deep canals have been dug to remove
for irrigation is also important during dry periods, surface water, but during periods of frequent and heavy
rains, removing the water is not always successful. Low
Soils of low-lying hammocks elevation and separation from the ocean by higher areas
Soils f low-lying hammocks contribute to the difficulty in draining this unit. This area
This map unit makes up almost all of the lower, west- has a maximum elevation of about 10 feet, and much of
ern part of the Silver Bluff Terrace, about 3.9 percent of it is less than 5 feet above mean sea level.
the acreage in the county.
Soils of the St. Johns River flood plain
9. Tuscawilla-Chobee
This map unit consists mostly of low areas along the
Lowlands of poorly drained and very poorly drained soils St. Johns River that are subject to periodic flooding.
that have a thin sandy surface layer over a loamy calcar- Some of the low areas have standing water most of the
eous subsoil time. Others are low-lying hammocks that are occasion-
This map unit makes up about 27,830 acres, or 3.9 ally or never flooded. This unit makes up about 3.9
percent of the county. It is about 50 percent Tuscawilla percent of the acreage in the county.
soils and 24 percent Chobee soils. The remaining 26
percent is minor soils, such as Wabasso, EauGallie, 10. Bluff-Tequesta-Astor
Myakka variant, Riviera, and Holopaw soils. Tuscawilla
soils are poorly drained and typically have a microrelief Low-lying, predominantly poorly drained and very poorly
drained soils that have a thick, dark surface layer or a
of slightly elevated hammocks. In the lower areas, the drained soils that have a thick, dark surface layer or a
very poorly drained Chobee soils form a braided drain- thin layer of muck; interspersed with marshes, swamps,
age pattern. Most soils of this unit have a thin sandy organic soils, and low hammocks
surface layer and a loamy calcareous subsoil underlain This map unit is on lowlands along the St. Johns River
by sand and shells. and its tributaries. It makes up about 27,830 acres, or
Natural vegetation on this unit is mainly a hardwood or 3.9 percent of the county. It is about 26 percent Bluff
hydric hammock. As in the other hammocks in the soils, 14 percent Tequesta soils, and 14 percent Astor
county, there are large live oaks and laurel oaks. Cab- soils. The lowest areas, the organic soils, make up about
bage palm is abundant. Deciduous hardwoods, such as 10 percent of the unit. The more elevated areas, the
red maple, sweetgum, and American hornbeam, are EauGallie, Wabasso, and other soils that have a dark,
abundant. There are also many other hardwood trees, organic-stained subsoil, make up about 5 percent. About
such as water oak, pumpkin ash, Florida elm, boxelder, 10 percent is Riviera soils, 4 percent is Paisley soils, 4
Florida basswood, and water hickory. Southern magnolia percent is Winder soils, 2 percent is Holopaw soils, and
is obvious in higher areas. Such shrubs as yaupon, little 7 percent is Fluvaquents. Other minor soils make up the
bluestem, palmetto, red buckeye, and hop tree are local- remaining 4 percent of the unit.
ly common. Jack-in-the-pulpit, green dragon, and other Both Bluff and Astor soils are mineral soils that have a
plants that are common farther north are also present. large amount of organic matter in the dark surface layer.
The very poorly drained part of this unit dominated by Astor soils are deep and sandy. Bluff soils have a loamy
Chobee soils has mixed swamp vegetation, mostly red surface layer and a loamy subsoil. Tequesta soils have a
maple and Carolina ash and an abundance of baldcy- loamy subsoil and a surface layer of organic matter that
press in the lowest spots. In addition to the highly di- is too thin for classification as an organic soil. Fluva-
verse flora, the area has a rich fauna that includes the quents are stratified. The Terra Ceia muck and Gator
rare, large, and docile indigo snake. muck are organic soils. Most of the other soils in the unit
Much of this unit remains in natural vegetation and is are variable in texture and in depth to a loamy subsoil.
used as wildlife habitat. It is wet much of the time, and Natural vegetation on this unit is as variable as the
the clay in the shallow subsoil impedes the use of heavy soils, and differences in vegetation do not necessarily
equipment. Swarms of mosquitoes are a nuisance. If correspond to soil boundaries. The vegetation is
water control is feasible, a variety of ornamental vegeta- swamps, wet grasslands, and low hammocks. Wet grass-
ble plants can be grown. Citrus is grown in some areas, lands, consisting of wet prairies and freshwater marshes,
but bedding or other practices to alleviate wetness are are dominant along the St. Johns River from Lake
needed. Woodruff southward. The wetter areas are marshes
Some parts of this unit are in urban areas, especially Sawgrass is common where water is deepest. Sand
in the vicinity of Daytona Beach. Because of wetness, cordgrass grows around the edges of the marsh. In
these areas were among the last to be developed, and some marshes, cattail and pickerelweed predominate.
several forested areas are still mostly undisturbed. Shells The largest part of the wetlands is wet prairie where the
and marl, materials used in road construction, are abun- duration of flooding or standing water is less than in the
dant, and there are numerous pits, as is evident along marshes. Vegetation on the wet prairie consists of scat-







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA


water, however, are still needed. A supply of fresh water Nova Road. Deep canals have been dug to remove
for irrigation is also important during dry periods, surface water, but during periods of frequent and heavy
rains, removing the water is not always successful. Low
Soils of low-lying hammocks elevation and separation from the ocean by higher areas
Soils f low-lying hammocks contribute to the difficulty in draining this unit. This area
This map unit makes up almost all of the lower, west- has a maximum elevation of about 10 feet, and much of
ern part of the Silver Bluff Terrace, about 3.9 percent of it is less than 5 feet above mean sea level.
the acreage in the county.
Soils of the St. Johns River flood plain
9. Tuscawilla-Chobee
This map unit consists mostly of low areas along the
Lowlands of poorly drained and very poorly drained soils St. Johns River that are subject to periodic flooding.
that have a thin sandy surface layer over a loamy calcar- Some of the low areas have standing water most of the
eous subsoil time. Others are low-lying hammocks that are occasion-
This map unit makes up about 27,830 acres, or 3.9 ally or never flooded. This unit makes up about 3.9
percent of the county. It is about 50 percent Tuscawilla percent of the acreage in the county.
soils and 24 percent Chobee soils. The remaining 26
percent is minor soils, such as Wabasso, EauGallie, 10. Bluff-Tequesta-Astor
Myakka variant, Riviera, and Holopaw soils. Tuscawilla
soils are poorly drained and typically have a microrelief Low-lying, predominantly poorly drained and very poorly
drained soils that have a thick, dark surface layer or a
of slightly elevated hammocks. In the lower areas, the drained soils that have a thick, dark surface layer or a
very poorly drained Chobee soils form a braided drain- thin layer of muck; interspersed with marshes, swamps,
age pattern. Most soils of this unit have a thin sandy organic soils, and low hammocks
surface layer and a loamy calcareous subsoil underlain This map unit is on lowlands along the St. Johns River
by sand and shells. and its tributaries. It makes up about 27,830 acres, or
Natural vegetation on this unit is mainly a hardwood or 3.9 percent of the county. It is about 26 percent Bluff
hydric hammock. As in the other hammocks in the soils, 14 percent Tequesta soils, and 14 percent Astor
county, there are large live oaks and laurel oaks. Cab- soils. The lowest areas, the organic soils, make up about
bage palm is abundant. Deciduous hardwoods, such as 10 percent of the unit. The more elevated areas, the
red maple, sweetgum, and American hornbeam, are EauGallie, Wabasso, and other soils that have a dark,
abundant. There are also many other hardwood trees, organic-stained subsoil, make up about 5 percent. About
such as water oak, pumpkin ash, Florida elm, boxelder, 10 percent is Riviera soils, 4 percent is Paisley soils, 4
Florida basswood, and water hickory. Southern magnolia percent is Winder soils, 2 percent is Holopaw soils, and
is obvious in higher areas. Such shrubs as yaupon, little 7 percent is Fluvaquents. Other minor soils make up the
bluestem, palmetto, red buckeye, and hop tree are local- remaining 4 percent of the unit.
ly common. Jack-in-the-pulpit, green dragon, and other Both Bluff and Astor soils are mineral soils that have a
plants that are common farther north are also present. large amount of organic matter in the dark surface layer.
The very poorly drained part of this unit dominated by Astor soils are deep and sandy. Bluff soils have a loamy
Chobee soils has mixed swamp vegetation, mostly red surface layer and a loamy subsoil. Tequesta soils have a
maple and Carolina ash and an abundance of baldcy- loamy subsoil and a surface layer of organic matter that
press in the lowest spots. In addition to the highly di- is too thin for classification as an organic soil. Fluva-
verse flora, the area has a rich fauna that includes the quents are stratified. The Terra Ceia muck and Gator
rare, large, and docile indigo snake. muck are organic soils. Most of the other soils in the unit
Much of this unit remains in natural vegetation and is are variable in texture and in depth to a loamy subsoil.
used as wildlife habitat. It is wet much of the time, and Natural vegetation on this unit is as variable as the
the clay in the shallow subsoil impedes the use of heavy soils, and differences in vegetation do not necessarily
equipment. Swarms of mosquitoes are a nuisance. If correspond to soil boundaries. The vegetation is
water control is feasible, a variety of ornamental vegeta- swamps, wet grasslands, and low hammocks. Wet grass-
ble plants can be grown. Citrus is grown in some areas, lands, consisting of wet prairies and freshwater marshes,
but bedding or other practices to alleviate wetness are are dominant along the St. Johns River from Lake
needed. Woodruff southward. The wetter areas are marshes
Some parts of this unit are in urban areas, especially Sawgrass is common where water is deepest. Sand
in the vicinity of Daytona Beach. Because of wetness, cordgrass grows around the edges of the marsh. In
these areas were among the last to be developed, and some marshes, cattail and pickerelweed predominate.
several forested areas are still mostly undisturbed. Shells The largest part of the wetlands is wet prairie where the
and marl, materials used in road construction, are abun- duration of flooding or standing water is less than in the
dant, and there are numerous pits, as is evident along marshes. Vegetation on the wet prairie consists of scat-







12 SOIL SURVEY



tered bunches of sand cordgrass among shorter grasses is deeper. The larger areas of marsh are around Lake
and sedges. Scattered clumps of cabbage palm are gen- Woodruff and in the vicinity of Crescent Lake. Smaller
erally on slightly elevated areas within the prairie. Low, marshes are in other areas, especially along the St.
or hydric, hammocks, consisting of an abundance of Johns River.
cabbage palm and live oak and often sweetgum and Hardwood swamps are extensive around Crescent
other hardwoods, are at the edges of many of the wet Lake and at intervals along the St. Johns River. Some
grasslands. are in other areas where alkaline material has influenced
Along Deep Creek and northward to Lake Ashby, as the lower, nonorganic part of the soil. Trees that are
well as in most areas of this unit of Lake Woodruff, common in hardwood swamps are red maple, baldcy-
hardwood vegetation is dominant. It is much like that in press, swamp tupelo, Carolina ash, water hickory, water
the Tuscawilla-Chobee unit, but it has less diversity, locust, and Coastal Plain willow. Buttonbush, stiffcornel
Many areas of hardwood swamps merge gradually and dogwood, and royal fern are also conspicuous.
imperceptibly into hydric hammocks. Baldcypress, red Cypress swamps are extensive in the central part of
maple, swamp tupelo, and Carolina ash are abundant in the county. The trees are dominantly pond cypress, bald-
wetter areas; live oak and southern magnolia are con- cypress along streams, and some loblolly bay, swamp
spicuous in higher areas. Cabbage palm, sweetgum, bay, and swamp tupelo. The ground cover is commonly
laurel oak, water oak, and American hornbeam are abun- marsh and Virginia chain ferns along with water-tolerant
dant. Loblolly pine is present in areas near Lake George. grasses. Many cypress swamps are bordered by an area
The major soils of this unit are not suited to urban covered with grasses, often maidencane, and scattered
development because of wetness and periodic flooding. St.-Johnswort. Because cypress trees are likely to in-
Wet prairies are used as range and, in some areas, as crease in size from the grassy margins towards the
improved pasture. The forested areas serve as habitat center of the swamp, these swamps often appear as
for various kinds of wildlife, including the bald eagle, domes and are commonly called cypress domes or cy-
press heads.
Soils of the inland and coastal wetlands Bay swamps are dominated by broadleaf evergreen
trees-loblolly bay, swamp bay, or sweet bay, or a com-
The two map units in this group consist almost entirely bination of the three. Evergreen shrubs and greenbriers
of very poorly drained soils. The coastal wetlands are in are also conspicuous. Bay swamps, or bays are more
the Atlantic Coastal Lagoons. The inland wetlands, domi- common in depressions in the DeLand Ridge, Crescent
nated by organic soils, are the larger swamps and City Ridge, and the Rima Ridge range.
marshes that are widely distributed throughout much of The soils in this unit have major limitations for urban
the county. These map units make up about one-fifth of development. Water stands on the surface permanently
the acreage in the county. or for very long periods. Most areas are in positions that
cannot be easily drained. Even if the soils are drained,
11. Samsula-Terra Ceia-Tomoka they are subject to oxidation of the organic material, and
s a m d b o s they gradually subside or settle. A few small areas have
Swamps and marshes dominated by organic sois a water control system and are used for vegetables or
The soils of this map unit occur in wetland swamps improved pasture. Most areas are in natural vegetation
and marshes. The unit makes up about 113,460 acres, and are valuable for water storage and potential re-
or 15.9 percent of the county. It is about 25 percent charge. These areas are important as wildlife habitat.
Samsula soils, 23 percent Terra Ceia soils, 12 percent Large areas of this unit occur in the Lake Woodruff,
Tomoka soils, 11 percent Hontoon soils, and 6 percent Farmton, and Tomoka Wildlife Management Areas.
Gator soils. About 10 percent of the unit is Tequesta
soils in swamps. These soils have a surface layer of 12. Hydraquents-Turnbull
muck that is too thin for the soils to be classified as
organic. Soils in depressional areas make up about 5 floong a a a
percent of the unit, and the remaining 8 percent consists
of poorly drained soils, such as Myakka, Smyrna, This map unit encompasses Atlantic Coastal Lagoons.
Pomona, EauGallie, Malabar, and Valkaria soils. Only the It makes up about 20,070 acres, or 2.8 percent of the
larger areas of swamps and marshes are in this unit; the county. It is about 53 percent Hydraquents and 32 per-
smaller areas are widely distributed throughout the cent Turnbull soils. Minor soils, mostly Canaveral variant
county and are included in other units. soils, make up the remaining 15 percent.
The natural vegetation of these wetlands is freshwater Hydraquents and Turnbull soils are subject to storm-
marshes dominated by grasses and grasslike plants and driven tides. Most areas are inundated twice daily at high
swamps dominated by trees and other woody plants, tide. The soils formed through the deposition of fine
The marshes are mostly covered with sand cordgrass sediments among the stems and roots of halophytic
where the water is more shallow and sawgrass where it plants. They have low strength and cannot support







12 SOIL SURVEY



tered bunches of sand cordgrass among shorter grasses is deeper. The larger areas of marsh are around Lake
and sedges. Scattered clumps of cabbage palm are gen- Woodruff and in the vicinity of Crescent Lake. Smaller
erally on slightly elevated areas within the prairie. Low, marshes are in other areas, especially along the St.
or hydric, hammocks, consisting of an abundance of Johns River.
cabbage palm and live oak and often sweetgum and Hardwood swamps are extensive around Crescent
other hardwoods, are at the edges of many of the wet Lake and at intervals along the St. Johns River. Some
grasslands. are in other areas where alkaline material has influenced
Along Deep Creek and northward to Lake Ashby, as the lower, nonorganic part of the soil. Trees that are
well as in most areas of this unit of Lake Woodruff, common in hardwood swamps are red maple, baldcy-
hardwood vegetation is dominant. It is much like that in press, swamp tupelo, Carolina ash, water hickory, water
the Tuscawilla-Chobee unit, but it has less diversity, locust, and Coastal Plain willow. Buttonbush, stiffcornel
Many areas of hardwood swamps merge gradually and dogwood, and royal fern are also conspicuous.
imperceptibly into hydric hammocks. Baldcypress, red Cypress swamps are extensive in the central part of
maple, swamp tupelo, and Carolina ash are abundant in the county. The trees are dominantly pond cypress, bald-
wetter areas; live oak and southern magnolia are con- cypress along streams, and some loblolly bay, swamp
spicuous in higher areas. Cabbage palm, sweetgum, bay, and swamp tupelo. The ground cover is commonly
laurel oak, water oak, and American hornbeam are abun- marsh and Virginia chain ferns along with water-tolerant
dant. Loblolly pine is present in areas near Lake George. grasses. Many cypress swamps are bordered by an area
The major soils of this unit are not suited to urban covered with grasses, often maidencane, and scattered
development because of wetness and periodic flooding. St.-Johnswort. Because cypress trees are likely to in-
Wet prairies are used as range and, in some areas, as crease in size from the grassy margins towards the
improved pasture. The forested areas serve as habitat center of the swamp, these swamps often appear as
for various kinds of wildlife, including the bald eagle, domes and are commonly called cypress domes or cy-
press heads.
Soils of the inland and coastal wetlands Bay swamps are dominated by broadleaf evergreen
trees-loblolly bay, swamp bay, or sweet bay, or a com-
The two map units in this group consist almost entirely bination of the three. Evergreen shrubs and greenbriers
of very poorly drained soils. The coastal wetlands are in are also conspicuous. Bay swamps, or bays are more
the Atlantic Coastal Lagoons. The inland wetlands, domi- common in depressions in the DeLand Ridge, Crescent
nated by organic soils, are the larger swamps and City Ridge, and the Rima Ridge range.
marshes that are widely distributed throughout much of The soils in this unit have major limitations for urban
the county. These map units make up about one-fifth of development. Water stands on the surface permanently
the acreage in the county. or for very long periods. Most areas are in positions that
cannot be easily drained. Even if the soils are drained,
11. Samsula-Terra Ceia-Tomoka they are subject to oxidation of the organic material, and
s a m d b o s they gradually subside or settle. A few small areas have
Swamps and marshes dominated by organic sois a water control system and are used for vegetables or
The soils of this map unit occur in wetland swamps improved pasture. Most areas are in natural vegetation
and marshes. The unit makes up about 113,460 acres, and are valuable for water storage and potential re-
or 15.9 percent of the county. It is about 25 percent charge. These areas are important as wildlife habitat.
Samsula soils, 23 percent Terra Ceia soils, 12 percent Large areas of this unit occur in the Lake Woodruff,
Tomoka soils, 11 percent Hontoon soils, and 6 percent Farmton, and Tomoka Wildlife Management Areas.
Gator soils. About 10 percent of the unit is Tequesta
soils in swamps. These soils have a surface layer of 12. Hydraquents-Turnbull
muck that is too thin for the soils to be classified as
organic. Soils in depressional areas make up about 5 floong a a a
percent of the unit, and the remaining 8 percent consists
of poorly drained soils, such as Myakka, Smyrna, This map unit encompasses Atlantic Coastal Lagoons.
Pomona, EauGallie, Malabar, and Valkaria soils. Only the It makes up about 20,070 acres, or 2.8 percent of the
larger areas of swamps and marshes are in this unit; the county. It is about 53 percent Hydraquents and 32 per-
smaller areas are widely distributed throughout the cent Turnbull soils. Minor soils, mostly Canaveral variant
county and are included in other units. soils, make up the remaining 15 percent.
The natural vegetation of these wetlands is freshwater Hydraquents and Turnbull soils are subject to storm-
marshes dominated by grasses and grasslike plants and driven tides. Most areas are inundated twice daily at high
swamps dominated by trees and other woody plants, tide. The soils formed through the deposition of fine
The marshes are mostly covered with sand cordgrass sediments among the stems and roots of halophytic
where the water is more shallow and sawgrass where it plants. They have low strength and cannot support







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 13



heavy loads. The Canaveral variant soils consist of sand The potential of a soil is in the capacity of that soil to
and shells that have been dredged from adjacent waters produce, yield, or support the given structure or activity
and heaped or spread on the Hydraquents or Turnbull at a cost expressed in economic, social, or environmen-
soils. Most of the dredging was done to elevate areas for tal units of value. The criteria used for rating soil poten-
buildings or to deepen the Intercoastal Waterway. tial include the relative difficulty or cost of overcoming
Natural vegetation consists of mangrove swamps and soil limitations, the continuing limitations after measures
saltwater marshes. Because these plants grow out into in general use in overcoming the limitations are applied,
the water where suspended particles settle among them, and the suitability of the soil relative to other soils in
they contribute to the slow development of soils and Volusia County.
land within the lagoons. In many places in both man- A five-class system of soil potential is used. The
grove swamps and salt marshes, individual species classes are defined as follows:
occur in almost pure stands. The presence or exclusion Very high potential. Soil limitations are minor or are
of a species depends on the salinity of the water and the relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the intend-
depth and duration of tidal flooding, ed use is excellent. Soils rated with very high potential
Mangrove swamps of red, black, and white mangrove are the best in the county for the particular use.
occur on Hydraquents on the islands and around the High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but prac-
shoreline of the more open part of the lagoon. Salt tices necessary to overcome the limitations are available
marshes, predominantly of black needlerush and salt- at reasonable cost. Performance for the intended use is
tolerant grasses, are on Turnbull soils at the mouth of good.
the Tomoka River, Spruce Creek, and Turnbull Creek Medium potential Soil limitations exist and can be
(fig. 7). overcome with recommended practices; limitations, how-
The Hydraquents and Turnbull soils are not suitable ever, are mostly of a continuing nature and require prac-
for farming. They have major limitations for urban devel- tices that have to be maintained or that are more difficult
opment because of salinity, flooding, and low soil or costly than average. Performance for the intended use
strength. If left undisturbed, they are a valuable asset to ranges from fair to good.
the fishing industry, because these coastal wetlands pro- Low potential. Serious soil limitations exist, and they
vide food and protection for most fish and shellfish taken are difficult to overcome. Practices necessary to over-
from the ocean. Near urban centers, however, areas of come the limitations are relatively costly compared to
this unit have been converted to urban use. In 1943, those required for soils of higher potential. Necessary
about 363 acres of this unit was urban. By 1973, the practices can involve environmental values and consider-
total was 1,148 acres. Although these areas are attrac- nations. Performance for the intended use is poor or unre-
tive because they permit easy access to saltwater, de- liable.
veloping them is risky or costly because of problems with Very low potential. Very serious soil limitations exist,
adverse soil conditions. In addition, there is the ever- and they are most difficult to overcome. Initial cost of
present threat of devastation by hurricane-generated practices and cost of maintenance are very high com-
winds and tides in these low-lying areas. pared to those of soils with high potential. Environmental
values are usually depreciated. Performance for the in-
tended use is inadequate or below acceptable standards.
Soil maps for detailed planning The map units on the detailed soil maps represent an
area on the landscape made up mostly of the soil or
The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the soils for which the unit is named. Most of the delinea-
back of this publication represent the kinds of soils in the tions shown on the detailed soil map are phases of soil
survey area. They are described in this section. The series.
descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in Soils that have a profile that is almost alike make up a
determining the potential of a soil and in managing it for soil series. Except for allowable differences in texture of
food and fiber production; in planning land use and de- the surface layer or of the underlying substratum, all the
veloping soil resources; and in enhancing, protecting, soils of a series have major horizons that are similar in
and preserving the environment. More information for composition, thickness, and arrangement in the profile. A
each map unit, or soil, is given in the section "Use and soil series commonly is named for a town or geographic
management of the soils." feature near the place where a soil of that series was
Preceding the name of each map unit is the symbol first observed and mapped. The Deland series, for exam
that identifies the soil on the detailed soil maps. Each pie, was named for the town of DeLand in Volusia
soil description includes general facts about the soil and County.
a brief description of the soil profile. In each description, Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
the principal hazards and limitations are indicated, and layer or in the underlying substratum and in slope ero-
the management concerns and practices needed are sion, stoniness, salinity, wetness, or other characteristics
discussed. that affect their use. On the basis of such differences, a






14 SOIL SURVEY



soil series is divided into phases. The name of a soil Map unit descriptions
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 per- 1-Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
cent slopes, is one of several phases within the Paola nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil is on
series. intermediate to high sand hills. The acreage is moderate
Some map units are made up of two or more dominant in extent. Individual areas are irregularly shaped and
kinds of soil. Such map units are called soil complexes range from about 5 to 300 acres.
and soil associations. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
that are so intricately mixed or so small in size that they fine sand to a depth of 62 inches. In sequence down-
cannot be shown separately on the soil map. Each area ward, 16 inches is grayish brown mottled with very pale
includes some of each of the two or more dominant brown, 28 inches is light yellowish brown mottled with
soils, and the pattern and proportion are somewhat simi- brownish yellow and 12 inches is white. The subsoil is
brownish yellow sandy clay loam mottled with pale
lar in all areas. Myakka-St. Johns complex is an exam- brown mean loam mottled wth pale
ple. brown to more than 80 inches.
pie. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
A soil association is made up of soils that are geo- Astatula, Electra, Orsino, and Tavares soils. Also includ-
graphically associated and are shown as one unit on the ed are soils in shallow depressions that are not so well
map because it is not practical to separate them. A soil drained as this Apopka soil. The included soils generally
association has considerable regularity in geographic make up no more than 15 percent of any one mapped
pattern and in the kinds of soil that are a part of it. The area.
extent of the soils can differ appreciably from one delin- The water table is below 72 inches. Permeability is
eation to another; nevertheless, interpretations can be rapid in the sandy layers and moderate in the sandy clay
made for use and management of the soils. Palm Beach- loam subsoil. Runoff is slow. The available water capac-
Paola association, 2 to 8 percent slopes, is an example. ity is very low. Natural fertility and the organic matter
Most map units include small, scattered areas of soils content are low.
other than those that appear in the name of the map Natural vegetation is of the sandhills type-mainly
unit. Some of these soils have properties that differ sub- longleaf pine-turkey oak. Where protected from fire, a
stantially from those of the dominant soil or soils and forest chiefly of laurel oak and live oak has developed.
thus could significantly affect use and management of Large areas have been cleared and used for citrus,
the map unit. These soils are described in the descrip- ferns, or improved pasture. In the southern part of the
tion of each map unit. Some of the more unusual or DeLand ridge, the natural vegetation is a forest of sand
strongly contrasting soils that are included are identified live oak, sand pine, laurel oak, and turkey oak. The
by a special symbol on the soil map. understory is pineland threeawn, common pricklypear,
Most mapped areas include places that have little or gopher apple, and scattered sawpalmetto.
no soil material and support little or no vegetation. Such This soil is moderately well suited to vegetable crops.
places are called miscellaneous areas; they are delineat- Because it is drought and low in natural fertility, fre-
ed on the soil map and given descriptive names. Beach- quent applications of water and fertilizer are needed to
es is an example Some miscellaneous areas are too sustain yields. Where an irrigation system is economical-
small to be delineated and are identid by a s l ly practical, high value special crops such as ferns are
small o be delineated and are identified by a special suited. The loamy subsoil slows infiltration of water. As a
symbol on the soil map.pd w result, waterlogging can occur in depressions if large
Not all units in this survey have been mapped with the volumes of water are applied to ferns.
same degree of detail. Broadly defined units, identified This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture
by a superscript on the soil map legend, are likely to be of deep-rooting varieties of grass. Frequent applications
larger and to vary more in composition than units of lime and fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be
mapped in greater detail. Composition has been con- avoided during dry seasons.
trolled well enough, however, for the expected use of the This soil is well suited to citrus. Frequent applications
soils of fertilizer are needed. In hilly areas, a cover crop
The acreage and proportionate extent of each map should be grown to prevent erosion by wind and water.
unit are given in table 4, and additional information on Irrigation is desirable in extended dry periods.
properties, limitations, capabilities, and potentials for The potential productivity is moderately high for slash
many soil uses is given for each kind of soil in other pine.
tables in this survey. (See "Summary of tables.") Many The potential is high for community development. Ve-
of the terms used in describing soils are defined in the hide traction can be a problem on the sandy surface.
Glossary. Pavement is needed for most vehicular traffic. Often the







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 15



loamy subsoil is excavated and spread on the sandy The potential is high for community development. Ve-
surface to make roadways more stable. Low natural fer- hide traction can be a problem on the sandy surface.
utility and very low available water capacity are limitations Pavement is needed for most vehicular traffic. Slope is
in maintaining lawns and ornamental plants. This is one the major soil limitation. Low natural fertility and very low
of the best soils in the county for trench type sanitary available water capacity are limitations in maintaining
landfill if the bottom of the cell is kept within the sandy lawns and ornamental plants. Regular applications of
clay loam subsoil. If the bottom of the cell is below the water and fertilizer are needed. Adding suitable topsoil
sandy clay loam subsoil, there is risk of polluting shallow material improves plant root development.
groundwater by the leachate. The capability subclass is IVs.
The capability subclass is Ills.
3-Arents. Arents are nearly level soils made up of
2-Apopka fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This heterogeneous overburden material that was removed
well drained, sloping to moderately steep soil occurs from other soils and used in land leveling, as fill material,
around sinks and depressions and on narrow side slopes or as final cover for sanitary landfill. This material is a
of gently undulating sandhills. Individual areas are mostly mixture of fine sand or sand and fragments of subsoil
less than 20 acres. material from the associated Immokalee, Myakka,
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand Smyrna, and St. Johns soils. Areas generally range from
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand triangular to polygonal in shape and are 3 to 50 acres.
about 40 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is light gray, In most areas, the upper 20 to 72 inches is variable
the next 12 inches is white, and the lower 25 inches is and discontinuous lenses, pockets, and streaks of black,
very pale brown with continuous tongues 1/2 inch to 2 gray, and grayish brown sand. It contains few to
inches wide from the layer above. The tongues have a common black and dark reddish brown sandy fragments
thin, discontinuous exterior layer that is dark brown or from the subsoil of the soils in the borrow areas Beow
brown. The subsoil, which is between depths of 44 and this is undisturbed soil. The undisturbed soil generally
80 inches, is mainly light yellowish brown sandy clay has the profile of a Myakka, Smyrna, St. Johns, or Immo-
loam. kalee soil. In some places, this underlying soil has been
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Astatula truncated and mixed with the overburden material.
and Paola soils, some areas where the texture is sand, I some areas below aepth of 2 or 3 feet thereare


cent e ed area ake up about 15 per fed on the soil map by the words "sanitary landfill" in
cent of any one mapped area. 7 i addition to the map symbol.
The water table is below 72 inches. The available Included with these soils in mapping are a few areas in
water capacity is er low. Permeability is rapid in the which the mixed material contains fragments of loamy
sandy layers and moderatrhen te loamy subsoil. Natural soil material. Also included are small areas containing
fertility and the organic matter content are low. fragments of organic material or muck. In a few spots
Part of the acreae a is in natural vegetation-a forest the overburden material is as thin as 10 inches.
of sand live oak, sand pine, laurel oak, and turkey oak. The water table fluctuates between 10 and 40 inches
The understory is pineland threeawn, common prickly- for 2 to 6 months in most years. In areas of sanitary
pear, rosemary, lichens, fetterbush, scattered sawpal- landfill the water table is at variable depths for varying
metto, and gopher apple, lengths of time. In the overburden material, the available
This soil is poorly suited to vegetable crops because water capacity and permeability are variable. Generally,
of the slope, the droughtiness, and the rapid leaching of however, the available water capacity is low and the
plant nutrients, permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and the organic
If well managed, the soil is moderately well suited to matter content are generally low.
deep rooted improved pasture grasses. If adequately fer- These soils are generally not suited to vegetable crops
utilized and limed, adapted native grasses grow well. Irri- because of the wide range in soil properties. Some areas
nation is needed during extended dry periods, can be used for improved pasture.
This soil is well suited to citrus. A close growing cover Most areas of these soils will probably eventually be
crop is needed to prevent soil blowing and water ero- used for community development. They have high poten-
sion. Irrigation during the dry season increases yields, tial for this use. The areas of sanitary landfill, however
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed have very low potential for community development.
The potential productivity is moderately high for slash Uneven settling and wetness in the lower areas are
pine. Sand pine grows well. Controlled cutting of the less limitations for dwellings without basements and local
desirable oakis ineldeed roads and streets. If dwellings are constructed, special
desirable oaks is needed. roads and streets. If dwellings are constructed, special







16 SOIL SURVEY



foundation design is needed to support the intended older communities are on this soil. Soil limiting factors
load. Even if special design is used, driveways may col- are the high risk of corrosion to concrete and the hazard
lapse and yards develop holes or an uneven surface of pollution from onsite septic tank absorption fields to
because of differential settling. In wet areas, adequate underground water sources because of the very rapid
water control is difficult. Septic tank absorption fields are permeability. Lawns and ornamentals require regular ap-
impractical because of layout problems through the cells plications of water and fertilizer because of the sandy
of unstable garbage and refuse. texture, the very rapid permeability, the very low availa-
No capability subclass is assigned to the unit. ble water capacity, and the very low natural fertility.
Adding good topsoil improves root development.
4-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This The capability subclass is VIs.
excessively drained, nearly level to sloping soil is on
sandhills. Individual areas vary widely in shape and 5-Astatula fine sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes. This
range from 5 to 600 acres. excessively drained, sloping to moderately steep soil is
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 2 around sinks and depressions and on the side slopes of
inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand about high sand ridges. Individual areas are generally serpen-
93 inches thick. In sequence downward, 8 inches is tine or oval in shape and less than 20 acres.
brown, 16 inches is pale brown, and 69 inches is very Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
pale brown. inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand to a
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 7 inches is
Apopka, Deland, Orsino, Paola, St. Lucie, and Tavares brown, the next 36 inches is light yellowish brown, and
soils. Also included are small areas where slopes are the lower 34 inches is very pale brown.
more than 8 percent. In some areas the surface layer is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
darker colored than is described for the series. The in- Apopka and Paola soils and some areas where the sur-
cluded areas make up about 15 percent of any one face layer is darker colored than is described for the
mapped area. series. Also included are small areas where slopes are
The water table is always below 80 inches and is more than 17 percent or less than 8 percent. The includ-
usually below 120 inches. The available water capacity is ed areas make up about 15 percent of any one mapped
very low. Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and area.
the organic matter content are very low. The response to The water table is always below 80 inches and is
fertilizer is moderate, but fertilizer is rapidly leached, usually below 120 inches. Permeability is very rapid. The
Part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of sand available water capacity, natural fertility, and organic
pine, turkey oak, sand live oak, laurel oak, and longleaf matter content are very low. Response to fertilizer is
pine. The shrubby understory is fetterbush, rosemary- moderate, but fertilizer is rapidly leached.
bush, and a few scattered clumps of sawpalmetto. The Part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of sand
common native grasses and forbs are pineland pine, sand live oak, turkey oak, longleaf pine, and laurel
threeawn, pricklypear, gopher apple, creeping bluestem, oak. The shrubby understory is fetterbush, rosemary-
and chalky bluestem. bush, and a few isolated clumps of sawpalmetto. The
This soil is poorly suited to vegetable crops because common native grasses and forbs are pineland
of very rapid permeability, very low fertility, and droughti- threeawn, pricklypear, gopher apple, creeping bluestem,
ness. Under high level management, however, it can and chalky bluestem.
produce special crops such as watermelons and ferns. This soil is not suited to vegetable crops and is poorly
Large amounts of fertilizer and lime and frequent irriga- suited to citrus because of very low fertility, very rapid
tion are needed. permeability, droughtiness, and slope.
This soil is well suited to citrus. A ground cover of This soil is not suited to deep rooted improved pasture
close growing vegetation is needed to prevent wind and grasses. In some areas the understory has been cleared
water erosion. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime and pasture grasses planted, but forage production is so
are needed. Irrigation during the dry season increases limited that maintaining the pasture is impractical.
yields. The potential productivity is low for slash pine, even
This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture grasses under high level management. Sand pine grows best.
and hay crops. If adequately fertilized and limed, pango- The potential is high for community development.
lagrass and bahiagrass grow best. Irrigation is needed Limiting factors are the high risk of corrosion to con-
during dry periods, create, the slope, and the hazard of pollution from onsite
Potential productivity is low for slash pine, even under septic tank absorption fields to underground water
a high level management. Sand pine grows best. Period- sources because of the very rapid permeability. Lawns
ic cutting is needed to control the less desirable oaks. and ornamentals require regular applications of water
This excessively drained, very rapidly permeable soil and fertilizer because of the sandy texture, the very rapid
has high potential for community development. Many permeability, the very low water capacity, and the low







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 17



natural fertility. Adding good topsoil improves root devel- and the St. Johns River and areas in depressions are
opment. Buildings should be designed to fit the natural frequently flooded. Runoff is very slow. The water table
terrain. For roads the slope can be reduced by cutting is at or near the surface for long periods in wet seasons.
and filling. Slope affects the layout and construction of Permeability is rapid but is impeded by the high water
septic tank absorption fields. The absorption fields table. The available water capacity and the organic
should be installed on the contour. matter content are high. Natural fertility is moderate.
The capability subclass is VIIs. Almost all the acreage is in natural vegetation of
swamp hardwoods-mainly red maple, sweetgum, water
6-Astatula-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent oak, and laurel oak-and a few loblolly pine. In places
slopes. This map unit is made up of nearly level to are almost pure stands of cabbage palm. In slough
sloping Astatula soils that have been used for urban areas, sand cordgrass and glasswort predominate.
development. In the natural state, these were deep If excess water can be removed, this soil is moderate-
sandy soils on sandhills and ridges. The water table is ly well suited to vegetable crops. Because drainage out-
below 80 inches. Many areas have been disturbed by lets are generally unavailable, however, it is seldom used
reworking and reshaping during the construction of foun- for vegetables.
dations, utility lines, roads, and streets and the installa- This soil is not suited to citrus because of the wetness
tion of other facilities associated with construction and and the danger of frost damage.
development. About 40 to 70 percent of the unit is Asta- If the excess water is removed, the soil is well suited
tula fine sand, and about 15 to 45 percent is Urban land. to improved pasture.
Urban land is covered with streets, parking lots, build- Under high level management, the potential productiv-
ings, and other structures. The open areas of Astatula ity is high for slash pine. Some water control is needed if
fine sand are lawns, gardens, vacant lots, or play- the potential productivity is to be realized.
grounds. They generally are small and intermingled with The potential is low for community development be-
areas of Urban land. cause of the flooding hazard, the excessive wetness,
Typically, the surface layer of the Astatula soil is gray and the lack of suitable drainage outlets. If drainage is
fine sand about 2 inches thick. The underlying layers are installed, development is possible. There is danger, how-
fine sand about 93 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is ever, that the drainage system will become obstructed or
brown, the next 16 inches is pale brown, and the lower be incapable of carrying discharge from extremely heavy
69 inches is very pale brown. rains.
Minor soils, similar to the Astatula soil, make up 5 to These areas are natural wetlands. The potential is very
30 percent of the unit. Of these, the Paola soils are the high for storing floodwater during periods of heavy rains.
most extensive. The capability subclass is Illw.
Natural vegetation was a forest of live oak, wild cherry,
hickory, laurel oak, and turkey oak. Stands of sand and 8-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This poorly
longleaf pine, pioneer species, occurred in places. Turf drained, nearly level sandy soil is mainly in depressions
and ornamental plants require special care, including fer- and in a few poorly defined drainageways in the
tilization and irrigation. flatwoods and sandhills. The acreage is of moderate
No capability subclass is assigned to the unit. extent. Areas generally are circular or long and less than
100 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave. They are
7-Astor fine sand. This nearly level, very poorly mostly less than one-half percent but range from 0 to 2
drained soil occurs on flood plains and in sloughs and percent.
depressions bordering flood plains. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 55 inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a depth
inches thick. The upper 4 inches is black, the next 35 of more than 80 inches. The upper 15 inches is light
inches is very dark gray, and the lower 16 inches is very gray generally streaked with gray or dark gray, the next 5
dark grayish brown. Next is 10 inches of fine sand mixed inches is dark brown with black fragments, and the lower
in streaks and patches of very dark grayish brown, very layers are grayish brown, very pale brown, or light gray.
dark gray, and light gray. Below this to a depth of 82 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
inches is light gray fine sand. Immokalee, Myakka, Smyrna, Placid, Pompano, and Val-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of karia soils. Also included are small areas of a soil that is
Gator soils in associated fresh water marshes, Basinger similar to this Basinger soil, but the subsoil is loamy at a
and Pompano soils in narrow sloughs and drainageways, depth of more than 40 inches. The included areas make
and Myakka, Riviera, and EauGallie soils at slightly up about 20 percent of any one mapped area.
higher elevations. The included soils make up about 15 The water table is above the surface for several
to 30 percent of any one mapped area. months in most years. The rest of the time it is within 30
This soil is saturated to the surface for long periods inches except during very dry periods. The available
during the summer rainy season. Areas bordering lakes water capacity is very low, and permeability is very rapid







18 SOIL SURVEY



throughout. Natural fertility and the organic matter con- Typically, the surface layer is sandy clay loam about
tent are low. 14 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is black, and the
Natural vegetation is dominantly St.-Johnswort, mai- lower 6 inches is dark gray. The subsoil is gray sandy
dencane, and other water tolerant grasses, some pine- clay loam that extends to 68 inches. Mottles in shades
land threeawn, and scattered pond pine. of brown and yellow commonly occur in the subsoil.
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops and citrus. It Below this to a depth of 99 inches is gray massive clay.
is not suited to improved pasture because of the difficul- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
ty in establishing and maintaining an effective water con- Chobee, Gator, and Holopaw soils. The included soils
trol system, make up about 20 percent of any one mapped area.
Because of excessive wetness, the potential productiv- This soil is saturated to the surface for long periods. It
ity is low for slash pine. Pond pine grows best. is commonly flooded during the latter part of the summer
The potential is low for community development be- rainy season. The water table may drop several feet
cause of the high water table and the lack of suitable during long dry periods. The available water capacity is
drainage outlets. If a drainage system is installed, devel- high. Permeability is slow. Natural fertility is high, and the
opment is possible. There is danger, however, that the organic matter content is moderate.
system will become obstructed or be incapable of carry- Natural vegetation is water tolerant plants, including
ing discharge from extremely heavy rains. sedges, pickerelweed, cattail, and some sawgrass. In
The capability subclass is Vllw. places there are hammocks of cabbage palm, live oak,
and cedar.
9-Beaches. Beaches are narrow sandy strips along Large areas of this soil are used for range during dry
the Atlantic coast. Seawater regularly overwashes the seasons.
larger part of the beaches at high tide, and these areas This soil is not suited to vegetable crops and citrus
are barren. The fringes and other slightly higher areas because of excessive wetness and the flood hazard.
are inundated only during equinoctial or storm-driven If excess water is removed, this soil is moderately well
tides. These areas mostly have sparse vegetation that is suited to improved pasture. Flooding is a hazard.
fragile and easily destroyed. Under high level management, this soil has high po-
Beaches are fine to coarse sand mixed with multico- tential productivity for slash pine. Some water control is
lored shells and shell fragments. The material is con- needed if the potential productivity is to be realized.
stantly reworked by wave action. In places, especially at The potential is very low for community development.
Daytona Beach and New Smyrna Beach, white sand Limitations are flooding, excessive wetness, slow perme-
predominates, and Beaches are almost white, ability, and high shrink-swell potential. Because all of
In most places sand dunes border the Beaches on the these limitations are difficult to overcome, using this soil
west side. The major soils on the dunes are Palm Beach, for community development is impractical.
Paola, and Canaveral soils. These soils are not subject The capability subclass is Vw.
to wave action except during storms. They commonly
receive salt spray. 11-Bulow sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This gently
Beaches are used intensively for sunbathing, strolling, sloping soil is on low narrow sand ridges on the main-
pleasure driving, picnics, and other recreation. In addi- land. The ridges represent a former coastline and gener-
tion, they provide access to swimming, fishing, surfing, ally run parallel to the coast. Individual areas range from
scuba diving, and boating. In many places the sand on 40 to about 400 acres.
the beaches is firm enough to support automobiles, bicy- Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 5 inches

cles, motorcycles, and dune buggies, thick. The subsurface layer is white sand to a depth of
In the cities along the coast, the fringes of the Beach- about 20 inches and brownish yellow sand to about 45
es and adjoining sand dunes have been altered by inches. The subsoil is yellowish red sandy clay loam
smoothing, shaping, and the building of sea walls to about 6 inches thick. Below this is a layer of coquina
permit the construction of houses, roads, beach cot- rock that ranges from 2 to 10 feet in thickness. Below
tages, high rise condominiums, and apartments, the rock are layers of sand and shell.
Because of the unique location of Beaches and their Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
value for recreational activities, other uses are not practi- Paola and Astatula soils and small areas of the typical
cal. Cocoa soils. The included soils make up about 15 per-
No capability subclass is assigned to the unit. cent of any one mapped area.
Water and air move rapidly through this soil. The water
10-Bluff sandy clay loam. This nearly level, very table is below 72 inches. The available water capacity is
poorly drained, frequently flooded soil is on low terraces very low. Natural fertility and the organic matter content
bordering the St. Johns River. Individual areas are typi- are low.
cally large, some as large as 300 acres, and most border Native vegetation is oak, hickory, and magnolia and
lakes or streams, some cabbage palm. In places there are stands of sand






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 19



pine. Some areas of this soil are in native vegetation, highly valued for urban development because it is near
Some have been used for urban development, the beaches and the ocean. Undisturbed areas are im-
This soil is poorly suited to vegetables. It is moderately portant to many kinds of coastal wildlife and as a green-
well suited to improved pasture. Regular additions of belt bordering the beaches.
lime and fertilizer are needed. If undisturbed, the natural vegetation forms a barrier
This soil is well suited to citrus. against wind and storm-driven waves and serves as
Under high level management, the soil has moderately habitat for wildlife and as part of a greenbelt bordering
high potential productivity for slash pine. the beaches.
The potential is high for community development. In The capability subclass is VIs.
most places the coquina rock is rippable. In addition, the
water table is below 6 feet, surface and internal drainage 13-Cassia fine sand. This is a nearly level to gently
are good, and traffic supporting capacity is good. Turf sloping, somewhat poorly drained sandy soil in slightly
and ornamental plants grow well, but most require irriga- elevated positions in the flatwoods or in lower positions
tion during the dry season. In places the coquina rock is on the sandhills. It is of small extent and generally
mined for road building material, occurs as irregularly shaped areas of less than 100
The capability subclass is IVs. acres. Slopes are smooth to gently undulating. The gra-
dient is 0 to 2 percent.
12-Canaveral sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained, inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand
nearly level to gently sloping soil is on low coastal sand about 25 inches thick. The subsoil is 4 inches of black
dunes and in the bottoms of troughs between the dunes. fine sand over 4 inches of brown fine sand mottled with
Slopes are concave in the troughs and convex on the dark reddish brown. The sand grains are coated with
lower sides of the dunes. organic matter. The substratum is fine sand to a depth of
Typically, the surface layer is about 9 inches of sand 80 inches or more. The upper 11 inches is brown, the
that is black in the upper 4 inches and dark grayish next 7 inches is pale brown, and the lower 27 inches is
brown in the lower 5 inches. The underlying layers are a light gray.
mixture of light gray sand and shell fragments. In places Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
there are discontinuous layers of shells of varying thick- Daytona, Immokalee, Myakka, Orsino, Satellite, and
ness. Smyrna soils. The included areas make up as much as
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 30 percent of some mapped areas.
similar soils that are poorly drained. In a few areas the The water table is between depths of 15 and 40
subsoil is almost entirely beds of shells; in places the inches for about 6 months during most years. It recedes
shell layers are weakly cemented by calcium carbonate. to below 40 inches in dry seasons. The availablewater
The included areas make up about 20 percent of any capacity is low. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
one mapped area. subsoil but very rapid in the other horizons. Natural fertil-
The water table is between depths of 10 and 40 ity and the organic matter content are very low.
inches for periods of 2 to 4 months. In dry seasons, it is The natural vegetation is scattered slash pine, longleaf
below 60 inches. In low areas bordering the Halifax and pine, or sand pine, dense scrubby oaks, a few sawpal-
Indian Rivers, the height of the water table depends metto, and pineland threeawn. Most areas are still in
partly on tidal fluctuations. Permeability is very rapid natural vegetation. Some of the acreage has been plant-
above the saturated layers. The available water capacity ed to slash pine.
is very low. Natural fertility and the organic matter con- The Cassia soil is generally not suited to vegetable
tent are low. Most areas receive salt spray from the crops because of droughtiness.
Atlantic Ocean. If this soil is cleared of natural vegetation This soil is poorly suited to citrus, but under favorable
and left unprotected, wind erosion will be severe, climatic conditions and high level management, citrus
The natural vegetation is the sawpalmetto-scrub oak can be grown. Deep rooting, drought-resistant pasture
type. Leaving it undisturbed protects the soil from wind grasses are moderately well suited.
Aerial salt spray, droughtiness, wind erosion, and low Drainage or water control to lower the water table is
natural fertility limit the growth of turf and most intro- needed. Onsite septic systems can be mounded to main-
duced plants. The soil is poorly suited to vegetable crops tain adequate depth above the seasonal high water
and improved pasture. table.
Under high level management, this soil has moderate The capability subclass is VIs.
potential productivity for slash pine. Sand pine grows
best. 14-Chobee fine sandy loam. This nearly level, very
The potential is only medium for community develop- poorly drained soil is in low places in coastal hammocks,
ment, but this soil occurs in the part of the county that is in drainageways, and on flood plains. It is of small extent






20 SOIL SURVEY


but is locally important in Turnbull and Bulow Ham- sand. Coquina limestone occurs at a depth of about 30
mocks. Individual areas are irregular in shape and range inches, but the depth varies from 20 to 40 inches within
from 3 to about 200 acres, short distances. Thickness of the coquina rock ranges
Typically, a black mat 1 inch thick of decomposing from 2 to 10 feet.
plant parts and roots is on the surface. The surface layer Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
is black fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The sub- Astatula, Bulow, and Orsino soils. Also included are
soil is between depths of 6 and 54 inches. The upper 15 small areas of similar soils where the depth to coquina
inches is very dark gray sandy clay loam, the next 11 rock is less than 20 inches. The included areas make up
inches is very dark gray heavy fine sandy loam, and the about 15 percent of any one mapped area.
lower 22 inches is dark gray sandy clay loam. Mottles in Runoff is slow. Infiltration is rapid. Water and air move
shades of brown and gray occur in the lower part. The through the soil rapidly. The available water capacity,
substratum is a mixture of sand and shell fragments. organic matter content, and natural fertility are low. The
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of water table is below 80 inches.
the Tequesta and Tuscawilla soils. Also included are Natural vegetation is upland hardwood hammocks-
small areas of similar soils that have a sandy clay sub- live oak, laurel oak, magnolia, and cabbage palm.
soil and areas where discontinuous limestone is in the The Cocoa soil is well suited to citrus. It is poorly
subsoil. The included areas make up about 25 percent of suited to vegetable crops and improved pasture because
the unit. of poor soil qualities and droughtiness. Under high level
This soil is covered with standing water for extended management, the potential productivity is moderately
periods during the rainy season from June to November high for slash pine.
and after prolonged, heavy rain in winter. The water The potential is high for community development.
table seldom is below 10 inches even in prolonged dry Lawns and ornamental plants require good management,
spells. Internal drainage is slow because the water table including supplemental irrigation, especially during dry
is high. Permeability is moderate. The available water periods. Because of the shallow depth to coquina lime-
capacity, natural fertility, and organic matter content are stone -and the very rapid permeability in the limestone,
high. pollution is a potential hazard from onsite sewage dis-
The natural vegetation is swamp hardwoods-cypress, posal systems to shallow ground water. Although the
sweetgum, and red maple-and cabbage palm. Most coquina rock is moderately hard, it can be removed
areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation, without too much difficulty by heavy machinery.
If drainage outlets are available and the soil is ade- The capability subclass is IVs.
quately drained, this soil is moderately well suited to
vegetable crops, improved pasture, and citrus. The 16-Cocoa-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
loamy subsoil and the wetness restrict root development slopes. This map unit is made up of long narrow sand
of the citrus trees, which results in smaller trees, ridges of nearly level to gently sloping Cocoa soils that
Removing the hardwoods and preparing the land for have been used for urban development. In the natural
slash pine may not be economically feasible. Under high state, these were well drained sandy soils about 40
level management, however, the potential productivity is inches thick over a layer of coquina rock. Depth to the
high for slash pine. Some water control is needed if the water table is more than 80 inches. This naturally well
potential productivity is to be realized, drained soil has been mixed, reworked, and reshaped
The potential is very low for community development, during the construction of roads, streets, utility lines,
Limitations are the excessive wetness, the flooding, and foundations, and other facilities associated with con-
the moderate shrink-swell potential of the subsoil. The struction and development. About 40 to 70 percent of
low position on the landscape makes water control and the unit is Cocoa sand, and about 15 to 45 percent is
protection from flooding difficult. Fill material is generally Urban land, or areas covered with streets, parking lots,
needed to elevate construction sites. Unless special care buildings, and other structures. The open areas of Cocoa
is taken, fill material spread around the natural vegeta- sand are lawns, vacant lots, and some undeveloped
tion may cause the trees to die. small tracts. A major part of this unit is along U.S. High-
The capability subclass is Illw. way 1.
Typically, the surface layer of Cocoa soil is very dark
15-Cocoa sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly gray sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
level to gently sloping soil is on low, long, narrow sandy brown sand to a depth of 14 inches. The upper part of
ridges that parallel the Atlantic Coast. Individual areas the subsoil is brown sand about 12 inches thick, and the
range from about 20 to more than 640 acres. lower part is reddish brown loamy sand about 4 inches
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand thick. Coquina limestone is generally at a depth of about
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown sand 30 inches, but the depth varies from 20 to 40 inches
to a depth of 14 inches. The subsoil is about 12 inches within short distances. Thickness of the coquina rock
of brown sand and 4 inches of reddish brown loamy ranges from 2 to 10 feet.






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 21



Minor soils make up 5 to 30 percent of the unit. They High level management and irrigation are needed to suc-
are soils that are similar to the Cocoa soil. Some are cessfully establish and maintain improved pasture.
more than 60 inches deep over coquina rock, and some The potential productivity is low for slash pine. Sand
in small patches are not so well drained and have a pine grows best.
seasonal high water table between depths of 40 and 60 The potential is high for community development. The
inches. A few spots are Astatula and Paola soils. seasonal high water table at 40 inches is a hazard for
Natural vegetation was a mixed hardwood forest of dwellings with basements. Vehicle traction is poor on
laurel oak, live oak, and magnolia and longleaf pine and unpaved roads because of the sandy texture. Onsite
cabbage palm. Supplemental irrigation is needed in the waste disposal causes a moderate hazard of pollution to
dry season for lawns and ornamental plants. the groundwater. Establishing turf and ornamental plants
No capability subclass is assigned to the unit. is difficult. Frequent applications of fertilizer and irrigation
water are needed. Adding topsoil of loamy material or
17-Daytona sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This mod- material high in organic matter helps in establishing and
erately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is maintaining the plants.
on gently undulating sandhills or slightly elevated places The capability subclass is Vls.
in flatwoods. Slopes are convex to smooth. Areas are
generally long and moderately wide or irregular in shape. 18-Daytona-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
They range from 4 to 300 acres. slopes. This map unit is made up of nearly level to
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 5 gently sloping Daytona soils that have been used for
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white sand about 31 urban development. In the natural state these were
inches thick. The subsoil is mainly yellowish brown sand deep, sandy soils on low sandy swells where the water
about 11 inches thick. Below the subsoil to a depth of 80 table fluctuated between depths of 40 and 60 inches
inches or more is light brownish gray sand mottled in during the wet season. In almost all areas, however,
shades of brown. drainage has been affected by roadside ditches and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of drainage ditches connected to arterial canals. For the
Cassia, Electra, Immokalee, Orsino, Satellite, and St. most part, the soil has been disturbed by bulldozing or
Lucie soils. In some low areas the water table may come reworking and reshaping during the construction of drain-
to within 30 inches of the surface, and in some the age ditches, roads, streets, utility lines, and foundations
upper layer of the subsoil is slightly thicker than is typi- and the installation of other facilities associated with
cal. Also included are a few areas where the surface construction and development. About 40 to 60 percent
layer is coarse sand, a few areas where it is fine sand, of the unit is Daytona sand, and about 15 to 45 percent
and a few small areas of similar soils where the subsoil is Urban land. The open areas of Daytona soils are
is within a depth of 50 to 60 inches. The included areas lawns, vacant lots, and undeveloped areas. They are
generally make up no more than about 15 percent of any generally small and intermingled with areas of Urban
one mapped area. land. The Urban land is areas covered with streets, park-
Most areas are in natural vegetation of the sand pine- ing lots, buildings, and other structures.
scrub oak type. Scattered turkey oak, slash pine, and Typically, the surface layer of the Daytona soil is gray
longleaf pine are in places. There is commonly a brushy sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white
understory of rosemary, fetterbush, and sawpalmetto. sand about 31 inches thick. The subsoil is sand about 11
The water table is commonly at a depth of 40 to 50 inches thick. The upper 2 inches is dark brown, and the
inches for 1 to 4 months during the wet season, and it lower 9 inches is yellowish brown. Below this, to a depth
drops to 72 inches or more during the drier part of the of 80 inches or more, is light brownish gray sand mottled
year. The available water capacity is low. Permeability is in shades of brown.
very rapid in the surface layer and moderately rapid in Natural vegetation was a xeric forest of the pine-scrub
the subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter con- oak type, mainly sand pine, longleaf pine, scrub oak, and
tent are low. turkey oak. Sawpalmetto dominated the understory.
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops because of These native plants thrive without irrigation or other spe-
the low available water capacity, the rapid leaching of cial care, but cultivated and introduced ornamental
plant nutrients, and the low natural fertility. Under high plants and turf require continuous special care, including
level management, however, it can produce some spe- irrigation and regular fertilization.
cial crops, such as ferns and watermelons. Irrigation and About 10 to 20 percent of the unit is included small
frequent applications of fertilizer are needed, areas of Cassia, Electra, Satellite, and St. Lucie soils.
If adequately fertilized, this soil is moderately well No capability subclass is assigned to the unit.
suited to citrus. Irrigation is usually needed during the dry
season. 19-Deland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture because well drained, nearly level and gently sloping soil occurs
of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients, on broad, moderately high sand ridges. The acreage is






22 SOIL SURVEY



small in extent, but some individual areas are more than very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is gray
100 acres. Areas are long to irregular in shape, fine sand about 12 inches thick. The subsoil begins at a
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand depth of about 21 inches. The upper 6 inches is black
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand fine sand, the next 8 inches is dark reddish brown fine
to a depth of 55 inches. The upper 6 inches is light gray; sand, and the next 4 inches is dark brown fine sand. To
the next 9 inches is light brownish gray; the next 17 a depth of 52 inches is brown fine sand, and to 61
inches is gray; and the lower 19 inches is light brownish inches is a layer of gray sandy loam. Below this to 65
gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of 130 inches or inches is pale brown fine sand.
more. The upper 11 inches is dark brown fine sand; the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
next 6 inches is noncemented black fine sand; and the Farmton, Wabasso, and Pinellas soils. In places, the
lower 36 inches is strongly cemented black fine sand. boundaries between soils are gradual. These soils are
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of similar in many properties. The included areas make up
Apopka, Astatula, and Tavares soils. The included areas 20 to 25 percent of some mapped areas.
make up about 15 percent of some mapped areas. The water table fluctuates within 10 inches of the
The water table is below 72 inches, and there is a surface for periods of 1 to 4 months in most years and is
perched water table on the strongly cemented layers within 40 inches for more than 6 months. The available
below 80 inches. The water table fluctuates between water capacity is low. Runoff is slow. Permeability is
depths of about 75 and 90 inches during periods of high rapid in the surface layer and moderately rapid in the
rainfall. The available water capacity is very low. Perme- subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter content
ability is very rapid in the surface layer and moderate in are low, but response to fertilizer is moderate.
the subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter con- Most areas of this soil are forests of longleaf and
tent are very low. slash pine and an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry,
The natural vegetation is mixed longleaf pine, sand and pineland threeawn. A few areas are improved pas-
pine, and turkey oak and an understory of sand live oak ture.
and sawpalmetto. Many areas are still in natural vegeta- Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
tion. Some have been planted to citrus, pasture, and vegetable crops because of a high water table and low
pine trees, natural fertility. If a good water control system and a high
This soil is poorly suited to vegetable crops because level of management are used, however, certain vegeta-
of poor soil qualities. Under high level management, ble crops grow well.
however, a few special crops such as watermelons and This soil is not suited to citrus because of wetness and
ferns can be grown, the hazard of frost.
If the local climate is favorable, this soil is well suited This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Water
to citrus trees. Growing a cover crop between the trees, control, good management, and fertilization are needed.
applying lime and fertilizer, and irrigating during dry peri- The potential productivity is moderately high for slash
ods are good management practices. pine. Trees are usually planted on beds to improve sur-
If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited to face drainage. A drainage system is needed to remove
deep rooted improved pasture grasses. Bahiagrass and excess water during wet seasons.
other deep rooted grasses are suitable, but careful man- The potential is low for community development. A
agement is needed. water control system is needed to remove excess water
The potential is high for community development. On during the wet season. In most areas in the central part
unpaved roads, vehicle traction can be a problem be- of the county, drainage systems are expensive and diffi-
cause of the sandy surface texture. This is one of the cult to install because drainage outlets are unavailable.
better soils in the county for trench sanitary landfill, even Areas along the rivers and the coast and areas where
though the soil is sandy and seepage occurs to a depth there are natural drainage outlets can be developed after
of 67 inches, because the strongly cemented, nearly artificial drainage is provided.
impermeable layer restricts downward movement of pol- The capability subclass is Illw.
lutants. The very low natural fertility and the droughti-
ness make establishing and maintaining turf and orna- 21-EauGallie fine sand, depressional. This nearly
mental plants difficult. level, poorly drained soil occurs mainly in depressions
The capability subclass is IVs. and, in some places, in broad, poorly defined drain-
ageways in the flatwoods. It is similar to EauGallie fine
20-EauGallie fine sand. This nearly level, poorly sand, but the upper part of the subsoil is generally more
drained soil has a sandy surface layer over a loamy friable and less cemented. Areas of this soil are com-
subsoil. It is in broad flatwoods. Slopes are 0 to 2 per- only lower on the landscape than areas of EauGallie
cent. fine sand.
Typically, the surface layer is 9 inches thick. The upper Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4
4 inches is black fine sand, and the lower 5 inches is inches thick. The subsurface layer is 19 inches thick.






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 23



The upper 7 inches is light brownish gray fine sand, and brown fine sand, 5 inches of very pale brown fine sand,
the lower 12 inches is grayish brown fine sand. The 13 inches of light brownish gray sandy clay loam, and 8
upper part of the subsoil is 8 inches of black fine sand inches of light brownish gray sandy loam. Below the
and 4 inches of very dark grayish brown fine sand. Be- subsoil to 92 inches is gray loamy fine sand.
tween depths of 35 and 43 inches is grayish brown fine Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
sand. Below this is 24 inches of dark gray sandy clay soils that have a black to dark reddish brown subsoil
loam and 8 inches of gray sandy clay loam. within a depth of 30 inches, or a loamy subsoil within 40
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of inches, or both. Also included are small areas of Cassia
Malabar and Pineda soils and depressional Wabasso, and Daytona soils and a few small areas where slopes
Wauchula, and Pomona soils. Also included are similar are 5 to 8 percent. The included soils make up about 25
soils that are underlain by shell, which occur in coastal percent of any one mapped area.
areas, on Turnbull Hammock, and near the St. Johns The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for
River. The included soils make up about 25 percent of about 4 months during most years and recedes to below
any one mapped area. 40 inches during drier periods. The available water ca-
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 3 pacity is low. Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 35
to 6 months. The soil is ponded from 7 days to 1 month inches, moderate between depths of 35 and 41 inches,
or longer after heavy rainfall. The ponded water is rapid between 41 and 57 inches, moderately slow be-
seldom deeper than 6 inches. The available water ca- tween 57 and 78 inches, and rapid below. Internal drain-
pacity is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and age is slow under natural conditions but rapid where
subsurface layers and moderate to moderately rapid in artificial drainage has been provided. The organic matter
the subsoil. Internal drainage is slow because the water content and natural fertility are very low. Response to
table is high. Natural fertility and the organic matter con- fertilizers is slight.
tent are low. A major part of the acreage is in natural vegetation-
Most areas are in natural vegetation of pineland an open forest of slash and sand pine, dense scrub oak,
threeawn, maidencane, scattered pond pine, waxmyrtle, and an understory of sawpalmetto, creeping bluestem,
and scattered clumps of sawpalmetto and loblolly bay. A chalky bluestem, pineland threeawn, fetterbush, and gall-
few areas are used as range when the water table is berry.
below the surface. This soil is poorly suited to vegetable crops because
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops because of of very low organic matter content, very low natural fertil-
the wetness and the low natural fertility. ity, and droughtiness.
This soil is not suited to citrus because of the exces- The soil is not suited to citrus, mainly because of the
sive wetness and the hazard of frost, frost hazard. The seasonal high water table is also a
The potential productivity is moderate for slash pine. A limitation.
system to remove excess surface water is needed for The soil is poorly suited to improved pasture grasses.
maximum growth. Trees should be planted on beds. If fertilized and limed, bahiagrass grows best.
The potential is very low for community development. The potential productivity is moderate for slash pine.
The major limitation is excessive wetness. The soil areas In its natural state, this soil has medium potential for
are lower on the landscape than surrounding soils, which community development. The major limitation is wetness.
makes drainage difficult. Artificial drainage systems are Possible ways of overcoming the wetness are installing
expensive; suitable drainage outlets generally are not adequate drainage systems or filling the area with
available. In some areas along streams and near the enough suitable sand material to reach the necessary
coast, where there are more suitable drainage outlets, an elevation above the water table.
adequate water control system can be installed. Such The capability subclass is Vis.
areas are more easily developed.
This soil is best left in its natural state and used as 23-Farmton fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
wetland wildlife habitat. level soil is in broad areas within the flatwoods. Slopes
The capability subclass is Vllw. are smooth and are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
22-Electra fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This about 7 inches thick. The underlying layer is fine sand,
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level soil occurs in sandy clay loam, and fine sandy loam to a depth of 60
slightly elevated places in flatwoods. Slopes are smooth. inches. In sequence downward, it is 27 inches of light
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand gray fine sand, 6 inches of black fine sand, 5 inches of
about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand dark reddish brown fine sand, and 6 inches of grayish
that is light gray in the upper 6 inches and white in the brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is grayish brown
lower 27 inches. The subsoil is between depths of 35 fine sandy loam to 60 inches.
and 78 inches. In sequence downward, it is 6 inches of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
dark reddish brown fine sand, 11 inches of dark brown to EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Pomona, Basinger, and






24 SOIL SURVEY



Wauchula soils. The included soils make up about 20 fied sandy, loamy, and clayey sediments on flood plains
percent of any one mapped area. of rivers, creeks, and lakes. They vary widely in texture
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to within short distances. They consist of stratified layers of
3 months and within 40 inches for 6 months or more sandy, loamy, and clayey material. In some places, there
during most years. The available water capacity is low. is a thin mucky surface layer. In some, there are layers
Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 34 inches, of organic material in the soil. Most areas are narrow
moderate between 34 and 50 inches, and moderately stream borders. Tracts range from a few acres to about
rapid below. Internal drainage is slow under natural con- 40 acres.
editions but rapid where artificial drainage is provided. Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low. Basinger, Samsula, Gator, Bluff, and Chobee soils. The
The response to fertilizer is moderate. included soils make up 15 to 30 percent of any one
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation- mapped area. All are associated with Fluvaquents.
an open forest of slash pine and an understory of saw- Natural vegetation is predominantly swamp hard-
palmetto, runner oak, gallberry, fetterbush and waxmyr- woods-red maple, sweetgum, and cypress-and cab-
tie. Pineland threeawn and several varieties of bluestem bage palm. In places, there are openings that support
are the most common native grasses, water-tolerant shrubs, grasses, and sedges.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to These wet, frequently flooded soils are not suited to
vegetable crops because of periodic wetness and poor vegetable crops, citrus, or pasture.
soil quality. If water is controlled and soil-improving The potential is very low for community development.
measures are applied, however, certain vegetable crops The major limitations are flooding and wetness. The
can be produced. The water control system should hazard of flooding is so difficult and costly to overcome
remove excess water in wet seasons and provide water that development is impractical.
through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. The potential is high for some wetland wildlife and for
This soil is not suited to citrus because of the frost nature areas.
hazard and the excessive wetness. The capability subclass is Vllw.
If excess water is removed in wet seasons by a simple
drainage system, improved pastures of pangolagrass, im- 25-Gator muck. This very poorly drained, nearly
proved bahiagrasses, and white clover can be main- level, well decomposed organic soil occurs in freshwater
trained on this soil. Regular application of fertilizer and swamps and marshes and on flood plains of lakes,
lime is needed. Overgrazing should be prevented, rivers, and creeks. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
If well managed, this soil has moderately high potential Typically, the surface is black muck about 34 inches
productivity for slash pine. Bedding prevents damage to thick. Below this is 12 inches of very dark gray sandy
pine seedlings from excess surface water. During the clay loam and 6 inches of dark grayish brown stratified
process of bedding the soil, vegetation and debris are loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, and fine sand. Below
deposited below the bedding layer, which results in more this is 6 inches of light gray fine sand.
available organic material for pine seedlings. A drainage Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
system to remove excess surface water is needed if the Holopaw, Pompano, Placid, Pomona, St. Johns, Te-
potential productivity is to be realized. questa, Terra Ceia, and Tomoka soils. The included soils
In its natural state, the soil has low potential for com- make up about 20 percent of any one mapped area.
munity development. The major limitations are excessive The water table is at or above the soil surface in
wetness, lack of good drainage outlets, and a high risk spring, summer, and fall and is within 10 inches of the
of corrosion to uncoated steel and concrete. The sea- soil surface in winter. The available water capacity is
sonal high water table is at the soil surface. This soil is high. Internal drainage is slow. It is impeded by the
almost always saturated with water during the wet high water table. If artificial drainage is provided, how-
season so that it cannot store or transmit additional ever, it is rapid in the organic layer and moderate in the
water. Runoff is very slow after heavy or prolonged rains subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate. The response to
because the areas are nearly level. An adequate water fertilizer is good. The organic matter content is very high.
control system would be required to remove excess sur- A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation-
face water and maintain the water table at the depth swamp hardwoods with American elm, baldcypress, cab-
necessary for the selected use. Artificial drainage sys- bage palm, red maple, sourwood, sweetgum and an un-
tems, however, are expensive and difficult to develop derstory of maidencane, sawgrass, giant cutgrass,
because natural drainage outlets are generally unavail- smooth cordgrass, waxmyrtle, and other perennial
able. grasses. A small acreage in marshes has a cover of
The capability subclass is IVw. sawgrass or smooth cordgrass and in places a moderate
amount of chalky bluestem.
24-Fluvaquents. These are nearly level, poorly Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to vege-
drained and frequently flooded soils that formed in strati- table crops because of excessive wetness. If adequate






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 25



water control measures could be installed, it would be included are a few small depressional areas. The includ-
suited to most vegetable crops, but a major drainage ed soils make up about 20 percent of any one mapped
system would be needed. The system should remove area.
excess water when crops are on the land and keep the Runoff is slow to very slow in nearly level areas. Pond-
soil saturated at all other times to prevent excessive ing occurs in the included depressional areas. The water
oxidation of the organic layers. table is within 10 inches of the soil surface for 2 to 6
This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many soil limita- months in most years. Permeability is rapid in the surface
tions to citrus production. layer and moderate in the subsoil, but under natural
Productive pastures of improved grasses or grass- conditions the movement of air and water is impeded by
clover mixtures could be grown if an adequate water the high water table. The available water capacity is low.
control system could be installed. Root development is restricted by the high water table.
This soil is not suited to and has very low potential Most areas of this soil are in water-tolerant native
productivity for slash pine. The major soil limitations are vegetation, a sparse forest of slash pine and cabbage
excessive wetness, rapid permeability, subsidence, and palm and shrubby vegetation dominated by gallterry and
low strength of organic layers. These soil factors result in waxmyrtle. Pineland threeawn is the major grass. Some
severe equipment limitations, seedling mortality, wind- areas associated with the flood plains are in a swamp
throw hazard, and plant competition. Hardwood trees and hardwood forest dominated by sweetgum and red maple.
baldcypress grow naturally on this soil. A few areas are used for range.
The potential for community development is very low. Wetness is a limitation for most uses. Water control is
The major limitations are excessive wetness, excess difficult because the soil is low on the landscape and
humus, a high risk of corrosion to uncoated steel and natural drainage outlets are unavailable.
concrete, and subsidence of organic layers. Wetness is a severe limitation for vegetable crops. If
This soil is always saturated with water during the wet water control is feasible, a number of vegetable crops
season and cannot store or transmit additional water. c b .
Runoff is very slow because of nearly level slopes and This soil is not suited to citrus. Limitations are wetness
limited natural drainage outlets. If drained, total subsi-
r.and the hazard of frost because of the soil's low position
dence of organic layers is about 24 inches. A system
would be needed to remove excess surface water and on the lan
maintain the water table at a depth required for selected Under good management, this soil is moderately well
uses. Artificial drainage systems are expensive and diffi- suited to improved pasture. Good management includes
cult to develop because of poor natural drainage outlets, controlling water, maintaining fertility, and controlling
Many areas of this soil are adjacent to lakes. Altering grazing.
natural vegetation could have a detrimental effect on the The potential productivity is moderately high for wood-
water quality. This soil is a good wetland wildlife habitat. land. Bedding prevents excess surface water from dam-
Shallow water areas are easily developed. aging pine seedlings. A good drainage system to remove
The capability subclass is VIIw. excess surface water is needed if the potential productiv-
ity is to be realized.
26-Holopaw sand. This nearly level, poorly drained The potential is low for community development. Ex-
soil has a seasonal high water table at or near the cessive wetness is the principal limitation. The low posi-
surface. It occurs in broad low flatwoods, especially in tion on the landscape and the resulting lack of natural
the slightly lower areas that are associated with lakes, drainage outlets make artificial drainage and water con-
and in areas bordering the flood plain of the St. Johns trol difficult.
River. Individual areas vary in size; many range up to The capability subclass is IVw.
several hundred acres.
Typically, thick sandy surface layers overlie a subsoil 27-Hontoon mucky peat. This very poorly drained,
of sandy clay loam. The surface layer is 11 inches thick. nearly level organic soil occurs in freshwater swamps
The top 5 inches is black, and the next 6 inches is dark and marshes within the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth.
gray. The subsurface layer is 44 inches thick. The upper The gradient is less than one percent.
part is grayish brown mottled in shades of yellow and Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown
brown, and it grades to gray in the lower part. The mucky peat about 5 inches thick. The underlying layer is
subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 63 inches. well decomposed organic material to a depth of more
Below this to 70 inches is layered gray sand, loamy than 52 inches and a mixture of sand and highly decom-
sand, and sandy loam. posed organic matter below. The upper 9 inches is black
Included with this in mapping are small areas of the well decomposed organic material; the next 46 inches is
poorly drained Malabar, Pineda, Pomnna, Riviera, and dark reddish brown well decomposed organic material;
Farmton soils. These soils have many similar properties. and the lower 5 inches is black highly decomposed or-
They occur in small areas of less than 2 acres. Also ganic material that is about 72 percent sand.






26 SOIL SURVEY



Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Many areas of this soil are adjacent to streams and
Myakka, St. Johns, Pomona, Pompano, Placid, and Sam- bodies of water. Altering the natural vegetation condi-
sula soils. These soils occur around the edges of tions would have an adverse effect on the water quality.
mapped areas. They make up about 25 percent of any The capability subclass is Illw.
one mapped area.
During most years, the water table is at or above the 28-Hydraquents. Hydraquents are silty, clayey, or
soil surface for 6 to 9 months and within 10 inches of loamy tidal deposits in mangrove islands or swamps.
the surface for 6 months or more. The available water They are in tidal basins and estuaries along the Atlantic
capacity is very high. Permeability is rapid throughout. Coast. These mangrove islands are numerous. They
Internal drainage, however, is slow; it is impeded by the occur in many sizes and shapes in the Indian and Halifax
high water table. If the soil is artificially drained, inter- Rivers. In places along the lower course of the rivers,
nal drainage is rapid. Natural fertility is moderate. Re- they are fingerlike projections extending from the banks.
They are near sea level. Tidal water overwashes the outer
sponse to fertilizer is good. In the more acid areas inten- They arenear sea leve Tdal water overwashes the outer
edges of the mangrove clusters or islands at high tide.
sive liming is needed for best yields.
sive iming is nee o est yiel. For the most part, the inner parts are slightly higher and
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of are inundated only during storms and equinoctial tides.
dense swamp hardwoods with loblolly bay, red maple, Soils in the mangrove swamps typically vary within
sweetgum, sourwood, and baldcypress and an under- short distances. Because of this variability and the diffi-
story of waxmyrtle, sawgrass, greenbrier, smooth cord- culty of detailed investigation, these soils are not classi-
grass, and maidencane. fied below the great group level in soil taxonomy. Tex-
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to vege- ture of the soil layers is clayey, silty, or loamy with few
table crops because of excessive wetness. With good pockets or discontinuous strata of sandy material. In
water control, however, the soil can produce most vege- some places, the surface layer is mucky. The mineral
table crops. The water control system should remove soil layers are typically dark gray, greenish gray, or dark
excess water while crops are on the land and keep the greenish gray. The soils have a high water content, so
soil saturated at all other times to reduce oxidation and their strength is low and they can support little weight.
subsidence. In addition to applications of a complete They contain some sulfides. Soil reaction becomes ex-
fertilizer, large applications of lime are needed. tremely acid after prolonged exposure to air.
This soil is not suited to citrus. Included with these soils in mapping are a few places
If water is controlled, productive pastures of improved that have layers and accumulations of shells. Also in-
grasses or grass-clover mixtures suited to the area can cluded are a few areas along the Intracoastal Waterway
be grown. The water control system should maintain the that have piles of sand and shells as much as four feet
water table near the surface to prevent excessive oxida- thick. This material was dredged from the channel. The
tion of the organic layers. included areas make up about 15 percent of any one
The potential productivity is very low for slash pine mapped area.
because of excessive wetness, subsidence, and the low Both the red and the black mangrove are important
strength of the organic layers. These factors result in species in the mangrove swamps. The red mangrove
severe equipment limitations, high seedling mortality, a grows in the outer areas that are covered daily by saline
windthrow hazard, and severe plant competition. water during high tides. It develops an extensive prop
In its natural state, the soil has very low potential for root system and produces seeds that germinate on the
community development. The major soil limitations are plant before dropping off to float away in the water and
excessive wetness, organic layers more than 52 inches perhaps lodge in shallow water to form a new plant. The
excessive wetness, organic layers more than 52 inches
deep, the high risk of corrosion to steel and concrete, black mangrove grows at slightly higher elevations that
deep, ithe high risk of corrosion toe s and concrete, o are less affected by daily high tides. It produces many
and, if the soil is drained, considerable subsidence of the erect roots or pneumatophores above the soil surface. In
organic layers. The seasonal high water table is above places, the white mangrove grows as a secondary spe-
the soil surface. This soil is always saturated with water cies along the inland border of the swamps. The man-
during the wet season and cannot store or transmit addi- groves are land builders. The prop roots of the red man-
tional water. Runoff is very slow because the areas are grove provide attachment surfaces for oysters and other
nearly level and natural drainage outlets are unavailable. sessile sea organisms, which causes an accumulation of
The organic layers would have to be excavated or the shells on the surface. In addition, the thick prop root
structures built on fill material or pilings because of sub- systems entrap all but the smallest floating organic
sidence. A good water control system would be needed debris. There is a slow accretion of shells, organic
to remove excess surface water and maintain the ground matter, and mineral particles. Sand crabs continually
water table at the depth necessary for the selected use. make burrows and mix the sediments.
Artificial drainage systems are expensive and difficult to Because of tidal flooding, low soil strength, and inac-
develop because of the limited natural drainage outlets, cessibility, Hydraquents are not suited to agriculture or







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 27



community development. Drainage of these soils would Generally this soil is not suited to citrus. The wetness
probably cause the soils to become so acid that they and susceptibility to frost are the major limitations.
would not support plant growth. If excess water is removed, productive pastures of
These are soils that support mangrove swamps, which improved grasses can be maintained. Liberal amounts of
are part river basin and part sea. They are a unique fertilizer are needed. Clover can be grown with the
and biologically productive zone that is important to fish grasses but must be irrigated to assure good growth.
and wildlife. Many sport and commercial finfish as well The potential is low to medium for community develop-
as shellfish use the areas as nurseries and, in addition, ment. The major limitation is the high water table. In
are linked to food chains originating with mangrove detri- places outfall ditches can be constructed to control sur-
tus. Offshore birds use these soils as rookeries and face water. Mounding can raise the sites for structures
feeding grounds. Mangrove swamps also serve as a and onsite waste disposal fields. A maintenance program
protective barrier in estuaries against excessive wave is needed to keep ditches open and functioning. Stand-
action during tropical storms. ing water in ditches increases the need for mosquito
The capability subclass is VIIlw. control.
The capability subclass is IVw.
29--mmokalee sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained sandy soil generally occurs in broad areas in the 30-Immokalee sand, depressional. This poorly
flatwoods, in low areas between sand ridges, or in slight- drained, nearly level sandy soil occurs in shallow inter-
ly elevated areas between ponds and sloughs. The acre- mittent ponds and sloughs in the flatwoods. Individual
age is moderate in extent. Some areas are more than areas are small, generally less than 25 acres.
1,000 acres. Slopes are smooth to slightly convex or Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 8
concave and are 0 to 2 percent. inches thick. The subsurface layer is mainly gray sand
Typically, the surface layer is about 10 inches thick. about 28 inches thick. The subsoil is loamy sand or sand
The upper 5 inches is black sand, and the lower 5 coated with organic matter. It is 5 inches of friable black
inches is dark gray sand. The subsurface layer is sand sand, 6 inches of friable dark reddish brown sand, and 3
streaked with very dark gray in old root channels. The inches of friable dark brown sand. Below this to a depth
upper 6 inches is gray, and the lower 18 inches is light of 80 inches is brown sand.
gray. The subsoil is loamy sand or sand that is coated The water able is within 10 inches o the surface for


of 8 inches or more. Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low.
with anic this soil in mapping are small areas of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Myakka, Placid, Daytona St. Johns, Satellite, other soils, such as Basinger, Myakka, Placid, Pompano,
and Smyrna soils. The included soils generally make up and St. Johns soils. The included soils make up about
less than 25 percent of any one mapped area. 20 to 25 percent of many mapped areas.
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 he natural vegetation is St.-Johnswort, maidencane,
to 2 months in most years and between 10 and 40 sand cordgrass, and pickerelweed in the lowest spots. A
inches more than half the time. Occasionally in very wet few slash pine trees are in some high areas. These
seasons it rises above the surface for a few days. The pines have become established during prolonged dry
available water capacity is low. Permeability is moderate periods. Most areas are still in natural vegetation.
or moderately rapid in the subsoil and rapid in the other This soil is not suitable for vegetable crops or im-
horizons. Natural fertility and the organic matter content proved pasture because of the excessive wetness. Es-
are low. tablishing an adequate drainage system is very difficult
The natural vegetation is an open forest of slash pine because suitable outlets are generally lacking.
and longleaf pine and an understory of sawpalmetto, This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive
runner oak, and pineland threeawn. Most areas are still wetness and the frost hazard.
in natural vegetation. Som e are planted to improved pas- The potential productivity is very low for slash pine
ture grasses. Pond pine will grow on this soil.
Immokalee soils are moderately suited to vegetable The potential is very low for community development.
crops. The periodic wetness, low fertility, and the or anic The major limitations are excessive wetness or standing
matter content reduce choice of plants and result in a water and the lack of drainage outlets.
need for high level management. The water table must In its native state, this soil provides watering places
be carefully controlled. Availability of irrigation water and and some grazing for cattle. It is an important feeding
freedom from frost greatly affect the soil suitability and ground for many kinds of wading birds and other wildlife.
the choice of crops. The capability subclass is Vllw.






28
28 SOIL SURVEY



31-Malabar fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly mortality is severe. Bedding helps in establishing seed-
level soil occurs in broad low flats. Slopes are smooth lings and in removing excess surface water. A system is
and are 0 to 2 percent, needed to remove excess water during wet seasons if
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 2 the potential productivity is to be realized.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 13 The potential is low for community development. The
inches thick. The upper 7 inches is light brownish gray, major soil limitation is excessive wetness. The seasonal
and the lower 6 inches is light gray. The subsoil is about high water table is at or briefly above the soil surface.
65 inches thick. In sequence downward, it is 9 inches of The soil is always saturated with water during the wet
strong brown fine sand, 8 inches of mixed yellowish season and cannot store or transmit additional water.
brown, light yellowish brown, and brownish yellow fine Runoff is very slow because the soil is nearly level. A
sand; 10 inches of gray fine sand; 11 inches of mottled water control system would be needed to remove excess
gray fine sandy loam with pockets of sandy clay loam; surface water and maintain the ground water table at the
and 27 inches of mottled gray sandy loam with pockets depth necessary for the selected use. Artificial drainage
of fine sand. systems are expensive and difficult to develop because
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of natural drainage outlets are limited.
Basinger, Holopaw, Pineda, Pompano, Riviera, and Val- Altering natural vegetation and existing drainage pat-
karia soils. Some pedons in depressions have a layer of terns on this soil could have an adverse effect on the
humus or iron accumulation. In some areas about 6 surrounding ecological community.
inches of water stands on the soil surface for 7 days to The capability subclass is IVw.
3 months in most years. In small areas the soil reaction
is more acid than is described for the series. The includ- 32-Myakka fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
ed areas make up about 20 percent of any one mapped drained soil is in the flatwoods. The acreage is exten-
area. sive. Individual areas range from a few acres to more
In most years the water table is within a depth of 10 than 750 acres.
inches for 2 to 6 months and is within 40 inches for Typically, this soil is sandy to a depth of more than 80
about 6 months. The water table may recede below 40 inches. The surface layer is 5 inches of black fine sand
inches during extended dry periods. The available water over 22 inches of gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 90 inches or more. The upper 15 inches is black loamy
42 inches and moderate below. Internal drainage is slow; fine sand coated with organic matter. The next 12 inches
it is impeded by the high water table. If artificial drain- is dark reddish brown fine sand coated with organic
age is provided, internal drainage is rapid. Natural fertility matter. To a depth of 78 inches is yellowish brown fine
and the organic matter content are low. Response to sand that contains discontinuous layers of dark reddish
fertilizer is good. brown material. Below this to 90 inches is dark reddish
A moderate part of the acreage is in natural vegetation brown fine sand.
of mixed hardwoods and cabbage palm, water oak, slash Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
pine, laurel oak, and southern redcedar. The understory Basinger and Immokalee soils, depressional Myakka
is waxmyrtle, gallberry, sawpalmetto, and fetterbush. The soils, and Pomona and St. Johns soils. In some places,
common native grasses and shrubs are maidencane, areas of the included soils are too small to be shown
chalky bluestem, pineland threeawn, broomsedge blues- individually on the soil map. In others, they occur where
tem, St.-Johnswort, and lopsided indiangrass. the soil boundaries are gradual. The included areas
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to make up 15 to 20 percent of any one mapped area.
vegetable crops because of periodic wetness, low fertil- Runoff is slow to very slow. The water table is within
ity, and low available water capacity. If water is con- 12 inches of the surface from June to November and
trolled and soil-improving measures are applied, it can be commonly within 40 inches of the surface the rest of the
well suited to certain vegetable crops. The water control year except during extended droughts. Some areas are
system should remove excess water in wet seasons and artificially drained by a system of ditches or, in a few
provide water through subsurface irrigation in dry sea- places, by tile. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer
sons. and moderate in the subsoil. Infiltration is impeded by
This soil is not suited to citrus because of the exces- the seasonal high water table near the surface. The
sive wetness and the frost hazard, available water capacity is low. The organic matter con-
The soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay tent and natural fertility are low. If broad fields are left
crops. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white bare, wind erosion can occur.
clovers are well suited. Growth is good if excess water is The natural vegetation is the pine-palmetto type typical
removed in wet seasons. Regular applications of fertilizer of the flatwoods. Slash and longleaf pine are the over-
and occasional liming are needed. story, and sawpalmetto dominates the understory. Pine-
The potential productivity is moderately high for slash land threeawn is the predominant grass in the more
pine. Equipment limitations are moderate, and seedling open areas.







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 29



If water is controlled, this soil is moderately well suited ment of water is impeded by the high water table. The
to vegetable crops. A few areas are artificially drained available water capacity is low. The organic matter con-
and used for such crops as cabbage and cucumbers, tent and natural fertility are low.
Water control is needed to lower the water table for The natural vegetation is pineland threeawn, maiden-
drainage and raise it in dry periods for subirrigation. cane, scattered pine, myrtle, and scattered clumps of
Tracts of this soil that are near the coast or near incised palmetto.
streams or arterial canals are generally easier to drain This soil is not suited to vegetable crops, citrus, or
than those in the central part of the county, where drain- improved pasture. Standing water and wetness are limi-
age outlets are generally unavailable. In addition to water stations that are difficult to overcome because in most
control, lime and fertilizer are needed. places suitable drainage outlets are not available. In ad-
This Myakka soil is not suited to citrus because of the edition, frost is a hazard for citrus.
excessive wetness and the frost hazard. The potential productivity is very low for slash pine.
If water can be controlled, this soil is well suited to Seedling mortality is high. Growth is stunted. Standing
improved pasture. In places a system of shallow surface water limits the use of equipment. Pond pine, however,
ditches is the only control needed. can be grown.
Much of the acreage is used for pulpwood production. The potential is very low for community development.
Potential productivity is moderate for slash pine. Bedding The major limitations are excessive wetness or standing
helps in establishing seedlings and in removing excess water and the lack of drainage outlets.
surface water. The potential is high for wetland wildlife. Shallow water
The potential is low to medium for community develop- areas are easily developed.
ment. The seasonal high water table at or near the The capability subclass is Vllw.
surface is a hazard for foundations, pavements, and
septic tank absorption fields. In places outfall ditches 34-Myakka-St. Johns complex. These nearly level,
can be constructed to control the surface water. Mound- poorly drained Myakka and St. Johns soils are so inter-
ing is needed to raise the sites for structures and onsite mingled on the landscape that they could not be shown
waste disposal fields. A maintenance program is needed separately at the scale of mapping selected. The map
to keep ditches open and functioning. Standing water in unit occurs as long or irregularly shaped tracts of 4 to
the ditches increases the need for mosquito control. In 200 acres in low areas and in depressions in the
periods of heavy or prolonged rain, ponding is likely to flatwoods. The Myakka soil is in narrow depressions
occur in broad areas, driveways, and low streets. about 50 to 500 feet wide that are interspersed with the
The capability subclass is IVw. lower, long areas of St. Johns soil, which are 50 to 200
feet wide. Individual areas of each soil range from one-
33-Myakka fine sand, depressional. This nearly half acre to 8 acres.
level, poorly drained soil is in depressions in the The Myakka soil makes up about 60 percent of each
flatwoods throughout the county. It is commonly ponded mapped area. Typically the surface layer is black fine
for 6 to 9 months in most years. Individual areas range sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
from about 5 to 150 acres. brownish gray fine sand about 22 inches thick. The
Typically, this soil is fine sand throughout. It has a very upper 4 inches of the subsoil is friable black fine sand
dark gray surface layer about 5 inches thick and a gray coated with organic matter, and the lower 12 inches is
subsurface layer about 20 inches thick. The subsoil is dark brown fine sand coated with organic matter. Below
black in the upper 3 inches, dark reddish brown in the this to a depth of 78 inches is yellowish brown fine sand
next 7 inches, and dark brown in the lower part. The that contains discontinuous layers of dark reddish brown
sand grains in the 10 inches of the subsoil are coated material.
with organic matter. Below the subsoil to a depth of The Myakka soil has a seasonal high water table that
about 80 inches is brown fine sand. rises as much as 10 inches above the soil surface in wet
Some mapped areas have inclusions of Basinger, periods, and the soil is continuously saturated within 10
Placid, Pompano, St. Johns, and Smyrna soils. The in- inches of the surface in summer, fall, and winter. The
cluded soils make up about 15 percent of the unit. organic matter content and natural fertility are low. The
Areas of Myakka fine sand, depressional, are generally response to fertilizer is moderate. The available water
12 to 18 inches lower than the surrounding flatwoods. capacity is low. Permeability is rapid except in the friable,
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 3 dark colored subsoil, where it is moderate to moderately
to 6 months during most years, and in rainy periods the rapid.
surface is commonly covered with water 2 to 6 inches The St. Johns soil makes up about 25 percent of each
deep for 7 days to a month. In prolonged dry periods, mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is about 10
the water table may drop to a depth of 2 to 3 feet. inches thick. The upper 7 inches is black fine sand, and
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and substratum the lower 3 inches is very dark gray fine sand. The
and moderately rapid in the subsoil. Downward move- subsurface layer is mainly light gray fine sand about 16






30 SOIL SURVEY



inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand coated with colloi- difficult to develop because natural drainage outlets are
dal organic matter. In sequence downward, 9 inches is not available. Many areas are subject to flooding.
black; the next 8 inches is dark reddish brown; and the Altering the natural vegetation and the existing drain-
lower 11 inches is dark brown and dark reddish brown. age patterns in this unit can adversely affect the aquatic
Below the subsoil is brown fine sand to a depth of 60 ecosystems of wetlands that are commonly associated
inches or more. with these soils. The potential is high for wetland wildlife
The St. Johns soil has a seasonal high water table habitat. Shallow water areas are easily developed.
that rises as much as 10 inches above the soil surface, The capability subclass is VIIw.
and the soil is continuously saturated within 10 inches of
the surface in summer, fall, and winter. Natural fertility is 35-Myakka-Urban land complex. This map unit con-
moderately low. The response to fertilizer is moderate, sists of nearly level Myakka soils that have been used
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid for urban development. About 40 to 70 percent of the
except in the subsoil, where it is moderately rapid. unit is Myakka fine sand, and 15 to 45 percent is Urban
Included with this unit in mapping are small areas of land. About half the areas of Myakka soil have been
Basinger, Pompano, Placid, Pomona, St. Johns, Sam- disturbed by reworking and reshaping during the con-
sula, and Valkaria soils. In a few places, the underlying struction of foundations, utility lines, roads, and streets
material is loamy fine sand or loamy sand. In some and the installation of other facilities associated with
areas, the soils have an organic surface layer 1 inch to construction and development. The open areas of
10 inches thick. In a few places, the subsoil is not so Myakka soil are mostly lawns, vacant lots, or play-
dark as the one described for the Myakka and St. Johns grounds. They are generally small and intermingled with
soils. The included areas make up about 30 percent of areas of Urban land. The Urban land is covered with
any one mapped area. houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and
A large part of the acreage is a forest of baldcypress other structuinedreas, the water table is within 10 inches
and scattered pond pine, sweetgum, loblolly pine, bay, In undrained areas, the water table is within 10 inches
and slash pine. The understory is mainly waxmyrtle, gall- of the soil surface for 1 to 4 months in most years.
berry, St.-Johnswort, greenbrier, and clumps of sawpal- Drainage systems have been established in most areas,
berry, St-Johnswort, greener, and clumps of sawpal- however, so the water table is only briefly within a depth
metto. The common grasses are maidencane, sawgrass, of about 30 inches after heavy rainfall.
broomsedge bluestem, smooth cordgrass, and bluestem. of about 30 inches after heavy rainfall.
Under natural conditions this unit is poorly suited to Typically, the Myakka soil is sandy to a deth of more
vegetable crops. It is not suited to citrus, because it is than 80 inches. The surfae layer is 2 inches thick. It is
5 inches of black fine sand and 22 inches of gray fine
almost always covered with standing water during the sand. The subsoil extends to 90 inches or more. The
wet season. Suitable drainage outlets are generally not upper 15 inches is black loamy fine sand coated with
available. Frost is an additional hazard for citrus.rganic matter. The next 12 inches is dark reddish brown
This unit is poorly suited to pasture of bahiagrass, fine sand coated with organic matter. To ar depth of 78
bermudagrass, and white clover. If adequate outlets for inches is yellowish brown fine sand that contains discon-
artificial drainage systems are available, however, the tinuous layers of dark reddish brown material. Below this
unit can be used for improved pasture. Regular applica- to a depth of 90 inches is dark reddish brown fine sand.
tion of fertilizer and lime is needed. Areas of soil that has been modified by grading and
Because the natural vegetation is mixed hardwoods, shaping are not so large in the older communities as in
preparing this unit for slash pine production is not eco- the newer ones. Excavating streets below the original
nomically feasible. Under a high level of management, land surface and spreading this material over adjacent
however, the potential productivity is moderate to moder- land areas is common. Sandy material from drainage
ately high for slash pine. Equipment limitations and seed- ditches is often used to fill low areas. Frequently, materi-
ling mortality are severe. Bedding is needed to elevate al is hauled in to fill low spots.
seedlings above the standing surface water. A drainage About 15 percent of the open areas is other soils,
system to remove excess surface water is needed if the such as Immokalee sand, Daytona sand, St. Johns fine
potential productivity is to be realized, sand, Cassia fine sand, and Quartzipsamments, gently
This unit has very low potential for community devel- sloping. Also included are a few areas where the Urban
opment. The major limitations are the excessive wet- land makes up 45 to 60 percent of the map unit.
ness, the high risk of corrosion to uncoated steel and No capability subclass is assigned to the unit.
concrete, and the very slow rate of water runoff. The
seasonal high water table is above the soil surface. 36-Myakka Variant fine sand. This nearly level,
These soils are always saturated during the wet seasons poorly drained sandy soil is on swells in flatwoods and in
and cannot store or transmit additional water. Runoff is slightly higher areas in hardwood hammocks near the
very slow after heavy or prolonged rain, and ponding coast. Slopes are mostly less than 1 percent but range
occurs in most areas. Artificial drainage systems are from 0 to 2 percent.







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 31



In a typical profile, the surface layer is dark gray fine The capability subclass is IVw.
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
grayish brown fine sand about 21 inches thick. The sub- 37-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
soil between depths of 28 and 40 inches is black fine moderately well drained, nearly level and gently sloping
sand, and many of the sand grains are coated with sandy soil occurs on low flat ridges and low side slopes
organic matter. To a depth of 45 inches it is dark brown of higher sandhills. The acreage is small. Individual areas
loose fine sand. Below this is brownish yellow and white are generally long or oval and range from about 5 to 200
stratified layers of mixed sand and shell fragments to 80 acres. Slopes are smooth to convex.
inches. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 6
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
Farmton, Wabasso, and Tuscawilla soils at the edges of about 24 inches thick. Tongues of material from the
mapped areas where boundaries are gradual. Also in- subsurface layer extend into the subsoil. The subsoil is
cluded are areas where the shelly substratum is within mainly brownish yellow and yellow fine sand about 38
40 inches, areas where a discontinuous loamy horizon is inches thick. The underlying material is very pale brown
below the dark subsoil, and areas in depressions that fine sand mottled with yellowish brown and light gray to
are subject to ponding. The included areas make up 15 a depth of 80 inches or more.
to 20 percent of any one mapped area. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Under natural conditions the water table fluctuates to Cassia, Paola, Daytona, and Tavares soils. The included
within 10 inches of the surface during the rainy season soils generally make up no more than 20 percent of any
from June to November. Many areas, however, are artifi- one mapped area.
cially drained by canals and ditches. Permeability is rapid The water table is 40 to 60 inches below the soil
in the surface layer and the substratum and moderate in surface in wet seasons. It recedes to below 60 inches in
the subsoil. The available water capacity is low. The dry seasons. The available water capacity, the organic
organic matter content and natural fertility are low. matter content, and the natural fertility are very low.
The natural vegetation is hammock forest that includes Permeability is very rapid.
sweetbay, sweetgum, red maple, pignut hickory, live oak, The natural vegetation is forest of sand pine and an
and cabbage palm. The understory includes sawpal- understory of scattered sawpalmetto and rosemary.
understory of scattered sawpalmetto and rosemary.
metto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and yaupon.
Under natural conditions, because the seasonal high
sThis soil is poorly suited to vegetable crops because
water table is near the surface, this soil is poorly suited This soil is poorly suited to vegetable crops because
to vegetable crops or improved pasture. If an adequate of poor soil qualities. Under high level management,
drainage system is installed and maintained, it will pro- however, it can be developed to produce a few special
duce most vegetable crops commonly grown, citrus, and crops, such as ferns.
improved pasture. For citrus the hazard of frost pockets If the local climate is favorable, this soil is moderately
is moderate to severe because temperature inversions well suited to citrus. Tree roots extend into moist areas
can occur over low-lying areas. above the water table so that they are not so severely
The potential is low for community development, affected by drought as in other areas. Growing a cover
Where artificial drainage is feasible, some development crop between the trees, applying lime and fertilizer, and
is possible, but continuing limitations are likely. Many irrigating during dry periods are good management prac-
areas in the vicinity of the coastal cities are under urban tices.
development. Successfully developing and managing a If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited to
drainage system is easier on a large tract than on indi- deep rooted improved pasture grasses. Bahiagrass and
vidual lots or small parcels. Large tracts are more likely other deep rooting grasses are suitable, but careful man-
to have the differences in elevation needed for improved agement is needed.
surface drainage. In addition, access to a drainage The potential is medium for community development.
outlet, such as an incised drainageway or arterial canal, The soil is well suited to buildings without basements
is more likely to be available. and roads and streets. Because of the seasonal high
The nearly level landscape and the good traffic sup- water table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches, onsite waste
porting capacity are favorable characteristics for roads disposal systems can pollute shallow ground water. Very
and structures. The low natural fertility, low available low natural fertility and very low available water holding
water capacity, and sandy texture are limitations for capacity are limiting factors for turf and ornamentals.
lawns and ornamental plants. Even if the water table is The capability subclass is IVs.
maintained below a depth of 40 inches, onsite sewage
systems can pollute underground water, because perme- 38-Paisley fine sand. This deep, poorly drained,
ability is rapid in the shelly and sandy substratum. In slowly permeable soil formed in clayey marine sediments
many areas the shelly substratum is thick enough to be influenced by underlying calcareous materials. It occurs
mined for road material. in low areas in flatwoods and on the outer edges of the







32 SOIL SURVEY



St. Johns River flood plain. Slopes are smooth or con- Also included are a few places where the slope gradient
cave. The gradient is less than 1 percent. .is as steep as 15 percent. In places where the native
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand plant cover has been removed, as much as 3 inches of
about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brown- fresh wind-deposited sand may be on the surface.
ish gray fine sand to a depth of 13 inches. The subsoil is The water table is below 72 inches and is usually
about 50 inches thick. It is gray sandy clay mottled in below 120 inches. The available water capacity, organic
shades of brown, yellow, and gray. It has nodules and matter content, and natural fertility are very low. Perme-
coatings of white calcium carbonate that increase in ability is very rapid.
amount with increasing depth. The substratum is gray This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus pro-
loamy fine sand. duction, or pasture. Most areas receive salt spray from
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of the Atlantic. Most areas are in native vegetation of saw-
Bluff, Riviera, and Tequesta soils, Typic Fluvaquents, palmetto, scrub oak, cacti, clumps of sea-oats, and scat-
and Wabasso and Winder soils. The included areas tered southern redcedar. In some urban areas the soil is
make up less than 10 percent of any one mapped area. protected by sea walls.
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to If only properties of the soil are considered, the poten-
6 months during most years. In some areas water stands tial is high for community development. The dunes, how-
on the surface for a few days after heavy rain. Flooding ever, are a natural defense against storms and floods for
from the St. Johns River is possible under abnormal the land areas behind the dune line, and they should not
conditions. The available water capacity is low in the be disturbed.
surface layer and high in the subsoil. Permeability is The capability subclass is Vlls.
rapid in the surface layer and slow in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is moderate. 40-Palm Beach-Urban land-Paola complex, 0 to 8
The natural vegetation is cabbage palm hammocks percent slopes. This map unit consists of Palm Beach
with scattered groves of live oak and an intermingling of and Paola soils and areas of these soils that have been
slash pine and longleaf pine. altered for buildings or covered with streets and build-
Under natural conditions, this soil is too wet for vege- ings. About 20 to 40 percent of the unit is Palm Beach
table crops. Adequate drainage outlets are generally sand, about 15 to 45 percent is Urban land, and about
lacking and, in addition, the slowly permeable subsoil 15 to 25 percent is Paola fine sand. About 25 to 45
hampers the development of a water control system, percent of the Palm Beach and Paola soils has been
The soil is moderately well suited to adapted pasture reworked or reshaped by earthmoving machines. The
grasses and grass-clover mixtures, but a water control open areas of the Palm Beach and Paola soils are
system must be designed to remove standing water. mostly lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds. They are gen-
The potential productivity is very high for slash pine. erally small and intermixed with Urban land. The Urban
Some surface water control is needed in establishing land is covered with houses, streets, driveways, build-
seedlings. ings, parking lots, and other structures.
The potential is very low for community development The water table is more than 72 inches below the soil
because of wetness, flooding, and the slowly permeable surface and is usually below 120 inches.
subsoil. These limitations are extremely difficult and Typically, the surface layer of the Palm Beach soil is
costly to overcome, about 6 inches thick. It is sand that is about 15 to 30
The soil has high potential for wetland wildlife. Shallow percent very fine shell fragments. The upper 3 inches is
ponds are easily developed because of the high water gray, and the lower 3 inches is grayish brown. Between
table. depths of 6 to 34 inches is light brownish gray sand
The capability subclass is VIw. mixed with multicolored shell. Below this to 80 inches is
white sand and multicolored shell.
39-Palm Beach sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes. These Typically, the surface layer of the Paola soil is a mix-
are excessively drained sandy soils on primary dunes ture of light gray fine sand and black organic matter
that border and are parallel to the Atlantic coast. Slopes about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
are 2 to 8 percent. and white fine sand about 20 inches thick. The subsoil is
Typically, the surface layer is about 6 inches thick. It is yellow fine sand about 38 inches thick. Tongues of sub-
sand and about 15 to 30 percent very fine shell frag- surface material extend into the subsoil. They are a dark
ments. The upper 3 inches is gray, and the lower 3 brown or yellowish brown exterior and a light gray interi-
inches is grayish brown. Between depths of 6 and 34 or. Below the subsoil is very pale brown line sand to a
inches is light brownish gray sand mixed with multicolored depth of 80 inches or more.
shell. Below this to 80 inches is white sand and multico- The areas of soil that have been modified by grading
lored shell. and shaping are not so large in older communities as in
The mapped areas of this soil are 20 to 30 percent the newer ones. Excavating streets below the original
other kinds of soil, including Canaveral and Paola soils. land surface and spreading this material over adjacent







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 33



land areas is common. Soil material is frequently hauled 42-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This
in to fill low places, excessively drained, nearly level to sloping sandy soil
About 15 percent of the land area that is not covered occurs on high, broad sandhills. The acreage is moder-
with urban facilities is other soils, such as Orsino, Dayto- ate in extent. Some mapped areas are more than 500
na, and Canaveral soils and Quartzipsamments. Also in- acres.
cluded are a few small areas where the Urban land Typically, the surface layer is a mixture of light gray
makes up as much as 60 percent of the map unit and fine sand and black organic matter about 6 inches thick.
some areas of the Paola soil that have sand texture. The subsurface layer is light gray and white fine sand
No capability subclass is assigned to the unit. about 20 inches thick. The subsoil is yellow fine sand
about 38 inches thick. Tongues of subsurface material
41-Palm Beach-Paola association, 2 to 8 percent extend into the subsoil. They have a dark brown or
slopes. This map unit is made up of well drained to yellowish brown exterior and a light gray interior. Below
excessively drained sandy soils on sand dunes bordering the subsoil is very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 80
the beaches along the Atlantic Ocean. The Palm Beach inches or more.
soils, about 55 percent of the unit, are on the primary Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
dunes and the ocean side of the secondary dunes. The Astatula, Daytona, Orsino, St. Lucie, and Tavares soils.
Paola soils, about 35 percent, are on the back dunes. Also included are small areas of Paola soils that have a
The remaining 10 percent of the unit is included areas of slope of more than 8 percent. The included areas gener-
Canaveral soils and similar soils in very narrow troughs ally make up less than 20 percent of any one mapped
that separate the dunes. area.
Typically, the surface layer of the Palm Beach soil is The water table is below a depth of 72 inches. The
about 6 inches thick. It is sand that is about 15 to 30 available water capacity, the organic matter content, and
percent very fine shell fragments. The upper 3 inches is the natural fertility are very low. Permeability is very
gray, and the lower 3 inches is grayish brown. Between rapid.
depths of 6 to 34 inches is light brownish gray sand The natural vegetation is a sand pine-scrub oak forest
mixed with multicolored shell fragments. Below this to 80 and an understory of rosemary and scattered sawpal-
inches is white sand and multicolored shell fragments. metto. Most areas are still in native vegetation, but some
Typically, the surface layer of the Paola soil is a mix- have been used as building sites.
ture of light gray fine sand and black organic matter This soil is not suited to vegetable crops.
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray If the climate is favorable, the soil is moderately well
and white fine sand about 20 inches thick. The subsoil is suited to citrus. A plant cover is needed on the ground in
yellow fine sand about 38 inches thick. Tongues of sub- the groves to protect the soil from wind erosion. Irriga-
surface material extend into the subsoil. They have a tion is needed for survival of young trees and for good
dark brown or yellowish brown exterior and a light gray yields of fruit from mature trees.
interior. Below the subsoil is very pale brown fine sand to This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture. Under
a depth of 80 inches or more. high level management, however, drought resistant
This map unit receives salt spray from the Atlantic grasses can be grown.
Ocean. The natural vegetation on the Palm Beach soil The potential productivity is low for slash pine. Sand
near the beach includes sea-oats, beach morningglory, pine grows best.
and sandspur. Higher on the primary dune it is a thick The potential is high for community development. The
growth dominated by sawpalmetto mixed with prickly- deep loose sand offers poor traction for vehicles. There
pear, Spanish bayonet, and other salt-tolerant plants (fig. is a slight risk of pollution to shallow groundwater from
8). The Paola soil supports a matted thicket of sand live onsite waste disposal systems because of the very rapid
oak, sawpalmetto, southern redcedar, and cactus. permeability. Turf and ornamental plants are difficult to
Permeability is very rapid, and the available water ca- establish because of the very low natural fertility and the
pacity is very low. The organic matter content and natu- drought soil conditions. Adding a more favorable topsoil
ral fertility are low. is desirable. Frequent applications of fertilizer and irriga-
These soils are not suited to citrus, vegetables, or tion water are needed. The native plants are much more
improved pasture. They are poorly suited to lawns and hardy and easily maintained than most introduced plants,
ornamentals. If the natural protective vegetation is dis- so leaving as much of the native vegetation as possible
turbed, the sand particles are dislodged and blown, is desirable.
If only the properties of the soils are considered, the The capability subclass is VIs.
potential is high for community development. The dunes,
however, are a natural defense against storms and 43-Paola fine sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes. This
floods for the land areas behind the dune line, and they excessively drained, strongly sloping or moderately steep
should not be disturbed. sandy soil occurs in small areas of side slopes of sand
The capability subclass is Vlls. ridges, around sinks, and along streams that have high







34 SOIL SURVEY



banks. Areas are generally oval, serpentine, or crescent- rial from the subsurface layer extend into the subsoil.
like in shape. They have a dark brown or yellowish brown exterior and
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5 a light gray interior. Below the subsoil is very pale brown
inches thick. The upper 6 inches of the subsurface layer fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
is gray fine sand, and the lower 19 inches is light gray Areas of the soil that have been modified by grading
fine sand. The subsoil is yellow fine sand about 35 and shaping are not so large in the older communities as
inches thick. Tongues of subsurface material extend into in the newer ones. Excavating streets below the original
the subsoil. They have a brownish yellow exterior and a land surface and spreading this material over adjacent
light gray interior. Below the subsoil is very pale brown land areas is common. Soil material from other locations
fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. is frequently hauled in to fill low places.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of About 15 percent of the land area not covered with
Astatula, Orsino, Daytona, and Tavares soils. Also in- urban facilities is other soils, such as Orsino and Dayto-
cluded are small areas of Paola soils that have slopes of na soils and Quartzipsamments. A few small areas
less than 8 percent or more than 17 percent. The includ- where the Urban land makes up as much as 60 percent
ed soils make up about 15 percent of any one mapped of the map unit are also included.
area. No capability subclass is assigned to the unit.
The water table is below a depth of 72 inches. The
available water capacity, the organic matter content, and 45-Pineda fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
the natural fertility are very low. Permeability is very drained soil occurs in the flatwoods on broad low flats, in
rapid, poorly defined drainageways, and at the edges of sand
The natural vegetation is a sand pine-scrub oak forest ponds and swamps. The acreage is moderate in extent.
and an understory of rosemary. Most areas are still Some areas are more than 500 acres. Slopes are
wooded. A few have been cleared and are idle. smooth to slightly concave and 0 to 2 percent.
This soil has very limited use because of droughtiness Typically, the surface layer is about 2 inches of black
and steep slopes. It is not suited to vegetable crops, fine sand over 7 inches of dark gray fine sand. The
improved pasture grasses, or citrus, subsurface layer is about 14 inches of fine sand that has
The potential productivity is low for slash pine. Sand yellowish and olive brown mottles or streaks. The upper
pine grows best. part is grayish brown, and the lower part is light brownish
The potential is high for community development, gray. The subsoil consists of a sandy layer stained by
There is a slight risk of pollution to shallow groundwater iron oxides over a gray loamy layer. In sequence down-
from onsite waste disposal systems because of the very ward, it is 7 inches of brownish yellow fine sand, 4
rapid permeability. Special care is needed in establishing inches of yellowish brown fine sand, and 22 inches of
and maintaining turf and ornamental plants, such as ad- gray sandy clay loam that has yellowish mottles and few
editions of topsoil, frequent applications of fertilizer, and lenses of loamy fine sand. Below the subsoil is gray
irrigation. Erosion is a problem if the steeper slopes are sandy loam and fine sandy loam.
unprotected. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The capability subclass is VIIls. EauGallie, Malabar, Riviera, and Wabasso soils. The in-
cluded soils generally make up less than 25 percent of
44-Paola-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent any one mapped area.
slopes. This map unit consists of nearly level to sloping The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to
Paola soils that have been used for urban development. 6 months in most years. Some areas have standing
About 40 to 60 percent of the unit is Paola fine sand, water for 7 days to 6 months in some years. The availa-
and 15 to 45 percent is Urban land. About 25 to 45 ble water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in the
percent of the areas of Paola soil has been reworked or sandy layers and moderately rapid in the loamy layers.
reshaped by earthmoving machines. The open areas of Natural fertility is moderately low. The organic matter
Paola soil are mostly lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds. content is low.
They are generally small and intermingled with areas of The natural vegetation is an open forest of longleaf or
Urban land. The Urban land is covered with houses, slash pine and an understory of pineland threeawn and
streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and other scattered clumps of sawpalmetto. Scattered cabbage
structures, palm is in places.
The water table is more than 72 inches below the soil Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
surface. vegetable crops because of excessive wetness. Under
Typically, the surface layer of the Paola soil is a mix- good management that includes adequate water control,
ture of light gray fine sand and black organic matter however, this soil can produce most of the vegetable
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray crops and special crops grown in the area.
and white fine sand about 20 inches thick. The subsoil is This soil is generally not suited to citrus because of
yellow fine sand about 38 inches thick. Tongues of mate- the excessive wetness and the frost hazard.







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 35



This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses and providing irrigation during dry seasons, productive
and grass-clover mixtures. A drainage system that re- range and pasture of improved grasses can be main-
moves standing surface water quickly is essential, tained. Lime is not needed because of the calcareous
The potential productivity is moderately high for slash subsoil.
pine. Some water control is needed in establishing pine This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive
seedlings. wetness and the hazard of frost.
The potential is low for community development. The The potential productivity is moderate for slash pine.
major limitation is wetness. In places outfall ditches can In its natural state, this soil has low potential for com-
be constructed to control surface water. Mounding can munity development. In coastal areas and areas where
be used to raise the sites for structures (fig. 9) and suitable drainage outlets are available, the potential is
onsite waste disposal fields. A maintenance program is medium. An adequate water control system and a utility
needed to keep ditches open and functioning. sewer system are needed. In some areas, where suitable
The capability subclass is Illw. drainage outlets are not available, developing and main-
taining artificial drainage systems is not generally feasi-
46-Pinellas fine sand. This nearly level, poorly ble.
drained soil is in areas bordering low areas and depres- The capability subclass is Illw.
sions. Slopes are smooth.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4 47-Pits. Pits are excavations from which soil and
inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 25 inches geologic material have been removed for use in road
thick. The upper 15 inches is light brownish gray fine construction or for foundations. Most are abandoned, but
sand, and the lower 10 inches is white fine sand with excavation is continuing in a few places. Vegetation has
accumulations of carbonates as coatings on sand grains become established in the older abandoned pits. It is
and in interspaces between sand grains. The subsoil is mostly an assortment of weedy forbs, grasses, and
between depths of 29 to 45 inches. The upper 7 inches shrubs. Pits, locally called borrow pits, occur in small to
is gray sandy clay loam, and the lower 9 inches is gray large mapped areas. Those that have been excavated
fine sandy loam. Below the subsoil is gray fine sand. below the normal water table and contain water for 9
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of months or more each year are mapped as water.
Riviera soils and depressional Wabasso and EauGallie No capability subclass is assigned to the unit.
soils. In places, the boundaries are gradual between the
Pinellas soil and the depressional phases of the Wa- 48-Placid fine sand, depressional. This very poorly
basso and EauGallie soils. In some areas, the subsoil is drained, nearly level soil occurs in wet depressions. The
loamy sand. The included soils make up about 25 to 30 acreage is small in extent. Areas are generally irregularly
percent of any one mapped area. shaped and less than 100 acres. Slopes are smooth to
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to concave and 0 to 2 percent.
3 months during most years and between 10 and 40 Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 11
inches for 2 to 6 months. In dry seasons, it recedes to inches thick over about 4 inches of very dark gray fine
depths below 40 inches. Runoff is slow. Permeability is sand that generally has a few gray streaks. The underly-
rapid to moderately rapid in the surface layer and moder- ing material is fine sand that extends to 80 inches or
ate to moderately rapid in the subsoil, but the downward more. The upper 28 inches is gray, the next 24 inches is
movement of water is impeded by the seasonal high grayish brown, and the lower part is light brownish gray.
water table. The available water capacity is low. Natural Included with this soil in mapping are some small
fertility and the organic matter content are low, but a areas of soils that are similar to this Placid soil but have
calcareous layer below the surface eliminates the need an organic-stained layer at a depth of about 40 inches
for liming, and some areas of Basinger and Pompano soils. These
Most areas are in natural vegetation of cabbage palm included soils generally make up no more than 20 per-
and sawpalmetto, scattered slash pine, gallberry, and cent of any one mapped area. Also included are a few
pineland threeawn. In areas where water control is ade- areas in the southeastern part of the county where the
quate, the soil is used for range and improved pasture, soil is slightly acid to neutral and has an admixture of
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to shell in the lower part of the subsoil and a few areas
vegetable crops because of wetness. If water is con- where the texture is loamy fine sand or loamy sand.
trolled, however, it is moderately well suited. High level The water table is within a depth of 12 inches for more
management is needed to remove excess water during than 6 months in most years. The soil is generally cov-
the wet season and provide water through irrigation ered with standing water for as much as 6 months annu-
during the dryer periods, ally. The available water capacity is medium. Permeabil-
Large areas of this soil are used for range and grazed ity is rapid, but downward movement of water is impeded
woodland, but during wet seasons the high water is a by the seasonal high water table. The organic matter
problem. By removing excess water during wet seasons content is moderate.






36 SOIL SURVEY



The natural vegetation is generally wetland grasses, good. Natural fertility and the organic matter content are
such as maidencane, but in some areas it is pond pine, low. Response to fertilizer is moderate.
bay, and cypress. A moderate part of the acreage is in natural vegeta-
This soil has severe limitations for vegetable crops tion-an open forest of slash pine and an understory of
because of excessive wetness. It is not suited to these sawpalmetto, runner oak, gallberry, and fetterbush. Pine-
crops. land threeawn is the most common native grass. Several
This soil is not suitable for citrus, varieties of bluestem are also present.
Unless excess water is removed, pastures of improved Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
grasses or grass-clover mixtures cannot be produced. vegetable crops because of periodic wetness, low fertil-
Installing a water control system is not feasible, however, ity, and low available water. If water is controlled and
because of the soil's low position on the landscape and soil-improving measures are applied, vegetable crops
the lack of accessible natural drainage outlets, common to the area (fig. 10) can be produced. The
Under high level management, this soil has high po- water control system should remove excess water in wet
tential productivity for slash pine because of the high seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation
organic matter content and the natural fertility of the in dry seasons.
thick surface layer. A drainage system that removes ex- The soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive
cessive surface water and provides proper water control wetness and the frost hazard.
is essential. If excess water is removed in wet seasons, productive
The potential is low for community development. The pastures of pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
excessive wetness and thick sandy layers are the domi- white clovers can be maintained. Regular applications of
nant features that severely restrict the use of this soil for fertilizer and lime are needed. Overgrazing should be
development. Water is at or near the surface much of prevented.
the time, and drainage systems that would adequately Under high level management, this soil has moderately
control the water are expensive and difficult to establish high potential for productivity for slash pine. Bedding of
and maintain. Because of the soil's low position on the rows is needed to help pine seedlings survive. During the
landscape, natural drainage outlets are generally unavail- process of bedding, vegetation and debris are deposited
able. below the bedding layer, which increases the amount of
The caabilit subclass is Vorganic material available to the seedlings. A drainage
The capability subclass is Vllw.
system to remove excess surface water also is needed if
49-Pomona fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly the potential productivity is to be realized.
level soil occurs in low, broad areas within the flatwoods. The potential is low for community development. The
S s ae s h ad ae 0 o 2 major soil limitations are the excessive wetness and the
SloTypicall, e s th uand are 0 to 2 percent moderately slowly permeable subsoil. The seasonal high
STypica, the surface lyer is fe sand about 13 water table is within 10 inches of the soil surface. Runoff
inches thick. The upper 5 inches is black and the lower 8 is very slow after heavy or prolonged rain because the
inches is dark gray. The subsoil and underlying material soil is nearly level. Moderately slowly permeable layers in
are fine sand and fine sandy loam to a depth of 70 the subsoil impede downward water movement. A
inches. In sequence downward, 5 inches is gray fine system would be needed to remove excess surface
sand; 12 inches is black fine sand coated with organic water and maintain the ground water table at the depth
matter; 3 inches is reddish brown fine sand; 12 inches is necessary for the selected use. Artificial drainage sys-
dark brown fine sand; 5 inches is light gray fine sand; 10 teams are expensive and difficult to develop because nat-
inches is gray sandy loam; and the lower 10 inches gray ural drainage outlets are poor.
fine sand. The capability subclass is IVw.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Farmton, EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Basinger, and 50-Pomona fine sand, depressional. This poorly
Wauchula soils. In a few places the surface texture is drained, nearly level soil occurs in depressions, in poorly
sand. West of Holly Hill the texture of the subsoil is defined sloughs, and on broad low flats within the
loamy fine sand or loamy sand in about 25 percent of flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to concave and 0 to 2
the areas. The included areas make up about 20 percent percent.
of any one mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 7
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand
3 months and within 40 inches for about 6 months during about 7 inches thick. The subsoil between depths of 14
most years. The available water capacity is medium, and 25 inches is friable dark reddish brown fine sand
Permeability is rapid to about 18 inches, moderate from and between depths of 25 and 33 inches is very dark
18 to 33 inches, rapid from 33 to 50 inches, and moder- grayish brown and dark brown fine sand. Below this is 16
ately slow from 50 to 60 inches. Internal drainage is inches of brown fine sand and then 4 inches of light gray
slow, but if artificial drainage is provided, it is generally fine sand. Between depths of 53 and 61 inches is gray







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 37



fine sandy loam. Below this to 70 inches or more is light 51-Pomona-St. Johns complex. This map unit con-
gray fine sandy loam with pockets of loamy fine sand sists of nearly level, poorly drained Pomona and St.
and fine sand. Johns soils that are covered with standing water for long
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of periods. These soils occur in drainageways and broad
Malabar, St. Johns, and Basinger soils and depressional depressions in flatwoods as irregular or long areas of 3
phases of EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Wabasso, and to 250 acres. They are so intermingled on the landscape
Wauchula soils. In a few places, the surface texture is that it was not feasible to show them separately at the
sand. In some areas the material below the subsoil is scale of mapping selected. The St. Johns soil is mostly
loamy fine sand or loamy sand, and in a few areas the in slightly lower positions surrounded by the Pomona
dark colored sandy subsoil is thinner than is typical. The soil. Both have a dark colored subsoil that is less devel-
included areas make up about 25 percent of any one oped and more friable than in the map units of Pomona
mapped area. fine sand and St. Johns fine sand.
The water table fluctuates from 6 inches above the The Pomona soil makes up about 60 percent of each
soil surface to within a depth of 10 inches for 4 to 8 mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is fine sand
months during most years. After the driest season, usu- about 13 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is black, and
ally late spring, the water table may briefly fall to a depth the lower 8 inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer is
of 40 inches. The available water capacity is medium. gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is fine
Permeability is rapid except in the weakly cemented sand and fine sandy loam about 32 inches thick. In
sandy loam subsoil where it is moderate. Internal drain- sequence downward, 12 inches is very friable black fine
age, however, is impeded by the high water table. Natural sand coated with organic matter; 3 inches is dark red-
fertility and the organic matter content are low. dish brown fine sand; 12 inches is dark brown fine sand;
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation- and 5 inches is light gray fine sand. Below the subsoil is
an open forest of scattered slash pine, loblolly bay, gray fine sandy loam.
sweetgum, and pond pine. The understory is gallberry, The Pomona soil has a seasonal high water table that
waxmyrtle, St.-Johnswort, fetterbush, and scattered saw- rises as much as 10 inches above the soil surface in wet
palmetto. The most common native grasses are pineland periods. The soil is almost always saturated within 10
threeawn, blue maidencane, lopsided indiangrass, chalky inches of the soil surface in summer, fall, and winter.
inches of the soil surface in summer, fall, and winter.
bluestem, and creeping bluestem. .Natural fertility is low. The available water capacity is
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops or improved m ereabilit i rapi ecept
pasture because it is always saturated with water during ermeaiit i
the wet season and has very slow surface runoff. These wee moera
conditions are difficult to overcome because suitable The St. Johns soil makes up about 30 percent of each
drainage outlets are generally not available. mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is fine sand
This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive about 10 inches thick. The upper 7 inches is black, and
wetness and the frost hazard. the lower 3 inches is very dark gray. The subsurface is
Under high level management, this soil has moderate gray fine sand about 17 inches thick. The subsoil is fine
potential productivity for slash pine. Equipment limita- sand about 28 inches thick. The upper 9 inches is very
tions and seedling mortality are severe. Bedding the friable and black; the next 8 inches is dark reddish
rows is needed to elevate the pine seedlings above the brown; and the lower 11 inches is dark brown. Below the
surface water. In addition, a drainage system is needed subsoil is brown fine sand.
to remove excess surface water. The St. Johns soil has a seasonal water table that
The potential is very low for community development. rises as much as 10 inches above the soil surface. This
The major limitations are the excessive wetness, the soil is always saturated within 10 inches of the soil sur-
moderately permeable subsoil, and the high risk of corro- face in summer, fall, and winter. Natural fertility is moder-
sion to uncoated concrete and steel. The soil is always ately low. The available water capacity is medium in the
saturated during the wet season and cannot store or surface layer and subsoil and very low to low in the
transmit additional water. Runoff is very slow, and pond- subsurface layer and substratum. Permeability is rapid in
ing occurs after heavy or prolonged rain because of the the surface layer and moderately rapid in the subsoil.
soil's low position on the landscape. A water control Included with this unit in mapping are small areas of
system would be needed to remove excess surface Scoggin, Basinger, EauGallie, Immokalee, Malabar, Pom-
water and maintain the ground water table at the depth pano, Placid, and Samsula soils. In a few places, the
needed for the selected use. Artificial drainage systems texture below the subsoil is loamy fine sand or loamy
are expensive. Suitable drainage outlets are generally sand. There are common spots where the surface layer
not available. is 1 to 8 inches of organic material. In a few places, the
This soil has high potential for wetland wildlife. Shal- dark colored subsoil is lighter in color than is described.
low water areas are easily developed. The included areas make up about 30 percent of some
The capability subclass is Vllw. mapped areas.






38 SOIL SURVEY



A large part of the acreage is a hydric forest of baldcy- The natural vegetation is generally wetland grasses
press with scattered pond pine, sweetgum, loblolly bay, and shrubs, such as sand cordgrass, maidencane, and
and slash pine. The understory is gallberry, greenbrier, St.-Johnswort.
St.-Johnswort, scattered clumps of sawpalmetto, and This soil is not suited to vegetable crops unless the
waxmyrtle. The common grasses are maidencane, saw- water table is controlled. Under high level management,
grass, broomsedge bluestem, smooth cordgrass, and it can be used for some vegetable crops, but a system
chalky bluestem. that reliably controls the water table is essential.
This map unit is not suited to vegetable crops or im- This soil is not suited to citrus because of the high
proved pasture because it is always saturated with water water table and the severe hazard of frost.
during the wet season and has very slow surface runoff. Under high level management, this soil is suited to
These conditions are difficult to overcome because suit- improved pasture of grasses or grass and clover. Water
able drainage outlets are generally not available, control is needed.
This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive The potential productivity is moderate for slash pine.
wetness and the frost hazard. Some water control is needed in establishing pine seed-
Under high level management, this soil has moderate lings.
potential productivity for slash pine. Equipment limita- The potential is very low for community development.
tions and seedling mortality are severe. Bedding of rows Wetness and the seasonal high water table, which is
is needed to elevate the pine seedlings above the sur- typically above the surface, are difficult to overcome
face water. In addition, a drainage system to remove because of the soil's low position on the landscape and
face water. In addition, a drainage system to remove
excess surface water is needed. the lack of suitable drainage outlets.
The potential is very low for community development. The capability subclass s Vw.
The major soil limitations are the excessive wetness, the 53-Pompano-Placid complex. This map unit con-
high risk of corrosion to uncoated steel and concrete, sists of nearly level, poorly drained Pompano soils and
and the extended periods when standing water is on the very poorly drained Placid soils in depressions in the
surface. The seasonal high water table is above the soil flatwoods. These soils are so intermingled on the land-
surface. The soils are always saturated during the wet scape that they could not be shown separately at the
season and cannot store or transmit additional water. scale of mapping selected. Areas are generally long or
Artificial drainage systems are costly and difficult to de- circular and 5 to 300 acres. The Pompano soil is slightly
velop because natural drainage outlets are not available, higher and surrounds the Placid soil, which is in depres-
This map unit, which is temporarily covered with stand- sions 50 to 200 feet in diameter.
ing water during wet seasons, is important as a habitat Pompano fine sand makes up about 55 percent of
for semiaquatic and some aquatic wildlife. It has high each mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is dark
potential for development as wetland wildlife habitat. gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying ma-
The capability subclass is Vllw. trial is fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
upper 26 inches is gray, and the lower 47 inches is light
52-Pompano fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly gray.
level sandy soil occurs in poorly defined drainageways The Pompano soil has a water table less than 6
and low areas. Individual areas are long or egg-shaped inches above the soil surface or is saturated within 10
and range from 3 to 50 acres. inches of the surface in summer and fall. Frequently, this
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand soil is covered with standing water during the wet sea-
about 7 inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand sons. It is low in natural fertility and organic matter con-
to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 26 inches is tent. Permeability is very rapid, and the available water
gray, and the lower 47 inches is light gray. capacity is very low throughout.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Placid fine sand generally makes up about 25 percent
Basinger, Immokalee, and Placid soils. Also included are of the unit. Typically, the surface layer is 11 inches of
a few areas of similar soils that are in depressional areas black fine sand and 4 inches of very dark gray fine sand.
and are covered with standing water for 3 to 9 months in The underlying material is fine sand that extends to 80
most years. The included soils make up about 25 per- inches or more. The upper 28 inches is gray; the next 24
cent of any one mapped area. inches is grayish brown; and the lower part is light
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to brownish gray.
6 months in most years and within 30 inches for more The Placid soil has a water table less than 6 inches
than 6 months in most years. The available water capac- above the soil surface and is saturated within 10 inches
ity is very low. Permeability is rapid, but downward move- of the surface in summer, fall, and winter. Frequently, it
ment of water is impeded by the seasonal high water is covered with standing water during the wet seasons. It
table. The soil is low in natural fertility and organic is moderate in natural fertility and organic matter con-
matter content, tent. Permeability is rapid, and the available water capac-







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 39



ity is high to a depth of 20 inches and low below. Soil These soils have high potential for a wetland wildlife
reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid habitat. Shallow water areas are easily developed.
throughout. The capability subclass is IVw.
Included with this unit in mapping are small areas of
Holopaw, Malabar, Riviera, Samsula, and Tequesta soils. 54-Quartzipsamments, gently sloping. These are
In a few places, the texture of the underlying material is gently sloping, moderately well drained sandy soils that
loamy fine sand or loamy sand. The included areas have been reworked and shaped by earthmoving equip-
make up about 20 percent of any one mapped area. ment. Most areas are around former sloughs and shallow
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of ponds that have been deepened to form lakes. Others
swamp hardwoods-baldcypress, sweetgum, sourwood, are low areas that have been filled with sandy material.
and red maple-interspersed with slash pine and cab- These soils have been mixed during movement and
bage palm. The understory consists of waxmyrtle, fetter- reworking and have no definite horizonation. They do not
bush, and gallberry. The common native grasses are have an orderly sequence of layers, but are a variable
sawgrass, smooth cordgrass, maidencane, chalky blues- mixture of lenses, streaks, and pockets of sand, fine
tem, and broomsedge bluestem. sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand within short dis-
Under natural conditions this unit is poorly suited to tances. Individual areas are black, grayish, yellowish,
vegetable crops because of excessive wetness. In addi- brownish, or white, or a mixture of several of these
tion, the Pompano soil is low in natural fertility, and it has colors. Seldom are two areas alike.
very rapid permeability and very low available water ca- Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral through-
pacity throughout. If water is controlled and soil-improv- out the soil. Filled areas range from about 2 to 5 feet in
ing measures are applied, however, these soils can pro- thickness. Some areas have a few limestone pebbles in
duce certain vegetable crops. The water control system the fill.
should remove excess water in wet seasons and provide Included with this unit in mapping are similar soils that
water through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. have the overburden but differ from Quartzipsamments in
This unit is not suited to citrus because of excessive buried soils with weakly cemented horizons and
wetness and the frost hazard. having buried soils with weakly cemented horizons and
wetness and the frost hazard.
If excess water is removed, the unit is suited to im- layers of sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Also included
If excess water is removed, the unit is suited to im-
are similar soils that differ only in having fragments of
proved pasture. Some suitable grasses are bahiagrass, sandy subsoil material or sandy loam and sandy clay
bermudagrass, limpograss, pangolagrass, and white sand subsoil material or sand loam and sandr cla
clover. Regular application of fertilizer and lime is loam subsoil material in the fill. The included areas make
needed. up about 20 percent of any one mapped area.
Because the natural vegetation is mixed hardwoods, Drainage is variable, but the soil is dominantly moder-
preparing this unit for slash pine production is not eco- ately well drained. The water table is normally below a
nomically feasible. Under high level management, how- depth of 40 inches in most places. The available water
ever, the potential productivity is moderate for slash capacity is very low. Permeability is very rapid. Natural
pine. A system is needed to remove excess water during fertility and the organic matter content are low.
the wet season, and bedding is needed to elevate seed- The vegetation is various scattered weeds. The soils
lings above the standing surface water. are poorly suited to most plants. Special treatment is
In its natural state, this unit has very low potential for needed for lawn grasses and ornamental plants.
community development. The major soil limitations are Smoothing and shaping have made these areas moder-
the excessive wetness, the very rapid permeability, the ately well suited to use as building sites, roadways, rec-
high risk of corrosion to uncoated steel, and the moder- rational areas, and related uses.
ate risk of corrosion to concrete. The seasonal high The potential is high for community development. It is
water table is at or above the soil surface. The soils are very high for dwellings without basements, small com-
almost always saturated with water during the wet mercial buildings, and local roads and streets, even if no
season and cannot store or transmit additional water. corrective measures are taken. If water is controlled, the
Runoff is very slow after heavy or prolonged rain be- potential is high for septic tank absorption fields. If the
cause the soil is nearly level. An adequate water control land is shaped and the surface stabilized, the potential is
system would be needed to remove excess surface high for playgrounds. If water is controlled and the
water and maintain the groundwater table at the depth trench is sealed or lined with impervious material, the
necessary for the selected use. Artificial drainage sys- potential is medium for trench sanitary landfill. If water is
teams are expensive and difficult to develop because nat- controlled and the sides are shored, the potential is
ural drainage outlets are limited, medium for shallow excavations. The potential is medium
Many areas of this unit are adjacent to bodies of for shallow excavations. The potential is low for sewage
water. Altering the natural vegetation and drainage con- lagoon areas, even if water is controlled and areas are
editions would adversely affect the quality of wildlife habi- sealed or lined with impervious material.
tat. No capability subclass is assigned to the unit.






40 SOIL SURVEY



55-Riviera fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly The potential is low for community development. The
level soil occurs in broad, low flats. Slopes are smooth major soil limitations are the excessive wetness, the
and are 0 to 2 percent. slowly permeable subsoil, the high risk of corrosion to
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 16 uncoated steel, and the high risk of corrosion to con-
inches thick. The upper 4 inches is very dark gray, and create within a depth of 28 inches. The seasonal high
the lower 12 inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer is water table is at or near the soil surface. The slowly
light brownish gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The permeable subsoil and the seasonal high water table
subsoil is about 18 inches of gray sandy clay loam that retard downward movement of water. Runoff is very slow
has many medium and coarse distinct yellowish brown after heavy or prolonged rain because the soil is nearly
mottles. The upper 13 inches has vertical tonguing or level. A water control system would be needed to
intrusions from the subsurface layer. The underlying ma- remove excess surface water and maintain the ground
trial to a depth of about 64 inches is light brownish gray water table at the depth necessary for the selected use.
loamy sand. Artificial drainage systems are expensive and difficult to
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of develop because natural drainage outlets are limited.
Tuscawilla, Holopaw, Paisley, Pineda, Basinger, and The capability subclass is IIIw.
Winder soils and some areas where the surface layer is
sandy loam or loamy sand. Also included are some small 56-Samsula muck. This very poorly drained, nearly
areas where the surface layer is black and is 6 inches or level organic soil occurs in broad low flats, small depres-
more thick, others where the loamy layer is above a sions, freshwater marshes, and swamps. The acreage is
depth of 20 inches or below a depth of 40 inches, and a large. Some mapped areas are more than 1,000 acres.
few areas of similar soils in depressions that are covered Individual areas are long to irregular in shape. Slopes are
with standing water late in summer and in fall. The in- less than 2 percent.
cluded areas make up about 25 percent of any one Typically, the surface layer is about 9 inches of black
mapped area. muck underlain by 27 inches of dark reddish brown
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for muck. Below this to a depth of 60 inches or more is
about 2 to 6 months and is within 40 inches for about 6 sand. The upper 10 inches is dark grayish brown, and
months during most years. The available water capacity the lower 14 inches is light gray mottled with dark gray-
is low. Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 36 ish brown and brown.
inches, moderately rapid to 42 inches, and rapid below. Included th this soil in mapping are other poorly
Internal drainage is slow. The seasonal high water table. Basinger, Myakka,
impedes the downward movement of water. Natural fer-
im s the downward movement a Natural fer- St. Johns, Placid, and Pomona soils commonly occur
utility and the organic matter content are low.
around the edges of mapped areas, and the boundary is
A moderate part of the acreage is in natural vegetation around the edges of mapped areas, and the boundary is
of mixed hardwoods and cabbage palm, water oak, gradual between the surrounding soils and the Samsula
soil. Hontoon soils occur near the center of many areas.
laurel oak, southern magnolia, slash pine, and southern soil Hontoon sois occur near the centeof areas
redcedar. The understory is waxmyrtle, gallberry, and The included soils commonly make up 25 percent of any
fetterbush. The common native grasses are maidencane, one mapped area but range up to 50 in a few areas.
smooth cordgrass, chalky bluestem, pineland threeawn, The water table is at or above the soil surface except
toothachegrass, and broomsedge bluestem. during extended dry periods. The available water capac-
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to ity is high. Permeability is rapid throughout. The organic
vegetable crops because of periodic wetness, low fertil- matter content is high, and natural fertility is moderate.
ity, rapid permeability, and low available water capacity. The natural vegetation ranges from wetland grasses to
If water is controlled and soil improving measures are dense swamps of cypress, various wetland hardwoods,
applied, certain vegetable crops can be grown. or mixtures of these trees and longleaf pine. Most areas
This soil is not suited to citrus because of wetness and are still in natural vegetation.
the frost hazard. In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for vegeta-
This soil is well suited to pasture. If excess water is ble crops because of excessive wetness. If water is
removed during wet seasons, productive pastures of controlled, it can be used for vegetable crops. Water can
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and clovers can be controlled through a system of dikes, canals, ditches,
be maintained. Regular applications of fertilizer and oc- and pumps. Weirs and wickets are needed to keep water
casional liming are needed. Overgrazing should be pre- level at the proper depth for crops and to reduce the
vented, hazard of subsidence caused by oxidation of the organic
If well managed, this soil has moderately high potential matter.
productivity for slash pine. Bedding of rows is needed to This soil is not suited to citrus.
improve the surface drainage. A drainage system is Pastures of grass or grass-clover mixtures can be
needed to remove excess water in summer and fall if the grown on this soil, but a system is needed to remove
potential productivity is to be achieved, excess water and maintain the water table at shallow







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 41



depths. Adequate applications of fertilizer and lime and The capability subclass is VIs.
controlled grazing also are needed.
This soil is not suited to slash pine. The excessive 58-Satellite-Urban land complex. This map unit
wetness is too difficult to control. consists of nearly level Satellite soils that have been
The potential is very low for community development, used for urban development. About 45 to 60 percent of
Wetness, standing water, subsidence after drainage, and the unit is Satellite sand, and 15 to 45 percent is Urban
low strength are limiting characteristics. The necessary land. About 35 percent of the areas of Satellite soil have
removal of muck and water control are costly and diffi- been disturbed by reworking and reshaping during the
cult. construction of foundations, utility lines, roads, and
The capability subclass is IVw. streets and the installation of other facilities associated
with construction and development. The open areas of
57-Satellite sand. This nearly level, somewhat poorly Satellite soil are mostly in lawns, vacant lots, or play-
drained sandy soil formed in thick beds of sandy marine grounds. They are generally small and intermingled with
sediment. It is mainly on low and moderately high sand- areas of Urban land. The Urban land is covered with
hills in the flatwoods. The acreage is small in extent. houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and
Few areas are more than 100 acres. The areas are other structures.
generally long and follow the low sandhills. Slopes are In undrained areas, the water table is 10 to 40 inches
smooth to slightly convex and are 0 to 2 percent. below the soil surface for 2 to 6 months in most years.
Typically, the surface layer, after it has been rubbed, is Drainage systems have been established in most areas,
very dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. Before rubbing however, so the water table seldom rises above 40
it is a mixture of light gray sand grains and black organic inches.
matter that has a salt-and-pepper appearance. The un- Typically, the surface layer of the Satellite soil, after it
derlying material is sand that has streaks and mottles of has been rubbed, is very dark gray sand about 4 inches
gray, dark gray, grayish brown, and reddish brown to a thick. Before rubbing it is a mixture of light gray sand
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 47 inches is light grains and black organic matter that has a salt-and-
gray sand, the next 14 inches is light brownish gray pepper appearance. The underlying material is sand that
sand, and below a depth of 66 inches is gray sand. has streaks and mottles of gray, dark gray, grayish
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Immo- brown, and reddish brown to a depth of 80 inches or
kalee and Daytona soils. The included soils make up more. The upper 47 inches is light gray sand, the next
about 15 percent of any one mapped area. 14 inches is light brownish gray sand, and below a depth
The natural vegetation is an open stand of longleaf of 66 inches is gray sand.
pine and an understory of sawpalmetto and pineland Areas of soil modified by grading and shaping are not
threeawn or a dense stand of various scrub oak or sand so large in the older communities as in the newer ones.
pine and an understory of sawpalmetto and scrub oak. Excavating streets below the original land surface and
Most areas are still in native vegetation, but a few have spreading this material over adjacent land areas is
been planted to improved pasture grasses. common. Soil material from other locations is frequently
In most years, the water table is 10 to 40 inches below hauled in to fill low spots.
the surface for 2 to 6 months and within 60 inches for About 15 percent of the open areas is other soils,
more than 9 months. The available water capacity, or- such as Immokalee sand, Daytona sand, Paola fine
ganic matter content, and natural fertility are very low. sand, and Quartzipsamments, gently sloping. Also includ-
Permeability is very rapid. ed are a few areas where the Urban land makes up 45
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops because of to 60 percent of the map unit.
the very rapid permeability and the very low organic No capability subclass is assigned to the unit.
matter content and natural fertility. Watermelons, howev-
er, can be grown. 59-Scoggin sand. This very poorly drained soil is in
The soil is poorly suited to citrus. Under high level swamps and in low places bordering swamps in the
management citrus can be grown if climatic conditions flatwoods. It is covered with standing water during the
are favorable. summer rainy season. It formed in loamy and sandy
Deep rooted, drought-resistant pasture grasses are marine sediments. Slopes are nearly level to concave.
poorly suited but can be grown under high level manage- The gradient is less than 1 percent.
ment. Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck
The potential productivity is moderate for slash pine. about 4 inches thick. Below the muck, the mineral sur-
The potential is medium for community development, face layer is black sand about 7 inches thick. The sub-
This rapidly permeable soil is easily drained. Mounding surface layer is gray sand about 29 inches thick. The
may be needed for onsite sewage disposal systems. The subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam about 13 inches
very low natural fertility and the droughtiness are limita- thick. The underlying material is gray sandy loam with
tions in establishing turf and ornamental plants. discontinuous layers of finer and coarser material.







42 SOIL SURVEY



Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 4 inches and light gray in the lower 9 inches. The subsoil
Pomona, Riviera, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils and a is fine sand about 33 inches thick. The upper 2 inches is
few places where the mucky surface layer is as much as very dark gray, the next 5 inches is black, the next 3
10 inches thick. Also included are a few small depres- inches is very dark grayish brown, and the lower 23
sional areas where the black or very dark gray part of inches is brown. Below the subsoil, between depths of
the mineral surface layer is more than 10 inches thick 50 to 72 inches, is gray fine sand that has brownish
and a few small areas where the mineral surface layer is mottles, and next is 8 inches of white fine sand that has
fine sandy loam. The included areas make up 15 to 20 yellowish mottles.
percent of any one mapped area. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The natural vegetation consists of a sparse forest of Basinger, Cassia, Immokalee, Myakka, Pomona, and St.
slash pine and swamp hardwoods and a ground cover of Johns soils. The included soils generally make up less
maidencane, pineland threeawn, gallberry, and clumps of than 25 percent of any one mapped area.
sawpalmetto. The natural vegetation is an open forest of slash pine
The water table is at or above the surface for as much and an understory of sawpalmetto, running oak, and pin-
as 6 months in most years. Ponding occurs during the eland threeawn. Most areas are still in native vegetation,
summer rainy season. In the winter dry season, the but some have been planted to improved pasture
water table may drop to 24 inches or more. Permeability grasses.
is rapid in the surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. In most years, the water table is within a depth of 10
Internal drainage is slow; it is impeded by the high water inches for 1 to 4 months and between 10 and 40 inches
table. The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility for more than 6 months. In rainy seasons, it rises to the
is moderately low, and the organic matter content is surface for brief periods. Many areas, especially near the
medium. coast, are affected by artificial drainage. The available
Most of this soil is in natural vegetation consisting of a water capacity is low. Permeability is moderate or moder-
sparse forest of slash pine and swamp hardwoods and a lately rapid in the subsoil and rapid in the other layers.
ground cover of maidencane, pineland threeawn, gall-
berry, and clumps of sawpalmetto. Some areas re e If water is controlled, this soil is moderately well suited
cleared, artificially drained, and used for specialty crops. to vegetable crops. The water control system should
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to vegetable lower the water table for drainage and raise it in dry
crops or improved pasture because of excessive wet- periods for subsurface irrigation. In addition, applications
ness. Establishing an adequate water control system is of lime and fertilizer are needed.
difficult because suitable outlets are generally not availa- This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive
ble. If water control can be established, however, the soil wetness and the frost hazard.
is moderately well suited to vegetable crops and well This soil is well suited to improved pasture. If excess
suited to improved pasture. water is removed in wet seasons, highly productive pas-
The potential productivity is moderately high for slash tures of improved grasses can be maintained. In places,
pine. Some water control is needed to realize this poten- a system of shallow surface ditches is all that is needed.
tial. Clover can be grown with the grasses but should be
The potential is very low for community development irrigated to assure good growth.
because of the excessive wetness, the position of the The potential productivity is moderately high for slash
soil on the landscape, and the general lack of drainage pine. Bedding helps in establishing seedlings and in re-
outlets. Even if water control is established, the water m e
table cannot be maintained at low enough levels o ei
throughout the year to prevent continuing limitations. The potential is low to medium for community develop-
Scoggin soils are important as water storage areas. ment. The seasonal high water table at or near the
They provide habitat for many kinds of wildlife, especially surface is a hazard for foundations, pavement, and
browse for deer and nesting areas and shelter for birds. septic tank absorption fields. If adequate drainage is
The capability subclass is IIIw. available, the soil can be used for community develop-
ment. For onsite waste disposal systems, special design,
60-Smyrna fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly such as mounding, is generally needed. A maintenance
level sandy soil occurs as broad areas in flatwoods, low- program is needed to keep ditches open and functioning.
lying areas adjacent to depressions, and low areas within Standing water in ditches increases the need for mosqui-
sandhills. The acreage is large in extent. Some mapped to control.
areas are more than 500 acres. Slopes are less than 2 The capability subclass is IVw.
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black or very dark gray 61-St. Johns fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is level sandy soil occurs in low places in flatwoods, gener-
fine sand about 13 inches thick that is gray in the upper ally adjacent to swamps. The acreage is small in extent.







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 43



although some areas are more than 100 acres. Slopes Standing water in ditches increases the need for mosqui-
are mostly less than 1 percent but range to 2 percent, to control.
Typically, the surface layer is about 10 inches thick. The capability subclass is Illw.
The upper 7 inches is black fine sand, and the lower 3
inches is very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer 62-St. Lucie fine sand, O to 8 percent slopes. This
is about 16 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is gray fine excessively drained, nearly level to moderately sloping
sand, and the lower 13 inches is light gray fine sand. soil occurs on nearly level to dunelike ridges and isolat-
The subsoil is fine sand coated with colloidal organic ed knolls.
matter. The upper 9 inches is black, the next 8 inches is Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
dark reddish brown, and the lower 11 inches is dark inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more
brown and dark reddish brown. Below the subsoil is is white fine sand. The soil contains almost no silt or
brown fine sand to a depth of 60 inches or more. clay. The sand grains are uncoated.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of other Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soils, such as Basinger, Myakka, Placid, and Smyrna Astatula and Paola soils. The included soils make up
soils, and areas of similar soils in which the subsoil about 25 percent of any one mapped area.
begins at a depth of more than 30 inches. These includ- The water table is always below a depth of 72 inches
ed soils make up about 10 to 30 percent of many and is usually below 120 inches. The soil has very low
mapped areas. Also included are a few areas of similar available water capacity and rapid permeability through-
soils that have a loamy layer below 60 inches. These out. Natural fertility and the organic matter content are
areas are associated with Pomona soils, very low.
In most years, the water table is within a depth of 10 A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation-
inches for 2 to 6 months and between 10 and 40 inches an open forest of sand pine and sand live oak. The
for more than 6 months. In rainy seasons, it rises to the understory is sawpalmetto, fetterbush, rosemary, and
surface for brief periods. Permeability is moderate in the other perennial forbs, grasses, and shrubs.
weakly cemented organic subsoil and very rapid in the This soil is not suited to vegetable crops, citrus, or
other layers. The available water capacity is medium. improved pasture because of droughtiness and poor soil
Natural fertility is low, and the organic matter content is qualities.
medium. The potential productivity is very low for slash pine.
The native vegetation is mostly pond pine, longleaf Sand pine grows best.
pine, or slash pine, loblolly bay, sawpalmetto, and gall- The potential is high for community development. The
berry. Most areas are still in native vegetation or have soil is excessively drained and very rapidly permeable,
been cleared, bedded, and planted to pines. A few areas qualities that are favorable for community development.
are planted to improved grasses or vegetables. Because of the very rapid permeability, however, septic
If water is controlled, this soil is well suited to vegeta- tank filter fields can pollute nearby water supplies. The
ble crops. The water control system should both lower potential is low for establishing lawns and ornamental
the water table for drainage and raise it in dry periods for plants because natural fertility and the response to fertil-
subsurface irrigation. In addition, applications of lime and izers are both very low. A possible solution is adding
fertilizer are needed. suitable topsoil material that allows adequate plant root
This soil is not suited to citrus because of the exces- development. Regular irrigation is needed during the dry
sive wetness and the frost hazard. season.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. If excess The capability subclass is Vlls.
water is controlled in wet seasons, highly productive pas-
tures of improved grasses can be maintained. Clover can 63-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
be grown with the grasses but should be irrigated to moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
assure good growth, sandy soil occurs on higher positions on the low sand
The potential productivity is moderately high for slash ridges and in intermediate positions on the higher sand
pine. Bedding helps in establishing seedlings and in re- ridges. The acreage is large in extent. Some mapped
moving excess surface water, areas are more than 500 acres. Individual areas are
The potential is low to medium for community develop- long.
ment. The surface water can be removed by a system of Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
ditches if adequate drainage outlets are available, but about 8 inches thick. The underlying material is fine sand
lowering and maintaining the seasonal high water table, to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 16 inches is
which is within a depth of 10 inches, is costly and diffi- pale brown fine sand that has yellowish and brownish
cult. For onsite waste disposal systems, special design, splotches throughout. The next 24 inches is very pale
such as mounding, is generally needed. A maintenance brown mottled with yellow. Below this to 80 inches is
program is needed to keep ditches open and functioning, white fine sand mottled with brown and yellow.







44 SOIL SURVEY



Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 6 to
Apopka, Astatula, Cassia, Daytona, Deland, and Paola 9 months in most years. In wet seasons it may rise 12
soils and small areas of a soil that is similar to the inches or more above the surface. In extended dry sea-
Tavares soil but has a surface layer more than 10 inches sons it may recede to within 20 inches for 1 to 3 months.
thick. Also included are small areas of somewhat poorly The available water capacity is medium. Permeability is
drained soils that have a profile similar to that of the rapid except in the loamy subsoil, where it is moderate.
Tavares soil. The included areas generally make up no Internal drainage is impeded by the high water table.
more than 25 percent of any one mapped area. Natural fertility and the organic matter content are mod-
The native vegetation is a forest of longleaf pine, erate. Response to fertilizer is good.
turkey oak, scattered sawpalmetto, and pineland Almost all the acreage is in natural vegetation of
threeawn. swamp hardwoods-red maple, baldcypress, sweetgum,
The water table is between 40 and 60 inches during sourwood, and American hornbeam-and cabbage palm.
wet seasons. The available water capacity is very low, The shrubby understory consists of waxmyrtle, fetter-
and permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and the bush, and gallberry. The common native grasses and
organic matter content are low. forbs are maidencane, smooth cordgrass, chalky blues-
This soil is poorly suited to vegetable crops. Deep tem, broomsedge bluestem, and sawgrass. Some of the
rooted crops are favorably influenced by the water table, broad low flats are wet prairies associated with flood
If well managed and irrigated during dry periods, special plains of lakes and streams. In such areas the vegeta-
crops such as watermelons and ferns produce good tion is smooth cordgrass, sawgrass, chalky bluestem,
yields. and scattered waxmyrtle.
If the local climate is favorable, this soil is well suited For most uses a water control system is needed to
to citrus. Normally, the trees are not seriously affected remove excess surface water and maintain the ground
by drought because the roots extend into the moist area water table at the depth necessary for the selected use.
just above the water table. Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to vegeta-
This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture, ble crops because of excessive wetness. If water is
If properly established and well managed, deep rooted controlled, it can be used for certain vegetable crops.
grasses grow well. Lime and fertilizer are needed.
The potential productivity is moderately high for slash This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive
pine. wetness and the frost hazard.
The potential is high for community development. If the water table is controlled, this soil is well suited to
There is a hazard of pollution to shallow underground improved pasture grasses or grass-clover mixtures.
water from septic tank absorption fields because of the Where the natural vegetation is swamp hardwoods, it
very rapid permeability. Establishing turf and ornamental contains many desirable timber species, including cy-
plants is difficult. Turf can be established by adding sod. press. With adequate water control and high level man-
Regular applications of fertilizer and irrigation water are agement, this soil has high potential productivity for
needed, slash pine.
The capability subclass is Ills. The potential is very low for community development.
The excessive wetness, the moderately permeable sub-
64-Tequesta muck. This very poorly drained, nearly soil, the high risk of corrosion to uncoated steel, and the
level soil occurs in freshwater swamps and marshes and very slow rate of water runoff are limitations. In addition,
on broad low flats adjacent to natural bodies of water. the seasonal high water table is above the soil surface.
Slopes are concave to smooth. The gradient is less than This soil is always saturated during the wet season and
1 percent. cannot store or transmit additional water. Artificial drain-
Typically, this soil has about 12 inches of friable black age systems are costly and difficult to develop because
muck on the surface. The surface layer is very dark gray natural drainage outlets are limited. Some areas of this
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light soil are in flood-prone areas along lakes and streams.
gray sand about 16 inches thick. The subsoil is about 10 This soil has high potential for a wetland wildlife habi-
inches thick. The upper 6 inches is mottled gray sandy tat. Many areas are natural wetlands. Shallow water
clay loam, and the lower 4 inches is dark gray loamy areas are easily developed.
sand. Below this is white sand and shell. The capability subclass is IIIw.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chobee, Holopaw, Pineda, Riviera, Tomoka, depres- 65-Terra Ceia muck. This very poorly drained soil
sional Wabasso, and Winder soils. In some areas the formed in organic material. It occurs in swamps, fresh-
organic layer is less than 6 inches thick. In others, the water marshes, and small depressions. Slopes are con-
loamy layer is above a depth of 20 inches or below 40 cave or smooth. The gradient is less than 1 percent.
inches. The included areas make up about 15 percent of Typically, the soil is black muck to a depth of about 64
any one mapped area. inches or more.







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 45



Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The water table is as much as 2 feet above the sur-
Chobee soils, Fluvaquents, and Placid, St. Johns, and face at times during the rainy seasons. It is at or above
Tomoka soils. These soils occur around the edges of the surface for 6 to 9 months in most years and is
mapped areas. The included soils make up about 20 seldom below a depth of 10 inches except during ex-
percent of some mapped areas. tended dry periods. Permeability is rapid to a depth of
The water table is as much as 2 feet above the sur- about 39 inches and moderate to moderately rapid
face at times during the rainy season. It is at or above below. Internal drainage, however, is impeded by the
the surface for 6 to 9 months in most years and is high water table. The available water capacity is high.
seldom below a depth of 10 inches except during ex- Natural fertility is moderate, and the organic matter con-
tended dry periods. Permeability is rapid throughout, but tent is high.
the internal drainage is impeded by the high water table. The natural vegetation is swamp hardwoods-sweet-
The available water capacity is high. Natural fertility is gum, red maple, and baldcypress-or wetland marsh
moderate, and the organic matter content is high. grasses-cordgrass, sawgrass, and associated marsh
Almost all areas of this soil are marshes or swamps. In plants.
the marshes, the natural vegetation is dominantly saw- In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for vegeta-
grass or smooth cordgrass. In the swamps, it is a dense ble crops or improved pasture because of excessive
growth of swamp hardwoods-red maple, sweetgum, wetness. Water control or drainage is difficult and expen-
baldcypress, and loblolly bay. sive. Where water control is established, however, this is
In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for vegeta- an excellent soil for vegetable crops and improved pas-
ble crops because of excessive wetness. Most areas ture.
have low potential for specialty crops because the drain- This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive
age outlets needed in controlling the water table are wetness and the hazards of frost and subsidence.
unavailable. Where drainage and water control are es- This soil is not suited to slash pine. The excessive
tablished, however, this is an excellent soil for vegetable wetness is so difficult to control that this use is not
crops, practical.
This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive The potential is very low for community development.
wetness and the hazards of frost and subsidence. Wetness, standing water, subsidence after drainage, and
If a water control system is feasible, this soil is well low strength are limiting characteristics. Removing muck
suited to improved pasture, and controlling water are costly and difficult.
The soil is not suited to slash pine. The excessive This soil is a natural habitat for wetland wildlife.
wetness is so difficult to control that this use is not The capability subclass is Illw.
practical.
The potential is very low for community development. 67-Turnbull muck. This very poorly drained soil
Wetness, standing water, subsidence after drainage, and occurs in tidal marsh areas that are subject to periodic
low strength are limiting characteristics. Removing muck flooding by tidal water. Individual areas range up to sev-
and controlling water are costly and difficult. eral hundred acres.
Many areas of this soil border streams or lakes. Alter- Typically, a layer of very dark gray muck about 14
ing the natural vegetation and artificially draining this soil inches thick is on the surface. Below this is a layer of
could have a detrimental effect on the quality of the dark greenish gray clay about 36 inches thick. Between
adjacent bodies of water. This soil is a natural habitat for depths of 36 and 66 inches is dark greenish gray fine
wetland wildlife. sand that contains layers of loamy fine sand and shells.
The capability subclass is IIIw. Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar
soils where the mucky surface layer is more than 14
66-Tomoka muck. This very poorly drained soil inches thick. In a few places, there are layers on the
formed in organic material. It occurs in swamps and surface of mixed sand and shells that were dredged from
freshwater marshes. Slopes are concave or smooth. The the Intracoastal Waterway. These layers are mostly less
gradient is less than 1 percent. than two feet thick and are in narrow bands along the
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 10 Intracoastal Waterway. Some pedons in the Indian River
inches thick. Below this is dark reddish brown muck to a Lagoon area are sandy throughout and are intermingled
depth of about 34 inches. Below this is mineral material, with Turnbull muck in a complex pattern. The included
The upper 5 inches is gray sand, the next 9 inches is areas make up as much as 30 percent of any one
gray sandy loam, and the lower part to 58 inches is very mapped area.
dark gray sandy clay loam. Fluctuating tides overwash the surface periodically.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The soil is always waterlogged. Permeability is slow.
Hontoon and Samsula soils. The included soils make up Native vegetation is a salt marsh of needlegrass rush,
about 15 percent of any one mapped area. smooth cordgrass, bushy sea-oxeye, marshhay cord-







46 SOIL SURVEY



grass, glasswort, bigleaf sumpweed, and seashore salt- tides and salt spray are hazards. In addition, there is
grass. danger of uneven settlement and subsidence in the ma-
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops or citrus. trial below the sandy and shelly overburden. Low-lying
This soil is not suited to improved pasture because of areas on the islands are more prone to flooding by tidal
low soil strength. In many places it will not support the overwash and are best used for wildlife, including resting
weight of animals, and nesting places for shore birds.
This soil is not suited to slash pine or other trees The capability subclass is VIls.
because of tidal flooding and high salinity.
The potential is very low for community development 69-Tuscawilla fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
because of tidal flooding, excessive wetness, and low drained soil is in broad hammocks near the coast. The
strength. Overcoming these limitations is impractical, acreage is extensive in Turnbull and Bulow hammocks.
This soil has unique importance for many kinds of Undisturbed areas are characterized by microrelief of
wildlife. The native vegetation and fauna are important fairly closely spaced, low broad rises, or mounds, which
links in the food chain for many sport and commercial are a few feet to more than 100 feet across, irregular in
finfish and shellfish. The soil is important as habitat for shape, and about 4 to 6 inches above the general level
many kinds of birds. of the surrounding area. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent but
The capability subclass is Vlllw. mostly less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
68-Turnbull Variant sand. This soil consists of about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brown-
mixed sandy and shelly material dredged from the Intra- ish gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is 30
coastal Waterway and placed in narrow strips along the inches thick. In the upper 3 inches it is grayish brown
waterway. The underlying material is organic layers and fine sandy loam. To a depth of 32 inches it is gray sandy
layers of clayey and sandy estuarine deposits. Areas are clay loam, and to 40 inches it is light gray fine sandy
mostly in tidal marshes associated with the Intracoastal loam. Below the subsoil to 62 inches is light gray fine
Waterway. sand. To 68 inches is greenish gray fine sand. Below this
Typically, the surface layer is a very pale brown mix- to 80 inches is white shells and fine sand.
ture of sand and shells about 30 inches thick. The next Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
layer is brown sand and shells about 12 inches thick. areas of the very poorly drained Chobee and Tequesta
The underlying layer extends to 99 inches or more. In soils in the lower areas between the mounds, small
sequence downward, it is about 6 inches of black mucky areas where the surface layer is fine sandy loam, and
clay, 4 inches of a brown mixture of sand and shells, 5 small areas where the soil has a layer of limestone that
inches of black muck, 5 inches of dark greenish gray is about 6 inches thick and 3 to 6 feet across and is
sandy clay, 10 inches of gray loamy sand, and 27 inches below the subsoil. These included soils make up about
of very dark gray stratified sand, loamy sand, and clay. 15 percent of any one mapped area. Also included are
SIncluded with this soil in mapping are small areas some areas of soils that are similar to this Tuscawilla soil
where the sandy and shelly deposits are less than 40 but have a surface layer 7 to 9 inches thick and a few
inches thick. Also included are a few small areas where small areas of soils that are similar to the Tuscawilla soil
the sandy and shelly deposits contain discontinuous lay- but have a layer of muck 1 to 3 inches thick on the
ers of muck, clay, and sandy clay. The included areas surface. These similar soils make up as much as 25
make up 15 to 25 percent of any one mapped area. percent of any one mapped area. They occur mostly at
The water table is at a depth of about 40 inches, or at the edges of areas and between the mounds.
the base of the overburden. The available water capacity The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to
is very low, and permeability is very rapid throughout the 6 months in most years. Permeability is rapid in the
sandy overburden. Natural fertility and the organic matter sandy layers and moderately slow in the loamy layers.
content are very low in the sandy overburden. The available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is
The amount of plant cover established depends on medium, and the organic matter content is low.
how fresh or how old the dredged material is. Common Natural vegetation is lowland hardwood hammock. The
plants are pricklypear, southern redcedar, waxmyrtle, overstory is laurel oak, live oak, sweetgum, and coastal
cabbage palm, and, where the overburden is thin, glass- pignut hickory; and the understory is cabbage palm,
wort, pickerelweed, spartina, and juncus. southern magnolia, southern redcedar, American horn-
This soil is not suited to most agronomic and many beam, waxmyrtle, and longleaf uniola. In some places,
ornamental plants because of the adverse soil conditions the vegetation in the lower areas between the mounds is
and the salt spray from the ocean. dominantly cabbage palm, American hornbeam, and
The potential productivity is low for slash pine. pumpkin ash.
The potential is low for community development. Large areas of this soil are in natural vegetation. Many
Higher lying areas bordering the mainland and the penin- areas in the vicinity of Port Orange and Daytona have
sula are used as sites for structures, but storm-driven been drained and used for farmland and community de-







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 47



velopment. Where outlets are available, draining this soil 32 inches it is gray sandy clay loam, and to 40 inches it
is not difficult. Constructing ditches or canals that extend is light gray fine sandy loam. Below the subsoil to 62
well into the substratum of sand and shell, which is inches is light gray fine sand, to 68 inches is greenish
rapidly permeable, allows free movement of the ground gray fine sand, and below this to 80 inches is white
water. shells and fine sand.
This soil is moderately well suited to vegetable crops About 15 percent of the open areas is other soils,
and citrus. Water control is needed. In places, the dis- such as Chobee, Riviera, and Winder soils. The very
continuous limestone substratum restricts the growth and poorly drained Chobee soils are in depressions and
development of citrus trees, so trees are smaller than drainageways. The Riviera and Winder soils occur as
normal, narrow, long areas along the outer edges of the ham-
If water is controlled, this soil is well suited to im- mocks adjacent to the flatwoods.
proved pasture. Grass-clover mixtures grow well. The soils in this unit have high natural fertility. In their
This soil is poorly suited to pine production. The natural state, they supported a luxuriant, indigenous
medium natural fertility and the neutral to slightly alkaline hardwood forest of live oak, laurel oak, magnolia, ash,
soil conditions favor the growth of broadleaf trees over hickory, and in slight depressions, cypress, loblolly bay,
pines, red maple, and sweetgum. Cabbage palm was intermin-
The potential is medium for community development. gled throughout the forest. Most of the native trees are
Wetness is a limitation. Water control is needed. Onsite highly desirable as shade and ornamental plants. As the
sewage disposal systems are not satisfactory because of remaining forested areas are cleared, the trees that can
the seasonal high water table, the moderately slow per- be left can be identified and care exerted to avoid dis-
meability in the loamy subsoil, and the discontinuous turbing the root system or placing fill material over the
layers of limestone. Poor drainage conditions do not root system. Introduced plants and turf grow well with a
permit below-grade construction. The fertility is medium minimum of care.
and the water holding capacity is enough that lawns and No capability subclass is assigned to the unit.
other plantings grow well. There are many desirable
native trees, such as live oak and magnolia, that should 71-Urban land. In areas of Urban land, 85 percent or
be protected during construction. The substratum is a more of the surface is covered with streets, parking lots,
good source of shell, buildings, and other structures. The few small areas that
The potential is high for natural parks and wilderness are not covered with buildings or pavement are lawns,
areas. Many areas support a unique growth of mesic vacant lots, or playgrounds. Individual areas are rectan-
hardwoods. gular or polyhederal in shape and generally range from 5
The capability subclass is Illw. to 150 acres.
Included with Urban land in mapping are small areas
70-Tuscawilla-Urban land complex. This map unit of Astatula, Paola, Tavares, Orsino, Daytona, Cocoa,
is made up of broad areas of the Tuscawilla soils that Myakka, Immokalee, and other soils. The included soils
have been used for urban development. The areas are in make up about 15 percent of any one mapped area.
coastal hammocks in the Daytona Beach urban area. No capability subclass is assigned to the unit.
About 40 to 60 percent of the unit is Tuscawilla fine
sand, and 15 to 45 percent is Urban land. The open 72-Valkaria fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
areas of Tuscawilla soil are lawns, vacant lots, and other drained, sandy soil is in broad, poorly defined drain-
open areas, and some contain native hardwoods. These ageways and low areas bordering swamps. Slopes are
open areas are generally small and intermingled with smooth to concave. The gradient is 0 to 1 percent.
Urban land. The Urban land is covered with houses, The surface layer is grayish fine sand about 10 inches
streets, shopping centers, paved playgrounds, parking thick. The upper 6 inches is very dark gray, and the
lots, and other structures, lower 4 inches is dark grayish brown. The subsurface
In its natural state, the seasonal high water table fluc- layer, to a depth of about 35 inches, is light brownish
tuated from a few inches above the surface to ten gray fine sand mottled in shades of yellow and brown.
inches below the surface during the wet seasons. In The subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand in the upper 13
most places, a system of ditches and canals has been inches and very pale brown fine sand in the lower 4
installed to maintain the water table below the soil sur- inches. Below the subsoil is gray and light gray fine
face, and, in addition, some developed areas have been sand.
filled to elevate the construction sites. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Typically, the surface layer of the Tuscawilla soil is Basinger, Malabar, Pompano, and Myakka soils. The in-
dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface cluded soils make up about 15 percent of any one
layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 7 inches mapped area.
thick. The subsoil is 30 inches thick. In the upper 3 The water table is at or near the surface for as much
inches it is grayish brown fine sandy loam. To a depth of as 6 months in most years. After prolonged rains, some







48 SOIL SURVEY



areas have standing water that persists from a few days high water table. Natural fertility and the organic matter
to as long as 3 months. In the dry season, the water content are low.
table may drop below 40 inches. Permeability is very A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation-
rapid throughout, but the high water table impedes the an open forest of slash pine and cabbage palmetto and
downward movement of water. The available water ca- an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, runner oak,
pacity, the organic matter content, and the natural fertility dwarf huckleberry, and fetterbush. The most common
are low. native grasses are pineland threeawn, maidencane, lop-
The natural vegetation is mostly St.-Johnswort, wax- sided indiangrass, broomsedge bluestem, hairy panicum,
myrtle, pineland threeawn, and scattered slash pine and chalky bluestem, and creeping bluestem.
clumps of cabbage palmetto. Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to vegetable crops because of periodic wetness, low fertil-
vegetable crops because of wetness and poor soil quali- ity, and low available water capacity. If water is con-
ties. If water is controlled, it is well suited to certain trolled and soil-improving measures are applied, the soil
vegetable crops. is moderately well suited to certain vegetable crops. The
This soil is well suited to improved pasture. If excess water control system should remove excess water in wet
surface water is removed, grasses and grass-clover mix- seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation
tures grow well. in dry seasons. Response to fertilizer is good.
This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive
wetness and the frost hazard. wetness and the frost hazard.
The potential productivity is moderate for slash pine. This soil is well suited to improved pasture. If excess
Seedlings should be planted on beds to provide ade- water is removed in wet seasons, pangolagrass, bahia-
quate aeration for the roots. grasses, and clovers grow well. Regular application of
The potential is low for community development. Wet- fertilizer is needed.
ness is the major limitation. Because of the soil's low The potential productivity is moderately high for slash
position on the landscape and the lack of drainage out- pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
lets, water cannot be controlled well enough to make moderate. Bedding of rows helps seedlings to survive by
development practical. Wetness would be a continuing providing additional aeration for the roots. A system is
limitation except during extended dry periods, needed to remove excess water in wet seasons if the
The capability subclass is IVw. potential productivity is to be realized.
The potential is low for community development. The
73-Wabasso fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly major soil limitations are excessive wetness and the high
level soil occurs in broad, low areas within the flatwoods. risk of corrosion to uncoated steel. The seasonal high
Slopes are smooth. The range is 0 to 2 percent. water table is at or near the soil surface. Runoff is very
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 7 slow after heavy or prolonged rain because the soil is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 17 nearly level. An adequate water control system would be
inches thick. The upper part is gray, and the lower part is needed to remove excess surface water and maintain
light gray. The subsoil is about 56 inches thick. In se- the ground water table at the depth necessary for the
quence downward, it is 6 inches of black loamy fine selected use. Artificial drainage systems are expensive
sand, 5 inches of dark reddish brown fine sand, 4 inches and difficult to develop and existing drainage outlets are
of dark brown fine sand, 12 inches of mottled gray, firm poor. In addition, altering natural vegetation and existing
sandy clay loam, 21 inches of mottled greenish gray, drainage patterns could adversely affect the surrounding
friable sandy clay loam, and 8 inches of mottled greenish ecological community.
gray sandy clay loam with pockets of gray sandy loam. The capability subclass is Illw.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, EauGallie, Holopaw, Myakka, Pineda, Riviera, 74-Wabasso fine sand, depressionall. This poorly
and Wauchula soils. Also included are places where the drained, nearly level soil occurs in depressions and in
texture is sand instead of the fine sand. The included swales in the low flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to con-
soils make up about 20 percent of any one mapped cave and 0 to 2 percent.
area. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 7
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to inches thick, and it has a few gray mottles. The subsur-
4 months and within 40 inches for about 6 months in face layer is gray fine sand about 17 inches thick. The
most years. It may recede to below 40 inches during subsoil is about 56 inches thick. In sequence downward,
extended dry periods. The available water capacity is it is 6 inches of black, friable loamy fine sand, 5 inches
low. Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 24 inches, of dark reddish brown, friable fine sand, 4 inches of dark
moderate from about 24 to 35 inches, rapid from about brown, friable fine sand, 12 inches of mottled gray, firm
35 to 39 inches, and moderate from about 39 to 80 sandy clay loam, 21 inches of mottled greenish gray,
inches. Internal drainage is slow; it is impeded by the friable sandy clay loam, and 8 inches of mottled greenish







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 49



gray sandy clay loam that has pockets of gray sandy extent. Most areas are less than 100 acres. Slopes are
loam. less than 2 percent.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Typically, the surface layer is about 7 inches thick. the
Basinger, Holopaw, Pineda, Riviera, Smyrna, and Wau- upper 3 inches is black loamy fine sand, and the lower 4
chula soils and depressional phases of EauGallie, inches is very dark gray fine sand. If the layer is mixed,
Myakka, and Wauchula soils. In some areas, the texture by plowing, for example, the texture is fine sand. The
is sand instead of fine sand. In some, the lower part of subsurface layer is fine sand about 13 inches thick. The
the subsoil is loamy fine sand or loamy sand. The includ- upper 6 inches is gray, and the lower 7 inches is light
ed areas make up about 25 percent of any one mapped gray. It contains streaks of dark gray and very dark gray.
area. The subsoil begins at about 20 inches and extends to a
The water table fluctuates from 6 inches above the soil depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 5 inches is dark
surface to about 10 inches below for 4 to 8 months reddish brown loamy fine sand that has sand grains
during most years. After the driest season, usually late coated with organic matter; the next 4 inches is dark
spring, the water table may briefly recede to a depth of brown loamy fine sand that has black weakly cemented
40 inches. The available water capacity is low. Perme- bodies; the next 5 inches is dark grayish brown fine
ability is rapid except in the weakly cemented and loamy sand; and the lower part is light gray, mottled sandy clay
layers, where it is moderate. Internal and surface drain- loam.
age, however, are impeded by the high water table. Nat- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
ural fertility and the organic matter content are low. Re- Pineda, Pomona, Scoggins, and Wabasso soils. The in-
sponse to fertilizer is moderate. cluded soils generally make up no more than 15 percent
A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation- of any one mapped area.
an open forest of scattered cabbage palm, slash pine, The natural vegetation is a forest of longleaf pine,
loblolly bay, sweetgum, and pond pine. Ground shrubs slash pine, sawpalmetto, and an understory of gallberry
and forbs are gallberry, waxmyrtle, St.-Johnswort, fetter- and pineland threeawn. Many areas have been cut over
bush, and scattered sawpalmetto. The most common and replanted to slash pines. A few are improved pas-
native grasses are pineland threeawn, blue maidencane, ture.
lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum, chalky bluestem, In most years, the water table is within 10 inches of
and creeping bluestem. the surface for 1 to 4 months and within 40 inches for
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops, citrus, or about 6 months. During the driest seasons, it recedes to
improved pasture because it is always saturated during below 40 inches. The available water capacity is low.
the wet season and has slow runoff. These conditions Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
are difficult to overcome because suitable drainage out- and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the
lets are generally not available. In addition, frost is a organic matter content are low.
hazard to citrus. Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
The potential productivity is very low for slash pine. vegetable crops because of periodic excessive wetness.
Pond pine grows best. If the water table is carefully controlled, the soil is mod-
The potential is very low for community development, erately well suited to vegetable crops, but good manage-
The major soil limitations are the excessive wetness, the ment is needed.
moderate risk of corrosion to uncoated steel, and the This soil is not suited to citrus because of excessive
high risk of corrosion to concrete. The soil is always wetness and the frost hazard.
saturated with water during the wet season and cannot If excess water is removed in wet seasons, this soil is
store or transmit additional water. Runoff is very slow well suited to improved pasture. Clover can be grown
after heavy or prolonged rain because the soil is nearly with the grasses, but irrigation is needed in dry seasons
level. An adequate water control system would be to assure good growth.
needed to remove surface water and maintain the The potential productivity is moderately high for slash
ground water table at the depth necessary for the select- pine. Bedding of rows helps seedlings to survive by pro-
ed use. Artificial drainage systems are expensive. Suit- viding additional aeration for the roots. A surface drain-
able drainage outlets are generally not available, age system is needed to remove excess water in wet
Altering natural vegetation and existing drainage pat- seasons if the potential productivity is to be realized.
terns would, in many places, adversely affect the associ- The potential is low for community development. The
ated wetland ecological systems. This soil is a good seasonal high water table at or near the surface is a
habitat for wetland wildlife. Shallow water areas are limiting factor for most uses. Because of the soil's posi-
easily developed, tion on the landscape and the general lack of drainage
The capability subclass is Vllw. outlets, wetness is difficult to control satisfactorily. In
some areas that are near incised streams or arterial
75-Wauchula fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly canals, however, the surface water can be easily re-
level soil is in broad flatwoods. The acreage is small in moved by a system of shallow surface ditches.







50 SOIL SURVEY



The capability subclass is Illw. 77-Winder fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained soil occurs in broad, low flats. Slopes are less
76-Wauchula fine sand, depressional. This poorly than 2 percent.
drained, nearly level soil occurs in depressions and Typically, the surface layer is fine sand 6 inches thick.
swales in the low flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to con- The upper 3 inches is very dark gray, and the lower 3
cave and are 0 to 2 percent, inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer is gray fine
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand in the sand 6 inches thick. The subsoil is 47 inches thick. The
upper 4 inches and dark gray fine sand in the lower 3 upper 8 inches is gray sandy clay loam that has gray fine
inches. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 14 sand intrusions about 1/2 inch to 2 inches in diameter.
inches thick and is streaked with shades of gray. The The next 8 inches is gray sandy clay loam mottled with
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 31 inches, is dark yellowish brown. The lower 8 inches is light brownish
reddish brown loamy fine sand that has sand grains gray fine sandy loam mottled with yellowish brown.
coated with organic matter. Below this is about 6 inches Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is light
of brown fine sand that is mottled in shades of yellow brownish gray fine sand mottled with yellowish brown
and brown. A layer of gray sandy clay loam is between and containing coarse lenses and balls of sandy clay
37 inches and 49 inches. Below this to 60 inches or loam.
more is gray sandy loam mottled in shades of yellow. Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Riviera,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Paisley, and Chobee soils. Also included are a few small
Basinger and Pomonasoils and other auchula soils depressional areas. The included soils make up no more
The included soils make up as much as 20 percent of than 25 percent of most mapped areas
some mapped areas. Most areas are in hardwood forest-live oak, laurel
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 3 o re ae ee ad eria orea
to 6 months during most years, and standing water is on oak red mae, sweetgum, and American horbeam-
the surface for periods of 7 days to 1 month after heavy and cabbage palm and scattered pine. Some areas are
rainfall. The standing water is seldom more than 6 used for pasture. i a a
inches deep. The available water capacity is low. Perme- The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
ability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and for 2 to 6 months during most years. The available water
moderately rapid to moderate in the subsoil. Natural fer- capacity is medium. Permeability is rapid in the surface
utility and the organic matter content are low. layer and slow in the subsoil. Runoff is very slow. The
The natural vegetation is pineland threeawn, maiden- organic matter content and natural fertility are low.
cane, waxmyrtle, scattered pines, and occasional clumps This soil is poorly suited to vegetable crops because
of sawpalmetto. of excessive wetness. If water is controlled, selected
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops, citrus, or vegetable crops can be grown.
improved pasture. It is always saturated during the wet This soil is not suited to citrus because of wetness and
season, and runoff is slow. These conditions are difficult the soil's low position in the landscape, which results in
to overcome because suitable drainage outlets are gen- a higher probability of frost damage caused by tempera-
erally not available. In addition, frost is a hazard to citrus. ture inversions.
The potential productivity is very low for slash pine. If water is controlled, this soil is well suited to im-
Pond pine grows best. proved pasture. In some places, a simple system of
The potential is very low for community development, surface ditches tied into canals is adequate for pasture
The major soil limitations are the excessive wetness and production. Lime is not needed because the subsoil is
the high risk of corrosion to uncoated steel and con- mildly alkaline.
create. This soil is always saturated with water during the The potential is low for community development. Ex-
wet season and cannot store or transmit additional cessive wetness and slow permeability are major limita-
water. Runoff is very slow after heavy or prolonged rain tions. Wetness is costly and difficult to control because
because the soil is nearly level. An adequate water con- of the low landscape position and slow percolation. Slow
trol system would be needed to remove surface water permeability is a major limitation for septic tank absorp-
and maintain the ground water table at the depth neces- tion fields.
sary for the selected use. Artificial drainage systems are The capability subclass is Illw.
expensive. Suitable drainage outlets are generally not
available.
Altering natural vegetation and existing drainage pat- Use and management of the soils
terns would, in many places, adversely affect the associ-
ated wetland ecological systems. This soil is a good The soil survey is a detailed inventory and evaluation
habitat for wetland wildlife. Shallow water areas are of the most basic resource of the survey area-the soil.
easily developed. It is useful in adjusting land use, including urbanization,
The capability subclass is Vllw. to the limitations and potentials of natural resources and






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 51



the environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related fail- This section provides information about the overall ag-
ures in uses of the land. ricultural potential of the survey area and about the man-
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists, con- agement practices that are needed. The information is
servationists, engineers, and others keep extensive useful to equipment dealers, land improvement contrac-
notes about the nature of the soils and about unique tors, fertilizer companies, processing companies, plan-
aspects of behavior of the soils. These notes include ners, conservationists, and others. For each kind of soil,
data on erosion, drought damage to specific crops, yield information about management is presented in the sec-
estimates, flooding, the functioning of septic tank dispos- tion "Soil maps for detailed planning." Planners of man-
al systems, and other factors affecting the productivity, agement systems for individual fields or farms should
potential, and limitations of the soils under various uses also consider the detailed information given in the de-
and management. In this way, field experience and scription of each soil.
measured data on soil properties and performance are More than 36,000 acres in Volusia County was utilized
used as a basis for predicting soil behavior, for crops and pasture in 1975, according to Soil Conser-
Information in this section is useful in planning use and vation Service Now on the Land Records, Volusia
management of soils for crops and pasture, rangeland, County Extension Service Annual Report and Florida
and woodland; as sites for buildings, highways and other Crops and Reporting Service: Florida Agricultural Statis-
transportation systems, sanitary facilities, and parks and tics. Of this total, 20,000 acres was used for pasture,
other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. From 10,478 acres for fruit crops, 2,750 acres for vegetable
the data presented, the potential of each soil for speci- crops, and 3,000 acres for specialty crops of ferns.
fied land uses can be determined, soil limitations to Pastures in the survey area produce forage for beef
these land uses can be identified, and costly failures in and dairy cattle. Beef cattle cow-calf operations are the
houses and other structures, caused by unfavorable soil main cattle enterprises. Bahiagrass and Coastal bermu-
properties, can be avoided. A site where soil properties dagrass are the main pasture plants. Many farmers over-
are favorable can be selected, or practices that will over- seed rye on bahiagrass sod in fall for winter and spring,
come the soil limitations can be planned. forage.
Planners and others using the soil survey can evaluate Differences in the amount and kind of pasture yields
the impact of specific land uses on the overall productiv- are related closely to differences among soils. Manage-
ity of the survey area or other broad planning area and ment of pasture is based on the relationship of soils,
on the environment. Productivity and the environment pasture plants, lime, fertilizer, moisture, and grazing sys-
are closely related to the nature of the soil. Plans should teams. Pasture in many parts of the county is greatly
maintain or create a land-use pattern in harmony with depleted by continuous excessive grazing. Yields can be
the natural soil. increased under management that includes lime, fertiliz-
Contractors can find information that is useful in locat- er, and grass-legume mixtures.
ing sources of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. If adequately drained, the poorly drained soils of the
Other information indicates the presence of bedrock, flatwoods are well suited to pasture. Subsurface irrigation
wetness, or very firm soil horizons that cause difficulty in increases both the length of time that the forage is
excavation. available and the total forage produced. If irrigated and
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and many adequately limed and fertilized, these soils are well
other specialists also can find useful information in this suited to white clover and other legumes.
soil survey. The safe disposal of wastes, for example, is If adequately limed and fertilized, the well drained and
closely related to properties of the soil. Pavements, moderately well drained soils-Apopka, Deland, Astatula,
sidewalks, campsites, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and and Tavares soils-are well suited to pasture of bahia-
shrubs are influenced by the nature of the soil. grass and Coastal bermudagrass.
Special crops grown commercially in the survey area
are vegetables, citrus fruits, ornamental plants, and
Crops and pasture ferns. Cabbage, cucumbers, green peppers, and water-
melons are grown in the central and southern parts of
John D. Griffin, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped pre- the county. Oranges are the most important citrus crop.
pare this section. the county. Oranges are the most important citrus crop.
Smaller acreages are in grapefruit and tangerines. The
The major management concerns in the use of the western part of the county produces about 3,000 acres
soils for crops and pasture are described in this section. of ferns. The ferns are grown under the shade of live
In addition, the crops or pasture plants best suited to the oak trees or under artificial shade and are then shipped
soil, including some not commonly grown in the survey to florists for floral arrangements. About half the acreage
area, are discussed; the system of land capability classi- is leatherleaf ferns and half is plumosus ferns.
fiction used by the Soil Conservation Service is ex- Field crops suited to the soils and climate of the
plained; and the estimated yields of the main crops and survey area include many that are not commonly grown.
hay and pasture plants are presented for each soil. Only small acreages of field crops are presently grown.






52 SOIL SURVEY



Corn, soybeans, sugarcane, rice, and similar crops can Tilth refers to the condition of the soil in relation to
be grown if economic conditions are favorable. Sugar- plant growth. It is an important factor in the germination
cane and indigo were once major crops in the survey of seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
area. that have good tilth are granular, porous, and easily
As population increases, the demand for food will also cultivated. Most soils used for crops in the survey area
increase. To increase food production, knowledge of have a sandy surface layer and good tilth. Most have
soils and soil properties is essential. Some of the major weak structure. Some are structureless. Structure can be
soil properties to be considered are erosion by water and improved by regular addition of organic matter, such as
wind, wetness, fertility, and tilth. crop residue and manure. Soils that have a light colored
Soil erosion is not so great a problem in Volusia surface also are low in organic matter. Adding organic
County as it is in many areas in the southern United matter increases their fertility and water holding capacity.
States. The soils are sandy and nearly level. Erosion Volusia County has the potential for increased food
from rapid runoff occurs only during periods of torrential production. Production could be increased in existing ag-
rainfall in a few bare areas that have short, steep slopes, ricultural areas by proper management and modern tech-
Soil blowing is a major problem on the sandy soils and nology. In addition, other areas could be converted to
on the muck soils. In a few hours, soil blowing can more intensive types of agriculture. About 175,000 acres
damage both the soils and the tender truck crops and of potentially good cropland is currently woodland and
young citrus trees if winds are strong and the soils are about 20.000 acres is pasture. Food production could be
bare of vegetation or surface mulch. Maintaining a plant increased by growing crops not presently grown com-
cover or a surface mulch minimizes soil blowing on these mercially. If water is adequately controlled, soils that are
soils. Windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as poorly drained and very poorly drained and that warm up
slash pine, sand pine, Japanese privet, and eucalyptus, early in spring are well suited to many vegetable crops
are also effective in reducing wind erosion and crop and small fruits, such as blueberries and blackberries.
damage. Stripcrops of small grain are also effective in Rice, sugarcane, corn, and similar crops are well suited
reducing wind erosion and crop damage. to the organic soils. Organic soils oxidize and subside,
Water control is a major management need on land however, when pore space is exposed to the air. Be-
used for crops and pasture. About 75 percent of the cause of this, water must be maintained at the level
soils in the county are poorly drained or very poorly required for the crops during the growing season and
drained. In most years they are too wet for crops com- then raised during other parts of the year to minimize
only grown in the area. These sandy soils also have a oxidation and subsidence.
low water holding capacity and are drought during dry Although the soils of Volusia County have the potential
periods. For intensive row cropping, a combination of for increased food production, other factors must also be
surface drainage and subsurface irrigation (fig. 11) is considered in choosing crops and selecting sites. Among
needed on most of the poorly drained soils. The design these are the economic conditions; the risk of possible
of both surface drainage and irrigation systems varies adverse weather conditions; the availability of suitable
with the kind of soil and the crop grown. More informa- drainage outlets; saltwater intrusion into the aquifer and
tion about water control and practices that prevent wind the availability of an adequate supply of freshwater for
erosion is available at the local office of the Soil Conser- irrigation; environmental considerations such as possible
vation Service. pollution of nearby waters; and the desirability of using
Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the sandy soils the land for other purposes.
in the county. Dark surfaced mineral soils generally have Because Volusia County is almost surrounded by the
more organic matter and more plant nutrients. Organic saline Atlantic Ocean on the east and the brackish St.
soils require special fertilizers because they are low in Johns River on the west, the supply of freshwater, al-
copper and other trace elements. Most soils in the though now generally abundant, is expected to become
county are very strongly acid. If they have never been a limiting factor in the development of agricultural enter-
limed, applications of ground limestone are needed for prises. Most of the freshwater supply for the county
good growth of legumes and other crops. Nitrogen and comes from local rainfall stored in the aquifer. Irrigation
available phosphorus and potash levels are naturally low takes water from the aquifer, and surface water that
in most of the mineral soils. More specific information drains directly into the streams and the ocean is not
about natural fertility is given for each soil under "Soil available to recharge the aquifer. On most soils of Volu-
maps for detailed planning" and "Soil series and mor- sia County, some form of water management is needed.
phology." Natural soil fertility, however, changes as the Thus, agricultural interests compete with the urban
soil is used. On all soils, additions of lime and fertilizer demand for water as well as for the land itself.
should be based on the results of soil tests, on the The acreage in crops and pasture is gradually de-
needs of the crop, and on the expected level of yields. creasing as more and more land is used for urban devel-
The Cooperative Extension Service can help in determin- opment. In 1967 there was an estimated 511,000 acres of
ing the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime needed. urban and built-up land in the county; this figure has






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 53



been increasing at the rate of about 1,000 acres per the management concerns and productivity of the soils
year. The information in this soil survey can help in for these crops.
making land use decisions that will influence the future
role of farming in the county. Such use of the survey is Capability classes and subclasses
described under "General soil map for broad land use Capability classes and subclasses show, in a general
planning." way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops.
The soils are classed according to their limitations when
Yields per acre they are used for field crops, the risk of damage when
The average yields per acre that can be expected of they are used, and the way they respond to treatment.
the principal crops under a high level of management The grouping does not take into account major and gen-
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be erally expensive landforming that would change slope,
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not take
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. Ab- into consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation
sence of an estimated yield indicates that the crop is not projects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticul-
suited to or not commonly grown on the soil. tural crops, or other crops that require special manage-
The estimated yields were based mainly on the experi- ment. Capability classification is not a substitute for inter-
ence and records of farmers, conservationists, and ex- pretations designed to show suitability and limitations of
tension agents. Results of field trials and demonstrations groups of soils for rangeland, for forest trees, or for
and available yield data from nearby counties were also engineering purposes.
considered. In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped
The yields were estimated assuming that the latest soil at two levels: capability class and subclass. These levels
and crop management practices were used. Hay and are defined in the following paragraphs. A survey area
pasture yields were estimated for the most productive may not have soils of all classes.
varieties of grasses and legumes suited to the climate Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designat-
and the soil. A few farmers may be obtaining average ed by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals
yields higher than those shown in table 5. indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower
The management needed to achieve the indicated choices for practical use. The classes are defined as
The management needed to achieve the indicated follows:
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil l t r t
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
and the crop. Such management provides drainage, ero- Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
sion control, and protection from flooding; the proper choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop practices.
varieties; appropriate tillage practices, including time of Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
tillage and seedbed preparation and tilling when soil choice of plants, or that require special conservation
moisture is favorable; control of weeds, plant diseases, practices, or both.
and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction and optimum Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace ele- the choice of plants, or that require very careful manage-
ments for each crop; effective use of crop residues, ment, or both.
barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; harvesting Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
crops with the smallest possible loss; and timeliness of limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
all fieldwork. Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the generally unsuitable for cultivation.
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
grown; that good quality irrigation water is uniformly ap- them unsuitable for cultivation.
plied in proper amounts as needed; and that tillage is Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
kept to a minimum. nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class;
the soils for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
to increase as new production technology is developed. c, to the class numeral, for example, Ille. The letter e
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
other soils, however, is not likely to change, close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
the survey area, but estimated yields are not included cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly cor-
because the acreage of these crops is small. The local rected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
offices of the Soil Conservation Service and the Cooper- limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
ative Extension Service can provide information about and c, used in only some parts of the United States,






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 53



been increasing at the rate of about 1,000 acres per the management concerns and productivity of the soils
year. The information in this soil survey can help in for these crops.
making land use decisions that will influence the future
role of farming in the county. Such use of the survey is Capability classes and subclasses
described under "General soil map for broad land use Capability classes and subclasses show, in a general
planning." way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops.
The soils are classed according to their limitations when
Yields per acre they are used for field crops, the risk of damage when
The average yields per acre that can be expected of they are used, and the way they respond to treatment.
the principal crops under a high level of management The grouping does not take into account major and gen-
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be erally expensive landforming that would change slope,
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not take
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. Ab- into consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation
sence of an estimated yield indicates that the crop is not projects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticul-
suited to or not commonly grown on the soil. tural crops, or other crops that require special manage-
The estimated yields were based mainly on the experi- ment. Capability classification is not a substitute for inter-
ence and records of farmers, conservationists, and ex- pretations designed to show suitability and limitations of
tension agents. Results of field trials and demonstrations groups of soils for rangeland, for forest trees, or for
and available yield data from nearby counties were also engineering purposes.
considered. In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped
The yields were estimated assuming that the latest soil at two levels: capability class and subclass. These levels
and crop management practices were used. Hay and are defined in the following paragraphs. A survey area
pasture yields were estimated for the most productive may not have soils of all classes.
varieties of grasses and legumes suited to the climate Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designat-
and the soil. A few farmers may be obtaining average ed by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals
yields higher than those shown in table 5. indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower
The management needed to achieve the indicated choices for practical use. The classes are defined as
The management needed to achieve the indicated follows:
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil l t r t
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
and the crop. Such management provides drainage, ero- Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
sion control, and protection from flooding; the proper choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop practices.
varieties; appropriate tillage practices, including time of Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
tillage and seedbed preparation and tilling when soil choice of plants, or that require special conservation
moisture is favorable; control of weeds, plant diseases, practices, or both.
and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction and optimum Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace ele- the choice of plants, or that require very careful manage-
ments for each crop; effective use of crop residues, ment, or both.
barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; harvesting Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
crops with the smallest possible loss; and timeliness of limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
all fieldwork. Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the generally unsuitable for cultivation.
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
grown; that good quality irrigation water is uniformly ap- them unsuitable for cultivation.
plied in proper amounts as needed; and that tillage is Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
kept to a minimum. nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class;
the soils for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
to increase as new production technology is developed. c, to the class numeral, for example, Ille. The letter e
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
other soils, however, is not likely to change, close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
the survey area, but estimated yields are not included cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly cor-
because the acreage of these crops is small. The local rected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
offices of the Soil Conservation Service and the Cooper- limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
ative Extension Service can provide information about and c, used in only some parts of the United States,






54 SOIL SURVEY



shows that the chief limitation is climate that is too cold condition indicates that the range is producing 76 to 100
or too dry. percent of its potential; good, 51 to 75 percent; fair, 26
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of to 50 percent; and poor, 0 to 25 percent.
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the It is estimated that less than 10 percent of the range
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in in Volusia County is in excellent condition. The real sig-
class V are subject to little or no erosion, though they nificance of range needs in Volusia County is made clear
have other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, by the percentage of range that is in fair and poor
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation, condition-an estimated 70 percent.
The capability subclass is identified in the description Potential production refers to the amount of herbage
of each map unit under "Soil maps for detailed plan- that can be expected to grow well on a well managed
ning." soil used for range. Table 6 shows, for each soil, the
potential for producing livestock forage. Yields are ex-
Range and woodland grazing pressed in terms of pounds of air dry herbage per acre.
Range Plant moisture content varies as the growing season
Clifford W. Carter, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, progresses. It is not a measure of productivity. Herbage
helped prepare this section. refers to total vegetation produced and does not reflect
Native raises are an imrtant art f the overall forage value or grazing potentials. Favorable years are
Native grasses are an important part o the overall, those in which rainfall and temperature are favorable for
year-round supply of forage for livestock in Volusia plant growth.
County. This forage is readily available, it is economical, The productivity of the soils is closely related to natu-
and it provides important roughage needed by cattle. ral drainage. The wettest soils, such as those in
About 150,000 acres throughout the county is used marshes, produce the greatest amount of vegetation. The
strictly as range, and another 22,000 acres is improved deep, drought sandhills normally produce the least
pasture, amount of herbage annually.
The dominant native forage species that grow on a Management of the soils for range should be planned
soil are generally the most productive and most suitable with the potential productivity in mind. Soils with the
for livestock. They maintain themselves as long as the highest production potential generally should be given
environment remains the same. The forage species are highest priority. Major management considerations in-
grouped into three categories according to their re- volve livestock grazing. They are basic questions that
sponse to grazing-decreasers, increases, and invad- must be considered if the forage production is to be
ers. improved or maintained. How long should the grass be
The grasses most preferred by cows during the grow- grazed? In what season should it be used? How long
ing season are the ones that are grazed the closest. If and when should the range pastures be rested? What is
these plants are continually grazed closely year after the grazing pattern of livestock within a pasture that
year, they decrease in amount or die out. They are contains more than one type of range? What is the
called decreasers. Some decreasers in Florida are palatability of the dominant plants growing on the range?
creeping bluestem and indiangrass in the flatwoods, mai- Manipulation of range pastures often involves mechani-
dencane in the freshwater marshes, and blue maiden- cal brush control, controlled burning, and especially con-
cane in depressional areas, trolled livestock grazing. Predicting the effects of these
Plants that are less palatable replace the decreasers practices is of utmost importance. Proper management
under close grazing. Because they increase in number in of range results in maximum sustained production, con-
a pasture, they are called increases These plants are servation of the soil and water resources, and, generally,
generally less productive than the decreasers. Examples improved habitat for many wildlife species.
of grasses in this group are broomsedge bluestem and Woodland that has an understory of native grasses,
hairy panicum in the flatwoods and species of paspalum legumes, forbs, shrubs, and other plants can be utilized
and beaked panicum in the freshwater marshes, by livestock or by grazing or browsing wildlife. The un-
Under continuous heavy grazing, even the increases derstory is an integral part of the forest plant community.
are affected. Eventually they are weakened and are re- The native plants can be grazed without significantly
placed by invaders. Invaders are foreign to the plant impairing other forest values. A well managed wooded
community. For the most part they produce low amounts area can produce enough understory vegetation to sup-
of forage or are totally undesirable. Examples are bottle- port optimum numbers of livestock, or wildlife, or both. In
brush threeawn and common carpetgrass in the acid such forests, grazing is compatible with timber manage-
flatwoods, big carpetgrass in the freshwater marshes, ment if it is controlled or managed so that timber and
and sand cordgrass in depressional areas. forage resources are maintained or enhanced.
Range condition is a measure of the current productiv- The quantity and quality of understory vegetation vary
ity of the range in relation to its potential. Four condition with the kind of soil, the age and kind of trees, the
classes are used to measure range condition. Excellent density of the canopy, and the depth and condition of






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 55



the forest litter. The density of the forest canopy affects woodland management and have about the same poten-
the amount of light that understory plants receive during tial productivity.
the growing season. The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indi-
The forage production in woodland varies according cates the potential productivity of the soils for important
to: (1) the type of woodland; (2) the amount of shade trees. The number 1 indicates very high productivity; 2,
cast by the canopy; (3) the accumulation of fallen nee- high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low. The
dies, (4) the effects of the time and the intensity of second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the major
grazing on the presence or absence of grass species; kind of soil limitation. The letter x indicates stoniness or
and (5) the number, size, and spacing of trees and the rockiness; w, excessive water in or on the soil; t, toxic
method of site preparation used for tree plantings. substances in the soil; d, restricted root depth; c, clay in
the upper part of the soil; s, sandy texture; f, high con-
management and py tent of coarse fragments in the soil profile; and r, steep
Woodland management and productivity slopes. The letter o indicates insignificant limitations or
Carl D. DeFazio, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and Bob Eikum, restrictions. If a soil has more than one limitation, priority
Volusia County forester, helped prepare this section, in placing the soil into a limitation class is in the follow-
ing order: x, w, t, d, c, s, f, and r.
Woodland in Volusia County makes up approximately ing order: x, w, t, d, c, s, f, and r.
Woodland in Volusia County makes up approximatelyIn table 7 the soils are also rated for a number of
463,000 acres, or 65 percent of the land area. Most of factors to be considered in management. Slight modern
the woodland is on Myakka, Pomona, and Smyrna soils, ate, and severe are used to indicate the degree of major
which are the typical soils in the flatwoods. The wood- soil limitations.
land is most heavily concentrated in the flatwoods, in the Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss
central part of the county. Part of the wooded acreage is of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the
under large corporate ownership. Part is unerr individual expected soil loss is small, moderate if some measures
ownership. are needed to control erosion during logging and road
Slash pine is the most important species in Volusia construction, and severe if intensive management or
County, but sand pine is economically important in the special equipment and methods are needed to prevent
sandhill regions, especially on the southern half of the excessive loss of soil.
DeLand Ridge, where the Paola, Orsino, and Apopka Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the characteris-
variant soils are extensive. A large part of the sandhill tics and conditions of the soil that restrict use of the
area supports longleaf pine and turkey and bluejack equipment generally needed in woodland management
oaks. The oaks have little economic value, but they are or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates that use of
valuable to wildlife and are very important to the esthetic equipment is not limited to a particular kind of equipment
value of the sandhills. In addition, cabbage palm, cy- or time of year; moderate indicates a short seasonal
press, and many hardwood species are locally abundant limitation or a need for some modification in manage-
throughout the county. ment or equipment; severe indicates a seasonal limita-
Timber management, for the most part, consists of tion, a need for special equipment or management, or a
clearcutting and then site preparation and planting. Sand hazard in the use of equipment.
pine and longleaf pine are reproduced mostly from seed Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree that the
trees rather than by planting. soil affects expected mortality of planted tree seedlings.
Fire reduces the "rough" and exposes the mineral soil Plant competition is not considered in the ratings. Seed-
as a seedbed for natural reproduction. Fire also encour- lings from good planting stock that are properly planted
ages grasses and forbs, which help to support various during a period of sufficient rainfall are rated. A rating of
wildlife species, such as deer, turkey, and quail. slight indicates that the expected mortality of the planted
Markets are plentiful for the wood produced in Volusia seedlings is less than 25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50
County. Pulpwood mills near Palatka, Jacksonville, and percent; and severe, more than 50 percent.
Fernandina Beach are the major outlets. Several small Considered in the ratings of windthrow hazard are
mills saw cypress lumber, chiefly for the local market. characteristics of the soil that affect the development of
More detailed information on woodland and woodland tree roots and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A
management is available from the local offices of the rating of slight indicates that trees in wooded areas are
Soil Conservation Service, the Florida Division of Forest- not expected to be blown down by commonly occurring
ry, and the Florida Cooperative Extension Service. winds; moderate, that some trees are blown down during
Table 7 contains information useful to woodland periods of excessive soil wetness and strong winds; and
owners or forest managers planning use of soils for severe, that many trees are blown down during periods
wood crops. Map unit symbols for soils suitable for wood of excessive soil wetness and moderate or strong winds.
crops are listed, and the ordination (woodland suitability) The potential productivity of merchantable or common
symbol for each soil is given. All soils bearing the same trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
ordination symbol require the same general kinds of the average height, in feet, that dominant and codomin-






56 SOIL SURVEY



ant trees of a given species attain in a specified number The inland dune is the second line of defense against
of years. The index was calculated at age 50 for the the ocean. It is as vulnerable as the primary dune. It is
species in this survey area. The site index applies to fully intolerant of use and should not be developed.
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Important trees The back dune is in a less critical location, and some
are those that woodland managers generally favor in use is permissible. Back dunes are the most suitable
intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected environment on the coastal dunes for man and develop-
on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and market- ment.
ability. Behind the back dunes is the estuarine and bay shore
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for commer- environment, which is one of the most productive aquatic
cial wood production and that are suited to the soils. areas in the world. It is in this environment that the
infantile stage of most of the important fish takes place
Windbreaks and environmental plantings and the valuable shell fish live.
Some of the more important plants on the coastal
Windbreaks are established to protect crops, livestock, dunes are sea-oats, marshhay cordgrass, beach mor-
buildings, and soil from wind damage. Windbreaks also ningglory, bay bean, shoredune panicum, gopher apple,
help protect fruit trees, lawns, and gardens, and they holly, and sand live oak.
furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows provide the most
protection. Engineering
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals James w. Norris, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
across the field, the interval depending on erodibility of prepare this section.
the soil. They protect cropland and crops from wind and This section provides information about the use of
provide food and cover for wildlife, soils for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction ma-
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen trial, and water management. Among those who can
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The benefit from this information are engineers, landowners,
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely community planners, town and city managers, land de-
spaced. A healthy planting stock of suitable species velopers, builders, contractors, and farmers and ranch-
planted properly on a well prepared site and maintained ers.
in good condition can insure a high degree of plant The ratings in the engineering tables are based on test
survival data and estimated data in the "Soil properties" section.
Additional information about planning windbreaks and The ratings were determined jointly by soil scientists and
screens and the planting and care of trees can be ob- engineers of the Soil Conservation Service using known
trained from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service relationships between the soil properties and the behav-
or the Cooperative Extension Service or from a nursery. ior of soils in various engineering uses.
Among the soil properties and site conditions identified
Coastal dune management by a soil survey and used in determining the ratings in
this section were grain-size distribution, liquid limit, plas-
John D. Griffin, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped pre- ticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness of
pare this section, bedrock that is within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil
In geological time, the coastal dune is a very recent wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope,
formation. It is controlled by ocean waves and by wind. likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure or aggrega-
The resulting soil moisture, soil salinity, and salt spray tion, in-place soil density, and geologic origin of the soil
have an adverse effect on most plants. material. Where pertinent, data about kinds of clay min-
Dune stability depends on the anchoring vegetation. If erals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and the
the use of shallow wells lowers ground water below a kind of absorbed cations were also considered.
critical level, the stabilizing plants die. The vegetation is On the basis of information assembled about soil prop-
fragile and vulnerable to trampling. Building groins along erties, ranges of values can be estimated for erodibility,
the beach arrests the littoral drift, eliminating the source permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available
of sand that supplements the dunes. water capacity, shear strength, compressibility, slope sta-
The beach can be used for swimming, picnicking, shell ability, and other factors of expected soil behavior in engi-
collecting, fishing, and sunbathing. neering uses. As appropriate, these values can be ap-
The primary dune cannot tolerate heavy use. It must plied to each major horizon of each soil or to the entire
not be trampled. Bridge crossings (fig. 12) are needed. profile.
The trough between dunes is much more tolerant, and These factors of soil behavior affect construction and
incidental development can occur. Lowering the ground maintenance of roads, airport runways, pipelines, founda-
water, however, sometimes kills the vegetation, tions for small buildings, ponds and small dams, irrigation






56 SOIL SURVEY



ant trees of a given species attain in a specified number The inland dune is the second line of defense against
of years. The index was calculated at age 50 for the the ocean. It is as vulnerable as the primary dune. It is
species in this survey area. The site index applies to fully intolerant of use and should not be developed.
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Important trees The back dune is in a less critical location, and some
are those that woodland managers generally favor in use is permissible. Back dunes are the most suitable
intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected environment on the coastal dunes for man and develop-
on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and market- ment.
ability. Behind the back dunes is the estuarine and bay shore
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for commer- environment, which is one of the most productive aquatic
cial wood production and that are suited to the soils. areas in the world. It is in this environment that the
infantile stage of most of the important fish takes place
Windbreaks and environmental plantings and the valuable shell fish live.
Some of the more important plants on the coastal
Windbreaks are established to protect crops, livestock, dunes are sea-oats, marshhay cordgrass, beach mor-
buildings, and soil from wind damage. Windbreaks also ningglory, bay bean, shoredune panicum, gopher apple,
help protect fruit trees, lawns, and gardens, and they holly, and sand live oak.
furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows provide the most
protection. Engineering
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals James w. Norris, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
across the field, the interval depending on erodibility of prepare this section.
the soil. They protect cropland and crops from wind and This section provides information about the use of
provide food and cover for wildlife, soils for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction ma-
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen trial, and water management. Among those who can
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The benefit from this information are engineers, landowners,
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely community planners, town and city managers, land de-
spaced. A healthy planting stock of suitable species velopers, builders, contractors, and farmers and ranch-
planted properly on a well prepared site and maintained ers.
in good condition can insure a high degree of plant The ratings in the engineering tables are based on test
survival data and estimated data in the "Soil properties" section.
Additional information about planning windbreaks and The ratings were determined jointly by soil scientists and
screens and the planting and care of trees can be ob- engineers of the Soil Conservation Service using known
trained from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service relationships between the soil properties and the behav-
or the Cooperative Extension Service or from a nursery. ior of soils in various engineering uses.
Among the soil properties and site conditions identified
Coastal dune management by a soil survey and used in determining the ratings in
this section were grain-size distribution, liquid limit, plas-
John D. Griffin, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped pre- ticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness of
pare this section, bedrock that is within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil
In geological time, the coastal dune is a very recent wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope,
formation. It is controlled by ocean waves and by wind. likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure or aggrega-
The resulting soil moisture, soil salinity, and salt spray tion, in-place soil density, and geologic origin of the soil
have an adverse effect on most plants. material. Where pertinent, data about kinds of clay min-
Dune stability depends on the anchoring vegetation. If erals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and the
the use of shallow wells lowers ground water below a kind of absorbed cations were also considered.
critical level, the stabilizing plants die. The vegetation is On the basis of information assembled about soil prop-
fragile and vulnerable to trampling. Building groins along erties, ranges of values can be estimated for erodibility,
the beach arrests the littoral drift, eliminating the source permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available
of sand that supplements the dunes. water capacity, shear strength, compressibility, slope sta-
The beach can be used for swimming, picnicking, shell ability, and other factors of expected soil behavior in engi-
collecting, fishing, and sunbathing. neering uses. As appropriate, these values can be ap-
The primary dune cannot tolerate heavy use. It must plied to each major horizon of each soil or to the entire
not be trampled. Bridge crossings (fig. 12) are needed. profile.
The trough between dunes is much more tolerant, and These factors of soil behavior affect construction and
incidental development can occur. Lowering the ground maintenance of roads, airport runways, pipelines, founda-
water, however, sometimes kills the vegetation, tions for small buildings, ponds and small dams, irrigation






56 SOIL SURVEY



ant trees of a given species attain in a specified number The inland dune is the second line of defense against
of years. The index was calculated at age 50 for the the ocean. It is as vulnerable as the primary dune. It is
species in this survey area. The site index applies to fully intolerant of use and should not be developed.
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Important trees The back dune is in a less critical location, and some
are those that woodland managers generally favor in use is permissible. Back dunes are the most suitable
intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected environment on the coastal dunes for man and develop-
on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and market- ment.
ability. Behind the back dunes is the estuarine and bay shore
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for commer- environment, which is one of the most productive aquatic
cial wood production and that are suited to the soils. areas in the world. It is in this environment that the
infantile stage of most of the important fish takes place
Windbreaks and environmental plantings and the valuable shell fish live.
Some of the more important plants on the coastal
Windbreaks are established to protect crops, livestock, dunes are sea-oats, marshhay cordgrass, beach mor-
buildings, and soil from wind damage. Windbreaks also ningglory, bay bean, shoredune panicum, gopher apple,
help protect fruit trees, lawns, and gardens, and they holly, and sand live oak.
furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows provide the most
protection. Engineering
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals James w. Norris, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
across the field, the interval depending on erodibility of prepare this section.
the soil. They protect cropland and crops from wind and This section provides information about the use of
provide food and cover for wildlife, soils for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction ma-
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen trial, and water management. Among those who can
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The benefit from this information are engineers, landowners,
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely community planners, town and city managers, land de-
spaced. A healthy planting stock of suitable species velopers, builders, contractors, and farmers and ranch-
planted properly on a well prepared site and maintained ers.
in good condition can insure a high degree of plant The ratings in the engineering tables are based on test
survival data and estimated data in the "Soil properties" section.
Additional information about planning windbreaks and The ratings were determined jointly by soil scientists and
screens and the planting and care of trees can be ob- engineers of the Soil Conservation Service using known
trained from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service relationships between the soil properties and the behav-
or the Cooperative Extension Service or from a nursery. ior of soils in various engineering uses.
Among the soil properties and site conditions identified
Coastal dune management by a soil survey and used in determining the ratings in
this section were grain-size distribution, liquid limit, plas-
John D. Griffin, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped pre- ticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness of
pare this section, bedrock that is within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil
In geological time, the coastal dune is a very recent wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope,
formation. It is controlled by ocean waves and by wind. likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure or aggrega-
The resulting soil moisture, soil salinity, and salt spray tion, in-place soil density, and geologic origin of the soil
have an adverse effect on most plants. material. Where pertinent, data about kinds of clay min-
Dune stability depends on the anchoring vegetation. If erals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and the
the use of shallow wells lowers ground water below a kind of absorbed cations were also considered.
critical level, the stabilizing plants die. The vegetation is On the basis of information assembled about soil prop-
fragile and vulnerable to trampling. Building groins along erties, ranges of values can be estimated for erodibility,
the beach arrests the littoral drift, eliminating the source permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available
of sand that supplements the dunes. water capacity, shear strength, compressibility, slope sta-
The beach can be used for swimming, picnicking, shell ability, and other factors of expected soil behavior in engi-
collecting, fishing, and sunbathing. neering uses. As appropriate, these values can be ap-
The primary dune cannot tolerate heavy use. It must plied to each major horizon of each soil or to the entire
not be trampled. Bridge crossings (fig. 12) are needed. profile.
The trough between dunes is much more tolerant, and These factors of soil behavior affect construction and
incidental development can occur. Lowering the ground maintenance of roads, airport runways, pipelines, founda-
water, however, sometimes kills the vegetation, tions for small buildings, ponds and small dams, irrigation






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 57



projects, drainage systems, sewage and refuse disposal stations can be overcome or minimized by special plan-
systems, and other engineering works. The ranges of ning and design. A severe limitation indicates that one or
values can be used to (1) select potential residential, more soil properties or site features are so unfavorable
commercial, industrial, and recreational uses; (2) make or difficult to overcome that a major increase in con-
preliminary estimates pertinent to construction in a par- struction effort, special design, or intensive maintenance
ticular area; (3) evaluate alternative routes for roads, is required. For some soils rated severe, such costly
streets, highways, pipelines, and underground cables; (4) measures may not be feasible.
evaluate alternative sites for location of sanitary landfills, Shallow excavations are made for pipelines, sewer-
onsite sewage disposal systems, and other waste dis- lines, communications and power transmission lines,
posal facilities; (5) plan detailed onsite investigations of basements, open ditches, and cemeteries. Such digging
soils and geology; (6) find sources of gravel, sand, clay, or trenching is influenced by soil wetness caused by a
and topsoil; (7) plan farm drainage systems, irrigation seasonal high water table; the texture and consistence
systems, ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil of soils; the tendency of soils to cave in or slough; and
and water conservation; (8) relate performance of struc- the presence of very firm, dense soil layers, bedrock, or
tures already built to the properties of the kinds of soil large stones. In addition, excavations are affected by
on which they are built so that performance of similar slope of the soil and the probability of flooding. Ratings
structures on the same or a similar soil in other locations do not apply to soil horizons below a depth of 6 feet
can be predicted; and (9) predict the trafficability of soils unless otherwise noted.
for cross-country movement of vehicles and construction In the soil series descriptions, the consistence of each
equipment, soil horizon is given, and the presence of very firm or
Data presented in this section are useful for land-use extremely firm horizons, usually difficult to excavate, is
planning and for choosing alternative practices or gener- indicated.
al designs that will overcome unfavorable soil properties Dwellings and small commercial buildings referred to
and minimize soil-related failures. Limitations to the use in table 8 are built on undisturbed soil and have founda-
of these data, however, should be well understood First, tion loads of a dwelling no more than three stories high.
the data are generally not presented for soil material Separate ratings are made for small commercial build-
below a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Also, because of the scale ings without basements and for dwellings with and with-
of the detailed map in this soil survey, small areas of out basements. For such structures, soils should be suffi-
soils that differ from the dominant soil may be included ciently stable that cracking or subsidence of the struc-
in mapping. Thus, these data do not eliminate the need ture from settling or shear failure of the foundation does
for onsite investigations, testing, and analysis by person- not occur. These ratings were determined from esti-
nel having expertise in the specific use contemplated, mates of the shear strength, compressibility, and shrink-
The information is presented mainly in tables. Table 8 swell potential of the soil. Soil texture, plasticity and in-
shows, for each kind of soil, the degree and kind of place density, soil wetness, and depth to a seasonal
limitations for building site development; table 9, for sani- high water table were also considered. Soil wetness and
tary facilities; and tables 11 and 12 for water manage- depth to a seasonal high water table indicate potential
ment. Table 10 shows the suitability of each kind of soil difficulty in providing adequate drainage for basements,
as a source of construction materials, lawns, and gardens. Depth to bedrock, slope, and large
The information in the tables, along with the soil map, stones in or on the soil are also important considerations
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this in the choice of sites for these structures and were
survey, can be used to make additional interpretations considered in determining the ratings. Susceptibility to
and to construct interpretive maps for specific uses of flooding is a serious hazard.
land. Local roads and streets referred to in table 8 have an
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a all-weather surface that can carry light to medium traffic
special meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are all year. They consist of a subgrade of the underlying
defined in the Glossary. soil material; a base of gravel, crushed rock fragments,
or soil material stabilized with lime or cement; and a
Building site development flexible or rigid surface, commonly asphalt or concrete.
The roads are graded with soil material at hand, and
The degree and kind of soil limitations that affect shal- most cuts and fills are less than 6 feet deep.
low excavations, dwellings with and without basements, The load supporting capacity and the stability of the
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets soil as well as the quantity and workability of fill material
are indicated in table 8. A slight limitation indicates that available are important in design and construction of
soil properties generally are favorable for the specified roads and streets. The classifications of the soil and the
use; any limitation is minor and easily overcome. A mod- soil texture, density, and shrink-swell potential are indica-
erate limitation indicates that soil properties and site fea- tors of the traffic supporting capacity used in making the
tures are unfavorable for the specified use, but the limi- ratings. Soil wetness, flooding, slope, depth to hard rock






58 SOIL SURVEY



or very compact layers, and content of large stones the absorption field does not adequately filter the efflu-
affect stability and ease of excavation. ent, and ground water in the area may be contaminated.
Lawns and landscaping require soils that are suitable On many of the soils that have moderate or severe
for the establishment and maintenance of turf for lawns limitations for use as septic tank absorption fields, a
and ornamental trees and shrubs for landscaping. The system to lower the seasonal water table can be in-
best soils are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, stalled or the size of the absorption field can be in-
and absorb water readily and hold sufficient moisture for creased so that performance is satisfactory.
plant growth. The surface layer should be free of stones. Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
If shaping is required, the soils should be thick enough hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
over bedrock or hardpan to allow for necessary grading, and liquid wastes. Lagoons have a nearly level floor and
In rating the soils, the availability of water for sprinkling is cut slopes or embankments of compacted soil material.
assumed. Aerobic lagoons generally are designed to hold sewage
within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly impervious soil
Sanitary facilities material for the lagoon floor and sides is required to
minimize seepage and contamination of ground water.
Favorable soil properties and site features are needed Soils that are very high in content of organic matter and
for proper functioning of septic tank absorption fields, those that have cobbles, stones, or boulders are not
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The nature of the suitable. Unless the soil has very slow permeability, con-
soil is important in selecting sites for these facilities and tamination of ground water is a hazard. In soils where
in identifying limiting soil properties and site features to the water table is seasonally high, seepage of ground
be considered in design and installation. Also, those soil water into the lagoon can seriously reduce the lagoon's
properties that affect ease of excavation or installation of capacity for liquid waste. Slope, depth to bedrock, and
these facilities will be of interest to contractors and local susceptibility to flooding also affect the suitability of sites
officials. Table 9 shows the degree and kind of limita- for sewage lagoons or the cost of construction. Shear
tions of each soil for such uses and for use of the soil as strength and permeability of compacted soil material
daily cover for landfills. It is important to observe local affect the performance of embankments.
ordinances and regulations. Sanitary landfill is a method of disposing of solid waste
If the degree of soil limitation is expressed as slight, by placing refuse in successive layers either in excavat-
soils are generally favorable for the specified use and ed trenches or on the surface of the soil. The waste is
limitations are minor and easily overcome; if moderate, spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin layer
soil properties or site features are unfavorable for the of soil material. Landfill areas are subject to heavy ve-
specified use, but limitations can be overcome by special hicular traffic. Risk of polluting ground water and traffica-
planning and design; and if severe, soil properties or site ability affect the suitability of a soil for this use. The best
features are so unfavorable or difficult to overcome that soils have a loamy or silty texture, have moderate to
major soil reclamation, special designs, or intensive slow permeability, are deep to a seasonal water table,
maintenance is required. Soil suitability is rated by the and are not subject to flooding. Clayey soils are likely to
terms good, fair, or poor, which, respectively, mean be sticky and difficult to spread. Sandy or gravelly soils
about the same as the terms slight, moderate, and generally have rapid permeability, which might allow nox-
severe. ious liquids to contaminate ground water. Soil wetness
Septic tank absorption fields are subsurface systems can be a limitation, because operating heavy equipment
of tile or perforated pipe that distribute effluent from a on a wet soil is difficult. Seepage into the refuse in-
septic tank into the soil. Only the soil horizons between creases the risk of pollution of ground water.
depths of 18 and 72 inches are evaluated for this use. Ease of excavation affects the suitability of a soil for
The soil properties and site features considered are the trench type of landfill. A suitable soil is deep to
those that affect the absorption of the effluent and those bedrock and free of large stones and boulders. If the
that affect the construction of the system, seasonal water table is high, water will seep into trench-
Properties and features that affect absorption of the es.
effluent are permeability, depth to seasonal high water Unless otherwise stated, the limitations in table 9
table, depth to bedrock, and susceptibility to flooding, apply only to the soil material within a depth of about 6
Stones, boulders, and shallowness to bedrock interfere feet. If the trench is deeper, a limitation of slight or
with installation. Excessive slope can cause lateral seep- moderate may not be valid. Site investigation is needed
age and surfacing of the effluent. Also, soil erosion and before a site is selected.
soil slippage are hazards if absorption fields are installed Daily cover for landfill should be soil that is easy to
on sloping soils. excavate and spread over the compacted fill in wet and
In some soils, loose sand and gravel or fractured bed- dry periods. Soils that are loamy or silty and free of
rock is less than 4 feet below the tile lines. In these soils stones or boulders are better than other soils. Clayey







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 59



soils may be sticky and difficult to spread; sandy soils guidance as to where to look for probable sources and
may be subject to soil blowing, are based on the probability that soils in a given area
The soils selected for final cover of landfills should be contain sizable quantities of sand or gravel. A soil rated
suitable for growing plants. Of all the horizons, the A good or fair has a layer of suitable material at least 3
horizon in most soils has the best workability, more or- feet thick, the top of which is within a depth of 6 feet.
ganic matter, and the best potential for growing plants. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock material, such as
Thus, for either the area- or trench-type landfill, stockpil- shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and
ing material from the A horizon for use as the surface gravel. Fine-grained soils are not suitable sources of
layer of the final cover is desirable. sand and gravel.
Where it is necessary to bring in soil material for daily The ratings do not take into account depth to the
or final cover, thickness of suitable soil material available water table or other factors that affect excavation of the
and depth to a seasonal high water table in soils sur- material. Descriptions of grain size, kinds of minerals,
rounding the sites should be evaluated. Other factors to reaction, and stratification are given in the soil series
be evaluated are those that affect reclamation of the descriptions and in table 15.
borrow areas. These factors include slope, erodibility, Topsoil is used in areas where vegetation is to be
and potential for plant growth. established and maintained. Suitability is affected mainly
by the ease of working and spreading the soil material in
Construction materials preparing a seedbed and by the ability of the soil materi-
e s y of e s a a s o r al to support plantlife. Also considered is the damage
The suitability of each soil as a source of roadfill, that can result at the area from which the topsoil is
sand, gravel, and topsoil is indicated in table 10 by taken
ratings of good, fair, or poor. The texture, thickness, and The ease of excavation is influenced by the thickness
organic-matter content of each soil horizon are important of suitable material, wetness, slope, and amount of
factors in rating soils for use as construction materials. stones. The ability of the soil to support plantlife is deter-
Each soil is evaluated to the depth observed, generally mined by texture, structure, and the amount of soluble
about 6 feet.
Roadfl is il m il ud in es f salts or toxic substances. Organic matter in the Al or Ap
oad is atera use ea s for horizon greatly increases the absorption and retention of
roads. Soils are evaluated as a source of roadfill for low
moisture and nutrients. Therefore, the soil material from
embankments, which generally are less than 6 feet high these horizons should be carefully preserved for later
and less exacting in design than high embankments. The use
ratings reflect the ease of excavating and working the Soils rated good have at least 16 inches of friable
material and the expected performance of the material ateal at te sae e of se
loamy material at their surface. They are free of stones
where it has been compacted and adequately drained. and cobbles, are low in content of gravel, and have
The performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or n oes are low in solle sts tat can limit
cement is not considered in the ratings, but information gentle slopes. They are low in soluble salts that can limit
cement is not considered in the ratings, but information y ile or
about some of the soil properties that influence such r present lnt ro. They are not so wet that exca
performance is given in the descriptions of the soil respond well to fertilizer. They are not so wet that exca-
performance is given in the descriptions of the soil i g y
series, vation is difficult during most of the year.
series. Soils rated fair are loose sandy soils or firm loamy or
The ratings apply to the soil material between the A clayey soils in which the suitable material is only 8 to 16
horizon and a depth of 5 to 6 feet. It is assumed that soil ick or soils that have appreciable amounts of
horizons will be mixed during excavation and spreading. soluble salt
Many soils have horizons of contrasting suitability within Soils rated poor are very sandy soils and very firm
their profile. The estimated engineering properties in y
their profile. The estimated engineering properties in clayey soils; soils with suitable layers less than 8 inches
table 15 provide specific information about the nature of y ; ss wh s e lye l t 8
each horizon. This information can help determine the thick; soils having large amounts of soluble salt steep
suitability of each horizon for roadfill. soils; and poorly drained soils.
Soils rated good are coarse grained. They have low The surface horizon of most soils is generally preferred
shrink-swell potential, low potential frost action, and few for topsoil because of its organic-matter content. This
cobbles and stones. They are at least moderately well horizon is designated as Al or Ap in the soil series
drained and have slopes of 15 percent or less. Soils descriptions. The absorption and retention of moisture
rated fair have a plasticity index of less than 15 and and nutrients for plant growth are greatly increased by
have other limiting features, such as moderate shrink- organic matter.
swell potential, moderately steep slopes, wetness, or
many stones. If the thickness of suitable material is less Water management
than 3 feet, the entire soil is rated poor. Many soil properties and site features that affect water
Sand and gravel are used in great quantities in many management practices have been identified in this soil
kinds of construction. The ratings in table 10 provide survey. In table 11, data on depth to the water table is







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 59



soils may be sticky and difficult to spread; sandy soils guidance as to where to look for probable sources and
may be subject to soil blowing, are based on the probability that soils in a given area
The soils selected for final cover of landfills should be contain sizable quantities of sand or gravel. A soil rated
suitable for growing plants. Of all the horizons, the A good or fair has a layer of suitable material at least 3
horizon in most soils has the best workability, more or- feet thick, the top of which is within a depth of 6 feet.
ganic matter, and the best potential for growing plants. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock material, such as
Thus, for either the area- or trench-type landfill, stockpil- shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and
ing material from the A horizon for use as the surface gravel. Fine-grained soils are not suitable sources of
layer of the final cover is desirable. sand and gravel.
Where it is necessary to bring in soil material for daily The ratings do not take into account depth to the
or final cover, thickness of suitable soil material available water table or other factors that affect excavation of the
and depth to a seasonal high water table in soils sur- material. Descriptions of grain size, kinds of minerals,
rounding the sites should be evaluated. Other factors to reaction, and stratification are given in the soil series
be evaluated are those that affect reclamation of the descriptions and in table 15.
borrow areas. These factors include slope, erodibility, Topsoil is used in areas where vegetation is to be
and potential for plant growth. established and maintained. Suitability is affected mainly
by the ease of working and spreading the soil material in
Construction materials preparing a seedbed and by the ability of the soil materi-
e s y of e s a a s o r al to support plantlife. Also considered is the damage
The suitability of each soil as a source of roadfill, that can result at the area from which the topsoil is
sand, gravel, and topsoil is indicated in table 10 by taken
ratings of good, fair, or poor. The texture, thickness, and The ease of excavation is influenced by the thickness
organic-matter content of each soil horizon are important of suitable material, wetness, slope, and amount of
factors in rating soils for use as construction materials. stones. The ability of the soil to support plantlife is deter-
Each soil is evaluated to the depth observed, generally mined by texture, structure, and the amount of soluble
about 6 feet.
Roadfl is il m il ud in es f salts or toxic substances. Organic matter in the Al or Ap
oad is atera use ea s for horizon greatly increases the absorption and retention of
roads. Soils are evaluated as a source of roadfill for low
moisture and nutrients. Therefore, the soil material from
embankments, which generally are less than 6 feet high these horizons should be carefully preserved for later
and less exacting in design than high embankments. The use
ratings reflect the ease of excavating and working the Soils rated good have at least 16 inches of friable
material and the expected performance of the material ateal at te sae e of se
loamy material at their surface. They are free of stones
where it has been compacted and adequately drained. and cobbles, are low in content of gravel, and have
The performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or n oes are low in solle sts tat can limit
cement is not considered in the ratings, but information gentle slopes. They are low in soluble salts that can limit
cement is not considered in the ratings, but information y ile or
about some of the soil properties that influence such r present lnt ro. They are not so wet that exca
performance is given in the descriptions of the soil respond well to fertilizer. They are not so wet that exca-
performance is given in the descriptions of the soil i g y
series, vation is difficult during most of the year.
series. Soils rated fair are loose sandy soils or firm loamy or
The ratings apply to the soil material between the A clayey soils in which the suitable material is only 8 to 16
horizon and a depth of 5 to 6 feet. It is assumed that soil ick or soils that have appreciable amounts of
horizons will be mixed during excavation and spreading. soluble salt
Many soils have horizons of contrasting suitability within Soils rated poor are very sandy soils and very firm
their profile. The estimated engineering properties in y
their profile. The estimated engineering properties in clayey soils; soils with suitable layers less than 8 inches
table 15 provide specific information about the nature of y ; ss wh s e lye l t 8
each horizon. This information can help determine the thick; soils having large amounts of soluble salt steep
suitability of each horizon for roadfill. soils; and poorly drained soils.
Soils rated good are coarse grained. They have low The surface horizon of most soils is generally preferred
shrink-swell potential, low potential frost action, and few for topsoil because of its organic-matter content. This
cobbles and stones. They are at least moderately well horizon is designated as Al or Ap in the soil series
drained and have slopes of 15 percent or less. Soils descriptions. The absorption and retention of moisture
rated fair have a plasticity index of less than 15 and and nutrients for plant growth are greatly increased by
have other limiting features, such as moderate shrink- organic matter.
swell potential, moderately steep slopes, wetness, or
many stones. If the thickness of suitable material is less Water management
than 3 feet, the entire soil is rated poor. Many soil properties and site features that affect water
Sand and gravel are used in great quantities in many management practices have been identified in this soil
kinds of construction. The ratings in table 10 provide survey. In table 11, data on depth to the water table is







60 SOIL SURVEY



given for some of the soils in the county. In table 12, the vegetation; and resistance to water erosion, soil blowing,
degree of soil limitation and soil and site features that soil slipping, and piping.
affect use are indicated for each kind of soil. This infor- Grassed waterways are constructed to channel runoff
mation is significant in planning, installing, and maintain- to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Features that affect
ing water management systems, the use of soils for waterways are slope, permeability,
The soil and site limitations in table 12 are expressed erodibility, wetness, and suitability for permanent vegeta-
as slight, moderate, and severe. Slight means that the tion.
soil properties and site features are generally favorable
for the specified use and that any limitation is minor and Recreation
easily overcome. Moderate means that some soil proper-
ties or site features are unfavorable for the specified use Recreation is a major enterprise in Volusia County.
but can be overcome or modified by special planning The famous beaches, along with other scenic, cultural,
and design. Severe means that the soil properties and and commercial attractions, draw thousands of tourists
site features are so unfavorable and so difficult to cor- to the county each month. Because of the mild climate
rect or overcome that major soil reclamation, special and the wide assortment of recreational facilities (fig.
design, or intensive maintenance is required. 13), thousands of people, including many retirees, have
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or em- chosen Volusia County for permanent or winter resi-
bankment. Soils best suited to this use have a low seep- dence. The rapid increase in population within the past
age potential, which is determined by permeability and few decades has brought an increase in the tempo of
the depth to fractured or permeable bedrock or other urban life and a corresponding need for more space for
permeable material, outdoor recreation.
Embankments, dikes, and levees require soil material In 1973, park and recreational facilities occupied about
that is resistant to seepage, erosion, and piping and has 22,842 acres in the county. Of this total, 1,026 acres
favorable stability, shrink-swell potential, shear strength, was privately owned. Of the remaining 21,816 acres,
and compaction characteristics. Large stones and organ- approximately 16,227 acres was owned by the Federal
ic matter in a soil downgrade the suitability of a soil for government, 4,625 acres by the State, 240 acres by the
use in embankments, dikes, and levees, county, and 724 acres by the city. As urbanization in-
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are bodies of water made creases, more land for recreation will be needed, and a
by excavating a pit or dugout into a ground-water aquifer. knowledge of soil properties can help a great deal in
Excluded are ponds that are fed by surface runoff and selecting such areas.
embankment ponds that impound water 3 feet or more The soils of the survey area are rated in table 13
above the original surface. Ratings in table 12 are for according to limitations that affect their suitability for
ponds that are properly designed, located, and con- recreation uses. The ratings are based on such restric-
structed. Soil properties and site features that affect tive soil features as flooding, wetness, slope, and texture
aquifer-fed ponds are depth to a permanent water table, of the surface layer. Not considered in these ratings, but
permeability of the aquifer, quality of the water, and ease important in evaluating a site, are location and accessi-
of excavation. ability of the area, size and shape of the area and its
Drainage of soil is affected by such soil properties as scenic quality, the ability of the soil to support vegeta-
permeability; texture; depth to bedrock, or other layers tion, access to water, potential water impoundment sites
that affect the rate of water movement; depth to the available, and either access to public sewerlines or ca-
water table; slope; stability of ditchbanks; susceptibility to pacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent. Soils
flooding; salinity and alkalinity; and availability of outlets subject to flooding are limited, in varying degree, for
for drainage, recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
Irrigation is affected by such features as slope, sus- and the season when flooding occurs. Onsite assess-
ceptibility to flooding, hazards of water erosion and soil ment of height, duration, intensity, and frequency of
blowing, texture, presence of salts, depth of root zone, flooding is essential in planning recreation facilities.
rate of water intake at the surface, permeability of the The degree of the limitation of the soils is expressed
soil below the surface layer, available water capacity, as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that the soil
need for drainage, and depth to the water table. properties are generally favorable and that the limitations
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a combi- are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
nation of channels and ridges constructed across a the limitations can be overcome or alleviated by plan-
slope to intercept runoff. They allow water to soak into ning, design, or special maintenance. Severe means that
the soil or flow slowly to an outlet. Features that affect soil properties are unfavorable and that limitations can
suitability of a soil for terraces are uniformity and steep- be offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
ness of slope; depth to bedrock, or other unfavorable intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
material; large stones; permeability; ease of establishing of these measures.







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 61



The information in table 13 can be supplemented by Large areas of the county have been set aside as wild-
information in other parts of this survey. Especially help- life refuges or wildlife management areas. The larger
ful are interpretations for septic tank absorption fields, areas are the Tomoka Wildlife Management Area, the
given in table 9, and interpretations for dwellings without Farmton Wildlife Management Area, and the Lake Wood-
basements and for local roads and streets, given in table ruff National Wildlife Refuge, which together make up
8. more than 150,000 acres. Several other areas are
Camp areas require such site preparation as shaping leased to hunting clubs. Much of the area that is used as
and leveling for tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads range or forest serves also as wildlife habitat. In addition,
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facili- the large areas of wetlands in the county are important
ties and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy wildlife habitat.
foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils for Soils directly affect the kind and amount of vegetation
this use have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to that is available to wildlife as food and cover, and they
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or affect the construction of water impoundments. The kind
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but re- and abundance of wildlife that populate an area depend
mains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes and largely on the amount and distribution of food, cover,
stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of con- and water. If any one of these elements is missing, is
structing camping sites. inadequate, or is inaccessible, wildlife either are scarce
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most or do not inhabit the area.
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking If the soils have the potential, wildlife habitat can be
areas. The best soils for use as picnic areas are firm created or improved by planting appropriate vegetation,
when wet, are not dusty when dry, are not subject to by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by helping the
flooding during the period of use, and do not have natural establishment of desirable plants.
slopes or stones or boulders that will increase the cost In table 14, the soils in the survey area are rated
of shaping sites or of building access roads and parking according to their potential to support the main kinds of
areas, wildlife habitat in the area. This information can be used
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive in planning for parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas,
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not and other developments for wildlife; selecting areas that
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The are suitable for wildlife; selecting soils that are suitable
surface is free of stones or boulders, is firm after rains, for creating, improving, or maintaining specific elements
and is not dusty when dry. If shaping is required to of wildlife habitat; and determining the intensity of man-
obtain a uniform grade, the depth of the soil over bed- agement needed for each element of the habitat.
rock or hardpan should be enough to allow necessary The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
grading, very poor. A rating of good means that the element of
Paths and trails for walking, horseback riding, bicy- wildlife habitat or the kind of habitat is easily created,
cling, and other uses should require little or no cutting improved, or maintained. Few or no limitations affect
and filling. The best soils for this use are those that are management, and satisfactory results can be expected if
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and the soil is used for the designated purpose. A rating of
are not subject to flooding more than once during the fair means that the element of wildlife habitat or kind of
annual period of use. They should have moderate slopes habitat can be created, improved, or maintained in most
and have few or no stones or boulders on the surface, places. Moderately intensive management is required for
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and satisfactory results. A rating of poor means that limita-
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be re- tions are severe for the designated element or kind of
quired. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm wildlife habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to maintained in most places, but management is difficult
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They should and must be intensive. A rating of very poor means that
have a surface that is free of stones and boulders and restrictions for the element of wildlife habitat or kind of
have moderate slopes. Suitability of the soil for traps, wildlife are very severe, and that unsatisfactory results
tees, or greens was not considered in rating the soils, can be expected. Wildlife habitat is impractical or even
Irrigation is an assumed management practice, impossible to create, improve, or maintain on soils
having such a rating.
Wildlife habitat The elements of wildlife habitat are briefly described in
the following paragraphs.
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, and C.R. Grain and seed crops are seed-producing annuals
McCracken, biologist, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, used by wildlife. The major soil properties that affect the
helped prepare this sectiongrowth of grain and seed crops are depth of the root
Wildlife has been an important natural resource of zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capac-
Volusia County from the time of earliest settlement. ity, wetness, slope, surface stoniness, and flood hazard.







62 SOIL SURVEY



Soil temperature and soil moisture are also consider- Soil properties
nations.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses Extensive data about soil properties are summarized
and herbaceous legumes that are planted for wildlife on the following pages. The two main sources of these
food and cover. Major soil properties that affect the data are the many thousands of soil borings made during
growth of grasses and legumes are depth of the root the course of the survey and the laboratory analyses of
zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capac- selected soil samples from typical profiles.
ity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard, and slope. In making soil borings during field mapping, soil scien-
Soil temperature and soil moisture are also consider- tists can identify several important soil properties. They
nations. note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the pres-
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally estab- ence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in the
lished grasses and forbs, including weeds, that provide profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil
food and cover for wildlife. Major soil properties that material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and
affect the growth of these plants are depth of the root gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the
zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capac- natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed
ity, wetness, surface stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place
temperature and soil moisture are also considerations. under the existing soil moisture conditions.. They record
Hardwood trees and the associated woody understory the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of
provide cover for wildlife and produce nuts or other fruit, the soil, and identify any free carbonates.
buds, catkins, twigs, bark, or foliage that wildlife eat. Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory
Major soil properties that affect growth of hardwood to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to
trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, available determine all major properties of key soils, especially
water capacity, and wetness. properties that cannot be estimated accurately by field
Coniferous plants are cone-bearing trees, shrubs, or observation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for
ground cover plants that furnish habitat or supply food in all soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for
the form of browse, seeds, or fruitlike cones. Soil proper- many soil series not tested are available from nearby
ties that have a major effect on the growth of coniferous survey areas.
plants are depth of the root zone, available water capac- The available field and laboratory data are summarized
ity, and wetness. in tables. The tables give the estimated range of engi-
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild herba- neering properties, the engineering classifications, and
ceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites, exclusive the physical and chemical properties of each major hori-
of submerged or floating aquatics. They produce food or zon of each soil in the survey area. They also present
cover for wildlife that use wetland as habitat. Major soil data about pertinent soil and water features, engineering
properties affecting wetland plants are texture of the test data, and data obtained from physical and chemical
surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, slope, and sur- laboratory analyses of soils.
face stoniness.
Shallow water areas are bodies of water that have an Engineering properties
average depth of less than 5 feet and that are useful to
wildlife. They can be naturally wet areas, or they can be Table 15 gives estimates of engineering properties and
created by dams or levees or by water-control structures classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the
in marshes or streams. Major soil properties affecting survey area.
shallow water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, sur- Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons
face stoniness, slope, and permeability. The availability of contrasting properties. Table 15 gives information for
of a dependable water supply is important if water areas each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile.
are to be developed. Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each hori-
The kinds of wildlife habitat are briefly described in the zon is indicated. More information about the range in
following paragraphs. depth and about other properties in each horizon is
Open/and habitat consists of cropland, pasture, mead- given for each soil series in the section "Soil series and
ows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses, herbs, morphology."
shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and seed Texture is described in table 15 in the standard terms
crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms
plants. are defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and
Woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
conifers, or a mixture of both, and associated grasses, diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil material that is 7
legumes, and wild herbaceous plants, to 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than
Wetland habitat consists of open, marshy or swampy, 52 percent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other parti-
shallow water areas where water-tolerant plants grow. cles coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is added,







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 63



for example, "gravelly loam." Other texture terms are of test data from the survey area or from nearby areas
defined in the Glossary. and on observations of the many soil borings made
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils during the survey.
for engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification In some surveys, the estimates are rounded to the
System (Unified) (2) and the system adopted by the nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and
American Association of State Highway and Transporta- Atterburg limits extend a marginal amount across classifi-
tion Officials (AASHTO) (1). cation boundaries (1 or 2 percent), the classification in
The Unified system classifies soils according to prop- the marginal zone is omitted.
erties that affect their use as construction material. Soils
are classified according to grain-size distribution of the
fraction less than 3 inches in diameter, plasticity index, Physical and chemical properties
liquid limit, and organic-matter content. Soils are grouped Table 16 shows estimated values for several soil char-
into 15 classes-eight classes of coarse-grained soils, acteristics and features that affect behavior of soils in
identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six engineering uses. These estimates are given for each
classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL, major horizon, at the depths indicated, in the typical
MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils, pedon of each soil. The estimates are based on field
identified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two observations and on test data for these and similar soils.
classes have a dual classification symbol, for example, Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (oven dry) per
SM-SC. unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at the
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at
those properties that affect their use in highway con- 1/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after
struction and maintenance. In this system a mineral soil 1/3 bar moisture tens on d eee ght C s determ ne1 after
is classified in one of seven basic groups ranging from ed moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is ex-
A-1 through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution, pressed in grams per cubic centimeteajor soil horizon is ex-
liquid limit, and plasticity index. Soils in group A-1 are pressed n grams per cubic centimeter for soil material
coarse grained and low in content of fines. At the other that s less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
extreme, in group A-7, are fine-grained soils. Highly or- Bulk density data are used to compute shrink-swell
ganic soils are classified in group A-8 on the basis of potential, available water capacity, total pore space, and
visual inspection, other soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil
When laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and indicates the pore space available for water and roots. A
A-7 groups are further classified as follows: A-1-a, A-1-b, bulk density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage
A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As an addi- and root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by
tional refinement, the desirability of soils as subgrade the texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and
material can be indicated by a group index number. structure of the soil.
These numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade ma- Clay is a mineral soil particle that is less than 0.002
trial to 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO millimeters in diameter. In table 16, the estimated clay
classification for soils tested in the survey area, with content of each major soil horizon is given as a percent,
group index numbers in parentheses, is given in table 21. by weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millime-
The estimated classification, without group index num- ters in diameter.
bers, is given in table 15. Also in table 15 the percent- The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
age, by weight, of rock fragments more than 3 inches in and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
diameter is estimated for each major horizon. These ability of the soil to absorb cations and to retain mois-
estimates are determined mainly by observing volume ture. They influence the soil's shrink-swell potential, per-
percentage in the field and then converting that, by for- meability, and plasticity; the ease of soil dispersion; and
mula, to weight percentage. other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in a
Percentage of the soil material less than 3 inches in soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations.
diameter that passes each of four sieves (U.S. standard) Permeability is estimated on the basis of known rela-
is estimated for each major horizon. The estimates are tionships among the soil characteristics observed in the
based on tests of soils that were sampled in the survey field-particularly soil structure, porosity, and gradation
area and in nearby areas and on field estimates from or texture-that influence the downward movement of
many borings made during the survey, water in the soil. The estimates are for vertical water
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of movement when the soil is saturated. Not considered in
water on the strength and consistence of soil. These the estimates is lateral seepage or such transient soil
indexes are used in both the Unified and AASHTO soil features as plowpans and surface crusts. Permeability of
classification systems. They are also used as indicators the soil is an important factor to be considered in plan-
in making general predictions of soil behavior. Range in ning and designing drainage systems, in evaluating the
liquid limit and plasticity index is estimated on the basis potential of soils for septic tank systems and other waste







64 SOIL SURVEY



disposal systems, and in many other aspects of land use Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
and management. similar properties that affect their resistance to soil blow-
Available water capacity is rated on the basis of soil ing if cultivated. The groups are used to predict the
characteristics that influence the ability of the soil to hold susceptibility of soil to blowing and the amount of soil
water and make it available to plants. Important charac- lost as a result of blowing. Soils are grouped according
teristics are content of organic matter, soil texture, and to the following distinctions:
soil structure. Shallow-rooted plants are not likely to use 1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
the available water from the deeper soil horizons. Availa- sands. These soils are extremely erodible, so vegetation
ble water capacity is an important factor in the choice of is difficult to establish. They are generally not suitable for
plants or crops to be grown and in the design of irriga- crops.
tion systems. 2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very fine
Soil reaction is expressed as a range in pH values, sands. These soils are very highly erodible, but crops
The range in pH of each major horizon is based on many can be grown if intensive measures to control soil blow-
field checks. For many soils, the values have been veri- ing are used.
fied by laboratory analyses. Soil reaction is important in 3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy
selecting the crops, ornamental plants, or other plants to loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly
be grown; in evaluating soil amendments for fertility and erodible, but crops can be grown if intensive measures
stabilization; and in evaluating the corrosivity of soils, to control soil blowing are used.
Salinity is expressed as the electrical conductivity of 4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams
the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at 77 that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are
degrees F. Estimates are based on field and laboratory moderately erodible, but crops can be grown if measures
measurements at representative sites of the nonirrigated to control soil blowing are used.
soils. The salinity of individual irrigated fields is affected 5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay,
by the quality of the irrigation water and by the frequency sandy clay loams, and sandy clays are slightly erodible,
of water application. Hence, the salinity of individual but crops can be grown if measures to control soil blow-
fields can differ greatly from the value given in table 16. ing are used.
Salinity affects the suitability of a soil for crop production, 6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay are very
its stability when used as a construction material, and its slightly erodible, and crops can easily be grown.
potential to corrode metal and concrete. Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
Shrink-swell potential depends mainly on the amount soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 16, the
and kind of clay in the soil. Laboratory measurements of estimated content of organic matter of the plow layer is
the swelling of undisturbed clods were made for many expressed as a percent, by weight, of the soil material
soils. For others the swelling was estimated on the basis that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
of the kind and amount of clay in the soil and on mea- The content of organic matter of a soil can be main-
surements of similar soils. The size of the load and the tained or increased by returning crop residue to the soil.
magnitude of the change in soil moisture content also Organic matter affects the available water capacity, infil-
influence the swelling of soils. Shrinking and swelling of tration rate, and tilth of the soil. It is a source of nitrogen
some soils can cause damage to building foundations, and other nutrients for crops.
basement walls, roads, and other structures unless spe-
cial designs are used. A high shrink-swell potential indi- Soil and water features
cates that special design and added expense may be
required if the planned use of the soil will not tolerate Table 17 contains information helpful in planning land
large volume changes. uses and engineering projects that are likely to be affect-
Erosion factors are used to predict the erodibility of a ed by soil and water features.
soil and its tolerance to erosion in relation to specific Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
kinds of land use and treatment. The soil erodibility from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
factor (K) is a measure of the susceptibility of the soil to placed in one of four groups on the basis of the intake of
erosion by water. Soils having the highest K values are water after the soils have been wetted and have re-
the most erodible. K values range from 0.10 to 0.64. To ceived precipitation from long-duration storms.
estimate annual soil loss per acre, the K value of a soil The four hydrologic soil groups are:
is modified by factors representing plant cover, grade Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
and length of slope, management practices, and climate, potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
The soil-loss tolerance factor (T) is the maximum rate of deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or gray-
soil erosion, whether from rainfall or soil blowing, that els. These soils have a high rate of water transmission.
can occur without reducing crop production or environ- Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
mental quality. The rate is expressed in tons of soil loss thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
per acre per year. or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils







VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 65



that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse information is also needed to decide whether or not
texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water trans- construction of basements is feasible and to determine
mission. how septic tank absorption fields and other underground
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when installations will function. Also, a seasonal high water
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils that have a table affects ease of excavation.
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or Depth to bedrock is shown for all soils that are under-
soils that have moderately fine texture or fine texture, lain by bedrock at a depth of 5 to 6 feet or less. For
These soils have a slow rate of water transmission. many soils, the limited depth to bedrock is a part of the
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high definition of the soil series. The depths shown are based
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist on measurements made in many soil borings and on
chiefly of clay soils that have a high shrink-swell poten- other observations during the mapping of the soils. The
tial, soils that have a permanent high water table, soils kind of bedrock and its hardness as related to ease of
that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, excavation is also shown. Rippable bedrock can be ex-
and soils that are shallow over nearly impervious materi- cavated with a single-tooth ripping attachment on a 200-
al. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmis- horsepower tractor, but hard bedrock generally requires
sion. blasting.
Flooding is the temporary covering of soil with water is t s o
from overflowing streams, with runoff from adjacent Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
slopes, and by tides. Water standing for short periods soils containing semifluid layers. Initial subsidence gener-
after rains is not considered flooding, nor is water in ally results from drainage. Total subsidence is initial sub-
swamps and marshes. Flooding is rated in general terms sidence plus the slow sinking that occurs over a period
that describe the frequency and duration of flooding and of several years as a result of the oxidation or compres-
the time of year when flooding is most likely. The ratings sion of organic material.
are based on evidence in the soil profile of the effects of Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
flooding, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or, in chemical action that dissolves or weakens uncoated
places, clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease steel or concrete. The rate of corrosion of uncoated
in organic-matter content with increasing depth; and ab- steel is related to soil moisture, particle-size distribution,
sence of distinctive soil horizons that form in soils of the total acidity, and electrical conductivity of the soil materi-
area that are not subject to flooding. The ratings are also al. The rate of corrosion of concrete is based mainly on
based on local information about floodwater levels in the the sulfate content, texture,' and acidity of the soil. Pro-
area and the extent of flooding; and on information that tective measures for steel or more resistant concrete
relates the position of each soil on the landscape to help to avoid or minimize damage resulting from the
historic floods, corrosion. Uncoated steel intersecting soil boundaries or
The generalized description of flood hazards is of soil horizons is more susceptible to corrosion than an
value in land-use planning and provides a valid basis for installation that is entirely within one kind of soil or within
land-use restrictions. The soil data are less specific, one soil horizon.
however, than those provided by detailed engineering
surveys that delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood Physical, chemical, and mineralogical
frequency levels. Physical, chemical, and mineralogical
High water table is the highest level of a saturated analyses of selected soils
zone more than 6 inches thick for a continuous period of
By V.W. Carlisle, professor, C.T. Hallmark, assistant professor, and
more than 2 weeks during most years. The depth to a R.E. Caldwell, professor, Soil Science Department, University of Florida
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Estimates are based mainly on the relationship between
grayish colors or mottles in the soil and the depth to free Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of
water observed in many borings made during the course representative pedons sampled in Volusia County are
of the soil survey. Indicated in table 17 are the depth to listed in tables 18, 19, and 20. Analyses were conducted
the seasonal high water table; the kind of water table, and coordinated by the Soil Characterization Laboratory,
that is, perched, or apparent; and the months of the year University of Florida. Detailed profile descriptions of the
that the water table commonly is high. Only saturated soils analyzed are given in alphabetical order under "Soil
zones above a depth of 5 or 6 feet are indicated. More series and morphology." Laboratory data and profile in-
information on depth to the water table in some of the formation for other soils in Volusia County, as well as for
soils in the county is given in table 11. other counties in Florida, are on file at the Soil Science
Information about the seasonal high water table helps Department, University of Florida.
in assessing the need for specially designed foundations, Soils were sampled from pits at carefully selected lo-
the need for specific kinds of drainage systems, and the cations that represent typifying pedons. Samples were
need for footing drains to insure dry basements. Such air-dried, crushed, and sieved through a 2-millimeter







66 SOIL SURVEY



screen. Most analytical methods used are outlined in Soil common characteristic of sandy soils, particularly those
Survey Investigations Report No. 1 (9). that are naturally moderately well drained, well drained,
Particle size distribution was determined by using a or excessively drained.
modification of the Bouyoucos hydrometer procedure Hydraulic conductivity (table 18) measures the amount
with sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. Hy- of water that is transmitted through the soil when it is
draulic conductivity, bulk density, and water content were saturated. Generally, the hydraulic conductivity of Volusia
determined on undisturbed core samples. Organic County soils is high. It decreases with increasing silt and
carbon was determined by a modification of the Walkley- clay content, as shown by the values for the argillic
Black wet combustion method. Extractable bases were horizon of the Chobee variant, Malabar, Tuscawilla, Wa-
obtained by leaching soils with ammonium acetate buf- basso, and Wauchula soils. Soil structure also affects
fered at pH 7.0. Sodium and potassium in the extract hydraulic conductivity. The values are lower in the spodic
were determined by flame photometry, and calcium and horizon of the Deland, Farmton, Immokalee, Myakka,
magnesium by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extract- Smyrna, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils.
able acidity was determined by the barium chloride-trieth- Based on bulk densities and the moisture retained
anolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation exchange capacity between 1/10 and 15 bar tension (table 18) most soils in
was calculated by summation of extractable bases and Volusia County retain very low amounts of water that is
extractable acidity. Base saturation is the ratio of extract- available to plants in the upper 1 meter of soil. The
able bases to cation exchange capacity expressed in amount of water available is usually highest in soils that
percent. The pH measurements were made with a glass have an argillic horizon, such as Farmton, Malabar,
electrode using a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01M calcium Tuscawilla, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils. The amount
chloride in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and potassium chlo- of available water is usually lower in Astatula, Bulow,
ride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio. Paola, and Tavares soils. Although the spodic horizon in
Aluminum, carbon, and iron were extracted from sus- the Deland, Immokalee, Myakka, Smyrna, Wabasso, and
pected spodic horizons with 0.1M sodium pyrophos- Wauchula soils has higher amounts of water available to
phate. Determination of aluminum and iron was by plants (table 18), the low amount of available water in the
atomic absorption spectroscopy and of extracted carbon A2 horizon of these soils frequently is a factor that
by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method. Mineral-
by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method. Mineral- restrains normal plant growth during extended periods of
ogy of the less than 2 micron clay fraction was ascer- low rainfall.
trained by X-ray diffraction. Peak heights at angstrom 18, lrainl
14, 7.2, 4.83, and 4.31 positions representing montmoril- Generally, low values for extractable bases, cation ex-
lonite and/or interstratified expandibles, vermiculite change capacities (sum cations), and base saturation
and/or 14 angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and (table 19) indicate low inherent soil fertility. Calcium and
quartz, respectively, were measured, summed, and nor- magnesium are the predominant bases. The highest
malized to give percent soil minerals identified in the X- amounts occur in Gator and Turnbull soils. Sodium is low
ray diffractograms. This is not an absolute quantity but a in all but the Gator and Turnbull soils. The low amounts
relative distribution of clay minerals in the clay fraction. of potassium in all but the Turnbull soil further indicate
The absolute percentage would require additional knowl- the absence of appreciable quantities of weatherable
edge of particle size, crystallinity, unit structure substitu- minerals (not reported) in the soils of Volusia County.
tion, and matrix problems. Cation exchange capacity is most frequently less than 5
The sandy nature of Volusia County soils is indicated meq/100g except in the surface, sapric, spodic, and
in table 18. With the exception of the Clg horizon of Turn- argillic horizons. The increased reactivity of associated
bull soils, sands are by far the major fraction in all hori- organic material enhances the cation exchange capacity
zons of all pedons. The Astatula, Deland, and Tavares of surface horizons, of soils having sapric horizons, and
pedons are less than 2 percent clay throughout their the spodic horizon in Daytona, Deland, Farmton, Immo-
profiles to a depth of 2 meters. The Bulow and Paola kalee, Myakka, Smyrna, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils.
pedons are less than 2 percent clay to a depth of more The higher cation exchange capacity values in the argillic
than 1 meter. Silt content of these soils is also generally horizon of the Bulow, Malabar, Turnbull, Tuscawilla, and
less than 2 percent. The Bulow, Farmton, Gator, Mala- Wabasso soils are the result of higher clay content and
bar, Tuscawilla, Wabasso, and Wauchula pedons have the presence of much more highly reactive montmorillon-
textural increases of clay in the lower horizons, but the itic clays. In soils that have low values for cation ex-
silt content generally remains very low except in the change capacity, only small amounts of bases are
Turnbull, Tuscawilla, and Wauchula pedons that have needed to significantly alter both the base status and the
horizons where total silt content is more than 10 percent. soil reaction in the upper horizons. Fertile soils have a
Only the Gator soils are slightly more than 10 percent silt high cation exchange capacity and high base saturation.
in all horizons sampled. With the exception of the Bulow In soils that have low cation exchange capacity, frequent
and Immokalee pedons the sand fraction of all soils applications of fertilizer are needed for successful crop
sampled is dominated by fine sand. Droughtiness is a production.






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 67



Organic carbon is directly responsible for improving curred in all pedons except that of the Gator soil. Mont-
nutrient and water retention capacities. It is the primary morillonite occurred in the Bulow, Deland, Gator, Immo-
source of cation exchange capacity in the surface hori- kalee, Malabar, Myakka, Paola, Turnbull, Tuscawilla, Wa-
zons of Volusia County soils. The highest organic carbon basso, and Wauchula soils; but only Gator, Malabar,
content (table 19) occurred in the sapric horizon of the Turnbull, Tuscawilla, and Wabasso soils contained hori-
Gator soil, a Histosol, and the 01 horizon of the Turnbull zons dominated by montmorillonite. Quartz occurred in
soils. Generally, organic carbon content decreases with all pedons.
increasing soil depth in the mineral pedons except in Kaolinite generally increased in the deeper horizons of
those of Daytona, Deland, Farmton, Immokalee, Myakka, soils having an argillic horizon, such as Farmton, Gator,
Smyrna, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils, which have a Bh Malabar, Turnbull, Tuscawilla, and Wauchula soils. Bulow
horizon. The content of organic carbon in the better and Wabasso soils were exceptions to this trend. Mont-
developed Bh horizon of these soils ranges from 1.17 morillonite, least stable of the mineral components in the
percent in Daytona soils to 6.04 percent in Immokalee present environment, was not detectable in the sandy
soils. Although the enhanced organic carbon content of Astatula, Daytona, Smyrna, and Tavares soils and was
a spodic horizon increases cation exchange capacity, the detectable only in the surface horizon of the sandy
fertility status of this horizon is very low because of the Deland, Immokalee, and Paola soils. Clay mineralogy of
low base status and the relatively larger amount of alu- Volusia County soils influences their use and manage-
minum. ment less frequently than the total clay content. Turnbull
Soil reaction in 1:1 soil-water suspension seldom soils, however, contain enough montmorillonitic clays
changes more than 2.0 pH units between horizons within that their use for community development is severely
the same profile. The Wabasso soil has the greatest limited.
range in pH; the pH is 4.3 in the Al horizon and 7.5 in
the B'23tg horizon. Daytona, Farmton, Immokalee, Engineering test data
Myakka, Smyrna, and Wauchula soils are consistently
strongly acid; there is little difference among horizons of Table 21 contains engineering test data. Tests were
the same pedon. Correlation is not always evident be- made by the Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of
tween percent base saturation and pH, probably be- Transportation, Bureau of Materials and Research, on
cause of low buffering capacity, as is shown in the Asta- some of the major soil series in the survey area. They
tula, Myakka, Paola, and Tavares soils, were made to help evaluate the soils for engineering
Sodium pyrophosphate-extractable iron (table 19) was purposes. The classifications given are based on data
0.08 percent or less in selected horizons of Spodosols. obtained by mechanical analysis and by tests to deter-
The ratio of sodium pyrophosphate-extractable carbon mine liquid limit and plastic limit.
and aluminum to clay in the Daytona, Deland, Farmton, The mechanical analyses were made by combined
Myakka, Smyrna, Wabasso, and Wauchula soils was sieve and hydrometer methods (3). In this method the
large enough to meet certain chemical criteria for a various grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis
spodic horizon. Furthermore, the sodium pyrophosphate of all the material in the soil sample, including that
extraction removed more than one-half the amount of coarser than 2 mm in diameter. The mechanical analy-
aluminum and iron removed by dithionite-citrate extrac- ses used in this method should not be used in naming
tion from the spodic horizon of these soils, textural classes of soils.
Sand fraction (more than 2 microns) mineralogy was Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in
siliceous with quartz being dominant in all mineral hori- earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively
zons of all soils. Very small amounts of heavy minerals, higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
mostly ilmenite, occurred in most horizons. The greatest effort remains constant, the density of the compactive
concentrations were in the fine sand (0.25 to 0.1 mm) material increases until the optimum moisture content is
and very fine sand (0.1 to 0.05 mm) fractions. Clay reached. After that, density decreases with increase in
fraction (less than 2 microns) mineralogy is reported in moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the
table 20 for specific horizons of selected pedons. The compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a
clay mineralogical suite is composed of montmorillonite, rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the
a 14 angstrom intergrade mineral (vermiculite containing soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.
varying amounts of hydroxy Al interlayer material), kao- Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
linite, gibbsite, and quartz. Gibbsite was detectable only water on the strength and consistence of the soil materi-
in Astatula, Gator, Paola, and Wauchula soils. Apprecia- al. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased
ble amounts occurred only in Astatula and Wauchula from a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid
soils. Kaolinite occurred in all pedons but was noticeably to a plastic state. If the moisture content is further in-
absent in the surface horizon of Daytona, Farmton, Wa- creased, the material changes from a plastic to a liquid
basso, and Wauchula soils, where only quartz was de- state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which
tected. Varying amounts of 14 angstrom intergrade oc- the soil material changes from semisolid to plastic state;






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 69



of Apopka soils. Daytona, Deland, Electra, and Tavares friable to firm. Texture is sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
soils generally occur in lower positions. Electra, Daytona, Thickness ranges from about 3 feet to more than 6 feet.
and Deland soils have a Bh horizon. Astatula, Daytona,
Deland, and Tavares soils are sandy to a depth of 80 Astatula series
inches or more. The Astatula series is a member of the hyperthermic,
Typical pedon of Apopka fine sand, south of DeLand uncoated family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It consists
on Florida Highway 15A, 1.25 miles northwest of junction of nearly level to steep, excessively drained soils that
of 15A and 1-4, 50 feet north of roadway; NW1/4NW1/4, formed in thick beds of sandy marine, eolian, or fluvial
sec. 1, T. 18 S., R. 30 E. sediments on the lower Coastal Plain. These soils are on

A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) broad, high, gently undulating sandhills. Slopes are domi-
fine sand; fine granular structure; friable; few fine nantly from ess than 8 percent to as much as 17 per-
cent.
and few medium roots; medium acid; clear wavy cent.
boundary. Astatula soils are geographically associated with
A21-6 to 22 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine Apopka, Cassia, Daytona, Myakka, Orsino, Paola, and
sand; single grained; loose; many medium and few Tavares soils. All but Paola soils occur in lower topo-
fine roots; few medium faint very pale brown (10YR graphic positions than Astatula soils. Paola soils occur in
7/3) mottles; few uncoated light gray sand grains; positions similar to those of Astatula soils. Apopka soils
7/3) mottles; few uncoated light gray sand grains;
have an argillic horizon. Cassia, Daytona, Myakka, and
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Orsino soils have an A2 horizon and a Bh horizon. Paola
A22-22 to 50 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) Orsino soilsave an A2 horizon and a B horizon. Paola
soils have an A2 horizon and a B&A horizon. Tavares
fine sand; single grained; loose; few medium roots; sos ae a n and a
many medium faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mot- soils are moderately well drained.
Typical pedon of Astatula fine sand, on a 2 percent
ties; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; grad- Tpil pedo of statula fine sand, on a e
slope, southeast of DeLand, about 0.75 mile south of 1-4
l wv tbo 2 iche whi ( 8/2 f s and Florida Highway 430A overpass; NW1/4SW1/4 sec.
A23-50 to 62 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; most sand grains uncoated;S
very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. A1-0 to 2 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
B2t-62 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy grained; loose; common fine roots; clear wavy
clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; boundary.
firm; many medium faint very pale brown (10YR 7/4) C1-2 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand;
mottles; sand grains coated with clay; very strongly common coarse faint light brownish gray (10YR
acid. 6/2), few medium faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/6),
and common fine faint very pale brown mottles;
Except in A horizons that have been limed, soil reac- single grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly
tion ranges from medium acid to very strongly acid acid; gradual wavy boundary.
throughout. C2-10 to 26 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and common coarse faint light brownish gray (10YR
chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 2 to 7 inches. The 6/2), common fine faint very pale brown, and few
A2 horizon is sand or fine sand. It has hue of 10YR, medium faint brownish yellow mottles; single
value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2 or value of 6 to 8 grained; loose; common medium and few large
and chroma of 3 to 8. Many pedons have few to medium roots; few coarse distinct streaks of gray fine sand;
bodies of clean or uncoated sand grains. Some pedons strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
have a white or light gray A21 horizon. The A22 and A23 C3-26 to 52 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma sand; common coarse faint (10YR 7/2) mottles;
of 3 to 8. Tongues of material from the A21 horizon single grained; loose; many medium and few large
extend through these horizons. The tongues range from roots; strongly acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
few to many and from 1/2 inch to 2 inches in diameter. C4-52 to 78 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
They have dark reddish brown, dark grayish brown, or sand; few coarse faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
dark brown discontinuous exteriors that turn gray on igni- mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
tion. wavy boundary.
The Bt horizon begins at a depth of more than 40 C5-78 to 95 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3),fine
inches. It has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma sand; single grained; loose; common distinct discon-
of 4 to 8; hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 or tinuous brownish yellow, 2 to 6 mm wide fine sand
8; or hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma lamellae ranging up to 20 cm in length; sand grains
of 6 or 8. Many pedons have few to many mottles in are mostly thinly coated with iron oxides in lamellae;
shades of red, brown, yellow, or gray. Consistence is strongly acid.






68 SOIL SURVEY



and the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the other known kind of soil. Each subgroup is identified by
soil material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The one or more adjectives preceding the name of the great
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the group. The adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that is
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of thought to typify the great group. An example is Typic
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. Psammaquents.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples. the basis of similar physical and chemical properties that
affect management. Among the properties considered in
horizons of major biological activity below plow depth are
Classification of the soils particle-size distribution, mineral content, temperature
regime, thickness of the soil penetrable by roots, consis-
The system of soil classification currently used was tence, moisture equivalent, soil slope, and permanent
adopted by the National Cooperative Soil Survey in cracks. A family name consists of the name of a sub-
1965. Readers interested in further details about the group and a series of adjectives. The adjectives are the
system should refer to "Soil taxonomy" (10). class names for the soil properties used as family differ-
The system of classification has six categories. Begin- entiae. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
ning with the broadest, these categories are the order, Psammaquents.
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. In SERIES. The series consists of soils that formed in a
this system the classification is based on the different particular kind of material and have horizons that, except
soil properties that can be observed in the field or those for texture of the surface soil or of the underlying sub-
that can be inferred either from other properties that are stratum, are similar in differentiating characteristics and
observable in the field or from the combined data of soil in arrangement in the soil profile. Among these charac-
science and other disciplines. The properties selected teristics are color, texture, structure, reaction, consis-
for the higher categories are the result of soil genesis or tence, and mineral and chemical composition.
of factors that affect soil genesis. In table 22, the soils of
the survey area are classified according to the system.
Categories of the system are discussed in the following Soil series and morphology
paragraphs. In this section, each soil series recognized in the
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized as classes in survey area is described in detail. The descriptions are
the system. The properties used to differentiate among arranged in alphabetic order by series name.
orders are those that reflect the kind and degree of Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
dominant soil-forming processes that have taken place. formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other
example is Entisol. series. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders soil that is typical of the soil series in the survey area, is
based primarily on properties that influence soil genesis described. The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon
and are important to plant growth or that are selected to follow standards in the Soil Survey Manual (8). Unless
reflect the most important variables within the orders. otherwise noted, colors described are for moist soil.
The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning water, plus tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
ent, from Entisol). Phases, or mapping units, of each soil series are de-
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great scribed in the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, arrange-
ment, and degree of expression of pedogenic horizons; Apopka series
soil moisture and temperature regimes; and base status.
Each great group is identified by the name of a suborder The Apopka series is a member of the loamy, sili-
and a prefix that suggests something about the proper- ceous, hyperthermic family of Grossarenic Paleudults. It
ties of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, consists of nearly level to moderately steep, well
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of Enti- drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in thick
sols that have an aquic moisture regime). beds of sandy and loamy marine or eolian deposits of
SUBGROUP. Each great group may be divided into the lower Coastal Plain. These soils are on broad, high,
three subgroups: the central typicc) concept of the great gently undulating sandhills. Slopes are dominantly less
groups, which is not necessarily the most extensive sub- than 5 percent, but a few short slopes have a gradient of
group; the intergrades, or transitional forms to other up to 12 percent.
orders, suborders, or great groups; and the extragrades, Apopka soils are geographically associated with Asta-
which have some properties that are representative of tula, Daytona, Deland, Electra, and Tavares soils. Asta-
the great groups but do not indicate transitions to any tula soils occur in topographic positions similar to those






70 SOIL SURVEY



Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium streaks and common medium faint mottles of light
acid throughout the soil. brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and light gray (10YR 7/2);
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to single grained; few fine roots; mildly alkaline; gradual
7, and chroma of 2 or less. Pedons in cultivated areas wavy boundary.
generally have an Ap horizon that has color value of 3 or AC-55 to 65 inches; mixed in streaks and patches of
less. Total thickness ranges from 2 to 7 inches. very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), very dark gray
Where present, the AC horizon has hue of 10YR or (10YR 4/1), and light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand with
2.5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 2 or less or value of 6 or thin strata of loamy sand and sandy loam; single
7 and chroma of 4 or less. This horizon is obscured in grained; loose; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
pedons that have been cultivated. Total thickness ranges boundary.
from 0 to 4 inches. Texture is fine sand or sand. C-65 to 82 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand with
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and common medium faint dark gray (10YR 4/1) and
chroma of 3 to 8, value of 6 and chroma of 3 or 4, or gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; single grained; loose; few
value of 7 and chroma of 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 to thin strata of loamy sand less than 1/2 inch thick;
7, chroma of 6 to 8; or hue of 5YR, value of 5, and moderately alkaline.
chroma of 6 to 8. In places this horizon has common to
Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately alka-
many, fine to coarse mottles or splotches of gray tod t m
white, but the mottles are the color of uncoated sand line.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
grains and do not indicate wetness. Texture of the C chroma of 1 or 2 or the color is neutral and the value is
horizon is fine sand or sand.
horizon is fine sand or sand. 2 or 3. Mottles and streaks in shades of gray, yellow,
and brown occur in places. Thickness of the A horizon is
Astor series 24 to 60 inches.
The Astor series is a member of the sandy, siliceous, The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
hyperthermic family of Cumulic Haplaquolls. It consists of chroma of 1 or 2 or the color is neutral and the value is
poorly drained soils that formed in sandy sediments 4 to 6. Mottles in shades of gray or brown are in many
along the St. Johns River. Most areas are subject to pedons. Texture is fine sand or sand with discontinuous
flooding by the river or by runoff from adjacent areas. strata of loamy sand.
Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Astor soils are geographically associated with Gator, Basinger series
Myakka, and Terra Ceia soils. Gator and Terra Ceia soils The Basinger series is a member of the siliceous,
occur in positions similar to those of Astor soils. Gator hyperthermic family of Spodic Psammaquents. It consists
soils formed in sapric material less than 51 inches thick of nearly level, poorly drained, very rapidly permeable
over loamy sediments. Terra Ceia soils formed in sapric soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine sedi-
material more than 52 inches thick. Myakka soils occur ments on the lower Coastal Plain. These soils are mainly
in the adjacent flatwoods. They have a spodic horizon in depressions and in a few places in poorly defined
between depths of 20 and 30 inches. drainageways. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typical pedon of Astor fine sand, 100 yards south of Basinger soils are geographically associated with Im-
Volusia Bar Camp Road on Hitchens Island, mokalee, Myakka, Smyrna, Tavares, and Valkaria soils.
SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 12, T. 27 E., R. 15 S. Immokalee, Myakka, and Smyrna soils are poorly
drained. They are in slightly higher areas than Basinger
A11-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak soils and have a Bh horizon. Tavares soils are moderate-
fine crumb structure; very friable; many fine and ly well drained and are on adjacent side slopes of sand
medium roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary, ridges. Valkaria soils are in topographic positions similar
A12-4 to 13 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine to those of Basinger soils, but Valkaria soils have a Bir
sand with many discontinuous streaks of grayish horizon instead of an A&Bh horizon.
brown (10YR 5/2); weak medium crumb structure; Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, in an area about
very friable; many fine and medium roots; slightly 0.8 mile south of Florida Highway 44 on South Blue Lake
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Avenue in DeLand; SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 15, T. 17 S., R. 30
A13-13 to 39 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine E.
sand with few discontinuous horizontal streaks less
than 1/2 inch thick of gray (10YR 5/1) and light A1-0 to 5 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
brownish gray (10YR 6/2); weak medium crumb grained; loose; many fine roots and common
structure; very friable; common fine and medium medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. A2-5 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
A14-39 to 55 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR single grained; loose; many fine roots decreasing
3/2) fine sand with a few discontinuous horizontal with depth to common fine roots; gray (10YR 5/1,






70 SOIL SURVEY



Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium streaks and common medium faint mottles of light
acid throughout the soil. brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and light gray (10YR 7/2);
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to single grained; few fine roots; mildly alkaline; gradual
7, and chroma of 2 or less. Pedons in cultivated areas wavy boundary.
generally have an Ap horizon that has color value of 3 or AC-55 to 65 inches; mixed in streaks and patches of
less. Total thickness ranges from 2 to 7 inches. very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), very dark gray
Where present, the AC horizon has hue of 10YR or (10YR 4/1), and light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand with
2.5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 2 or less or value of 6 or thin strata of loamy sand and sandy loam; single
7 and chroma of 4 or less. This horizon is obscured in grained; loose; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
pedons that have been cultivated. Total thickness ranges boundary.
from 0 to 4 inches. Texture is fine sand or sand. C-65 to 82 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand with
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and common medium faint dark gray (10YR 4/1) and
chroma of 3 to 8, value of 6 and chroma of 3 or 4, or gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; single grained; loose; few
value of 7 and chroma of 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 to thin strata of loamy sand less than 1/2 inch thick;
7, chroma of 6 to 8; or hue of 5YR, value of 5, and moderately alkaline.
chroma of 6 to 8. In places this horizon has common to
Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately alka-
many, fine to coarse mottles or splotches of gray tod t m
white, but the mottles are the color of uncoated sand line.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
grains and do not indicate wetness. Texture of the C chroma of 1 or 2 or the color is neutral and the value is
horizon is fine sand or sand.
horizon is fine sand or sand. 2 or 3. Mottles and streaks in shades of gray, yellow,
and brown occur in places. Thickness of the A horizon is
Astor series 24 to 60 inches.
The Astor series is a member of the sandy, siliceous, The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
hyperthermic family of Cumulic Haplaquolls. It consists of chroma of 1 or 2 or the color is neutral and the value is
poorly drained soils that formed in sandy sediments 4 to 6. Mottles in shades of gray or brown are in many
along the St. Johns River. Most areas are subject to pedons. Texture is fine sand or sand with discontinuous
flooding by the river or by runoff from adjacent areas. strata of loamy sand.
Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Astor soils are geographically associated with Gator, Basinger series
Myakka, and Terra Ceia soils. Gator and Terra Ceia soils The Basinger series is a member of the siliceous,
occur in positions similar to those of Astor soils. Gator hyperthermic family of Spodic Psammaquents. It consists
soils formed in sapric material less than 51 inches thick of nearly level, poorly drained, very rapidly permeable
over loamy sediments. Terra Ceia soils formed in sapric soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine sedi-
material more than 52 inches thick. Myakka soils occur ments on the lower Coastal Plain. These soils are mainly
in the adjacent flatwoods. They have a spodic horizon in depressions and in a few places in poorly defined
between depths of 20 and 30 inches. drainageways. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typical pedon of Astor fine sand, 100 yards south of Basinger soils are geographically associated with Im-
Volusia Bar Camp Road on Hitchens Island, mokalee, Myakka, Smyrna, Tavares, and Valkaria soils.
SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 12, T. 27 E., R. 15 S. Immokalee, Myakka, and Smyrna soils are poorly
drained. They are in slightly higher areas than Basinger
A11-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak soils and have a Bh horizon. Tavares soils are moderate-
fine crumb structure; very friable; many fine and ly well drained and are on adjacent side slopes of sand
medium roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary, ridges. Valkaria soils are in topographic positions similar
A12-4 to 13 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine to those of Basinger soils, but Valkaria soils have a Bir
sand with many discontinuous streaks of grayish horizon instead of an A&Bh horizon.
brown (10YR 5/2); weak medium crumb structure; Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, in an area about
very friable; many fine and medium roots; slightly 0.8 mile south of Florida Highway 44 on South Blue Lake
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Avenue in DeLand; SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 15, T. 17 S., R. 30
A13-13 to 39 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine E.
sand with few discontinuous horizontal streaks less
than 1/2 inch thick of gray (10YR 5/1) and light A1-0 to 5 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
brownish gray (10YR 6/2); weak medium crumb grained; loose; many fine roots and common
structure; very friable; common fine and medium medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
roots; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. A2-5 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
A14-39 to 55 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR single grained; loose; many fine roots decreasing
3/2) fine sand with a few discontinuous horizontal with depth to common fine roots; gray (10YR 5/1,






VOLUSIA COUNTY, FLORIDA 71



6/1) vertical streaks mostly along root channels; sandy A horizon less than 20 inches thick over an argillic
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. horizon. Terra Ceia soils are organic material more than
A&Bh-20 to 25 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) and dark 51 inches thick.
brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand; single grained; loose; Typical pedon of Bluff sandy clay loam, about 100
many fine roots; common fine and medium black yards west of 1-4 and 0.25 mile south of a borrow pit on
(10YR 2/1) fragments; common fine distinct grayish the flood plain adjacent to Lake Monroe; sec. 10, T. 13
brown (10YR 5/2) streaks and mottles; many clean S., R. 30 E.
sand grains; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C1-25 to 34 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine A11-0 to 2 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam;
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; few weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; many
medium faint dark grayish brown mottles; strongly fine and medium roots; slightly acid; clear smooth
acid; clear wavy boundary. boundary.
C2-34 to 58 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine A12-2 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam;
sand; single grained; loose; common fine distinct coarse columnar structure, secondary structure
grayish brown (10YR 5/2) streaks; strongly acid; moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; many fine
gradual wavy boundary. and medium roots that follow ped faces; light gray
C3-58 to 90 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; (10YR 7/1) sand grains along ped faces; neutral;
single grained; loose; strongly acid. clear smooth boundary.
A13-8 to 14 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy
Texture is either sand or fine sand in all horizons but clay loam with dark gray (10YR 4/1) coatings on
the Al horizon, which is fine sand in all areas. Reaction ped faces; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
ranges from very strongly acid to mildly alkaline in all firm; many vertical channels of white sand grains;
horizons. few fine and medium roots; mildly alkaline; clear
The Al horizon is 3 to 8 inches thick. It has hue of wavy boundary.
10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2, or B21g-14 to 22 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam;
the color is neutral. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less; hue of 5/8) and few fine faint gray mottles; weak, medium,
10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 3 or value of 7 and subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine and
chroma of 3 or 4; or the color is neutral. In places very medium roots; many medium and coarse calcite or
dark gray streaks occur along root channels. Thickness gypsum crystals; mildly alkaline; clear wavy bound-
ranges from 3 to 18 inches, ary.
The A&Bh horizon begins within a depth of 40 inches. B22g-22 to 50 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam;
The Bh part is stained with colloidal organic matter and common medium distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR
has common to many uncoated sand grains. The color 6/8), few fine distinct yellow (10YR 7/6), and few
value for the Bh part is one unit less than that of the fine faint pale olive (5Y 6/4) mottles; weak medium
overlying A2 horizon. Commonly the hue is 10YR, value subangular blocky structure; friable; many medium
is 4 to 6, and chroma is 3 or less. Some pedons have and coarse calcite or gypsum crystals; few fine and
hue of 10YR or 5YR, and value and chroma of 3 or 4. medium roots; mildly alkaline; clear smooth bound-
The A part has the color range of the A2 horizon. ary.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and B3g-50 to 68 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy clay
chroma of 3 or less or value of 7 and chroma of 2 or loam; common medium prominent brownish yellow
less. (10YR 6/8) and common medium distinct pale
yellow (2.5Y 7/4) mottles; weak medium subangular
Bluff series blocky structure; friable; mildly alkaline; clear smooth
boundary.
The Bluff series is a member of a fine-loamy, mixed, I1C1-68 to 86 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) clay; common
hyperthermic family of Typic Haplaquolls. It consists of medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and
nearly level, poorly drained soils that formed in loamy many medium distinct olive yellow (2.5Y 6/6) mot-
and clayey alluvial sediments associated with the drain- ties; massive; slightly sticky and plastic; few lenses
age system of the St. Johns River. of light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; mildly alkaline; clear
Bluff soils are geographically associated with Fluva- smooth boundary.
quents, Gator, Paisley, and Terra Ceia soils. All but Pais- IC2-86 to 99 inches; gray (N 5/0) clay; common
ley soils occur in positions similar to those of Bluff soils, medium distinct olive yellow (2.5Y 6/6) mottles;
Fluvaquents consist of stratified sandy and loamy sedi- massive; sticky and plastic; mildly alkaline.
ments. Gator soils are organic material less than 51
inches thick over loamy material. Paisley soils, which Solum thickness ranges from 40 to 60 inches or more.
occur at the outer edges of the flood plain, have a thin Reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral in the






72 SOIL SURVEY



surface layer and from mildly to moderately alkaline in IIR-50 inches; coquina rock of varying hardness that is
the subsoil. pitted with solution channels.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1. Texture is sandy clay loam or sandy clay. The thickness of the solum and depth to coquina rock
The Bg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and range from 40 to 70 inches. Reaction ranges from very
chroma of 1 or less. Mottles in varying amounts occur in strongly acid to neutral in the A horizon and from slightly
shades of yellow, brown, olive, and red. Texture is sandy acid to neutral in the 81 horizon and the B2t horizon.
clay loam or sandy clay. Accumulations of soft calcium The Al horizon has a salt-and-pepper appearance be-
carbonate and calcite or gypsum crystals are in places. cause of the many uncoated sand grains. It has hue of
The IIC horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 6 or 7, and 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1. Thickness is 2
chroma of 1 or the color is neutral. Texture is clay or to 5 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7
sandy clay with strata of varying thicknesses of coarser or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture of the A2 horizon is
material. Layers of shells are in places. sand or coarse sand. Thickness is 15 to 30 inches.
Some pedons have an A3 horizon. Where present, it
Bulow series has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8
or hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 4. Texture is
The Bulow series is a member of the loamy, siliceous, sand or coarse sand. Thickness ranges to 5 inches.
hyperthermic family of Typic Hapludalfs. It consists of The B1 horizon has hue of 7.5YR, value of 4 to 6, and
well drained, moderately deep sandy soils on low sand chroma of 6 to 8. Texture is sand or coarse sand. Thick-
ridges underlain by a differentially weathered layer of ness ranges from 15 to 34 inches. The B2t horizon has
coquina rock. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. hue of SYR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8.
Bulow soils are geographically associated with Asta- Texture is sandy clay loam to sandy loam. Thickness
tula, Cocoa, and Paola soils. The Astatula and Paola ranges from 3 to 18 inches.
soils are in higher topographic positions than Bulow The coquina rock is differentially weathered. It ranges
soils. Astatula soils are brown and sandy to a depth of from soft porous limestone to beds of loose coquina
more than 80 inches. Paola soils are sandy soils more shells. It is perforated with vertical solution passages.
than 80 inches deep and are acid throughout. The typi- Soil horizonation follows the unevenly weathered rock;
cal Cocoa soils occur in positions similar to those of tongues extend into the solution passages. Thickness of
Bulow soils. They have a brown A2 horizon and are less the coquina rock ranges from 2 to 10 feet. Stratified
than 40 inches thick over coquina rock. beds of sand and shelly sand are below the coquina
Typical profile of Bulow sand, about 2 miles south of rock.
Flagler County line, about 1.9 miles south on Old Dixie
Highway from the intersection with 1-95, then 0.2 mile Canaveral series
west-southwest of Old Dixie Highway: The Canaveral series is a member of the mixed, hy-
A10 to 5 inc ; gry (R 6/1, r ) snd tht perthermic family of Aquic Udipsamments. It consists of
A1-0 to 5 inches; gray (10YR 6/1, rubbed) sand that moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained
has the appearance of salt and pepper; single soils that formed in a mixture of eolian and marine sand
grained; loose; many fine roots; very strongly acid. in dune areas along the Atlantic Ocean. These soils are
A2-5 to 20 inches; white (10YR 8/2) sand; single in nearly level areas between sand dunes and on the
grained; loose; common medium and fine roots; gently sloping lower sides of the dunes.
brownish yellow (10YR 5/6) stains along root chan- Canaveral soils are geographically associated with
nels; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Palm Beach and Paola soils. The Palm Beach and Paola
B11-20 to 25 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) sand; soils are on the middle and upper slopes of dunes. Palm
single grained; loose; common medium roots; dis- Beach soils are well drained to excessively drained, and
continuous streaks of very pale brown (10YR 7/4) Paola soils are excessively drained. The Paola soils have
and reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8); strongly acid; gradu- an albic horizon underlain by a horizon having a color
al wavy boundary. value more than one unit darker than that of the albic
812-25 to 45 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) sand; horizon.
single grained; loose; common medium and large Typical pedon of Canaveral sand, low on a dune,
roots; discontinuous streaks of reddish yellow about 0.3 mile south of the Flagler County line and about
(7.5YR 7/6) along root channels; many uncoated 100 yards west of Florida Highway AIA; NE1/4NW1/4
sand grains; neutral; gradual wavy boundary. sec. 32, T. 12, R. 32 E.
B2t-45 to 50 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) sandy
clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky A11-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
structure; friable; common medium root casts; neu- granular structure; very friable; many fine and
tral; abrupt irregular boundary. common medium and large roots; about 5 percent




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